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Sample records for acute systemic inflammatory

  1. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lu; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Dart, Anthony M; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-05-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response. Inflammasomes also recognize danger signals and mediate sterile inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammatory response serves to repair the heart, but excessive inflammation leads to adverse left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. In addition to local inflammation, profound systemic inflammation response has been documented in patients with AMI, which includes elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and activation of peripheral leukocytes and platelets. The excessive inflammatory response could be caused by a deregulated immune system. AMI is also associated with bone marrow activation and spleen monocytopoiesis, which sustains a continuous supply of monocytes at the site of inflammation. Accumulating evidence has shown that systemic inflammation aggravates atherosclerosis and markers for systemic inflammation are predictors of adverse clinical outcomes (such as death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and heart failure) in patients with AMI.

  2. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu FANG; Xiao-Lei Moore; Anthony M Dart; Le-Min WANG

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response. Inflammasomes also recognize danger signals and mediate sterile inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammatory response serves to repair the heart, but excessive inflammation leads to adverse left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. In addition to local inflammation, profound systemic inflammation response has been documented in patients with AMI, which includes elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and activation of peripheral leukocytes and platelets. The excessive inflammatory response could be caused by a deregulated immune system. AMI is also associated with bone marrow activation and spleen monocytopoiesis, which sustains a continuous supply of monocytes at the site of inflammation. Accumulating evidence has shown that systemic inflammation aggravates atherosclerosis and markers for systemic inflammation are predictors of adverse clinical outcomes (such as death, recurrent myocardial in-farction, and heart failure) in patients with AMI.

  3. Is leptin related to systemic inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrés Duarte-Rojo; Ana Lezama-Barreda; Mar(i)a Teresa Ram(i)rez-lglesias; Mario Peláez Luna; Guillermo Robles-Diaz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the relationship between leptin and systemic inflammation in acute pancreatitis.METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis were included. Body mass index and serum samples were obtained at admission. Leptin, TNF-α, IL-6, -8and -10 levels were determined by ELISA. Severity was defined according to Atlanta criteria.RESULTS: Fifty-two (29 females) patients were studied.Overall body mass index was similar between mild and severe cases, although women with severe pancreatitis had lower body mass index (P = 0.04) and men showed higher body mass index (P = 0.05). No difference was found in leptin levels regarding the severity of pancreatitis, but higher levels tended to appear in male patients with increased body mass index and severe pancreatitis (P = 0.1). A multivariate analysis showed no association between leptin levels and severity. The strongest cytokine associated with severity was IL-6.Correlations of leptin with another cytokines only showed a trend for IL-8 (P = 0.058).CONCLUSION: High body mass index was associated with severity only in males, which may be related to android fat distribution. Serum leptin seems not to play a role on the systemic inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis and its association with severe outcome in males might represent a marker of increased adiposity.

  4. Autonomic nervous system modulation affects the inflammatory immune response in mice with acute Chagas disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Paulo Ribeiro; Rocha, Aletheia Moraes; de Oliveira, Lucas Felipe; de Cuba, Marília Beatriz; de Oliveira Loss, Igor; Castellano, Lucio Roberto; Silva, Marcus Vinicius; Machado, Juliana Reis; Nascentes, Gabriel Antonio Nogueira; Paiva, Luciano Henrique; Savino, Wilson; Junior, Virmondes Rodrigues; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Prado, Vania Ferreira; Prado, Marco Antonio Maximo; Silva, Eliane Lages; Montano, Nicola; Ramirez, Luis Eduardo; Dias da Silva, Valdo Jose

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of changes to the autonomic nervous system in mice during the acute phase of Chagas disease, which is an infection caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The following types of mice were inoculated with T. cruzi (CHG): wild-type (WT) and vesicular acetylcholine transporter knockdown (KDVAChT) C57BL/6j mice; wild-type non-treated (NT) FVB mice; FVB mice treated with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) or salbutamol (SALB); and β(2)-adrenergic receptor knockout (KOβ2) FVB mice. During infection and at 18-21 days after infection (acute phase), the survival curves, parasitaemia, electrocardiograms, heart rate variability, autonomic tonus and histopathology of the animals were evaluated. Negative control groups were matched for age, genetic background and treatment. The KDVAChT-CHG mice exhibited a significant shift in the electrocardiographic, autonomic and histopathological profiles towards a greater inflammatory immune response that was associated with a reduction in blood and tissue parasitism. In contrast, the CHG-PYR mice manifested reduced myocardial inflammation and lower blood and tissue parasitism. Similar results were observed in CHG-SALB animals. Unexpectedly, the KOβ2-CHG mice exhibited less myocardial inflammation and higher blood and tissue parasitism, which were associated with reduced mortality. These findings could have been due to the increase in vagal tone observed in the KOβ2 mice, which rendered them more similar to the CHG-PYR animals. In conclusion, our results indicate a marked immunomodulatory role for the parasympathetic and sympathetic autonomic nervous systems, which inhibit both the inflammatory immune response and parasite clearance during the acute phase of experimental Chagas heart disease in mice.

  5. Effects of kadsurenone on the systemic inflammatory response in rat model of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Yao; Qingyong; Lin Wang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the effects of kadsurenone on inflammatory mediators Platelet-activating factor (PAF),tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-6(IL-6) in rat model of acute pancreatitis(AP). Methods: SD male rats (104)were randomly divided into sham group (n = 24), AP group (n = 40) and kadsurenone group (n = 40). The rats were killed 3,6, 12 and 24 hours after operation. The serum level of PAF, TNF-α and IL-6 was measured. Results: The serum level of PAF,TNF-α and IL-6 of AP group was significantly increased(P < 0.01)compared with control group. The serum level of TNF-α got to a peak 6 hours after operation, and the serum IL-6 getting to a peak 12 hours after operation in AP group. After kadsurenone was administered to AP rats, pancreas and lung myeloperoxidase (MPO), serum amylase activity was reduced. Histology showed a trend toward improvement. The serum level of PAF, TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Conclusion:Kadsurenone can reduce the severity of systemic inflammation in rats with AP and relieve the damage of the pancreas and lung in AP rats. These results suggested that kadsurenone may be useful in the treatment of acute pancreatitis.

  6. TRAIL administration down-modulated the acute systemic inflammatory response induced in a mouse model by muramyldipeptide or lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcuzzi, Annalisa; Secchiero, Paola; Crovella, Sergio; Zauli, Giorgio

    2012-10-01

    The potent inducer of apoptosis TRAIL/Apo2 ligand is now under considerations in clinical trials for the treatment of different types of cancer. Since the natural history of cancer is often characterized by microbial infections, we have investigated the effect of recombinant human TRAIL in a mouse model of systemic acute inflammation of microbial origin represented by BALB/c mice treated with either bacterial muramyldipeptide (MDP) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). When administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), these inflammatory bacterial compounds triggered a severe systemic inflammatory response within 2h, represented by body temperature elevation, increase of circulating serum amyloid-A (SAA) and of the number of leukocytes in the peritoneal cavity. Moreover, both MDP and LPS induced a significant elevation of the circulating levels of several inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Noteworthy, pre-treatment with recombinant human TRAIL 48 and 72 h before administration of either MDP or LPS, significantly counteracted all acute inflammatory responses, including the elevation of key pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines such as IL-1α, IL-6, G-CSF, MCP-1. These data demonstrate for the first time that TRAIL has a potent anti-inflammatory activity, which might be beneficial for the anti-tumoral activity of TRAIL.

  7. Prolonged pretreatment of mice with cholera toxin, but not isoproterenol, alleviates acute lethal systemic inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingyang; Guo, Xiangrui; Cao, Junxia; Zhang, Xueying; Zhang, Jiyan; Sun, Dejun; Wang, Qingyang

    2014-11-01

    Isoproterenol, a synthetic non-selective β-adrenergic agonist, is often used during the immediate postoperative period after open heart surgery for its chronotropic and vasodilatory effects. It has been demonstrated that isoproterenol pretreatment followed by immediate LPS administration leads to reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) response in vivo. However, sepsis never happens immediately after the surgery, but rather severe immune dysfunction occurs at least 24h later. It remains elusive what effects isoproterenol might exert to innate immunity during the period. In this scenario, we investigated the effects of 24-h isoproterenol pretreatment on septic shock induced by experimental endotoxemia and bacterial peritonitis, with cholera toxin as another cAMP elevator. Unexpectedly, we found that isoproterenol and cholera toxin exhibited distinct effects in acute lethal systemic inflammatory response. Isoproterenol worsened liver injury without enhancing NK/NKT activity. Meanwhile, cholera toxin but not isoproterenol showed dramatically reduced TNF-α response in LPS induced septic shock. Our data provide a caution for the clinical use of isoproterenol and suggest that isoproterenol has cAMP-independent functions.

  8. Effect of parenteral infusion of fish oil-based lipid emulsion on systemic inflammatory cytokines and lung eicosanoid levels in experimental acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garla, Priscila; Garib, Ricardo; Torrinhas, Raquel S; Machado, Marcel C C; Calder, Philip C; Waitzberg, Dan L

    2017-02-01

    Parenteral fish oil lipid emulsion (FOLE) might mitigate inflammation after injury. Acute pancreatitis (AP) can occur following major surgery and is characterized by tissue and systemic release of inflammatory mediators that contributes to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure.

  9. Antioxidant system of oral cavity in children with inflammatory diseases oral mucosa and acute forms of leukemia under the treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kovach, I. V.; Khotimskаy, J. V.

    2017-01-01

    Kovach I. V., Khotimskаy J. V. Antioxidant system of oral cavity in children with inflammatory diseases oral mucosa and acute forms of leukemia under the treatment. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2017;7(1):387-395. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.276515 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/4246         The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B item 754 (09.12.2016)....

  10. Action of Antiproteases on the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chia Chen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The spectrum of acute pancreatitis ranges from mild edematous disease to a severe necrotizing process which is usually accompanied by local or systemic complications and even mortality. Early deaths (within the first week due to severe acute pancreatitis are generally caused by massive inflammatory responses which result in multiple organ failure. Although the exact mechanisms which trigger the inflammatory and necrotizing processes are not completely understood, it is generally accepted that autodigestion and activated leukocytes play important roles in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. Proinflammatory cytokines are associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple organ failure syndrome in acute pancreatitis. A compensatory anti-inflammatory response occurs in parallel with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Trypsin secreted by the pancreatic acinar cells activates proteaseactivated receptor-2 which can result in the production of cytokines. Protease inhibitors such as aprotinin, gabexate mesilate, nafamostat mesilate, ulinastatin, etc. can inhibit the various enzymes and inflammatory response in experimental and clinical studies. Thus, protease inhibitors have been considered as a potential treatment to inhibit the pancreatic inflammation in acute pancreatitis. The beneficial effects of antiproteases on experimental severe acute pancreatitis may be, in part, due to the modulation of inflammatory cytokine responses. The effect of protease inhibitors on the inflammatory response in human acute pancreatitis deserves further study.

  11. [Acute-Onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanbayashi, Takamichi; Sonoo, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is characterized by an insidious onset showing progression over two months. However, up to 16% of CIDP patients may show acute presentation similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Such cases are termed acute-onset CIDP (A-CIDP). Distinguishing A-CIDP from GBS, especially the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) subtype, is critical because therapeutic strategies and outcomes may differ between the two syndromes. Regarding clinical features, A-CIDP is less likely to have autonomic nervous system involvement, facial weakness, a preceding infectious illness, or the need for mechanical ventilation, in comparison with AIDP. Electrophysiological features are usually quite similar between the two, although follow-up studies may elucidate key differences. Around 8%-16% of GBS patients may show clinical deterioration shortly after improvement or stabilization following initial immunological therapy. Such a situation is termed treatment-related fluctuation (TRF; GBS-TRF). The distinction between GBS-TRF and A-CIDP is an important clinical issue because maintenance treatment is often required in CIDP. The diagnosis of A-CIDP should be considered when the condition of a patient with GBS deteriorates after nine weeks from onset, or when deterioration occurs three times or more.

  12. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  13. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E McDunn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic

  14. The Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) in acutely hospitalised medical patients: a cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comstedt, Pal; Storgaard, Merete; Lassen, Annmarie T

    2009-01-01

    . The relationship between SIRS symptoms and morbidity and mortality in medical emergency ward patients is unknown. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of the frequency of SIRS and its relationship to sepsis and death among acutely hospitalised medical patients. In 437 consecutive patients, SIRS status......, blood pressure, infection and comorbidity on admission was registered together with 28-day mortality. RESULTS: A hundred and fifty-four patients (35%) had SIRS on admission, 211 patients (48%) had no SIRS, and 72 patients (16%) had insufficient data to evaluate their SIRS status. SIRS patients were 2.......2 times more frequently infected, with 66/154 SIRS patients versus 41/211 non-SIRS patients: ppatients with 15/154 SIRS patients versus 3/211 non-SIRS patients: p=0.001, RR...

  15. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchini, T; Magnani, N D; Paz, M L; Vanasco, V; Tasat, D; González Maglio, D H; Alvarez, S; Evelson, P A

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation.

  16. Clinical and electrophysiological parameters distinguishing acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionne, Annie; Nicolle, Michael W; Hahn, Angelika F

    2010-02-01

    Up to 16% of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients may present acutely. We performed a retrospective chart review on 30 acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and 15 acute-onset CIDP (A-CIDP) patients looking for any clinical or electrophysiological parameters that might differentiate AIDP from acutely presenting CIDP. A-CIDP patients were significantly more likely to have prominent sensory signs. They were significantly less likely to have autonomic nervous system involvement, facial weakness, a preceding infectious illness, or need for mechanical ventilation. With regard to electrophysiological features, neither sural-sparing pattern, sensory ratio >1, nor the presence of A-waves was different between the two groups. This study suggests that patients presenting acutely with a demyelinating polyneuropathy and the aforementioned clinical features should be closely monitored as they may be more likely to have CIDP at follow-up.

  17. The role of inflammatory stress in acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈成兴; 陈灏珠; 葛均波

    2004-01-01

    Objective To summarize current understanding of the roles of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome and to postulate the novel concept of inflammation stress as the most important factor triggering acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, markers of inflammation stress and ways to block involved pathways are elucidated.Data sources A literature search (MEDLINE 1997 to 2002) was performed using the key words "inflammation and cardiovascular disease". Relevant book chapters were also reviewed.Study selection Well-controlled, prospective landmark studies and review articles on inflammation and acute coronary syndrome were selected.Data extraction Data and conclusions from the selected articles providing solid evidence to elucidate the mechanisms of inflammation and acute coronary syndrome were extracted and interpreted in the light of our own clinical and basic research.Data synthesis Inflammation is closely linked to atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. Chronic and long-lasting inflammation stress, present both systemically or in the vascular walls, can trigger acute coronary syndrome.Conclusions Inflammation stress plays an important role in the process of acute coronary syndrome. Drugs which can modulate the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes and attenuate inflammation stress, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers, statins, and cytokine antagonists may play active roles in the prevention and treatment of acute coronary syndrome when used in addition to conventional therapies (glycoprotein Ⅱb/Ⅲa receptor antagonists, mechanical intervention strategies, etc).

  18. Treatment of Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L. Sweet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID, one of the most common infections in nonpregnant women of reproductive age, remains an important public health problem. It is associated with major long-term sequelae, including tubal factor infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. In addition, treatment of acute PID and its complications incurs substantial health care costs. Prevention of these long-term sequelae is dependent upon development of treatment strategies based on knowledge of the microbiologic etiology of acute PID. It is well accepted that acute PID is a polymicrobic infection. The sexually transmitted organisms, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Chlamydia trachomatis, are present in many cases, and microorganisms comprising the endogenous vaginal and cervical flora are frequently associated with PID. This includes anaerobic and facultative bacteria, similar to those associated with bacterial vaginosis. Genital tract mycoplasmas, most importantly Mycoplasma genitalium, have recently also been implicated as a cause of acute PID. As a consequence, treatment regimens for acute PID should provide broad spectrum coverage that is effective against these microorganisms.

  19. Inflammatory role of the acinar cells during acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Isabel; De; Dios

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells are secretory cells whose main function is to synthesize, store and f inally release digestive enzymes into the duodenum. However, in response to noxious stimuli, acinar cells behave like real inflammatory cells because of their ability to activate signalling transduction pathways involved in the expression of inflammatory mediators. Mediated by the kinase cascade, activation of Nuclear factor-κB, Activating factor-1 and Signal transducers and activators of transcription transcription factors has been demonstrated in acinar cells, resulting in overexpression of inflammatory genes. In turn, kinase activity is down-regulated by protein phosphatases and the f inal balance between kinase and phosphatase activity will determine the capability of the acinar cells to produce inflammatory factors. The kinase/ phosphatase pair is a redox-sensitive system in which kinase activation overwhelms phosphatase activity under oxidant conditions. Thus, the oxidative stress developed within acinar cells at early stages of acute pancreatitis triggers the activation of signalling pathways involved in the up-regulation of cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In this way, acinar cells trigger the release of the f irst inflammatory signals which can mediate the activation and recruitment of circulating inflammatorycells into the injured pancreas. Accordingly, the role of acinar cells as promoters of the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis may be considered. This concept leads to amplifying the focus from leukocyte to acinar cells themselves, to explain the local inflammation in early pancreatitis.

  20. Effect of Probiotic Administration on Acute Inflammatory Pain

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    Shadnoush

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Acute inflammatory pain causes by direct stimulation of nociceptors and release of inflammatory mediators and cytokines. Probiotics are capable to modulate the immune system, down regulate the inflammatory mediators, and increase regulatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the effect of oral administration of probiotics on behavioral, cellular and molecular aspects of acute inflammatory pain in male rats. Methods Adult male Wistar rats (200 - 220 g were selected and randomly divided into 7 experimental groups (CFA, CFA control, CFA + vehicle (distilled water, CFA + 3 doses of probiotics, CFA + indomethacin and each group was divided into 3 subgroups based on different time points (days 0, 3, and 7 (n = 6 rats, each group. Complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA-induced arthritis (AA was caused by a single subcutaneous injection of CFA into the rats’ left hind paw on day 0. Different doses of probiotics (1/250, 1/500 and 1/1000 (109 CFU/g was administered daily (gavage after the CFA injection. Blood samples were taken from the vessel retro-orbital corners of rat’s eyes. After behavioral and inflammatory tests, the lumbar segments of rat’s spinal cord (L1 - L5 were removed. Hyperalgesia, edema, serum TNF-α and IL-1β levels and NF-κB expression were assessed on days 0, 3, and 7 of the study. Results The results of this study showed the role of effective dose of probiotics (1/500 in reducing edema (P = 0.0009, hyperalgesia (P = 0.0002, serum levels of TNF-α (P = 0.0004 and IL-1β (P = 0.0004 and NF-κB expression (P = 0.0007 during the acute phase of inflammatory pain caused by CFA. Conclusions It seems that an effective dose of probiotics due to its direct effects on inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways and pro-inflammatory cytokines can alleviate inflammatory symptoms and pain in the acute phase.

  1. Expression and Significance of Toll-like Receptor 2, 4 of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Acute Abdomen Patients Associated with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jing; WANG Yang; ZHU Zhonghua; LIU Jianshe

    2006-01-01

    The changes of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, 4 of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the acute abdomen patients associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and their potential significance were explored. A clinical study was performed on 103 acute abdomen patients in whom 65 were associated with SIRS. Forty healthy individuals served as normal controls. The mRNA expression of TLR2, 4 was detected by RT-PCR, and the expression of TNF-αand IL-6 by ELISA. The level of plasma endotoxin, hospital stay and mortality were measured. It was found that the endotoxin level was increased to varying degrees in all the acute abdomen patients, and the endotoxin level was and hospital stay longer in SIRS group than in non-SIRS group (P<0.01).TLR2 mRNA, TLR4 mRNA, IL-6 and TNF-α could be detected with low value in normal controls,but they were up-regulated markedly on the 1 st day after admission. Then TLR4 mRNA, IL-6 and TNF-α were decreased gradually, but TLR2 mRNA maintained at a high level till the 5th day. These indexes above in SIRS group were higher than those in non-SIRS group (P<0.01). The results of correlation analysis revealed the expression of TLR2, 4 mRNA was positively correlated with the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, and the hospital stay. The results of Logistic regression demonstrated that overexpression of TLR2, 4 mRNA might result in higher risk of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). It was concluded that in the acute abdomen patients associated with SIRS, the expression of TLR2, 4 in PBMCs was increased markedly, suggesting that TLR might play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute abdomen associated with SIRS.

  2. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy could be clearly separated into two non-overlapping groups. Studies of nerve excitability may be able to

  3. Echocardiography, spirometry, and systemic acute-phase inflammatory proteins in smokers with COPD or CHF: an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Beghé

    Full Text Available Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and chronic heart failure (CHF may coexist in elderly patients with a history of smoking. Low-grade systemic inflammation induced by smoking may represent the link between these 2 conditions. In this study, we investigated left ventricular dysfunction in patients primarily diagnosed with COPD, and nonreversible airflow limitation in patients primarily diagnosed with CHF. The levels of circulating high-sensitive C-reactive protein (Hs-CRP, pentraxin 3 (PTX3, interleukin-1β (IL-1 β, and soluble type II receptor of IL-1 (sIL-1RII were also measured as markers of systemic inflammation in these 2 cohorts. Patients aged ≥ 50 years and with ≥ 10 pack years of cigarette smoking who presented with a diagnosis of stable COPD (n=70 or stable CHF (n=124 were recruited. All patients underwent echocardiography, N-terminal pro-hormone of brain natriuretic peptide measurements, and post-bronchodilator spirometry. Plasma levels of Hs-CRP, PTX3, IL-1 β, and sIL-1RII were determined by using a sandwich enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay in all patients and in 24 healthy smokers (control subjects. Although we were unable to find a single COPD patient with left ventricular dysfunction, we found nonreversible airflow limitation in 34% of patients with CHF. On the other hand, COPD patients had higher plasma levels of Hs-CRP, IL1 β, and sIL-1RII compared with CHF patients and control subjects (p < 0.05. None of the inflammatory biomarkers was different between CHF patients and control subjects. In conclusion, although the COPD patients had no evidence of CHF, up to one third of patients with CHF had airflow limitation, suggesting that routine spirometry is warranted in patients with CHF, whereas echocardiography is not required in well characterized patients with COPD. Only smokers with COPD seem to have evidence of systemic inflammation.

  4. Interplay between the acute inflammatory response and heart rate variability in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kox, Matthijs; Ramakers, Bart P; Pompe, Jan C; van der Hoeven, Johannes G; Hoedemaekers, Cornelia W; Pickkers, Peter

    2011-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system and the inflammatory response are intimately linked. Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis is a widely used method to assess cardiac autonomic nervous system activity, and changes in HRV indices may correlate with inflammatory markers. Here, we investigated whether baseline HRV predicts the acute inflammatory response to endotoxin. Second, we investigated whether the magnitude of the inflammatory response correlated with HRV alterations. Forty healthy volunteers received a single intravenous bolus of 2 ng/kg endotoxin (LPS, derived from Escherichia coli O:113). Of these, 12 healthy volunteers were administered LPS again 2 weeks later. Heart rate variability was determined at baseline (just before LPS administration) and hourly thereafter until 8 h after LPS administration. Plasma cytokine levels were determined at various time points. Baseline HRV indices did not correlate with the magnitude of the LPS-induced inflammatory response. Despite large alterations in HRV after LPS administration, the extent of the inflammatory response did not correlate with the magnitude of HRV changes. In subjects who were administered LPS twice, inflammatory cytokines were markedly attenuated after the second LPS administration, whereas LPS-induced HRV alterations were similar. Heart rate variability indices do not predict the acute inflammatory response in a standardized model of systemic inflammation. Although the acute inflammatory response results in HRV changes, no correlations with inflammatory cytokines were observed. Therefore, the magnitude of endotoxemia-related HRV changes does not reflect the extent of the inflammatory response.

  5. Acute clinical onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molín, Jéssica; Márquez, Mercedes; Raurell, Xavier; Matiasek, Kaspar; Ferrer, Isidre; Pumarola, Martí

    2011-09-01

    We report a case of acute-onset ambulatory paraparesis with electrophysiological abnormalities compatible with axonal and demyelinating lesions in a Rottweiler dog. Although the clinical findings were compatible with acute canine idiopathic polyneuropathy, postmortem investigations revealed a chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy affecting the nerve roots. Due to the combination of acute clinical presentation and chronic pathologic features, this case is consistent with the acute-onset form of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (A-CIDP).

  6. Rapid cooling after acute hyperthermia alters intestinal tissue morphology and increases the systemic inflammatory response in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute hyperthermia can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of heatstroke recovery methods on the physiological response in pigs. In four repetitions, 36 male pigs (88.7 ± 1.6 kg BW) were exposed to thermoneutral conditions (T...

  7. Immune-Manipulation of the Inflammatory Response in Acute Pancreatitis. What Can Be Expected?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corinaldesi R

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Severe acute pancreatitis still has a high mortality rate and multiple organ failure is considered to be a severe complication of the disease. Activated polymorphonuclear leukocytes have an important role in the development of multiple organ failure which may result from acute pancreatitis and they are an important pathogenetic factor in the severity of this disease. Therefore, a logical therapeutic approach is to limit the organ damage by selective suppression of inflammatory mediators involved in the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and protect against systemic complication. In this paper, we review the recent literature data on the possible manipulation of the immune response in acute pancreatitis.

  8. Combined use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with diuretics and/or renin-angiotensin system inhibitors in the community increases the risk of acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreischulte, Tobias; Morales, Daniel R; Bell, Samira; Guthrie, Bruce

    2015-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury (AKI) when used in triple combination with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and diuretics, but previous research reported that NSAIDs in dual combinations with either renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or diuretics alone were not. However, earlier studies relied on hospital coding to define AKI, which may underestimate true risk. This nested case-control study characterized the risk of community-acquired AKI associated with NSAID use among 78,379 users of renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or diuretics, where AKI was defined as a 50% or greater increase in creatinine from baseline. The AKI incidence was 68/10,000 person-years. The relative increase in AKI risk was similar for NSAID use in both triple (adjusted rate ratio 1.64 (95% CI 1.25-2.14)) and dual combinations with either renin-angiotensin system inhibitors (1.60 (1.18-2.17)) or diuretics (1.64 (1.17-2.29)). However, the absolute increase in AKI risk was higher for NSAIDs used in triple versus dual combinations with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors or diuretics alone (numbers needed to harm for 1 year treatment with NSAID of 158 vs. over 300). AKI risk was highest among users of loop diuretic/aldosterone antagonist combinations, in those over 75 years of age, and in those with renal impairment. Thus, the nephrotoxic potential of both dual and triple combinations of NSAIDs with renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and/or diuretics yields a higher incidence of AKI than previously thought.

  9. Using the polymerase chain reaction coupled with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis to investigate the association between bacterial translocation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in predicted acute severe pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Callum B Pearce; Vitaly Zinkevich; Iwona Beech; Viera Funjika; Ana Garcia Ruiz; Afraa Aladawi; Hamish D Duncan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the use of PCR and DGGE to investigate the association between bacterial translocation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in predicted severe AP.METHODS: Patients with biochemical and clinical evidence of acute pancreatitis and an APACHE Ⅱ score ≥8 were enrolled. PCR and DGGE were employed to detect bacterial translocation in blood samples collected on d1,3, and 8 after the admission. Standard microbial blood cultures were taken when there was clinical evidence of sepsis or when felt to be clinically indicated by the supervising team.RESULTS: Six patients were included. Of all the patients investigated, only one developed septic complications;the others had uneventful illness. Bacteria were detected using PCR in 4 of the 17 collected blood samples. The patient with sepsis was PCR-positive in two samples (taken on d 1 and 3), despite three negative blood cultures. Using DGGE and specific primers, the bacteria in all blood specimens which tested positive for the presence of bacterial DNA were identified as E coli.CONCLUSION: Our study confirmed thatunlike traditional microbiological techniques, PCR can detect the presence of bacteria in the blood of patients with severe AP. Therefore, this latter method in conjunction with DGGE is potentially an extremely useful tool in predicting septic morbidity and evaluating patients with the disease. Further research using increased numbers of patients, in particular those patients with necrosis and sepsis, is required to assess the reliability of PCR and DGGE in the rapid diagnosis of infection in AP.

  10. Changes of nitric oxide system and lipid peroxidation parameters in the digestive system of rats under conditions of acute stress, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

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    Fomenko Iryna

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in combination with being physiologically stressed often occurs in in the course of different pathologies. This situation may result in the alteration of digestive system functioning. The effect of stress brings about changes in the activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS, arginase, cyclooxygenase (COX and lipid peroxidation, whereas the use of NSAIDs interrupts the multiple functions of the cell via the inhibition of prostaglandins (PGs synthesis. Taking into account that NOS and COX-systems are connected in their regulation, the aim of the study was to determine the role played by NOS and lipid peroxidation under conditions of the combined action of NSAIDs and stress. In our study, male rats were used. The NSAIDs (naproxen - a non-selective COX inhibitor, celecoxib - a selective COX-2 blocker, and the compound 2A5DHT (which is the active substance of dual COX, and the lipoxygenase (LOX inhibitor, darbufelone were all administered at a dose 10 mg/kg, prior to water restraint stress (WRS. WRS brought about an increase of inducible NOS (iNOS activity in the intestinal mucosal and muscular membranes, as well as in the pancreas. Because of this, constitutive NOS izoform (cNOS and arginase activities decreased. Moreover, the MDA concentration increased, indicating the development of oxidative stress. In our work, pretreatment with naproxen, as in the WRS model, engendered a decrease in iNOS activity. What is more, administration of Celecoxib did not change iNOS activity, as compared to WRS alone, and it showed a tendency to reduce lipid peroxidation. In addition, 2A5DHT prior WRS brought about a decrease of iNOS activity, with the subsequent rise of cNOS activity. Of note, MDA concentration decreased in all studied organs, indicating the reduction of lipid peroxidation under the action of the darbufelone active substance.

  11. Pathophysiological mechanisms of acute pancreatitis define inflammatory markers of clinical prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minkov, Georgi A; Halacheva, Krasimira S; Yovtchev, Yovcho P; Gulubova, Maya V

    2015-07-01

    Development of acute pancreatitis illustrates the need to understand the basic mechanisms of disease progression to drive the exploration of therapeutic options. Cytokines play a major role in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis as underlying systemic inflammatory response, tissue damage, and organ dysfunction. However, little is known about circulating concentrations of these inflammatory markers and their real impact on clinical practice. Experimental studies have suggested that the prognosis for acute pancreatitis depends on the degree of pancreatic necrosis and the intensity of multisystem organ failure generated by the systemic inflammatory response. This suggests an intricate balance between localized tissue damage with proinflammatory cytokine production and a systemic anti-inflammatory response that restricts the inappropriate movement of proinflammatory agents into the circulation. Implication of such mediators suggests that interruption or blunting of an inappropriate immune response has the potential to improve outcome. A detailed understanding of pathophysiological processes and immunological aspects in patients with acute pancreatitis is the basis for the development of therapeutic strategies that will provide significant reductions in morbidity and mortality.

  12. Peripheral analgesic effects of ketamine in acute inflammatory pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Galle, T S; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND. This study examined the analgesic effect of local ketamine infiltration, compared with placebo and systemic ketamine, in a human model of inflammatory pain. METHODS: Inflammatory pain was induced by a burn (at 47 degrees C for 7 min; wound size, 2.5 x 5 cm) on the calf in 15 volunteer...

  13. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7%) were monomicrobial and 16(43.2%) were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%), vaginal discharge (70%...

  14. Human immunodeficiency virus seroconversion presenting with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sloan Derek J

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Acute Human Immunodeficiency Virus infection is associated with a range of neurological conditions. Guillain-Barré syndrome is a rare presentation; acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is the commonest form of Guillain-Barré syndrome. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy has occasionally been reported in acute Immunodeficiency Virus infection but little data exists on frequency, management and outcome. Case presentation We describe an episode of Guillain-Barré syndrome presenting as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a 30-year-old man testing positive for Immunodeficiency Virus, probably during acute seroconversion. Clinical suspicion was confirmed by cerebrospinal fluid analysis and nerve conduction studies. Rapid clinical deterioration prompted intravenous immunoglobulin therapy and early commencement of highly active anti-retroviral therapy. All symptoms resolved within nine weeks. Conclusion Unusual neurological presentations in previously fit patients are an appropriate indication for Immunodeficiency-Virus testing. Highly active anti-retroviral therapy with adequate penetration of the central nervous system should be considered as an early intervention, alongside conventional therapies such as intravenous immunoglobulin.

  15. Inflammatory cytokine kinetics to single bouts of acute moderate and intense aerobic exercise in women with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perandini, L A; Sales-de-Oliveira, D; Mello, Sbv; Camara, N O; Benatti, F B; Lima, F R; Borba, E; Bonfa, E; Roschel, H; Sá-Pinto, A L; Gualano, B

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the cytokines INF-γ, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFR1 and sTNFR2) in response to single bouts of acute moderate and intense exercise in systemic lupus erythematosus women with active (SLE(ACTIVE)) and inactive (SLE(INACTIVE)) disease. Twelve SLE(INACTIVE) women (age: 35.3 ± 5.7 yrs; BMI: 25.6±3.4 kg/m2), eleven SLE(ACTIVE) women (age: 30.4 ± 4.5 yrs; BMI: 26.1±4.8 kg/m2), and 10 age- and BMI-matched healthy control women (HC) performed 30 minutes of acute moderate (~50% of VO(2)peak) and intense (~70% of VO(2)peak) exercise bout. Cytokines and soluble TNF receptors were assessed at baseline, immediately after, every 30 minutes up to three hours, and 24 hours after both acute exercise bouts. In response to acute moderate exercise, cytokines and soluble TNF receptors levels remained unchanged in all groups (P>0.05), except for a reduction in IL-6 levels in the SLE(ACTIVE) group at the 60th and 180th minutes of recovery (PTNF-α, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 at all time points when compared with the HC group (Pcytokines and sTNFR2 levels remained unchanged (P>0.05). In the HC group, IL-10, TNF-α, sTNFR1, and sTNFR2 levels did not change, whilst INF-γ levels decreased (P=0.05) and IL-6 levels increased immediately after the exercise (P=0.028), returning to baseline levels 24 hours later (P > 0.05). When compared with the HC group, the SLE(INACTIVE) group showed higher levels of TNF-α and sTNFR2 in all time points, and higher levels of sTNFR1 at the end of exercise and at the 30th minute of recovery (PTNF-α at all time points when compared with the HC group (P0.05). Importantly, the levels of all cytokine and soluble TNF receptors returned to baseline 24 hours after the end of acute exercise, irrespective of its intensity, in all three groups (P>0.05). This study demonstrated that both the single bouts of acute moderate and intense exercise induced mild and transient changes in cytokine levels in both

  16. Peripheral nerve proteins as potential autoantigens in acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jia Pei; Devaux, Jérôme; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-10-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and acute motor axonal neuropathy. Whereas autoantibodies to GM1 or GD1a induce the development of acute motor axonal neuropathy, pathogenic autoantibodies have yet to be identified in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. This review highlights the importance of autoantibodies to peripheral nerve proteins in the physiopathology of acute and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies. Moreover, we listed up other potential antigens, which may become helpful biomarkers for acquired, dysimmune demyelinating neuropathies based on their critical functions during myelination and their implications in hereditary demyelinating neuropathies.

  17. Administration of reconstituted polyphenol oil bodies efficiently suppresses dendritic cell inflammatory pathways and acute intestinal inflammation.

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    Elisabetta Cavalcanti

    Full Text Available Polyphenols are natural compounds capable of interfering with the inflammatory pathways of several in vitro model systems. In this study, we developed a stable and effective strategy to administer polyphenols to treat in vivo models of acute intestinal inflammation. The in vitro suppressive properties of several polyphenols were first tested and compared for dendritic cells (DCs production of inflammatory cytokines. A combination of the polyphenols, quercetin and piperine, were then encapsulated into reconstituted oil bodies (OBs in order to increase their stability. Our results showed that administration of low dose reconstituted polyphenol OBs inhibited LPS-mediated inflammatory cytokine secretion, including IL-6, IL-23, and IL-12, while increasing IL-10 and IL-1Rα production. Mice treated with the polyphenol-containing reconstituted OBs (ROBs were partially protected from dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis and associated weight loss, while mortality and inflammatory scores revealed an overall anti-inflammatory effect that was likely mediated by impaired DC immune responses. Our study indicates that the administration of reconstituted quercetin and piperine-containing OBs may represent an effective and potent anti-inflammatory strategy to treat acute intestinal inflammation.

  18. Systemic corticosteroids for acute gout (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, H.J.; Lucassen, P.L.B.J.; Laar, F.A. van de; Janssen, M.; Lisdonk, E.H. van de

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Gout is one of the most frequently occurring rheumatic diseases, worldwide. Given the well-known drawbacks of the regular treatments for acute gout (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), colchicine), systemic corticosteroids might be safe alternatives. OBJECTIVES: To assess the

  19. Effects of gabapentin in acute inflammatory pain in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werner, M U; Perkins, F M; Holte, Kathrine;

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to examine the analgesic effects of the anticonvulsant, gabapentin, in a validated model of acute inflammatory pain. METHODS: Twenty-two volunteers were investigated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled cross-over study. Gabapentin 1...... not significantly changed by gabapentin (P study indicates that gabapentin has no analgesic effect in normal skin, but may reduce primary mechanical allodynia in acute......,200 mg or placebo was given on 2 separate study days. Three hours after drug administration, a first-degree burn injury was produced on the medial aspect of the nondominant calf (12.5 cm(2), 47 degrees C for 7 minutes). Quantitative sensory testing (QST) included pain ratings to thermal and mechanical...

  20. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preisinger Rudolf

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR. These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV. Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift.

  1. Inflammatory neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesell, Jackie

    2010-09-01

    Inflammatory neuropathies are acquired disorders of peripheral nerves and occasionally of the central nervous system that can affect individuals at any age. The course can be monophasic, relapsing, or progressive. Inflammatory neuropathies are classified as acute or chronic. The acute form reaches a nadir by 4 weeks and the chronic form over 8 weeks or greater. The most common example of an acute inflammatory neuropathy is acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), which is part of the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The most common chronic inflammatory neuropathy is chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy (CIDP). Other chronic inflammatory neuropathies are multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and the Lewis-Sumner syndrome. The Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis occur acutely and have clinical overlap with AIDP.

  2. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7% were monomicrobial and 16(43.2% were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%, vaginal discharge (70% and irregular bleeding (40% and 30% patients had history of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD implantation. The predominant aerobic isolates were Escherichia coli, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae while common anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus spp. Our study shows that cefotaxime, cefuroxime and gentamicin may be used for gram negative aerobic bacilli; cloxacillin, cephaloridine and erythromycin for aerobic gram positive cocci and amikacin and ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus for optimum therapy of acute PID it is beneficial to keep in mind major conceptual changes and therapeutic realities that have influenced current understanding of acute PID and have affected the choice of therapy.

  3. Role of anaerobes in acute pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, S; Gupta, N; Batra, G; Arora, D R

    2003-01-01

    Pouch of Douglas aspirates were collected from 50 women with history and examination suggestive of acute pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and 20 healthy women admitted for tubal ligation served as control. A total of 57 microorganisms were isolated from 37 patients out of 50 in study group. Of 37 positive cultures 21(56.7%) were monomicrobial and 16(43.2%) were polymicrobial. Most common symptom in study group was lower abdominal pain (90%), vaginal discharge (70%) and irregular bleeding (40%) and 30% patients had history of intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD) implantation. The predominant aerobic isolates were Escherichia coli, Coagulase Negative Staphylococcus (CONS), Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae while common anaerobes were Bacteroides fragilis, Prevotella melaninogenica, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Peptostreptococcus spp. Our study shows that cefotaxime, cefuroxime and gentamicin may be used for gram negative aerobic bacilli; cloxacillin, cephaloridine and erythromycin for aerobic gram positive cocci and amikacin and ceftazidime for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Thus for optimum therapy of acute PID it is beneficial to keep in mind major conceptual changes and therapeutic realities that have influenced current understanding of acute PID and have affected the choice of therapy.

  4. Colchicine-responsive protracted gouty arthritis with systemic inflammatory reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Fumiaki; Migita, Kiyoshi; Haramura, Tomoko; Sumiyoshi, Remi; Kawakami, Atsushi; Eguchi, Katsumi

    2014-05-01

    Acute gouty arthritis is a severe but self-limiting arthritis caused by inflammatory responses to urate crystals. Oral colchicines are effective for initial stages or prophylaxis, but generally, colchicines are ineffective for established gouty arthritis. We describe an unusual case of gouty arthritis with systemic inflammatory reactions, including high fever and polymyalgia. Refractory polyarthritis and high fever were eradicated by colchicine treatment. Genetic analysis revealed a heterozygous mutation in exon 2 of the MEFV gene (E148Q). This case underscores the possibility that MEFV gene mutations may modify the phenotype of gouty arthritis.

  5. Messengers without borders: mediators of systemic inflammatory response in AKI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratliff, Brian B; Rabadi, May M; Vasko, Radovan; Yasuda, Kaoru; Goligorsky, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The list of signals sent by an injured organ to systemic circulation, so-called danger signals, is growing to include multiple metabolites and secreted moieties, thus revealing a highly complex and integrated network of interlinked systemic proinflammatory and proregenerative messages. Emerging new data indicate that, apart from the well established local inflammatory response to AKI, danger signaling unleashes a cascade of precisely timed, interdependent, and intensity-gradated mediators responsible for development of the systemic inflammatory response. This fledgling realization of the importance of the systemic inflammatory response to the localized injury and inflammation is at the core of this brief overview. It has a potential to explain the additive effects of concomitant diseases or preexisting chronic conditions that can prime the systemic inflammatory response and exacerbate it out of proportion to the actual degree of acute kidney damage. Although therapies for ameliorating AKI per se remain limited, a potentially powerful strategy that could reap significant benefits in the future is to modulate the intensity of danger signals and consequently the systemic inflammatory response, while preserving its intrinsic proregenerative stimuli.

  6. The Acute Inflammatory Response in Trauma / Hemorrhage and Traumatic Brain Injury: Current State and Emerging Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Vodovotz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI. Inflammation is a finely tuned, dynamic, highly-regulated process that is not inherentlydetrimental, but rather required for immune surveillance, optimal post-injury tissue repair, and regeneration. The inflammatory response is driven by cytokines and chemokines and is partiallypropagated by damaged tissue-derived products (Damage-associated Molecular Patterns; DAMP’s.DAMPs perpetuate inflammation through the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but may also inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines. Various animal models of T/HS in mice, rats, pigs, dogs, and nonhumanprimates have been utilized in an attempt to move from bench to bedside. Novel approaches, including those from the field of systems biology, may yield therapeutic breakthroughs in T/HS andTBI in the near future.

  7. Pharmacological characterisation of anti-inflammatory compounds in acute and chronic mouse models of cigarette smoke-induced inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mok Joanie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Candidate compounds being developed to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are typically assessed using either acute or chronic mouse smoking models; however, in both systems compounds have almost always been administered prophylactically. Our aim was to determine whether the prophylactic effects of reference anti-inflammatory compounds in acute mouse smoking models reflected their therapeutic effects in (more clinically relevant chronic systems. Methods To do this, we started by examining the type of inflammatory cell infiltrate which occurred after acute (3 days or chronic (12 weeks cigarette smoke exposure (CSE using female, C57BL/6 mice (n = 7-10. To compare the effects of anti-inflammatory compounds in these models, mice were exposed to either 3 days of CSE concomitant with compound dosing or 14 weeks of CSE with dosing beginning after week 12. Budesonide (1 mg kg-1; i.n., q.d., roflumilast (3 mg kg-1; p.o., q.d. and fluvastatin (2 mg kg-1; p.o., b.i.d. were dosed 1 h before (and 5 h after for fluvastatin CSE. These dose levels were selected because they have previously been shown to be efficacious in mouse models of lung inflammation. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF leukocyte number was the primary endpoint in both models as this is also a primary endpoint in early clinical studies. Results To start, we confirmed that the inflammatory phenotypes were different after acute (3 days versus chronic (12 weeks CSE. The inflammation in the acute systems was predominantly neutrophilic, while in the more chronic CSE systems BALF neutrophils (PMNs, macrophage and lymphocyte numbers were all increased (p Conclusions These results demonstrate that the acute, prophylactic systems can be used to identify compounds with therapeutic potential, but may not predict a compound's efficacy in chronic smoke exposure models.

  8. Acute, regional inflammatory response after traumatic brain injury: Implications for cellular therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Harting, Matthew T.; jimenez, fernando; Adams, Sasha D.; Mercer, David W.; Cox, Charles S.

    2008-01-01

    While cellular therapy has shown promise in the management of traumatic brain injury (TBI), microenvironment interactions between the intracerebral milieu and therapeutic stem cells are poorly understood. We sought to characterize the acute, regional inflammatory response after TBI.

  9. Immunopathology of rabies infection in mice selected for high or low acute inflammatory reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Achkar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Rabies is a severe and lethal disease that produces a slight inflammatory response during the infection process. We analyzed the immunopathological mechanisms that occur in the central nervous system (CNS using mice genetically selected for maximal or minimal acute inflammatory reaction (AIRmax or AIRmin. As viral samples, we adopted the antigenic variant 3 (AgV3 of rabies virus from hematophagous bats and a fixed virus strain (PV1 43/3. Titration of specific antibodies was performed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. We observed a slight increase in IgG and IgG1 isotypes in infected AIRmax mice. Incubation period, determined by intracerebral inoculation with 100 LD50, was 6-7 days for PV1 43/4 strain and 9-10 days for AgV3. No difference in viral replication was noticed between AIRmax and AIRmin mice. Mortality was 100% with both viral strains. Histopathological analysis of brains and spinal cords showed inflammatory foci in all regions of the CNS. No differences were noticed in the number of neutrophils. Negri bodies were observed in practically all sites analyzed. Results suggested that inflammatory reaction is not a determining factor in the susceptibility to rabies infection.

  10. Inflammatory Mechanisms of Organ Crosstalk during Ischemic Acute Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. White

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication during inpatient hospitalization, and clinical outcomes remain poor despite advancements in renal replacement therapy. AKI in the setting of multiple organ failure (MOF remains a formidable challenge to clinicians and incurs an unacceptably high mortality rate. Kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI incites a proinflammatory cascade and releases cellular and soluble mediators with systemic implications for remote organ injury. Evidence from preclinical models cites mechanisms of organ crosstalk during ischemic AKI including the expression of cellular adhesion molecules, lymphocyte trafficking, release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and modification of the host innate and adaptive immune response systems. In this paper, the influence of kidney IRI on systemic inflammation and distant organ injury will be examined. Recent experimental data and evolving concepts of organ crosstalk during ischemic AKI will also be discussed in detail.

  11. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response in Idiopathic Sudden Deafness: Pathogenic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    López-González, Miguel A.; Antonio Abrante; Carmen López-Lorente; Antonio Gómez; Emilio Domínguez; Francisco Esteban

    2012-01-01

    The acute-phase inflammatory response in the peripheral bloodstream can be an expression of transient cerebral ischaemia in idiopathic sudden deafness. For this, a neurological and otorhinolaryngological examination of each patient, performing tests on audiometry, and tympanometry, haemogram, and cranial magnetic resonance were performed. The acute-phase inflammatory response manifests as an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that is detected 48–72 hours after the appearance of sudden deaf...

  12. Kaempferol, a dietary flavonoid, ameliorates acute inflammatory and nociceptive symptoms in gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Shi Hyoung; Park, Jae Gwang; Sung, Gi-Ho; Yang, Sungjae; Yang, Woo Seok; Kim, Eunji; Kim, Jun Ho; Ha, Van Thai; Kim, Han Gyung; Yi, Young-Su; Kim, Ji Hye; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Sung, Nak Yoon; Lee, Mi-nam; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Cho, Jae Youl

    2015-07-01

    Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain were employed. Kaempferol was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in ethanol (EtOH)/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA) triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing.

  13. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome%全身炎症反应综合征、急性肺损伤与急性呼吸窘迫综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱桂生

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1967年Ashbaugh等首次报道了成人急性呼吸窘迫(acute respiratory distress in adult),为了和新生儿或婴儿呼吸窘迫综合征(infantile respiratory distress syndrome,IRDS)相区别,被命名为成人呼吸窘迫综合征(adult respiratory distress syndrome,ARDS).

  14. Xingnaojing Injection in Treating 30 Cases of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Caused by Acute Cerebral Infarction%醒脑静治疗急性脑梗死致全身炎症反应综合征30例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨嘉君; 金春峰

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察醒脑静治疗怠性脑梗死后全身炎症反应综合征(SIRS)的临床疗效.方法 将60例患者随机均分为脑复康治疗组(30例)与醒脑静治疗组(30例),观察两组患者治疗前后美国国立卫生研究院卒中量表(NIHSS)评分及C反应蛋白(CRP)水平情况.结果 治疗后患者NIHSS评分,醒脑静治疗组明显低于脑复康治疗组(P<0.05);醒脑静治疗组患者CRP水平明显低于脑复康治疗组(P<0.05);醒脑静治疗组多器官功能障碍综合征(MODS)发生率为16.66%,脑复康治疗组MODS发生率为40.00%.结论 醒脑静治疗急性脑梗死致全身炎症反应综合征的临床疗效显著,能明显干预急性脑梗死致全身炎症反应及多器官功能障碍综合征的发生.%Objective To investigate the clinical efficacy of Xingnaojing Iinjection in the treatment of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) caused by acute cerebral infarction. Methods Sixty cases of SIRS were randomized into two groups,the Xingnaojing Iinjection group (30 cases) and the piracetam group(30 cases). The changes of NIHSS score and high - sensitivity C-reaction protein(hs - CRP) level before and after treatment were observed and compared between the two groups. Results The NIHSS score after treatment in the Xingnaojing group was lower than that in the piracetam group obviously (P < 0. 05); the hs - CRP level in the Xingnaojing group also was lower than that in the piracetam group obviously(P<0. 05). The incidence of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) was 16.66% in the Xingnaojing injection group and 40. 00% in the piracetam group. Conclusion Xingnaojing Injection has significantly clinical efficacy in the treatment of SIRS and can significantly interfere the occurrence of SIRS and MODS caused by acute cerebral infarction.

  15. Investigation of inflammatory markers in horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Andersen, Pia Haubro;

    Background The use of acute phase proteins as objective markers of underlying pathology may facilitate the decision-making regarding diagnosis, treatment and estimation of prognosis of colic horses in a referral hospital. Evaluation of acute phase proteins in both serum and peritoneal fluid of co...

  16. Limited inflammatory response in rats after acute exposure to a silicon carbide nanoaerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laloy, J.; Lozano, O.; Alpan, L.; Masereel, B.; Toussaint, O.; Dogné, J. M.; Lucas, S.

    2015-08-01

    Inhalation represents the major route of human exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). Assessments are needed about the potential risks of NMs from inhalation on different tissues and organs, especially the respiratory tract. The aim of this limited study is to determine the potential acute pulmonary toxicity in rats exposed to a dry nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles (NPs) in a whole-body exposure (WBE) model. The SiC nanoaerosol is composed of a bimodal size distribution of 92.8 and 480 nm. The exposure concentration was 4.91 mg/L, close to the highest recommended concentration of 5 mg/L by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Rats were exposed for 6 h to a stable and reproducible SiC nanoaerosol under real-time measurement conditions. A control group was exposed to the filtered air used to create the nanoaerosol. Animals were sacrificed immediately, 24 or 72 h after exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rat lungs was recovered. Macrophages filled with SiC NPs were observed in the rat lungs. The greatest load of SiC and macrophages filled with SiC were observed on the rat lungs sacrificed 24 h after acute exposure. A limited acute inflammatory response was found up to 24 h after exposure characterized by a lactate dehydrogenase and total protein increase or presence of inflammatory cells in pulmonary lavage. For this study a WBE model has been developed, it allows the simultaneous exposure of six rats to a nanoaerosol and six rats to clean-filtered air. The nanoaerosol was generated using a rotating brush system (RBG-1000) and analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor in real time.

  17. Limited inflammatory response in rats after acute exposure to a silicon carbide nanoaerosol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laloy, J., E-mail: julie.laloy@unamur.be [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lozano, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Alpan, L.; Masereel, B. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Toussaint, O. [University of Namur (UNamur), Laboratory of Cellular Biochemistry and Biology (URBC), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Dogné, J. M. [University of Namur (UNamur), Department of Pharmacy, Namur Nanosafety Centre (NNC), Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium); Lucas, S. [University of Namur (UNamur), Research Centre in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), Namur Nanosafety Centre NNC, Namur Research Institute for Life Sciences NARILIS (Belgium)

    2015-08-15

    Inhalation represents the major route of human exposure to manufactured nanomaterials (NMs). Assessments are needed about the potential risks of NMs from inhalation on different tissues and organs, especially the respiratory tract. The aim of this limited study is to determine the potential acute pulmonary toxicity in rats exposed to a dry nanoaerosol of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles (NPs) in a whole-body exposure (WBE) model. The SiC nanoaerosol is composed of a bimodal size distribution of 92.8 and 480 nm. The exposure concentration was 4.91 mg/L, close to the highest recommended concentration of 5 mg/L by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development. Rats were exposed for 6 h to a stable and reproducible SiC nanoaerosol under real-time measurement conditions. A control group was exposed to the filtered air used to create the nanoaerosol. Animals were sacrificed immediately, 24 or 72 h after exposure. The bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from rat lungs was recovered. Macrophages filled with SiC NPs were observed in the rat lungs. The greatest load of SiC and macrophages filled with SiC were observed on the rat lungs sacrificed 24 h after acute exposure. A limited acute inflammatory response was found up to 24 h after exposure characterized by a lactate dehydrogenase and total protein increase or presence of inflammatory cells in pulmonary lavage. For this study a WBE model has been developed, it allows the simultaneous exposure of six rats to a nanoaerosol and six rats to clean-filtered air. The nanoaerosol was generated using a rotating brush system (RBG-1000) and analyzed with an electrical low pressure impactor in real time.

  18. Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy and a Unilateral Babinski/Plantar Reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Cattano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Acquired acute demyelinating peripheral polyneuropathy (AADP is a general classification of pathologies that could affect secondary the peripheral nervous system. They are characterized by an autoimmune process directed towards myelin. Clinically they are characterized by progressive weakness and mild sensory changes. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy often is referred to as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS. GBS is the major cause of acute nontraumatic paralysis in healthy people and it is caused by autoimmune response to viral agents (influenza, coxsackie, Epstein-Barr virus, or cytomegalovirus or bacterial infective organisms (Campylobacter jejuni, Mycoplasma pneumoniae. A detailed history, with symptoms of progressive usually bilateral weakness, hyporeflexia, with a typical demyelinating EMG pattern supports the diagnosis. Progressive affection of respiratory muscles and autonomic instability coupled with a protracted and unpredictable recovery normally results in the need for ICU management. We present a case report of a patient with a typical GBS presentation but with a unilateral upgoing plantar reflex (Babinski sign. A unifying diagnosis was made and based on a literature search in Pubmed appears to be the first described case of its kind.

  19. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and a unilateral babinski/plantar reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattano, Davide; O'connor, Brian; Shakir, Ra'ad; Giunta, Francesco; Palazzo, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Acquired acute demyelinating peripheral polyneuropathy (AADP) is a general classification of pathologies that could affect secondary the peripheral nervous system. They are characterized by an autoimmune process directed towards myelin. Clinically they are characterized by progressive weakness and mild sensory changes. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy often is referred to as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). GBS is the major cause of acute nontraumatic paralysis in healthy people and it is caused by autoimmune response to viral agents (influenza, coxsackie, Epstein-Barr virus, or cytomegalovirus) or bacterial infective organisms (Campylobacter jejuni, Mycoplasma pneumoniae). A detailed history, with symptoms of progressive usually bilateral weakness, hyporeflexia, with a typical demyelinating EMG pattern supports the diagnosis. Progressive affection of respiratory muscles and autonomic instability coupled with a protracted and unpredictable recovery normally results in the need for ICU management. We present a case report of a patient with a typical GBS presentation but with a unilateral upgoing plantar reflex (Babinski sign). A unifying diagnosis was made and based on a literature search in Pubmed appears to be the first described case of its kind.

  20. Systemic corticosteroid therapy for acute sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, R.P.; Thompson, M.J.; Rovers, M.M.

    2015-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Are oral or parenteral corticosteroids associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute sinusitis compared with placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)? BOTTOM LINE: Oral corticosteroids combined with antibiotics may be associated with modest bene

  1. Systemic corticosteroid therapy for acute sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, Roderick P.; Thompson, Matthew J.; Rovers, Maroeska M.

    2015-01-01

    CLINICAL QUESTION: Are oral or parenteral corticosteroids associated with improved clinical outcomes in patients with acute sinusitis compared with placebo or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)? BOTTOM LINE: Oral corticosteroids combined with antibioticsmay be associated with modest benef

  2. Divergent responses of inflammatory mediators within the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gandhi, Chaitanya P; Gray, J Megan; Morena, Maria; Hassan, Kowther I; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    There is now a growing body of literature that indicates that stress can initiate inflammatory processes, both in the periphery and brain; however, the spatiotemporal nature of this response is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an acute psychological stress on changes in mRNA and protein levels of a wide range of inflammatory mediators across a broad temporal range, in key corticolimbic brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response (amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex). mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators were analyzed immediately following 30min or 120min of acute restraint stress and protein levels were examined 0h through 24h post-termination of 120min of acute restraint stress using both multiplex and ELISA methods. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that exposure to acute psychological stress results in an increase in the protein level of several inflammatory mediators in the amygdala while concomitantly producing a decrease in the protein level of multiple inflammatory mediators within the medial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of changes seemed largely restricted to the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, with stress producing few changes in the mRNA or protein levels of inflammatory mediators within the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Consistent with previous research, stress resulted in a general elevation in multiple inflammatory mediators within the circulation. These data indicate that neuroinflammatory responses to stress do not appear to be generalized across brain structures and exhibit a high degree of spatiotemporal specificity. Given the impact of inflammatory signaling on neural excitability and emotional behavior, these data may provide a platform with which to explore the importance of inflammatory signaling within the prefrontocortical-amygdala circuit in the regulation of the neurobehavioral responses to stress.

  3. Protein phosphatases and chromatin modifying complexes in the inflammatory cascade in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier; Escobar; Javier; Pereda; Alessandro; Arduini; Juan; Sastre; Juan; Sandoval; Luis; Aparisi; Gerardo; López-Rodas; Luis; Sabater

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammation of the pancreas that may lead to systemic inflammatory response syndrome and death due to multiple organ failure. Acinar cells, together with leukocytes, trigger the inflammatory cascade in response to local damage of the pancreas. Amplification of the inflammatory cascade requires up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and this process is mediated not only by nuclear factor κB but also by chromatinmodifying complexes and chromatin remodeling. Among the different families of histone acetyltransferases, the p300/CBP family seems to be particularly associated with the inflammatory process. cAMP activates gene expression via the cAMP-responsive element (CRE) and the transcription factor CRE-binding protein (CREB). CREB can be phosphorylated and activated by different kinases, such as protein kinase A and MAPK, and then it recruits the histone acetyltransferase co-activator CREB-binding protein (CBP) and its homologue p300. The recruitment of CBP/p300 and changes in the level of histone acetylation are required for transcription activation. Transcriptional repression is also a dynamic and essential mechanism of down-regulation of genes for resolution of inflammation, which seems to be mediated mainly by protein phosphatases (PP1, PP2A and MKP1) and histone deacetylases(HDACs) .Class HDACs are key transcriptional regulators whose activities are controlled via phosphorylationdependent nucleo/cytoplasmic shuttling. PP2A is responsible for dephosphorylation of class HDACs, triggeringnuclear localization and repression of target genes, whereas phosphorylation triggers cytoplasmic localization leading to activation of target genes. The potential benefit from treatment with phosphodiesterase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors is discussed.

  4. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease: pictorial essay focused on computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Febronio, Eduardo Miguel; Rosas, George de Queiroz; D' Ippolito, Giuseppe, E-mail: giuseppe_dr@uol.com.br [Department of Imaging Diagnosis, Escola Paulista de Medicina - Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPMUnifesp), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    The present study was aimed at describing key computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in patients with acute abdominal pain derived from pelvic inflammatory disease. Two radiologists consensually selected and analyzed computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging studies performed between January 2010 and December 2011 in patients with proven pelvic inflammatory disease leading to presentation of acute abdomen. Main findings included presence of intracavitary fluid collections, anomalous enhancement of the pelvic excavation and densification of adnexal fat planes. Pelvic inflammatory disease is one of the leading causes of abdominal pain in women of childbearing age and it has been increasingly been diagnosed by means of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging supplementing the role of ultrasonography. It is crucial that radiologists become familiar with the main sectional imaging findings in the diagnosis of this common cause of acute abdomen (author)

  5. Ischemic heart disease in systemic inflammatory diseases. An appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargiulo, Paola; Marsico, Fabio; Parente, Antonio; Paolillo, Stefania; Cecere, Milena; Casaretti, Laura; Pellegrino, Angela Maria; Formisano, Tiziana; Fabiani, Irma; Soricelli, Andrea; Trimarco, Bruno; Perrone-Filardi, Pasquale

    2014-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory diseases are inflammatory syndromes that are associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The link between inflammatory and cardiovascular diseases can be attributed to coexistence of classical risk factors and of inflammatory mechanisms activated in systemic inflammatory diseases and involving the immune system. Yet, clinical implications of these findings are not entirely clear and deeper knowledge and awareness of cardiac involvement in inflammatory diseases are necessary. The aims of this review are to summarize cardiac involvement in systemic inflammatory diseases and to identify areas where evidence is currently lacking that deserve further investigation in the future.

  6. Can New Inflammatory Markers Improve the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Manne; Rubér, Marie; Ekerfelt, Christina;

    2014-01-01

    , and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were compared with traditional diagnostic variables included in the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) score (right iliac fossa pain, vomiting, rebound tenderness, guarding, white blood cell [WBC] count, proportion neutrophils, C-reactive protein and body temperature) in 432 patients...

  7. Serum inflammatory cytokines combined with NIHSS to evaluate the condition of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Heng; LONG Chong-rong; Wang, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of serum inflammatory cytokines and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score in acute ischemic stroke patients and their clinical significances on patients' condition assessment. Methods The serum levels of three cytokines, including interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), were measured and compared between 90 acute ischemic stroke patients (ischemic stroke group) and 50 healthy ...

  8. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy with focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quek, Amy May Lin; Soon, Derek; Chan, Yee Cheun; Thamboo, Thomas Paulraj; Yuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-06-15

    Inflammatory neuropathies have been reported to occur in association with nephrotic syndrome. Their underlying immuno-pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. A 50-year-old woman concurrently presented with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and nephrotic syndrome secondary to focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Both neuropathy and proteinuria improved after plasma exchange and steroids. Literature review of cases of concurrent inflammatory neuropathies and nephrotic syndrome revealed similar neuro-renal presentations. This neuro-renal condition may be mediated by autoantibodies targeting myelin and podocytes.

  9. The inflammatory response in myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emmens, R.W.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is about myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). These are two cardiac diseases in which inflammation of the cardiac muscle occurs. In myocarditis, inflammation results in the elimination of a viral infection of the heart. During AMI, one of the coronary arteries is occluded,

  10. Markers of systemic inflammatory response in coxarthrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korshunov G.V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect markers of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in patients with coxarthrosis by means of assessment of the status of the hemostasis system, endothelium function and inflammation intensity. Material and Methods. The indices of the plasmatic hemostasis, levels of VCAM-1, ICAM-1, ELAM-1, VEGF-A, neop-terin were analyzed. Results. It has been found that among the patients with hip coxarthrosis a group of patients (47% with endothelium dysfunction, cellular immunity activation, a high content of Soluble Fibrin Monomer Complex and D-dimers and a group of patients (53% without any abnormalities in these parameters should be differentiated. Conclusion. Among the patients with hip coxarthrosis a group with signs of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (occurrence of endothelium dysfunction, cellular immunity activation, a high content of Soluble Fibrin Monomer Complex and D-dimers and a group of patients with reference values of these parameters can be determined. The markers of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome in cases with hip osteoarthrosis are Soluble Fibrin Monomer Complex and D-dimers, high levels of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (slCAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-2 (sVCAM-1, cell adhesion E-selectin-1 (ELAM-1 and Neopterin (Np.

  11. Investigation of inflammatory markers in horses with acute abdominal pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl, Tina Holberg; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Andersen, Pia Haubro

    Background The use of acute phase proteins as objective markers of underlying pathology may facilitate the decision-making regarding diagnosis, treatment and estimation of prognosis of colic horses in a referral hospital. Evaluation of acute phase proteins in both serum and peritoneal fluid...... of colic horses in a referral hospital have not been reported earlier. Objectives Evaluation of serum and peritoneal fluid (PF) levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin in horses with colic. Methods Blood and PF samples were collected from 75 colic horses at admission to a referral hospital and from...... 19 healthy control horses. SAA and haptoglobin were measured in both serum and PF. Colic cases were classified according to diagnosis, treatment and outcome based on the clinical records. Protein concentrations were compared between groups with student´s t-test and ANOVA. Results Colic horses had...

  12. Therapeutic effects of topical netrin-4 in a corneal acute inflammatory model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun; Han; Yi; Shao; Ting-Ting; Liu; Sang-Ming; Li; Wei; Li; Zu-Guo; Liu

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of netrin-4 on the early acute phase of inflammation in the alkali-burned eye.METHODS: Eye drops containing netrin-4 or phosphate buffered saline(PBS) were administered to a alkali-burn-induced corneal acute inflammatory model four times daily. The clinical evaluations, including fluorescein staining and inflammatory index, were performed on day 1, 4 and 7 using slit lamp microscopy.Global specimens were collected on day 7 and processed for immunofluorescent staining. The levels of inflammatory mediators in the corneas were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR).RESULTS: Exogenous netrin-4 administered on rat ocular surfaces showed more improvements in decreasing fluorescein staining on day 4 and 7, and resolved alkali burn-induced corneal inflammation index on day 7(P <0.01). The levels of IL-1β, IL-6, intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1(ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1(VCAM-1), monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1(MIP-1) in corneas were decreased in netrin-4-treated groups(P <0.05). In addition, netrin-4 significantly reduced the expression of leukocyte common antigen 45(CD45) in the alkali-burn cornea(P <0.001).CONCLUSION: Topical netrin-4 accelerated wound healing and reduced the inflammation on alkali-burn rat model, suggesting a potential as an anti-inflammatory agent in the clinical to treat the acute inflammation.

  13. The effects of acute and chronic exercise on inflammatory markers in children and adults with a chronic inflammatory disease : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Hilde E.; Takken, Tim; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Timmons, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammatory diseases strike millions of people all over the world, and exercise is often prescribed for these patients to improve overall fitness and quality of life. In healthy individuals, acute and chronic exercise is known to alter inflammatory markers; however, less is know

  14. CT appearance of acute inflammatory disease of the renal interstitium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gold, R.P. (New York Medical Coll., Valhalla); McClennan, B.L.; Rottenberg, R.R.

    1983-08-01

    Today, infection remains the most common disease of the urinary tract and constitutes almost 75% of patient problems requiring urologic evaluation. There have been several major factors responsible for our better understanding of the nature and pathophysiology of urinary tract infection. One has been quantitated urine bacteriology and another, the discovery that a significant part of the apparently healthy adult female population has asymptomatic bacteriuria. Abnormal conditions such as neurogenic bladder, bladder malignancy, prolonged catheter drainage and reflux, altered host resistance, diabetes mellitus, and urinary tract obstruction, as well as pregnancy, may either predispose to or be implicated in the pathogenesis of urinary tract infection. There is a wide range of conditions that result in acute renal inflammation and those under discussion affect primarily the interstitium. This term refers to the connective tissue elements separating the tubules in the cortex and medulla. Hence, the interstitial nephritides are to be distinguished from the glomerulonephritides and fall into two general etiologic categories: infectious and noninfectious.

  15. Detection and significance of inflammatory factors and immunoglobulin in acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Zheng Meng; Liang Qiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the detection and significance of inflammatory factors and immunoglobulin in acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia.Methods:A total of 80 cases of acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia were divided into mild group (n=33) and severe group (n=47) according to illness degrees, and 40 cases of healthy children were selected as control group. Serum CRP, Ig A, Ig G and Ig M levels were detected by nephelometry, IL-6 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The levels of inflammatory factors (CRP, IL-6) and immunoglobulin indexes (Ig A, Ig G and Ig M) were compared among 3 groups.Results: The inflammatory factors (CRP, IL-6) in mild and severe group increased significantly compared with control group, CRP and IL-6 levels in severe group were were significantly higher than that in mild group (P<0.05). The levels of Ig A in mild and severe group decreased significantly compared with control group, Ig A level in severe group was significantly lower than that in mild group (P<0.05), the levels of Ig G and Ig M in mild and severe group increased significantly compared with control group, the levels of Ig G and Ig M in severe group were significantly higher than that in mild group (P<0.05). Conclusions:The levels of inflammatory factors are increased while immune function is decreased in acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia. Inflammation is stronger and immune function is worse with the severity of the disease. Detection of inflammatory factors and immunoglobulin levels is helpful to diagnose and treatment of acute stage patients with infantile pneumonia.

  16. Elevated white cell count in acute coronary syndromes: relationship to variants in inflammatory and thrombotic genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannon Christopher P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elevated white blood cell counts (WBC in acute coronary syndromes (ACS increase the risk of recurrent events, but it is not known if this is exacerbated by pro-inflammatory factors. We sought to identify whether pro-inflammatory genetic variants contributed to alterations in WBC and C-reactive protein (CRP in an ACS population. Methods WBC and genotype of interleukin 6 (IL-6 G-174C and of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN intronic repeat polymorphism were investigated in 732 Caucasian patients with ACS in the OPUS-TIMI-16 trial. Samples for measurement of WBC and inflammatory factors were taken at baseline, i.e. Within 72 hours of an acute myocardial infarction or an unstable angina event. Results An increased white blood cell count (WBC was associated with an increased C-reactive protein (r = 0.23, p 3 (95% CI = -0.41, 0.77, and -0.03/mm3 (95% CI = -0.55, 0.86 for IL1RN. Moreover, the composite endpoint was not significantly affected by an interaction between WBC and the IL1 (p = 0.61 or IL6 (p = 0.48 genotype. Conclusions Cytokine pro-inflammatory genetic variants do not influence the increased inflammatory profile of ACS patients.

  17. The Impact of Acute Matriptase Inhibition in Hepatic Inflammatory Models

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    Judit Pomothy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Dysfunction of matriptase-2 can be involved in iron regulatory disorder via downregulation of hepcidin expression. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 3-amidinophenylalanine-derived matriptase inhibitors on porcine hepatic inflammatory cell models. Methods. Hepatocyte-Kupffer cell cocultures (ratio of 2 : 1 and 6 : 1 were treated with four structurally related matriptase inhibitors at 50 μM. Cell cytotoxicity and relative expressions of IL-6 and IL-8 and the levels of hepcidin were determined by MTS and porcine-specific ELISA. The extracellular H2O2 contents were analyzed by Amplex Red method. Results. Matriptase inhibitors at 50 µM for 24 h did not increase cell death rate. The elevated ROS production observed after short-term application of inhibitor MI-441 could be correlated with lowered hepcidin expression. MI-460 could significantly enhance hepcidin levels in the supernatants of cocultures (by 62.21±26.8% in hepatocyte-Kupffer cell, 2 : 1, and by 42.6±14.3% in hepatocyte-Kupffer cell, 6 : 1, cocultures, resp.. No significant changes were found in IL-6 and IL-8 levels in cocultures exposed to matriptase inhibitors. Conclusions. Based on in vitro findings, administration of MI-460 via modulation of hepcidin expression without cytotoxic and oxidative stress inducing properties might be a reliable alternative to treat iron overload in human and veterinary clinical practice.

  18. Monocytes in systematic inflammatory response syndrome: Differences between sepsis and acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vassilios Koussoulas; Michalis Tzivras; Vassiliki Karagianni; Ekaterini Spyridaki; Diamantis Plachouras; Helen Giamarellou; Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To unravel the differences between systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) of acute pancreatitis compared to the same syndrome in sepsis.METHODS: Twenty-five patients were enrolled, 12 with sepsis and 13 acute pancreatitis. After diagnosis 20 mL blood was sampled. Half were assayed for isolation of monocytes and 10 mL was centrifuged for serum test of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and interleukin-6(IL-6). Half of monocytes were incubated in the presence of patients' serum and supernatants were collected. The other half was treated for estimation of optical photometry under caspase-3 inhibition. TNFα and IL-6 were estimated by an enzyme immunoassay.RESULTS: median ± SE of serum IL-6 in septic patients and acute pancreatitis patients was 192.30 ± 35.40 ng/L and 21.00 ± 16.05 ng/L, respectively (P < 0.01). Respective values of caspase-3 were 0.94 ± 0.17 pmol/min 104 cells and 0.34 ± 0.09 pmol/min 104 cells (P < 0.05).IL-6 of monocyte supernatants of patients with sepsis was significantly increased after addition of patients' serum, while that of patients with acute pancreatitis did not show significant difference.CONCLUSION: The data have shown that monocyte activity is different between acute pancreatitis and sepsis. This phenomenon might be explained as a different pathway to the pro-inflammatory cytokines release or could be a novel anti-inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis.

  19. Acute gouty arthritis as a manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiation of antiretroviral therapy

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    Walter de Araujo Eyer-Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS in HIV-infected subjects initiating antiretroviral therapy most commonly involves new or worsening manifestations of previously subclinical or overt infectious diseases. Reports of non-infectious IRIS are much less common but represent important diagnostic and treatment challenges. We report on a 34-year-old HIV-infected male patient with no history of gout who developed acute gouty arthritis in a single joint one month after initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy.

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of Justicia prostrata gamble in acute and sub-acute models of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmugapriya, E; Shanmugasundaram, P; Venkataraman, S

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the aqueous (AQJP) and alcoholic (ALJP) extracts of the whole plant of Justicia prostrata Gamble (Acanthaceae) were screened for their acute and subacute anti-inflammatory activities using carrageenan-induced acute inflammation and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma (subacute inflammation), respectively, in rats. In the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model, both extracts were found to exhibit maximum reduction in paw volume at the first hour in a dose-dependent manner. At the dose of 500 mg/kg p.o., both extracts AQJP and ALJP showed maximum inhibition (51.39% and 62.5%, respectively) in rat paw oedema volume at the first hour of carrageenan-induced acute inflammation. In the cotton pellet granuloma assay, AQJP and ALJP at the dose of 500 mg/kg p.o. suppressed the transudative, exudative and proliferative phases of chronic inflammation. These extracts were able to (i) reduce the lipid peroxide content of exudates and liver and (ii) normalize the increased activity of acid and alkaline phosphatases in serum and liver of cotton pellet granulomatous rats. Preliminary phytochemical screening revealed the presence of lignans, triterpenes and phenolic compounds in ALJP, whereas phenolic compounds and glycosides in AQJP. The anti-inflammatory properties of these extracts may possibly be due to the presence of phenolic compounds. The anti-inflammatory effects produced by the extracts at the dose of 500 mg/kg, p.o. was comparable with the reference drug diclofenac sodium (5 mg/kg p.o.).

  1. The changes and significance of serum inflammatory factors and hemodynamics in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Wei Lu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the changes of serum inflammatory factors and hemodynamics in patients with acute cerebral infarction and its clinical significance.Methods: A total of 55 cases of acute cerebral infarction (ACI) patients as observation group, and cases of healthy physical examination were selected as the observation group, and 55 healthy persons as control group. ELISA method was used to detect inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), C-reactive protein (CRP) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) level, WA-880 heart and brain integrated digital hemodynamic monitor to detect bilateral carotid artery blood flow velocity, blood flow and peripheral resistance.Results:The serum levels of IL-8, CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α were higher in the observation group than in the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The blood flow velocity and blood flow velocity in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The difference was statistically significant (IL-8). With the increase of infarct size, serum IL-6, CRP,P<0.05 and TNF-α increased significantly (P<0.05).Conclusions:The changes of serum inflammatory factors and hemodynamic indexes can be used to judge the early cerebral infarction and the size of the infarct size of the index, the clinical dynamic monitoring of its changes in patients with acute cerebral infarction and the severity of the prognosis and the prognosis of the important significance of the judgment.

  2. Acute-phase inflammatory response in idiopathic sudden deafness: pathogenic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-González, Miguel A; Abrante, Antonio; López-Lorente, Carmen; Gómez, Antonio; Domínguez, Emilio; Esteban, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    The acute-phase inflammatory response in the peripheral bloodstream can be an expression of transient cerebral ischaemia in idiopathic sudden deafness. For this, a neurological and otorhinolaryngological examination of each patient, performing tests on audiometry, and tympanometry, haemogram, and cranial magnetic resonance were performed. The acute-phase inflammatory response manifests as an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that is detected 48-72 hours after the appearance of sudden deafness. This study shows that there is an acute-phase response in the peripheral bloodstream with an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as an expression of an inflammatory process that can be caused by transient cerebral ischaemia in sudden deafness. In addition, the increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio can rule out a viral origin of sudden deafness, since a viral infection lowers the neutrophil count and increases the lymphocyte count, thus reducing the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. These findings aid in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms involved in sudden deafness and offer better treatment to the patient.

  3. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response in Idiopathic Sudden Deafness: Pathogenic Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel A. López-González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute-phase inflammatory response in the peripheral bloodstream can be an expression of transient cerebral ischaemia in idiopathic sudden deafness. For this, a neurological and otorhinolaryngological examination of each patient, performing tests on audiometry, and tympanometry, haemogram, and cranial magnetic resonance were performed. The acute-phase inflammatory response manifests as an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio that is detected 48–72 hours after the appearance of sudden deafness. This study shows that there is an acute-phase response in the peripheral bloodstream with an increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as an expression of an inflammatory process that can be caused by transient cerebral ischaemia in sudden deafness. In addition, the increased neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio can rule out a viral origin of sudden deafness, since a viral infection lowers the neutrophil count and increases the lymphocyte count, thus reducing the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. These findings aid in understanding the pathogenic mechanisms involved in sudden deafness and offer better treatment to the patient.

  4. Serial measurement of lipid profile and inflammatory markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Harsh Vardhan; Raizada, Arun; Singh, Sanjeev Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Serum concentration of lipids and lipoproteins changes during the course of acute coronary syndrome as a consequence of the inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) on the levels of lipid profile and inflammatory markers. We investigated 400 patients with AMI who were admitted within 24 h of onset of symptoms. Serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were determined by standard enzymatic methods along with high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (latex enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay) and cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-10 (quantitative ''sandwich'' enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). The results indicate a trend of reduced TC, LDL, and HDL, and elevated TG levels, along with pro- and anti-inflammatory markers (p < 0.001), between day 1 and the day 2 serum samples of AMI patients. However, corrections in the serum levels have been observed at day 7. Our results demonstrate significant variations in the mean lipid levels and inflammatory markers between days 1, 2 and 7 after AMI. Therefore, it is recommended that the serum lipids should be assessed within 24 hours after infarction. Early treatment of hyperlipidemia provides potential benefits. Exact knowledge regarding baseline serum lipids and lipoprotein levels as well as their varying characteristics can provide a rational basis for clinical decisions about lipid lowering therapy. PMID:26535040

  5. Are acute exacerbations of chronic inflammatory appendicitis triggered by coprostasis and/or coproliths?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George Sgourakis; Georgios C Sotiropoulos; Ernesto P Molmenti; Charis Eibl; Stylianous Bonticous; Jurgen Moege; Christoph Berchtold

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To examine the role of coprostasis and coproliths in recurrent appendicitis.METHODS:We evaluated four hundred and twentyseven consecutive pathology reports of all appendectomy specimens from January 2003 to December 2004.Findings were categorised as showing acute append icitis,acute recurrent appendicitis,subacute recurrentappendicitis,chronic appendicitis,or appendices without inflammation.All patients had presented with acute right lower quadrant pain.In 94 instances,there was a history of recurrent similar episodes in the past.RESULTS:Of the 427 histology reports,294 were interpreted as showing acute appendicitis,56 acute recurrent appendicitis,34 subacute recurrent appen-dicitis,28chronic appendicitis,and 15 non-inflamed appendices.Coprostasis was observed in 58 patients (13.58%) and the presence of coprolith in 6 (1.4%).Coprostasis,and age,were among the predictors in the final model.CONCLUSION:Coprostasis but not coproliths seems to be a contributing factor to acute exacerbations of chronic inflammatory appendicitis.

  6. Acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus coinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jong Youb; Lim, Young-Ho; Choi, Eun-Hi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired autoimmune disorder with progressive weakness. Acute-onset CIDP resembles Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), a rapidly progressive disorder, and follows a chronic course. To our knowledge, no case of acute-onset CIDP in hantavirus and hepatitis B virus (HBV) coinfection has been reported previously. Clinical findings: We report a case of acute-onset CIDP that was initially diagnosed as GBS. Diagnoses: A 44-year-old male logger complained of acute quadriplegia and dyspnea. Mechanical ventilation was initiated. He was an HBV carrier with mild elevation of hepatic enzyme, and positive for hantavirus antibody. He was diagnosed with GBS and immunoglobulin therapy was administered. Interventions: After 8 months, quadriplegia and hypesthesia recurred. Immunoglobulin therapy at this time had no effect, but steroid therapy had some effect. Outcomes: A diagnosis of CIDP was made. After 2 months, severe extremity pain and dyspnea developed again, and steroid pulse therapy was initiated. Conclusion: Besides GBS, acute-onset CIDP can occur with hantavirus and HBV coinfection. Patients with this coinfection in whom GBS has been initially diagnosed should be followed up for a long time, because of the possibility of relapse or deterioration, and acute-onset CIDP should always be considered. PMID:27930572

  7. [Systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases competence network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rufenach, C; Burmester, G-R; Zeidler, H; Radbruch, A

    2004-04-01

    The foundation of the competence network for rheumatology, which is funded by the "Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung" (BMBF) since 1999, succeeded to create a unique research structure in Germany: medical doctors and scientists from six university rheumatology centres (Berlin, Düsseldorf, Erlangen, Freiburg, Hannover und Lübeck/Bad Bramstedt) work closely together with scientists doing basic research at the Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum (DRFZ), with rheumatological hospitals, reha-clinics, and rheumatologists. Jointly they are searching for causes of systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases and try to improve therapies-nationwide and with an interdisciplinary approach. The primary objective of this collaboration is to transfer new scientific insights more rapidly in order to improve methods for diagnosis and patients treatment.

  8. Combining robust state estimation with nonlinear model predictive control to regulate the acute inflammatory response to pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitelli, Gregory; Djouadi, Seddik M; Day, Judy D

    2015-10-01

    The inflammatory response aims to restore homeostasis by means of removing a biological stress, such as an invading bacterial pathogen. In cases of acute systemic inflammation, the possibility of collateral tissue damage arises, which leads to a necessary down-regulation of the response. A reduced ordinary differential equations (ODE) model of acute inflammation was presented and investigated in [10]. That system contains multiple positive and negative feedback loops and is a highly coupled and nonlinear ODE. The implementation of nonlinear model predictive control (NMPC) as a methodology for determining proper therapeutic intervention for in silico patients displaying complex inflammatory states was initially explored in [5]. Since direct measurements of the bacterial population and the magnitude of tissue damage/dysfunction are not readily available or biologically feasible, the need for robust state estimation was evident. In this present work, we present results on the nonlinear reachability of the underlying model, and then focus our attention on improving the predictability of the underlying model by coupling the NMPC with a particle filter. The results, though comparable to the initial exploratory study, show that robust state estimation of this highly nonlinear model can provide an alternative to prior updating strategies used when only partial access to the unmeasurable states of the system are available.

  9. Detection of Hyperechoic Inflammatory Fatty Tissue during Transabdominal Ultrasonography: Diagnostic Role in Acute Abdomen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Seong Jin; Lee, Hae Kyung; Yi, Bum Ha [Soonchunhyang University Bucheon Hospital, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun Cheol [Soonchunhyang University Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To assess the incidence and diagnostic role of hyperechoic inflammatory fatty tissue (HIFT) in transabdominal ultrasonography (TAUS) for acute abdomen. With TAUS, we examined 98 consecutive patients (68 women, 30 men: mean age, 32 years: age range, 4-84 years) having acute abdominal pain. We examined the abdomen and pelvis by TAUS to determine the cause of acute abdomen, to check for the presence of HIFT, and to investigate whether it was easier and earlier to find the main cause and HIFT presence. We also prospectively evaluated the shape, distribution, and diagnostic role of HIFT. Final diagnoses consisted of 47 cases of acute appendicitis, 14 of enterocolitis, 13 of PID, 7 of gynecological hemoperitoneum, 5 of colonic diverticulitis, 3 of ovarian torsion, 2 of colon perforation, 2 of only presence of non-specific HIFT, 1 of mesenteric lymphadenitis, and 4 of normal. HIFT were seen in 67 patients (68.4%), including 44/47(93.6%) of acute appendicitis, 2/14(14.3%) of enterocolitis, 11/13(84.6%) of PID, 0/7 of hemoperitoneum, 5/5 of colonic diverticulitis, 0/3 of ovarian torsion, 2/2 of colon perforation, and 1/1 mesenteric lymphadenitis. HIFT were detected earlier than the main cause in 17/44 of acute appendicitis, 6/11 of PID, and 4/5 of colonic diverticulitis. In acute appendicitis, the shape of HIFT appeared as fat thickening along the mesoappendix in 12/44, fat thickening along the mesoappendix and the opposite side in 13/44, fat encircled appendix in 6/44, fatty mass wrapping abscess in 10/44, and diffuse intraperitoneal fat thickening in 3/44. In PID, HIFT appeared as a single fatty mass in the pelvis and lower abdomen in 6/11, wrapping pelvic abscess in 2/11, and multiple fatty masses scattered in abdomen and pelvis in 3/11. In colonic diverticulitis, all 5 cases appeared as hyperechoic hemispheric mass covering the inflamed diverticulum. HIFT are a usual US finding in patients with acute abdomen, particularly on abdominal and pelvic inflammatory conditions

  10. Effects of resolvin D1 on inflammatory responses and oxidative stress of lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Yuan Ruixia; Yao Chengyue; Wu Qingping; Marie Christelle; Xie Wanli; Zhang Xingcai

    2014-01-01

    Background A variety of inflammatory mediators and effector cells participate together in acute lung injury,and lead to secondary injury that is due to an inflammatory cascade and secondary diffuse lung parenchyma injury.Inflammation is associated with an oxidative stress reaction,which is produced in the development of airway inflammation,and which has positive feedback on inflammation itself.Resolvin D1 can reduce the infiltration of neutrophils,regulate cytokine levels and reduce the inflammation reaction,and thereby promote the resolution of inflammation.The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of resolvin D1 on an inflammatory response and oxidative stress during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury.Methods LPS (3 mg/kg) was used to induce the acute lung injury model.Pretreatment resolvin D1 (100 ng/mouse) was given to mice 30 minutes before inducing acute lung injury.Mice were observed at 6 hours,12 hours,1 day,2 days,3 days,4 days and 7 days after LPS was administrated,then they were humanely sacrificed.We collected bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and the lung tissues for further analysis.Paraffin section and HE staining of the lung tissues were made for histopathology observations.Parts of the lung tissues were evaluated for wet-to-dry (W/D) weight ratio.tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α,inter leukin (IL)-1β,IL-10 and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).A lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) assay kit was used to detect MDA.A total superoxide dismutase assay kit with WST-1 was used to analyze superoxide dismutase (SOD).We determined the apoptosis of neutrophils by Flow Cytometry.A real-time quantitative PCR Detecting System detected the expression of mRNA for heme oxygenase (HO)-1.Results Pretreatment with resolvin D1 reduced the pathological damage in the lung,decreased the recruitment of neutrophils and stimulated their apoptosis.It markedly decreased the expressions of TNF

  11. A subset of two adherence systems, acute pro-inflammatory pap genes and invasion coding dra, fim, or sfa, increases the risk of Escherichia coli translocation to the bloodstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szemiako, K; Krawczyk, B; Samet, A; Śledzińska, A; Nowicki, B; Nowicki, S; Kur, J

    2013-12-01

    An analysis of the phylogenetic distribution and virulence genes of Escherichia coli isolates which predispose this bacteria to translocate from the urinary tract to the bloodstream is presented. One-dimensional analysis indicated that the occurrence of P fimbriae and α-hemolysin coding genes is more frequent among the E. coli which cause bacteremia. However, a two-dimensional analysis revealed that a combination of genes coding two adherence factors, namely, P + Dr, P + S, S + Dr, S + fim, and hemolysin + one adherence factor, were associated with bacteremia and, therefore, with the risk of translocation to the vascular system. The frequent and previously unrecognized co-existence of pro-inflammatory P fimbriae with the invasion promoting Dr adhesin in the same E. coli isolate may represent high-risk and potentially lethal pathogens.

  12. [Differential diagnostics of acute inflammatory diseases and tumors of the neck].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuĭtsik, N B; Butkevich, A Ts; Kuntsevich, G I; Zemlianoĭ, A B

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the investigation was to assess the clinical significance of ultrasonography for differential diagnostics between acute inflammatory and tumorous lesions of the neck. One hundred and eighty-six patients with soft-tissue lesions of the neck aged 18 to 74 (mean age 31.45 +/- 8.39 years), 95 (51%) males and 91 (49%) females were examined. Basing on clinical and ultrasonographic examination, the patients were divided into two groups: 149 or 80% patients with acute inflammatory lesions (Group 1), and 37 or 20% patients with tumorous lesions (Group 2). Thirty-four of the 149 Group 1 patients (22.82%) had lymphadenitis, 30 (20.13%) had soft tissue infiltrates, 13 (8.72%) had abscesses, 19 (12.72%) had phlegmons, 32 (21.48%) had acute inflammatory changes in the major salivary glands, 3 (2.01%) had teratomas with signs of inflammation, and 17 (11.41%) patients had inflammatory changes in the tumors. Of 37 patients with tumorous lesions, 16 (43.2%) had salivary gland tumors, 12 (32.4%) had metastases in the lymphatic nodes, and 9 (24.3%) had neurofibromatosis. Soft tissue ultrasonography was performed using Sonos-5500 and Image-Point ultrasound scanners with 7.5 MHz sensors (Hewlett-Packard, USA), Logio-pro, Uoluson-730 Expert (General Electric, USA), and Premium Edition (ACUSON Antares, Siemens, Germany) with 5 to 13 MHz wide-frequency sensors. Visualization was performed in B-modes using tissue harmonics, color duplex scanning, Sie Scape panoramic visualization, contrast visualization and Sight 4D and 3D-Scape modes. The results of ultrasonography were analyzed taking into account additional methods such as computed and magnetic resonance tomography, intraoperative findings, the results of puncture biopsy, histological, morphological, and bacteriological studies. The study demonstrates that ultrasonography is the method of choice, which is in some cases enough to establish a diagnosis of an acute inflammatory disease or a tumorous formation of various

  13. Telmisartan treatment targets inflammatory cytokines to suppress the pathogenesis of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Mst Rejina; Miyashita, Shizuka; Nomoto, Mayumi; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-08-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for the regulation of cardiovascular and renal functions to maintain the fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated a locally expressed RAS in various tissues of mammals, which is having pathophysiological roles in those organ system. Interestingly, local RAS has important role during the inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Further to delineate its role and also to identify the potential effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, we have used a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium. We have used 0.01 and 5mg/kg body weight doses of telmisartan and administered as enema to facilitate the on-site action and to reduce the systemic adverse effects. Telmisartan high dose treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index score when compared with the colitis control mice. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers expression were also significantly reduced when compared with the colitis control mice. Subsequent experiments were carried out to investigate some of the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effects and identified that the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 as well as cellular DNA damage were significantly suppressed when compared with the colitis control mice. Similarly the apoptosis marker proteins such as cleaved caspase 3 and 7 levels were down-regulated and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 level was significantly upregulated by telmisartan treatment. These results indicate that blockade of RAS by telmisartan can be an effective therapeutic option against acute colitis.

  14. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kaspar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET and high-intensity interval training (HIIT on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP. Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p=0.047 and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p=0.03. Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  15. Silencing of microRNA-155 in mice during acute inflammatory response leads to derepression of c/ebp Beta and down-regulation of G-CSF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worm, Jesper; Stenvang, Jan; Petri, Andreas;

    2009-01-01

    microRNA-155 (miR-155) has been implicated as a central regulator of the immune system, but its function during acute inflammatory responses is still poorly understood. Here we show that exposure of cultured macrophages and mice to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) leads to up-regulation of miR-155......-stimulating factor (G-CSF), a central regulator of granulopoiesis during inflammatory responses. Consistent with these data, we show that silencing of miR-155 in LPS-treated mice by systemically administered LNA-antimiR results in derepression of the c/ebp Beta isoforms and down-regulation of G-CSF expression...

  16. Haemostatic system in inflammatory bowel diseases: New players in gut inflammation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Franco Scaldaferri; Stefano Lancellotti; Marco Pizzoferrato; Raimondo De Cristofaro

    2011-01-01

    Inflammation and coagulation constantly influence each other and are constantly in balance. Emerging evidence supports this statement in acute inflammatory diseases,such as sepsis, but it also seems to be very important in chronic inflammatory settings, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis have an increased risk of thromboembolic events, and several abnormalities concerning coagulation components occur in the endothelial cells of intestinal vessels, where most severe inflammatory abnormalities occur. The aims of this review are to update and classify the type of coagulation system abnormalities in IBD, and analyze the strict and delicate balance between coagulation and inflammation at the mucosal level. Recent studies on possible therapeutic applications arising from investigations on coagulation abnormalities associated with IBD pathogenesis will also be briefly presented and critically reviewed.

  17. Effects of recombinant sCR1 on the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李良满; 朱悦; 范广宇

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the effects of recombinant soluble complement receptor type I (sCR1) on the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue of rats and its protective effects. Results: The motor function of rat in sCR1 group at 3 d, 7 d, and 14 d was obviously better than that in NS group (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.01). C3c positive expression in sCR1 group at each time point after injury was obviously less than that in NS group (P<0.01). The myeloperoxidase activity in sCR1 group at each time point after injury was obviously less than that in NS group (P<0.01). Conclusions: Recombinant soluble complement receptor type I (sCR1) can lessen the immune inflammatory reaction in acute spinal cord injury tissue and relieve secondary spinal cord injury by inhibiting the activation of the complement system.

  18. Pro-inflammatory genetic profile and familiarity of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ianni Manuela

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is a multifactorial disease with a complex pathogenesis where lifestyle, individual genetic background and environmental risk factors are involved. Altered inflammatory responses are implicated in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and a premature AMI of parents is associated with an increased risk of the disease in their offspring (Offs. However, the genetic background of familiarity for AMI is still largely unknown. To understand which genes may predispose to increased risk of cardiovascular disease gene polymorphism of immune regulatory genes, and clinical events from the Offs of parents with an early AMI were investigated. Genetics data from Offs were compared with those obtained from healthy subjects and an independent cohort of patients with clinical sporadic AMI. Rates of clinical events during a 24 years follow up from Offs and from an independent Italian population survey were also evaluated. Results This study showed that a genetic signature consisting of the concomitant presence of the CC genotype of VEGF, the A allele of IL-10 and the A allele of IFN-γ was indeed present in the Offs population. In fact, the above genetic markers were more frequent in unaffected Offs (46.4% and patients with sporadic AMI (31.8% than in the CTR (17.3% and the differences were highly statistically significant (Offs vs CTR: p = 0.0001, OR = 4.129; AMI vs CTR: p = 0.0001, OR = 2.224. During the 24-year follow-up, Offs with a positive familiarity in spite of a relatively young age showed an increased prevalence of diabetes, ischemic heart disease and stroke. These findings reinforce the notion that subjects with a familial history of AMI are at risk of an accelerated aging of cardiovascular system resulting in cardiovascular events. Conclusion Our data suggest that selected genes with immune regulatory functions are part of the complex genetic background contributing to familiarity

  19. Incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De La Motte, L; Vogt, K; Jensen, Leif Panduro;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair.......The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair....

  20. Spinal analgesic action of endomorphins in acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przewłocka, B; Mika, J; Labuz, D; Toth, G; Przewłocki, R

    1999-02-19

    We studied spinal analgesic and antiallodynic effects of endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 administered i.t. in comparison with Tyr-D-Ala-Gly-MePhe-Gly-ol (DAMGO) or morphine, during acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain in rats chronically implanted with intrathecal cannulas. Endomorphin-1 and endomorphin-2 (2.5, 5, 10 microg i.t.) increased the tail-flick latency and, to the lesser extent, the paw pressure latency. The range of potencies in both those models of acute pain was as follows: DAMGO > morphine = endomorphin-1 > endomorphin-2. In a model of inflammatory pain, the number of formalin-induced flinching episodes was decreased by endomorphin-1. The effect of endomorphin-2 was much less pronounced. Both DAMGO and morphine significantly inhibited the pain-related behavior evoked by formalin. In a neuropathic pain model (sciatic nerve crushing in rats), endomorphin-1 and -2 (5 microg i.t.) had a statistically significant effect on the tail-flick latency and on the cold-water tail flick latency. Morphine, 5 microg, was found to be ineffective. Endomorphin-1 and -2 (2.5 and 5 microg i.t.) dose-dependently antagonized allodynia. Those effects of endomorphins were antagonized in acute (30 microg), inflammatory (30 microg) and neuropathic pain models (60 microg) by cyprodime, a selective mu-opioid receptor antagonist. In conclusion, our results show a strong analgesic action of endomorphins at the spinal cord level. The most interesting finding is a strong, stronger than in the case of morphine, antiallodynic effect of endomorphins in rats subjected to sciatic nerve crushing, which suggests a possible use of these compounds in a very difficult therapy of neuropathic pain.

  1. TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boyi; Fan, Lu; Balakrishna, Shrilatha; Sui, Aiwei; Morris, John B; Jordt, Sven-Eric

    2013-10-01

    Menthol, the cooling natural product of peppermint, is widely used in medicinal preparations for the relief of acute and inflammatory pain in sports injuries, arthritis, and other painful conditions. Menthol induces the sensation of cooling by activating TRPM8, an ion channel in cold-sensitive peripheral sensory neurons. Recent studies identified additional targets of menthol, including the irritant receptor, TRPA1, voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors. It remains unclear which of these targets contribute to menthol-induced analgesia, or to the irritating side effects associated with menthol therapy. Here, we use genetic and pharmacological approaches in mice to probe the role of TRPM8 in analgesia induced by L-menthol, the predominant analgesic menthol isomer in medicinal preparations. L-menthol effectively diminished pain behavior elicited by chemical stimuli (capsaicin, acrolein, acetic acid), noxious heat, and inflammation (complete Freund's adjuvant). Genetic deletion of TRPM8 completely abolished analgesia by L-menthol in all these models, although other analgesics (acetaminophen) remained effective. Loss of L-menthol-induced analgesia was recapitulated in mice treated with a selective TRPM8 inhibitor, AMG2850. Selective activation of TRPM8 with WS-12, a menthol derivative that we characterized as a specific TRPM8 agonist in cultured sensory neurons and in vivo, also induced TRPM8-dependent analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. L-menthol- and WS-12-induced analgesia was blocked by naloxone, suggesting activation of endogenous opioid-dependent analgesic pathways. Our data show that TRPM8 is the principal mediator of menthol-induced analgesia of acute and inflammatory pain. In contrast to menthol, selective TRPM8 agonists may produce analgesia more effectively, with diminished side effects.

  2. Melatonin Induces Anti-Inflammatory Effects to Play a Protective Role via Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Acute Pancreatitis

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    Yina Chen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Melatonin, which is mainly secreted by the pineal gland and released into blood, has anti-inflammatory properties in acute pancreatitis. Many studies show that melatonin can relieve inflammation in taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis. However, the mechanisms of its anti-inflammatory effects are still undefined, especially the relationship between melatonin and endoplasmic reticulum stress. We explored the anti-inflammatory activity of melatonin in AR42J and rat models. Methods: The CCK-8 assay was used to assess effects of melatonin on AR42J cell viability. Inflammatory degree and the expressions of endoplasmic reticulum stress related molecules were examined by quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting. The degree of inflammation in the tissue was also accessed by pathological grading. Finally, we used the western blotting method to verify apoptosis and autophagy. Results: Endoplasmic reticulum stress was obviously activated in early stage inflammation in AR42J and rat models. Melatonin could induce anti-inflammatory effects via endoplasmic reticulum stress. Melatonin significantly inhibited inflammatory cytokines and the expression of ERS-related molecules. Finally, it played a protective role by promoting apoptosis and autophagy of the cells, which were damaged in the process of inflammatory reaction. Conclusion: Melatonin induces anti-inflammatory effects via endoplasmic reticulum stress in acute pancreatitis to play a protective role.

  3. Relationship between peritoneal macrophages and inflammatory reaction in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between peritoneal macrophages(PMAs)and inflammatory reaction in a rat model of severe acute pancreatitis(SAP).Methods Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control group and SAP group.To induce SAP in rats,40 g/L sodium taurocholate(0.1 mL/100 g)was injected into the pancreatic duct through retrograde exposure of pancreatic bile duct in hepatic porta.One-third of rats were sacrificed at 3,6 or 12 h after modeling.PMAs were extracted,and incubated for 24 h ...

  4. Hyperalgesia in a human model of acute inflammatory pain: a methodological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Kehlet, H

    1998-01-01

    thresholds, (ii) mechanical and heat pain thresholds, (iii) pain to heat (43 degrees C and 45 degrees C, 5 s), (iv) secondary hyperalgesia, and (v) skin erythema were made 1.75 and 0.5 h before, and 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6 h after a burn injury. Sensory thresholds and hyperalgesia to heat and mechanical stimuli...... was demonstrated by significantly higher pain thresholds and lower pain responses on the second and third day of the study. The burn model is a sensitive psychophysical model of acute inflammatory pain, when cross-over designs and within-day comparisons are used, and the model is suitable for double-blind, placebo...

  5. High-intensity interval training induces a modest systemic inflammatory response in active, young men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwetsloot KA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Kevin A Zwetsloot,1 Casey S John,1 Marcus M Lawrence,1 Rebecca A Battista,1 R Andrew Shanely1,2 1Department of Health, Leisure, and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC, USA; 2Human Performance Laboratory, North Carolina Research Campus, Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC, USA Abstract: The purpose of this study was to determine: 1 the extent to which an acute session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT increases systemic inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and 2 whether 2 weeks of HIIT training alters the inflammatory response. Eight recreationally active males (aged 22±2 years performed 2 weeks of HIIT on a cycle ergometer (six HIIT sessions at 8–12 intervals; 60-second intervals, 75-second active rest at a power output equivalent to 100% of their predetermined peak oxygen uptake (VO2max. Serum samples were collected during the first and sixth HIIT sessions at rest and immediately, 15, 30, and 45 minutes post-exercise. An acute session of HIIT induced significant increases in interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 compared with rest. The concentrations of interferon-γ, granulocyte macrophage-colony-stimulating factor, and IL-1β were unaltered with an acute session of HIIT. Two weeks of training did not alter the inflammatory response to an acute bout of HIIT exercise. Maximal power achieved during a VO2max test significantly increased 4.6%, despite no improvements in VO2max after 2 weeks of HIIT. These data suggest that HIIT exercise induces a small inflammatory response in young, recreationally active men; however, 2 weeks of HIIT does not alter this response. Keywords: cycle ergometer, inflammatory cytokines, exercise training

  6. Polysaccharide extract of Mimosa tenuiflora stem barks stimulates acute inflammatory response via nitric oxide

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    Kaira Emanuella Sales da Silva-Leite

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Mimosaceae or “jurema-preta” is well distributed in the northeast Brazil, being popularly used to treat skin lesions, burns and inflammation. The healing effect of the alcoholic extract prepared with its barks corroborates the popular use. This study aimed to evaluate the inflammatory response of polysaccharides extracted from M. tenuiflora barks (EP-Mt by methanol/NaOH and ethanol precipitation. Inflammatory activity was assessed in rat models of acute inflammation (paw edema and peritonitis, by the following parameters: edema, vascular permeability, leukocyte migration, myeloperoxidase activity and pharmacological modulation of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. EP-Mt presented 3.8% yield, 41% carbohydrate and 0.34% protein. EP-Mt (0.01, 0.1, 1.0 mg kg-1 injected by subcutaneous route elicited paw edema that lasted from 30-420 min, with maximal effect at 1 mg kg-1 (40x vs. saline, and was inhibited by L-NAME (52% and dexamethasone (26%. EP-Mt (1 mg kg-1, via intraperitoneal stimulated leukocytes migration (2.2x, mainly neutrophils (6.5x and MPO activity (96%. The leukocyte migration elicited by EP-Mt was inhibited by dexamethasone (39% and L-NAME (38%. EP-Mt containing high carbohydrate content induces acute inflammation via nitric oxide, which open perspectives of application in pathological conditions of immunosuppression.

  7. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  8. The fecal microbiome in dogs with acute diarrhea and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

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    Jan S Suchodolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent molecular studies have revealed a highly complex bacterial assembly in the canine intestinal tract. There is mounting evidence that microbes play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic enteropathies of dogs, including idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial microbiota in dogs with various gastrointestinal disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Fecal samples from healthy dogs (n = 32, dogs with acute non-hemorrhagic diarrhea (NHD; n = 12, dogs with acute hemorrhagic diarrhea (AHD; n = 13, and dogs with active (n = 9 and therapeutically controlled idiopathic IBD (n = 10 were analyzed by 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene and qPCR assays. Dogs with acute diarrhea, especially those with AHD, had the most profound alterations in their microbiome, as significant separations were observed on PCoA plots of unweighted Unifrac distances. Dogs with AHD had significant decreases in Blautia, Ruminococcaceae including Faecalibacterium, and Turicibacter spp., and significant increases in genus Sutterella and Clostridium perfringens when compared to healthy dogs. No significant separation on PCoA plots was observed for the dogs with IBD. Faecalibacterium spp. and Fusobacteria were, however, decreased in the dogs with clinically active IBD, but increased during time periods of clinically insignificant IBD, as defined by a clinical IBD activity index (CIBDAI. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study revealed a bacterial dysbiosis in fecal samples of dogs with various GI disorders. The observed changes in the microbiome differed between acute and chronic disease states. The bacterial groups that were commonly decreased during diarrhea are considered to be important short-chain fatty acid producers and may be important for canine intestinal health. Future studies should correlate these observed phylogenetic differences with functional changes in the intestinal

  9. Elevated Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Hamad Al Shahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We evaluated inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs in patients with either acute coronary syndrome (ACS or stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. We enrolled 20 ACS patients and 50 stable CAD patients without previous history of ACS who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and C-reactive protein of ≥1.0 mg/dL were excluded. Blood samples were collected from the patients just before catheterization, and PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Results. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-10, IL-23A, IL-27, and IL-37 was significantly higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P<0.05. In contrast, the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P<0.05. The ACS patients had higher plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in the ACS group than in the CAD group. Conclusion. Circulating levels of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-23A, IL-27, IL-33, and IL-37, may be associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ACS patients.

  10. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  11. Vitamin D3 pretreatment regulates renal inflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Shen; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Tan, Zhu-Xia; Xie, Dong-Dong; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Hua; Zhao, Hui; Yu, De-Xin; Xu, De-Xiang

    2015-12-22

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in human and mouse kidneys. Nevertheless, its functions remain obscure. This study investigated the effects of vitamin D3 (VitD3) pretreatment on renal inflammation during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute kidney injury. Mice were intraperitoneally injected with LPS. In VitD3 + LPS group, mice were pretreated with VitD3 (25 μg/kg) at 48, 24 and 1 h before LPS injection. As expected, an obvious reduction of renal function and pathological damage was observed in LPS-treated mice. VitD3 pretreatment significantly alleviated LPS-induced reduction of renal function and pathological damage. Moreover, VitD3 pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced renal inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and adhesion molecules. In addition, pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3, the active form of VitD3, alleviated LPS-induced up-regulation of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines in human HK-2 cells, a renal tubular epithelial cell line, in a VDR-dependent manner. Further analysis showed that VitD3, which activated renal VDR, specifically repressed LPS-induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 subunit in the renal tubules. LPS, which activated renal NF-κB, reciprocally suppressed renal VDR and its target gene. Moreover, VitD3 reinforced the physical interaction between renal VDR and NF-κB p65 subunit. These results provide a mechanistic explanation for VitD3-mediated anti-inflammatory activity during LPS-induced acute kidney injury.

  12. Functional role of monocytes and macrophages for the inflammatory response in acute liver injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning W Zimmermann

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Different etiologies such as drug toxicity, acute viral hepatitis B or acetaminophen poisoning can cause acute liver injury (ALI or even acute liver failure (ALF. Excessive cell death of hepatocytes in the liver is known to result in a strong hepatic inflammation. Experimental murine models of liver injury highlighted the importance of hepatic macrophages, so-called Kupffer cells, for initiating and driving this inflammatory response by releasing proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines including tumor necrosis factor (TNF, interleukin-6 (IL-6, IL-1-beta or monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, CCL2 as well as activating other non-parenchymal liver cells, e.g. endothelial or hepatic stellate cells (HSC. Many of these proinflammatory mediators can trigger hepatocytic cell death pathways, e.g. via caspase activation, but also activate protective signaling pathways, e.g. via nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kB. Recent studies in mice demonstrated that these macrophage actions largely depend on the recruitment of monocytes into the liver, namely of the inflammatory Ly6c+ (Gr1+ monocyte subset as precursors of tissue macrophages. The chemokine receptor CCR2 and its ligand MCP-1/CCL2 promote monocyte subset infiltration upon liver injury. In contrast, the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 and its ligand fractalkine (CX3CL1 are important negative regulators of monocyte infiltration by controlling their survival and differentiation into functionally diverse macrophage subsets upon injury. The recently identified cellular and molecular pathways for monocyte subset recruitment, macrophage differentiation and interactions with other hepatic cell types in the injured liver may therefore represent interesting novel targets for future therapeutic approaches in ALF.

  13. Association of calprotectin with leukocyte chemotactic and inflammatory mediators following acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Arun; Slusher, Aaron L; Zourdos, Michael C; Whitehurst, Michael; Fico, Brandon G; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether acute aerobic exercise-mediated calprotectin in plasma would be associated with monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in healthy individuals. Eleven healthy participants, aged 18 to 30 years, were recruited to perform a 30-min bout of aerobic exercise at 75% maximal oxygen uptake. Acute aerobic exercise elicited a significant elevation across time in plasma calprotectin, MCP-1, MPO, and IL-6. Body mass index (BMI) was positively correlated with calprotectin area-under-the-curve with "respect to increase" (AUCi) and IL-6 AUCi. Furthermore, calprotectin AUCi was positively correlated with IL-6 AUCi and MPO AUCi, even after controlling for BMI. Although MPO AUCi was positively correlated with IL-6 AUCi, this relationship no longer existed after controlling for BMI. These results suggest that acute aerobic exercise could mediate innate immune response associated with calprotectin and its related leukocyte chemotactic and inflammatory mediators, especially in individuals with elevated BMI.

  14. Clinical significance of scoring system for systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian; LIANG Hua-ping

    2006-01-01

    The concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and scoring system were defined by the journal of Bone in 1992. SIRS was described as occurrence of two or more clinical criteria in four ones (fever or hypothermia, tachypnea, tachycardia, and leukocytosis).An early diagnosis and estimation of systemic inflammation in patients is helpful for treatment selection. This paper reviews the application of SIRS scoring system, which has been extensively validated for large groups of critical care patients with severe injury and critical surgical diseases.Recent studies have documented SIRS score as a significant predictive parameter of adverse outcome in critical care patients. Furthermore, some studies also give us a suggestion on how to reduce the overload systemic response.

  15. Inhibition of extracellular HMGB1 attenuates hyperoxia-induced inflammatory acute lung injury

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    Maria Entezari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia results in acute lung injury (ALI, accompanied by a significant elevation in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and leukocyte infiltration in the lungs. However, the mechanisms underlying hyperoxia-induced proinflammatory ALI remain to be elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of the proinflammatory cytokine high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB1 in hyperoxic inflammatory lung injury, using an adult mouse model. The exposure of C57BL/6 mice to ≥99% O2 (hyperoxia significantly increased the accumulation of HMGB1 in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF prior to the onset of severe inflammatory lung injury. In the airways of hyperoxic mice, HMGB1 was hyperacetylated and existed in various redox forms. Intratracheal administration of recombinant HMGB1 (rHMGB1 caused a significant increase in leukocyte infiltration into the lungs compared to animal treated with a non-specific peptide. Neutralizing anti-HMGB1 antibodies, administrated before hyperoxia significantly attenuated pulmonary edema and inflammatory responses, as indicated by decreased total protein content, wet/dry weight ratio, and numbers of leukocytes in the airways. This protection was also observed when HMGB1 inhibitors were administered after the onset of the hyperoxic exposure. The aliphatic antioxidant, ethyl pyruvate (EP, inhibited HMGB1 secretion from hyperoxic macrophages and attenuated hyperoxic lung injury. Overall, our data suggest that HMGB1 plays a critical role in mediating hyperoxic ALI through the recruitment of leukocytes into the lungs. If these results can be translated to humans, they suggest that HMGB1 inhibitors provide treatment regimens for oxidative inflammatory lung injury in patients receiving hyperoxia through mechanical ventilation.

  16. Allicin enhances host pro-inflammatory immune responses and protects against acute murine malaria infection

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    Feng Yonghui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During malaria infection, multiple pro-inflammatory mediators including IFN-γ, TNF and nitric oxide (NO play a crucial role in the protection against the parasites. Modulation of host immunity is an important strategy to improve the outcome of malaria infection. Allicin is the major biologically active component of garlic and shows anti-microbial activity. Allicin is also active against protozoan parasites including Plasmodium, which is thought to be mediated by inhibiting cysteine proteases. In this study, the immunomodulatory activities of allicin were assessed during acute malaria infection using a rodent malaria model Plasmodium yoelii 17XL. Methods To determine whether allicin modulates host immune responses against malaria infection, mice were treated with allicin after infection with P. yoelii 17XL. Mortality was checked daily and parasitaemia was determined every other day. Pro-inflammatory mediators and IL-4 were quantified by ELISA, while NO level was determined by the Griess method. The populations of dendritic cells (DCs, macrophages, CD4+ T and regulatory T cells (Treg were assessed by FACS. Results Allicin reduced parasitaemia and prolonged survival of the host in a dose-dependent manner. This effect is at least partially due to improved host immune responses. Results showed that allicin treatment enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory mediators such as IFN-γ, TNF, IL-12p70 and NO. The absolute numbers of CD4+ T cells, DCs and macrophages were significantly higher in allicin-treated mice. In addition, allicin promoted the maturation of CD11c+ DCs, whereas it did not cause major changes in IL-4 and the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Conclusions Allicin could partially protect host against P. yoelii 17XL through enhancement of the host innate and adaptive immune responses.

  17. Acute inflammatory bowel disease of the small intestine in adult: MDCT findings and criteria for differential diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A.Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy)], E-mail: stefromano@libero.it; Russo, Anna [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Daniele, Stefania; Tortora, Giovanni [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, A.Cardarelli Hospital, Naples (Italy); Maisto, Francesco [Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples, Naples (Italy); Romano, Luigia

    2009-03-15

    Inflammatory changes of the intestine leading to acute abdomen could represent a frequent diagnostic challenge for radiologists actively involved in the emergency area. MDCT imaging findings needs to be evaluated considering the clinical history and symptoms and other abdominal findings that could be of help in differential diagnosis. Several protocols have been suggested and indicated in the imaging of patient with acute intestine. However, a CT protocol in which the precontrast scanning of the abdomen is followed by i.v. administration of contrast medium using the 45-55 s delay could be effective for an optimal visualization of the bowel wall. It is important to learn to recognize how the intestine reacts to the injury and how it 'talks', in order to become aware of the different patterns of disease manifestation related to an acute intestinal condition, for an effective diagnosis of active and acute inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Systemic inflammatory responses following welding inhalation challenge test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kauppi

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Exposure to MS and SS welding fume resulted in a mild systemic inflammatory response. The particle concentration from the breathing zones correlated with the measurements inside the welding face shields.

  19. Platelets as Central Mediators of Systemic Inflammatory Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Tammy L; Weyrich, Andrew S.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory responses are associated with high morbidity and mortality and represent a diverse and clinically challenging group of diseases. Platelets are increasingly linked to inflammation, in addition to their well-known roles in hemostasis and thrombosis. There is agreement that traditional functions of platelets, including adherence, aggregation, and secretion of preformed mediators, contribute to systemic inflammatory responses. However, emerging evidence indicates that platel...

  20. Role of CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, RANTES) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bless, N M; Huber-Lang, M; Guo, R F

    2000-01-01

    were cloned, the proteins were expressed, and neutralizing Abs were developed. mRNA and protein expression for MIP-1 beta and MCP-1 were up-regulated during the inflammatory response, while mRNA and protein expression for RANTES were constitutive and unchanged during the inflammatory response...... that in chemokine-dependent inflammatory responses in lung CC chemokines do not necessarily demonstrate redundant function.......The role of the CC chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1 beta), monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1), and RANTES, in acute lung inflammatory injury induced by intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes injury in rats was determined. Rat MIP-1 beta, MCP-1, and RANTES...

  1. Role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in acute lung injury in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanley, T P; Schmal, H; Friedl, H P

    1995-01-01

    The role of macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha (MIP-1 alpha) in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in rats after intrapulmonary deposition of IgG immune complexes or intratracheal administration of LPS has been assessed. Critical to these studies was the cloning and functional expression...... of rat MIP-1 alpha. The resulting product shared 92% and 90% homology with the known murine sequence at the cDNA level and protein level, respectively. Recombinant rat MIP-1 alpha exhibited dose-dependent chemotactic activity for both rat and human monocytes and neutrophils, which could be blocked...... by anti-murine MIP-1 alpha Ab. Rat MIP-1 alpha mRNA and protein expression were determined as a function of time in both injury models. A time-dependent increase in MIP-1 alpha mRNA in lung extracts was observed in both models. In the LPS model, MIP-1 alpha protein could also be detected...

  2. Effect of insulin on the inflammatory and acute phase response after burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Marc G; Boehning, Darren F; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N

    2007-09-01

    After a severe burn, the liver plays a pivotal role by modulating inflammatory processes, metabolic pathways, immune functions, and the acute phase response. Therefore, liver integrity and function are important for recovery. A thermal injury, however, causes hepatic damage by inducing hepatic edema, fatty infiltration, hepatocyte apoptosis, and metabolic derangements associated with insulin resistance and impaired insulin signaling. In preliminary studies, we found that these pathophysiological processes are related to hepatic inflammation, altered intracellular signaling, and mitochondrial dysfunction. We hypothesize that modulation of these processes with insulin could improve hepatic structure and function and, therefore, outcome of burned and critically ill patients. Insulin administration improves survival and decreases the rate of infections in severely burned and critically ill patients. Here, we show that insulin administration decreases the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and signal transcription factors and improves hepatic structure and function after a severe burn injury; insulin also restores hepatic homeostasis and improves hepatic dysfunction postburn via alterations in the signaling cascade.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury by suppressing COX-2 and NF-kB pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Liu, Yu-Tao; Xiao, Lu; Zhu, Lingpeng; Wang, Qiujuan; Yan, Tianhua

    2014-12-01

    This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory in acute lung injury. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice and the possible mechanisms involved in this protection were investigated. Pretreatment with apigenin prior to the administration of intratracheal LPS significantly induced a decrease in lung wet weight/dry weight ratio in total leukocyte number and neutrophil percent in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and in IL-6 and IL-1β, the tumor neurosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the BALF. These results showed that anti-inflammatory effects of apigenin against the LPS-induced ALI may be due to its ability of primary inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression and nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) gene expression of lung. The results presented here suggest that the protective mechanism of apigenin may be attributed partly to decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines through the inhibition of COX-2 and NF-kB activation. The results support that use of apigenin is beneficial in the treatment of ALI.

  4. Acute Inflammatory Bowel Disease Complicating Chronic Alcoholism and Mimicking Carcinoid Syndrome

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    Piercarlo Ballo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a woman with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was hospitalized with diarrhea, severe hypokalemia refractory to potassium infusion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, alternations of high blood pressure with phases of hypotension, irritability and increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol. Although carcinoid syndrome was hypothesized, abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy showed non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with severe colic wall thickening, and multiple colic biopsies confirmed non-specific inflammation with no evidence of carcinoid cells. During the following days diarrhea slowly decreased and the patient’s condition progressively improved. One year after stopping alcohol consumption, the patient was asymptomatic and serum potassium was normal. Chronic alcohol exposure is known to have several deleterious effects on the intestinal mucosa and can favor and sustain local inflammation. Chronic alcohol intake may also be associated with high blood pressure, behavior disorders, abnormalities in blood pressure regulation with episodes of hypotension during hospitalization due to impaired baroreflex sensitivity in the context of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid as a result of malabsorption syndrome, and increased urinary cortisol as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. These considerations, together with the regression of symptoms and normalization of potassium levels after stopping alcohol consumption, suggest the intriguing possibility of a alcohol-related acute inflammatory bowel disease mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

  5. Acute inflammatory bowel disease complicating chronic alcoholism and mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballo, Piercarlo; Dattolo, Pietro; Mangialavori, Giuseppe; Ferro, Giuseppe; Fusco, Francesca; Consalvo, Matteo; Chiodi, Leandro; Pizzarelli, Francesco; Zuppiroli, Alfredo

    2012-05-01

    We report the case of a woman with a history of chronic alcohol abuse who was hospitalized with diarrhea, severe hypokalemia refractory to potassium infusion, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, alternations of high blood pressure with phases of hypotension, irritability and increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and cortisol. Although carcinoid syndrome was hypothesized, abdominal computed tomography and colonoscopy showed non-specific inflammatory bowel disease with severe colic wall thickening, and multiple colic biopsies confirmed non-specific inflammation with no evidence of carcinoid cells. During the following days diarrhea slowly decreased and the patient's condition progressively improved. One year after stopping alcohol consumption, the patient was asymptomatic and serum potassium was normal. Chronic alcohol exposure is known to have several deleterious effects on the intestinal mucosa and can favor and sustain local inflammation. Chronic alcohol intake may also be associated with high blood pressure, behavior disorders, abnormalities in blood pressure regulation with episodes of hypotension during hospitalization due to impaired baroreflex sensitivity in the context of an alcohol withdrawal syndrome, increased urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid as a result of malabsorption syndrome, and increased urinary cortisol as a result of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation. These considerations, together with the regression of symptoms and normalization of potassium levels after stopping alcohol consumption, suggest the intriguing possibility of a alcohol-related acute inflammatory bowel disease mimicking carcinoid syndrome.

  6. Indium 111-labeled granulocyte scan in the diagnosis and management of acute inflammatory bowel disease

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    Nelson, R.L.; Subramanian, K.; Gasparaitis, A.; Abcarian, H.; Pavel, D.G. (Univ. of Illinois College of Medicine, Chicago (USA))

    1990-06-01

    The indium 111 granulocyte scan was used to evaluate 39 individuals known to have or suspected of having inflammatory bowel disease. Twenty-three of these individuals had positive scans and 16 had negative scans. Eighty-seven confirmatory studies, which consisted of barium radiography, endoscopy, operative findings, and histopathology, were performed in 37 of these individuals. The remaining two negative scans corroborated only by clinical course, CBC, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. In addition, 10 follow-up scans were performed in six of the 39 patients to monitor therapy or investigate a change in symptoms. As an anatomic indicator of acute granulocytic infiltration of the intestinal lamina propria and crypts, the authors found that this scan had a 97 percent rate of sensitivity and 100 percent specificity. Specific indications for the use of the indium 111-labeled granulocyte scan are described. For the authors, in general, this test has become a vital adjunct to endoscopy and radiography in the diagnosis and management of patients with symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Effect of surgical castration with or without oral meloxicam on the acute inflammatory response in yearling beef bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain management and welfare are increasingly prevalent concerns within animal agriculture. Analgesics may alleviate pain and inflammation associated with castration of beef cattle. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of surgical castration on the acute inflammatory response and immunom...

  8. Effect of surgical castration with or without meloxicam on the acute inflammatory response in yearling beef bulls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain management and welfare are increasingly prevalent concerns within animal agriculture and oral analgesics may alleviate the pain associated with castration. This study was conducted to elucidate the effects of surgical castration on the acute inflammatory response and immunomodulation and whethe...

  9. Comparing the effects of rapid and gradual cooling on body temperature and inflammatory response following acute hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperthermia negatively impacts human and animal health, and extreme cases can result in mortality if recovery is not appropriately managed. The study objective was to determine the effects of rapid versus gradual cooling on body temperature and the inflammatory response following exposure to acute ...

  10. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome Kaposi sarcoma in the liver manifesting as acute obstructive hepatitis: another potential role for montelukast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, P J; Lucas, S; Morris, S; Kulasegaram, R

    2013-02-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been described in Kaposi sarcoma, but does not usually manifest as acute hepatitis. We describe a case of rapid obstructive jaundice after initiation of antiretroviral therapy, in which the liver biopsy confirmed hepatic Kaposi sarcoma, and the clinical course was altered by the addition of montelukast.

  11. Systemic corticosteroids for acute sinusitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, R.P.; Thompson, M.J.; Hayward, G.; Heneghan, C.J.; Mar, C.B. Del; Perera, R.; Glasziou, P.P.; Rovers, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute sinusitis is the inflammation and swelling of the nasal and paranasal mucous membranes and is a common reason for patients to seek primary care consultations. The related impairment of daily functioning and quality of life is attributable to symptoms such as facial pain and nasal c

  12. Effect of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAN Jun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Carotid atherosclerosis is closely related with ischemic stroke occurrence, development and recurrence. This study aims to make an evaluation of the effects of rosuvastatin on inflammatory factors, serum lipid and carotid atherosclerotic plaque in patients with acute ischemic stroke. In this study, 98 patients with acute ischemic stroke and carotid atherosclerosis were given oral administration of rosuvastatin calcium (10 mg once every night, and the course of treatment was 6 months. After treatment, the changes of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and blood lipid were measured, as well as carotid atherosclerotic intima-media thickness (IMT and the calculation of carotid atherosclerotic plaque score. According to the examination results, after 6 months' treatment with rosuvastatin, serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, total cholesterol (TC, triglyceride (TG and low-density lipoprotein cholestrol (LDL-C decreased significantly (P < 0.01, for all, while high-density lipoprotein cholestrol (HDL-C increased significantly (P < 0.01; the total number of plaque reduced, while the number of stable plaque increased (P < 0.05; carotid artery IMT and carotid artery plaque score decreased significantly (P < 0.05. There were significant differences between before and after treatment. The results of this study show that rosuvastatin plays a role in anti-inflammation and alleviates the degree of carotid atherosclerotic plaque.

  13. Evaluation of inflammatory cytokines as prognostic markers in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats

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    Paran Haim

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early evaluation of the severity of acute pancreatitis requires measurements of many variables. Clinical parameters as well as CT scan have traditionally been used as predictors of severity, and complications. None of them however can predict the outcome early and reliably. Inflammatory cytokines were shown to play an important role in the inflammatory cascade, which occurs early in the course of the disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the predictive value of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6 and interleukin-1 (IL-1 levels in experimental pancreatitis in rats. Methods: Male wistar rats were anesthetized and pancreatitis was induced by intraparenchymal injection of 5% (group 2 and 10% (group 3 sodium taurocholate (TC, resulting in 2 distinct groups of severity. In sham controls (group 1, saline was injected into the pancreas in the same fashion. Blood samples were obtained before and 2, 4, 24, and 96 hours after the induction of pancreatitis and plasma amylase, lipase, LDH, IL-1 and IL-6 levels were measured. Mortality was recorded every 8 hours. Pancreatitis severity was also assessed by histopathology. Results: Four hours after pancreatitis induction, plasma amylase, lipase and LDH levels were markedly increased in the pancreatitis groups. In the sham control group, moderate increases were also observed. No consistent significant difference in amylase, lipase or LDH levels was observed between the groups. At 2 hours from pancreatitis induction, IL-6 levels increased mildly in-groups 1 and 2, and decreased to the baseline levels at 24 hours. In-group 3, the increase in IL-6 levels was significantly higher then in-groups 1 and 2 (p=0.029 and 0.036 respectively, and correlated well with pancreatitis severity as defined by pathology (p=0.01 and mortality rates (p=0.037. No difference in IL-1 levels was observed at 2,4 and 24 hours from induction. At 96 hours IL-1 levels were higher in group 3 then in groups 1 and 2 (p=0

  14. Acute estrogen surge enhances inflammatory nociception without altering spinal Fos expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralya, Andrew; McCarson, Kenneth E

    2014-07-11

    Chronic pain is a major neurological disorder that can manifest differently between genders or sexes. The complex actions of sex hormones may underlie these differences; previous studies have suggested that elevated estrogen levels can enhance pain perception. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that acute, activational effects of estradiol (E2) increase persistent inflammatory nociception, and anatomically where this modulation occurs. Spinal expression of Fos is widely used as a marker of nociceptive activation. This study used formalin-evoked nociception in ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats and measured late-phase hindlimb flinching and Fos expression in the spinal cord, and their modification by acute estrogen supplementation similar to a proestrus surge. Six days after ovariectomy, female rats were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10μg/kg E2 or vehicle. Twenty-four hours later, 50μL of 1.25% or 100μL of 5% formalin was injected into the right hindpaw; hindlimb flinches were counted, and spinal cords removed 2h after formalin injection. The numbers of Fos-expressing neurons in sections of the lumbar spinal cord were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Formalin-induced inflammation produced a dose-dependent increase in late-phase hindlimb flinching, and E2 pretreatment increased flinching following 5%, but not 1.25% formalin injection. Despite the modification of behavior by E2, the number of spinal Fos-positive neurons was not altered by E2 pretreatment. These findings demonstrate that an acute proestrus-like surge in serum estrogen can produce a stimulus-intensity-dependent increase in inflammation-evoked nociceptive behavior. However, the lack of effect on spinal Fos expression suggests that this enhancement of nociceptive signaling by estrogen is independent of changes in peripheral activation of, expression of the immediate early gene Fos by, or signal throughput of spinal nociceptive neurons.

  15. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  16. Immune and inflammatory response in pigs during acute influenza caused by H1N1 swine influenza virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomorska-Mól, Małgorzata; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Kwit, Krzysztof; Czyżewska, Ewelina; Dors, Arkadiusz; Rachubik, Jarosław; Pejsak, Zygmunt

    2014-10-01

    Swine influenza (SI) is an acute respiratory disease of pigs, caused by swine influenza virus (SIV). Little is known about the inflammatory response in the lung during acute SI and its correlation with clinical signs or lung pathology. Moreover, until now there has been a limited amount of data available on the relationship between the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the lungs and the serum concentration of acute-phase proteins (APPs) in SIV-infected pigs. In the present study, the porcine inflammatory and immune responses during acute influenza caused by H1N1 SIV (SwH1N1) were studied. Nine pigs were infected intratracheally, and five served as controls. Antibodies against SIV were measured by haemagglutination inhibition assay, and the influenza-virus-specific T-cell response was measured using a proliferation assay. C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), and pig major acute-phase protein (Pig-MAP) the concentrations in serum and concentration of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ in lung tissues were measured using commercial ELISAs.

  17. Vagus nerve stimulation attenuates the systemic inflammatory response to endotoxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovikova, Lyudmila V.; Ivanova, Svetlana; Zhang, Minghuang; Yang, Huan; Botchkina, Galina I.; Watkins, Linda R.; Wang, Haichao; Abumrad, Naji; Eaton, John W.; Tracey, Kevin J.

    2000-05-01

    Vertebrates achieve internal homeostasis during infection or injury by balancing the activities of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways. Endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide), produced by all gram-negative bacteria, activates macrophages to release cytokines that are potentially lethal. The central nervous system regulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin through humoral mechanisms. Activation of afferent vagus nerve fibres by endotoxin or cytokines stimulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal anti-inflammatory responses. However, comparatively little is known about the role of efferent vagus nerve signalling in modulating inflammation. Here, we describe a previously unrecognized, parasympathetic anti-inflammatory pathway by which the brain modulates systemic inflammatory responses to endotoxin. Acetylcholine, the principle vagal neurotransmitter, significantly attenuated the release of cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-18), but not the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human macrophage cultures. Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve in vivo during lethal endotoxaemia in rats inhibited TNF synthesis in liver, attenuated peak serum TNF amounts, and prevented the development of shock.

  18. Sabiporide improves cardiovascular function, decreases the inflammatory response and reduces mortality in acute metabolic acidosis in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Wu

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Acute metabolic acidosis impairs cardiovascular function and increases the mortality of critically ill patients. However, the precise mechanism(s underlying these effects remain unclear. We hypothesized that targeting pH-regulatory protein, Na(+/H(+ exchanger (NHE1 could be a novel approach for the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a novel NHE1 inhibitor, sabiporide, on cardiovascular function, blood oxygen transportation, and inflammatory response in an experimental model of metabolic acidosis produced by hemorrhage-induced hypovolemia followed by an infusion of lactic acid. METHODS AND RESULTS: Anesthetized pigs were subjected to hypovolemia for 30 minutes. The animals then received a bolus infusion of sabiporide (3 mg/kg or vehicle, followed by an infusion of lactic acid for 2 hours. The animals were continuously monitored for additional 3 hours. Hypovolemia followed by a lactic acid infusion resulted in a severe metabolic acidosis with blood pH falling to 6.8. In association with production of the acidemia, there was an excessive increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR. Treatment with sabiporide significantly attenuated the increase in PAP by 38% and PVR by 67%, as well as significantly improved cardiac output by 51%. Sabiporide treatment also improved mixed venous blood oxygen saturation (55% in sabiporide group vs. 28% in control group, and improved systemic blood oxygen delivery by 36%. In addition, sabiporide treatment reduced plasma levels of TNF-α (by 33%, IL-6 (by 63%, troponin-I (by 54%, ALT (by 34%, AST (by 35%, and urea (by 40%. CONCLUSION: These findings support the possible beneficial effects of sabiporide in the treatment of acute metabolic acidosis and could have implications for the treatment of metabolic acidosis in man.

  19. Acute Pancreatitis Concomitant Acute Coronary Syndrome

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    Okay Abacı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory syndrome with unpredictable progression to systemic inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction. As in our case rarely, acute pancreatitis can be presented with the coexistance of acute coronary syndrome. To prevent a misdiagnosis of acute situation presented with chest or abdominal pain, physicians must be aware for coexisting pathophysiologies and take into account the differential diagnosis of all life-threatening causes such as cardiac ischemia or acute abdominal situations.

  20. Dark chocolate attenuates intracellular pro-inflammatory reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in men: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuebler, Ulrike; Arpagaus, Angela; Meister, Rebecca E; von Känel, Roland; Huber, Susanne; Ehlert, Ulrike; Wirtz, Petra H

    2016-10-01

    Flavanol-rich dark chocolate consumption relates to lower risk of cardiovascular mortality, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on inflammatory measures before and after stress. Healthy men, aged 20-50years, were randomly assigned to a single intake of either 50g of flavanol-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50g of optically identical flavanol-free placebo-chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate intake, both groups underwent the 15-min Trier Social Stress Test. We measured DNA-binding-activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB (NF-κB-BA) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, as well as plasma and whole blood mRNA levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-6, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, prior to chocolate intake as well as before and several times after stress. We also repeatedly measured the flavanol epicatechin and the stress hormones epinephrine and cortisol in plasma and saliva, respectively. Compared to the placebo-chocolate-group, the dark-chocolate-group revealed a marginal increase in IL-10 mRNA prior to stress (p=0.065), and a significantly blunted stress reactivity of NF-κB-BA, IL-1β mRNA, and IL-6 mRNA (p's⩽0.036) with higher epicatechin levels relating to lower pro-inflammatory stress reactivity (p's⩽0.033). Stress hormone changes to stress were controlled. None of the other measures showed a significant chocolate effect (p's⩾0.19). Our findings indicate that acute flavanol-rich dark chocolate exerts anti-inflammatory effects both by increasing mRNA expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and by attenuating the intracellular pro-inflammatory stress response. This mechanism may add to beneficial effects of dark chocolate on cardiovascular health.

  1. An Investigation of the Ability of the Glutaraldehyde Test to Distinguish between Acute and Chronic Inflammatory Disease in Horses

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    Schumacher J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The Glutaraldehyde test (GT, a rapid and inexpensive test, has been utilized empirically for many years in bovine practice for diagnosing inflammatory diseases. GT is used primarily to demonstrate increased serum concentrations of fibrinogen and globulin. Glutaraldehyde binds with free amino groups in fibrinogen and immunoglobulin to create a clot in a first degree chemical reaction. The clotting time of the GT estimates the content of proteins produced in response to inflammation. The applicability of GT for diagnosing inflammation in the horse has never been investigated. The objective of this study was to determine the ability of GT to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammatory disease in horses. Thirty-seven horses with suspected inflammatory diseases were evaluated using the GT, history, complete clinical examination and routine blood analysis. GT-times, laboratory results and clinical outcome were compared statistically. Horses that were determined to be acutely affected (based on history, clinical examination and routine blood analysis tended to have a negative GT (75%. Results of the GT did not correlate with blood fibrinogen concentration. Positive GT also predicted a fatal outcome in 69% of the clinical cases. The results of this trial indicate that GT can be a useful screening test to distinguish between acute and chronic inflammatory disease in horses.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Emblica officinalis in Rodent Models of Acute and Chronic Inflammation: Involvement of Possible Mechanisms

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    Mahaveer Golechha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Emblica officinalis, commonly known as amla in Ayurveda, is unarguably the most important medicinal plant for prevention and treatment of various ailments. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of hydroalcoholic extract of Emblica officinalis (HAEEO. Acute inflammation in rats was induced by the subplantar injection of carrageenan, histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandin E2 and chronic inflammation was induced by the cotton pellet granuloma. Intraperitoneal (i.p. administration of HAEEO at all the tested doses (300, 500, and 700 mg/kg significantly (P<0.001 inhibited rat paw edema against all phlogistic agents and also reduced granuloma formation. However, at the dose of 700 mg/kg, HAEEO exhibited maximum anti-inflammatory activity in all experimental models, and the effects were comparable to that of the standard anti-inflammatory drugs. Additionally, in paw tissue the antioxidant activity of HAEEO was also measured and it was found that HAEEO significantly (P<0.001 increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity and subsequently reduced lipid peroxidation evidenced by reduced malondialdehyde. Taken all together, the results indicated that HAEEO possessed potent anti-inflammatory activity and it may hold therapeutic promise in the management of acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol on lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory reaction in acute lung injury via regulating inflammation and redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianfeng; Liu, Yuanyuan; Lu, Yingxun; Ma, Chunhua

    2015-05-01

    Acute lung injury (ALI) represents a clinical syndrome that results from complex responses of the lung to a multitude of direct and indirect insults. This study aims to evaluate the possible mechanisms responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol (EUL) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory reaction in ALI. ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (0.5 mg/kg), and EUL (5, and 10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 1h prior to LPS administration. After 6h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissue were collected. The findings suggest that the protective mechanism of EUL may be attributed partly to decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines through the regulating inflammation and redox status. The results support that use of EUL is beneficial in the treatment of ALI.

  4. Acute anti-inflammatory activity of ethanolic extract of leaves of Leucas indica by carrageenan induced paw oedema in wistar albino rats

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    Chandrashekar R.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammation is basically a defense phenomenon but can lead to serious pathological conditions. It is treated by various agents with good to moderate success because of both considerable toxicity and side effects. There are various mediators to cause an inflammatory reaction that can contribute to the associated symptoms and tissue injury. Even though non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the most commonly prescribed drugs in the world, their use as anti-inflammatory agents continues to be principally limited by their undesired side effects. Hence, the traditional medical practitioners and scientists are turning towards Indian System of Medicine (ISM. Methods: Dried powdered leaves of Leucas indica were subjected to solvent extraction by using 90 % ethanol. Based on acute oral toxicity study according to Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD guidelines No. 423, three doses of the test drug 75, 150 & 300mg/kg were selected and subjected to preclinical anti-inflammatory screening by carrageenin induced paw oedema in Wistar Albino rats. Results : Oral administration of Ethanolic Extract Of Leaves of Leucas Indica (EELLI at doses of 150 mg/kg and 300mg/kg showed significant anti-inflammatory activity 52.58% (p<0.01 and 36.87% (p<0.05 respectively compared to control. Conclusion: Even though oral administration of EELLI has shown significant anti-inflammatory activity, further studies are required to evaluate its comprehensive analysis including quantitative / semi quantitative analysis, characterize its chemical structure and assess its pharmacotherapeutic activities with exact mechanism of action as an anti-inflammatory agent. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 302-305

  5. Melatonin Does Not Affect Oxidative/Inflammatory Biomarkers in a Closed-Chest Porcine Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halladin, Natalie L.; Ekelof, Sarah; Jensen, Svend Eggert

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To test whether melatonin reduces oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in a closed-chest porcine model of acute myocardial infarction. Materials and Methods: Twenty pigs were randomized to receive a total dosage of 200 mg (0.4 mg/ml) of melatonin, or placebo immediately prior to reperfusion....... There was an increase in hs-TnT, but no significant difference between the melatonin-treated and placebo-treated groups. There were no significant differences in development of any of the circulating plasma markers between the two groups. Conclusion: Melatonin treatment did not result in reduction of inflammatory...

  6. Maintenance of a positive outlook during acute stress protects against pro-inflammatory reactivity and future depressive symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, K.; Epel, E.; Wolkowitz, O.M.; Prather, A.A.; Puterman, E.; Dhabhar, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and affective responses to acute stress influence pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity, and peripheral cytokines (particularly lnterleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)), can act on the brain to promote depressive symptoms. It is unknown whether acute stress-induced changes in positive affect and cognitions (POS) and pro-inflammatory reactivity predict future depressive symptoms. We examined acute stress responses among women, to determine prospective predictors of depressive symptoms. Hypotheses: 1) Stress-induced decreases in POS will be associated with stress-related increases in circulating IL-1β. 2) Acute stress-induced decreases in POS and increases in IL-1β reactivity will predict increases in depressive symptoms one year later. Thirty-five post-menopausal women were exposed to acute stress with the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) and provided blood samples under resting conditions and 30 minutes after the conclusion of the TSST, which were assayed for IL-1β. IL-1β reactivity was quantified as post minus pre-TSST. Failure to maintain POS was quantified as the decrease in POS during the TSST. Change in depressive symptoms from the study baseline to the following year was determined. Greater acute stress-induced declines in POS were significantly associated with increased IL-1β reactivity (p≤.02), which significantly predicted increases in depressive symptoms over the following year (p<.01), controlling for age, body mass index, chronic stress, antidepressant use and baseline depressive symptoms. IL-1β reactivity was a significant mediator of the relationship between POS decline and future increases in depressive symptoms (p=.04). Difficulty maintaining positivity under stress and heightened pro-inflammatory reactivity may be markers and/or mechanisms of risk for future increases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22119400

  7. Pathophysiology of the systemic inflammatory response after major accidental trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Anne Craveiro; Toft, Palle

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Purpose of the present study was to describe the pathophysiology of the systemic inflammatory response after major trauma and the timing of final reconstructive surgery. Methods: An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining to the in......ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Purpose of the present study was to describe the pathophysiology of the systemic inflammatory response after major trauma and the timing of final reconstructive surgery. Methods: An unsystematic review of the medical literature was performed and articles pertaining...... to the inflammatory response to trauma were obtained. The literature selected was based on the preference and clinical expertise of authors. Discussion: The inflammatory response consists of hormonal metabolic and immunological components and the extent correlates with the magnitude of the tissue injury. After trauma...... and uncomplicated surgery a delicate balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators is observed.Trauma patients are, however, often exposed, not only to the trauma, but to several evens in the form of initial surgery and later final reconstructive surgery. In this case immune paralysis associated...

  8. Effect of two active compounds obtained from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea on the acute inflammatory responses elicited by LPS in the rat paw

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, R; Passos, G F; Vitor, C E; Koepp, J; Mazzuco, T L; Pianowski, L F; Campos, M M; Calixto, J B

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: α-Humulene and trans-caryophyllene are sesquiterpene compounds identified in the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea which display topical and systemic anti-inflammatory effects in different experimental models. However, the molecular mechanisms through which they exert their anti-inflammatory activity still remain unclear. Here, we evaluate the effects of α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene on the acute inflammatory responses elicited by LPS. Experimental approach: The biological activities of α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene were investigated in a model of acute inflammation in rat paw, induced by LPS and characterized by paw oedema, neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production, activation of MAP kinases and NF-κB and up-regulated expression of kinin B1 receptors. Key results: Treatment with either α-humulene or trans-caryophyllene effectively reduced neutrophil migration and activation of NF-κB induced by LPS in the rat paw. However, only α-humulene significantly reduced the increase in TNF-α and IL-1β levels, paw oedema and the up-regulation of B1 receptors following treatment with LPS. Both compounds failed to interfere with the activation of the MAP kinases, ERK, p38 and JNK. Conclusions and Implications: Both α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene inhibit the LPS-induced NF-κB activation and neutrophil migration, although only α-humulene had the ability to prevent the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β and the in vivo up-regulation of kinin B1 receptors. These data provide additional molecular and functional insights into the beneficial effects of the sesquiterpenes α-humulene and trans-caryophyllene isolated from the essential oil of Cordia verbenacea as agents for the management of inflammatory diseases. PMID:17471174

  9. Acute effects of walking on inflammatory and cardiovascular risk in sedentary post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jillian; Murphy, Marie; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Nevill, Alan; Davison, Gareth

    2008-02-01

    Biochemical markers of inflammation are emerging as new predictors of risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may alter acutely with exercise. Few studies have been conducted on the effects of walking on these markers or whether different walking intensities elicit varied effects. As there is growing interest in modifiable lifestyle factors such as walking to reduce CVD risk, these inflammatory responses warrant investigation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of walking at 50% versus 70% of predicted maximal heart rate on C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma fibrinogen, and triglycerides in sedentary post-menopausal women. Twelve post-menopausal women (mean age 58 years, s +/-6; stature 1.62 m, s+/-0.06; body mass 66.8 kg, s +/-6.2) completed two 30-min treadmill walks in a randomized cross-over design. Fasted blood samples were taken (for the determination of plasma fibrinogen, CRP, and lipids) before, immediately after, and 1 and 24 h after exercise. Triglyceride concentrations decreased from pre-exercise to 24 h post exercise at both walking intensities (time x group interaction, P 0.05). The results of this study suggest that fasting plasma triglycerides are decreased on the morning after 30 min of brisk walking at either 50% or 70% of maximal heart rate (moderate and vigorous intensity).

  10. Effects of Acute Lithium Treatment on Brain Levels of Inflammatory Mediators in Poststroke Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Boyko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Few therapeutic options with proven efficacy are available for the treatment of this disabling disease. Lithium is the gold standard treatment for bipolar disorder. Moreover, lithium has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects and therapeutic efficacy as a treatment of other neurological disorders. This study was undertaken to examine the effects of lithium on brain inflammatory mediators levels, fever, and mortality in postischemic stroke rats. Ischemic stroke was induced by occlusion of the mid cerebral artery (MCAO. Pretreatment with a single dose of lithium at 2 hours before MCAO induction significantly reduced the elevation in interleukin- (IL- 6 and prostaglandin E2 levels in brain of post-MCAO rats, as compared to vehicle-treated animals. On the other hand, lithium did not affect the elevation in IL-1α, IL-10, IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α levels in brain of post-MCAO rats. Moreover, pretreatment with lithium did not alter post-MCAO fever and mortality. These results suggest that acute pretreatment with a single dose of lithium did not markedly affect post-MCAO morbidity and mortality in rats.

  11. Incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after endovascular aortic repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De La Motte, L; Vogt, K; Jensen, Leif Panduro;

    2011-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to estimate the incidence of the post-implantation syndrome/systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) after endovascular aortic repair. METHODS: All patients, undergoing elective primary endovascular repair of an asymptomatic infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm...

  12. Platelets protect lung from injury induced by systemic inflammatory response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuhua; Wang, Yabo; An, Qi; Chen, Hao; Zhao, Junfei; Zhang, Jie; Meng, Wentong; Du, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory responses can severely injure lungs, prompting efforts to explore how to attenuate such injury. Here we explored whether platelets can help attenuate lung injury in mice resulting from extracorporeal circulation (ECC)-induced systemic inflammatory responses. Mice were subjected to ECC for 30 min, then treated with phosphate-buffered saline, platelets, the GPIIb/IIIa inhibitor Tirofiban, or the combination of platelets and Tirofiban. Blood and lung tissues were harvested 60 min later, and lung injury and inflammatory status were assessed. As expected, ECC caused systemic inflammation and pulmonary dysfunction, and platelet transfusion resulted in significantly milder lung injury and higher lung function. It also led to greater numbers of circulating platelet-leukocyte aggregates and greater platelet accumulation in the lung. Platelet transfusion was associated with higher production of transforming growth factor-β and as well as lower levels of tumour necrosis factor-α and neutrophil elastase in plasma and lung. None of these platelet effects was observed in the presence of Tirofiban. Our results suggest that, at least under certain conditions, platelets can protect lung from injury induced by systemic inflammatory responses. PMID:28155889

  13. Inhaled aerosolized insulin ameliorates hyperglycemia-induced inflammatory responses in the lungs in an experimental model of acute lung injury

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Wei; Nakazawa, Koichi; Abe, Shinya; Inoue, Miori; Kitagawa, Masanobu; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Makita, Koshi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that patients with diabetes mellitus appear to have a lower prevalence of acute lung injury. We assumed that insulin prescribed to patients with diabetes has an anti-inflammatory property and pulmonary administration of insulin might exert beneficial effects much more than intravenous administration. Methods Twenty-eight mechanically ventilated rabbits underwent lung injury by saline lavage, and then the animals were allocated into a normoglycemia grou...

  14. Effect of emergency operation combined with somatostatin therapy on inflammatory state and liver function levels in patients with acute cholecystitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Zhong Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of emergency operation combined with somatostatin therapy on inflammatory state and liver function levels in patients with acute cholecystitis.Methods:A total of 146 acute cholecystitis patients who accepted laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our hospital from May 2012 to October 2015 were selected as the research subjects and divided into somatostatin group and normal control group. Then the operation, perioperative energy metabolism as well as postoperative inflammatory state and liver function levels of the two groups were analyzed.Results:Operative field exposure of somatostatin group was clearer, local tissue edema and exudation were lighter and conversion rate to laparotomy was lower; perioperative REE of somatostatin group were significantly lower than those of normal control group; the very day after operation, numeration of leukocyte, neutrophil ratio as well as serum resistin, hypersensitive C-reactive protein and tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels of somatostatin group were significantly lower than those of normal control group while prealbumin level was significantly higher than that of normal control group.Conclusions:Perioperative application of somatostatin can reduce the body's inflammatory response, local tissue edema and liver function injury. It is an ideal treatment for perioperative acute cholecystitis.

  15. Effect of alprostadil combined with butylphthalide on the serum inflammatory factors and coagulable function in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Zhuo Dai; Yue-Nan Kong

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of alprostadil combined with butylphthalide on the serum inflammatory factors, coagulable function in patients of acute ischemic stroke.Methods: A total of 84 cases of patients with acute ischemic stroke were randomly divided into observation group (44 cases) and control group (40 cases). The observation group was given alprostadil combined and butylphthalide based on conventional treatment, and the control group was given alprostadil based on conventional treatment. Treatment was developed for 14 d to observe the changes of serum inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-8, CRP, TNF-α) and coagulation correlated parameters (PT, FIB, DDI, TXB2, PAI-1) between the two groups.Results: After treatment, IL-6, IL-8, CRP, TNF-α of the two groups decreased obviously compared with before, PT increased and FIB, DDI, TXB2, PAI-1 decreased obviously compared with before. All indexes of the observation group were improved more significantly than that of the control group, with statistical difference.Conclusion:Alprostadil combined with butylphthalide can help to inhibit inflammatory reaction and improve high coagulation state in treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

  16. The effect of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract on acute non-inflammatory diarrhea in 1-5 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshdel Abofazl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute diarrhea is one of the most important causes of global childhood mortality and morbidity. The most common complication of acute diarrhea is dehydration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract in controlling non-inflammatory diarrhea in a hospital setting. Methods: In this case–controlled randomized double blind clinical trial 80 children in age range of 1-5 years were admitted in pediatric ward with diagnosis of non-inflammatory diarrhea. The patients were randomly divided into two equal groups of 40 cases. The subject in the first group received aqueous Elaeagnus angustifolia extract, 1.2 ml/Kg single dose for 4 days duration and the second group (control group 1.2 cm/Kg distilled water single dose for 4 days duration. Data analysis were performed by Chi-square and t-tests, using SPSS software. Results: The groups were similar regarding gender, mean age, and frequency, and consistency of defecation (p> 0.05. Although the children seemed better in regard to frequency and consistency of defecation, however the results showed that aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not significantly effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that the use of aqueous extract of Elaeagnus angustifolia was not effective in the treatment of non-inflammatory diarrhea in children.

  17. Endoscopic scoring systems for inflammatory bowel disease: pros and cons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bisschops, Raf; Neumann, Helmut

    2014-07-01

    Endoscopy plays a pivotal role for diagnosis and assessment of disease activity and extent in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. International guidelines recommend the use of endoscopic scoring systems for evaluation of the prognosis and efficacy of medical treatments. Ideal scoring systems are easy to use, reproducible, reliable, responsive to changes, and validated in different clinical settings in order to guide therapeutic strategies. However, currently available endoscopic scoring systems often appear as complex for routine endoscopy and suffer from insufficient interobserver agreement and lack of formal validation which often limit their use in clinical trials. Here, we describe the role of endoscopic scoring systems in inflammatory bowel diseases focusing on pros and cons in the era of advanced endoscopic imaging and mucosal healing.

  18. Effect of Tanshinone IIA on cardiac function and inflammatory cytokines in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effect of Tanshinone IIA on the cardiac function and inflammatory cytokines in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods:A total of 70 patients with AMI who were admitted in our hospital from March, 2015 to March, 2016 were included in the study and randomized into the observation group and the control group. On the basis of routine treatments, the patients in the control group were given urokinase 1-1.5 million U + 0.5% NaCl 100 mL, iv drip, 30-45min, aspirin from the initial dosage of 300 mg/d to 100 mg/d on the second day, and low molecular weight heparin sodium, 7 500-1 000 IU/time, twice/d, subcutaneous injection. Seven-day treatment was regarded as one course. On the above basis, the patients in the observation group were given Tanshinone IIA 60 mg + 5% glucose 250 mL, iv drip, 1 time/d. Seven-day treatment was regarded as one course. The efficacy was evaluated after seven-day treatment. ELISA was used to detect hs-CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels before and after treatment. The color Doppler ultrasound diagnostic apparatus was used to monitor LVEF, LVESD, LVEDD, and IVST. The occurrence of adverse cardiac events was observed. Results:After treatment, LVEF in the two groups was significantly elevated, LVESD, LVEDD, and IVST were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and those in the observation group were significantly superior to those in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum hs-CRP, TNF-α, and IL-6 levels in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment (P<0.05), and the reduced degree in the observation group was significantly superior to that in the control group (P<0.05). The occurrence rate of arrhythmia, cardiogenic shock, and heart rate in the observation group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusions:Tanshinone IIA in the treatment of AMI can effectively improve the cardiac function after thrombolysis

  19. Local and systemic inflammatory and immunologic reactions to cyathostomin larvicidal therapy in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M K; Loynachan, A T; Jacobsen, S; Stewart, J C; Reinemeyer, C R; Horohov, D W

    2015-12-15

    Encysted cyathostomin larvae are ubiquitous in grazing horses. Arrested development occurs in this population and can lead to an accumulation of encysted larvae. Large numbers of tissue larvae place the horse at risk for developing larval cyathostominosis. This disease complex is caused by mass emergence of these larvae and is characterized by a generalized acute typhlocolitis and manifests itself as a profuse protein-losing watery diarrhea with a reported case-fatality rate of about 50%. Two anthelmintic formulations have a label claim for larvicidal therapy of these encysted stages; moxidectin and a five-day regimen of fenbendazole. There is limited knowledge about inflammatory and immunologic reactions to larvicidal therapy. This study was designed to evaluate blood acute phase reactants as well as gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, both locally in the large intestinal walls and systemically. Further, mucosal tissue samples were evaluated histopathologically as well as analyzed for gene expression of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, cluster of differentiation (CD) cell surface proteins, and select transcription factors. Eighteen juvenile horses with naturally acquired cyathostomin infections were randomly assigned to three treatment groups; one group served as untreated controls (Group 1), one received a five-day regimen of fenbendazole (10mg/kg) (Group 2), and one group received moxidectin (0.4mg/kg) (Group 3). Horses were treated on day 0 and euthanatized on days 18-20. Serum and whole blood samples were collected on days 0, 5, and 18. All horses underwent necropsy with collection of tissue samples from the ventral colon and cecum. Acute phase reactants measured included serum amyloid A, iron and fibrinogen, and the cytokines evaluated included interferon γ, tumor necrosis factor α, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, and interleukins 1β, 4, 5, 6, and 10. Transcription factors evaluated were FoxP3, GATA3 and tBet, and CD markers included

  20. [Myocarditis in a cachectic female, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs abuser, in a course of progressive systemic sclerosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozakowska-Kapłon, Beata; Gorczyca, Iwona; Maciejowska-Roge, Maria

    2009-11-01

    A case of 70-year-old cachectic female, nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs abuser, with progressive systemic sclerosis, who was admitted to our hospital due to joint pain and fatigue is presented. During hospitalisation the patient developed symptoms of acute myocarditis. Angiography of coronary arteries did not reveal narrowing of the vessels. Alimentary supplementation and therapy for heart failure (diuretics, vasodilators, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and beta-blocker) were used. In repeated echocardiography examinations ejection fraction systematically improved and hemodynamic stabilisation was obtained. Scleroderma, malnutrition, toxicity of nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and infectious agents were considered as a cause of myocarditis.

  1. Boswellia carterii liquisolid systems with promoted anti-inflammatory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Dina Mahmoud; Ammar, Nagwa Mohammed; Abd El-Alim, Sameh Hosam; Kassem, Ahmed Alaa; Hussein, Rehab Ali; Awad, Gamal; El-Awdan, Sally Abdul-Wanees

    2015-01-01

    Boswellia carterii (BC) Birdwood oleogum resin is an ancient remedy of inflammation processes known since Ancient Egyptian time. Of boswellic acids, 3-acetyl-11-keto-β-boswellic acid (AKBA) is the most potent anti-inflammatory active principle. Liquisolid systems of the biologically active fraction of BC oleogum resin were prepared for improving dissolution properties using low dose oral delivery to achieve enhanced anti-inflammatory activity, in comparison with the standard oral anti-inflammatory; Indomethacin. AKBA was assayed, employing an accurate and sensitive HPLC method. Detection was carried out at 210 nm using UV/Vis detector. A solubility study for the bioactive fraction was conducted. Microcrystalline cellulose and Aeroperl®300 Pharma were used as carrier and coating materials. Angle of slide, liquid load factor and Carr's flow index were estimated. Six systems were prepared using polyethylene glycol 400, solvent and two drug loading concentrations; 20 and 40 %. For each concentration, three carrier: coat ratios were dispensed; 20:1, 10:1, and 5:1. Dissolution study was performed and two systems were selected for characterization and in vivo evaluation by investigating upper GIT ulcerogenic effect and anti-inflammatory efficacy in rats. Results indicate absence of ulcers and significantly higher and prolonged anti-inflammatory efficacy for formulations F1 and F2, with carrier: coat ratio, 5:1 and drug loads of 20 and 40 %, respectively, compared with standard oral indomethacin. We conclude higher efficacy of BC bioactive fraction liquisolids compared with Indomethacin with greater safety on GIT, longer duration of action and hence better patient compliance.

  2. Inflammatory responses are not sufficient to cause delayed neuronal death in ATP-induced acute brain injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hey-Kyeong Jeong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Brain inflammation is accompanied by brain injury. However, it is controversial whether inflammatory responses are harmful or beneficial to neurons. Because many studies have been performed using cultured microglia and neurons, it has not been possible to assess the influence of multiple cell types and diverse factors that dynamically and continuously change in vivo. Furthermore, behavior of microglia and other inflammatory cells could have been overlooked since most studies have focused on neuronal death. Therefore, it is essential to analyze the precise roles of microglia and brain inflammation in the injured brain, and determine their contribution to neuronal damage in vivo from the onset of injury. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Acute neuronal damage was induced by stereotaxic injection of ATP into the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc and the cortex of the rat brain. Inflammatory responses and their effects on neuronal damage were investigated by immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, quantitative RT-PCR, and stereological counting, etc. ATP acutely caused death of microglia as well as neurons in a similar area within 3 h. We defined as the core region the area where both TH(+ and Iba-1(+ cells acutely died, and as the penumbra the area surrounding the core where Iba-1(+ cells showed activated morphology. In the penumbra region, morphologically activated microglia arranged around the injury sites. Monocytes filled the damaged core after neurons and microglia died. Interestingly, neither activated microglia nor monocytes expressed iNOS, a major neurotoxic inflammatory mediator. Monocytes rather expressed CD68, a marker of phagocytic activity. Importantly, the total number of dopaminergic neurons in the SNpc at 3 h (∼80% of that in the contralateral side did not decrease further at 7 d. Similarly, in the cortex, ATP-induced neuron-damage area detected at 3 h did not increase for up to 7 d. CONCLUSIONS: Different cellular

  3. The role of tissue factor in systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorina, Elena M; Sovershaev, Mikhail A; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2011-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is a major initiator of extrinsic pathway of blood coagulation. A dual role of TF in the extensive crosstalk between blood coagulation and inflammation has recently become apparent. The majority of the cases of systemic inflammatory response syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and sepsis are accompanied by hyperactivation of TF in circulating monocytes and damaged tissue. Systemic Gram-negative infection induces expression of TF by vascular cells. In addition to extrinsic coagulation pathway, TF induces proinflammatory signaling cascade originating from activation of protease-activated receptors. Because TF-activated proteolytic cascade is placed in a nexus between coagulation and inflammation, early modulation of TF activity presently becomes a tempting experimental therapeutic strategy in systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients.

  4. Correlative mRNA and protein expression of middle and inner ear inflammatory cytokines during mouse acute otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trune, Dennis R; Kempton, Beth; Hausman, Frances A; Larrain, Barbara E; MacArthur, Carol J

    2015-08-01

    Although the inner ear has long been reported to be susceptible to middle ear disease, little is known of the inflammatory mechanisms that might cause permanent sensorineural hearing loss. Recent studies have shown inner ear tissues are capable of expressing inflammatory cytokines during otitis media. However, little quantitative information is available concerning cytokine gene expression in the inner ear and the protein products that result. Therefore, this study was conducted of mouse middle and inner ear during acute otitis media to measure the relationship between inflammatory cytokine genes and their protein products with quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA, respectively. Balb/c mice were inoculated transtympanically with heat-killed Haemophilus influenzae and middle and inner ear tissues collected for either quantitative RT-PCR microarrays or ELISA multiplex arrays. mRNA for several cytokine genes was significantly increased in both the middle and inner ear at 6 h. In the inner ear, these included MIP-2 (448 fold), IL-6 (126 fold), IL-1β (7.8 fold), IL-10 (10.7 fold), TNFα (1.8 fold), and IL-1α (1.5 fold). The 24 h samples showed a similar pattern of gene expression, although generally at lower levels. In parallel, the ELISA showed the related cytokines were present in the inner ear at concentrations higher by 2-122 fold higher at 18 h, declining slightly from there at 24 h. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies to a number of these cytokines demonstrated they occurred in greater amounts in the inner ear tissues. These findings demonstrate considerable inflammatory gene expression and gene products in the inner ear following acute otitis media. These higher cytokine levels suggest one potential mechanism for the permanent hearing loss seen in some cases of acute and chronic otitis media.

  5. LPS-induced lung inflammation in marmoset monkeys - an acute model for anti-inflammatory drug testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Seehase

    Full Text Available Increasing incidence and substantial morbidity and mortality of respiratory diseases requires the development of new human-specific anti-inflammatory and disease-modifying therapeutics. Therefore, new predictive animal models that closely reflect human lung pathology are needed. In the current study, a tiered acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced inflammation model was established in marmoset monkeys (Callithrix jacchus to reflect crucial features of inflammatory lung diseases. Firstly, in an ex vivo approach marmoset and, for the purposes of comparison, human precision-cut lung slices (PCLS were stimulated with LPS in the presence or absence of the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4 inhibitor roflumilast. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and macrophage inflammatory protein-1 beta (MIP-1β were measured. The corticosteroid dexamethasone was used as treatment control. Secondly, in an in vivo approach marmosets were pre-treated with roflumilast or dexamethasone and unilaterally challenged with LPS. Ipsilateral bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was conducted 18 hours after LPS challenge. BAL fluid was processed and analyzed for neutrophils, TNF-α, and MIP-1β. TNF-α release in marmoset PCLS correlated significantly with human PCLS. Roflumilast treatment significantly reduced TNF-α secretion ex vivo in both species, with comparable half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50. LPS instillation into marmoset lungs caused a profound inflammation as shown by neutrophilic influx and increased TNF-α and MIP-1β levels in BAL fluid. This inflammatory response was significantly suppressed by roflumilast and dexamethasone. The close similarity of marmoset and human lungs regarding LPS-induced inflammation and the significant anti-inflammatory effect of approved pharmaceuticals assess the suitability of marmoset monkeys to serve as a promising model for studying anti-inflammatory drugs.

  6. Pro-inflammatory action of MIF in acute myocardial infarction via activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A White

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple inflammatory disorders. We determined changes in circulating MIF levels, explored the cellular source of MIF, and studied the role of MIF in mediating inflammatory responses following acute myocardial infarction (MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: We recruited 15 patients with MI, 10 patients with stable angina and 10 healthy volunteers and measured temporal changes of MIF in plasma. Expression of MIF, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 and interleukin-6 (IL-6 in cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs and the media were measured by ELISA or real-time PCR. Compared to controls, plasma levels of MIF and IL-6 were significantly elevated at admission and 72 h post-MI. In contrast, expression of MIF, MMP-9 and IL-6 by PBMCs from MI patients was unchanged at admission, but significantly increased at 72 h. Addition of MIF activated cultured PBMCs by upregulating expression of inflammatory molecules and also synergistically enhanced stimulatory action of IL-1β which were inhibited by anti-MIF interventions. In a mouse MI model we observed similar changes in circulating MIF as seen in patients, with reciprocal significant increases in plasma MIF and reduction of MIF content in the infarct myocardium at 3 h after MI. MIF content in the infarct myocardium was restored at 72 h post-MI and was associated with robust macrophage infiltration. Further, anti-MIF intervention significantly reduced inflammatory cell infiltration and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 at 24 h and incidence of cardiac rupture in mice post-MI. CONCLUSION: MI leads to a rapid release of MIF from the myocardium into circulation. Subsequently MIF facilitates PBMC production of pro-inflammatory mediators and myocardial inflammatory infiltration. Attenuation of these events, and post-MI cardiac rupture, by anti-MIF interventions suggests

  7. Central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating disorders of childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Kamate Mahesh; Chetal Vivek; Tonape Venkatesh; Mahantshetti Niranjana; Hattiholi Virupaxi

    2010-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Childhood Central Nervous System (CNS) inflammatory demyelinating disorders (CIDD) are being diagnosed more commonly now. There is ambiguity in the use of different terms in relation to CIDD. Recently, consensus definitions have been proposed so that there is uniformity in studies across the world. The prevalence of these disorders and the spectrum varies from place to place. This study was undertaken to study the clinico-radiological profile and outcome of children...

  8. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.; Niewold, T.A.; Heegaard, P.M.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were highe

  9. Effect of the systemic inflammatory response, as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA1c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadburn, Andrew J; Garman, Elizabeth; Abbas, Raad; Modupe, Anu; Ford, Clare; Thomas, Osmond L; Chugh, Sanjiv; Deshpande, Shreeram; Gama, Rousseau

    2017-01-01

    Background In acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia, plasma glucose cannot reliably distinguish between stress hyperglycaemia and undiagnosed diabetes mellitus. We, therefore, investigated the diagnostic reliability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) in acute illness by prospectively evaluating the effect of the systemic inflammatory response, as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery, on HbA1c. Methods HbA1c and serum C-reactive protein concentrations were compared before and two days after elective knee or hip surgery in 30 patients without diabetes. C-reactive protein was used to assess the systemic inflammatory response. Results The mean (standard deviation) serum C-reactive protein increased following surgery (4.8 [7.5] vs. 179.7 [61.9] mg/L; P<0.0001). HbA1c was similar before and after surgery (39.2 [5.4] vs. 38.1 [5.1] mmol/moL, respectively; P = 0.4363). Conclusions HbA1c is unaffected within two days of a systemic inflammatory response as provoked by elective orthopaedic surgery. This suggests that HbA1c may be able to differentiate newly presenting type 2 diabetes mellitus from stress hyperglycaemia in acutely ill patients with new onset hyperglycaemia.

  10. Acute and chronic local inflammatory reaction after implantation of different extracellular porcine dermis collagen matrices in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucke, Silke; Hoene, Andreas; Walschus, Uwe; Kob, Anette; Pissarek, Jens-Wolfgang; Schlosser, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Two cross-linked acellular porcine dermal collagen matrices (Permacol and NRX) were implanted into rats and the acute and chronic local inflammatory tissue reactions were investigated after 7, 14, 28, and 112 days. Both membranes were stable in vivo for up to 112 days. All investigated immune cell populations (CD68+ macrophages, CD163+ macrophages, T lymphocytes, MHC class II positive cells, mast cells, and NK cells) were present. Their amount decreased significantly over time compared to day 7 after implantation. A change from an acute to a chronic inflammation and an associated shift from proinflammatory M1-like to anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages were observed. In the early phase there was a significant correlation of T cells to CD68+ (M1-like) macrophages, whereas in the chronic phase T lymphocytes were positively correlated with CD163+ (M2-like) macrophages. The material NRX showed an enhanced inflammatory reaction in comparison to Permacol possibly caused by material characteristics such as a twofold higher thickness of the membrane, roughness, and water absorption capacity. Nevertheless, a more pronounced regenerative process as, for example, indicated by nestin expression demonstrated its possible suitability for applications as wound repair material.

  11. Acute and Chronic Local Inflammatory Reaction after Implantation of Different Extracellular Porcine Dermis Collagen Matrices in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Lucke

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cross-linked acellular porcine dermal collagen matrices (Permacol and NRX were implanted into rats and the acute and chronic local inflammatory tissue reactions were investigated after 7, 14, 28, and 112 days. Both membranes were stable in vivo for up to 112 days. All investigated immune cell populations (CD68+ macrophages, CD163+ macrophages, T lymphocytes, MHC class II positive cells, mast cells, and NK cells were present. Their amount decreased significantly over time compared to day 7 after implantation. A change from an acute to a chronic inflammation and an associated shift from proinflammatory M1-like to anti-inflammatory M2-like macrophages were observed. In the early phase there was a significant correlation of T cells to CD68+ (M1-like macrophages, whereas in the chronic phase T lymphocytes were positively correlated with CD163+ (M2-like macrophages. The material NRX showed an enhanced inflammatory reaction in comparison to Permacol possibly caused by material characteristics such as a twofold higher thickness of the membrane, roughness, and water absorption capacity. Nevertheless, a more pronounced regenerative process as, for example, indicated by nestin expression demonstrated its possible suitability for applications as wound repair material.

  12. Association between inflammatory mediators and angiographic morphologic features indicating thrombus formation in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Dong-bao; HUA Qi; LIU Zhi; LI Jing; XU Li-qing; WANG Shan; JIN Wei-ying

    2009-01-01

    Background Inflammatory mechanisms had played an important role in the occurrence and prognosis of acute myocardial infarction,inflammatory mediators was associated with adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction.This study tested the hypothesis that in the acute phase of myocardial infarction with ST-segment elevation,neutrophil count and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are predictive of angiographic morphologic features that indicate thrombus formation in the infarct-related artery.Methods This retrospective study included 182 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST-segment elevation.Patients were assigned to a thrombus-formation group(n=77)and a non-thrombus-formation group(n=106).All patients had a Killip's classification≤3 and onset<12 hours prior to presentation.All the cases were going to undergo coronary angiography,including primary percutaneous coronary intervention,simple coronary angiography,or thrombolysis in a coronary artery(or arteries)or coronary artery bypass graft(s).Blood samples for measurement of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and for routine blood laboratory studies were collected prior to coronary angiography.Results The levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein,total leukocyte counts,neutrophil counts,and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratios were substantially higher in the thrombus-formation group than in the non-thrombus-formation group patients(for each,P<0.05).Stepwise Logistic regression analyses identified high-sensitivity C-reactive protein,neutrophil count,and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio as independent predictors of thrombus formation in the infarct-related artery(for each,P<0.05).Conclusions In patients with acute myocardial infarction,higher neutrophil counts,neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio,and levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein are predictors to indicate thrombus formation.

  13. Effects of Xuebijing injection combined with ulinastatin on endotoxin and inflammatory factors in treatment of severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-Xin Xiao; Ke-Jiang Tang

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of Xuebijing injection combined with ulinastatin on endotoxin and inflammatory factors in treatment of severe acute pancreatitis. Methods:A total of 52 patients with severe acute pancreatitis in our hospital from July 2014 to July 2015 were selected and divided into two groups:Group A (n=26) and Group B (n=26). All of the patients received conventional treatment and necessary nutrition support. Patients of Group A were treated with ulinastatin on the basis of conventional treatment and nutrition support. Patients of Group B were treated with Xuebijing injection on the basis of Group A. Before and after treatment, the levels of serum endotoxin, hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-αwere detected. Results:After treatment, the levels of hs-CRP and endotoxin in two groups were lower than before treatment, and the Group B decreased more significantly than the Group A. The levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-αin two groups were lower than before treatment, and the Group B decreased more than the Group A, while levels of IL-10 increased more than before treatment, and the Group B increased more than the Group A. Conclusion:Xuebijing injection combined with ulinastatin can significantly improve the clinical treatment effect through reducing serum endotoxin levels and inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors of patients with severe acute pancreatitis.

  14. Suppression of the acute inflammatory response of porcine alveolar- and liver macrophages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izeboud, C.A.; Monshouwer, M.; Witkamp, R.F.; Miert, A.S.J. van

    2000-01-01

    During infection and inflammation drug disposition and hepatic metabolism are markedly affected in mammals. Pro-inflammatory mediators play an important role in the suppression of (cytochrome-P450-mediated) drug metabolism. Inflammatory mediators like cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen sp

  15. Dynamic Patterns of Systemic Innate Immunity and Inflammatory Associated Factors in Experimental Caprine Coccidiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadayon, Shabnam; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to assess the dynamic patterns of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, acute phase protein (α1-acid-glycoprotein, AGP), and an inflammation associated factor (adenosine deaminase; ADA) following experimental caprine coccidiosis. Ten kids aging from 2 to 4 months were infected orally with 5×104 sporulated oocysts and 10 animals served as controls. Blood samples were collected in both groups before infection and at days 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 35 post-infection (PI), and the levels of above-mentioned factors were measured. IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6, AGP, and ADA activities were significantly higher in infected animals from day 7 PI (P<0.05). In conclusion, the circulatory levels of most systemic inflammatory markers, including pro-inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-6), AGP, and ADA increased significantly starting from day 3 to day 7 PI in caprine coccidiosis. PMID:28095656

  16. Acute pelvic inflammatory disease in a sub-Saharan country: a cross sectional descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elie Nkwabong

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Acute PID is common among young, single women with multiple sexual partners, who should be regularly screened for the various sexually transmissible infections. The micro-organisms frequently responsible for acute PID were genital tract mycoplasmas, whose identification should be included among the routine tests done to women with acute PID. Cases of acute PID due to intra-uterine procedures reminds us that adequate asepsis should be observed during these procedures. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2015; 4(3.000: 809-813

  17. Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsiao-Jou Cortina; Spiers, Jereme G; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2016-01-01

    Chronic mild stress has been shown to cause hippocampal neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) overexpression and the resultant nitric oxide (NO) production has been implicated in the etiology of depression. However, the extent of nitrosative changes including NOS enzymatic activity and the overall output of NO production in regions of the brain like the hippocampus and striatum following acute stress has not been characterized. In this study, outbred male Wistar rats aged 6-7 weeks were randomly allocated into 0 (control), 60, 120, or 240 min stress groups and neural regions were cryodissected for measurement of constitutive and inducible NOS enzymatic activity, nitrosative status, and relative gene expression of neuronal and inducible NOS. Hippocampal constitutive NOS activity increased initially but was superseded by the inducible isoform as stress duration was prolonged. Interestingly, hippocampal neuronal NOS and interleukin-1β mRNA expression was downregulated, while the inducible NOS isoform was upregulated in conjunction with other inflammatory markers. This pro-inflammatory phenotype within the hippocampus was further confirmed with an increase in the glucocorticoid-antagonizing macrophage migration inhibitory factor, Mif, and the glial surveillance marker, Ciita. This indicates that despite high levels of glucocorticoids, acute stress sensitizes a neuroinflammatory response within the hippocampus involving both pro-inflammatory cytokines and inducible NOS while concurrently modulating the immunophenotype of glia. Furthermore, there was a delayed increase in striatal inducible NOS expression while no change was found in other pro-inflammatory mediators. This suggests that short term stress induces a generalized increase in inducible NOS signaling that coincides with regionally specific increased markers of adaptive immunity and inflammation within the brain.

  18. Effects of Baicalin on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cell apoptosis in rats with sever acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zhang xiping

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available

    • BACKGROUND: To investigate the effects of Baicalin and Octreotide on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP.
    • METHODS: SD rats were randomly divided into sham operated group (I group, model control group (II group, Baicalin treated group (III group and Octreotide treated group (IV group. Each group was also divided into subgroup of 3, 6 and 12 h (n = 15. The mortality rate, ascites/body weight ratio as well as the level of endotoxin, NO and ET-1 in blood were measured. The pathological severity score of pancreas, apoptotic indexes, and expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins in each group were investigated.
    • RESULTS: The survival rate of III and IV group has a significant difference compared with II group (P12 h < 0.05. The ascites volume, contents of inflammatory mediators in blood and pathological severity score of pancreas of III and IV group declined at different degrees compared to II group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01 or P < 0.001. Apoptotic index in III group was significantly higher than that in II group at 3 and 6 h (P3, 6 h < 0.05. Apoptotic index in IV group was significantly higher than that in II group at pancreatic tail at 6 h (P6 h < 0.05. Expression level of Bax in III group was significantly higher than that in II group (pancreatic head P3 h,6 h < 0.01, pancreatic tail P3 h < 0.001.
    • CONCLUSIONS: Compared with Octreotide in the treatment of SAP, the protective mechanisms of Baicalin include reducing the excessive inflammatory mediators’ release, inducing the pancreatic acinar cells apoptosis.
    • KEY WORDS: Severe acute pancreatitis, baicalin, octreotide, inflammatory mediators, apoptosis, tissue microarrays.

  19. The role of the immune system in central nervous system plasticity after acute injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruzzotti-Jametti, L; Donegá, M; Giusto, E; Mallucci, G; Marchetti, B; Pluchino, S

    2014-12-26

    Acute brain injuries cause rapid cell death that activates bidirectional crosstalk between the injured brain and the immune system. In the acute phase, the damaged CNS activates resident and circulating immune cells via the local and systemic release of soluble mediators. This early immune activation is necessary to confine the injured tissue and foster the clearance of cellular debris, thus bringing the inflammatory reaction to a close. In the chronic phase, a sustained immune activation has been described in many CNS disorders, and the degree of this prolonged response has variable effects on spontaneous brain regenerative processes. The challenge for treating acute CNS damage is to understand how to optimally engage and modify these immune responses, thus providing new strategies that will compensate for tissue lost to injury. Herein we have reviewed the available information regarding the role and function of the innate and adaptive immune responses in influencing CNS plasticity during the acute and chronic phases of after injury. We have examined how CNS damage evolves along the activation of main cellular and molecular pathways that are associated with intrinsic repair, neuronal functional plasticity and facilitation of tissue reorganization.

  20. The role of Vitamin D in immuno-inflammatory responses in Ankylosing Spondylitis patients with and without Acute Anterior Uveitis

    OpenAIRE

    Mitulescu, TC; Stavaru, C; Voinea, LM; Banica, LM; Matache, C; Predeteanu, D

    2016-01-01

    Hypothesis:Abnormal Vitamin D (Vit D) level could have consequences on the immuno-inflammatory processes in Ankylosing Spondylitis (AS). Aim:The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of Vitamin D in the interplay between immune and inflammation effectors in AS associated-Acute Anterior Uveitis (AAU). Methods and Results:25-hydroxyvitamin D (Vit D), LL-37 peptide, IL-8 and Serum Amyloid A (SAA) were identified and quantified in the serum/ plasma of thirty-four AS patients [eleven AS pa...

  1. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  2. Biologic Therapy in Inflammatory Immunomediated Systemic Diseases: Safety Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroncini, Gianluca; Albani, Lisa; Nobili, Lorenzo; Gabrielli, Armando

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of some key molecular mechanisms underlying the dysregulation of the immune system responsible for inflammatory systemic diseases as severe as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), Systemic Sclerosis (SSc), and Systemic Vasculitides, led to the development and subsequent introduction into clinical practice of biological drugs which are significantly improving the management of such complex disorders. This novel molecular targeted therapeutics represents in fact a valid alternative or complementary treatment to conventional immunosuppressive strategies, characterized by broad, unspecific actions and severe adverse effects. Main advantages of the use of biologic drugs reside in their steroid-sparing effect and in the ability of inducing remission of refractory disease states or curing specific organ involvements. Aim of this article is to review and briefly discuss the scientific evidence supporting the use of biologics in these diseases, with a particular emphasis on their efficacy and safety profile compared to the canonical drugs.

  3. Effect of Atorvastatin intensive therapy on the serum inflammatory factors, platelet activity and fibrinolytic activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Li Zhu; Yun Zhou; Fang Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of Atorvastatin intensive therapy on the serum inflammatory factors, platelet activity and fibrinolytic activity in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).Methods:A total of 92 patients with ACS were randomly divided into observation group (47 cases) and control group (45 cases). The control group was given Atorvastatin (10 mg/d) based on the conventional therapy, while the observation group was given Atorvastatin at an intensive dose (40 mg/d) based on the conventional therapy. Half a month later, the changes of IL-6, IL-8, hs-CRP, TNF-α, TXB2, GMP-140, PAI-1 and t-PA were observed and compared between the two groups.Results:After treatment, the inflammatory factors (IL-6, IL-8, hs-CRP and TNF-α) and the indicators of platelet activity (TXB2, GMP-140 and PAI-1) were obviously decreased, while the indicator of fibrinolytic activity (t-PA) was apparently increased in the two groups. Besides, the amplitudes of change referring to these indicators in the observation group were bigger than those in the control group after treatment, and the differences were statistically significant.Conclusion: The intensive therapy with the administration of Atorvastatin at a dose of 40 mg/d was better than the conventional therapy (Atorvastatin: 10 mg/d) in aspects of reducing inflammatory factors, inhibiting platelet activity and correcting the high coagulation state of fibrinolytic system.

  4. Effect of sympathetic nerve block on acute inflammatory pain and hyperalgesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, J L; Rung, G W; Kehlet, H

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sympathetic nerve blocks relieve pain in certain chronic pain states, but the role of the sympathetic pathways in acute pain is unclear. Thus the authors wanted to determine whether a sympathetic block could reduce acute pain and hyperalgesia after a heat injury in healthy volunteers....

  5. Risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with cronic inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Fonager, Kirsten; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    1999-01-01

    of patients with acute pancreatitis was compared with expected numbers on the basis of age, sex, and calendar-specific incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: Overall, 15,526 patients were discharged and followed up for 112,824 person-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for acute...

  6. The role and importance of glycosylation of acute phase proteins with focus on alpha-1 antitrypsin in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Cormac; Saldova, Radka; Wormald, Mark R; Rudd, Pauline M; McElvaney, Noel G; Reeves, Emer P

    2014-07-03

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are a group of circulating plasma proteins which undergo changes quantitatively or qualitatively at the time of inflammation. Many of these APPs are glycosylated, and it has been shown that alterations in glycosylation may occur in inflammatory and malignant conditions. Changes in glycosylation have been studied as potential biomarkers in cancer and also in chronic inflammatory conditions and have been shown to correlate with disease severity in certain conditions. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins), many of which are also APPs, are proteins involved in the control of proteases in numerous pathways. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serpin within the circulation and is an APP which has been shown to increase in response to inflammation. The primary role of AAT is maintaining the protease/antiprotease balance in the lung, but it also possesses important anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Several glycoforms of AAT exist, and they possess differing properties in regard to plasma half-life and stability. Glycosylation may also be important in determining the immune modulatory properties of AAT. The review will focus on the role and importance of glycosylation in acute phase proteins with particular attention to AAT and its use as a biomarker of disease. The review describes the processes involved in glycosylation, how glycosylation changes in differing disease states, and the alterations that occur to glycans of APPs with disease and inflammation. Finally, the review explores the importance of changes in glycosylation of AAT at times of inflammation and in malignant conditions and how this may impact upon the functions of AAT.

  7. Inhibition of System Xc(-) Transporter Attenuates Autoimmune Inflammatory Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evonuk, Kirsten S; Baker, Brandi J; Doyle, Ryan E; Moseley, Carson E; Sestero, Christine M; Johnston, Bryce P; De Sarno, Patrizia; Tang, Andrew; Gembitsky, Igor; Hewett, Sandra J; Weaver, Casey T; Raman, Chander; DeSilva, Tara M

    2015-07-15

    T cell infiltration into the CNS is a significant underlying pathogenesis in autoimmune inflammatory demyelinating diseases. Several lines of evidence suggest that glutamate dysregulation in the CNS is an important consequence of immune cell infiltration in neuroinflammatory demyelinating diseases; yet, the causal link between inflammation and glutamate dysregulation is not well understood. A major source of glutamate release during oxidative stress is the system Xc(-) transporter; however, this mechanism has not been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory demyelination. We find that pharmacological and genetic inhibition of system Xc(-) attenuates chronic and relapsing-remitting experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Remarkably, pharmacological blockade of system Xc(-) 7 d after induction of EAE attenuated T cell infiltration into the CNS, but not T cell activation in the periphery. Mice harboring a Slc7a11 (xCT) mutation that inactivated system Xc(-) were resistant to EAE, corroborating a central role for system Xc(-) in mediating immune cell infiltration. We next examined the role of the system Xc(-) transporter in the CNS after immune cell infiltration. Pharmacological inhibitors of the system Xc(-) transporter administered during the first relapse in a SJL animal model of relapsing-remitting EAE abrogated clinical disease, inflammation, and myelin loss. Primary coculture studies demonstrate that myelin-specific CD4(+) Th1 cells provoke microglia to release glutamate via the system Xc(-) transporter, causing excitotoxic death to mature myelin-producing oligodendrocytes. Taken together, these studies support a novel role for the system Xc(-) transporter in mediating T cell infiltration into the CNS as well as promoting myelin destruction after immune cell infiltration in EAE.

  8. Gender Differences in Acute Cadmium-Induced Systemic Inflammation in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MILENA KATARANOVSKI; SRDJA JANKOVI(C); DRAGAN KATARANOVSKI; JELENA (S)TOSI(C); DESA BOGOJEVI(C)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the presence of gender differences in pro-inflammatory potential of cadmium in rats by comparing systemic inflammatory response to acute cadmium intoxication in animals of the two sexes. Methods Basic aspects of this response were evaluated, including plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and of major rat acute phase protein alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), as soluble indicators of inflammation, and the number and activity of peripheral blood leukocytes, as cellular indicators of inflammation. Results Differential increases of IL-6 and alpha 2-M (higher in males than in females) in peripheral blood cell counts and types (leukocytosis and shift in the ratio of granulocytes to lymphocytes more pronounced in males vs females) and in levels of neutrophil priming (higher in males vs females) were noted. Conclusion The data document a more intense inflammatory response to cadmium administration in males. The sex differences in inflammatory effects of cadmium might be taken into consideration in studying the toxicity of this heavy metal.

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of salbutamol on acute and chronic models of inflammation in rats: involvement of an antioxidant mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzkeser, Hulya; Cadirci, Elif; Halici, Zekai; Odabasoglu, Fehmi; Polat, Beyzagul; Yuksel, Tugba Nurcan; Ozaltin, Seda; Atalay, Fadime

    2012-01-01

    The possible role of β-2 adrenergic receptors in modulation of inflammatory and nociceptive conditions suggests that the β-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, salbutamol, may have beneficial anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Therefore, in this study, we induced inflammatory and nociceptive responses with carrageenan-induced paw edema or cotton-pellet-induced granuloma models, both of which result in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that salbutamol would prevent inflammatory and nociceptive responses by stimulating β-2 adrenergic receptors and the prevention of generation of ROS during the acute inflammation process in rats. Both doses of salbutamol used in the study (1 and 2 mg/kg) effectively blocked the acute inflammation and inflammatory nociception induced by carrageenan. In the cotton-pellet-induced granuloma test, both doses of salbutamol also significantly decreased the weight of granuloma tissue on the cotton pellets when compared to the control. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of salbutamol were found to be comparable with those of indomethacin. Salbutamol decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO) level and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and level of glutathione (GSH) during the acute phase of inflammation. In conclusion, salbutamol can decrease acute and chronic inflammation, possibly through the stimulation of β-2 adrenergic receptors. This anti-inflammatory effect may be of significance in asthma treatment, where inflammation also takes part in the etiopathology. This study reveals that salbutamol has significant antioxidative effects, which at least partially explain its anti-inflammatory capabilities. These findings presented here may also shed light on the roles of β-2 adrenergic receptors in inflammatory and hyperalgesic conditions.

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Salbutamol on Acute and Chronic Models of Inflammation in Rats: Involvement of an Antioxidant Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Uzkeser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The possible role of β-2 adrenergic receptors in modulation of inflammatory and nociceptive conditions suggests that the β-2 adrenergic receptor agonist, salbutamol, may have beneficial anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects. Therefore, in this study, we induced inflammatory and nociceptive responses with carrageenan-induced paw edema or cotton-pellet-induced granuloma models, both of which result in oxidative stress. We hypothesized that salbutamol would prevent inflammatory and nociceptive responses by stimulating β-2 adrenergic receptors and the prevention of generation of ROS during the acute inflammation process in rats. Both doses of salbutamol used in the study (1 and 2 mg/kg effectively blocked the acute inflammation and inflammatory nociception induced by carrageenan. In the cotton-pellet-induced granuloma test, both doses of salbutamol also significantly decreased the weight of granuloma tissue on the cotton pellets when compared to the control. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of salbutamol were found to be comparable with those of indomethacin. Salbutamol decreased myeloperoxidase (MPO activity and lipid peroxidation (LPO level and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD and level of glutathione (GSH during the acute phase of inflammation. In conclusion, salbutamol can decrease acute and chronic inflammation, possibly through the stimulation of β-2 adrenergic receptors. This anti-inflammatory effect may be of significance in asthma treatment, where inflammation also takes part in the etiopathology. This study reveals that salbutamol has significant antioxidative effects, which at least partially explain its anti-inflammatory capabilities. These findings presented here may also shed light on the roles of β-2 adrenergic receptors in inflammatory and hyperalgesic conditions.

  11. IL-35 is a novel responsive anti-inflammatory cytokine--a new system of categorizing anti-inflammatory cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyuan; Mai, Jietang; Virtue, Anthony; Yin, Ying; Gong, Ren; Sha, Xiaojin; Gutchigian, Stefanie; Frisch, Andrew; Hodge, Imani; Jiang, Xiaohua; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    It remains unknown whether newly identified anti-inflammatory/immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-35 (IL-35) is different from other anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β in terms of inhibition of inflammation initiation and suppression of full-blown inflammation. Using experimental database mining and statistical analysis methods we developed, we examined the tissue expression profiles and regulatory mechanisms of IL-35 in comparison to other anti-inflammatory cytokines. Our results suggest that in contrast to TGF-β, IL-35 is not constitutively expressed in human tissues but it is inducible in response to inflammatory stimuli. We also provide structural evidence that AU-rich element (ARE) binding proteins and microRNAs target IL-35 subunit transcripts, by which IL-35 may achieve non-constitutive expression status. Furthermore, we propose a new system to categorize anti-inflammatory cytokines into two groups: (1) the house-keeping cytokines, such as TGF-β, inhibit the initiation of inflammation whereas (2) the responsive cytokines including IL-35 suppress inflammation in full-blown stage. Our in-depth analyses of molecular events that regulate the production of IL-35 as well as the new categorization system of anti-inflammatory cytokines are important for the design of new strategies of immune therapies.

  12. Effect of tirofiban combined with clopidogrel on serum inflammatory factors and coagulation functions in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Hu; Chao-Ying Jin; Yun-Fang Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of tirofiban combined with clopidogrel on serum inflammatory factors and coagulation functions in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI).Methods:A total of 106 patients with AMI were selected and randomly divided into observation group (55 cases) and control group (51 cases). The control group was given clopidogrel based on conventional therapy, and the observation was given tirofiban based on the control group. For 2 weeks, the changes of serum inflammatory factors (TNF-α, hs-CRP, IL-6, P-selection) and coagulation functions (PT, TT, APTT) between the two groups were observed.Results:After treatment, TNF-α, hs-CRP, L-6 and P-selection levels in the two group both decreased compared with that before treatment (P<0.05), TNF-α, hs-CRP, L-6 and P-selection levels in the observation group were decreased more significantly than that in the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, PT, TT and APTT levels in the two group both extended compared with that before treatment (P<0.05), PT, TT and APTT levels in the observation group were improved more significantly than that in the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference in adverse reactions between the two groups (P<0.05).Conclusions:Tirofiban combined with clopidogrel could restrain inflammatory response and regulate coagulation functions more significant in patients with AMI, and better than that of using clopidogrel alone.

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein subclasses in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying TAN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To assess the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant functions of high-density lipoprotein (HDL subclasses (HDL2 and HDL3 in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS, and to elucidate whether incapacitation of HDL subclasses occurred in ACS patients. Methods  Forty ACS patients hospitalized in Nanfang Hospital from Jan. 2011 to Jan. 2012 (ACS group, and 40 subjects simultaneously receiving health examination (control group were enrolled in present study. Plasma lipid and hypersensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP levels, HDL subclasses inflammatory index (HII, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 activity and lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH levels in both groups were measured. Results  The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and hs-CRP levels were higher in ACS group than in control group (P0.05. Conclusions  The incapacitation of HDL subclasses may occur in ACS patients, with an attenuated antioxidant ability and accentuated proinflammatory function. Mature HDL2 possesses better anti-inflammatory and antioxidant function than HDL3, thus playing a better cardioprotective effect.

  14. Perfluorocarbon attenuates inflammatory cytokines, oxidative stress and histopathologic changes in paraquat-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalighi, Zahra; Rahmani, Asghar; Cheraghi, Javad; Ahmadi, Mohammad Reza Hafezi; Soleimannejad, Koroush; Asadollahi, Ruhangiz; Asadollahi, Khairollah

    2016-03-01

    The effects of perfluorocarbon (PFC) on paraquat (PQ) induced acute lung injury (ALI) was evaluated among rats. Twenty four Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: control group injected by saline physiologic 0.9%, PFC group injected by Perfluorocarbon, PQ group injected by PQ and PQ+PFC group injected by PFC one hour after receiving paraquat. Bronchoalveular fluid content, inflammatory cytokines, oxidative and histopathologic changes were measured after 72 h. The levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and transforming growth factor-β1(TGF-β1) in the PQ group were increased compared to either control or PFC groups, but their levels decreased in PQ+PFC group significantly (p<0.05). Also, histopathologic evaluation revealed an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) and hydroxyproline (HP) in the PQ group but a decrease in PQ+PFC group significantly (p<0.01). PFC emulsion by its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-fibrotic properties can reduce the inflammatory and fibrotic alterations, pulmonary oedema, and pulmonary histopathologic changes created by PQ.

  15. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 down-regulates inflammatory responses and protects against endotoxin-induced acute kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Jiao [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Shetty, Sreerama [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, TX 75708 (United States); Zhang, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China Hospital of Stomatology, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Gao, Rong; Hu, Yuxin [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Wang, Shuxia [Graduate Center for Nutritional Sciences, College of Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Li, Zhenyu [Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Fu, Jian, E-mail: jian.fu@uky.edu [Center for Research on Environmental Disease, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States); Graduate Center for Toxicology, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40536 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The presence of endotoxin in blood can lead to acute kidney injury (AKI) and septic shock. Resolvins, the endogenous lipid mediators derived from docosahexaenoic acid, have been reported to exhibit potent anti-inflammatory action. Using a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced AKI, we investigated the effects of aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 (AT-RvD1) on inflammatory kidney injury. Administration of AT-RvD1 1 h after LPS challenge protected the mice from kidney injury as indicated by the measurements of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, and morphological alterations associated with tubular damage. The protective effects were evidenced by decreased neutrophil infiltration in the kidney indicating reduction in inflammation. AT-RvD1 treatment restored kidney cell junction protein claudin-4 expression, which was otherwise reduced after LPS challenge. AT-RvD1 treatment inhibited endotoxin-induced NF-κB activation and suppressed LPS-induced ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in the kidney. Moreover, AT-RvD1 treatment markedly decreased LPS-induced IL-6 level in the kidney and blocked IL-6-mediated signaling including STAT3 and ERK phosphorylation. Our findings demonstrate that AT-RvD1 is a potent anti-inflammatory mediator in LPS-induced kidney injury, and AT-RvD1 has therapeutic potential against AKI during endotoxemia.

  16. Pro- versus anti-inflammatory cytokine profile in African children with acute oro-facial noma (cancrum oris, noma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reshma S; Enwonwu, Cyril O; Falkler, William A

    2005-01-01

    Fresh noma is a severe orofacial necrosis with an astonishingly rapid development. It is seen mainly in malnourished children less than 4 years old from developing countries. Cytokines play a central role in oral mucosal inflammation. We therefore studied the relevance of circulating cytokines to noma, and the key microorganisms associated with the lesion. Nigerian village children with acute noma (n=68) and their neighborhood village (n=63) as well as urban (n=45) counterparts of comparable age and free of overt infections were evaluated for serum cytokine levels by ELISA. Oral bacteria were studied by polymerase chain reaction. Evaluation of random cases of the village and noma children showed marked depletion (pnoma children than in the healthy urban children, but less so when compared to their neighborhood village counterparts. The increase in levels of the anti-inflammatory/regulatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta) was less marked relative to the pro-inflammatory cytokines. Bacteria observed at the highest frequencies in noma lesions were P. intermedia (83%), T. forsythensis (83%), P. gingivalis (50%), C. rectus (50%) and T. denticola (50%). We conclude that noma is an immunopathological response to potent bacterial factors resulting in uncontrolled production of cytokines and possibly other, still unknown, inflammatory mediators.

  17. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  18. Effects of phonophoresis with Arnica montana onto acute inflammatory process in rat skeletal muscles: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfredo, Patrícia P; Anaruma, Carlos A; Pião, Antônio C S; João, Silvia M A; Casarotto, Raquel A

    2009-05-01

    This study aimed at verifying the effects of phonophoresis associated with Arnica montana on the acute phase of an inflammatory muscle lesion. Forty Wistar male rats (300+/-50 g), of which the Tibialis Anterior muscle was surgically lesioned, were divided into four groups (n=10 each): control group received no treatment; the ultrasound group (US) was treated in pulsed mode with 1-MHz frequency, 0.5 W/cm(2) intensity (spatial and temporal average - SATA), duty cycle of 1:2 (2 ms on, 4 ms off, 50%), time of application 3 min per session, one session per day, for 3 days; the phonophoresis or ultrasound plus arnica (US+A) group was treated with arnica with the same US parameters plus arnica gel; and the arnica group (A) was submitted to massage with arnica gel, also for 3 min, once a day, for 3 days. Treatment started 24h after the surgical lesion. On the 4th day after lesion creation, animals were sacrificed and sections of the lesioned, inflamed muscle were removed for quantitative (mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell count) and qualitative histological analysis. Collected data from the 4 groups were statistically analyzed and the significance level set at p<0.05. Results show higher mononuclear cell density in all three treated groups with no significant difference between them, but values were significantly different (p<0.0001) when compared to control group's. As to polymorphonuclear cell density, significant differences were found between control group (p=0.0134) and US, US+A and A groups; the arnica group presented lesser density of polymorphonuclear cells when compared (p=0.0134) to the other groups. No significant difference was found between US and US+A groups. While the massage with arnica gel proved to be an effective anti-inflammatory on acute muscle lesion in topic use, these results point to ineffectiveness of Arnica montana phonophoresis, US having seemingly checked or minimized its anti-inflammatory effect.

  19. Effects of Ketamine on Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the Hippocampus of Mice Following Acute or Chronic Administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanning; Shen, Ruipeng; Wen, Gehua; Ding, Runtao; Du, Ao; Zhou, Jichuan; Dong, Zhibin; Ren, Xinghua; Yao, Hui; Zhao, Rui; Zhang, Guohua; Lu, Yan; Wu, Xu

    2017-01-01

    Ketamine is an injectable anesthetic and recreational drug of abuse commonly used worldwide. Many experimental studies have shown that ketamine can impair cognitive function and induce psychotic states. Neuroinflammation has been suggested to play an important role in neurodegeneration. Meanwhile, ketamine has been shown to modulate the levels of inflammatory cytokines. We hypothesized that the effects of ketamine on the central nervous system are associated with inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, we set out to establish acute and chronic ketamine administration models in C57BL/6 mice, to evaluate spatial recognition memory and emotional response, to analyze the changes in the levels of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the mouse hippocampus, employing behavioral tests, Western blot, quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that ketamine at the dose of 60 mg/kg induced spatial recognition memory deficit and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in mice after chronic administration. Moreover, we found that ketamine increased the hippocampal levels of IL-6 and IL-1β after single, multiple and long-term administration in a dose-dependent manner. However, the expression level of TNF-α differed in the mouse hippocampus under different conditions. Single administration of ketamine increased the level of TNF-α, whereas multiple and long-term administration decreased it significantly. We considered that TNF-α expression could be controlled by a bi-directional regulatory pathway, which was associated with the dose and duration of ketamine administration. Our results suggest that the alterations in the levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α may be involved in the neurotoxicity of ketamine.

  20. Pro-inflammatory responses of human bronchial epithelial cells to acute nitrogen dioxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyagari, Vijayalakshmi N; Januszkiewicz, Adolph; Nath, Jayasree

    2004-04-15

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) is an environmental oxidant, known to be associated with lung epithelial injury. In the present study, cellular pro-inflammatory responses following exposure to a brief high concentration of NO2 (45 ppm) were assessed, using normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells as an in vitro model of inhalation injury. Generation and release of pro-inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), IL-8, TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and IL-1beta were assessed at different time intervals following NO2 exposure. Effects of a pre-existing inflammatory condition was tested by treating the NHBE cells with different inflammatory cytokines such as IFN-gamma, IL-8, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, either alone or in combination, before exposing them to NO2. Immunofluorescence studies confirmed oxidant-induced formation of 3-nitrotyrosine in the NO2-exposed cells. A marked increase in the levels of nitrite (as an index of NO) and IL-8 were observed in the NO2-exposed cells, which were further enhanced in the presence of the cytokines. Effects of various NO inhibitors combined, with immunofluorescence and Western blotting data, indicated partial contribution of the nitric oxide synthases (NOSs) toward the observed increase in nitrite levels. Furthermore, a significant increase in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha generation was observed in the NO2-exposed cells. Although NO2 exposure alone did induce slight cytotoxicity (<12%), but presence of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma resulted in an increased cell death (28-36%). These results suggest a synergistic role of inflammatory mediators, particularly of NO and IL-8, in NO2-mediated early cellular changes. Our results also demonstrate an increased sensitivity of the cytokine-treated NHBE cells toward NO2, which may have significant functional implications in vivo.

  1. Azathioprine-induced Acute Pancreatitis in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases—A Prospective Study on Incidence and Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohl, Wolfgang; Bokemeyer, Bernd; Bündgens, Burkhard; Büning, Jürgen; Miehlke, Stephan; Hüppe, Dietrich; Maaser, Christian; Klugmann, Tobias; Kruis, Wolfgang; Siegmund, Britta; Helwig, Ulf; Weismüller, Joseph; Drabik, Attyla; Stallmach, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Azathioprine [AZA] is recommended for maintenance of steroid-free remission in inflammatory bowel disease IBD. The aim of this study has been to establish the incidence and severity of AZA-induced pancreatitis, an idiosyncratic and major side effect, and to identify specific risk factors. Methods: We studied 510 IBD patients [338 Crohn’s disease, 157 ulcerative colitis, 15 indeterminate colitis] with initiation of AZA treatment in a prospective multicentre registry study. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed in accordance with international guidelines. Results: AZA was continued by 324 [63.5%] and stopped by 186 [36.5%] patients. The most common cause of discontinuation was nausea [12.2%]. AZA-induced pancreatitis occurred in 37 patients [7.3%]. Of these: 43% were hospitalised with a median inpatient time period of 5 days; 10% had peripancreatic fluid collections; 24% had vomiting; and 14% had fever. No patient had to undergo nonsurgical or surgical interventions. Smoking was the strongest risk factor for AZA-induced acute pancreatitis [p < 0.0002] in univariate and multivariate analyses. Conclusions: AZA-induced acute pancreatitis is a common adverse event in IBD patients, but in this study had a mild course in all patients. Smoking is the most important risk factor. PMID:26468141

  2. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Derived Secretome and Extracellular Vesicles for Acute Lung Injury and Other Inflammatory Lung Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsel, Antoine; Zhu, Ying-gang; Gudapati, Varun; Lim, Hyungsun; Lee, Jae W.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute respiratory distress syndrome is a major cause of respiratory failure in critically ill patients. Despite extensive research into its pathophysiology, mortality remains high. No effective pharmacotherapy exists. Based largely on numerous preclinical studies, administration of mesenchymal stem or stromal cell (MSC) as a therapeutic for acute lung injury holds great promise, and clinical trials are currently underway. However, concern for the use of stem cells, specifically the risk of iatrogenic tumor formation, remains unresolved. Accumulating evidence now suggest that novel cell-free therapies including MSC-derived conditioned medium and extracellular vesicles released from MSCs might constitute compelling alternatives. Areas covered The current review summarizes the preclinical studies testing MSC conditioned medium and/or MSC extracellular vesicles as treatment for acute lung injury and other inflammatory lung diseases. Expert opinion While certain logistical obstacles limit the clinical applications of MSC conditioned medium such as the volume required for treatment, the therapeutic application of MSC extracellular vesicles remains promising, primarily due to ability of extracellular vesicles to maintain the functional phenotype of the parent cell. However, utilization of MSC extracellular vesicles will require large-scale production and standardization concerning identification, characterization and quantification. PMID:27011289

  3. Acute-phase serum amyloid A: an inflammatory adipokine and potential link between obesity and its metabolic complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Ze Yang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation, and serum markers of inflammation are independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms that link obesity to chronic inflammation and CVD are poorly understood. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Acute-phase serum amyloid A (A-SAA mRNA levels, and A-SAA adipose secretion and serum levels were measured in obese and nonobese individuals, obese participants who underwent weight-loss, and persons treated with the insulin sensitizer rosiglitazone. Inflammation-eliciting activity of A-SAA was investigated in human adipose stromal vascular cells, coronary vascular endothelial cells and a murine monocyte cell line. We demonstrate that A-SAA was highly and selectively expressed in human adipocytes. Moreover, A-SAA mRNA levels and A-SAA secretion from adipose tissue were significantly correlated with body mass index (r = 0.47; p = 0.028 and r = 0.80; p = 0.0002, respectively. Serum A-SAA levels decreased significantly after weight loss in obese participants (p = 0.006, as well as in those treated with rosiglitazone (p = 0.033. The magnitude of the improvement in insulin sensitivity after weight loss was significantly correlated with decreases in serum A-SAA (r = -0.74; p = 0.034. SAA treatment of vascular endothelial cells and monocytes markedly increased the production of inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, SAA increased basal lipolysis in adipose tissue culture by 47%. CONCLUSIONS: A-SAA is a proinflammatory and lipolytic adipokine in humans. The increased expression of A-SAA by adipocytes in obesity suggests that it may play a critical role in local and systemic inflammation and free fatty acid production and could be a direct link between obesity and its comorbidities, such as insulin resistance and atherosclerosis. Accordingly, improvements

  4. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard;

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...

  5. Expression of ICAM-1 and acute inflammatory cell infiltration in the early phase of radiation colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Ito, Masahiro; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Fukuda, Eiichiro; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Naito, Shinji; Sekine, Ichiro [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Bomb Disease Inst.

    2000-09-01

    Inflammatory cell infiltration of the colon is observed at an early stage of radiation-induced colitis. The emigration of inflammatory cells from the circulation requires interactions between cell adhesion molecules on the vascular endothelium and molecules on the surface of leukocytes. To elucidate this process, the present work analyzes the kinetics of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the accumulation of inflammatory myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells in relation to the appearance of acute radiation colitis prior to an overt radiation-induced ulcer. Colon tissues were obtained from Wistar Kyoto rats at various times after 22.5 Gy irradiation to the rectum. Histologically, crypt depletion and numerous inflammatory cells were observed 4 days after irradiation, and mucosal ulcer 6 days after irradiation. ICAM-1 immunopositivity was present in the endothelial cells of small vessels in the mucosa of both control and irradiated rats. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was detected in normal colon and irradiated colon by reverse transcription-PCR. In Northern blotting, ICAM-1 mRNA levels were found to increase markedly in the irradiated colon compared to the normal colon. In Western blotting, ICAM-1 protein expression also increased with a peak one day after irradiation, and remained elevated up to 6 days thereafter. The number of MPO-positive cells in lamina propria mucosa increased in a time-dependent fashion from 6 h to 6 days after irradiation. These data suggest that up-regulation of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells and accumulation of MPO positive cells play important roles in the development of radiation-induced colonic ulcer. (author)

  6. Activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 ameliorates systemic lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Seong Ho, E-mail: yoosh@snu.ac.kr [Seoul National University Hospital, Biomedical Research Institute and Institute of Forensic Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A. [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States); Song, Byoung-Joon, E-mail: bj.song@nih.gov [Laboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2013-07-05

    Highlights: •Activation of PPARα attenuated LPS-mediated acute lung injury. •Pretreatment with Wy-14643 decreased the levels of IFN-γ and IL-6 in ALI. •Nitrosative stress and lipid peroxidation were downregulated by PPARα activation. •PPARα agonists may be potential therapeutic targets for acute lung injury. -- Abstract: Acute lung injury (ALI) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) by its ligands, which include Wy-14643, has been implicated as a potential anti-inflammatory therapy. To address the beneficial efficacy of Wy-14643 for ALI along with systemic inflammation, the in vivo role of PPARα activation was investigated in a mouse model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ALI. Using age-matched Ppara-null and wild-type mice, we demonstrate that the activation of PPARα by Wy-14643 attenuated LPS-mediated ALI. This was evidenced histologically by the significant alleviation of inflammatory manifestations and apoptosis observed in the lung tissues of wild-type mice, but not in the corresponding Ppara-null mice. This protective effect probably resulted from the inhibition of LPS-induced increases in pro-inflammatory cytokines and nitroxidative stress levels. These results suggest that the pharmacological activation of PPARα might have a therapeutic effect on LPS-induced ALI.

  7. A multicentre study of acute kidney injury in severe sepsis and septic shock: association with inflammatory phenotype and HLA genotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Payen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between severity of acute kidney injury (AKI and outcome, systemic inflammatory phenotype and HLA genotype in severe sepsis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Prospective multicenter observational study done in 4 intensive care units in two university hospitals. Severe sepsis and septic shock patients with at least 2 organ failures based on the SOFA score were classified: 1 "no AKI", 2 "mild AKI" (grouping stage 1 and 2 of AKIN score and 3 "severe AKI" (stage 3 of AKIN score. Sequential measurements: The vasopressor dependency index (VDI; dose and types of drugs to evaluate the association between hemodynamic status and the development of early AKI; plasma levels of IL-10, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF, IL-6 and HLA-DR monocyte expression. Genotyping of the 13 HLA-DRB1 alleles with deduction of presence of HLA-DRB3, -DRB4 and -DRB5 genes. We used multivariate analysis with competitive risk model to study associations. Overall, 176 study patients (146 with septic shock were classified from AKIN score as "no AKI" (n = 43, "mild AKI" (n = 74 or "severe AKI" (n = 59. The VDI did not differ between groups of AKI. After adjustment, "mild and severe AKI" were an independent risk factor for mortality (HR 2.42 95%CI[1.01-5.83], p = 0.048 and HR 1.99 95%CI[1.30-3.03], p = 0.001 respectively. "Severe AKI" had higher levels of plasma IL-10, MIF and IL-6 compared to "no AKI" and mild AKI (p<0.05 for each, with no difference in mHLA-DR at day 0. HLA-DRB genotyping showed a significantly lower proportion of 4 HLA-DRB alleles among patients requiring renal replacement therapy (RRT (58% than in patients with severe AKI who did not receive RRT (84% (p = 0.004. CONCLUSIONS: AKI severity is independently associated with mortality and plasma IL-10, MIF or IL-6 levels. Presence of 4 alleles of HLA-DRB in severe AKI patients seems associated with a lower need of RRT.

  8. Luteolin protects mice from severe acute pancreatitis by exerting HO-1-mediated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jie; Wang, Kezhou; Yuan, Chunxiao; Xing, Rong; Ni, Jianbo; Hu, Guoyong; Chen, Fengling; Wang, Xingpeng

    2017-01-01

    Reseda odorata L. has long been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diseases associated with oxidative injury and acute inflammation, such as endotoxemia, acute lung injury, acute myocardial infarction and hepatitis. Luteolin, the main component of Reseda odorata L., which is also widely found in many natural herbs and vege tables, has been shown to induce heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. In this study, we aimed to examine the effects of luteolin on mice with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Cerulein and lipopolysaccharide were used to induce SAP in male Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice in the SAP group. The SAP group was divided into 4 subgroups, as follows: the vehicle, luteolin, zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP) only, and luteolin (Lut) + ZnPP (luteolin plus zinc protoporphyrin treatment) groups. The wet/dry weight ratios, hematoxylin and eosin staining and pathological scores of pancreatic tissues were assessed and compared to those of the control mice. Amylase, lipase, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and myeloperoxidase activities, and malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and HO-1 levels, as well as the expression of HO-1 were determined in serum and/or pancreatic tissue samples. SAP was successfully induced in male mice compared to normal control mice. The wet/dry weight ratios, pathological scores, and amylase and lipase activity, as well as the levels of TNFα and IL-6 were significantly reduced in the pancreatic tissues of the mice in the Lut group compared with those of the mice in the vehicle group. The Lut group exhibited a significant increase in HO-1 expression in the pancreas and enhanced serum HO-1 and IL-10 levels compared with the vehicle group. The suppression of HO-1 activity in the ZnPP group significantly abolished the protective effects of luteolin. NF-κB expression in the pancreatic tissues

  9. The pro- and anti-inflammatory markers in patients with acute myocardial infarction and chronic stable angina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojakowski, Wojciech; Maslankiewicz, Katarzyna; Ochala, Andrzej; Wyderka, Rafal; Zuk-Popiolek, Izabela; Flak, Zbigniew; Mroz, Iwona; Tendera, Michal

    2004-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the plasma levels of VEGF and interleukin-10 in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stable chronic angina (SA) and correlate the values with traditional CHD risk factors, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and established inflammatory marker hsCRP. Fifty patients with AMI and 30 with SA were enrolled. IL-10 levels in AMI patients were lower than in SA patients (9.81 +/- 5.0 versus 22.63 +/- 8.38 pg/ml, p 40% and Killip class I-II (338.8 +/- 51.59 versus 271.8 +/- 50.51 pg/ml; p 6 h versus inflamatory markers and CHD risk factors and the function of the left ventricle on admission.

  10. Toll-Like Receptor-9 (TLR9) is Requisite for Acute Inflammatory Response and Injury Following Lung Contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Madathilparambil V; Thomas, Bivin; Dolgachev, Vladislav A; Sherman, Matthew A; Goldberg, Rebecca; Johnson, Mark; Chowdhury, Aulina; Machado-Aranda, David; Raghavendran, Krishnan

    2016-10-01

    Lung contusion (LC) is a significant risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes specific unmethylated CpG motifs, which are prevalent in microbial but not vertebrate genomic DNA, leading to innate and acquired immune responses. TLR9 signaling has recently been implicated as a critical component of the inflammatory response following lung injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of TLR9 signaling to the acute physiologic changes following LC. Nonlethal unilateral closed-chest LC was induced in TLR9 (-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. The mice were sacrificed at 5, 24, 48, and 72-h time points. The extent of injury was assessed by measuring bronchoalveolar lavage, cells (cytospin), albumin (permeability injury), and cytokines (inflammation). Following LC, only the TLR9 (-/-) mice showed significant reductions in the levels of albumin; release of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and Keratinocyte chemoattractant; production of macrophage chemoattractant protein 5; and recruitment of alveolar macrophages and neutrophil infiltration. Histological evaluation demonstrated significantly worse injury at all-time points for WT mice. Macrophages, isolated from TLR9 (-/-) mice, exhibited increased phagocytic activity at 24 h after LC compared with those isolated from WT mice. TLR9, therefore, appears to be functionally important in the development of progressive lung injury and inflammation following LC. Our findings provide a new framework for understanding the pathogenesis of lung injury and suggest blockade of TLR9 as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of LC-induced lung injury.

  11. Effect of alanyl glutamine on the acute inflammatory reaction and immunological function in elderly patients with intestinal obstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fei-Guo Ma

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the application value of alanyl glutamine in improving the acute inflammatory reaction and immunological function in elderly patients with intestinal obstruction.Methods:A total of 97 elderly patients with intestinal obstruction who were admitted in our hospital were included in the study and randomized into the treatment group (n=49) and the control group (n=48). The patients in the control group were given total parenteral nutrition (TPN) treatment. On this basis, the patients in the treatment group were given intravenous injection of alanyl glutamine for 1 week. The plasma prealbumin, albumin, serum related cytokines, L/M, and DAO before and after treatment in the two groups were detected. The serum immunoglobulin and T lymphocyte subsets before and after treatment in the two groups were compared.Results:The plasma prealbumin and albumin levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group, while the serum CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α levels in the two groups were significantly reduced when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly lower than those in the control group. When compared with before treatment, L/M and plasma DAO level after treatment in the control group were significantly elevated, while those in the observation group were significantly reduced, and the comparison between the two groups was statistically significant. The serum IgG and IgA levels after treatment in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The serum CD4+, CD8+, and CD4+/CD8+ after treatment in the two groups were significantly elevated when compared with before treatment, and those in the observation group were significantly higher than those in the control group.Conclusions:Alanyl glutamine in the treatment of elderly intestinal obstruction can significantly improve the acute inflammatory reaction and immunological function, with a

  12. Clinical aspects of acute inflammatory diseases of the brain; Klinisch-neurologische Aspekte akut-entzuendlicher Hirnerkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Block, F.; Nolden-Koch, M. [RWTH Aachen (Germany). Neurologische Klinik

    2000-11-01

    Despite the progress, which has been made in diagnosis and therapy of encephalitis and bacterial meningitis, these acute inflammatory diseases of the brain still display a certain amount of morbidity and mortality. History, physical examination, analysis of serum and cerebrospinal fluid and radiological examination are the mainstay for the diagnosis of these diseases. With respect to the acute inflammatory diseases of the brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging fulfil three purposes: 1. They can be used to clarify the diagnosis and to rule out other diseases. 2. They can identify the focus from which a bacterial meningitis can evolve. 3. Complications like edema, cerebral vasculitis, septic sinus thrombosis, hydrocephalus or abscess can be visualized. If the diagnosis is made early, the possible complications are recognized in good time and the appropriate therapy is started immediately, then morbidity and mortality can be kept at a minimum. (orig.) [German] Die bakterielle Meningitis und die Enzephalitis sind akut-entzuendliche Hirnerkrankungen, die trotz aller Fortschritte in der Diagnostik und Therapie mit einer nicht unerheblichen Morbiditaet und Mortalitaet behaftet sind. Die Anamnese, die koerperliche Untersuchung, die laborchemische Diagnostik von Blut und Liquor und die Bildgebung sind die wesentlichen Saeulen in der Diagnostik akut-entzuendlicher Hirnerkrankungen. Die Bildgebung, die mittels Computertomographie bzw. Kernspintomographie erfolgt, hat in diesem Zusammenhang 3 Aufgaben: 1. Sie kann dazu beitragen, die Diagnose zu sichern bzw. differentialdiagnostisch in Erwaegung zu ziehende Erkrankungen auszuschliessen oder nachzuweisen. 2. Sie kann bei der bakteriellen Meningitis entzuendliche Foci im Bereich der Nasennebenhoehlen, des Mastoids oder des Mittelohrs erkennen, die sofort operativ saniert werden muessen. 3. Komplikationen akut-entzuendlicher Hirnerkrankungen koennen bei entsprechendem klinischem Verdacht mittels Bildgebung

  13. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  14. Effect of acute sleep deprivation and recovery on Insulin-like Growth Factor-I responses and inflammatory gene expression in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chennaoui, Mounir; Drogou, Catherine; Sauvet, Fabien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Scofield, Denis E; Nindl, Bradley C

    2014-01-01

    Acute sleep deprivation in humans has been found to increase inflammatory markers and signaling pathways in the periphery through a possible Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4). In addition, short duration sleep has been associated with low circulating total Insulin-like Growth Factor-I (IGF-I) concentrations. We aimed to determine whether a total sleep deprivation (TSD) protocol with recovery altered whole-blood gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, as well as TLR-4 expression, and to examine the relationship with circulating concentrations of the IGF-I system. Twelve healthy men participated in a five-day TSD (two control nights followed by one night of sleep deprivation and one night of recovery). Blood was sampled at 0800, before and after sleep deprivation (D2 and D4), and after recovery (D5). It is shown that 25 h of sleep deprivation (D4) induced significant increases in mRNA levels of TNF-α and its soluble receptor R1 (Psleep deprivation in healthy subjects is sufficient to induce transient and reversible genomic expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α and its R1 receptor, and its mediator TLR-4, with a possible link to IGF-I axis inhibition.

  15. Crypt abscess-associated microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and acute self-limited colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry; Sokol; Nadia; Vasquez; Nadia; Hoyeau-Idrissi; Philippe; Seksik; Laurent; Beaugerie; Anne; Lavergne-Slove; Philippe; Pochart; Philippe; Marteau

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether crypt abscesses frominflammatory bowel disease(IBD)patients containbacteria and to establish their nature.METHODS:We studied 17 ulcerative colitis patients,11 Crohn's disease patients,7 patients with acute selflimited colitis(ASLC)and normal colonic biopsies from5 subjects who underwent colonoscopy for colon cancer screening.A fluorescent in situ hybridization techniquewas applied to colonic biopsies to assess the microbiotacomposition of the crypts and crypt abscesses.RESULTS:Crypts...

  16. The changes of inflammatory cytokines and their clinical significance in patients of inferior ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction with anterior ST-segment depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the level of Hs-CRP,Fib,IL-6,TNF-α,MDA,SOD,and analyze the correlation between the level of plasma inflammatory cytokines and clinical significance in patients with anterior ST-segment depression.Methods We chose 360 patients with inferior ST Segment elavation acute myocardial infarction from May 2007 to Sep 2012 in emergency department of

  17. Mass-spectrometric identification of T-kininogen I/thiostatin as an acute-phase inflammatory protein suppressed by curcumin and capsaicin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bina Joe

    Full Text Available Curcumin and capsaicin are dietary xenobiotics with well-documented anti-inflammatory properties. Previously, the beneficial effect of these spice principles in lowering chronic inflammation was demonstrated using a rat experimental model for arthritis. The extent of lowering of arthritic index by the spice principles was associated with a significant shift in macrophage function favoring the reduction of pro-inflammatory molecules such as reactive oxygen species and production and release of anti-inflammatory metabolites of arachidonic acid. Beyond the cellular effects on macrophage function, oral administration of curcumin and capsaicin caused alterations in serum protein profiles of rats injected with adjuvant to develop arthritis. Specifically, a 72 kDa acidic glycoprotein, GpA72, which was elevated in pre-arthritic rats, was significantly lowered by feeding either curcumin or capsaicin to the rats. Employing the tandem mass spectrometric approach for direct sequencing of peptides, here we report the identification of GpA72 as T-kininogen I also known as Thiostatin. Since T-kininogen I is an early acute-phase protein, we additionally tested the efficiency of curcumin and capsaicin to mediate the inflammatory response in an acute phase model. The results demonstrate that curcumin and capsaicin lower the acute-phase inflammatory response, the molecular mechanism for which is, in part, mediated by pathways associated with the lowering of T-kininogen I.

  18. Effects of glutamine supplementation on gut barrier,glutathione content and acute phase response in malnourished rats during inflammatory shock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liliana Belmonte; Philippe Ducrotté; Pierre Déchelotte; Mo(i)se Co(e)ffier; Florence Le Pessot; Olga Miralles-Barrachina; Martine Hiron; Antony Leplingard; Jean-Fran(c)ois Lemeland; Bernadette Hecketsweiler; Maryvonne Daveau

    2007-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the effect of glutamine on intestinal mucosa integrity, glutathione stores and acute phase response in protein-depleted rats during an inflammatory shock.METHODS: Plasma acute phase proteins (APP),jejunal APP mRNA levels, liver and jejunal glutathione concentrations were measured before and one, three and seven days after turpentine injection in 4 groups of control, protein-restricted, protein-restricted rats supplemented with glutamine or protein powder.Bacterial translocation in mesenteric lymph nodes and intestinal morphology were also assessed.RESULTS: Protein deprivation and turpentine injection significantly reduced jejunal villus height, and crypt depths. Mucosal glutathione concentration significantly decreased in protein-restricted rats. Before turpentine oil, glutamine supplementation restored villus heights and glutathione concentration (3.24 ± 1.05 vs 1.72 ±0.46 μmol/g tissue, P < 0.05) in the jejunum, whereas in the liver glutathione remained low. Glutamine markedly increased jejunal α1-acid glycoprotein mRNA level after turpentine oil but did not affect its plasma concentration. Bacterial translocation in protein-restricted rats was not prevented by glutamine or protein powder supplementation.CONCLUSION: Glutamine restored gut glutathione stores and villus heights in malnourished rats but had no preventive effect on bacterial translocation in our model.

  19. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy associated with pegylated interferon 2a therapy for chronic hepatitis C virus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vijay Khiani; Thomas Kelly; Adeel Shibli; Donald Jensen; Smruti R Mohanty

    2008-01-01

    The combination of pogylated interferon (Peg-IFN) and ribavirin is the standard of care for chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection treatment. In general, common side effects related to this combination therapy are mild and are very well tolerated. However, peripheral neuropathy including demyelinating polyneuropathy related to Peg-IFN is extremely rare. We present the first case of an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP)associated with Peg-IFN-α 2a (Pegasys) after 16 wk of a combination therapy with Pegasys and ribavirin in a 65-year-old woman with chronic HCV infection.She developed tingling, numbness, and weakness of her upper and lower extremities and was hospitalized for acute neurological deficits. Her clinical course,neurological findings, an electromyogram (EHG), nerve conductions studies (NCS), muscle biopsy, and a sural nerve biopsy were all consistent with AIDP likely related to Pegasys use. The patient recovered completely with the use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) including physical therapy and neurological rehabilitation. It is very important that gastroenterologists and/or hepatologists recognize this rare neurological complication related to Peg-IFN treatment very early, since it requires a prompt discontinuation of therapy including an immediate referral to a neurologist for the confirmation of diagnosis, management, and the prevention of long-term neurological deficits.

  20. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis R V Antonelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+CD16- (classical, CD14(+CD16(+ (inflammatory, and CD14loCD16(+ (patrolling cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+ cells, in particular the CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+CD16(+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  1. A recurrence of Guillain-Barr and eacute; syndrome or a case of acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in the course of chronic hepatitis B?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guner Celik Koyuncu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is a demyelinating polyneuropathy characterized by distal/proximal weakness, which shows gradual progression over a period of 8 weeks or longer. Guillan-Barre Syndrome is a condition characterized by acute monophasic paralysis typically following an infectious assault, and it usually peaks in severity over 3-4 weeks at most. Although rare, there are acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy cases that show progression over a period shorter than 4 weeks, as is the case in Guillan-Barre Syndrome .This report discusses a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in a HBsAg-positive patient, which started as Guillan-Barre Syndrome but showed 3 recurrences within 6 months, each with rapidly progressing quadriplegia, respiratory arrest, and elevated liver enzymes and HBV DNA. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 782-786

  2. ACUTE RESPIRATORY DISEASE AS THE DEBUT OF SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Ischenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus — a chronic autoimmune disease that is often associated with infectious processes. The paper presents two clinical cases of systemic lupus erythematosus , debuted with acute respiratory infection.

  3. Acute phase protein concentrations in serum and milk from healthy cows, cows with clinical mastitis and cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, B.H.; Jacobsen, S.; Andersen, P.H.

    2004-01-01

    The concentrations of the two acute phase proteins, serum amyloid A and haptoglobin, in serum and milk were compared in 10 cows with clinical mastitis, 11 cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions and 10 clinically healthy control cows. The concentrations of both acute phase proteins were...... higher in the serum and milk of the cows with mastitis than in the cows in the other two groups. Four of the cows with extramammary inflammatory conditions had serum amyloid A concentrations in serum above 100 mug/ml, but negligible concentrations in milk, indicating that a pathogen must be present...... in the mammary gland for serum amyloid A to accumulate in milk. The acute phase protein concentrations in milk increased significantly with increasing somatic cell count, suggesting that they may be indicators of the severity of an infection....

  4. Effect of resveratrol on activation of nuclear factor kappa-B and inflammatory factors in rat model of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Meng; Qing-Yong Ma; Xiao-Ping Kou; Jun Xu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of resveratrol on nuclear factor Kappa-B (NF-κB) activation and the inflammatory response in sodium taurocholate-induced pancreatitis in rats.METHODS: Seventy-two male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham operation group (control),severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) group, and severe acute pancreatitis group treated with resveratrol (RES). A SAP model was established by injecting 4% sodium taurocholate 1 mL/kg through puncturing the pancreatic duct. In Res group, Res was given at 30 mg/kg b.m. intraperitoneally after the SAP model was successfully established. Eight animals from each group were sacrificed at 3, 6 and 12 h after modeling. The expression of NF-κB activation of pancreas was detected by immunohistochemical staining, whereas the levels of TNF-α and IL-8 in pancreatic tissues were estimated by radioimmunoassay. The pathological changes of pancreas and lungs were examined microscopically.RESULTS: Much less hyperemia, edema, dust-colored necrotic focus and soaps were noticed in pancreas in RES group than in SAP group. In RES group, hemorrhage,exudates and infiltration of inflammatory cells in pancreas and interstitial edema, destruction of alveolar wall in lung were significantly less than in SAP group. In the SAP group,the activation of NF-κB in pancreatic tissues was enhanced significantly at any measure point compared with control group (64.23±10.72% vs2.56±0.65%, 55.86±11.34% vs 2.32±0.42%, 36.23±2.30% vs 2.40±0.36% ,P <0.01), TNF-α,IL-8 were also increased and reached their peak at 6 h and then declined. The activation of NF-κB and the levels of TNF-α and IL-8 in RES group were significantly lower than those in SAP group (P<0.01): activation (52.63±9.45% vs 64.23±10.72%, 40.52±8.40% vs 55.86±11.34%, 29.83±5.37% vs36.23±2.30%), TN-α (132.76±15.68 pg/mL vs 158.36±12.58 pg/mL, 220.32±23.57 pg/mL vs 247.67± 11.62 pg/mL, 175.68±18.43 pg/mL vs 197.35±12.57 pg/mL) and IL-8 (0.62±0.21

  5. Dynamic expression of leukocyte innate immune genes in whole blood from horses with lipopolysaccharide-induced acute systemic inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anne Mette L.; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2015-01-01

    Background: In horses, insights into the innate immune processes in acute systemic inflammation are limited even though these processes may be highly important for future diagnostic and therapeutic advances in high-mortality disease conditions as the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS......) and sepsis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the expression of 31 selected blood leukocyte immune genes in an equine model of acute systemic inflammation to identify significantly regulated genes and to describe their expression dynamics during a 24-h experimental period. Systemic...... expressions in blood leukocytes during equine acute LPS-induced systemic inflammation thoroughly characterized a highly regulated and dynamic innate immune response. These results provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of equine systemic inflammation....

  6. Olprinone Attenuates the Acute Inflammatory Response and Apoptosis after Spinal Cord Trauma in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Emanuela; Mazzon, Emanuela; Paterniti, Irene; Impellizzeri, Daniela; Bramanti, Placido; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2010-01-01

    Background Olprinone hydrochloride is a newly developed compound that selectively inhibits PDE type III and is characterized by several properties, including positive inotropic effects, peripheral vasodilatory effects, and a bronchodilator effect. In clinical settings, olprinone is commonly used to treat congestive cardiac failure, due to its inotropic and vasodilating effects. The mechanism of these cardiac effects is attributed to increased cellular concentrations of cAMP. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacological action of olprinone on the secondary damage in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI) in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings Traumatic SCI is characterized by an immediate, irreversible loss of tissue at the lesion site, as well as a secondary expansion of tissue damage over time. Although secondary injury should be preventable, no effective treatment options currently exist for patients with SCI. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24 g) to the dura via a four-level T5–T8 laminectomy. SCI in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, and production of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage, apoptosis, and locomotor disturbance. Olprinone treatment (0.2 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 and 6 h after the SCI significantly reduced: (1) the degree of spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (histological score), (2) neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity), (3) nitrotyrosine formation, (4) pro-inflammatory cytokines, (5) NF-κB expression, (6) p-ERK1/2 and p38 expression and (7) apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand, Bax and Bcl-2 expression). Moreover, olprinone significantly ameliorated the recovery of hind-limb function (evaluated by motor recovery score). Conclusions/Significance Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that olprinone treatment reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury associated with spinal cord trauma. PMID

  7. Olprinone attenuates the acute inflammatory response and apoptosis after spinal cord trauma in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Esposito

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Olprinone hydrochloride is a newly developed compound that selectively inhibits PDE type III and is characterized by several properties, including positive inotropic effects, peripheral vasodilatory effects, and a bronchodilator effect. In clinical settings, olprinone is commonly used to treat congestive cardiac failure, due to its inotropic and vasodilating effects. The mechanism of these cardiac effects is attributed to increased cellular concentrations of cAMP. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the pharmacological action of olprinone on the secondary damage in experimental spinal cord injury (SCI in mice. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Traumatic SCI is characterized by an immediate, irreversible loss of tissue at the lesion site, as well as a secondary expansion of tissue damage over time. Although secondary injury should be preventable, no effective treatment options currently exist for patients with SCI. Spinal cord trauma was induced in mice by the application of vascular clips (force of 24 g to the dura via a four-level T5-T8 laminectomy. SCI in mice resulted in severe trauma characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration, and production of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage, apoptosis, and locomotor disturbance. Olprinone treatment (0.2 mg/kg, i.p. 1 and 6 h after the SCI significantly reduced: (1 the degree of spinal cord inflammation and tissue injury (histological score, (2 neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity, (3 nitrotyrosine formation, (4 pro-inflammatory cytokines, (5 NF-kappaB expression, (6 p-ERK1/2 and p38 expression and (7 apoptosis (TUNEL staining, FAS ligand, Bax and Bcl-2 expression. Moreover, olprinone significantly ameliorated the recovery of hind-limb function (evaluated by motor recovery score. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate that olprinone treatment reduces the development of inflammation and tissue injury associated with spinal cord

  8. Effect of obesity on the acute inflammatory response in pregnant and cycling female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, J; Luheshi, G N; Woodside, B

    2013-05-01

    Nonpregnant female rats have a lower inflammatory response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) than males and, at late stages of gestation, the fever response to this immunogen is almost completely suppressed. We have shown in males that obesity exacerbates sickness responses to pathogenic stimuli. In the present study, we investigated whether obesity would have a similar effect in females and reverse some of the suppressive effects of pregnancy on the innate immune response. Lean and diet-induced obese adult Wistar rats were randomly separated into either cycling or mated groups. On day 18 of pregnancy or in the metestrous/dioestrous phase in cycling rats, a single injection of LPS (100 μg/kg) was administered and rats were sacrificed 8h or 24 h later. In pregnant females, LPS induced a higher increase in body temperature in obese rats only at the 24-h time point and lower hypothalamic interleukin (IL)-1β expression and higher circulating levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (ra) than their cycling counterparts. Conversely, there was no suppression of inflammatory signals in the white adipose tissue of pregnant rats. At 24 h post LPS, the cell surface marker CD11c and IL-6 mRNA expression were increased in white adipose tissue from obese rats regardless of reproductive state, whereas IL-1ra was highest in the LPS-treated obese pregnant group. In cycling females, LPS induced a higher fever response in obese rats accompanied by higher circulating levels of IL-6 and IL-1ra, as well as an increase in circulating leptin only in the obese cycling group. In the hypothalamus, obese rats showed significantly higher expression of nuclear factor-IL-6 in at the 8-h time point. Collectively, these results show that diet-induced obesity in females is associated with a similar pattern of response to that previously observed in males. On the other hand, obesity had limited effects in pregnant rats, with the exception of white adipose tissue.

  9. Systemic inflammatory response to exhaustive exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Pol, M.H.J. van de; Heijdra, Y.F.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2005-01-01

    Systemic inflammation may be present in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Exercise is known to elicit an inflammatory response. We hypothesized that the systemic inflammatory response to exercise might be exaggerated in COPD patients compared to healthy subjects. Sixteen CO

  10. Tourniquet-induced systemic inflammatory response in extremity surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wakai, A

    2012-02-03

    BACKGROUND: Tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury in animals produces significant systemic inflammatory effects. This study investigated whether a biologic response occurs in a clinically relevant model of tourniquet-induced reperfusion injury. METHODS: Patients undergoing elective knee arthroscopy were prospectively randomized into controls (no tourniquet) and subjects (tourniquet-controlled). The effects of tourniquet-induced reperfusion on monocyte activation state, neutrophil activation state, and transendothelial migration (TEM) were studied. Changes in the cytokines implicated in reperfusion injury, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, and IL-10 were also determined. RESULTS: After 15 minutes of reperfusion, neutrophil and monocyte activation were significantly increased. Pretreatment of neutrophils with pooled subject (ischemia-primed) plasma significantly increased TEM. In contrast, TEM was not significantly altered by ischemia-primed plasma pretreatment of the endothelial monolayer. Significant elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and IL-1beta were observed in subjects compared with controls after 15 minutes of reperfusion. There was no significant difference in serum IL-10 levels between the groups at all the time points studied. CONCLUSION: These results indicate a transient neutrophil and monocyte activation after tourniquet-ischemia that translates into enhanced neutrophil transendothelial migration with potential for tissue injury.

  11. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise Performed in the Morning and Evening on Inflammatory Cytokine and Metabolic Hormone Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ki Kim

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of endurance exercise performed in the morning and evening on inflammatory cytokine responses in young men.Fourteen healthy male participants aged 24.3 ± 0.8 years (mean ± standard error performed endurance exercise in the morning (0900-1000 h on one day and then in the evening (1700-1800 h on another day with an interval of at least 1 week between each trial. In both the morning and evening trials, the participants walked for 60 minutes at approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected to determine hormones and inflammatory cytokines at pre-exercise, immediately post exercise, and 2 h post exercise.Plasma interleukin (IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher immediately after exercise in the evening trial than in the morning trial (P < 0.01, both. Serum free fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in the evening trial than in the morning trial at 2 h after exercise (P < 0.05. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of IL-6 immediately post-exercise and free fatty acids 2 h post-exercise in the evening (r = 0.68, P < 0.01.These findings suggest that the effect of acute endurance exercise in the evening enhances the plasma IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations compared to that in the morning. In addition, IL-6 was involved in increasing free fatty acids, suggesting that the evening is more effective for exercise-induced lipolysis compared with the morning.

  12. Distending Pressure Did Not Activate Acute Phase or Inflammatory Responses in the Airways and Lungs of Fetal, Preterm Lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Y Petersen

    Full Text Available Mechanical ventilation at birth causes airway injury and lung inflammation in preterm sheep. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP is being increasingly used clinically to transition preterm infants at birth.To test if distending pressures will activate acute phase reactants and inflammatory changes in the airways of fetal, preterm lambs.The head and chest of fetal lambs at 128±1 day GA were surgically exteriorized. With placental circulation intact, fetal lambs were then randomized to one of five 15 minute interventions: PEEP of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 cmH2O. Recruitment volumes were recorded. Fetal lambs remained on placental support for 30 min after the intervention. The twins of each 0 cmH2O animal served as controls. Fetal lung fluid (FLF, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL, right mainstem bronchi and peripheral lung tissue were evaluated for inflammation.Recruitment volume increased from 0.4±0.04 mL/kg at 4 cmH2O to 2.4±0.3 mL/kg at 16 cmH2O. The lambs were surfactant deficient, and all pressures were below the opening inflection pressure on pressure-volume curve. mRNA expression of early response genes and pro-inflammatory cytokines did not increase in airway tissue or lung tissue at any pressure compared to controls. FLF and BAL also did not have increases in early response proteins. No histologic changes or Egr-1 activation was present at the pressures used.Distending pressures as high as 16 cmH2O did not recruit lung volume at birth and did not increase markers of injury in the lung or airways in non-breathing preterm fetal sheep.

  13. Correlation of serum inflammatory cytokine and immunoglobulin content with post-herpetic neuralgia in patients with acute herpes zoster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-Jun Shi; Zhi-Qiang Cui

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation of serum inflammatory cytokine and immunoglobulin content with post-herpetic neuralgia in patients with acute herpes zoster.Methods:Patients diagnosed with herpes zoster in our hospital between May 2012 and October 2015 were selected and divided into herpes zoster-post-herpetic neuralgia group (VZV-PHN group) and herpes zoster-control group (VZV-Con group) according to the incidence of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN); healthy volunteers receiving physical examination in our hospital during the same period were selected as normal control group (Con group).Results: Serumβ-EP, NT, IFN-γ and IL-2 levels of VZV-PHN group and VZV-Con group were significantly lower than those of Con group (P<0.05), while SP, VGF, CGRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, IL-10, TGF-β1, IgG, IgM and IgA levels were significantly higher than those of Con group (P<0.05); serumβ-EP, NT, IFN-γ, IL-2, IgG, IgM and IgA levels of VZV-PHN group were significantly lower than those of VZV-Con group (P<0.05) while SP, VGF, CGRP, IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1 levels were significantly higher than those of VZV-Con group (P<0.05);β-EP and NT were positively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-2, IgG, IgM and IgA, and negatively correlated with IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1; SP, VGF and CGRP were negatively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-2, IgG, IgM and IgA, and positively correlated with IL-4, IL-6, IL-17, IL-21, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β1.Conclusions:Abnormal secretion of inflammatory cytokines and immunoglobulin caused by humoral immune and cellular immune response disorder is associated with the occurrence of post-herpetic neuralgia in patients with acute herpes zoster.

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 regulates nociception in rodent models of acute inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambelli, Vanessa O; Gross, Eric R; Chen, Che-Hong; Gutierrez, Vanessa P; Cury, Yara; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2014-08-27

    Exogenous aldehydes can cause pain in animal models, suggesting that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2), which metabolizes many aldehydes, may regulate nociception. To test this hypothesis, we generated a knock-in mouse with an inactivating point mutation in ALDH2 (ALDH2*2), which is also present in human ALDH2 of ~540 million East Asians. The ALDH2*1/*2 heterozygotic mice exhibited a larger response to painful stimuli than their wild-type littermates, and this heightened nociception was inhibited by an ALDH2-selective activator (Alda-1). No effect on inflammation per se was observed. Using a rat model, we then showed that nociception tightly correlated with ALDH activity (R(2) = 0.90) and that reduced nociception was associated with less early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the spinal cord and less reactive aldehyde accumulation at the insult site (including acetaldehyde and 4-hydroxynonenal). Further, acetaldehyde- and formalin-induced nociceptive behavior was greater in the ALDH2*1/*2 mice than in the wild-type mice. Finally, Alda-1 treatment was even beneficial when given after the inflammatory agent was administered. Our data in rodent models suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme ALDH2 regulates nociception and could serve as a molecular target for pain control, with ALDH2 activators, such as Alda-1, as potential non-narcotic, cardiac-safe analgesics. Furthermore, our results suggest a possible genetic basis for East Asians' apparent lower pain tolerance.

  15. The inflammatory response in blood and in remote organs following acute kidney injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøchner, Anne Craveiro; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Højberg-Holm, Jimmy

    2014-01-01

    /R of both hind legs + LPS. In groups B and E, I/R times were identical. All mice were kept alive for 24 h and then sacrificed. Levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured in the blood. The activity of myeloperoxidase (MPO) in lungs, kidneys, and liver was evaluated...... infiltration of distant organs measured by the levels of MPO in the lung and liver also showed a significantly higher level in renal I/R compared to hind leg I/R. Renal I/R is associated with a more pronounced inflammatory response in blood and distant organs. The high cytokine levels measured following...... was that elevated levels of cytokines would be found in both blood and in organs distant to the kidneys. Forty mice were divided into five groups. The mice were subjected to the following operations: A: Sham only, no lipopolysaccharide (LPS); B: I/R of both kidneys + LPS; C: LPS only; D: Nephrectomy + LPS; E: I...

  16. Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after treatment with pegylated interferon alfa-2a in a patient with chronic hepatitis C virus infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lahbabi Mounia

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The combination of polyethylene glycol (PEGylated interferon (pegylated interferon and ribavirin has been shown to be an effective treatment for chronic hepatitis C virus. In general, common side effects related to this combination therapy are mild and are well tolerated. However, peripheral neuropathy including demyelinating polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α2a (pegylated interferon alfa-2a is extremely rare. In the literature, only one case of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α2a has been published previously. Case presentation To the best of our knowledge we present only the second case of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to PEG-interferon α2a, occurring in a 63-year-old Caucasian man. He developed tingling, numbness, and weakness of his upper and lower extremities with acute neurological deficits after five weeks of a combination therapy with PEG-interferon α2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C virus infection. His clinical course, neurological findings, and his electromyogram results were all consistent with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Our patient recovered completely after interferon was stopped and symptomatic treatment and a further electromyogram showed a disappearance of neuropathy. Four weeks later, PEG-interferon α2a was reintroduced with a gradually increasing dose without any reappearance of neurological symptoms allowing hepatitis C seroconversion. Conclusions Recognition of this rare yet possible presentation is important for early and accurate diagnosis and treatment. This case report also suggests that the reintroduction of PEGylated interferon in patients who had presented with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy related to interferon α may be safe, but this must be confirmed by further studies.

  17. A comparative study of anti-inflammatory activity of lovastatin, simvastatin, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin on acute and chronic inflammation in animal models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santoshkumar R Jeevangi; S Manjunath; Sachidananda G Shetti; Chetan Manjunath; Prashant Dass

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the anti-inflammatory activity of Lovastatin, Simvastatin, Atorvastatin, and Rosuvastatin on acute and chronic models of inflammation, to compare with the effect of Diclofenac sodium and amongst themselves in rats. Methods: Carrageenin induce rat paw edema method in which 5 animals of each group (6 groups) received orally 4% gum acacia, Diclofenac and 4 statins respectively 1 h before Carrageenin injection in paw. The paw edema volume measured with plethysmograph after 3 h and percentage inhibition of edema in various groups calculated. Rexin pellet granuloma method in which 4 rexin pellets were implanted into dorsum of skin of each rat of 6 groups (n=5) including control, Diclofenac and 4 statin groups respectively. Rats were orally fed with drugs daily for 7 days and on 8th day rexin pellets were removed after sacrificing the rat and dried in incubator 60oC overnight. Pellets were then weighed and percentage inhibition of granulation tissue was calculated and sent for histopathological examination.Results:All the 4 statins showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the present study in both acute as well as chronic models of inflammation. The anti-inflammatory activity of the 4 statins was significant on comparison with Diclofenac. Lovastatin and Simvastatin demonstrated 10-20% more anti-inflammatory activity than Atorvastatin and Rosuvastatin. Conclusions: The present study revealed the anti-inflammatory effect of statins and thus suggests that the statins have a potential anti-atherosclerotic activity along with its lipid lowering property.

  18. Influence of acute hyperglycemia in human sepsis on inflammatory cytokine and counterregulatory hormone concentrations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Kui Yu; Wei-Qin Li; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: In human sepsis, a prominent component of the hypermetabolite is impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and hyperglycemia. Elevations in plasma glucose concentration impair immune function by altering cytokine production from macrophages. We assessed the role of glucose in the regulation of circulating levels of insulin, glucagon, cortisol,IL-6 and TNF-α in human sepsis with normal or impaired glucose tolerance.METHODS: According to the results of intravenous glucose tolerance test, forty patients were classified into two groups: control group (n=20) and IGT group (n=20).Plasma glucose levels were acutely raised in two groups and maintained at 15 mmol/L for 3 hours. Plasma insulin,glucagon and cortisol levels were measured by radioimmunoassay, the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were detected by ELISA.RESULTS: In IGT group, the fasting concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, cortisol, IL-6 and TNFα levels were significantly higher than those in control group (P<0.05). During clamp, the control group had a higher average amount of dextrose infusion than the IGT group (P<0.01). In control group, plasma insulin levels rose from a basal value to a peak at an hour (P<0.05) and maintained at high levels. Plasma glucagon levels descended from a basal value to the lowest level within an hour (P<0.01)and low levels were maintained throughout the clamp. In IGT group, plasma insulin was more significantly elevated (P<0.01), and plasma glucagon levels were not significantly declined. Plasma cortisol levels were not significantly changed in two groups. In control group, plasma IL-6 and TNF-α levels rose (P<0.01) within 2 hours of the clamp and returned to basal values at 3 hours. In IGT group, increased levels of plasma cytokine lasted longer than in control group (3 hours vs. 2 hours, P<0.05), and the cytokine peaks of IGT group were higher (P<0.05) than those of control group.CONCLUSION: Acute hyperglycemia pricks up hyperinsulinemia and increases

  19. New Echocardiographic Findings Correlate with Intramyocardial Inflammation in Endomyocardial Biopsies of Patients with Acute Myocarditis and Inflammatory Cardiomyopathy

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    Felicitas Escher

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The diagnosis of acute myocarditis (AMC and inflammatory cardiomyopathy (DCMi can be difficult. Speckle tracking echocardiography with accurate assessments of regional contractility could have an outstanding importance for the diagnosis. Methods and Results. N=25 patients with clinically diagnosed AMC who underwent endomyocardial biopsies (EMBs were studied prospectively. Speckle tracking imaging was examined at the beginning and during a mean follow-up period of 6.2 months. In the acute phase patients had markedly decreased left ventricular (LV systolic function (mean LV ejection fraction (LVEF 40.4±10.3%. At follow-up in n=8 patients, inflammation persists, correlating with a significantly reduced fractional shortening (FS, 21.5±6.0% in contrast to those without inflammation in EMB (FS 32.1±7.1%, P<0.05. All AMC patients showed a reduction in global systolic longitudinal strain (LS, −8.36±−3.47% and strain rate (LSR, 0.53±0.29 1/s. At follow-up, LS and LRS were significantly lower in patients with inflammation, in contrast to patients without inflammation (−9.4±1.4 versus −16.8±2.0%, P<0.0001; 0.78±0.4 versus 1.3±0.3 1/s. LSR and LS correlate significantly with lymphocytic infiltrates (for CD3 r=0.7, P<0.0001, and LFA-1 r=0.8, P<0.0001. Conclusion. Speckle tracking echocardiography is a useful adjunctive assisting tool for evaluation over the course of intramyocardial inflammation in patients with AMC and DCMi.

  20. Systems biomarkers as acute diagnostics and chronic monitoring tools for traumatic brain injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kevin K. W.; Moghieb, Ahmed; Yang, Zhihui; Zhang, Zhiqun

    2013-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant biomedical problem among military personnel and civilians. There exists an urgent need to develop and refine biological measures of acute brain injury and chronic recovery after brain injury. Such measures "biomarkers" can assist clinicians in helping to define and refine the recovery process and developing treatment paradigms for the acutely injured to reduce secondary injury processes. Recent biomarker studies in the acute phase of TBI have highlighted the importance and feasibilities of identifying clinically useful biomarkers. However, much less is known about the subacute and chronic phases of TBI. We propose here that for a complex biological problem such as TBI, multiple biomarker types might be needed to harness the wide range of pathological and systemic perturbations following injuries, including acute neuronal death, neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration to systemic responses. In terms of biomarker types, they range from brain-specific proteins, microRNA, genetic polymorphism, inflammatory cytokines and autoimmune markers and neuro-endocrine hormones. Furthermore, systems biology-driven biomarkers integration can help present a holistic approach to understanding scenarios and complexity pathways involved in brain injury.

  1. 血必净注射液对重症慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性加重期患者全身炎症反应及免疫功能的影响%Effect of Xuebijing injection on systemic inflammatory response and immune function of patients with acute exacerbation of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗玲; 潘玲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impacts of Xuebijing injection on systemic inflammatory response and immune function of patients with acute exacerbation of severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods A prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted. Forty patients with severe AECOPD were divided into control group and Xuebijing group in accordance with the random number table, each group 20 cases. Both groups were treated by routine conventional basic therapy of severe AECOPD including anti-infection, phlegm-expelling formula, bronchodilators and mechanical ventilation, etc, while in Xuebijing group, intravenous drip of Xuebijing (100 mg, twice a day for 5 days) was additionally used. The changes of data of arterial blood gas analysis, blood routine examination, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), immune function, and acute physiology and chronic health evaluation system Ⅱ (APACHE Ⅱ) score before and after therapy were observed and compared between the two groups. The length of stay in hospital, duration of mechanical ventilation, and prognosis were also compared between the two groups. Besides, according to the difference in APACHE Ⅱ score, all the patients were divided into APACHEⅡscore≥15 score group (18 cases) and APACHEⅡscore 0.05). ② Compared with those before therapy, the pH value, oxygenation index, arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PaCO2), white blood cell count (WBC), CRP, PCT were significantly improved after therapy in both control and Xuebijing groups. Compared with those in the control group, WBC, CRP, PCT were significantly lowered in Xuebijing group [WBC (×109/L): 10.29±3.83 vs. 12.69±3.42, CRP (mg/L): 9.06±4.19 vs. 15.26±4.22, PCT (ng/L): 0.18±0.21 vs. 0.42±0.24, all P 0.05). The degrees of improvement of CD45+, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ and CD4+/CD8+ ratio were more remarkable in Xuebijing group after treatment than those in control group [CD45+ (×106/L): 1 079.38±153.86 vs. 1 015

  2. Baclofen, a GABABR agonist, ameliorates immune-complex mediated acute lung injury by modulating pro-inflammatory mediators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunying Jin

    Full Text Available Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI. Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2, GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP, in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF. Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting

  3. Baclofen, a GABABR agonist, ameliorates immune-complex mediated acute lung injury by modulating pro-inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Shunying; Merchant, Michael L; Ritzenthaler, Jeffrey D; McLeish, Kenneth R; Lederer, Eleanor D; Torres-Gonzalez, Edilson; Fraig, Mostafa; Barati, Michelle T; Lentsch, Alex B; Roman, Jesse; Klein, Jon B; Rane, Madhavi J

    2015-01-01

    Immune-complexes play an important role in the inflammatory diseases of the lung. Neutrophil activation mediates immune-complex (IC) deposition-induced acute lung injury (ALI). Components of gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) signaling, including GABA B receptor 2 (GABABR2), GAD65/67 and the GABA transporter, are present in the lungs and in the neutrophils. However, the role of pulmonary GABABR activation in the context of neutrophil-mediated ALI has not been determined. Thus, the objective of the current study was to determine whether administration of a GABABR agonist, baclofen would ameliorate or exacerbate ALI. We hypothesized that baclofen would regulate IC-induced ALI by preserving pulmonary GABABR expression. Rats were subjected to sham injury or IC-induced ALI and two hours later rats were treated intratracheally with saline or 1 mg/kg baclofen for 2 additional hours and sacrificed. ALI was assessed by vascular leakage, histology, TUNEL, and lung caspase-3 cleavage. ALI increased total protein, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α and interleukin-1 receptor associated protein (IL-1R AcP), in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Moreover, ALI decreased lung GABABR2 expression, increased phospho-p38 MAPK, promoted IκB degradation and increased neutrophil influx in the lung. Administration of baclofen, after initiation of ALI, restored GABABR expression, which was inhibited in the presence of a GABABR antagonist, CGP52432. Baclofen administration activated pulmonary phospho-ERK and inhibited p38 MAPK phosphorylation and IκB degradation. Additionally, baclofen significantly inhibited pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1βAcP release and promoted BAL neutrophil apoptosis. Protective effects of baclofen treatment on ALI were possibly mediated by inhibition of TNF-α- and IL-1β-mediated inflammatory signaling. Interestingly, GABABR2 expression was regulated in the type II pneumocytes in lung tissue sections from lung injured patients, further suggesting a

  4. Acutely exacerbated hypertension and increased inflammatory signs due to radiation treatment for metastatic pheochromocytoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teno, Shinichi; Tanabe, Akiyo; Nomura, Kaoru; Demura, Hiroshi [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1996-10-01

    Hypertension and norepinephrine hypersecretion in a 59-year-old woman suffering from malignant pheochromocytoma with multiple metastases were appropriately controlled with {alpha}- and {beta}- blockers, and {alpha}-methyltyrosine ({alpha}-MT), a catecholamine-synthesis inhibitor. Metastasized vertebrae were treated with external radiation to relieve pain, but this treatment had to be interrupted at a total dose of 20 Gy because the patient suffered acutely exacerbated hypertension (200/110 mmHg), tachycardia (160 beats/min) and a low-grade fever. Simultaneously her serum levels of LDH, potassium, urea nitrogen, creatinine, white blood cell count, CRP and norepinephrine were significantly increased, suggesting that this episode was due to radiation-induced tissue destruction and the leakage of catecholamines and possibly interleukin-6, a cytokine mediating inflammation which is reportedly present in pheochromocytoma. The marked hypertension was controlled by continuous iv administration of phentolamine and propranolol. Although radiation therapy effectively relieves pain due to neoplasmic metastasis to the bone, physicians should be aware that life-threatening complications such as the above occur in malignant pheochromocytoma. Sufficient pretreatment with adrenergic blocking agents and/or {alpha}-MT and careful monitoring of the patient`s general condition during radiation therapy, even at a low dose, are highly recommended. (author)

  5. Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Are Better than Acetaminophen on Fever Control at Acute Stage of Fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Ting Yeh

    Full Text Available In addition to adequate surgical fixation and an aggressive rehabilitation program, pain relief is one of the most critical factors in the acute stage of fracture treatment. The most common analgesics are nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and Acetaminophen, both of which relieve pain and reduce body temperature. In clinical experiences, they exhibit effective pain control; however, their influence on body temperature remains controversial. This study is aimed at determining the effects of analgesics at the acute stage of traumatic fracture by performing a clinical retrospective study of patients with fractures and a fracture animal model. The retrospective study revealed that, in the acetaminophen group, the mean value of postmedication body temperature (BT was significantly higher than that of the premedication BT. The change in BT was highly related with the medication rather than other risk factors. Forty eight 12-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: a control group, fracture group, fracture-Acetaminophen group, Acetaminophen group, fracture-Arcoxia group, and Arcoxia group. Fracture rats were prepared by breaking their unilateral tibia and fibula. Their inflammation conditions were evaluated by measuring their serum cytokine level and their physiological status was evaluated by estimating their central temperature, heart rate, and mean blood pressure. The hepatic adverse effects were assessed by measuring the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (sGOT and alanine aminotransferase (sGPT. The central temperature in the fracture-Acetaminophen group exceeded that in the groups fed normal saline water or Arcoxia. Accumulated hepatic injury was presented as steadily ascending curves of sGOT and sGPT. Inflammation-related cytokine levels were not higher in the Acetaminophen fracture group and were significantly lower in the fracture-Arcoxia group. Fever appeared to be aggravated by acetaminophen and more related to the

  6. Non-Steroid Anti-Inflammatory Drugs Are Better than Acetaminophen on Fever Control at Acute Stage of Fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Kuang-Ting; Wu, Wen-Tien; Subeq, Yi-Maun; Niu, Chi-Chien; Liao, Kuang-Wen; Chen, Ing-Ho; Wang, Jen-Hung; Lee, Ru-Ping

    2015-01-01

    In addition to adequate surgical fixation and an aggressive rehabilitation program, pain relief is one of the most critical factors in the acute stage of fracture treatment. The most common analgesics are nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drugs and Acetaminophen, both of which relieve pain and reduce body temperature. In clinical experiences, they exhibit effective pain control; however, their influence on body temperature remains controversial. This study is aimed at determining the effects of analgesics at the acute stage of traumatic fracture by performing a clinical retrospective study of patients with fractures and a fracture animal model. The retrospective study revealed that, in the acetaminophen group, the mean value of postmedication body temperature (BT) was significantly higher than that of the premedication BT. The change in BT was highly related with the medication rather than other risk factors. Forty eight 12-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups: a control group, fracture group, fracture-Acetaminophen group, Acetaminophen group, fracture-Arcoxia group, and Arcoxia group. Fracture rats were prepared by breaking their unilateral tibia and fibula. Their inflammation conditions were evaluated by measuring their serum cytokine level and their physiological status was evaluated by estimating their central temperature, heart rate, and mean blood pressure. The hepatic adverse effects were assessed by measuring the serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (sGOT) and alanine aminotransferase (sGPT). The central temperature in the fracture-Acetaminophen group exceeded that in the groups fed normal saline water or Arcoxia. Accumulated hepatic injury was presented as steadily ascending curves of sGOT and sGPT. Inflammation-related cytokine levels were not higher in the Acetaminophen fracture group and were significantly lower in the fracture-Arcoxia group. Fever appeared to be aggravated by acetaminophen and more related to the elevation of hepatic

  7. PICK1 confers anti-inflammatory effects in acute liver injury via suppressing M1 macrophage polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Juan; Wu, Xiaoqin; Zhou, Qun; Yang, Yang; Tian, Yuanyao; Huang, Cheng; Meng, Xiaoming; Li, Jun

    2016-08-01

    Protein interacting with C kinase 1 (PICK1) is a scaffolding protein mainly implicated in neurological diseases, however, the function of PICK1 in acute liver injury (ALI) remains unknown. Our study found a dramatical decrease in mRNA and protein levels of PICK1 in liver tissues and isolated Kupffer cells (KCs) from the liver in mice with ALI. Furthermore, pretreatment the mice with ALI with FSC-231, a pharmacological inhibitor of PICK1, could significantly augment inflammatory response. Furthermore, in vitro studies showed that both lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) significantly reduced the expression of PICK1, while IL-4 elevated its expression in RAW 264.7 cells. Additionally, over-expression of PICK1 inhibited the expression of M1 biomarkers by suppressing NF-κB activity, and enhanced the expression of M2 biomarkers by promoting STAT6 activity. In contrast, knockdown of PICK1 or FSC-231 pretreatment promoted M1 polarization and suppressed M2 polarization. Besides, caveolin-1 was identified as a potential target gene controlled by PICK1 in RAW 264.7 cells. Mechanistic investigation revealed a dual role of PICK1 in regulating macrophage polarization and implied PICK1 as a potential therapeutic target in ALI.

  8. Pro-inflammatory-Related Loss of CXCL12 Niche Promotes Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemic Progression at the Expense of Normal Lymphopoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balandrán, Juan Carlos; Purizaca, Jessica; Enciso, Jennifer; Dozal, David; Sandoval, Antonio; Jiménez-Hernández, Elva; Alemán-Lazarini, Leticia; Perez-Koldenkova, Vadim; Quintela-Núñez del Prado, Henry; Rios de los Ríos, Jussara; Mayani, Héctor; Ortiz-Navarrete, Vianney; Guzman, Monica L.; Pelayo, Rosana

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric oncology, notably childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), is currently one of the health-leading concerns worldwide and a biomedical priority. Decreasing overall leukemia mortality in children requires a comprehensive understanding of its pathobiology. It is becoming clear that malignant cell-to-niche intercommunication and microenvironmental signals that control early cell fate decisions are critical for tumor progression. We show here that the mesenchymal stromal cell component of ALL bone marrow (BM) differ from its normal counterpart in a number of functional properties and may have a key role during leukemic development. A decreased proliferation potential, contrasting with the strong ability of producing pro-inflammatory cytokines and an aberrantly loss of CXCL12 and SCF, suggest that leukemic lymphoid niches in ALL BM are unique and may exclude normal hematopoiesis. Cell competence ex vivo assays within tridimensional coculture structures indicated a growth advantage of leukemic precursor cells and their niche remodeling ability by CXCL12 reduction, resulting in leukemic cell progression at the expense of normal niche-associated lymphopoiesis. PMID:28111575

  9. Modeling the pro-inflammatory tumor microenvironment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia predicts a breakdown of hematopoietic-mesenchymal communication networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Enciso

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Lineage fate decisions of hematopoietic cells depend on intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals provided by the bone marrow microenvironment, where they reside. Abnormalities in composition and function of hematopoietic niches have been proposed as key contributors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL progression. Our previous experimental findings strongly suggest that pro-inflammatory cues contribute to mesenchymal niche abnormalities that result in maintenance of ALL precursor cells at the expense of normal hematopoiesis. Here, we propose a molecular regulatory network interconnecting the major communication pathways between hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs within the bone marrow. Dynamical analysis of the network as a Boolean model reveals two stationary states that can be interpreted as the intercellular contact status. Furthermore, simulations describe the molecular patterns observed during experimental proliferation and activation. Importantly, our model predicts instability in the CXCR4/CXCL12 and VLA4/VCAM1 interactions following microenvironmental perturbation due by temporal signaling from Toll like receptors (TLRs ligation. Therefore, aberrant expression of NF-κB induced by intrinsic or extrinsic factors may contribute to create a tumor microenvironment where a negative feedback loop inhibiting CXCR4/CXCL12 and VLA4/VCAM1 cellular communication axes allows for the maintenance of malignant cells.

  10. Modeling the Pro-inflammatory Tumor Microenvironment in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Predicts a Breakdown of Hematopoietic-Mesenchymal Communication Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciso, Jennifer; Mayani, Hector; Mendoza, Luis; Pelayo, Rosana

    2016-01-01

    Lineage fate decisions of hematopoietic cells depend on intrinsic factors and extrinsic signals provided by the bone marrow microenvironment, where they reside. Abnormalities in composition and function of hematopoietic niches have been proposed as key contributors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) progression. Our previous experimental findings strongly suggest that pro-inflammatory cues contribute to mesenchymal niche abnormalities that result in maintenance of ALL precursor cells at the expense of normal hematopoiesis. Here, we propose a molecular regulatory network interconnecting the major communication pathways between hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) within the BM. Dynamical analysis of the network as a Boolean model reveals two stationary states that can be interpreted as the intercellular contact status. Furthermore, simulations describe the molecular patterns observed during experimental proliferation and activation. Importantly, our model predicts instability in the CXCR4/CXCL12 and VLA4/VCAM1 interactions following microenvironmental perturbation due by temporal signaling from Toll like receptors (TLRs) ligation. Therefore, aberrant expression of NF-κB induced by intrinsic or extrinsic factors may contribute to create a tumor microenvironment where a negative feedback loop inhibiting CXCR4/CXCL12 and VLA4/VCAM1 cellular communication axes allows for the maintenance of malignant cells.

  11. Anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of (RS)-glucoraphanin bioactivated with myrosinase in murine sub-acute and acute MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuppo, Maria; Iori, Renato; De Nicola, Gina Rosalinda; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    This study was focused on the possible neuroprotective role of (RS)-glucoraphanin, bioactivated with myrosinase enzyme (bioactive RS-GRA), in an experimental mouse model of Parkinson's disease (PD). RS-GRA is one of the most important glucosinolates, a thiosaccharidic compound found in Brassicaceae, notably in Tuscan black kale seeds. RS-GRA was extracted by one-step anion exchange chromatography, further purified by gel-filtration and analyzed by HPLC. Following, pure RS-GRA was characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectrometry and the purity was assayed by HPLC analysis of the desulfo-derivative according to the ISO 9167-1 method. The obtained purity has been of 99%. To evaluate the possible pharmacological efficacy of bioactive RS-GRA (administrated at the dose of 10mg/kg, ip +5μl/mouse myrosinase enzyme), C57BL/6 mice were used in two different sets of experiment (in order to evaluate the neuroprotective effects in different phases of the disease), according to an acute (2 injections·40mg/kg MPTP) and a sub-acute (5 injections·20mg/kg MPTP) model of PD. Behavioural test, body weight changes measures and immunohistochemical localization of the main PD markers were performed and post-hoc analysis has shown as bioactive RS-GRA is able to reduce dopamine transporter degradation, tyrosine hydroxylase expression, IL-1β release, as well as the triggering of neuronal apoptotic death pathway (data about Bax/Bcl-2 balance and dendrite spines loss) and the generation of radicalic species by oxidative stress (results focused on nitrotyrosine, Nrf2 and GFAP immunolocalization). These effects have been correlated with the release of neurotrophic factors, such as GAP-43, NGF and BDNF, that, probably, play a supporting role in the neuroprotective action of bioactive RS-GRA. Moreover, after PD-induction mice treated with bioactive RS-GRA are appeared more in health than animals that did not received the treatment both for phenotypic behaviour and for general condition

  12. Effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment versus antibiotic therapy and placebo for patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis with purulent sputum. The BAAP Study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Yvonne; Cots Josep M; Pera Helena; Morros Rosa; Bayona Carolina; Moragas Ana; Llor Carl; Miravitlles Marc; Boada Albert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this process is usually viral in origin and the benefits of antibiotic treatment are marginal. On the other hand, in recent years bronchitis has been considered more as an inflammatory than an infectious process. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effe...

  13. Pseudoephedrine/ephedrine shows potent anti-inflammatory activity against TNF-α-mediated acute liver failure induced by lipopolysaccharide/D-galactosamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhongping; Kong, Xiangliang; Zhang, Tong; Ye, Jin; Fang, Zhaoqin; Yang, Xuejun

    2014-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of pseudoephedrine/ephedrine were investigated using the experimental model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver failure in D-galactosamine (D-GalN)-sensitised male rats in order to elucidate effects other than sympathomimetic effects. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with D-GalN (400 mg/kg) and LPS (40 μg/kg) to induce acute liver failure. The treatment groups were then intraperitoneally administered pseudoephedrine/ephedrine at 0 h and 4 h after induction and the activation induced by treatment with pseudoephedrine and/or LPS on the primary Kupffer cells (KCs) was monitored. Compared with controls induced by GalN/LPS alone, pseudoephedrine dramatically reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and bile ductular hyperplasia and hepatic necrosis observed in liver sections. It inhibited both hepatocellular apoptosis and the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1. It lowered the production of tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the beginning of acute liver failure induced by D-GalN/LPS. Correspondingly, levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), total bilirubin (TBIL) and malondialdehyde were attenuated. Ephedrine demonstrated all these identical protective effects as well. In addition, pseudoephedrine significantly suppressed the production of p-IκB-α, reducing the degradation of sequestered nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) in the cytoplasm, and inhibited the translocation of NF-κB/p65 to the nucleus, the transcription of TNF-α mRNA and the production of TNF-α in primary KCs. These results suggest that pseudoephedrine and ephedrine have a potent anti-inflammatory activity against D-GalN/LPS-induced acute liver failure in rats, and this comprehensive anti-inflammatory effect may result from the inhibition of TNF-α production.

  14. Neurochemical mechanism of the gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex in rats with acute inflammatory stomach ache

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaoli Xu; Qin Li; Lv Zhou; Liqiang Ru

    2012-01-01

    The normal gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex cycle was interrupted, and paroxysmal contraction appeared after formaldehyde-induced stomach ache. Activities of nitric oxide synthase, acetylcholinesterase and vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons were significantly reduced, whereas activities of calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons were significantly increased in the pyloric sphincter muscular layer, myenteric nerve plexus and submucous nerve plexus. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli (ST36) suppressed paroxysmal contraction in rats with formaldehyde-induced stomach ache, and neurons in the enteric nervous system were normal. These results indicated that nitrergic neurons, cholinergic neurons, vasoactive intestinal peptide neurons and calcitonin gene-related peptide neurons in the enteric nervous system may be involved in changes to the gastrointestinal interdigestive migrating motor complex following stomach ache, and that electroacupuncture can regulate this process.

  15. Atrial natriuretic peptide attenuates inflammatory responses on oleic acid-induced acute lung injury model in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yao-bin; ZHANG Yan-bo; LIU Dong-hai; LI Xiao-feng; LIU Ai-jun; FAN Xiang-ming; QIAO Chen-hui

    2013-01-01

    Background An inflammatory response leading to organ dysfunction and failure continues to be a major problem after injury in many clinical conditions such as sepsis,severe burns,and trauma.It is increasingly recognized that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) possesses a broad range of biological activities,including effects on endothelial function and inflammation.A recent study has revealed that ANP exerts anti-inflammatory effects.In this study we tested the effects of human ANP (hANP) on lung injury in a model of oleic acid (OA)-induced acute lung injury (ALl) in rats.Methods Rats were randomly assigned to three groups (n=6 in each group).Rats in the control group received a 0.9% solution of NaCl (1 ml.kg1.h-1) by continuous intravenous infusion,after 30 minutes a 0.9% solution of NaCl (1 ml/kg) was injected intravenously,and then the 0.9% NaCl infusion was restarted.Rats in the ALl group received a 0.9% NaCl solution (1 ml·kg-1·h-1) intravenous infusion,after 30 minutes OA was injected intravenously (0.1 ml/kg),and then the 0.9% NaCl infusion was restarted.Rats in the hANP-treated ALI group received a hANP (0.1μg·kg-1·min-1) infusion,after 30 minutes OA was injected intravenously (0.1 ml/kg),and then the hANP infusion was restarted.The anti-inflammation effects of hANP were evaluated by histological examination and determination of serum cytokine levels.Results Serum intedeukin (IL)-1β,IL-6,IL-10 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α were increased in the ALI group at six hours.The levels of all factors were significantly lower in the hANP treated rats (P <0.005).Similarly,levels of IL-1β,IL-6,IL-10 and TNF-α were higher in the lung tissue in the ALI group at six hours.hANP treatment significantly reduced the levels of these factors in the lungs (P <0.005).Histological examination revealed marked reduction in interstitial congestion,edema,and inflammation.Conclusion hANP can attenuate inflammation in an OA-induced lung injury in rat model.

  16. Severity assessment of acute pancreatitis: applying Marshall scoring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lanza Carioca

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of the Marshall scoring system to evaluate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP. Methods : We performed a prospective, observational study in 39 patients with AP evaluated by the Marshall scoring system and the Ranson criteria (admission and 48 hours. We assessed the progression of the disease for seven days and compared the data of the two criteria. Results : Seven patients died during the observation period and one died afterwards. All deaths had shown failure of at least one system by the Marshall method. Conclusion : The Marshall scoring system may be used as an effective and simplified application method to assess the severity of acute pancreatitis.

  17. Oral immune therapy: targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, Yaron

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with an altered systemic immune response leading to inflammation-mediated damage to the gut and other organs. Oral immune therapy is a method of systemic immune modulation via alteration of the gut immune system. It uses the inherit ability of the innate system of the gut to redirect the systemic innate and adaptive immune responses. Oral immune therapy is an attractive clinical approach to treat autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. It can induce immune modulation without immune suppression, has minimal toxicity and is easily administered. Targeting the systemic immune system via the gut immune system can serve as an attractive novel therapeutic method for IBD. This review summarizes the current data and discusses several examples of oral immune therapeutic methods for using the gut immune system to generate signals to reset systemic immunity as a treatment for IBD.

  18. Non inflammatory boronate based glucose-responsive insulin delivery systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrani Dasgupta

    Full Text Available Boronic acids, known to bind diols, were screened to identify non-inflammatory cross-linkers for the preparation of glucose sensitive and insulin releasing agglomerates of liposomes (Agglomerated Vesicle Technology-AVT. This was done in order to select a suitable replacement for the previously used cross-linker, ConcanavalinA (ConA, a lectin known to have both toxic and inflammatory effects in vivo. Lead-compounds were selected from screens that involved testing for inflammatory potential, cytotoxicity and glucose-binding. These were then conjugated to insulin-encapsulating nanoparticles and agglomerated via sugar-boronate ester linkages to form AVTs. In vitro, the particles demonstrated triggered release of insulin upon exposure to physiologically relevant concentrations of glucose (10 mmoles/L-40 mmoles/L. The agglomerates were also shown to be responsive to multiple spikes in glucose levels over several hours, releasing insulin at a rate defined by the concentration of the glucose trigger.

  19. Inflammatory monocytes mediate early and organ-specific innate defense during systemic candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Lisa Y; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K; Knoblaugh, Sue E; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)- and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocyte trafficking into infected kidneys impaired fungal clearance and decreased murine survival. Depletion of CCR2-expressing cells led to uncontrolled fungal growth in the kidneys and brain and demonstrated an essential antifungal role for inflammatory monocytes and their tissue-resident derivatives in the first 48 hours postinfection. Adoptive transfer of purified inflammatory monocytes in depleted hosts reversed the defect in fungal clearance to a substantial extent, indicating a compartmentally and temporally restricted protective function that can be transferred to enhance systemic innate antifungal immunity.

  20. Effects of large dose of dexamethasone on inflammatory mediators and pancreatic cell apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of high dose of dexamethasone on inflammatory mediators and apoptosis of rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP).METHODS: SAP rats were randomly assigned to the model group and treatment group while the normal rats were assigned to the sham operation group. The mortality, ascite volumes, ascites/body weight ratio and pancreas pathological changes of all rats were observed at 3, 6 and 12 h after operation. Their contents of amylase and endotoxin in plasma and contents of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and IL-6 in serum were also determined. The microarray sections of their pancreatic tissues were prepared, terminal transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining was performed and apoptotic indexes were calculated. RESULTS: There was no marked difference between treatment group and model group in survival. The contents of amylase and endotoxin in plasma and contents of TNF-α, PLA2 and IL-6 in serum, ascite volumes, ascites/body weight ratio and pancreas pathological scores were all lower in treatment group than in model group to different extents at different time points [P < 0.05, 58.3 (26.4) ng/L vs 77.535 (42.157)ng/L in TNF-α content, 8.00 (2.00) points vs 9.00 (2.00)points in pathological score of pancreas respectively;P < 0.01, 0.042 (0.018) EU/mL vs 0.056 (0.0195) EU/mL in endotoxin content, 7791 (1863) U/L vs 9195 (1298)U/L in plasma amylase content, 1.53 (0.79) vs 2.38 (1.10) in ascites/body weight ratio, 8.00 (1.00) points vs 11.00 (1.50) points in pathological score of pancreas; P < 0.001, 3.36 (1.56) ng/L vs 5.65 (1.08) ng/L in IL-6 content, 4.50 (2.00) vs 7.20 (2.00), 4.20 (1.60) vs 6.40 (2.30), 3.40 (2.70) vs 7.90 (1.70) in ascite volumes,respectively]. The apoptotic indexes of pancreas head and pancreas tail were all higher in treatment group than in model group at 6 h[P < 0.01, 0.00 (2.00)% vs 0.00(0.00)%, 0.20 (1.80) vs 0.00 (0.00) in apoptosis indexes, respectively

  1. 20 Years On: Is It Time to Redefine the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Cardiothoracic Surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Landis, R. Clive

    2015-01-01

    The “systemic inflammatory response” has never been defined from a cardiothoracic surgery perspective, but borrowed its definition from the critical care field at a landmark 1992 definition conference on sepsis. It is unclear why the diagnostic criteria for the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) were adopted in isolation, ignoring other potentially more useful definitions for Severe Septic Shock or Secondary Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome. The 1992 SIRS definition for sepsis ...

  2. Effect of Early Hemofiltration on Pro- and Anti-inflammatory Responses and Multiple Organ Failure in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智勇; 王春友; 陶京; 熊炯炘; 万赤丹; 周锋

    2004-01-01

    The effects of early hemofiltration on the serum levels of cytokines, pro- and anti-inflammatory balance and organ function in pigs with severe acute pancreatits (SAP) were studied. SAP pig model was induced by retrograde injection of artificial bile into the pancreatic duct. The pigs were randomly divided into SAP hemofiltration treatment group (HF group, n= 8) and SAP nonhemofiltration treatment group (NHF group, n=8). In the HF group, the animals were subjected to high-volume and zero-balance hemofiltration therapy. The results showed that as compared with NHF group, MAP, CVP and PaO2/FiO2 were significantly increased (P<0.01), while HR, urinary protein content, serum ALT level, pulmonary coefficient and lung wet/dry ratio obviously decreased (P<0.05) in HF group. Under a light microscope, the pulmonary histologic scoring was lower that in HF group (P<0.01) and the lesions of renal and liver tissues were milder. However,there was no significant difference in the pancreatic histologic scoring between the two groups. Six h after establishment of the model, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β were lower, while the IL-10/TNF-α ratio was higher in HF group (all P<0.05). It was suggested that early hemofiltration could effectively remove the serum cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β in SAP pigs, elevate the ratio of IL-10/TNF-α, improve hemodynamics and alleviate the lesions of lung, kidney and liver tissues.

  3. Association of inflammatory response with atrial natriuretic peptide in acute renal failure patients%急性肾功能衰竭患者炎性反应与心钠素的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗远标; 莫海泉

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pathway that inflammatory response in acute renal failure effect on cardiovascular system by analyzing the relationship between inflammatory indices and atrial natriuretic peptide in acute renal failure patients. Methods Atrial natriuretie peptide and the serum inflammatory indices including C-reactive protein(CRP) ,interleukin-6(IL-6) and tumor necrotic factor-a(TNF-α) were measured in 75 patients with acute re-nal failure,the relationship among them was analyzed. Results 62.7% of all patients presented increased ANP lev-els. The serum CRP, IL-6 levels in increased atrial natriuretic peptide group were significantly higher than those in lower atrial natriuretic peptide group. Atrial natduretic peptide in uremia positively correlated with CRP( P<0.01),IL-6 and TNF-α(P<0.05). Conclusion There is inflammatory state in acute renal failure patients, inflammation may have effects on cardiovascular system by leading to metabolic disorder of atrial natriuretic peptide.%目的 探讨急性肾功能衰竭患者慢性炎性反应与心钠素的关系.方法 测定75例急性肾功能衰竭患者慢性炎性指标血C-反应蛋白(CRP)、IL-6、TNF-α及心钠素,分析它们之间的关系.结果 有62.7%急性肾功能衰竭患者心钠素超过正常参考值,心钠素升高组血清CBP、IL-6显著高于心钠素降低组(均P<0.05);血心钠素与CRP(P<0.01)、IL-6及TNF-α呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 急性肾功能衰竭患者存在炎性反应,可能引起心钠素等代谢异常.

  4. Transcompartmental inflammatory responses in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plovsing, Ronni R; Berg, Ronan M G; Evans, Kevin A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Transcompartmental signaling during early inflammation may lead to propagation of disease to other organs. The time course and the mechanisms involved are still poorly understood. We aimed at comparing acute transcompartmental inflammatory responses in humans following...... measured. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: IV endotoxin elicited a systemic inflammatory response with a time-dependent increase and peak in tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and leukocyte counts (all p ...-α, interleukin-6, and albumin (all p inflammatory response was observed after 2-4 hours, with no change in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α. CONCLUSIONS: Acute lung or systemic inflammation in humans is followed by a transcompartmental proinflammatory response, the degree and differential...

  5. Acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensrud, E R; Krivickas, L S

    2001-05-01

    The acquired demyelinating neuropathies can be divided into those with an acute onset and course and those with a more chronic course. The acute neuropathies present as Guillain-Barré syndrome and include acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), Miller Fisher syndrome, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), and acute pandysautonomia. The chronic neuropathies are collectively known as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and include MADSAM (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy, also know as Lewis-Sumner syndrome) and DADS (distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy) as variants. The clinical features, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of these neuropathies are discussed.

  6. Heat Shock Factor-1 and Nuclear Factor-kappaB Are Systemically Activated in Human Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A O’Reilly

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Context :Nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB is a transcription factor for a wide range of proinflammatory mediators while heat shock factor-1 (HSF-1 transcribes stress proteins that protect against cellular damage. Both are attractive therapeutic targets, undergoing investigation in other acute inflammatory conditions, such as sepsis. Objective :To evaluate the role of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and HSF-1 in human acute pancreatitis and their relationship to cytokine/chemokine production, disease severity and outcome. Patients :Twenty-four patients with acute pancreatitis and 12 healthy controls. Main outcome measures :Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated. NF-kappaB and HSF-1 were measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF receptor II and interleukin-8 were measured by ELISA. Acute physiology scores (APS, APACHE II scores and final Atlanta designations of severity were also determined. Results: Systemic NF-kappaB activation occurs in acute pancreatitis compared to healthy controls (P=0.004. However, there was no significant difference between those with mild and severe disease (P=0.685. Systemic activation of HSF-1 was observed in acute pancreatitis compared to healthy controls although this did not reach statistical significance (P=0.053. Activation, however, was greatest in those who had a final Atlanta designation of mild pancreatitis compared to those who had a severe attack of acute pancreatitis (P=0.036. Furthermore, HSF-1 was inversely correlated with acute physiology score (APS; r=-0.49, P=0.019 and APACHE II score (r=-0.47, P=0.026. Conclusions: Both NF-kappaB and HSF-1 are systemically activated in human acute pancreatitis. HSF-1 activation may protect against severity of pancreatitis

  7. Systemic Inflammatory Markers Are Closely Associated with Atherogenic Lipoprotein Subfractions in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between inflammatory markers and atherogenic lipoprotein subfractions. Methods. We studied 520 eligible subjects who were not receiving any lipid-lowering therapy. The inflammatory markers including white blood cell (WBC count, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, fibrinogen, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, and D-dimer were measured. A multimarker inflammatory index was developed. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL separation processes were performed using Lipoprint System. Results. In age- and sex-adjusted analysis, several inflammatory markers (WBC count, hs-CRP, fibrinogen, and ESR were positively related to circulating non-HDL cholesterol and remnant cholesterol (p<0.05, all. Among lipoprotein subfractions, we observed a positive association of inflammatory markers with very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, small LDL cholesterol, and LDL score (p<0.05, all. Meanwhile, a negative association was detected between inflammatory markers and mean LDL particle size (p<0.05 or large HDL cholesterol (p<0.05. Moreover, we found that the relationships between multimarker index quartiles and small LDL cholesterol, LDL score, and mean LDL particle size were slightly stronger in patients with CAD. Conclusions. Systemic inflammatory markers are positively correlated with small LDL cholesterol and LDL score while being negatively linked with mean LDL particle size and large HDL cholesterol, highlighting the potential contribution to increased cardiovascular risk.

  8. Systemic Inflammatory Responses and Lung Injury following Hip Fracture Surgery Increases Susceptibility to Infection in Aged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary infections frequently occur following hip fracture surgery in aged patients. However, the underlying reasons are not fully understood. The present study investigates the systemic inflammatory response and pulmonary conditions following hip fracture surgery as a means of identifying risk factors for lung infections using an aged rodent model. Aged, male Sprague-Dawley rats (8 animals per group underwent a sham procedure or hip fracture plus femoral intramedullary pinning. Animals were sacrificed 1, 3, and 7 days after the injury. Markers of systemic inflammation and pulmonary injury were analyzed. Both sham-operated and injured/surgical group animals underwent intratracheal inoculation with Pseudomonas aeruginosa 1, 3, and 7 days after surgery. P. aeruginosa counts in blood and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid and survival rates were recorded. Serum TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, and IL-10 levels and markers of pulmonary injury were significantly increased at 1 and 3 days following hip fracture and surgery. Animals challenged with P. aeruginosa at 1 and 3 days after injury had a significantly decreased survival rate and more P. aeruginosa recovered from blood and BAL fluid. This study shows that hip fracture and surgery in aged rats induced a systemic inflammatory response and lung injury associated with increased susceptibility to infection during the acute phase after injury and surgery.

  9. High-frequency ultrasound evaluation of effects of early treatment with metoprolol on myocardial inflammatory cytokine expression in rats with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wen; Huang, Linxiao; Zhang, Jiangxia; Gao, Yu; Yang, Yali

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the effects of early treatment with β-adrenergic blocker metoprolol on ventricular remodeling and function after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by using high frequency ultrasound. The relationship between the efficacy and the expression level of cardiac myocardial inflammatory cytokine was examined in rats. The rat model of AMI was induced by ligating the left anterior descending artery. The surviving rats were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: MI control (MI) group and MI metoprolol (MI-B) group, with the rats undergoing sham operation serving as normal control (Sham). MI-B group was given metoprolol for 4 weeks (refer to the CCS-2 protocol) and the other two groups received equal volume of saline via intragastric (i.g.) administration. The ventricular remodeling and function were evaluated by high frequency ultrasound 4 weeks after the treatment. Then all rats were sacrificed for pathological examination and immunohistochemistrical detection of inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α. Compared with the MI group, the left ventricular end-systolic dimension, end-diastolic dimension, end-systolic volume and end-diastolic volume of the MI-B group were significantly decreased (Pmetoprolol treatment for AMI can regulate myocardial inflammatory cytokine expression to improve cardiac function and the underlying mechanism might be that it decreases the level of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increases the level of its anti-inflammatory counterparts in cardiac myocytes. Our study also showed that echocardiography is a useful technique for the structural and functional assessment of left ventricle after acute myocardial infarction.

  10. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marín-Prida, Javier [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy [International Centre for Neurological Restoration (CIREN), Ave. 25 e/ 158 y 160, Playa, PO Box: 11300, Havana (Cuba); Llópiz-Arzuaga, Alexey; Fernández-Massó, Julio R. [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Delgado-Roche, Liván [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Santana, Seydi Pedroso; Cruz-Ramírez, Alieski; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; Nazábal-Gálvez, Marcelo; Cintado-Benítez, Alberto [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L. [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Polentarutti, Nadia [Istituto Clinico Humanitas (IRCCS), Rozzano (Italy); Riva, Federica [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health (DIVET), University of Milano (Italy); Pentón-Arias, Eduardo [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Pentón-Rol, Giselle [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba)

    2013-10-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24 h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD) were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. - Highlights: • Phycocyanobilin (PCB) prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell viability loss. • Anterior cortex and striatum are highly vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). • PCB modulates 190 genes associated to inflammation in acute CH. • PCB regulates 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment. • PCB restores redox and immune balances showing promise as potential stroke therapy.

  11. A study on the status of inflammatory systems in camels naturally infected with Toxoplasma gondii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azma, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Mostafa; Nazifi, Saeed; Rakhshandehroo, Ehsan; Sanati, Ahmad Reza

    2015-06-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a unique intracellular parasite with a worldwide distribution. This parasite infects a variety of cells in a wide range of animal species such as dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius). In order to evaluate the pattern of possible changes in the blood level of some inflammatory mediators and antioxidant enzymes in camels infected with T. gondii, blood samples were taken from a total of 493 dromedary camels and serum concentrations of inflammatory mediators, acute phase proteins and antioxidant enzymes were measured. According to serological data, no seropositivity was found for anti-T. gondii IgM in serum samples; however, 49 camels (9.93 %) showed positive titrations for anti-Toxoplasma IgG. The analyses of data in seropositive animals showed significant increases (P < 0.05) in the serum level of IL-1β and adenosine deaminase activity; however, IFN-γ and TNF-α demonstrated no significant changes in serum samples of the infected camels. In addition, while major acute phase proteins (haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA)) were markedly elevated in infected camels, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and GPX) was remarkably decreased in the blood samples of infected animals. Thus, during the chronic infection in camels, T. gondii can promote significant rises in concentrations of some cytokines (such as IL-1β), acute phase proteins and adenosine deaminase.

  12. The corticotropin-releasing factor system in inflammatory bowel disease: prospects for new therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschos, Konstantinos A; Kolios, George; Chatzaki, Ekaterini

    2009-07-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that stress is implicated in the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), via initial nervous disturbance and subsequent immune dysfunction through brain-gut interactions. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system, being the principal neuroendocrine coordinator of stress responses, is involved in the inflammatory process within the gastrointestinal tract, via vagal and peripheral pathways, as implied by multiple reports reviewed here. Blocking of CRF receptors could theoretically exert beneficial anti-inflammatory effects in colonic tissues. The recently synthesised small-molecule CRF(1) antagonists or alternatively non-peptide CRF(2) antagonists when available, may become new reliable options in the treatment of IBD.

  13. Agmatine Protects against Zymosan-Induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice by Inhibiting NF-κB-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuanfei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lung injury (ALI is characterized by overwhelming lung inflammation and anti-inflammation treatment is proposed to be a therapeutic strategy for ALI. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine formed by decarboxylation of L-arginine, is an endogenous neuromodulator that plays protective roles in diverse central nervous system (CNS disorders. Consistent with its neuromodulatory and neuroprotective properties, agmatine has been reported to have beneficial effects on depression, anxiety, hypoxic ischemia, Parkinson’s disease, and gastric disorder. In this study, we tested the effect of agmatine on the lung inflammation induced by Zymosan (ZYM challenge in mice. We found that agmatine treatment relieved ZYM-induced acute lung injury, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, wet/dry weight ratio, and myeloperoxidase activity in the lung tissue. This was accompanied by reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and decreased iNOS expression in lung. Furthermore, agmatine inhibited the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB and subsequently blocked the activation of nuclear factor (NF-κB induced by Zymosan. Taken together, our results showed that agmatine treatment inhibited NF-κB signaling in lungs and protected mice against ALI induced by Zymosan, suggesting agmatine may be a potential safe and effective approach for the treatment of ALI.

  14. The Systemic Inflammatory Response in Patients with Appendicitis: a Progressive Phenomenon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, Marcelo A

    2015-12-01

    The systemic inflammatory response has been described in patients with appendicitis. However, its progression from onset of symptoms to diagnosis has not been characterized. The specific purpose of this study was to describe and characterize the systemic inflammatory response to appendicitis. A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred eighty-three patients were studied, divided into four groups from onset of symptoms to diagnosis. The primary outcome measure was to determine the systemic inflammatory response to appendicitis according to the established groups of time intervals. The secondary outcome measure was the analysis of C-reactive protein for the same purpose. The variables of the systemic inflammatory response, according to diagnostic intervals, showed non-significant differences in white blood cell count. The temperature rose constantly after 48 h, reaching its peak after 72 h (p = 0.001), and the respiratory rate rose after 73 h (p inflammatory response criteria (p inflammatory response to appendicitis is progressive, being more marked along the timeline from onset of symptoms to diagnosis.

  15. Pancreatic ascites hemoglobin contributes to the systemic response in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Upon hemolysis extracellular hemoglobin causes oxidative stress and cytotoxicity due to its peroxidase activity. Extracellular hemoglobin may release free hemin, which increases vascular permeability, leukocyte recruitment, and adhesion molecule expression. Pancreatitis-associated ascitic fluid is reddish and may contain extracellular hemoglobin. Our aim has been to determine the role of extracellular hemoglobin in the local and systemic inflammatory response during severe acute pancreatitis in rats. To this end we studied taurocholate-induced necrotizing pancreatitis in rats. First, extracellular hemoglobin in ascites and plasma was quantified and the hemolytic action of ascitic fluid was tested. Second, we assessed whether peritoneal lavage prevented the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma during pancreatitis. Third, hemoglobin was purified from rat erythrocytes and administered intraperitoneally to assess the local and systemic effects of ascitic-associated extracellular hemoglobin during acute pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin and hemin levels markedly increased in ascitic fluid and plasma during necrotizing pancreatitis. Peroxidase activity was very high in ascites. The peritoneal lavage abrogated the increase in extracellular hemoglobin in plasma. The administration of extracellular hemoglobin enhanced ascites; dramatically increased abdominal fat necrosis; upregulated tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 gene expression; and decreased expression of interleukin-10 in abdominal adipose tissue during pancreatitis. Extracellular hemoglobin enhanced the gene expression and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other hypoxia-inducible factor-related genes in the lung. Extracellular hemoglobin also increased myeloperoxidase activity in the lung. In conclusion, extracellular hemoglobin contributes to the inflammatory response in severe acute pancreatitis through abdominal fat necrosis and inflammation

  16. Antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory effects and acute toxicity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Myrtus communis L. Aerial parts in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Khoshdel, Mohammad; Ghorbani, Maryam

    2011-12-01

    Myrtus communis L. aerial parts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disease. In this study 350 mice were divided into three main groups: negative (saline), positive (morphine or diclofenac) controls, and test groups. The acute toxicity was assessed for 2 days. Antinociceptive activity was performed using hot plate and writhing tests. The anti-inflammatory effect was investigated using xylene-induced ear edema and a cotton pellet test. According to phytochemical screening, the extracts contained tannins, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The LD50 values of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts were 0.473 and 0.79 g/kg, respectively. In hot plate test, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed significant antinociceptive activity that was inhibited by naloxone. The extracts exhibited antinociceptive activity against acetic acid-induced writhing and also showed significant activity against acute inflammation which was dose dependent for aqueous extract. The ethanolic (0.05 g/kg) and aqueous extracts (0.005, 0.015, and 0.03 g/kg) demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects against chronic inflammation. The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the aerial parts of M communis L. showed antinociceptive effects and these may be mediated by opioid receptors.

  17. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Licorice and Roasted Licorice Extracts on TPA-Induced Acute Inflammation and Collagen-Induced Arthritis in Mice

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    Ki Rim Kim

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-inflammatory activity of licorice (LE and roated licorice (rLE extracts determined in the murine phorbol ester-induced acute inflammation model and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA model of human rheumatoid arthritis. rLE possessed greater activity than LE in inhibiting phorbol ester-induced ear edema. Oral administration of LE or rLE reduced clinical arthritis score, paw swelling, and histopathological changes in a murine CIA. LE and rLE decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines in serum and matrix metalloproteinase-3 expression in the joints. Cell proliferation and cytokine secretion in response to type II collagen or lipopolysaccharide stimulation were suppressed in spleen cells from LE or rLE-treated CIA mice. Furthermore, LE and rLE treatment prevented oxidative damages in liver and kidney tissues of CIA mice. Taken together, LE and rLE have benefits in protecting against both acute inflammation and chronic inflammatory conditions including rheumatoid arthritis. rLE may inhibit the acute inflammation more potently than LE.

  18. Effect of rosuvastatin on serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy and myocardial enzyme, Inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial infarction with PCI surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Shen; Zeng-Xin Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To observe the effect of rosuvastatin on serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy and myocardial enzyme, inflammatory factors in acute myocardial infarction with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) surgery.Methods:A total of 80 patients with acute myocardial infarction were randomly divided into control group (40 cases) and experiment group (40 cases), the control group were given atorvastatin on the basis of basic therapy, and the experiment group were given rosuvastatin on the basis of basic therapy. The change of serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 24 hours and 8 weeks after PCI surgery of two groups were compared.Results:The serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 8 weeks after PCI surgery of two groups were significantly lower than that of 24 hours after PCI surgery (P<0.05). The serum cTNI, Cys-C, Hcy, LDH, CK, CK-MB, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17 in 8 weeks after PCI surgery of experiment group were significantly lower than that of 8 weeks in control group (P<0.05).Conclusions: Rosuvastatin can significantly decrease the myocardial enzyme, inflammatory cytokines in acute myocardial infarction with PCI surgery. It plays an important role in protecting the heart function, reversing myocardial damage, and inhibiting cardiac remodeling.

  19. Assessment of inflammatory mediator, intestinal flora and Fas/FasL expression in patients with acute pancreatitis after lactulose combined with somatostatin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Li Zheng; Jie Peng; Aihemaitibaikere

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of lactulose combined with somatostatin therapy on inflammatory mediator, intestinal flora and Fas/FasL expression in patients with acute pancreatitis.Methods:A total of 56 patients with acute pancreatitis treated in our hospital between May 2013 and October 2015 were randomly divided into group A and group B, group A received lactulose, somatostatin combined with conventional therapy and group B received somatostatin combined with conventional therapy. Three days after treatment, the levels of inflammatory mediators, sFas and sFasL in serum, the expression of Fas and FasL in peripheral blood as well as the copy number of intestinal flora in feces tissue were determined. Results:Three days after treatment, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, sFas and sFasL content in serum of group A were significantly lower than those of group B,FasandFasL mRNA content and protein content in peripheral blood were significantly lower than those of group B, lactobacillus, bifidobacterium and bacteroides content in feces tissue were significantly higher than those of group B, and Escherichia coli, enterococcus and proteus content in feces tissue were significantly lower than those of group B.Conclusions:Lactulose combined with somatostatin treatment of acute pancreatitis can improve the intestinal mucosal barrier function, correct intestinal flora disturbance, relieve inflammation and inhibit the immunosuppression mediated by Fas/FasL.

  20. Effect of aspirin plus clopidogrel on inflammatory markers in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Background Aspirin can inhibit inflammatory reactions and platelet aggregation, but little is known about the effects of the combination of aspirin plus clopidogrel, a new antiplatelet agent, on inflammation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aspirin plus clopidogrel can further suppress inflammation in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS). Methods One hundred and fifteen patients with NSTEACS were randomized into two groups: group A (aspirin alone, n=58) and group B (aspirin plus clopidogrel, n=57). Patients in group A received a loading dose of 300 mg aspirin, then 100 mg per day. The patients in group B received a loading dose of 300 mg aspirin and 300 mg clopidogrel, then 100 mg aspirin and 75 mg clopidogrel per day. Serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were measured in all patients at baseline prior to any drug treatment after admission, and at 7 and 30 days after beginning drug treatment. Thirty healthy volunteers on no medications were enrolled as controls (group C).Results Baseline levels of hs-CRP and TNF-αin group A and group B were significantly higher than those in group C. Seven days after administration, the levels of hs-CRP in both group A and group B decreased significantly [Group A: (6.15 ± 1.39) mg/L vs (9.18 ± 1.62) mg/L, P <0.01; Group B:(4.99 ± 1.62) mg/L vs (10.29 ± 1.47) mg/L, P<0.01]. Similarly, levels of TNF-αin both groups decreased at 7 days compared to baseline [Group A: (90.99 ± 28.91) pg/ml vs (117.20 ± 37.13) pg/ml, P <0.01; Group B: (74.32± 21.83) pg/ml vs (115.27 ± 32.11) pg/ml, P <0.01]. Thirty days after administration, the levels of hs-CRP in both group A and group B decreased further to (3.49 ± 1.53) mg/L, and (2.40 ± 1.17) mg/L respectively (P <0.01 for both comparisons). Levels of TNF-αin groups A and B also decreased significantly between 7 and 30 days, to 63.28 ± 29.01 pg/ml (group A) and (43.95 ± 17.10) pg

  1. The acute effects of strength training on inflammatory markers predicting atherosclerosis: a study on inactive middle-aged men

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    Bizheh N

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis, are the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The disease has had an increasing prevalence in Iran in recent years. Homocysteine and C-reactive protein (CRP are two novel cardiovascular risk factors that independently predict risks of atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of one session of circuit resistance training on the blood levels of the aforesaid inflammatory markers in inactive middle-aged men."n"nMethods: The participants of this study included twenty-three healthy but inactive middle-aged men who were overweight and were randomly divided into two experimental (n=14 and control (n=9 groups. The activity included doing exercises with the subjects' 35% one-repetition maximum (1-RM intensity at ten different stations. Blood levels of homocysteine and hs-CRP were measured before and after the exercise."n"nResults: Analysis of data using independent samples t-test showed a significant increment in the serum levels of homocysteine and hs-CRP after training in the experimental (P<0.05 versus the control group."n"nConclusion: Elevation of homocysteine levels is due to the increase in protein metabolism

  2. A novel anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving role for resolvin D1 in acute cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation.

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    Hsi-Min Hsiao

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke is a profound pro-inflammatory stimulus that contributes to acute lung injuries and to chronic lung disease including COPD (emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Until recently, it was assumed that resolution of inflammation was a passive process that occurred once the inflammatory stimulus was removed. It is now recognized that resolution of inflammation is a bioactive process, mediated by specialized lipid mediators, and that normal homeostasis is maintained by a balance between pro-inflammatory and pro-resolving pathways. These novel small lipid mediators, including the resolvins, protectins and maresins, are bioactive products mainly derived from dietary omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA. We hypothesize that resolvin D1 (RvD1 has potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects in a model of cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation.Primary human lung fibroblasts, small airway epithelial cells and blood monocytes were treated with IL-1β or cigarette smoke extract in combination with RvD1 in vitro, production of pro-inflammatory mediators was measured. Mice were exposed to dilute mainstream cigarette smoke and treated with RvD1 either concurrently with smoke or after smoking cessation. The effects on lung inflammation and lung macrophage populations were assessed.RvD1 suppressed production of pro-inflammatory mediators by primary human cells in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of mice with RvD1 concurrently with cigarette smoke exposure significantly reduced neutrophilic lung inflammation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, while upregulating the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. RvD1 promoted differentiation of alternatively activated (M2 macrophages and neutrophil efferocytosis. RvD1 also accelerated the resolution of lung inflammation when given after the final smoke exposure.RvD1 has potent anti-inflammatory and pro-resolving effects in cells and mice exposed to cigarette smoke. Resolvins

  3. Mesotherapy versus Systemic Therapy in the Treatment of Acute Low Back Pain: A Randomized Trial

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    Cosimo Costantino

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacological therapy of back pain with analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs is frequently associated with adverse effects, particularly in the elderly. Aim of this study was to compare mesotherapic versus conventional systemic administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and corticosteroids in patients with acute low back pain. Eighty-four patients were randomized to receive anti-inflammatory therapy according to the following protocols: (a mesotherapy group received the 1st and 4th day 2% lidocaine (1 mL + ketoprofen 160 mg (1 mL + methylprednisolone 40 mg (1 mL, then on 7th, 10th, and 13th day, 2% lidocaine (1 mL + ketoprofen 160 mg (1 mL + methylprednisolone 20 mg (1 mL (b conventional therapy group received ketoprofen 80 mg × 2/die and esomeprazole 20 mg/die orally for 12 days, methylprednisolone 40 mg/die intramuscularly for 4 days, followed by methylprednisolone 20 mg/die for 3 days, and thereafter, methylprednisolone 20 mg/die at alternate days. Pain intensity and functional disability were assessed at baseline (T0, at the end of treatment (T1, and 6 months thereafter (T2 by using visual analogic scale (VAS and Roland-Morris disability questionnaire (RMDQ. In both groups, VAS and RMDQ values were significantly reduced at the end of drug treatment and after 6 months, in comparison with baseline. No significant differences were found between the two groups. This suggests that mesotherapy may be a valid alternative to conventional therapy in the treatment of acute low back pain with corticosteroids and NSAIDs.

  4. Gene expression profiling in brain of mice exposed to the marine neurotoxin ciguatoxin reveals an acute anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective response

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    Ryan James C

    2010-08-01

    neuroinflammation. Pathologic activity of the complement/coagulation cascade has been shown in patients suffering from a chronic form of ciguatera poisoning and is of particular interest in this model. Anti-inflammatory processes were at work not only in the brain but were also seen in whole blood and liver of these animals, creating a systemic anti-inflammatory environment to protect against the initial cellular damage caused by the toxin.

  5. Sepsis, systemic inflammatory response, and multiple organ dysfunction: the mystery continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fry, Donald E

    2012-01-01

    Human sepsis is thought to be systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that is activated by invasive infection. The multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is the identified failure of critical organ function in patients that have sustained SIRS. Because SIRS and MODS are consequences of the excessive activation of inflammation, extensive research and numerous clinical trials have pursued treatments that would modify the inflammatory response. This presentation reviews the normal local mechanisms of inflammation and provides a theoretical framework for the transition of the inflammatory process to a systemic level. Clinical trials with biomodulators to block or inhibit inflammation have generally failed to improve the outcomes in patients with severe sepsis, septic shock, and MODS. The role of counter-inflammatory signaling and the newer concept of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway are being investigated, and newer hypotheses are focusing upon the balancing of proinflammatory and counter-inflammatory mechanisms as important directions for newer therapies. It is concluded that failure to define novel and effective treatments reflects fundamental gaps in our understanding of inflammation and its regulation.

  6. DYNAMIC EXPRESSION OF PLASMA TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR-α、INTERLEUKIN-6 AND NUCLEAR FACTOR-κB IN ACUTE ABDOMEN PATIENTS COMBINED WITH SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE SYNDROME%急腹症伴SIRS患者血浆细胞因子TNF-α、IL-6及NF-κB的动态变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱世纯; 杜建华; 李倩

    2010-01-01

    目的 检测急腹症伴发全身炎症反应综合征(systemic inflammatory response syndrome,SIRS)患者血浆细胞因子肿瘤坏死因子α(tumor necrosis factor-α,TNF-α)、白细胞介素6(interleukin-6,IL-6)及核因子κB(nuclear factor-κB ,NF-κB)水平的动态变化,并探讨与SIRS的关系.方法 81例急腹症伴SIRS患者于入院当日(0d)及入院后1、3、7d分别采集空腹外周静脉血,用酶联免疫吸附法测定TNF-α、IL-6及NF-κB的血浆浓度,另选30例健康成年人做为对照组.分别对NF-κB活性与TNF-α及IL-6水平进行相关统计学分析.结果 81例急腹症患者血浆各时间点TNF-α、IL-6及NF-κB水平均较对照组显著增高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).NF-κB活性增高与TNF-α及IL-6血浆浓度增高呈明显正相关(P<0.05).结论 急腹症伴SIRS时,TNF-α、IL-6及NF-κB表达增多.TNF-α及IL-6血浆浓度与NF-κB活性呈正相关.

  7. Effectiveness of anti-inflammatory treatment versus antibiotic therapy and placebo for patients with non-complicated acute bronchitis with purulent sputum. The BAAP Study protocol

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    Fernández Yvonne

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute bronchitis is one of the most prevalent respiratory infections in primary care, and in more than 90% of the cases antibiotics are prescribed, mainly when purulent expectoration is present. However, this process is usually viral in origin and the benefits of antibiotic treatment are marginal. On the other hand, in recent years bronchitis has been considered more as an inflammatory than an infectious process. Thus, the aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a schedule of an oral anti-inflammatory compared with an antibiotic regimen and another group assigned to receive a placebo. Methods and design A total of 420 patients from 15 to 70 years of age with no associated comorbidity, presenting respiratory tract infection of at least one week of evolution, with cough as the predominant symptom, the presence of purulent expectoration and at least one other symptom of the respiratory tract (dyspnoea, wheezing, chest discomfort or pain, with no alternative explanation such as pneumonia, will be included in a prospective, randomised and controlled, clinical trial with placebo. The patients will be randomised to receive one of three treatments: ibuprofen, amoxycillin and clavulanic acid or placebo for 10 days. The main outcome measure is the number of days with frequent cough defined by the symptom diary with a score of 1 or more. Discussion This trial is designed to evaluate the number of days with frequent cough with anti-inflammatory treatment compared with antimicrobial treatment and placebo in previously healthy patients with a clinical picture of acute bronchitis and purulent expectoration. It is hypothesized that anti-inflammatory treatment is more effective than antibiotic treatment to reduce cough, which is the most disturbing symptom for patients with this infection. Trial registration ISRCTN07852892

  8. Inflammatory, vascular, and infectious myelopathies in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhey, Leonard H; Banwell, Brenda L

    2013-01-01

    Acute nontraumatic myelopathies of childhood include inflammatory, infectious, and vascular etiologies. Inflammatory immune-mediated disorders of the spinal cord can be categorized as idiopathic isolated transverse myelitis, neuromyelitis optica, and multiple sclerosis. In recent years, human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1, West Nile virus, enterovirus-71, and Lyme disease have been increasingly recognized as infectious etiologies of myelopathy, and poliomyelitis remains an important etiology in world regions where vaccination programs have not been universally available. Vascular etiologies include vasculopathies (systemic lupus erythematosus, small vessel primary angiitis of the central nervous system), arteriovenous malformations, and spinal cord infarction (fibrocartilaginous embolism, diffuse hypoxic ischemia-mediated infarction). Vascular myelopathies are less common than inflammatory and infectious myelopathies, but are more likely to lead to devastating clinical deficits. Current therapeutic strategies include acute anti-inflammatory treatment and rehabilitation. Stem cell transplantation, nerve graft implantation, and stimulation of endogenous repair mechanisms represent promising strategies for spinal cord repair.

  9. A review of current knowledge of the complement system and the therapeutic opportunities in inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, M

    2006-01-01

    The complement activation system, a key component of the innate immune system, protects the host from microorganisms such as bacteria, and other foreign threats including abnormal cells. However, it is also double-edged in that it can have negative effects in the host; excessive complement activation damages the host and can even kill in anaphylactic shock and septic shock. Regulation of the complement system is a useful strategy to control inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis is a common inflammatory disease worldwide. Many medicines are developed to control inflammation, including recently developed biological response modifiers such as anti-TNF and IL-6 agents. Nevertheless, in some patients disease remains difficult to control because of complications, side effects and tolerance of medicines. In inflammatory arthritis, including rheumatoid arthritis, there is abundant evidence implicating complement activation in humans and animal models. Therefore, anti-complement agents might be beneficial as part of clinical treatment. However, at present, there are still no applicable agents for therapeutic regulation of excessive complement activation in chronic disease. Novel agents in development might be useful as a strategy to control complement activation. Here I describe recent knowledge of the complement system in inflammatory arthritis, the recent developments in anti-complement agents and their considerable potential for the future.

  10. PEGylated interferon-beta modulates the acute inflammatory response and recovery when combined with forced exercise following cervical spinal contusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrow-Feinberg, Harra R; Zhukareva, Victoria; Santi, Lauren; Miller, Kassi; Shumsky, Jed S; Baker, Darren P; Houle, John D

    2010-06-01

    Secondary degeneration leads to an expansion of the initial tissue damage sustained during a spinal cord injury (SCI). Dampening the cellular inflammatory response that contributes to this progressive tissue damage is one possible strategy for neuroprotection after acute SCI. We initially examined whether treatment with a PEGylated form of rat interferon-beta (IFN-beta) would modulate the expression of several markers of inflammation and neuroprotection at the site of a unilateral cervical level 5 contusion injury. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were injured using the Infinite Horizon Impactor at a force of 200 kdyn (equivalent to a severe injury) and a mean displacement of 1600-1800 mum. A single dose (5x10(6) units) of PEGylated IFN-beta or vehicle was administered 30 min following SCI. Here we demonstrate temporal changes in pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels and the expression of heat shock proteins and iNOS (involved in neuroprotection) at the lesion epicenter and one segment caudally after SCI and PEG IFN-beta treatment. The results suggested a potential therapeutic treatment strategy for modulation of secondary damage after acute SCI. Therefore, we examined whether acute treatment with PEG IFN-beta would improve forelimb function alone or when combined with forced exercise (Ex). Animals began the Ex paradigm 5 days post SCI and continued for 5 days/week over 8 weeks. Locomotion (forelimb locomotor scale [FLS], hindlimb BBB, and TreadScan) and sensorimotor function (grid walking) was tested weekly. Additional outcome measures included lesion size and glial cell reactivity. Significant FLS improvements occurred at 1 week post SCI in the PEGylated IFN-beta-treated group but not at any other time point or with any other treatment approaches. These results suggest that this acute neuroprotective treatment strategy does not translate into long term behavioral recovery even when combined with forced exercise.

  11. Central nervous system mast cells in peripheral inflammatory nociception

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    Ellmeier Wilfried

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional aspects of mast cell-neuronal interactions remain poorly understood. Mast cell activation and degranulation can result in the release of powerful pro-inflammatory mediators such as histamine and cytokines. Cerebral dural mast cells have been proposed to modulate meningeal nociceptor activity and be involved in migraine pathophysiology. Little is known about the functional role of spinal cord dural mast cells. In this study, we examine their potential involvement in nociception and synaptic plasticity in superficial spinal dorsal horn. Changes of lower spinal cord dura mast cells and their contribution to hyperalgesia are examined in animal models of peripheral neurogenic and non-neurogenic inflammation. Results Spinal application of supernatant from activated cultured mast cells induces significant mechanical hyperalgesia and long-term potentiation (LTP at spinal synapses of C-fibers. Lumbar, thoracic and thalamic preparations are then examined for mast cell number and degranulation status after intraplantar capsaicin and carrageenan. Intradermal capsaicin induces a significant percent increase of lumbar dural mast cells at 3 hours post-administration. Peripheral carrageenan in female rats significantly increases mast cell density in the lumbar dura, but not in thoracic dura or thalamus. Intrathecal administration of the mast cell stabilizer sodium cromoglycate or the spleen tyrosine kinase (Syk inhibitor BAY-613606 reduce the increased percent degranulation and degranulated cell density of lumbar dural mast cells after capsaicin and carrageenan respectively, without affecting hyperalgesia. Conclusion The results suggest that lumbar dural mast cells may be sufficient but are not necessary for capsaicin or carrageenan-induced hyperalgesia.

  12. Modeling the effects of systemic mediators on the inflammatory phase of wound healing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Racheal L; Segal, Rebecca A; Diegelmann, Robert F; Reynolds, Angela M

    2015-02-21

    The normal wound healing response is characterized by a progression from clot formation, to an inflammatory phase, to a repair phase, and finally, to remodeling. In many chronic wounds there is an extended inflammatory phase that stops this progression. In order to understand the inflammatory phase in more detail, we developed an ordinary differential equation model that accounts for two systemic mediators that are known to modulate this phase, estrogen (a protective hormone during wound healing) and cortisol (a hormone elevated after trauma that slows healing). This model describes the interactions in the wound between wound debris, pathogens, neutrophils and macrophages and the modulation of these interactions by estrogen and cortisol. A collection of parameter sets, which qualitatively match published data on the dynamics of wound healing, was chosen using Latin Hypercube Sampling. This collection of parameter sets represents normal healing in the population as a whole better than one single parameter set. Including the effects of estrogen and cortisol is a necessary step to creating a patient specific model that accounts for gender and trauma. Utilization of math modeling techniques to better understand the wound healing inflammatory phase could lead to new therapeutic strategies for the treatment of chronic wounds. This inflammatory phase model will later become the inflammatory subsystem of our full wound healing model, which includes fibroblast activity, collagen accumulation and remodeling.

  13. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): where did it come from and is it still relevant today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balk, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a 1991 consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy-to-apply set of clinical parameters to aid in the early identification of potential candidates to enter into clinical trials to evaluate new treatments for sepsis. There was recognition that a diverse group of injuries produced a common inflammatory response in the host and provided attractive targets for new anti-inflammatory molecules designed to prevent further propagation and/or provide specific treatment. Effective application of these new anti-inflammatory strategies necessitated identification of early clinical markers that could be assessed in real-time and were likely to define a population of patients that would have a beneficial response to the targeted intervention. It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events. Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings. With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity. This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition.

  14. Systems pharmacology dissection of the anti-inflammatory mechanism for the medicinal herb Folium eriobotryae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Su-Shing; Zhang, Lilei; Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Zhang, Shuwei; Pan, Yanqiu; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-28

    Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations.

  15. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism for the Medicinal Herb Folium Eriobotryae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Su-Shing; Zhang, Lilei; Wang, Jinghui; Yang, Yinfeng; Zhang, Shuwei; Pan, Yanqiu; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations. PMID:25636035

  16. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanism for the Medicinal Herb Folium Eriobotryae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxiao Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation is a hallmark of many diseases like diabetes, cancers, atherosclerosis and arthritis. Thus, lots of concerns have been raised toward developing novel anti-inflammatory agents. Many alternative herbal medicines possess excellent anti-inflammatory properties, yet their precise mechanisms of action are yet to be elucidated. Here, a novel systems pharmacology approach based on a large number of chemical, biological and pharmacological data was developed and exemplified by a probe herb Folium Eriobotryae, a widely used clinical anti-inflammatory botanic drug. The results show that 11 ingredients of this herb with favorable pharmacokinetic properties are predicted as active compounds for anti-inflammatory treatment. In addition, via systematic network analyses, their targets are identified to be 43 inflammation-associated proteins including especially COX2, ALOX5, PPARG, TNF and RELA that are mainly involved in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK signaling pathway, the rheumatoid arthritis pathway and NF-κB signaling pathway. All these demonstrate that the integrated systems pharmacology method provides not only an effective tool to illustrate the anti-inflammatory mechanisms of herbs, but also a new systems-based approach for drug discovery from, but not limited to, herbs, especially when combined with further experimental validations.

  17. A Novel Brucine Gel Transdermal Delivery System Designed for Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L., as a traditional Chinese medicine, have good anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. However, it usually leads to gastrointestinal irritation and systemic toxicity via oral administration. In the study, it was discovered that a novel gel transdermal delivery system contained brucine, the main effective component extracted from Strychnos nux-vomica. Results showed that the brucine gel system inhibited arthritis symptoms and the proliferation of the synoviocytes in the rat adjuvant arthritis model, which indicated its curative effect for rheumatoid arthritis. Meanwhile, it significantly relieved the xylene-induced ear edema in the mouse ear swelling test, which manifested its anti-inflammatory property. Moreover, the brucine gel eased the pain of paw formalin injection in the formalin test, which demonstrated its analgesic effects. In addition, the brucine significantly inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 production without affecting the viability of cell in vitro anti-inflammatory test, which proved that its anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions were related to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. It is suggested that the brucine gel is a promising vehicle for transdermal delivery on the treatment of inflammatory disease.

  18. Inflammatory cytokines imbalance in the very early phase of acute coronary syndrome: correlations with angiographic findings and in-hospital events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunetti, Natale Daniele; Munno, Irene; Pellegrino, Pier Luigi; Ruggero, Vincenzo; Correale, Michele; De Gennaro, Luisa; Cuculo, Andrea; Campanale, Erasmo Giulio; Di Biase, Matteo

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the release of some inflammatory cytokines (Cks) during the very early phase (first 24 h) of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Twenty-six consecutive subjects admitted to coronary care unit with ACS underwent serial blood sampling in order to evaluate concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ. Blood samples were taken within 6 h after onset of chest pain (T₀), at 12 h (T₁), and at 24 h (T₂). Patients were thus divided into four groups comparing pro-inflammatory Ck release (IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory activity (IL-10). Clinical features, risk factors, incidence of adverse events, and coronary angiography findings were compared with Ck activation. Ck levels were significantly increased if compared with baseline. Subjects with marked inflammatory response showed a higher incidence of left anterior descending coronary disease (IL-2, p < 0.001; TNF-α and IFN-γ, p < 0.05) and more often incurred early complications (IL-2, p < 0.05; IFN-γ, p < 0.001). A correlation was detectable between IL-18 levels and myocardial enzyme release (creatine kinase, r = 0.47; lactate dehydrogenase, r = 0.54; troponin I, r = 0.58; p < 0.05). TNF-α levels were associated with a worse prognosis at follow-up (Log rank, p < 0.05). A Ck activation characterizes the early phase of ACS. Early inflammatory reaction seems to correlate with coronary disease and adverse events.

  19. Acute immune-inflammatory responses to a single bout of aerobic exercise in smokers; the effect of smoking history and status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tegan Emma Kastelein

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the acute immune and inflammatory responses to exercise in smokers compared to non-smokers, and further, the effect of smoking history on these immune-inflammatory responses. Fifty four recreationally active males who were either smokers (SM; n=27 or non-smokers (NS; n=27; were allocated into either young (YSM, YNS or middle-aged groups (MSM, MNS based on smoking status. Participants were matched for fitness and smoking habits and following familiarisation and baseline testing, undertook an exercise protocol that involved 40min of cycle ergometry at 50% of VO2peak. Venous blood was obtained pre and post (0min,1h, 4h exercise to measure circulating leukocytes and inflammatory markers interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, IL-1ra and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1. Compared to MNS, MSM showed elevated basal concentrations of MCP-1 which were increased with a longer smoking history (P<0.05. In response to exercise, YSM demonstrated an amplified IL-6 response from immediately- to 1h-post compared to YNS. Further, IL-1ra in YSM was elevated above that of YNS across all time points (P<0.05. The MSM group had higher IL-1β at baseline when compared to YSM, although IL-1ra was greater for YSM at baseline (P<0.05. Finally, the post-exercise leukocyte response was greater in MSM compared to YSM and non-smokers (P<0.05. In conclusion, smoker’s exhibit elevated MCP-1 and IL-1β which seems to be evident with a longer smoking history (~15years. Further, the differences in exercise-induced inflammatory responses noted in YSM may be indicative tobacco smoke exposure priming circulating leukocytes to amplify inflammatory responses.

  20. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvador Pérez

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF–VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  1. Redox signaling in acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Salvador; Pereda, Javier; Sabater, Luis; Sastre, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory process of the pancreatic gland that eventually may lead to a severe systemic inflammatory response. A key event in pancreatic damage is the intracellular activation of NF-κB and zymogens, involving also calcium, cathepsins, pH disorders, autophagy, and cell death, particularly necrosis. This review focuses on the new role of redox signaling in acute pancreatitis. Oxidative stress and redox status are involved in the onset of acute pancreatitis and also in the development of the systemic inflammatory response, being glutathione depletion, xanthine oxidase activation, and thiol oxidation in proteins critical features of the disease in the pancreas. On the other hand, the release of extracellular hemoglobin into the circulation from the ascitic fluid in severe necrotizing pancreatitis enhances lipid peroxidation in plasma and the inflammatory infiltrate into the lung and up-regulates the HIF-VEGF pathway, contributing to the systemic inflammatory response. Therefore, redox signaling and oxidative stress contribute to the local and systemic inflammatory response during acute pancreatitis.

  2. Reações inflamatórias leptomeníngeas em neurocirurgia Acute inflammatory leptomeningeal reactions in neurosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gama da Rocha

    1971-03-01

    Full Text Available Revisão de 840 casos de pacientes submetidos a intervenções neurocirúrgicas na Unidade de Neurologia do Hospital das Clínicas da Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de São Paulo durante 5 anos (1962-1967 para verificar a incidência de reações inflamatórias leptomeníngeas (RIL no pós-operatório. Em 106 casos (12,6% foi demonstrada a ocorrência de RIL. O diagnóstico de RIL foi comprovado pelo quadro liquórico; em apenas um caso êle resultou dos achados do exame necroscópico exclusivamente. Analisando os 105 casos em que o LCR foi estudado verificou-se ser a hipertermia, a cefaléia, os sinais meníngeos e as alterações da consciência os sintomas que com mais freqüência sugeriam o diagnóstico; este foi comprovado em média 10 dias após o ato cirúrgico, mediante o exame do LCR. Baseando -se nas alterações do LCR os casos foram divididos em três grupos: RIL provavelmente asséptica (72 casos, RIL provavelmente séptica (26 casos, RIL sépticas (7 casos. Em 59 casos associava-se à RIL hemorragia sub-aracnóidea, dado considerado indicativo de gravidade, pois dos 24 pacientes que vieram a falecer, 20 apresentavam hemorragia sub-aracnóidea e RIL.Data concerning to 840 patients submitted to neurosurgical operations during 5 years (1962-1967 were reviewed in order to verify the occurrence of acute inflammatory leptomeningeal reactions (RIL in the immediate post -operative period. It was verified that RIL occurred in 106 cases (12,6%. In one case the demonstration was made at the necroscopic examination; in 105 cases the demonstration was based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF examination. Clinical and CSF data concerning to the last 105 cases were studied. It was shown that fever, headache, meningism and changes in consciousness were the symptoms that most commonly suggested the diagnosis. Symptoms were more conspicuous about the tenth day (mean of the post-operative period. Considering the CSF changes found, the cases were

  3. Derivation of a T2-weighted MRI total colonic inflammation score (TCIS) for assessment of patients with severe acute inflammatory colitis - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez, Rehana; Boulos, Paul [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Punwani, Shonit; Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Specialist X-ray, Level 2 podium, London (United Kingdom); Pendse, Doug [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Bloom, Stuart [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Gastroenterology, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Specialist X-ray, Level 2 podium, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    To derive an MRI score for assessing severity, therapeutic response and prognosis in acute severe inflammatory colitis. Twenty-one patients with acute severe colitis underwent colonic MRI after admission and again (n = 16) after median 5 days of treatment. Using T2-weighted images, two radiologists in consensus graded segmental haustral loss, mesenteric and mural oedema, mural thickness, and small bowel and colonic dilatation producing a total colonic inflammatory score (TCIS, range 6-95). Pre- and post-treatment TCIS were compared, and correlated with CRP, stool frequency, and number of inpatient days (therapeutic response marker). Questionnaire assessment of patient worry, satisfaction and discomfort graded 1 (bad) to 7 (good) was administered Admission TCIS correlated significantly with CRP (Kendall's tau=0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.79, p = 0.006), and stool frequency (Kendall's tau 0.39, 95% CI 0.14-0.64, p = 0.02). TCIS fell after treatment (median [22 range 15-31]) to median 20 [range 8-25], p = 0.01. Admission TCIS but not CRP or stool frequency was correlated with length of inpatient stay (Kendall's tau 0.40, 95% CI 0.11-0.69, p = 0.02). Patients reported some discomfort (median score 4) during MRI. MRI TCIS falls after therapy, correlates with existing markers of disease severity, and in comparison may better predict therapeutic response. (orig.)

  4. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Juey-Ming; Shih, Yao-Ming; Pai, Man-Hui; Hou, Yu-Chen; Yeh, Chiu-Li; Yeh, Sung-Ling

    2016-03-15

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC) group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP) after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO), while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO) or saline (SC). The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th)1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis.

  5. Anti-inflammatory effects of eugenol nanoemulsion as a topical delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Fariba; Rajabnejhad, Saeid; Partoazar, Ali Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Faridi-Majidi, Reza; Sahebgharani, Mousa; Syedmoradi, Leila; Rajabnejhad, Mohammad Reza; Amani, Amir

    2016-11-01

    Eugenol is the main constituent of clove oil with anti-inflammatory properties. In this work, for the first time, O/W nanoemulsion of eugenol was designed for the evaluation of anti-inflammatory effects as a topical delivery system. Topical formulations containing 1%, 2% and 4% of eugenol as well as a nanoemulsion system containing 4% eugenol and 0.5% piroxicam were prepared. Further to physicochemical examinations, such as determination of particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential and physical stability, anti-inflammatory activity was examined in carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. The optimum formulation was found to contain 2% eugenol (oil phase), 14% Tween 20 (surfactant) and 14% isopropyl alcohol (co-surfactant) in water. Nanoemulsion with polydispersity index of 0.3 and median droplet diameter of 24.4 nm (d50) was obtained. Animal studies revealed that the nanoemulsions exhibited significantly improved anti-inflammatory activity after 1.5 h, compared with marketed piroxicam gel. Additionally, it was shown that increasing the concentration of eugenol did not show higher inhibition of inflammation. Also, the nanoemulsion having piroxicam showed less anti-inflammatory properties compared with the nanoemulsion without piroxicam.

  6. Suppression of P2X7/NF-κB pathways by Schisandrin B contributes to attenuation of lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhiyong; Liu, Jindi; Bian, Hongliang; Cai, Jinlan; Zhu, Gendi

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the effects and mechanisms of Schisandrin B (SchB) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1 mg/kg), and SchB (25, 50, and 75 mg/kg) was injected 1 h before LPS challenge by gavage. After 12 h, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples and lung tissues were collected. Histological studies demonstrated that SchB attenuated LPS-induced interstitial edema, hemorrhage, and infiltration of neutrophils in the lung tissue. SchB pretreatment at doses of 25, 50, and 75 mg/kg was shown to reduce LPS-induced lung wet-to-dry weight ratio and lung myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, pretreatment with SchB lowered the number of inflammatory cells and pro-inflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6 in BALF. The mRNA and protein expression levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling-related molecules activated by P2X7 were investigated to determine the molecular mechanism of SchB. The findings presented here suggest that the protective mechanism of SchB may be attributed partly to the decreased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines through the inhibition of P2X7/NF-κB activation.

  7. The molecular mechanisms of the hepatoprotective effect of gomisin A against oxidative stress and inflammatory response in rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced acute liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraoka, Ryutaro; Shimada, Tsutomu; Aburada, Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative damage and inflammation are implicated in the pathogenesis of liver injury and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which gomisin A conferred a hepatoprotective effect, focusing on its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects using rats with carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced acute liver injury. Pretreatment with gomisin A prior to the administration of CCl(4) markedly prevented an increase in alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and histological hepatic lesions. Gomisin A was also associated with a decrease in hepatic lipid peroxidation, and increased superoxide dismutase activity, suggesting that gomisin A has an antioxidant effect. In addition gomisin A treatment ameliorated mRNA levels of CCl(4)-induced inflammatory mediators, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β and inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase, and the protein levels of transcriptional upregulator nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and phospho-inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB). Furthermore, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), a myofibroblast marker, was also inhibited by gomisin A treatment. These results suggest that gomisin A inhibits the oxidative stress and activation of NF-κB, leading to down-regulation of pro-inflammatory mediators and amelioration of fibrogenesis.

  8. Effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yun Zhou; Le Qu; Xiao-Li Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the effects of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin on inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling in patients with non-ST segment elevation acute myocardial. Methods:A total of 100 cases patients of NSTEMI were selected that they were admitted during January 2013 to December 2014 and randomly divided into observer group and control group, each of 50 cases. Patients were given a comprehensive treatment of myocardial infarction, the control group was given the treatment of rosuvastatin and the observer group was given the treatment of atorvastatin over the same period, compared the related indicators of serum inflammatory factors and left ventricular remodeling after treatment in two groups. Results:The observer group serum TNF- , IL-6, hs-CRP levels were significantly lower than the control group in the treatment of 1 month, 3 months. The observer group was treated for 1 month, 3 months LVEF was significantly higher than the control group, and LVEDD, LVESD, PWT was significantly lower than the control group. The observer group was treated for 1 month, 3 months AngⅡ, PⅢNP, NT-proBNP level was significantly lower than the control group.Conclusions:The rosuvastatin is better than the atorvastatin in improving the level of NSTEMI inflammatory factors, prevention of left ventricular remodeling.

  9. Acute kidney injury and inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome in mixed genotype (A/E) hepatitis B virus co-infection in HIV-associated lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Katsushi; Kohno, Kei; Shiono, Yosuke; Suzuki, Ikuko; Kato, Yuichi; Hiroshima, Yuki; Yamamoto, Masakazu; Ohtake, Hiroya; Iwaba, Akiko; Yamakawa, Mitsunori; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    We report a first case of HIV-associated lymphoma (HAL) presenting with acute kidney injury (AKI) and inflammatory immune reconstitution syndrome (IRIS). A 39-year-old male, treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for one month prior to admission, developed AKI, left testicular tumor, and recurrent swelling of the right parotid gland. A resected testicular tumor exhibited features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma. Renal biopsy showed hydro-degeneration of renal tubules, interstitial inflammatory cells, and a small number of lymphoma cells in the sub-capsule, compatible with acute interstitial nephritis. His renal dysfunction rapidly recovered following chemotherapy and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). He developed pneumonia concomitantly with a decrease in HIV-RNA level and an increase in CD4+ cells after the first cycle of chemotherapy, which spontaneously resolved after the second cycle of chemotherapy without additional anti-infection drugs; thus, his pneumonia fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for IRIS. We suggest that IRIS may frequently develop during chemotherapy for HAL, but may be overlooked. He was coinfected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), which genotypes known as is associated with liver-related mortality and response to antiviral therapy; recently, an intimate interplay between HIV and HBV in the onset of lymphoma has been reported. Therefore, we addressed the HBV genotype in the patient. The analysis revealed that he exhibited a mixed genotype (A/E) not native to Japan and primarily found in Europe and North America or West Africa. These findings suggest that universal vaccination for juveniles against HBV is warranted in Japan.

  10. Systems Biology based studies on anti-inflammatory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, Kitty Catharina Maria

    2005-01-01

    The introduction of the ‘omics’ techniques (transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and systems biology, has caused fundamental changes in the drug discovery process and many other fields in the life science area. In this thesis we explored the possibilities to apply these holistic technologi

  11. Considering depression as a consequence of activation of the inflammatory response system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, J; Klein, HC; Versijpt, J; den Boer, J; ter Horst, GJ

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes the possible interrelation between peripheral and/or cerebral inflammation and depression. Often, depression is regarded as a consequence of life events, including disabling diseases. The question addressed here is whether activation of the inflammatory response system (IRS) ca

  12. Dietary L-arginine supplementation modulates lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammatory response in broiler chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to evaluate whether dietary supplementation with L-arginine (Arg) could attenuate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic inflammatory response through LPS/TLR-4 signaling pathway in broilers. The experiment was designed as a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (n = 8 cages/treatm...

  13. Psoriasis and systemic inflammatory diseases: potential mechanistic links between skin disease and co-morbid conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davidovici, B.B.; Sattar, N.; Prinz, J.C.; Puig, L.; Emery, P.; Barker, J.N.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de; Stahle, M.; Nestle, F.O.; Girolomoni, G.; Krueger, J.G.

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is now classified as an immune-mediated inflammatory disease (IMID) of the skin. It is being recognized that patients with various IMIDs, including psoriasis, are at higher risk of developing "systemic" co-morbidities, e.g., cardiovascular disease (CVD), metabolic syndrome, and overt diabe

  14. Effects of presurgical exercise training on systemic inflammatory markers among patients with malignant lung lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lee W; Eves, Neil D; Peddle, Carolyn J; Courneya, Kerry S; Haykowsky, Mark; Kumar, Vikaash; Winton, Timothy W; Reiman, Tony

    2009-04-01

    Systemic inflammation plays an important role in the initiation, promotion, and progression of lung carcinogenesis. The effects of interventions to lower inflammation have not been explored. Accordingly, we conducted a pilot study to explore the effects of exercise training on changes in biomarkers of systemic inflammation among patients with malignant lung lesions. Using a single-group design, 12 patients with suspected operable lung cancer were provided with structured exercise training until surgical resection. Participants underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing, 6 min walk testing, pulmonary function testing, and blood collection at baseline and immediately prior to surgical resection. Systemic inflammatory markers included intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1, macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, C-reactive protein, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. The overall exercise adherence rate was 78%, with patients completing a mean of 30 +/- 25 sessions. Mean peak oxygen consumption increased 2.9 mL.kg-1.min-1 from baseline to presurgery (p = 0.016). Results indicate that exercise training resulted in a significant reduction in ICAM-1 (p = 0.041). Changes in other inflammatory markers did not reach statistical significance. Change in cardiorespiratory fitness was not associated with change in systemic inflammatory markers. This exploratory study provides an initial step for future studies to elucidate the potential role of exercise, as well as identify the underlying mechanisms of action, as a means of modulating the relationship between inflammation and cancer pathogenesis.

  15. Successful treatment of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with oral cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmin, R; Sockalingam, S; Shahrizaila, N; Cheah, T-E; Zain, A A; Goh, K-J

    2012-09-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is a known manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. However, the association of primary autoimmune inflammatory neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with SLE is uncommon. We report a 26-year-old man who simultaneously presented with severe CIDP and photosensitive rash, but was unresponsive to intravenous immunoglobulin infusion and continued to progress. He was found to have underlying SLE and improved with combined corticosteroid and immunosuppressive therapy with oral cyclophosphamide. CIDP with underlying SLE may be more resistant to conventional therapy with IVIG, requiring the addition of other immunosuppressive agents.

  16. Dual pancreas- and lung-targeting therapy for local and systemic complications of acute pancreatitis mediated by a phenolic propanediamine moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianbo; Zhang, Jinjie; Fu, Yao; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Jiang, Jinghui; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-08-28

    To inhibit both the local and systemic complications with acute pancreatitis, an effective therapy requires a drug delivery system that can efficiently overcome the blood-pancreas barrier while achieving lung-specific accumulation. Here, we report the first dual pancreas- and lung-targeting therapeutic strategy mediated by a phenolic propanediamine moiety for the treatment of acute pancreatitis. Using the proposed dual-targeting ligand, an anti-inflammatory compound Rhein has been tailored to preferentially accumulate in the pancreas and lungs with rapid distribution kinetics, excellent tissue-penetrating properties and minimum toxicity. Accordingly, the drug-ligand conjugate remarkably downregulated the proinflammatory cytokines in the target organs thus effectively inhibiting local pancreatic and systemic inflammation in rats. The dual-specific targeting therapeutic strategy may help pave the way for targeted drug delivery to treat complicated inflammatory diseases.

  17. P2X3 receptors mediate visceral hypersensitivity during acute chemically-induced colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase via different mechanisms of sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Deiteren

    Full Text Available Experiments using P2X3 knock-out mice or more general P2X receptor antagonists suggest that P2X3 receptors contribute to visceral hypersensitivity. We aimed to investigate the effect of the selective P2X3 antagonist A-317491 on visceral sensitivity under physiological conditions, during acute colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase of colitis.Trinitrobenzene sulphonic-acid colitis was monitored by colonoscopy: on day 3 to confirm the presence of colitis and then every 4 days, starting from day 10, to monitor convalescence and determine the exact timepoint of endoscopic healing in each rat. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying visceromotor responses to colorectal distension in controls, rats with acute colitis and post-colitis rats. A-317491 was administered 30 min prior to visceral sensitivity testing. Expression of P2X3 receptors (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and the intracellular signalling molecules cdk5, csk and CASK (RT-PCR were quantified in colonic tissue and dorsal root ganglia. ATP release in response to colorectal distension was measured by luminiscence.Rats with acute TNBS-colitis displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently, but not fully, reversed by A-317491. Hypersenstivity was accompanied by an increased colonic release of ATP. Post-colitis rats also displayed visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently reduced and fully normalized by A-317491 without increased release of ATP. A-317491 did not modify visceral sensitivity in controls. P2X3 mRNA and protein expression in the colon and dorsal root ganglia were similar in control, acute colitis and post-colitis groups, while colonic mRNA expression of cdk5, csk and CASK was increased in the post-colitis group only.These findings indicate that P2X3 receptors are not involved in sensory signaling under physiological conditions whereas they modulate visceral hypersensitivity during acute TNBS-colitis and even more so in the post-inflammatory

  18. Two large preoperative doses of erythropoietin do not reduce the systemic inflammatory response to cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Troels Dirch; Andersen, Lars Willy; Steinbrüchel, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) induce an inflammatory reaction that may lead to tissue injury. Experimental studies suggest that recombinant human erythropoietin (EPO) independent of its erythropoietic effect may be used clinically as an anti-inflammatory drug. This ...... of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, EPO may augment the TNF-alpha and NT-proBNP response. Although the long-term clinical impact remains unknown, the findings do not support use of EPO as an anti-inflammatory drug in patients undergoing cardiac surgery........ This study tested the hypothesis that 2 large doses of EPO administered shortly before CPB ameliorate the systemic inflammatory response to CPB. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled and randomized study at a single tertiary care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Patients scheduled...... concentrations of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-1beta receptor antagonist, IL-6, IL-10, and N-terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP). Compared with placebo, EPO at day 3 after CPB augmented the TNF-alpha response (p

  19. Neuroinflammation and disruption in working memory in aged mice after acute stimulation of the peripheral innate immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Buchanan, Jessica B.; Sparkman, Nathan L.; Godbout, Jonathan P.; Freund, Gregory G.; Johnson, Rodney W.

    2008-01-01

    Acute cognitive disorders are common in elderly patients with peripheral infections but it is not clear why. Here we injected old and young mice with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to mimic an acute peripheral infection and separated the hippocampal neuronal cell layers from the surrounding hippocampal tissue by laser capture microdissection and measured mRNA for several inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNFα) that are known to disrupt cognition. The results showed that old mice had an increased inflammatory response in the hippocampus after LPS compared to younger cohorts. Immunohistochemistry further showed more microglial cells in the hippocampus of old mice compared to young adults, and that more IL-1β-positive cells were present in the dentate gyrus and in the CA1, CA2 and CA3 regions of LPS-treated old mice compared to young adults. In a test of cognition that required animals to effectively integrate new information with a preexisting schema to complete a spatial task, we found that hippocampal processing is more easily disrupted in old animals than in younger ones when the peripheral innate immune system is stimulated. Collectively, the results suggest that aging can facilitate neurobehavioral complications associated with peripheral infections probably by allowing the over expression of inflammatory cytokines in brain areas that mediate cognitive processing. PMID:17951027

  20. Acute inflammatory response to a foreign body in Calomys callosus Perfil de migração celular agudo induzido pela presença de corpo estranho em Calomys callosus

    OpenAIRE

    André Kipnis; Loanda Carvalho Santa Ana-Limongi; Luciano Schneider Silva; Ana Paula Junqueira-Kipnis

    2008-01-01

    Calomys callosus are wild rodents present in the Brazilian savannas that were adapted to the laboratorial conditions. These animals are resistant to infections that induce chronic inflammatory responses (Trypanosoma cruzi and Paracoccidioides brasiliensis). The objective of this work was to characterize the acute inflammatory reaction, prompted by the subcutaneous implementation of a foreign body. Twenty seven <...

  1. Alpha-Lipoic Acid Alleviates Acute Inflammation and Promotes Lipid Mobilization During the Inflammatory Response in White Adipose Tissue of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun; Gao, Shixing; Liu, Zhiqing; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2016-10-01

    Recently, white adipose tissue has been shown to exhibit immunological activity, and may play an important role in host defense and protection against bacterial infection. Αlpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) has been demonstrated to function as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent. However, its influence on the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in white adipose tissue remains unknown. We used male C57BL/6 mice as models to study the effect of α-LA on the inflammatory response and metabolic changes in white adipose tissue after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The non-esterified fatty acid content was measured by an automatic biochemical analyzer. The expression of inflammation-, lipid- and energy metabolism-related genes and proteins was determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. The results indicated that α-LA significantly decreased the epididymis fat weight index and the non-esterified fatty acid content in plasma compared with the control group. LPS significantly increased the expression of inflammation genes and α-LA reduced their expression. The LPS-induced expression of nuclear factor-κB protein was decreased by α-LA. Regarding lipid metabolism, α-LA significantly counteracted the inhibitory effects of LPS on the expression of hormone-sensitive lipase gene and protein. α-LA evidently increased the gene expression of fatty acid transport protein 1 and cluster of differentiation 36. Regarding energy metabolism, α-LA significantly increased the expression of most of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes compared with the control and LPS group. Accordingly, α-LA can alleviate acute inflammatory response and this action may be related with the promotion of lipid mobilization in white adipose tissue.

  2. Surfactant proteins SP-B and SP-C and their precursors in bronchoalveolar lavages from children with acute and chronic inflammatory airway disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter Tobias

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surfactant proteins B (SP-B and C (SP-C are important for the stability and function of the alveolar surfactant film. Their involvement and down-regulation in inflammatory processes has recently been proposed, but their level during neutrophilic human airway diseases are not yet known. Methods We used 1D-electrophoresis and Western blotting to determine the concentrations and molecular forms of SP-B and SP-C in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL fluid of children with different inflammatory airway diseases. 21 children with cystic fibrosis, 15 with chronic bronchitis and 14 with pneumonia were included and compared to 14 healthy control children. Results SP-B was detected in BAL of all 64 patients, whereas SP-C was found in BAL of all but 3 children; those three BAL fluids had more than 80% neutrophils, and in two patients, who were re-lavaged later, SP-C was then present and the neutrophil count was lower. SP-B was mainly present as a dimer, SP-C as a monomer. For both qualitative and quantitative measures of SP-C and SP-B, no significant differences were observed between the four evaluated patient groups. Conclusion Concentration or molecular form of SP-B and SP-C is not altered in BAL of children with different acute and chronic inflammatory lung diseases. We conclude that there is no down-regulation of SP-B and SP-C at the protein level in inflammatory processes of neutrophilic airway disease.

  3. Fish Oil-Based Fat Emulsion Reduces Acute Kidney Injury and Inflammatory Response in Antibiotic-Treated Polymicrobial Septic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juey-Ming Shih

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common complication in sepsis. This study compared the effects of a fish oil-based with a mixed oil fat emulsion on remote renal injury in an antibiotic-treated septic murine model. Mice were randomly assigned to a normal control (NC group and three septic groups. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP. The antibiotic was injected intraperitoneally (IP after CLP and then daily till the time of sacrifice. Three hours after antibiotic treatment, one of the septic groups was injected IP with a fish oil-based emulsion (FO, while the other two groups were given either a mixed oil emulsion (MO or saline (SC. The septic groups were further divided into two separate time groups, with blood and kidneys samples collected at 24 h or 72 h post-CLP. The results showed that sepsis leads to the activation of neutrophils, T helper (Th1/Th-2/Th-17 and Treg cells (p < 0.05. Plasma NGAL and mRNA expressions of renal MyD88 and TLR4 were also enhanced (p < 0.05. Compared to the SC group, the group given the fish oil-based emulsion had decreased plasma NGAL by 22% and Treg by 33%. Furthermore, renal gene expressions of MyD88 and TLR4 reduced by 46% and 62%, respectively, whereas heat shock protein 70 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ increased by 158% and 69%, respectively (p < 0.05, at Day 3 after CLP. These results suggest that administration of a fish oil-based emulsion has favorable effects, maintaining blood T cell percentage, downregulating Treg expression, attenuating systemic and local inflammation and offering renal protection under conditions of antibiotic-treated polymicrobial sepsis.

  4. Breast cancer acute radiotherapy morbidity evaluated by different scoring systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Escarlata; Núñez, M Isabel; Guerrero, M Rosario; del Moral, Rosario; de Dios Luna, Juan; del Mar Rodríguez, M; Valenzuela, M Teresa; Villalobos, Mercedes; Ruiz de Almodóvar, José Mariano

    2002-05-01

    Reporting of the outcome of radiotherapy is not satisfactory without a description of the treatment-related side effects. The purposes of this paper were: (1) to evaluate the frequency and the severity of collateral skin reactions in a group of breast cancer patients; (2) to report the acute reactions using some current scoring systems and to compare the application of them, and (3) to investigate the variation between intra- and interobservers using these different scales. We studied 108 breast cancer patients who, after surgical treatment, received adjuvant radiotherapy. Clinical skin evaluation was always performed by the same radiotherapist the last day of treatment, and the collateral radiation effects were photographed at that moment to facilitate later evaluations by another two expert doctors. Normal tissue damage was scored according to the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/The European Organisation for Research, and Treatment of Cancer/ (RTOG/EORTC), the Danish, the European, and the Biomed2 side-effect scales. The most frequent acute complications found were erythema (91.7%), dry desquamation (29.6%) and moist desquamation (35.2%). The reactions were classified as severe in 13.9, 23, 18.5 and 13% of the patients with each of the different systems used, respectively. The concordance between the scoring of radiation-induced side effects on the skin assessed by direct observation of the patients or by examination of the photographic document was sufficient. This is a warrant of accuracy in the evaluation of acute normal tissue lesions. Our results allow us to state the advantage of the RTOG system over the others in terms of evaluating the acute effects produced by radiotherapy of women with breast cancer.

  5. Thoracic epidural analgesia inhibits the neuro-hormonal but not the acute inflammatory stress response after radical retropubic prostatectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fant, F.; Tina, E.; Sandblom, D.; Andersson, S. -O.; Magnuson, A.; Hultgren-Hornkvist, E.; Axelsson, K.; Gupta, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Epidural anaesthesia and analgesia has been shown to suppress the neurohormonal stress response, but its role in the inflammatory response is unclear. The primary aim was to assess whether the choice of analgesic technique influences these processes in patients undergoing radical retropu

  6. Comparison of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome between monomicrobial and polymicrobial Pseudomonas aeruginosa nosocomial bloodstream infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Richard P

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some studies of nosocomial bloodstream infection (nBSI have demonstrated a higher mortality for polymicrobial bacteremia when compared to monomicrobial nBSI. The purpose of this study was to compare differences in systemic inflammatory response and mortality between monomicrobial and polymicrobial nBSI with Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Methods We performed a historical cohort study on 98 adults with P. aeruginosa (Pa nBSI. SIRS scores were determined 2 days prior to the first positive blood culture through 14 days afterwards. Monomicrobial (n = 77 and polymicrobial BSIs (n = 21 were compared. Results 78.6% of BSIs were caused by monomicrobial P. aeruginosa infection (MPa and 21.4% by polymicrobial P. aeruginosa infection (PPa. Median APACHE II score on the day of BSI was 22 for MPa and 23 for PPa BSIs. Septic shock occurred in 33.3% of PPa and in 39.0% of MPa (p = 0.64. Progression to septic shock was associated with death more frequently in PPa (OR 38.5, CI95 2.9–508.5 than MPa (OR 4.5, CI95 1.7–12.1. Maximal SIR (severe sepsis, septic shock or death was seen on day 0 for PPa BSI vs. day 1 for MPa. No significant difference was noted in the incidence of organ failure, 7-day or overall mortality between the two groups. Univariate analysis revealed that APACHE II score ≥20 at BSI onset, Charlson weighted comorbidity index ≥3, burn injury and respiratory, cardiovascular, renal and hematologic failure were associated with death, while age, malignant disease, diabetes mellitus, hepatic failure, gastrointestinal complications, inappropriate antimicrobial therapy, infection with imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa and polymicrobial nBSI were not. Multivariate analysis revealed that hematologic failure (p Conclusion In this historical cohort study of nBSI with P. aeruginosa, the incidence of septic shock and organ failure was high in both groups. Additionally, patients with PPa BSI were not more acutely ill, as judged by APACHE II

  7. Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Inflammatory Injury in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Inhibition of TLR4 Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Li, Wei; Wu, Qi; Wu, Ling-Yun; Ye, Zhen-Nan; Liu, Jing-Peng; Zhuang, Zong; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Zhang, Xin; Hang, Chun-Hua

    2016-08-12

    Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been proven to play a critical role in neuroinflammation and to represent an important therapeutic target following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Resveratrol (RSV), a natural occurring polyphenolic compound, has a powerful anti-inflammatory property. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV in protecting against early brain injury (EBI) after SAH remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RSV on the TLR4-related inflammatory signaling pathway and EBI in rats after SAH. A prechiasmatic cistern SAH model was used in our experiment. The expressions of TLR4, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Iba-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain cortex were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological function were further evaluated to investigate the development of EBI. We found that post-SAH treatment with RSV could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, and NF-κB. Meanwhile, RSV significantly reduced microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines leading to the amelioration of neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological behavior impairment at 24 h after SAH. However, RSV treatment failed to alleviate brain edema and neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. These results indicated that RSV treatment could alleviate EBI after SAH, at least in part, via inhibition of TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway.

  8. Resveratrol Attenuates Acute Inflammatory Injury in Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats via Inhibition of TLR4 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang-Sheng Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 has been proven to play a critical role in neuroinflammation and to represent an important therapeutic target following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH. Resveratrol (RSV, a natural occurring polyphenolic compound, has a powerful anti-inflammatory property. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of RSV in protecting against early brain injury (EBI after SAH remain obscure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of RSV on the TLR4-related inflammatory signaling pathway and EBI in rats after SAH. A prechiasmatic cistern SAH model was used in our experiment. The expressions of TLR4, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1, myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB were evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of Iba-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokines in brain cortex were determined by Western blot, immunofluorescence staining, or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological function were further evaluated to investigate the development of EBI. We found that post-SAH treatment with RSV could markedly inhibit the expressions of TLR4, HMGB1, MyD88, and NF-κB. Meanwhile, RSV significantly reduced microglia activation, as well as inflammatory cytokines leading to the amelioration of neural apoptosis, brain edema, and neurological behavior impairment at 24 h after SAH. However, RSV treatment failed to alleviate brain edema and neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. These results indicated that RSV treatment could alleviate EBI after SAH, at least in part, via inhibition of TLR4-mediated inflammatory signaling pathway.

  9. The cannabinergic system as a target for anti-inflammatory therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Dai; Vemuri, V Kiran; Duclos, Richard I; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2006-01-01

    Habitual cannabis use has been shown to affect the human immune system, and recent advances in endocannabinoid research provide a basis for understanding these immunomodulatory effects. Cell-based experiments or in vivo animal testing suggest that regulation of the endocannabinoid circuitry can impact almost every major function associated with the immune system. These studies were assisted by the development of numerous novel molecules that exert their biological effects through the endocannabinoid system. Several of these compounds were tested for their effects on immune function, and the results suggest therapeutic opportunities for a variety of inflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, atherosclerosis, allergic asthma, and autoimmune diabetes through modulation of the endocannabinoid system.

  10. Improved early diagnosis of acute inflammatory skeletal-articular diseases in children: A two-radiopharmaceutical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handmaker, H.; Giammona, S.T.

    1984-05-01

    The febrile child with a painful bone or joint still presents a difficult pediatric diagnostic problem. Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, and cellulitis are the most common causes of this symptom. Thirty-seven patients with these disorders were studied. Because findings from technetium-99m phosphate bone scans and roentgenograms are often normal in patients in the early stages of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis, children suspected of having this disorder were tested using gallium-67 citrate scans in addition to the other diagnostic procedures. The increased diagnostic accuracy of this approach over that of bone scan and roentgenogram studies alone was observed in the children with fever and bone or joint pain.

  11. Systemic Atherosclerotic Inflammation Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: Myocardial Infarction Begets Myocardial Infarction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Nikhil V; Toor, Iqbal; Shah, Anoop S V; Carruthers, Kathryn; Vesey, Alex T; Alam, Shirjel R; Sills, Andrew; Hoo, Teng Y; Melville, Adam J; Langlands, Sarah P; Jenkins, William S A; Uren, Neal G; Mills, Nicholas L; Fletcher, Alison M; van Beek, Edwin J R; Rudd, James H F; Fox, Keith A A; Dweck, Marc R; Newby, David E

    2015-01-01

    Background Preclinical data suggest that an acute inflammatory response following myocardial infarction (MI) accelerates systemic atherosclerosis. Using combined positron emission and computed tomography, we investigated whether this phenomenon occurs in humans. Methods and Results Overall, 40 patients with MI and 40 with stable angina underwent thoracic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined positron emission and computed tomography scan. Radiotracer uptake was measured in aortic atheroma and nonvascular tissue (paraspinal muscle). In 1003 patients enrolled in the Global Registry of Acute Coronary Events, we assessed whether infarct size predicted early (≤30 days) and late (>30 days) recurrent coronary events. Compared with patients with stable angina, patients with MI had higher aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (tissue-to-background ratio 2.15±0.30 versus 1.84±0.18, P50 000] versus 3800 [1000 to 9200] ng/L, P<0.0001) and greater aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (2.24±0.32 versus 2.02±0.21, P=0.03) than those with non–ST-segment elevation MI. Peak plasma troponin concentrations correlated with aortic 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (r=0.43, P=0.01) and, on multivariate analysis, independently predicted early (tertile 3 versus tertile 1: relative risk 4.40 [95% CI 1.90 to 10.19], P=0.001), but not late, recurrent MI. Conclusions The presence and extent of MI is associated with increased aortic atherosclerotic inflammation and early recurrent MI. This finding supports the hypothesis that acute MI exacerbates systemic atherosclerotic inflammation and remote plaque destabilization: MI begets MI. Clinical Trial Registration URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01749254. PMID:26316523

  12. Digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹俊; 陈为宪; 李楚强; 伍卫; 李建军; 江山平; 王景峰; 曾志勇; 黄子通; 黄洪章

    2003-01-01

    Objective To explore digestive system manifestations in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS).Method The clinical data of 96 cases with SARS admitted into our hospital from February 6, 2003 to March 28, 2003 were retrospectively analyzed.Results Among the 96 cases, 26 cases (27%) had diarrhea, 17 (18%) had nausea, 6 (6%) had vomiting, 16 (17%) had bellyache, and 8 (8%) had ALT elevation.Conclusions Patients with SARS may have digestive system manifestations; diarrhea is the most common symptom.

  13. Decision support systems for robotic surgery and acute care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanzides, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Doctors must frequently make decisions during medical treatment, whether in an acute care facility, such as an Intensive Care Unit (ICU), or in an operating room. These decisions rely on a various information sources, such as the patient's medical history, preoperative images, and general medical knowledge. Decision support systems can assist by facilitating access to this information when and where it is needed. This paper presents some research eorts that address the integration of information with clinical practice. The example systems include a clinical decision support system (CDSS) for pediatric traumatic brain injury, an augmented reality head- mounted display for neurosurgery, and an augmented reality telerobotic system for minimally-invasive surgery. While these are dierent systems and applications, they share the common theme of providing information to support clinical decisions and actions, whether the actions are performed with the surgeon's own hands or with robotic assistance.

  14. Immunomodulation by the autonomic nervous system: therapeutic approach for cancer, collagen diseases, and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Toru; Kawamura, Toshihiko

    2002-10-01

    The distribution of leukocytes is regulated by the autonomic nervous system in humans and animals. The number and function of granulocytes are stimulated by sympathetic nerves whereas those of lymphocytes are stimulated by parasympathetic nerves. This is because granulocytes bear adrenergic receptors, but lymphocytes bear cholinergic receptors on the surface. These regulations may be beneficial to protect the body of living beings. However, when the autonomic nervous system deviates too much to one direction, we fall victim to certain diseases. For example, severe physical or mental stress --> sympathetic nerve activation --> granulocytosis --> tissue damage, including collagen diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and cancer. If we introduce the concept of immunomodulation by the autonomic nervous system, a new approach for collagen diseases, inflammatory bowel diseases, and even cancer is raised. With this approach, we believe that these diseases are no longer incurable.

  15. HMGB1 and Histones Play a Significant Role in Inducing Systemic Inflammation and Multiple Organ Dysfunctions in Severe Acute Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenhunen, Jyrki; Tonnessen, Tor Inge

    2017-01-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) starts as a local inflammation of pancreatic tissue that induces the development of multiple extrapancreatic organs dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. Ischemia-reperfusion, circulating inflammatory cytokines, and possible bile cytokines significantly contribute to gut mucosal injury and intestinal bacterial translocation (BT) during SAP. Circulating HMGB1 level is significantly increased in SAP patients and HMGB1 is an important factor that mediates (at least partly) gut BT during SAP. Gut BT plays a critical role in triggering/inducing systemic inflammation/sepsis in critical illness, and profound systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) can lead to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) during SAP, and systemic inflammation with multiorgan dysfunction is the cause of death in experimental SAP. Therefore, HMGB1 is an important factor that links gut BT and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, HMGB1 significantly contributes to multiple organ injuries. The SAP patients also have significantly increased circulating histones and cell-free DNAs levels, which can reflect the disease severity and contribute to multiple organ injuries in SAP. Hepatic Kupffer cells (KCs) are the predominant source of circulating inflammatory cytokines in SAP, and new evidence indicates that hepatocyte is another important source of circulating HMGB1 in SAP; therefore, treating the liver injury is important in SAP. PMID:28316860

  16. Expression of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in mouse mammary gland following Staphylococcus aureus challenge and in response to milk accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazemi, Sasan; Aalbæk, Bent; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We used a mouse model of pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus) and non-pathogenic (teat sealing) mammary inflammation to investigate mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APP) in mammary tissue and liver, and the appearance of some of these factors in plasma...... in combination might provide a tool for diagnostic discrimination between mastitis caused by pathogenic invasion and milk accumulation, and hence allow for better targeting of antibiotic therapy. In comparison with mammary expression, expression of cytokines in liver tissue was up-regulated to a similar...... or lesser extent, whilst expression of APP was up-regulated to a much greater extent. The first appearance of increased cytokine and APP concentrations in plasma and of milk amyloid A (MAA) in milk occurred in advance of the measurable up-regulation of expression, hence their origin cannot be stated...

  17. 2-Chloroadenosine (2-CADO) treatment modulates the pro-inflammatory immune response to prevent acute lung inflammation in BALB/c mice suffering from Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Harjai, Kusum; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2010-06-01

    Acute lung inflammation (ALI) is a life-threatening pathology and can develop during the course of several clinical conditions such as pneumonia, acid aspiration or sepsis. Adenosine plays a significant role in controlling acute inflammation via binding to A(2A) receptors on inflammatory cells, i.e. neutrophils or macrophages. The present study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of 2-chloroadenosine (2-CADO), alone or in combination with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (AMC), in Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced acute lung infection in mice. Acute lung infection in mice was induced by directly instilling the selected dose (10(4) colony-forming units/mL) of bacteria intranasally. Histopathological examination of the lungs was performed to reveal neutrophil infiltration into the lung alveoli. In addition to the major pro-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) and interleukin (IL)-1alpha, levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 were also determined. Intranasal instillation of bacteria caused profound neutrophil infiltration into the lung alveoli as well as a significant increase in the levels of pro-inflammatory mediators (i.e. TNFalpha and IL-1alpha). However, intravenous administration of 2-CADO 10 microg/kg/day, alone or in combination with an antibiotic (i.e. AMC), significantly decreased neutrophil infiltration into the lung alveoli. A significant decrease in TNFalpha and IL-1alpha along with elevation of IL-10 levels in the lung homogenate of mice with acute lung infection was observed upon treatment with 2-CADO alone, with no significant decrease in bacterial counts. Moreover, in combination with AMC, 2-CADO exhibited its immunomodulatory action in acute lung infection and prevented ALI, whilst an antibacterial action was exhibited by AMC.

  18. Systemic sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure: about 12 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoudhi, Madiha; Mamlouk, Habiba; Turki, Sami; Kheder, Adel

    2015-01-01

    The sarcoidosis is a systemic granulomatosis affecting most frequently the lungs and the mediastinum. An acute renal failure reveals exceptionally this disease. It's a retrospective study implicating 12 cases of sarcoidosis complicated of acute renal failure. The aim of this study is to determine epidemiological, clinical, biological and histological profile in these cases and then to indicate the interest to consider the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in cases of unexplained renal failure. Extra-renal complications, therapeutic modalities and the outcome were determined in all patients. Our series involved 12 women with an average age of 40 years. Biological investigations showed an abnormal normocalcemia in 7 cases, a hypercalcemia in 5 cases, a hypercalciuria in 10 cases and polyclonal hypergammaglobulinemia in 7 cases. An acute renal failure was found in all patients with a median creatinin of 520 umol/L. For all patients, the renal echography was normal however, the kidney biopsy showed tubulo-interstitial nephritis. The extra-renal signs highlighting pulmonary interstitial syndrome in 5 cases, a sicca syndrome in 4 cases, mediastinal lymph nodes in 2 cases, a lymphocytic alveolitis in 3 cases, an anterior granulomatous uveitis in 2 cases and a polyarthritis in 5 cases. Five patients benefited of hemodialysis. The treatment consisted of corticosteroid in all cases. The follow up was marked by complete resolution of clinical and biological signs. The diagnosis of renal sarcoidosis must be done quickly to prevent renal failure.

  19. Fentanyl Iontophoretic Transdermal System: A Review in Acute Postoperative Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2016-04-01

    Fentanyl iontophoretic transdermal system (ITS) [Ionsys(®)] is indicated for the management of acute postoperative pain in adults requiring opioid analgesia in the hospital setting. This article reviews the clinical use of fentanyl ITS for postoperative pain management, and summarizes the pharmacology of fentanyl and the characteristics of the two-component fentanyl ITS (Ionsys(®)) device. In well-designed, multicentre clinical trials, fentanyl ITS was an effective and generally well tolerated method for managing acute postoperative pain in inpatients who had undergone major abdominal, thoracic or orthopaedic surgery. Overall, fentanyl ITS provided equivalent analgesic efficacy to that with morphine patient-controlled intravenous analgesia (PCIA), but was perceived to be more convenient/easier to use than morphine PCIA by patients, nurses and physical therapists. Patients receiving fentanyl ITS also had a greater ability to mobilize after surgery than patients receiving morphine PCIA. In addition, relative to morphine PCIA, fentanyl ITS offers advantages in terms of the noninvasive administrative route (i.e. transdermal needle-free administration), pre-programmed delivery (no risk of programming errors/incorrect dosing) and improved tolerability with regard to the overall incidence of opioid-related adverse events (ORAEs) and some individual ORAEs. Hence, fentanyl ITS is a useful option for the management of acute postoperative pain in adults requiring opioid analgesia in the hospital setting.

  20. Acute systemic rapamycin induces neurobehavioral alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadamitzky, Martin; Herring, Arne; Keyvani, Kathy; Doenlen, Raphael; Krügel, Ute; Bösche, Katharina; Orlowski, Kathrin; Engler, Harald; Schedlowski, Manfred

    2014-10-15

    Rapamycin is a drug with antiproliferative and immunosuppressive properties, widely used for prevention of acute graft rejection and cancer therapy. It specifically inhibits the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a protein kinase known to play an important role in cell growth, proliferation and antibody production. Clinical observations show that patients undergoing therapy with immunosuppressive drugs frequently suffer from affective disorders such as anxiety or depression. However, whether these symptoms are attributed to the action of the distinct compounds remains rather elusive. The present study investigated in rats neurobehavioral consequences of acute rapamycin treatment. Systemic administration of a single low dose rapamycin (3mg/kg) led to enhanced neuronal activity in the amygdala analyzed by intracerebral electroencephalography and FOS protein expression 90min after drug injection. Moreover, behavioral investigations revealed a rapamycin-induced increase in anxiety-related behaviors in the elevated plus-maze and in the open-field. The behavioral alterations correlated to enhanced amygdaloid expression of KLK8 and FKBP51, proteins that have been implicated in the development of anxiety and depression. Together, these results demonstrate that acute blockade of mTOR signaling by acute rapamycin administration not only causes changes in neuronal activity, but also leads to elevated protein expression in protein kinase pathways others than mTOR, contributing to the development of anxiety-like behavior. Given the pivotal role of the amygdala in mood regulation, associative learning, and modulation of cognitive functions, our findings raise the question whether therapy with rapamycin may induce alterations in patients neuropsychological functioning.

  1. Ginkgo biloba extracts attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in acute lung injury by inhibiting the COX-2 and NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xin; Chen, Nan; Ma, Chun-Hua; Tao, Jing; Bao, Jian-An; Zong-Qi, Cheng; Chen, Zu-Tao; Miao, Li-Yan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we analyzed the role of Ginkgo biloba extract in lipopolysaccharide(LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI). ALI was induced in mice by intratracheal instillation of LPS. G. biloba extract (12 and 24 mg·kg(-1)) and dexamethasone (2 mg·kg(-1)), as a positive control, were given by i.p. injection. The cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were counted. The degree of animal lung edema was evaluated by measuring the wet/dry weight ratio. The superoxidase dismutase (SOD) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were assayed by SOD and MPO kits, respectively. The levels of inflammatory mediators, tumor necrosis factor-a, interleukin-1b, and interleukin-6, were assayed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pathological changes of lung tissues were observed by H&E staining. The levels of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression were detected by Western blotting. Compared to the LPS group, the treatment with the G. biloba extract at 12 and 24 mg·kg(-1) markedly attenuated the inflammatory cell numbers in the BALF, decreased NF-κB p65 and COX-2 expression, and improved SOD activity, and inhibited MPO activity. The histological changes of the lungs were also significantly improved. The results indicated that G. biloba extract has a protective effect on LPS-induced acute lung injury in mice. The protective mechanism of G. biloba extract may be partly attributed to the inhibition of NF-κB p65 and COX-2 activation.

  2. Artesunate ameliorates severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) in rats by inhibiting expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptor 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cen, Yanyan; Liu, Chao; Li, Xiaoli; Yan, Zifei; Kuang, Mei; Su, Yujie; Pan, Xichun; Qin, Rongxin; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Jiang; Zhou, Hong

    2016-09-01

    Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) is a severe clinical condition with significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple organs dysfunction (MOD) is the leading cause of SAP-related death. The over-release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α is the underlying mechanism of MOD; however, there is no effective agent against the inflammation. Herein, artesunate (AS) was found to increase the survival of SAP rats significantly when injected with 3.5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct in a retrograde direction, improving their pancreatic pathology and decreasing serum amylase and pancreatic lipase activities along with substantially reduced pancreatic IL-1β and IL-6 release. In vitro, AS-pretreatment strongly inhibited IL-1β and IL-6 release and their mRNA expressions in the pancreatic acinar cells treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but exerted little effect on TNF-α release. Additionally, AS reduced the mRNA expressions of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 as well as their protein expressions in the pancreatic acinar cells. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that AS could significantly protect SAP rats, and this protection was related to the reduction of digestive enzyme activities and pro-inflammatory cytokine expressions via inhibition of TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway. Therefore, AS may be considered as a potential therapeutic agent against SAP.

  3. Fetal Kidney Cells Can Ameliorate Ischemic Acute Renal Failure in Rats through Their Anti-Inflammatory, Anti-Apoptotic and Anti-Oxidative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashwani Kumar; Jadhav, Sachin H; Tripathy, Naresh Kumar; Nityanand, Soniya

    2015-01-01

    Fetal kidney cells may contain multiple populations of kidney stem cells and thus appear to be a suitable cellular therapy for the treatment of acute renal failure (ARF) but their biological characteristics and therapeutic potential have not been adequately explored. We have culture expanded fetal kidney cells derived from rat fetal kidneys, characterized them and evaluated their therapeutic effect in an ischemia reperfusion (IR) induced rat model of ARF. The fetal kidney cells grew in culture as adherent spindle shaped/polygonal cells and expressed CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, CD105, CD24 and CD133 markers. Administration of PKH26 labeled fetal kidney cells in ARF rats resulted in a significant decrease in the levels of blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and decreased tubular necrosis in the kidney tissues (pkidney cells were observed to engraft around injured tubular cells, and there was increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis of tubular cells in the kidneys (pkidney tissues of ARF rats treated with fetal kidney cells had a higher gene expression of renotropic growth factors (VEGF-A, IGF-1, BMP-7 and bFGF) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL10); up regulation of anti-oxidative markers (HO-1 and NQO-1); and a lower Bax/Bcl2 ratio as compared to saline treated rats (pkidney cells express mesenchymal and renal progenitor markers, and ameliorate ischemic ARF predominantly by their anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  4. Comparison of Existing Clinical Scoring Systems in Predicting Severity and Prognoses of Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis in Chinese Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Sun, Rui Qing; Jia, Rong Rong; Ma, Xiu Ying; Cheng, Li; Tang, Mao Chun; Zhao, Yan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is important to identify the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the early course of the disease. Clinical scoring systems may be helpful to predict the prognosis of patients with early AP; however, few analysts have forecast the accuracy of scoring systems for the prognosis in hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP). The purpose of this study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of HLAP and compare the accuracy of conventional scoring systems in predicting the prognosis of HLAP. This study retrospectively analyzed all consecutively diagnosed AP patients between September 2008 and March 2014. We compared the clinical characteristics between HLAP and nonhyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis. The bedside index for severity of acute pancreatitis (BISAP), Ranson, computed tomography severity index (CTSI), and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) scores were applied within 48 hours following admission. Of 909 AP patients, 129 (14.2%) had HLAP, 20 were classified as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), 8 had pseudocysts, 9 had pancreatic necrosis, 30 had pleural effusions, 33 had SIRS, 14 had persistent organ failure, and there was 1 death. Among the HLAP patients, the area under curves for BISAP, Ranson, SIRS, and CTSI in predicting SAP were 0.905, 0.938, 0.812, and 0.834, 0.874, 0.726, 0.668, and 0.848 for local complications, and 0.904, 0.917, 0.758, and 0.849 for organ failure, respectively. HLAP patients were characterized by younger age at onset, higher recurrence rate, and being more prone to pancreatic necrosis, organ failure, and SAP. BISAP, Ranson, SIRS, and CTSI all have accuracy in predicting the prognosis of HLAP patients, but each has different strengths and weaknesses. PMID:26061329

  5. Postpartum Circulating Markers of Inflammation and the Systemic Acute-Phase Response After Early-Onset Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rijn, Bas B; Bruinse, Hein W; Veerbeek, Jan H; Post Uiterweer, Emiel D; Koenen, Steven V; van der Bom, Johanna G; Rijkers, Ger T; Roest, Mark; Franx, Arie

    2016-02-01

    Preeclampsia is an inflammatory-mediated hypertensive disorder of pregnancy and seems to be an early indicator of increased cardiovascular risk, but mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. In this study, we identified levels of circulating inflammatory markers and dynamic changes in the systemic acute-phase response in 44 women with a history of severe early-onset preeclampsia, compared with 29 controls with only uneventful pregnancies at 1.5 to 3.5 years postpartum. Models used were in vivo seasonal influenza vaccination and in vitro whole-blood culture with T-cell stimulants and the toll-like receptor-4 ligand lipopolysaccharide. Outcome measures were C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-18, fibrinogen, myeloperoxidase, and a panel of 13 cytokines representative of the innate and adaptive inflammatory response, in addition to established cardiovascular markers. The in vivo acute-phase response was higher for women with previous preeclampsia than that for controls without such a history, although only significant for C-reactive protein (P=0.04). Preeclampsia was associated with higher IL-1β (Ppreeclampsia: an adaptive response cluster associated with increased C-reactive protein and IL-6 before and after vaccination, increased weight, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; and a toll-like receptor-4 mediated the cluster associated with increased IL-18 before and after vaccination but not associated with other cardiovascular markers. Furthermore, we found interactions between previous preeclampsia, common TLR4 gene variants, and the IL-18 response to vaccination. In conclusion, preeclampsia is associated with alterations in the inflammatory response postpartum mostly independent of other established cardiovascular risk markers.

  6. The cell-type specific uptake of polymer-coated or micelle-embedded QDs and SPIOs does not provoke an acute pro-inflammatory response in the liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Heine

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Semiconductor quantum dots (QD and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanocrystals (SPIO have exceptional physical properties that are well suited for biomedical applications in vitro and in vivo. For future applications, the direct injection of nanocrystals for imaging and therapy represents an important entry route into the human body. Therefore, it is crucial to investigate biological responses of the body to nanocrystals to avoid harmful side effects. In recent years, we established a system to embed nanocrystals with a hydrophobic oleic acid shell either by lipid micelles or by the amphiphilic polymer poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene (PMAOD. The goal of the current study is to investigate the uptake processes as well as pro-inflammatory responses in the liver after the injection of these encapsulated nanocrystals. By immunofluorescence and electron microscopy studies using wild type mice, we show that 30 min after injection polymer-coated nanocrystals are primarily taken up by liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. In contrast, by using wild type, Ldlr-/- as well as Apoe-/- mice we show that nanocrystals embedded within lipid micelles are internalized by Kupffer cells and, in a process that is dependent on the LDL receptor and apolipoprotein E, by hepatocytes. Gene expression analysis of pro-inflammatory markers such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα or chemokine (C-X-C motif ligand 10 (Cxcl10 indicated that 48 h after injection internalized nanocrystals did not provoke pro-inflammatory pathways. In conclusion, internalized nanocrystals at least in mouse liver cells, namely endothelial cells, Kupffer cells and hepatocytes are at least not acutely associated with potential adverse side effects, underlining their potential for biomedical applications.

  7. Metabotropic glutamate antagonists alone and in combination with morphine: comparison across two models of acute pain and a model of persistent, inflammatory pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picker, Mitchell J; Daugherty, Dana; Henry, Fredrick E; Miller, Laurence L; Dykstra, Linda A

    2011-12-01

    The present study examined the effects of the mGluR1 antagonist JNJ16259685 (JNJ) and the mGluR5 antagonist 2-methyl-6-phenylethynylpyridine (MPEP) alone and in combination with morphine in two acute pain models (hotplate, warm water tail-withdrawal), and a persistent, inflammatory pain model (capsaicin). In the hotplate and warm water tail-withdrawal procedures, JNJ and MPEP were ineffective when administered alone. In both procedures, JNJ potentiated morphine antinociception. In the hotplate procedure, MPEP potentiated morphine antinociception at the highest dose examined, whereas in the warm water tail-withdrawal procedure MPEP attenuated morphine antinociception at a moderate dose and potentiated morphine antinociception at a high dose. For both JNJ and MPEP, the magnitude of this morphine potentiation was considerably greater in the hotplate procedure. In the capsaicin procedure, the highest dose of MPEP produced intermediate levels of antihyperalgesia and also attenuated the effects of a dose of morphine that produced intermediate levels of antihyperalgesia. In contrast, JNJ had no effect when administered alone in the capsaicin procedure and did not alter morphine-induced antihyperalgesia. The present findings suggest that the effects produced by mGluR1 and mGluR5 antagonists alone and in combination with morphine can be differentiated in models of both acute and persistent pain.

  8. The inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 beta, mediates loss of astroglial glutamate transport and drives excitotoxic motor neuron injury in the spinal cord during acute viral encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prow, Natalie A; Irani, David N

    2008-05-01

    Astrocytes remove glutamate from the synaptic cleft via specific transporters, and impaired glutamate reuptake may promote excitotoxic neuronal injury. In a model of viral encephalomyelitis caused by neuroadapted Sindbis virus (NSV), mice develop acute paralysis and spinal motor neuron degeneration inhibited by the AMPA receptor antagonist, NBQX. To investigate disrupted glutamate homeostasis in the spinal cord, expression of the main astroglial glutamate transporter, GLT-1, was examined. GLT-1 levels declined in the spinal cord during acute infection while GFAP expression was preserved. There was simultaneous production of inflammatory cytokines at this site, and susceptible animals treated with drugs that blocked IL-1beta release also limited paralysis and prevented the loss of GLT-1 expression. Conversely, infection of resistant mice that develop mild paralysis following NSV challenge showed higher baseline GLT-1 levels as well as lower production of IL-1beta and relatively preserved GLT-1 expression in the spinal cord compared to susceptible hosts. Finally, spinal cord GLT-1 expression was largely maintained following infection of IL-1beta-deficient animals. Together, these data show that IL-1beta inhibits astrocyte glutamate transport in the spinal cord during viral encephalomyelitis. They provide one of the strongest in vivo links between innate immune responses and the development of excitotoxicity demonstrated to date.

  9. [Systemic inflammatory reaction and indices of the organ hepatic dysfunction in patients with abdominal sepsis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliev, N A; Ismailov, V F

    2011-03-01

    In 26 patients in complex of treatment of abdominal sepsis there was applied a 1.5% solution of reamberin intravenously in 400 ml dose during 5 days. The results of treatment were estimated, studying indices of systemic inflammatory reaction (SIR) and hepatic tests. Reamberin application have promoted rapid normalization of the parameters studied. The authors consider, that efficacy of reamberin is caused not only by positive impact on the SIR course, but by hepatoprotective action of the preparation as well.

  10. Association between Plasma Leptin Level and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Shi; Yun-Yu Liu; Wei Li; Xin Zhang; Xiao-Jun Sun; Li Xu; Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Increasing evidence supports an association between periodontitis and systemic diseases.Leptin is involved both in the energy metabolism and inflammatory processes and is suggested to be a link between periodontal infection and systemic health.The present study aimed to evaluate the peripheral leptin concentration in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and to explore the relationship between leptin and systemic inflammation.Methods:Ninety patients with AgP visiting the Clinic of the Periodontology Department,Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between July 2001 and May 2006,and 44 healthy controls (staffand student volunteers in the same institute) were recruited.Plasma levels of leptin and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β,I L-6,tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the association between plasma leptin level and other variables.Results:Plasma leptin level of AgP group was significantly higher than that of the control group (19.7-4.4 ng/ml vs.7.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml,P < 0.01).After controlling for age,gender,and body mass index,positive correlation was observed between plasma leptin concentration and log-transformed levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and CRP),and the partial correlation coefficients ranged from 0.199 to 0.376 (P < 0.05).Log-transformed IL-1β and I L-6 levels entered the final regression model (standardized β were 0.422 and 0.461 respectively,P < 0.01).Conclusions:Elevated plasma leptin concentration may be associated with increased systemic levels of inflammatory markers in AgP patients.

  11. Usefulness of Serum Procalcitonin Levels in Predicting Tubo-Ovarian Abscess in Patients with Acute Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erenel, Hakan; Yilmaz, Nevin; Oncul, Mahmut; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat; Ayhan, Isil; Aslan, Berna; Tuten, Abdullah

    2016-09-03

    We aimed to investigate the clinical importance of serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels in the diagnosis of tubo-ovarian abscess (TOA). Patients diagnosed with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID; n = 36) and patients diagnosed with TOA (n = 42) were included in the study. Sociodemographic characteristics, laboratory and clinical parameters were compared between the 2 groups. Mean PCT level was higher in the TOA group (p = 0.004). Mean length of stay in hospital was longer in patients with TOA (p TOA. Serum PCT is a promising inexpensive marker for the diagnosis of TOA in PID patients.

  12. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in DSS-induced acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Kou, Jinhua; Liu, Weijian; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2016-06-20

    Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. However, the effect of alpinetin on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of alpinetin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In vivo, DSS-induced mice colitis model was established by giving mice drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. Alpinetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered once a day by intraperitoneal injection 3 days before DSS treatment. In vitro, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 macrophages were treated with alpinetin and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that alpinetin significantly attenuated diarrhea, colonic shortening, histological injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) production in mice. In vitro, alpinetin markedly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that alpinetin had protective effects on DSS-induced colitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for colitis treatment.

  13. Dynamics of Acute Local Inflammatory Response after Autologous Transplantation of Muscle-Derived Cells into the Skeletal Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Burdzinska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of myoblasts transplanted into the skeletal muscle die within the first week after injection. Inflammatory response to the intramuscular cell transfer was studied in allogeneic but not in autologous model. The aim of this study was to evaluate immune reaction to autotransplantation of myogenic cells and to assess its dynamics within the first week after injection. Muscle-derived cells or medium alone was injected into the intact skeletal muscles in autologous model. Tissue samples were collected 1, 3, and 7 days after the procedure. Our analysis revealed the peak increase of the gene expression of all evaluated cytokines (Il-1α, Il-1β, Il-6, Tgf-β, and Tnf-α at day 1. The mRNA level of analyzed cytokines normalized in subsequent time points. The increase of Il-β gene expression was further confirmed at the protein level. Analysis of the tissue sections revealed rapid infiltration of injected cell clusters with neutrophils and macrophages. The inflammatory infiltration was almost completely resolved at day 7. The survived cells were able to participate in the muscle regeneration process. Presented results demonstrate that autotransplanted muscle-derived cells induce classical early immune reaction in the site of injection which may contribute to cellular graft elimination.

  14. Integrated systemic inflammatory response syndrome epidemic model in scale-free networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Shao-Hong; Zhang Da-Min; Gong Guang-Wu; Guo Chang-Rui

    2011-01-01

    Based on the scale-free network,an integrated systemic inflammatory response syndrome model with artificial immunity,a feedback mechanism,crowd density and the moving activities of an individual can be built. The effects of these factors on the spreading process are investigated through the model. The research results show that the artificial immunity can reduce the stable infection ratio and enhance the spreading threshold of the system. The feedback mechanism can only reduce the stable infection ratio of system,but cannot affect the spreading threshold of the system.The bigger the crowd density is,the higher the infection ratio of the system is and the smaller the spreading threshold is. In addition,the simulations show that the individual movement can enhance the stable infection ratio of the system only under the condition that the spreading rate is high,however,individual movement will reduce the stable infection ratio of the system.

  15. Chronic oral infection with major periodontal bacteria Tannerella forsythia modulates systemic atherosclerosis risk factors and inflammatory markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chukkapalli, Sasanka S; Rivera-Kweh, Mercedes F; Velsko, Irina M; Chen, Hao; Zheng, Donghang; Bhattacharyya, Indraneel; Gangula, Pandu R; Lucas, Alexandra R; Kesavalu, Lakshmyya

    2015-04-01

    Tannerella forsythia is a Gram-negative anaerobic organism that inhabits the subgingival cavity and initiates connective tissue destruction and alveolar bone resorption in periodontal disease (PD). PD is a chronic immunoinflammatory disease and has been linked to several systemic diseases including atherosclerosis. This study evaluated the effects of a chronic oral infection with T. forsythia ATCC 43037 on the induction of PD, inflammatory markers and atherosclerosis risk factors in hyperlipidemic ApoE(null) mice. Mice were orally infected for 12 and 24 weeks prior to euthanasia. Bacterial colonization of the oral cavity and bacteremia was confirmed via isolation of genomic DNA from oral plaque and tissues. Oral infection elicited significantly elevated levels of serum IgG and IgM antibodies and alveolar bone resorption compared to control mice. Tannerella forsythia-infected mice had increased serum amyloid A, and significantly reduced serum nitric oxide when compared to controls. Tannerella forsythia chronic infection also significantly increased serum lipoproteins suggesting altered cholesterol metabolism and potential for aortic inflammation. Despite enhanced acute phase reactants and altered lipid profiles, T. forsythia infection was associated with decreased aortic plaque. This study investigates the potential of a known periodontal bacterial pathogen found in atherosclerotic plaque in humans to accelerate atherosclerosis in hyperlipdemic mice.

  16. Cardiovascular disease event rates in patients with severe psoriasis treated with systemic anti-inflammatory drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlehoff, Ole; Skov, L; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar

    2012-01-01

    with use of biological agents, methotrexate or other therapies, including retinoids, cyclosporine and phototherapy, in Denmark from 2007 to 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Death, myocardial infarction and stroke. RESULTS: A total of 2400 patients with severe psoriasis, including 693 patients treated......OBJECTIVES: Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Systemic anti-inflammatory drugs, including biological agents, are widely used in the treatment of patients with moderate to severe psoriasis and may attenuate the risk of cardiovascular...... and other therapies, respectively. Age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were 0.28 (95% CI 0.12-0.64) and 0.65 (95% CI 0.42-1.00) for patients treated with biological agents and methotrexate, respectively, using other therapies as the reference cohort. Corresponding HRs for a secondary composite...

  17. Effects of Acute Exposure to Moderate Altitude on Vascular Function, Metabolism and Systemic Inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöwhas, Anne-Christin; Latshang, Tsogyal D.; Lo Cascio, Christian M.; Lautwein, Sina; Stadelmann, Katrin; Tesler, Noemi; Ayers, Lisa; Berneis, Kaspar; Gerber, Philipp A.; Huber, Reto; Achermann, Peter; Bloch, Konrad E.; Kohler, Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    Background Travel to mountain areas is popular. However, the effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on the cardiovascular system and metabolism are largely unknown. Objectives To investigate the effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on vascular function, metabolism and systemic inflammation. Methods In 51 healthy male subjects with a mean (SD) age of 26.9 (9.3) years, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, heart rate, arterial stiffness, lipid profiles, low density lipoprotein (LDL) particle size, insulin resistance (HOMA-index), highly-sensitive C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured at 490 m (Zurich) and during two days at 2590 m, (Davos Jakobshorn, Switzerland) in randomized order. The largest differences in outcomes between the two altitudes are reported. Results Mean (SD) oxygen saturation was significantly lower at 2590 m, 91.0 (2.0)%, compared to 490 m, 96.0 (1.0)%, p<0.001. Mean blood pressure (mean difference +4.8 mmHg, p<0.001) and heart rate (mean difference +3.3 bpm, p<0.001) were significantly higher at 2590 m, compared to 490 m, but this was not associated with increased arterial stiffness. At 2590 m, lipid profiles improved (median difference triglycerides −0.14 mmol/l, p = 0.012, HDL +0.08 mmol/l, p<0.001, total cholesterol/HDL-ratio −0.25, p = 0.001), LDL particle size increased (median difference +0.45 nm, p = 0.048) and hsCRP decreased (median difference −0.18 mg/l, p = 0.024) compared to 490 m. No significant change in pro-inflammatory cytokines or insulin resistance was observed upon ascent to 2590 m. Conclusions Short-term stay at moderate altitude is associated with increased blood pressure and heart rate likely due to augmented sympathetic activity. Exposure to moderate altitude improves the lipid profile and systemic inflammation, but seems to have no significant effect on glucose metabolism. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948 PMID:23936377

  18. Effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on vascular function, metabolism and systemic inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Christin Stöwhas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Travel to mountain areas is popular. However, the effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on the cardiovascular system and metabolism are largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of acute exposure to moderate altitude on vascular function, metabolism and systemic inflammation. METHODS: In 51 healthy male subjects with a mean (SD age of 26.9 (9.3 years, oxygen saturation, blood pressure, heart rate, arterial stiffness, lipid profiles, low density lipoprotein (LDL particle size, insulin resistance (HOMA-index, highly-sensitive C-reactive protein and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured at 490 m (Zurich and during two days at 2590 m, (Davos Jakobshorn, Switzerland in randomized order. The largest differences in outcomes between the two altitudes are reported. RESULTS: Mean (SD oxygen saturation was significantly lower at 2590 m, 91.0 (2.0%, compared to 490 m, 96.0 (1.0%, p<0.001. Mean blood pressure (mean difference +4.8 mmHg, p<0.001 and heart rate (mean difference +3.3 bpm, p<0.001 were significantly higher at 2590 m, compared to 490 m, but this was not associated with increased arterial stiffness. At 2590 m, lipid profiles improved (median difference triglycerides -0.14 mmol/l, p=0.012, HDL +0.08 mmol/l, p<0.001, total cholesterol/HDL-ratio -0.25, p=0.001, LDL particle size increased (median difference +0.45 nm, p=0.048 and hsCRP decreased (median difference -0.18 mg/l, p=0.024 compared to 490 m. No significant change in pro-inflammatory cytokines or insulin resistance was observed upon ascent to 2590 m. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term stay at moderate altitude is associated with increased blood pressure and heart rate likely due to augmented sympathetic activity. Exposure to moderate altitude improves the lipid profile and systemic inflammation, but seems to have no significant effect on glucose metabolism. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01130948.

  19. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  20. Mice deficient in interferon-gamma or interferon-gamma receptor 1 have distinct inflammatory responses to acute viral encephalomyelitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun-Young Lee

    Full Text Available Interferon (IFN-gamma is an important component of the immune response to viral infections that can have a role both in controlling virus replication and inducing inflammatory damage. To determine the role of IFN-gamma in fatal alphavirus encephalitis, we have compared the responses of wild type C57BL/6 (WTB6 mice with mice deficient in either IFN-gamma (GKO or the alpha-chain of the IFN-gamma receptor (GRKO after intranasal infection with a neuroadapted strain of sindbis virus. Mortalities of GKO and GRKO mice were similar to WTB6 mice. Both GKO and GRKO mice had delayed virus clearance from the brain and spinal cord, more infiltrating perforin(+ cells and lower levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha and interleukin (IL-6 mRNAs than WTB6 mice. However, inflammation was more intense in GRKO mice than WTB6 or GKO mice with more infiltrating CD3(+ T cells, greater expression of major histocompatibility complex-II and higher levels of interleukin-17A mRNA. Fibroblasts from GRKO embryos did not develop an antiviral response after treatment with IFN-gamma, but showed increases in TNF-alpha, IL-6, CXCL9 and CXCL10 mRNAs although these increases developed more slowly and were less intense than those of WTB6 fibroblasts. These data indicate that both GKO and GRKO mice fail to develop an IFN-gamma-mediated antiviral response, but differ in regulation of the inflammatory response to infection. Therefore, GKO and GRKO cannot be considered equivalent when assessing the role of IFN-gamma in CNS viral infections.

  1. Increase in cholinergic modulation with pyridostigmine induces anti-inflammatory cell recruitment soon after acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Juraci Aparecida; Ribeiro, Susan Pereira; França, Cristiane Miranda; Coelho, Otávio; Alves, Gisele; Lacchini, Silvia; Kallás, Esper Georges; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Consolim-Colombo, Fernanda M

    2016-04-15

    We tested the hypothesis that an increase in the anti-inflammatory cholinergic pathway, when induced by pyridostigmine (PY), may modulate subtypes of lymphocytes (CD4+, CD8+, FOXP3+) and macrophages (M1/M2) soon after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats. Wistar rats, randomly allocated to receive PY (40 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) in drinking water or to stay without treatment, were followed for 4 days and then were subjected to ligation of the left coronary artery. The groups-denominated as the pyridostigmine-treated infarcted (IP) and infarcted control (I) groups-were submitted to euthanasia 3 days after MI; the heart was removed for immunohistochemistry, and the peripheral blood and spleen were collected for flow cytometry analysis. Noninfarcted and untreated rats were used as controls (C Group). Echocardiographic measurements were registered on the second day after MI, and heart rate variability was measured on the third day after MI. The infarcted groups had similar MI areas, degrees of systolic dysfunction, blood pressures, and heart rates. Compared with the I Group, the IP Group showed a significant higher parasympathetic modulation and a lower sympathetic modulation, which were associated with a small, but significant, increase in diastolic function. The IP Group showed a significant increase in M2 macrophages and FOXP3(+)cells in the infarcted and peri-infarcted areas, a significantly higher frequency of circulating Treg cells (CD4(+)CD25(+)FOXP3(+)), and a less extreme decrease in conventional T cells (CD25(+)FOXP3(-)) compared with the I Group. Therefore, increasing cholinergic modulation with PY induces greater anti-inflammatory cell recruitment soon after MY in rats.

  2. Predictive value of serum cholinesterase for the prognosis of aged patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Qi-hui; HE Xiao-jun; LI Tian-lang; CHEN Huai-hong

    2011-01-01

    Background Some studies found that cholinesterase (ChE) can be an independent risk factor for patients with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome.To assess aged patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) early and predict their prognosis,the predictive value of ChE for the prognosis of aged patients with SIRS was analyzed.Methods From September 2009 to September 2010,all aged patients with SIRS in the ICU of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine were retrospectively analyzed if they met inclusion criteria:patients aged >65 years and met American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine Consensus Conference criteria for SIRS.Serum ChE,albumin,D-dimer,lactic acid and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured,and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) Ⅱ and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores were evaluated within the first 24 hours in the ICU.Fisher's exact test was used for comparison of the primary disease between the deceased group and surviving group.For comparison of study variables between the two groups,the Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test was used.Multivariate significance was tested with binary Logistic regression analysis.Results The clinical data of 124 aged patients with SIRS were collected and analyzed.Sixty-six patients (46 male,20female,mean age (78.70±8.08) years) who died were included in the deceased group and 58 patients (34 male,24female,mean age (76.02±6.57) years) who survived were included in the surviving group.There were no significant differences in age,gender,APACHE Ⅱ score and GCS score between the deceased group and surviving group (all P>0.05),but there were significant differences in lactic acid (P=0.011),D-dimer (P=0.011),albumin (P=0.007),CRP (P=0.008),and ChE (P <0.0001).The correlation analysis showed that the APACHE Ⅱ score and CRP were not correlated with ChE (both P <0.05).D-dimer and albumin were correlated with Ch

  3. EFFECTS OF ACUTE HYPOGLYCEMIA ON THE OREXIN SYSTEM IN RAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-yan Zhao; Lei Guo; Jian Du; Guo-liang Liu

    2005-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of acute glucose level changes on expression of prepro-orexin, orexin 1 receptor (OX1R) and orexin 2 receptor (OX2R) mRNA in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cells.Methods Thirty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three equal groups (n= 10). The acute hypoglycemia rat model was induced by a single subcutaneous injection of insulin. Twenty acute hypoglycemia rats were divided into group B and group C. Group B was allowed to eat freely, while group C was food-deprived. Control rats were injected the same volume of saline. The effect of glucose levels (2.8 mmol/L and 8.3 mmol/L) on pancreatic islet cell orexin system was detected in pancreas islet cell cultured in vitro. The expression of prepro-orexin and OXR mRNA was examined in rat hypothalamus tissue and pancreatic islets cell cultured in vitro using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR).Results Expression of orexin mRNA increased about 150% for the food-deprived hypoglycemia rats in comparison with control group (P < 0.01), whereas expression of OX1R mRNA decreased up to 30% (P < 0.01). However, expression of OX2R mRNA was unchanged in comparison with control group. In vitro, after incubation with 2.8 mmol/L glucose for 6hours, the expression of prepro-orexin mRNA increased 2 times in rat pancreas islet cells in comparison with 8.3 mmol/Lglucose group (P < 0.01). But the expression of OX1R mRNA was not sensitive to acute glucose fluctuation.Conclusions Orexin in rat hypothalamus is stimulated by decline in blood glucose and inhibited by signals related to feeding. Moreover, glucose plays a role in modulating the gene expression of prepro-orexin in rat pancreatic islet cells.

  4. Instillation of coarse ash particulate matter and lipopolysaccharide produces a systemic inflammatory response in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finnerty, K.; Choi, J.E.; Lau, A.; Davis-Gorman, G.; Diven, C.; Seaver, N.; Linak, W.P.; Witten, M.; McDonagh, P.F. [Arizona Health Science Center, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Coronary ischemic events increase significantly following a 'bad air' day. Ambient particulate matter (PM10) is the pollutant most strongly associated with these events. PM10 produces inflammatory injury to the lower airways. It is not clear, however, whether pulmonary inflammation translates to a systemic response. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a proinflammatory molecule often associated with the coarse fraction of PM. It was hypothesized that PM > 2.5 from coal plus LPS induce pulmonary inflammation leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Mice were intratracheally instilled with saline, PM (200 {mu} g), PM+ LPS10 (PM+ 10 {mu} g LPS), or PM+ LPS100 (PM+ 100 {mu} g LPS). Eighteen hours later, histologic analysis was performed on lungs from each group. Pulmonary and systemic inflammation were assessed by measuring the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha} and interleukin (IL)-6 in the pulmonary supernatant and plasma. In a follow-up study, the effects of LPS alone were assessed. Histologic analysis revealed a dose-dependent elevation in pulmonary inflammation with all treatments. Pulmonary TNF-{alpha} and IL-6 both increased significantly with PM+ LPS100 treatment. Regarding plasma, TNF-{alpha} significantly increased in both PM+ LPS10 and PM+ LPS100 treatments. For plasma IL-6, all groups tended to rise with a significant increase in the PM+ LPS100 group. The results of the follow-up study indicate that the responses to PM+ LPS were not due to LPS alone. These results suggest that coarse coal fly ash PM > 2.5 combined with LPS produced pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses. The resulting low-level systemic inflammation may contribute to the increased severity of ischemic heart disease observed immediately following a bad air day.

  5. The Ubiquitin-Proteasome System and Its Role in Inflammatory and Autoimmune Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingsong Wang; Michael A. Maldonado

    2006-01-01

    Protein degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome system is the major pathway of non-lysosomal proteolysis of intracellular proteins. It plays important roles in a variety of fundamental cellular processes such as regulation of cell cycle progression, division, development and differentiation, apoptosis, cell trafficking, and modulation of the immune and inflammatory responses. The central element of this system is the covalent linkage of ubiquitin to targeted proteins, which are then recognized by the 26S proteasome, an adenosine triphosphate-dependent,multi-catalytic protease. Damaged, oxidized, or misfolded proteins as well as regulatory proteins that control many critical cellular functions are among the targets of this degradation process. Aberration of this system leads to the dysregulation of cellular homeostasis and the development of multiple diseases. In this review, we described the basic biochemistry and molecular biology of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and its complex role in the development of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. In addition, therapies and potential therapeutic targets related to the ubiquitin-proteasome system are discussed as well. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2006;3(4):255-261.

  6. HMGB1 Promotes Systemic Lupus Erythematosus by Enhancing Macrophage Inflammatory Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudan Lu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Purpose. HMGB1, which may act as a proinflammatory mediator, has been proposed to contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE; however, the precise mechanism of HMGB1 in the pathogenic process of SLE remains obscure. Method. The expression of HMGB1 was measured by ELISA and western blot. The ELISA was also applied to detect proinflammatory cytokines levels. Furthermore, nephritic pathology was evaluated by H&E staining of renal tissues. Results. In this study, we found that HMGB1 levels were significantly increased and correlated with SLE disease activity in both clinical patients and murine model. Furthermore, gain- and loss-of-function analysis showed that HMGB1 exacerbated the severity of SLE. Of note, the HMGB1 levels were found to be associated with the levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6 in SLE patients. Further study demonstrated that increased HMGB1 expression deteriorated the severity of SLE via enhancing macrophage inflammatory response. Moreover, we found that receptor of advanced glycation end products played a critical role in HMGB1-mediated macrophage inflammatory response. Conclusion. These findings suggested that HMGB1 might be a risk factor for SLE, and manipulation of HMGB1 signaling might provide a therapeutic strategy for SLE.

  7. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Severe Thrombocytopenia after Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Silvestrin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm, a systemic inflammatory response, named postimplantation syndrome, can develop. This syndrome is characterized by fever, leukocytosis, and elevated CRP plasma levels and its pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown. Although this syndrome generally resolves within few days, some patients develop a persisting severe inflammatory reaction leading to mild or severe complications. Here we describe the case of a male patient who developed postimplantation inflammatory syndrome and severe thrombocytopenia after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Treatment with prednisone (50 mg/bid for two weeks did not improve the clinical and laboratory findings. We utilized danazol, a weak androgen that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of immune and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and after 12 days of treatment with danazol (200 mg/bid, the patient improved progressively and platelet number increased up to 53,000/μL. Patients undergoing endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm should be carefully monitored for the development of postimplantation syndrome. This clinical condition is relatively common after the endovascular repair of aortic aneurysm but is rarely observed after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. The different known therapeutical approaches are still empiric, with reported beneficial effects with the use of NSAID, corticosteroids, and danazol.

  8. Systemic Inflammatory Response and Severe Thrombocytopenia after Endovascular Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestrin, Valentina; Bonvini, Stefano; Antonello, Michele; Grego, Franco; Vettor, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    After Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm, a systemic inflammatory response, named postimplantation syndrome, can develop. This syndrome is characterized by fever, leukocytosis, and elevated CRP plasma levels and its pathogenetic mechanisms are still unknown. Although this syndrome generally resolves within few days, some patients develop a persisting severe inflammatory reaction leading to mild or severe complications. Here we describe the case of a male patient who developed postimplantation inflammatory syndrome and severe thrombocytopenia after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm. Treatment with prednisone (50 mg/bid) for two weeks did not improve the clinical and laboratory findings. We utilized danazol, a weak androgen that has been shown to be effective in the treatment of immune and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and after 12 days of treatment with danazol (200 mg/bid), the patient improved progressively and platelet number increased up to 53,000/μL. Patients undergoing endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm should be carefully monitored for the development of postimplantation syndrome. This clinical condition is relatively common after the endovascular repair of aortic aneurysm but is rarely observed after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms. The different known therapeutical approaches are still empiric, with reported beneficial effects with the use of NSAID, corticosteroids, and danazol. PMID:28154580

  9. Elucidation of the Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms of Bupleuri and Scutellariae Radix Using System Pharmacological Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study was aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory effect of the combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and explored the potential therapeutic efficacy of these two drugs on inflammation-related diseases. Methods. After searching the databases, we collected the active ingredients of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix and calculated their oral bioavailability (OB and drug-likeness (DL based on the absorption-distribution-metabolism-elimination (ADME model. In addition, we predicted the drug targets of the selected active components based on weighted ensemble similarity (WES and used them to construct a drug-target network. Gene ontology (GO analysis and KEGG mapper tools were performed on these predicted target genes. Results. We obtained 30 compounds from Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix of good quality as indicated by ADME assays, which possess potential pharmacological activity. These 30 ingredients have a total of 121 potential target genes, which are involved in 24 biological processes related to inflammation. Conclusions. Combined application of Bupleuri Radix and Scutellariae Radix was found not only to directly inhibit the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines, but also to have potential therapeutic effects against inflammation-induced pain. In addition, a combination therapy of these two drugs exhibited systemic treatment efficacy and provided a theoretical basis for the development of drugs against inflammatory diseases.

  10. Peripheral inflammatory disease associated with centrally activated IL-1 system in humans and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampa, Jon; Westman, Marie; Kadetoff, Diana; Agréus, Anna Nordenstedt; Le Maître, Erwan; Gillis-Haegerstrand, Caroline; Andersson, Magnus; Khademi, Mohsen; Corr, Maripat; Christianson, Christina A; Delaney, Ada; Yaksh, Tony L; Kosek, Eva; Svensson, Camilla I

    2012-07-31

    During peripheral immune activation caused by an infection or an inflammatory condition, the innate immune response signals to the brain and causes an up-regulation of central nervous system (CNS) cytokine production. Central actions of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular IL-1β, are pivotal for the induction of fever and fatigue. In the present study, the influence of peripheral chronic joint inflammatory disease in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on CNS inflammation was investigated. Intrathecal interleukin (IL)-1β concentrations were markedly elevated in RA patients compared with controls or with patients with multiple sclerosis. Conversely, the anti-inflammatory IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-4 were decreased in RA cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Tumor necrosis factor and IL-6 levels in the CSF did not differ between patients and controls. Concerning IL-1β, CSF concentrations in RA patients were higher than in serum, indicating local production in the CNS, and there was a positive correlation between CSF IL-1β and fatigue assessments. Next, spinal inflammation in experimental arthritis was investigated. A marked increase of IL-1β, IL-18, and tumor necrosis factor, but not IL-6 mRNA production, in the spinal cord was observed, coinciding with increased arthritis scores in the KBxN serum transfer model. These data provide evidence that peripheral inflammation such as arthritis is associated with an immunological activation in the CNS in both humans and mice, suggesting a possible therapeutic target for centrally affecting conditions as fatigue in chronic inflammatory diseases, for which to date there are no specific treatments.

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease: An archetype disorder of outer environment sensor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Actis, Giovanni C; Rosina, Floriano

    2013-08-06

    The pathogenesis of the two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) phenotypes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) has remained elusive, thus frustrating attempts at defining a cure. IBD often presents as a complex inflammatory process wherein colon lesions (UC) or widespread ulceration and fissure (CD) might be accompanied by ancillary extra-intestinal manifestations involving the eye, skin, joints or liver, but also by full-blown "autoimmune" disorders from psoriasis and multiple sclerosis to rheumatoid arthritis; attempts at unraveling a link or a hierarchical order in these entities have proven almost fruitless. More recently, the input of genetics has suggested that the IBDs might be multi-organ inflammatory processes, elicited by a large number of low-penetrance susceptibility genes, with environmental factors needed to induce full-blown disease. At a noteworthy exception to this rule, the description of the nucleotide-oligomerization domain (NOD) gene mutations in CD came at the beginning of the 2000s: the NOD-LRR are part of a highly conserved microbial sensor system which respond to bacterial peptidoglycans by mounting an inflammatory response. At least in Caucasian patients, the prevalently loss-of-function mutation of NOD permitted to unexpectedly define CD as an immune deficiency state, and upon its recent description in apparently unrelated disorders such as the Blau syndrome (a granulomatous pediatric syndrome), and perhaps in psoriasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders, has contributed to revolutionize our view of IBD and CD in particular. The latter affection, together with psoriasis and chronic pulmonary disease can now be included into a newly identified category named "barrier organ disease", wherein a barrier organ is defined as a large mucosal or epithelial surface with an abundant metagenomic microbial population and an underneath reactive tissue, the whole structure being in contact with the outer environment and capable to

  12. Predicting mortality in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: an evaluation of two prognostic models, two soluble receptors, and a macrophage migration inhibitory factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Petersen, Janne

    2008-01-01

    significantly lower in non-survivors at both time points. The simplified acute physiology score II (SAPS II) and sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores were significantly higher in non-survivors at both time points, indicating that these models intended for use in intensive care units might also......Better outcomes in patients suspected of community-acquired infections requires the optimal and timely assessment of disease severity at the point of first contact with the health care system, which is typically in the emergency department. This study was conducted using a previously described......, prospectively collected cohort of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that were admitted to an emergency department and a department of infectious diseases at a university hospital. Plasma samples were collected and disease severity scores calculated upon admission. A multiplex...

  13. Variants of CEP68 gene are associated with acute urticaria/angioedema induced by multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Cornejo-García

    Full Text Available Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs are the most consumed drugs worldwide because of their efficacy and utility in the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases. However, they are also responsible for an important number of adverse effects including hypersensitivity reactions. The most important group of these reactions is triggered by non-immunological, pharmacological mechanisms catalogued under the denomination of cross-intolerance (CRI, with acute urticaria/angioedema induced by multiple NSAIDs (MNSAID-UA the most frequently associated clinical entity. A recent genome-wide association study identified the gene encoding the centrosomal protein of 68 KDa (CEP68 as the major locus associated with aspirin intolerance susceptibility in asthmatics. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of this locus in susceptibility to CRI to NSAIDs by examining 53 common gene variants in a total of 635 patients that were classified as MNSAID-UA (n = 399, airway exacerbations (n = 110 or blended pattern (n = 126, and 425 controls. We found in the MNSAID-UA group a number of variants (17 associated (lowest p-value = 1.13 × 10(-6, including the non-synonymous Gly74Ser variant (rs7572857 previously associated with aspirin intolerance susceptibility in asthmatics. Although not being significant in the context of multiple testing, eight of these variants were also associated with exacerbated respiratory disease or blended reactions. Our results suggest that CEP68 gene variants may play an important role in MNSAID-UA susceptibility and, despite the different regulatory mechanisms involved depending on the specific affected organ, in the development of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs.

  14. Variants of CEP68 gene are associated with acute urticaria/angioedema induced by multiple non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-García, José Antonio; Flores, Carlos; Plaza-Serón, María C; Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Blanca-López, Natalia; Doña, Inmaculada; Torres, María J; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Guéant-Rodríguez, Rosa M; Ayuso, Pedro; Fernández, Javier; Laguna, José J; Agúndez, José A G; García-Martín, Elena; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Canto, Gabriela; Blanca, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most consumed drugs worldwide because of their efficacy and utility in the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases. However, they are also responsible for an important number of adverse effects including hypersensitivity reactions. The most important group of these reactions is triggered by non-immunological, pharmacological mechanisms catalogued under the denomination of cross-intolerance (CRI), with acute urticaria/angioedema induced by multiple NSAIDs (MNSAID-UA) the most frequently associated clinical entity. A recent genome-wide association study identified the gene encoding the centrosomal protein of 68 KDa (CEP68) as the major locus associated with aspirin intolerance susceptibility in asthmatics. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of this locus in susceptibility to CRI to NSAIDs by examining 53 common gene variants in a total of 635 patients that were classified as MNSAID-UA (n = 399), airway exacerbations (n = 110) or blended pattern (n = 126), and 425 controls. We found in the MNSAID-UA group a number of variants (17) associated (lowest p-value = 1.13 × 10(-6)), including the non-synonymous Gly74Ser variant (rs7572857) previously associated with aspirin intolerance susceptibility in asthmatics. Although not being significant in the context of multiple testing, eight of these variants were also associated with exacerbated respiratory disease or blended reactions. Our results suggest that CEP68 gene variants may play an important role in MNSAID-UA susceptibility and, despite the different regulatory mechanisms involved depending on the specific affected organ, in the development of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs.

  15. Plant derived aporphinic alkaloid S-(+-dicentrine induces antinociceptive effect in both acute and chronic inflammatory pain models: evidence for a role of TRPA1 channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deise Prehs Montrucchio

    Full Text Available S-(+-dicentrine is an aporphinic alkaloid found in several plant species, mainly from Lauraceae family, which showed significant antinociceptive activity in an acute model of visceral pain in mice. In this work, we extended the knowledge on the antinociceptive properties of S-(+-dicentrine and showed that this alkaloid also attenuates mechanical and cold hypersensitivity associated with cutaneous inflammation induced by Complete Freund's Adjuvant in mice. Given orally, S-(+-dicentrine (100 mg/kg reversed CFA-induced mechanical hypersensitivity, evaluated as the paw withdrawal threshold to von Frey hairs, and this effect lasted up to 2 hours. S-(+-dicentrine also reversed CFA-induced cold hypersensitivity, assessed as the responses to a drop of acetone in the injured paw, but did not reverse the heat hypersensitivity, evaluated as the latency time to paw withdrawal in the hot plate (50°C. Moreover, S-(+-dicentrine (100 mg/kg, p.o. was effective in inhibit nociceptive responses to intraplantar injections of cinnamaldehyde, a TRPA1 activator, but not the responses induced by capsaicin, a TRPV1 activator. When administered either by oral or intraplantar routes, S-(+-dicentrine reduced the licking time (spontaneous nociception and increased the latency time to paw withdrawal in the cold plate (cold hypersensitivity, both induced by the intraplantar injection of cinnamaldehyde. Taken together, our data adds information about antinociceptive properties of S-(+-dicentrine in inflammatory conditions, reducing spontaneous nociception and attenuating mechanical and cold hypersensitivity, probably via a TRPA1-dependent mechanism. It also indicates that S-(+-dicentrine might be potentially interesting in the development of new clinically relevant drugs for the management of persistent pain, especially under inflammatory conditions.

  16. Variants of CEP68 Gene Are Associated with Acute Urticaria/Angioedema Induced by Multiple Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo-García, José Antonio; Flores, Carlos; Plaza-Serón, María C.; Acosta-Herrera, Marialbert; Blanca-López, Natalia; Doña, Inmaculada; Torres, María J.; Mayorga, Cristobalina; Guéant-Rodríguez, Rosa M.; Ayuso, Pedro; Fernández, Javier; Laguna, José J.; Agúndez, José A. G.; García-Martín, Elena; Guéant, Jean-Louis; Canto, Gabriela; Blanca, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are the most consumed drugs worldwide because of their efficacy and utility in the treatment of pain and inflammatory diseases. However, they are also responsible for an important number of adverse effects including hypersensitivity reactions. The most important group of these reactions is triggered by non-immunological, pharmacological mechanisms catalogued under the denomination of cross-intolerance (CRI), with acute urticaria/angioedema induced by multiple NSAIDs (MNSAID-UA) the most frequently associated clinical entity. A recent genome-wide association study identified the gene encoding the centrosomal protein of 68 KDa (CEP68) as the major locus associated with aspirin intolerance susceptibility in asthmatics. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of this locus in susceptibility to CRI to NSAIDs by examining 53 common gene variants in a total of 635 patients that were classified as MNSAID-UA (n = 399), airway exacerbations (n = 110) or blended pattern (n = 126), and 425 controls. We found in the MNSAID-UA group a number of variants (17) associated (lowest p-value = 1.13×10−6), including the non-synonymous Gly74Ser variant (rs7572857) previously associated with aspirin intolerance susceptibility in asthmatics. Although not being significant in the context of multiple testing, eight of these variants were also associated with exacerbated respiratory disease or blended reactions. Our results suggest that CEP68 gene variants may play an important role in MNSAID-UA susceptibility and, despite the different regulatory mechanisms involved depending on the specific affected organ, in the development of hypersensitivity reactions to NSAIDs. PMID:24618698

  17. Oral anti-inflammatory activity of cannabidiol, a non-psychoactive constituent of cannabis, in acute carrageenan-induced inflammation in the rat paw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Barbara; Colleoni, Mariapia; Conti, Silvia; Parolaro, Daniela; Franke, Chiara; Trovato, Anna Elisa; Giagnoni, Gabriella

    2004-03-01

    Cannabidiol, the major non-psychoactive component of marijuana, has various pharmacological actions of clinical interest. It is reportedly effective as an anti-inflammatory and anti-arthritic in murine collagen-induced arthritis. The present study examined the anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperalgesic effects of cannabidiol, administered orally (5-40 mg/kg) once a day for 3 days after the onset of acute inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v in saline) in the rat. At the end of the treatment prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was assayed in the plasma, and cyclooxygenase (COX) activity, production of nitric oxide (NO; nitrite/nitrate content), and of other oxygen-derived free radicals (malondialdehyde) in inflamed paw tissues. All these markers were significantly increased following carrageenan. Thermal hyperalgesia, induced by carrageenan and assessed by the plantar test, lasted 7 h. Cannabidiol had a time- and dose-dependent anti-hyperalgesic effect after a single injection. Edema following carrageenan peaked at 3 h and lasted 72 h; a single dose of cannabidiol reduced edema in a dose-dependent fashion and subsequent daily doses caused further time- and dose-related reductions. There were decreases in PGE2 plasma levels, tissue COX activity, production of oxygen-derived free radicals, and NO after three doses of cannabidiol. The effect on NO seemed to depend on a lower expression of the endothelial isoform of NO synthase. In conclusion, oral cannabidiol has a beneficial action on two symptoms of established inflammation: edema and hyperalgesia.

  18. Studies on the pathogenesis of acute inflammation. I. The inflammatory reaction to thermal injury as observed in the rabbit ear chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALLISON, F; SMITH, M R; WOOD, W B

    1955-12-01

    A special adaptation of the rabbit ear chamber has been devised to study in vivo, under high magnification, the acute inflammatory reaction to thermal injury. Systematic observations of the cellular response have led to the following conclusions. 1. Contrary to the commonly accepted view, vasodilatation does not always precede the adherence of leucocytes to vascular endothelium. 2. The fact that leucocytes often adhere to one another as well as to the endothelium indicates that the increased adhesiveness characteristic of the early stages of inflammation is not limited to the surfaces of the endothelial cells. 3. The sharing of erythrocytes and platelets in this increased stickiness suggests that a "plasma factor" is involved. There is indirect but as yet inconclusive evidence that the plasma factor may concern the clotting mechanism of the blood. 4. The adherence of leucocytes to the endothelium is usually first noted on the side of the vessel closest to the site of injury. This previously undescribed phenomenon of "unilateral sticking" is in keeping with the concept that the vascular reaction is caused by products of cellular damage which diffuse to the vessel from the site of injury. 5. Leucocytes always become adherent to the endothelium before penetrating the vessel wall. They often migrate about for some time on the endothelial surface before undergoing diapedesis. 6. Although no definite stomata are at any time visible in the endothelium, penetrating leucocytes may leave behind temporary defects through which other leucocytes and even erythrocytes may pass. 7. The diapedesis of leucocytes appears to depend primarily upon cellular motility. It may occur in static vessels where there is presumably little if any hydrostatic pressure. 8. The diapedesis of erythrocytes, on the other hand, is a passive process depending upon intravascular pressure. Its occurrence is greatly exaggerated in areas in which intravascular pressure becomes elevated. Such elevations

  19. The synovial prostaglandin system in chronic inflammatory arthritis: differential effects of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombardieri, S.; Cattani, P.; Ciabattoni, G.; Di Munno, O.; Pasero, G.; Patrono, C.; Pinca, E.; Pugliese, F.

    1981-01-01

    1 The present study was undertaken to characterize the spectrum of arachidonic acid metabolites present in synovial effusions of patients with rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, and to compare changes in their concentration following a short-term treatment with 6α-methyl-prednisolone (6-MeP: 4-8 mg/day) or indoprofen (1.2 g/day), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agent with proven synovial prostaglandin inhibitory effect. 2 Measurements of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thromboxane (TX) B2, 6-keto-PGF1α and PGF2α were performed by radioimmunoassay techniques in synovial effusions obtained from 23 patients, and validated by thin-layer chromatographic analysis of the extracted immunoreactivity. 3 PGE2 and TXB2 accounted for more than 60% of the total immunoreactivity in untreated patients. The absence of any constant ratio between the different arachidonic acid metabolites detected in synovial fluid is consistent with a heterogeneous cellular origin of these compounds. 4 Indoprofen treatment was associated with a consistent reduction of synovial prostaglandin and thromboxane concentrations, ranging from 36% in the case of 6-keto-PGF1α to 90% in the case of PGE2. 5 In contrast, 6-MeP caused opposite changes on different metabolites originating via the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. Thus, 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations were reduced by 35%, PGF2α concentrations were increased by 30%, while PGE2 and TXB2 were unchanged following 6-MeP. 6 Although the mechanism(s) underlying the failure of 6-MeP to reduce synovial PGE2 and TXB2 levels are uncertain, the results of the present study clearly indicate that therapeutic doses of steroidal and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs cause quite distinct changes in arachidonic acid metabolism, which might be relevant to their specific therapeutic actions and side-effects. PMID:6895043

  20. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multiple-organ damage / dysfunction in complicated canine babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Welzl

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to document the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and multiple-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS in dogs with complicated babesiosis, and to assess their impact on outcome. Ninety-one cases were evaluated retro-spectively for SIRS and 56 for MODS. The liver, kidneys, lungs, central nervous system and musculature were assessed. Eighty-seven percent of cases were SIRS-positive. Fifty-two percent of the cases assessed for organ damage had single-organ damage and 48 % had MODS. Outcome was not significantly affected by either SIRS or MODS, but involvement of specific organs had a profound effect. Central nervous system involvement resulted in a 57 times greater chance of death and renal involvement in a 5-fold increased risk compared to all other complications. Lung involvement could not be statistically evaluated owing to co-linearity with other organs, but was associated with high mortality. Liver and muscle damage were common, but did not significantly affect outcome. There are manysimilarities between the observations in this study and previous human and animal studies in related fields, lending additional support to the body of evidence for shared underlying pathophysiological mechanisms in systemic inflammatory states.

  1. System of acute medical support to emergency during dental treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, M; Takeshita, T; Akita, S

    1986-01-01

    The Resuscitation Committee of Hiroshima City Dental Association was established in 1983 in order to provide acute medical support in case of emergency during dental treatment at private dental clinics. This Committee is composed of representatives from the Hiroshima City Dental Association, Hiroshima University School of Dentistry, Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima City Health Bureau, and Hiroshima City Fire and Ambulance Department. A portable ECG monitor with defibrillator and a resuscitation kit are held in readiness at the Hiroshima University Hospital. In case of emergency during dental treatment at a private dental clinic, we hurry to the clinic with the resuscitation set and give emergency treatment. We have been involved in two cases of emergency since this system started. Both of them recovered without any sequelae. Besides these activities, we give lectures annually to dentists and dental hygienists on the treatment of medical emergencies.

  2. Acute macular neuroretinopathy associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Lee, S C; Kim, M

    2016-04-01

    Acute macular neuroretinopathy (AMN) is a rare disorder that presents with abrupt visual change with wedge-shaped or flower-like lesions pointing towards the fovea. Ischemic insults to the retinal capillary plexus may be important for development of this disease. While many case reports have been published on AMN, none have described AMN in association with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Here, we report a case of AMN associated with newly-diagnosed SLE. We speculate that in patients with lupus flares, immune complex-mediated vascular injury and microvascular thrombosis may disrupt the deep retinal capillary network, causing ischemic damages to the outer retina and leading to the development of AMN. AMN can develop in patients with lupus flares, and must be considered as an SLE-associated ophthalmologic complication. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of AMN associated with SLE.

  3. Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide induced acute lung injury via reducing inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tian-Yin; Chen, Shi-Biao

    2016-12-01

    Sarcandra glabra (Chinese name, Zhongjiefeng) is an important herb widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Lycopene has been shown to be a powerful antioxidant. This study aims to test the hypothesis that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene protect rats from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced acute lung injury (ALI). Metabolomics approach combined with pathological inspection, serum biochemistry examination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blotting were used to explore the protective effects of Sarcandra glabra and lycopene on LPS-induced ALI, and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that Sarcandra glabra and lycopene could significantly ameliorate LPS-induced histopathological injuries, improve the anti-oxidative activities of rats, decrease the levels of TNF-α and IL-6, suppress the activations of MAPK and transcription factor NF-κB and reverse the disturbed metabolism towards the normal status. Taken together, this integrated study revealed that Sarcandra glabra combined with lycopene had great potential in protecting rats from LPS-induced ALI, which would be helpful to guide the clinical medication.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  5. Intravenous Immunoglobulin with Enhanced Polyspecificity Improves Survival in Experimental Sepsis and Aseptic Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Roumenina, Lubka; Pashov, Anastas; Dimitrov, Jordan; Hadzhieva, Maya; Lindig, Sandro; Voynova, Elisaveta; Dimitrova, Petya; Ivanovska, Nina; Bockmeyer, Clemens; Stefanova, Zvetanka; Fitting, Catherine; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; von Gunten, Stephan; Kaveri, Srini; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Bauer, Michael; Vassilev, Tchavdar

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause for death worldwide. Numerous interventional trials with agents neutralizing single proinflammatory mediators have failed to improve survival in sepsis and aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndromes. This failure could be explained by the widespread gene expression dysregulation known as “genomic storm” in these patients. A multifunctional polyspecific therapeutic agent might be needed to thwart the effects of this storm. Licensed pooled intravenous immunoglobulin preparations seemed to be a promising candidate, but they have also failed in their present form to prevent sepsis-related death. We report here the protective effect of a single dose of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations with additionally enhanced polyspecificity in three models of sepsis and aseptic systemic inflammation. The modification of the pooled immunoglobulin G molecules by exposure to ferrous ions resulted in their newly acquired ability to bind some proinflammatory molecules, complement components and endogenous “danger” signals. The improved survival in endotoxemia was associated with serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, diminished complement consumption and normalization of the coagulation time. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin preparations with additionally enhanced polyspecificity have a clinical potential in sepsis and related systemic inflammatory syndromes. PMID:26701312

  6. Vaginal Heparan Sulfate Linked to Neutrophil Dysfunction in the Acute Inflammatory Response Associated with Experimental Vulvovaginal Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Junko; Noverr, Mairi C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite acute inflammation by polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) during vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC), clearance of Candida fails to occur. The purpose of this study was to uncover the mechanism of vaginal PMN dysfunction. Designs included assessing PMN migration, proinflammatory mediators, and tissue damage (by analysis of the activity of lactate dehydrogenase [LDH]) in mice susceptible (C3H/HeN-C57BL/6) or resistant (CD-1) to chronic VVC (CVVC-S or CVVC-R) and testing morphology-specific Candida albicans strains under conditions of preinduced PMN migration (CVVC-S mice) or PMN depletion (CVVC-R mice). In vitro designs included evaluation of C. albicans killing by elicited vaginal or peritoneal PMNs in standard or vaginal conditioned medium (VCM). Results showed that despite significant migration of PMNs and high levels of vaginal beta interleukin-1 (IL-1β) and alarmin S100A8, CVVC-S mice failed to reduce vaginal fungal burden irrespective of morphology or whether PMNs were present pre- or postinoculation, and had high LDH levels. In contrast, CVVC-R mice had reduced fungal burden and low LDH levels following PMN recruitment and IL-1β/S100A8 production, but maintained colonization in the absence of PMNs. Elicited vaginal and peritoneal PMNs showed substantial killing activity in standard media or VCM from CVVC-R mice but not in VCM from CVVC-S mice. The inhibitory effect of VCM from CVVC-S mice was unaffected by endogenous or exogenous estrogen and was ablated following depletion/neutralization of Mac-1 ligands using Mac-1+/+ PMNs or recombinant Mac-1. Heparan sulfate (HS) was identified as the putative inhibitor as evidenced by the rescue of PMN killing following heparanase treatment of VCM, as well as by inhibition of killing by purified HS. These results suggest that vaginal HS is linked to PMN dysfunction in CVVC-S mice as a competitive ligand for Mac-1. PMID:28292981

  7. Comparative expression profile of NOD1/2 and certain acute inflammatory cytokines in thermal-stressed cell culture model of native and crossbred cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanuprakash, V.; Singh, Umesh; Sengar, Gyanendra Singh; Raja, T. V.; Sajjanar, Basavraj; Alex, Rani; Kumar, Sushil; Alyethodi, R. R.; Kumar, Ashish; Sharma, Ankur; Kumar, Suresh; Bhusan, Bharat; Deb, Rajib

    2016-11-01

    Thermotolerance depends mainly on the health and immune status of the animals. The variation in the immune status of the animals may alter the level of tolerance of animals exposed to heat or cold stress. The present study was conducted to investigate the expression profile of two important nucleotide binding and oligomerization domain receptors (NLRs) (NOD1 and NOD2) and their central signalling molecule RIP2 gene during in vitro thermal-stressed bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of native (Sahiwal) and crossbred (Sahiwal X HF) cattle. We also examined the differential expression profile of certain acute inflammatory cytokines in in vitro thermal-stressed PBMC culture among native and its crossbred counterparts. Results revealed that the expression profile of NOD1/2 positively correlates with the thermal stress, signalling molecule and cytokines. Present findings also highlighted that the expression patterns during thermal stress were comparatively superior among indigenous compared to crossbred cattle which may add references regarding the better immune adaptability of Zebu cattle.

  8. Early Electrodiagnostic Features of Upper Extremity Sensory Nerves Can Differentiate Axonal Guillain-Barré Syndrome from Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Yong Seo; Shin, Ha Young; Kim, Jong Kuk; Nam, Tai-Seung; Shin, Kyong Jin; Bae, Jong-Seok; Suh, Bum Chun; Oh, Jeeyoung; Yoon, Byeol-A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Serial nerve conduction studies (NCSs) are recommended for differentiating axonal and demyelinating Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), but this approach is not suitable for early diagnoses. This study was designed to identify possible NCS parameters for differentiating GBS subtypes. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 70 patients with GBS who underwent NCS within 10 days of symptom onset. Patients with axonal GBS and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) were selected based on clinical characteristics and serial NCSs. An antiganglioside antibody study was used to increase the diagnostic certainty. Results The amplitudes of median and ulnar nerve sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) were significantly smaller in the AIDP group than in the axonal-GBS group. Classification and regression-tree analysis revealed that the distal ulnar sensory nerve SNAP amplitude was the best predictor of axonal GBS. Conclusions Early upper extremity sensory NCS findings are helpful in differentiating axonal-GBS patients with antiganglioside antibodies from AIDP patients. PMID:27819421

  9. Relationship between autonomic nervous system function and acute mountain sickness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Long Min; Huang Lan; Tian Kaixin; Yu Shiyong; Yu Yang; Qin Jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To elucidate the role of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in acute mountain sickness (AMS) during the initial phase at acute high-altitude exposure. Methods: Ninety-nine healthy sea-level residents rapidly ascended to Tibet plateau (3 675 m altitude) by airplane from Chengdu plain (560 m altitude). ANS function was tested in plain and day 2-4 in Tibet by heart rate variability (HRV), cold pressor test (CPT). AMS was evaluated by clinic symptomatic scores. All subjects were divided into non-AMS group (57, scores(4). Results: Compared with non-AMS group, AMS group had higher standard deviation of normal to normal intervals (SDNN), root mean square of delta RR (rMSSD), low-frequency (LF) power, and normalized low-frequency (Lfnu) power in plain (P50 ms(PNN50), rMSSD (P<0.01) and SDNN, LF, total power (TP) (P<0.05). Although no significant differences in the increase of SP and DP during CPT were found between 2 groups in plain, the SP increase during CPT of AMS group was less than non-AMS group (P<0.05) at 3 675 m altitude. AMS symptomatic scores was not only positively correlated with SDNN,rMSSD, LF/HF in plain (P<0.05), but also negatively correlated with Hfnu in plain (P<0.05). Conclusion: During the initial high altitude exposure, ANS modulation is generally blunted, but the relatively predominant sympathetic control is enhanced, and this characteristic change of ANS function is positively correlated with the development of AMS.

  10. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy in a boy with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoilo, Morel Ayala; Eduardo, Benadón; Enrique, Faugier; del Rocio, Maldonado V M

    2010-05-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired, autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a multisystemic, autoimmune disease that can affect the central nervous system in about 40% of patients, with prevalence and incidence unknown in the pediatric population due to lack of multicenter studies. We report the case of a 13-year-old Mexican boy, diagnosed with CIDP at the onset of SLE, beginning with progressive muscle weakness of lower and upper limbs, without affection of the central nervous system. The patient had positive ANA, antiDNAdc, antiBeta2glycoprotein, anti-cardiolipin, ANCA-C and X. He received intravenous immunoglobulin, cyclophosphamide, steroids, and azathioprine and showed clinical improvement. It is important to take into account the presence of peripheral neurological disorders in patients with pediatric SLE, considering CIDP as an uncommon presentation, making the diagnosis important for better treatment and evolution.

  11. Estudo da ação inflamatória aguda do tiopental intraperitoneal em ratos Acute inflammatory action of tiopental intraperitoneal in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Carregaro

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se a ação inflamatória aguda do tiopental intraperitoneal (IP utilizando-se 72 ratos, divididos em grupo-tratado (40mg/kg de tiopental a 2,5% IP e grupo-controle (0,25ml de solução fisiológica IP. Para determinar o processo inflamatório, colheu-se o lavado peritoneal às 2, 6, 12, 24 e 48h após a inoculação. Os animais foram anestesiados com isoflurano e submetidos à eutanásia por secção dos vasos cervicais. Administraram-se 5ml de solução fisiológica heparinizada por via IP e, após homogeneização, divulsionou-se o peritôneo e colheu-se a amostra. Determinaram-se a dosagem de proteínas plasmáticas (PP, a contagem global (CGL e a diferencial (CDL de leucócitos. Não foi observada diferença na PP entre os grupos em nenhum momento exceto às 2h. Entre os momentos, a dosagem foi superior às 6 e 12h nos dois grupos. Não houve diferença entre os grupos para a CGL. Entre os momentos, a CGL diferiu dos demais às 6h em ambos os grupos. Verificou-se o mesmo perfil para a CDL entre os grupos exceto para os eosinófilos às 6h. Entre os momentos, os valores foram diferentes em relação aos neutrófilos em ambos os grupos, às 6 e 12h. Observou-se reação inflamatória aguda no processo provavelmente desencadeada pela ação mecânica da injeção. A eosinofilia observada no grupo-tratado após 6h sugere uma certa ação irritante do tiopental.The acute inflammatory action of thiopental intraperitoneal (IP in rats was studied. Seventy two animals were divided in treated (40mg/kg of thiopental, 2.5% IP and control (0.25ml of saline solution IP rats. In order to evaluate the inflammatory process, peritoneal fluid was taken at 2h, 6h, 12h, 24h e 48h after drug administration. The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane and submitted to euthanasia through cervical vessels section. Five millilitres of heparinized saline solution were injected IP, homogenized by abdomen massage and then withdrawn. Plasma protein (PP

  12. Activated systemic inflammatory response at diagnosis reduces lymph node count in colonic carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rory P Kennelly; Brenda Murphy; John O Larkin; Brian J Mehigan; Paul H McCormick

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate a link between lymph node yield and systemic inflammatory response in colon cancer. METHODS: A prospectively maintained database was interrogated. All patients undergoing curative colonic resection were included. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio(NLR) and albumin were used as markers of SIR. In keeping with previously studies, NLR ≥ 4, albumin < 35 was used as cut off points for SIR. Statistical analysis was performed using 2 sample t-test and χ~2 tests where appropriate.RESULTS: Three hundred and two patients were included for analysis. One hundred and ninety-five patients had NLR < 4 and 107 had NLR ≥ 4. There was no difference in age or sex between groups. Patients with NLR of ≥ 4 had lower mean lymph node yields than patients with NLR < 4 [17.6 ± 7.1 vs 19.2 ± 7.9(P = 0.036)]. More patients with an elevated NLR had node positive disease and an increased lymph node ratio(≥ 0.25, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Prognosis in colon cancer is intimately linked to the patient’s immune response. Assuming standardised surgical technique and sub specialty pathology, lymph node count is reduced when systemic inflammatory response is activated.

  13. An Inflammatory Polymorphisms Risk Scoring System for the Differentiation of Ischemic Stroke Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muiño, Elena; Krupinski, Jurek; Carrera, Caty; Gallego-Fabrega, Cristina; Montaner, Joan; Fernández-Cadenas, Israel

    2015-01-01

    Inflammation has been associated with atherothrombotic stroke and recently with cardioembolic stroke. Different genetic risk factors have been specifically associated with the subtypes of ischemic stroke (cardioembolic, atherothrombotic, and lacunar). However, there are no studies that have generated genetic risk scores for the different subtypes of ischemic stroke using polymorphisms associated with inflammation. Methods. We have analyzed 68 polymorphisms of 30 inflammatory mediator genes in 2,685 subjects: 1,987 stroke cases and 698 controls. We generated a genetic scoring system with the most significant polymorphisms weighted by the odds ratio of every polymorphism and taken into consideration the stroke subtype. Results. Three polymorphisms, rs1205 (CRP gene), rs1800779, and rs2257073 (NOS3 gene), were associated with cardioembolic stroke (p value <0.05). The score generated was only associated with the cardioembolic stroke subtype (p value: 0.001) and was replicated in an independent cohort (p value: 0.017). The subjects with the highest score presented a cardioembolic stroke in 92.2% of the cases (p value: 0.002). Conclusion. The genetics of inflammatory markers is more closely associated with cardioembolic strokes than with atherothrombotic or lacunar strokes. The genetic risk scoring system could be useful in the prediction and differentiation of ischemic stroke; however, it might be specific to particular ischemic stroke subtypes. PMID:26355258

  14. Effects of SCR-3 on the immunosuppression accompanied with the systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Niu, Jie; Ou, Shan; Ye, Zhan-Yong; Liu, Deng-Qun; Wang, Feng-Chao; Su, Yong-Ping; Wang, Jun-Ping

    2012-05-01

    Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) is a multifunctional protein that plays an important role in mammary gland growth, development, and tumorigenesis. In this study, SCR-3 gene knockout mice were used to study the effects of SCR-3 on the immunosuppression accompanied with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Bacterial clearance assay was performed by blood culture and frozen sections, and the results showed that the absence of SCR-3 protein serious damaged the innate immune system and the body's ability to inactivate or phagocytosis of bacteria was significantly decreased, and the absence of SCR-3 protein also weakened phagocytes' ability to degrade bacteria and their metabolites. Furthermore, animal model of inflammatory reaction was established and the immune function was determined, and the results revealed that SRC-3 protein may play an important role in maintenance of T-cells' immune function, and severe T-cell immune function disorder would be resulted once SRC-3 protein is missing. In addition, the results of our study showed the steady-state of lymphocyte subsets was destroyed after SIRS, leading the suppression of cellular immune function, and the absence of SCR-3 protein may aggravate the suppression of T-lymphocyte function. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the absence of SCR-3 protein would aggravate immunosuppression. In addition, SRC-3 protein is a significant regulator of infection and inflammation, and SRC-3 protein play an essential role in the development of immunosuppression accompanied with SIRS.

  15. Systemic inflammatory responses during laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repair: a randomised prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, P; Schultz, Karen; Bendtzen, K;

    2000-01-01

    To see if the inflammatory responses during and after laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repairs differed.......To see if the inflammatory responses during and after laparoscopic and open inguinal hernia repairs differed....

  16. Dexmedetomidine controls systemic cytokine levels through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Hui; Hu, Bo; Li, Zhifeng; Li, Jianguo

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that dexmedetomidine exerted anti-inflammatory effect on several animal models with inflammation, but the mechanism is not clear. This study intends to elucidate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of dexmedetomidine through the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway. To investigate this therapeutic potential of dexmedetomidine, a murine model of endotoxemia was established induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Animals were assigned to one of four protocols. Protocol one: animals were randomly assigned to control group, dexmedetomidine group, and sterile saline group (n=20 each), and these animals were used for survival analysis. The survival rate was assessed up to 120 h after endotoxin injection. Protocol two: animals were randomly assigned to one of four groups (n=16 each): group 1 (group Saline), treated with sterile saline 15 min prior to endotoxin treatment (10 mg kg(-1) over 2 min); group 2 (group Dex), treated with dexmedetomidine 15 min prior to endotoxin treatment; group 3 (group αBGT+Dex), treated with alpha-7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7nAChR) antagonist alpha-bungarotoxin (αBGT, 1 μg/kg) 15 min prior to dexmedetomidine treatment; group 4 (group saline+Dex), treated with equivalent sterile saline 15 min prior to dexmedetomidine treatment. Protocol three: animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups (n=16 each): vagotomy group (group VNX+Dex), right cervical vagus nerve was exposed and transected; sham-operated group (group SHAM+Dex), the cervical vagus nerve was visualized, but was neither isolated from the surrounding tissues nor transected. Protocol four: animals were treated with dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and sterile saline to observe the discharge activity of cervical vagus nerves by using BL-420F data acquisition and analysis system (n=16 each). In the survival analysis groups, the survival rate of dexmedetomidine group was significantly higher than that of the endotoxemia group (65 versus 25

  17. Local Renin-Angiotensin System in the Pancreas: The Significance in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai PBS

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is a complex disease entity of which the pathogenesis is still not completely known. Research into the initiation and propagation of the diseases would hopefully help to design new treatment strategies for patients, especially those with severe acute pancreatitis. The novel observation of the activation of the local pancreatic renin-angiotensin system in experimental pancreatitis opens up new horizons for research regarding the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis.

  18. Damage of the auditory system associated with acute blast trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, M; Hamernik, R P; Turrentine, G A

    1989-05-01

    This paper reviews the results of several studies on the effects of blast wave exposure on the auditory system of the chinchilla, the pig, and the sheep. The chinchillas were exposed at peak sound pressure levels of approximately 160 dB under well-controlled laboratory conditions. A modified shock tube was used to generate the blast waves. The pigs and sheep were exposed under field conditions in an instrumented hard-walled enclosure. Blast trauma was induced by the impact of a single explosive projectile. The peak sound pressure levels varied between 178 and 209 dB. All animals were killed immediately following exposure, and their temporal bones were removed for fixation and histologic analysis using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Middle ears were examined visually for damage to the conductive system. There were well-defined differences in susceptibility to acoustic trauma among species. However, common findings in each species were the acute mechanical fracture and separation of the organ of Corti from the basilar membrane, and tympanic membrane and ossicular failure.

  19. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  20. Acute inflammatory response in Nile tilapia fed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the diet - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8011 Acute inflammatory response in Nile tilapia fed probiotic Lactobacillus plantarum in the diet - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v33i3.8011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Pilati

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin (500 µg injected in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia, after fed or not probiotic supplemented diet. Fifty four fish were distributed in six treatments and three replicates: Group A: Fish fed unsupplemented diet: 0.5 mL saline-injected fish; fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin diluted in 0.5 mL saline; Non-injected. Group B: Fish fed probiotic supplemented diet: saline-injected fish; carrageenin-injected fish; Non-injected. Fifteen days after feeding the fish were injected with carrageenin or saline. After six hours, inflammatory exudate was collected, as well as the blood for hematocrit, red blood cell (RBC and white blood cell (WBC counts, differential count of leucocytes and phagocytic activity in the blood. Supplementation with probiotic did not influence the RBC, hematocrit and the numbers of lymphocytes and basophils in the blood. The number of neutrophils was significantly higher in supplemented fish injected with carrageenin. Glucose concentration in supplemented and non-injected fish was higher than that observed in the saline injected ones. Probiotic potentialized the migration of cells to the inflammatory focus in the animals injected with the carrageenin irritant. In fish injected with saline and carrageenin occurred the greatest phagocytic activity in the blood in relation to those treatments.The present study evaluated the acute inflammatory response induced by carrageenin (500 µg injected in the swim bladder of Nile tilapia, after fed or not probiotic supplemented diet. Fifty four fish were distributed in six treatments and three replicates: Group A: Fish fed unsupplemented diet: 0.5 mL saline-injected fish; fish injected with 500 µg carrageenin diluted in 0.5 mL saline; Non-injected. Group B: Fish fed probiotic supplemented diet: saline-injected fish; carrageenin-injected fish; Non-injected. Fifteen days after feeding the fish were injected

  1. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM on insulin sensitivity and the systemic inflammatory response in human subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Anne Sofie; Larsen, Nadja; Pedersen-Skovsgaard, Theis

    2010-01-01

    According to animal studies, intake of probiotic bacteria may improve glucose homeostasis. We hypothesised that probiotic bacteria improve insulin sensitivity by attenuating systemic inflammation. Therefore, the effects of oral supplementation with the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus...... course with either L. acidophilus NCFM or placebo. L. acidophilus was detected in stool samples by denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis and real-time PCR. Separated by the 4-week intervention period, two hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamps were performed to estimate insulin sensitivity. Furthermore......, the systemic inflammatory response was evaluated by subjecting the participants to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide injection (0·3 ng/kg) before and after the treatment course. L. acidophilus NCFM was detected in 75 % of the faecal samples after treatment with the probiotic bacterium. Insulin sensitivity...

  2. Role of the cannabinoid system in pain control and therapeutic implications for the management of acute and chronic pain episodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanares, J; Julian, Md; Carrascosa, A

    2006-07-01

    Cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids are still widely considered illegal substances. Preclinical and clinical studies have suggested that they may result useful to treat diverse diseases, including those related with acute or chronic pain. The discovery of cannabinoid receptors, their endogenous ligands, and the machinery for the synthesis, transport, and degradation of these retrograde messengers, has equipped us with neurochemical tools for novel drug design. Agonist-activated cannabinoid receptors, modulate nociceptive thresholds, inhibit release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and display synergistic effects with other systems that influence analgesia, especially the endogenous opioid system. Cannabinoid receptor agonists have shown therapeutic value against inflammatory and neuropathic pains, conditions that are often refractory to therapy. Although the psychoactive effects of these substances have limited clinical progress to study cannabinoid actions in pain mechanisms, preclinical research is progressing rapidly. For example, CB(1)mediated suppression of mast cell activation responses, CB(2)-mediated indirect stimulation of opioid receptors located in primary afferent pathways, and the discovery of inhibitors for either the transporters or the enzymes degrading endocannabinoids, are recent findings that suggest new therapeutic approaches to avoid central nervous system side effects. In this review, we will examine promising indications of cannabinoid receptor agonists to alleviate acute and chronic pain episodes. Recently, Cannabis sativa extracts, containing known doses of tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol, have granted approval in Canada for the relief of neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. Further double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trials are needed to evaluate the potential therapeutic effectiveness of various cannabinoid agonists-based medications for controlling different types of pain.

  3. Inflammatory bowel disease:An archetype disorder of outer environment sensor systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni; C; Actis; Floriano; Rosina

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of the two inflammatory bowel disease(IBD) phenotypes ulcerative colitis(UC) and Crohn’ s disease(CD) has remained elusive,thus frustrating attempts at defining a cure.IBD often presents as a complex inflammatory process wherein colon lesions(UC) or widespread ulceration and fissure(CD) might be accompanied by ancillary extra-intestinal manifestations involving the eye,skin,joints or liver,but also by full-blown "autoimmune" disorders from psoriasis and multiple sclerosis to rheumatoid arthritis;attempts at unraveling a link or a hierarchical order in these entities have proven almost fruitless.More recently,the input of genetics has suggested that the IBDs might be multiorgan inflammatory processes,elicited by a large number of low-penetrance susceptibility genes,with environmental factors needed to induce full-blown disease.At a noteworthy exception to this rule,the description of the nucleotide-oligomerization domain(NOD) gene mutations in CD came at the beginning of the 2000s:the NOD-LRR are part of a highly conserved microbial sensor system which respond to bacterial peptidoglycans by mounting an inflammatory response.At least in Caucasian patients,the prevalently loss-of-function mutation of NOD permitted to unexpectedly define CD as an immune deficiency state,and upon its recent description in apparently unrelated disorders such as the Blau syndrome(a granulomatous pediatric syndrome),and perhaps in psoriasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorders,has contributed to revolutionize our view of IBD and CD in particular.The latter affection,together with psoriasis and chronic pulmonary disease can now be included into a newly identified category named "barrier organ disease",wherein a barrier organ is defined as a large mucosal or epithelial surface with an abundant metagenomic microbial population and an underneath reactive tissue,the whole structure being in contact with the outer environment and capable to react to it

  4. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Govindarajan Karthivashan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP, also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO is pervasive in nature, is reported to possess a surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg, silymarin—positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p, MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p, and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10 cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration were clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose-dependent manner after MO leaf extract

  5. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Kura, Aminu Umar; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Md Isa, Norhaszalina; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO) is pervasive in nature, is reported to possess a surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p) and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg), silymarin-positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p) respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg) during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration were clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose-dependent manner after MO leaf extract treatment

  6. The modulatory effect of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on endogenous antioxidant systems and inflammatory markers in an acetaminophen-induced nephrotoxic mice model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthivashan, Govindarajan; Kura, Aminu Umar; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Md. Isa, Norhaszalina

    2016-01-01

    N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol (APAP), also known as acetaminophen, is the most commonly used over-the counter analgesic and antipyretic medication. However, its overdose leads to both liver and kidney damage. APAP-induced toxicity is considered as one of the primary causes of acute liver failure; numerous scientific reports have focused majorly on APAP hepatotoxicity. Alternatively, not many works approach APAP nephrotoxicity focusing on both its mechanisms of action and therapeutic exploration. Moringa oleifera (MO) is pervasive in nature, is reported to possess a surplus amount of nutrients, and is enriched with several bioactive candidates including trace elements that act as curatives for various clinical conditions. In this study, we evaluated the nephro-protective potential of MO leaf extract against APAP nephrotoxicity in male Balb/c mice. A single-dose acute oral toxicity design was implemented in this study. Group 2, 3, 4 and 5 received a toxic dose of APAP (400 mg/kg of bw, i.p) and after an hour, these groups were administered with saline (10 mL/kg), silymarin—positive control (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), MO leaf extract (100 mg/kg of bw, i.p), and MO leaf extract (200 mg/kg bw, i.p) respectively. Group 1 was administered saline (10 mL/kg) during both the sessions. APAP-treated mice exhibited a significant elevation of serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, sodium, potassium and chloride levels. A remarkable depletion of antioxidant enzymes such as SOD, CAT and GSH-Px with elevated MDA levels has been observed in APAP treated kidney tissues. They also exhibited a significant rise in pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) and decreased anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine level in the kidney tissues. Disorganized glomerulus and dilated tubules with inflammatory cell infiltration were clearly observed in the histology of APAP treated mice kidneys. All these pathological changes were reversed in a dose-dependent manner after MO leaf extract treatment

  7. Experimental gingivitis induces systemic inflammatory markers in young healthy individuals: a single-subject interventional study.

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    Jörg Eberhard

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We here investigated whether experimental gingivitis enhances systemic markers of inflammation which are also known as surrogate markers of atherosclerotic plaque development. BACKGROUND: Gingivitis is a low-level oral infection induced by bacterial deposits with a high prevalence within Western populations. A potential link between the more severe oral disease periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has already been shown. METHODS: 37 non-smoking young volunteers with no inflammatory disease or any cardiovascular risk factors participated in this single-subject interventional study with an intra-individual control. Intentionally experimental oral inflammation was induced by the interruption of oral hygiene for 21 days, followed by a 21-days resolving phase after reinitiation of oral hygiene. Primary outcome measures at baseline, day 21 and 42 were concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6, and MCP-1, as well as adhesion capacity and oxLDL uptake of isolated blood monocytes. RESULTS: The partial cessation of oral hygiene procedures was followed by the significant increase of gingival bleeding (34.0%, P<0.0001. This local inflammation was associated with a systemic increase in hsCRP (0.24 mg/L, P = 0.038, IL-6 (12.52 ng/L, P = 0.0002 and MCP-1 (9.10 ng/l, P = 0.124 in peripheral blood samples between baseline and day 21, which decreased at day 42. Monocytes showed an enhanced adherence to endothelial cells and increased foam cell formation after oxLDL uptake (P<0.050 at day 21 of gingivitis. CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial-induced gingival low-level inflammation induced a systemic increase in inflammatory markers. Dental hygiene almost completely reversed this experimental inflammatory process, suggesting that appropriate dental prophylaxis may also limit systemic markers of inflammation in subjects with natural gingivitis. International Clinical Trials Register Platform of the World Health Organization, registry number: DRKS00003366, URL

  8. The Neuromodulation of the Intestinal Immune System and Its Relevance in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Verheijden, Simon; Bosmans, Goele; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Matteoli, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    One of the main tasks of the immune system is to discriminate and appropriately react to "danger" or "non-danger" signals. This is crucial in the gastrointestinal tract, where the immune system is confronted with a myriad of food antigens and symbiotic microflora that are in constant contact with the mucosa, in addition to any potential pathogens. This large number of antigens and commensal microflora, which are essential for providing vital nutrients, must be tolerated by the intestinal immune system to prevent aberrant inflammation. Hence, the balance between immune activation versus tolerance should be tightly regulated to maintain intestinal homeostasis and to prevent immune activation indiscriminately against all luminal antigens. Loss of this delicate equilibrium can lead to chronic activation of the intestinal immune response resulting in intestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In order to maintain homeostasis, the immune system has evolved diverse regulatory strategies including additional non-immunological actors able to control the immune response. Accumulating evidence strongly indicates a bidirectional link between the two systems in which the brain modulates the immune response via the detection of circulating cytokines and via direct afferent input from sensory fibers and from enteric neurons. In the current review, we will highlight the most recent findings regarding the cross-talk between the nervous system and the mucosal immune system and will discuss the potential use of these neuronal circuits and neuromediators as novel therapeutic tools to reestablish immune tolerance and treat intestinal chronic inflammation.

  9. Case Study of Hepatic Radiofrequency Ablation Causing a Systemic Inflammatory Response Under Total Intravenous Anesthesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schalte, Gereon; Waning, Christian; Rossaint, Rolf; Mahnken, Andreas H. [University Hospital, RWTH Aachen, Aachen, (Germany); Henzler, Dietrich [Dalhousie University, Queen Elisabeth II Health Sciences Center, Halifax (Canada); Tacke, Josef [Interventional Radiology, Klinikum Passau, Passau (Germany)

    2010-12-15

    To investigate the effects of hepatic radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with malignant liver disease with respect to inflammation activation and stress response. In an observational trial, we investigated the physiologic parameters of 17 patients (20 interventions) who underwent percutaneous RFA under general anesthesia after applying total intravenous anesthesia. TNF{alpha}, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, adrenaline and noradrenaline, liver enzymes, lactate and creatine kinase were determined pre-interventionally after induction of anesthesia (T1), 90 minutes after initiation of RFA (T2), immediately after the conclusion of the procedure (T3), and 24 hours after the procedure (T4). A significant increase in body temperature (p < 0.001), and mean arterial pressure (p = 0.001) were measured intraoperatively (T2) and the day after the procedure (T4). Increased levels of IL-6 were measured at T3 and T4 (p = 0.001). IL-10 increased immediately after the procedure (T3; p = 0.007). IL-6 levels correlated well with the total energy applied ({gamma} = 0.837). Significant increases in the levels of adrenaline and noradrenaline were present at T3 and T4 (p < 0.001). The RFA-induced destruction of hepatic tissue was associated with increased levels of AST, ALT, GLDH and LDH. Percutaneous RFA of hepatic malignancies causes an inflammatory and endocrine activation, similar to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These effects have to be taken in account when dealing with patients susceptible to sepsis or multi-organ failure

  10. Inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology is associated with disease activity in juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Febronio, M V; Pereira, R M R; Bonfa, E; Takiuti, A D; Pereyra, E A G; Silva, C A A

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate cervicovaginal cytology in adolescents with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) and to compare them to controls. Fifty-two female adolescents with JSLE (ACR criteria) were compared to 52 age-matched healthy controls. All Pap smears were evaluated by the same cytopathologist blinded to gynecology examination (Bethesda 2001). The mean age of JSLE patients and controls were similar (16.17 +/- 1.94 versus 16.13 +/- 2.16 years, P = 0.92). The cervicovaginal cytology was found to be similar in both groups, although sexual intercourses in the last month were less frequent in JSLE than controls (23% versus 59.6%, P = 0.0003). Only one patient (2%) with JSLE versus two controls (4%) had cervical dysplasia (LGSIL) and human papilomavirus (P = 1.0). Candida spp vaginitis was observed in seven JSLE (14%) versus none in controls (P = 0.012) and was associated with immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.01) and high dose of prednisone (P = 0.002). Of interest, inflammatory cervicovaginal cytology was observed in 21 (60%) of patients with SLEDAI > or = 4 and only four (23%) of those with SLEDAI < 4 (P = 0.001). Likewise, a higher frequency of inflammatory changes was also observed in virgin JSLE (57% versus 8%, P = 0.005). Our findings supports the notion that female genital tract may be a potential target organ in SLE since cervical inflammation is associated to disease activity independently of sexual activity.

  11. Nutrition Support in Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestis Ioannidis

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The management of acute pancreatitis differs according to its severity. Approximately 75% of patients with acute pancreatitis have mild disease with a mortality rate below 1%. Mortality increases up to 20% if the disease progresses to its severe necrotizing form and, in the most severe cases, mortality can increase to 30-40%. Severe acute pancreatitis is usually accompanied by systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS which results in hypermetabolism with prominent protein catabolism. Acute malnutrition, commonly observed in patients with acute pancreatitis, is associated with immunological disturbances, septic complications and delayed healing of surgical wounds, and may lead to multiorgan dysfunction or failure syndrome (MODS or MOFS and increased morbidity and mortality [1].

  12. COAP BASED ACUTE PARKING LOT MONITORING SYSTEM USING SENSOR NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Aarthi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vehicle parking is the act of temporarily maneuvering a vehicle in to a certain location. To deal with parking monitoring system issue such as traffic, this paper proposes a vision of improvements in monitoring the vehicles in parking lots based on sensor networks. Most of the existing paper deals with that of the automated parking which is of cluster based and each has its own overheads like high power, less energy efficiency, incompatible size of lots, space. The novel idea in this work is usage of CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol which is recently created by IETF (draft-ietf-core-coap-18, June 28, 2013, CoRE group to develop RESTful application layer protocol for communications within embedded wireless networks. This paper deals with the enhanced CoAP protocol using multi hop flat topology, which makes the acuters feel soothe towards parking vehicles. We aim to minimize the time consumed for finding free parking lot as well as increase the energy efficiency

  13. Effect of the Diagnosis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease on Risk-Adjusted Mortality in Hospitalized Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction, Congestive Heart Failure and Pneumonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenpreis, Eli D.; Zhou, Ying; Alexoff, Aimee; Melitas, Constantine

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measurement of mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF) and pneumonia (PN) is a high priority since these are common reasons for hospitalization. However, mortality in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that are hospitalized for these common medical conditions is unknown. Methods A retrospective review of the 2005–2011 National Inpatient Sample (NIS), (approximately a 20% sample of discharges from community hospitals) was performed. A dataset for all patients with ICD-9-CM codes for primary diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, pneumonia or congestive heart failure with a co-diagnosis of IBD, Crohn’s disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). 1:3 propensity score matching between patients with co-diagnosed disease vs. controls was performed. Continuous variables were compared between IBD and controls. Categorical variables were reported as frequency (percentage) and analyzed by Chi-square tests or Fisher’s exact test for co-diagnosed disease vs. control comparisons. Propensity scores were computed through multivariable logistic regression accounting for demographic and hospital factors. In-hospital mortality between the groups was compared. Results Patients with IBD, CD and UC had improved survival after AMI compared to controls. 94/2280 (4.1%) of patients with IBD and AMI died, compared to 251/5460 (5.5%) of controls, p = 0.01. This represents a 25% improved survival in IBD patients that were hospitalized with AMI. There was a 34% improved survival in patients with CD and AMI. There was a trend toward worsening survival in patients with IBD and CHF. Patients with CD and PN had improved survival compared to controls. 87/3362 (2.59%) patients with CD and PN died, compared to 428/10076 (4.25%) of controls, p < .0001. This represents a 39% improved survival in patients with CD that are hospitalized for PN. Conclusion IBD confers a survival benefit for patients hospitalized with AMI. A

  14. The effect of phototherapy on systemic inflammatory process in patients with plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batycka-Baran, Aleksandra; Besgen, Petra; Wolf, Ronald; Szepietowski, Jacek C; Prinz, Joerg C

    2016-08-01

    Psoriasis is a common, chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease. The inflammatory process in psoriasis has systemic effects and may influence the development of psoriatic comorbidities. The systemic action of phototherapy in patients with psoriasis has been so far poorly elucidated. We aimed to investigate the expression of genes encoding selected psoriasis-related cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from patients with psoriasis before and after treatment with phototherapy. 17 patients with mild to moderate plaque psoriasis were treated with narrow band-UVB (NB-UVB), 8 patients with moderate to severe plaque psoriasis with bath-psoralen-ultraviolet A therapy (PUVA). PBMCs were isolated by Ficoll gradient density centrifugation. Expression of genes encoding TNF-α, IL-17A, IL-6, IL-1 β, INF-γ, and IL-10 in PBMCs of patients with psoriasis before and after phototherapy was analyzed with quantitative RT-PCR. Treatment with NB-UVB therapy led to a significant decrease in IL-17A, TNF-α, and IL-6 mRNA levels in PBMCs (p=0.003; p=0.042; p=0.019, respectively). Following treatment with bath-PUVA therapy, we observed a significant decrease in TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA levels in PBMCs (p=0.031, p=0.035, respectively). Treatment with phototherapy in patients with psoriasis may affect systemic inflammation by downregulation of the expression of genes encoding proinflammatory cytokines in PBMCs, implicated in the development of psoriasis and psoriatic comorbidities.

  15. The Neuro-Immune Pathophysiology of Central and Peripheral Fatigue in Systemic Immune-Inflammatory and Neuro-Immune Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Gerwyn; Berk, Michael; Galecki, Piotr; Walder, Ken; Maes, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Many patients with systemic immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, including depression, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjögren's disease, cancer, cardiovascular disorder, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke, and chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis, endure pathological levels of fatigue. The aim of this narrative review is to delineate the wide array of pathways that may underpin the incapacitating fatigue occurring in systemic and neuro-inflammatory disorders. A wide array of immune, inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), bioenergetic, and neurophysiological abnormalities are involved in the etiopathology of these disease states and may underpin the incapacitating fatigue that accompanies these disorders. This range of abnormalities comprises: increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α and interferon (IFN) α; O&NS-induced muscle fatigue; activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Cycle through pathogen-associated (PAMPs) and damage-associated (DAMPs) molecular patterns, including heat shock proteins; altered glutaminergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission; mitochondrial dysfunctions; and O&NS-induced defects in the sodium-potassium pump. Fatigue is also associated with altered activities in specific brain regions and muscle pathology, such as reductions in maximum voluntary muscle force, downregulation of the mitochondrial biogenesis master gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha, a shift to glycolysis and buildup of toxic metabolites within myocytes. As such, both mental and physical fatigue, which frequently accompany immune-inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory disorders, are the consequence of interactions between multiple systemic and central pathways.

  16. Osthole ameliorates acute myocardial infarction in rats by decreasing the expression of inflammatory-related cytokines, diminishing MMP-2 expression and activating p-ERK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Juan; Yang, Yu; Liu, Hong; Dou, Peng-Cheng; Tan, Sheng-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Osthole, the active constituent of Cnidium monnieri extracts, has been shown to have a diverse range of pharmacological properties. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of osthole in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The rats with AMI were treated with 1, 3 and 10 mg/kg of osthole or the vehicle for 4 weeks. The infarct size of the rats with AMI was measured, and casein kinase (CK), the MB isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MB), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and cardiac troponin T (cTnT) activities in the rats with AMI were analyzed using commercially available kits. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 levels in whole blood from rats with AMI were also detected using commercially available kits. The levels of Toll-like receptors 2/4 (TLR2/4) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1/2 (NOD1/2) were also detected by RT-qPCR. Moreover, the protein expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades, including extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) were all assayed by western blot analysis. Our results revealed that osthole markedly reduced the infarct size, and the levels of CK, CK-MB, LDH and cTnT in the rats with AMI, and that these cardioprotective effects may be associated with the inhibition of inflammatory reactions, the reduction in MMP-2 activity and the activation of MAPK cascades.

  17. The concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins in the peripheral blood and uterine washings in cows with pyometra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodzki, P; Kostro, K; Brodzki, A; Ziętek, J

    2015-06-01

    The development of pyometra in cows depends largely on the state of local immunity of the uterus. The objective of the study was to evaluate the concentration of the following proinflammatory cytokines: tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6); anti-inflammatory cytokine: interleukin-10 (IL-10); and acute-phase proteins (APPs): haptoglobin (Hp) and serum amyloid A (SAA), in serum and uterine washings in cows with pyometra and healthy animals. The study was performed on 20 cows divided into two groups based on the results of cytological and ultrasonographic tests: a pyometra and a healthy group (10 cows per group). Experimental material consisted of blood serum and uterine washings. The levels of the following cytokines, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and APPs - Hp and SAA, in the study material were determined by ELISA. The results showed that the values of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 as well as SAA and Hp were significantly higher in serum of cows with pyometra compared to controls (p < 0.001). The uterine washings had significantly higher levels of IL-6, IL-10, and Hp in pyometra cows compared to the control (p < 0.001). Our results indicate that it is possible to monitor the course of pyometra in cows based on the evaluation of the concentration of cytokines and Hp in the serum and uterine washings. Simultaneous evaluation of selected indicators of antagonistic interaction can be helpful in determining the current status of local immunity of the uterus. On this basis, it could be possible to properly select an adjunctive therapy in the form of immunomodulating preparations.

  18. Influence of acute renal failure on the mononuclear phagocytic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.R.A. Sousa

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies show the ability of macrophages to remove particles injected into the bloodstream. This function seems to be increased in the presence of acute renal failure. The objective of the present study was to assess the phagocytic function of the main organs (spleen, liver and lung of the mononuclear phagocytic system in renal and postrenal failures. Fifteen rats (250-350 g were divided into three groups (N = 5: group I - control; group II - ligature of both ureters, and group III - bilateral nephrectomy. On the third postoperative day, all animals received an iv injection of 1 ml/kg 99mTc sulfur colloid. Blood samples were collected for the assessment of plasma urea, creatinine, sodium, and potassium concentrations and arterial gasometry. Samples of liver, spleen, lung and blood clots were obtained and radioactivity was measured. Samples of liver, spleen, lung and kidney were prepared for routine histopathological analysis. Plasma urea, creatinine and potassium concentrations in groups II and III were higher than in group I (P<0.05. Plasma sodium concentrations in groups II and III were lower than in group I (P<0.05. Compensated metabolic acidosis was observed in the presence of postrenal failure. Group II animals showed a lower level of radioactivity in the spleen (0.98 and lung (2.63, and a higher level in the liver (105.51 than control. Group III animals showed a lower level of radioactivity in the spleen (11.94 and a higher level in the liver (61.80, lung (11.30 and blood clot (5.13 than control. In groups II and III liver steatosis and bronchopneumonia were observed. Renal and postrenal failures seem to interfere with blood clearance by the mononuclear phagocytic system.

  19. HDAC Inhibitors as Epigenetic Regulators of the Immune System: Impacts on Cancer Therapy and Inflammatory Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth E. Hull

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitors are powerful epigenetic regulators that have enormous therapeutic potential and have pleiotropic effects at the cellular and systemic levels. To date, HDAC inhibitors are used clinically for a wide variety of disorders ranging from hematopoietic malignancies to psychiatric disorders, are known to have anti-inflammatory properties, and are in clinical trials for several other diseases. In addition to influencing gene expression, HDAC enzymes also function as part of large, multisubunit complexes which have many nonhistone targets, alter signaling at the cellular and systemic levels, and result in divergent and cell-type specific effects. Thus, the effects of HDAC inhibitor treatment are too intricate to completely understand with current knowledge but the ability of HDAC inhibitors to modulate the immune system presents intriguing therapeutic possibilities. This review will explore the complexity of HDAC inhibitor treatment at the cellular and systemic levels and suggest strategies for effective use of HDAC inhibitors in biomedical research, focusing on the ability of HDAC inhibitors to modulate the immune system. The possibility of combining the documented anticancer effects and newly emerging immunomodulatory effects of HDAC inhibitors represents a promising new combinatorial therapeutic approach for HDAC inhibitor treatments.

  20. A severe case of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia treated with systemic corticosteroid

    OpenAIRE

    Hideki Yasui; Koshi Yokomura; Takafumi Suda

    2016-01-01

    Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is a rare disorder in adults. A treatment of choice for lipoid pneumonia has not been established, and systemic corticosteroid use remains controversial. We report the case of a 32-year-old man with schizophrenia who presented with kerosene-induced acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia that was treated with a systemic corticosteroid. In this case, supportive therapy did not improve the patient's condition, so systemic corticosteroid therapy was commenced four days ...

  1. Systemic factors effects on orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption: A systematic literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugland, Linn; Kristensen, Kasper Dahl; Vandevska-Radunovich, Vaska

    Aim: Systemic factors are shown to affect the degree of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR). However, a systematic overall assessment of their impact on OIIRR has not yet been reported. We aimed to systematically assess the risk of any intervention(s) that could induce...... decreased OIIIRR, however one study reported no effect. Most of the included articles stated that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and Ultrasound therapy decreased OIIRR while two articles reported no effect. Regarding hormones and stress, recombinant human growth hormone (rHGH) and thyroxin (TH) decreased...... OIIRR, stress had no effect while ovariectomy (OVX) showed a marked increase. For the medications; lithium chloride (LiCl), calsium (Ca2), steroids (except for methylprednisolone), and especially bisphosphonates showed decreased OIIRR. Most NSAIDS showed no effect, except for one study that reported...

  2. Effect of systemic inflammatory response in the development of encephalopathy in severe thermal injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorokina O.Y.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the burn encephalopathy as a manifestation of organ dysfunction. Purpose: to determine the impact of the systemic inflammatory response to the development of en­cephalopathy in thermal injury. The study involved 104 patients, who were divided into two groups depending on the severity of the burn injury. The development of SIRS in patients was confirmed by high levels of IL-6 during the whole period of observation. The level of IL-6 did not affect the development, timing and duration of sleep disorders in both groups. The level of LII on the day 1 affects the development of sleep disorders in group 1 (R=0.499, p=0.041. Development of insomnia correlated with the shift of leukocyte formula to the left in group 2 on the day 5 (R=0.349, p=0.020. We found a relationship between the development of delirium, its duration and the level of young forms of neutrophils in patients of 1 (R=0.563, p=0.001 and 2 (R=0.3488, p=0.003 groups. Development of delirium, its timing and duration correlated with the level of IL-6 on day 3 (R=0.812, p=0,049, R=0.5903, p=0.079 and R=0.615, p=0.059, respectively in the group 2. The extent of the inflammatory reaction determined the disorders of thought (R=-0.545, p=0.036, memory (R=-0.547, p=0.023 and the dynamic of the recovery of cognitive functions in patients of group 1. Cognitive deficit correlated with the level of IL-6 (R=0.760, p=0.079 and the level of young forms of neutrophils (R=-0.603, p=0,013 in group 2. Thus, SIRS is a defining moment in the development of nervous system dysfunction in severe thermal injury.

  3. Pulmonary Thromboembolism Complicating Acute Pancreatitis With Pancreatic Ascites: A Series of 4 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Ruchir Patel; Nirav Pipaliya; Prateik Poddar; Vikas Pandey; Meghraj Ingle; Prabha Sawant

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disease often associated with local and systemic complications. Portosplenic and splanchnic vascular complications of acute pancreatitis are common, but extrasplanchnic vessel thrombosis is less commonly seen. Among them, pulmonary thromboembolism is a very rare complication to be encountered with. We report four cases of acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with acute pancreatitis superimposed on chronic pancreatitis. All the patients had abdomina...

  4. Activation of the contact system and inflammation after thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlini, Piera Angelica; Cugno, Massimo; Rossi, Marco L; Agricola, Pietro; Repetto, Alessandra; Fetiveau, Raffaella; Diotallevi, Paolo; Canosi, Umberto; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Ardissino, Diego

    2004-04-01

    Thrombolytic therapy activates the contact system, and factor XII activation may activate the coagulation cascade and inflammation. It is not known whether an early inflammatory response is induced by thrombolytic therapy in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We prospectively measured the plasma levels of activated factor XII, cleaved kininogen, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (as indexes of the contact phase and coagulation activation), and interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) (as indexes of inflammation) in 39 patients hospitalized for AMI within 12 hours of symptom onset: 26 receiving thrombolytic therapy and 13 heparin alone. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 90 minutes and 24 hours. Patients undergoing thrombolysis had a significant early increase in activated factor XII (from 2.2 ng/ml at baseline to 4.7 ng/ml after 90 minutes; p = 0.0001), cleaved kininogen (from 26% to 37%; p = 0.001), and fragment 1 + 2 (from 1.4 to 2.1 nmol/L; p = 0.0001), whereas the 24-hour levels were similar to baseline levels. The levels of interleukin-6 significantly increased during the first 90 minutes (from 3.9 to 6.3 microg/ml; p = 0.001), and were even higher after 24 hours (11.9 ng/ml, p = 0.0001). CRP levels increased only after 24 hours (p = 0.0001). There were no changes in these parameters in patients receiving heparin alone, except for a 24-hour increase in interleukin-6 and CRP levels. Thus, in patients with AMI receiving thrombolytic therapy, early activation of inflammation parallels the activation of the contact system and the coagulation cascade, which might contribute to microvascular obstruction and reperfusion injury.

  5. Differences in the public medical insurance systems for inflammatory bowel disease treatment in Asian countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims The cost of caring for patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is high. Without government support, the cost burden will unavoidably rest on the patients and their family. However, the government providing full support will place a large financial burden on the health-care systems of a country. The aim of this study is to understand the current status of public medical insurance systems in caring for IBD patients among Asian countries. Methods Questionnaires inquiring about the availability of public health systems; medical, diagnostic, and endoscopy costs; and coverage rate of biologics use were designed and sent to IBD experts in each of the Asian countries studied. The results were summarized according to the feedback from the responders. Results The public health insurance coverage rate is high in Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, China, Hong Kong, and Singapore; but low in Malaysia and India. This probably affected the use of expensive medications mostly, such as biologics, as we found that the percentage of Crohn's disease (CD) treated with biologics were as high as 30%–40% in Japan, where the government covers all expenses for IBD patients. In India, the percentage maybe as low as 1% for CD patients, most of whom need to pay for the biologics themselves. Conclusions There were differences in the public health insurance systems among the Asian countries studied. This reportprovidesthe background information to understand the differences in the treatment of IBD patients among Asian countries. PMID:27433143

  6. Immunophenotyping of inflammatory cells associated with Schmallenberg virus infection of the central nervous system of ruminants.

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    Vanessa Herder

    Full Text Available Schmallenberg virus (SBV is a recently discovered Bunyavirus associated mainly with abortions, stillbirths and malformations of the skeletal and central nervous system (CNS in newborn ruminants. In this study, a detailed immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells of the CNS of affected animals was carried out in order to increase our understanding of SBV pathogenesis. A total of 82 SBV-polymerase chain reaction (PCR positive neonatal ruminants (46 sheep lambs, 34 calves and 2 goat kids were investigated for the presence of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. The study focused on 15 out of 82 animals (18.3% showing inflammation in the CNS. All 15 neonates displayed lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalomyelitis affecting most frequently the mesencephalon and the parietal and temporal lobes. The majority of infiltrating cells were CD3-positive T cells, followed by CD79α-positive B cells and CD68-positive microglia/macrophages. Malformations like por- and hydranencephaly, frequently found in the temporal lobe, showed associated demyelination and axonal loss. SBV antigen was detected in 37 out of 82 (45.1% neonatal brains by immunohistochemistry. In particular, SBV antigen was found in 93.3% (14 out of 15 ruminants and 32.8% (22 out of 67 ruminants of animals with and without encephalitis, respectively. Highest amounts of virus-protein expression levels were found in the temporal lobe. Our findings suggest that: (i different brain regions display differential susceptibility to SBV infection; (ii inflammatory cells in the CNS are found only in a minority of virus infected animals; (iii malformations occur in association with and without inflammation in the CNS; and (iv viral antigen is strongly associated with the presence of inflammation in naturally infected animals. Further studies are required to explore the cell tropism and pathogenesis of SBV infection in ruminants.

  7. Immunophenotyping of Inflammatory Cells Associated with Schmallenberg Virus Infection of the Central Nervous System of Ruminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herder, Vanessa; Hansmann, Florian; Wohlsein, Peter; Peters, Martin; Varela, Mariana; Palmarini, Massimo; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently discovered Bunyavirus associated mainly with abortions, stillbirths and malformations of the skeletal and central nervous system (CNS) in newborn ruminants. In this study, a detailed immunophenotyping of the inflammatory cells of the CNS of affected animals was carried out in order to increase our understanding of SBV pathogenesis. A total of 82 SBV-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive neonatal ruminants (46 sheep lambs, 34 calves and 2 goat kids) were investigated for the presence of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. The study focused on 15 out of 82 animals (18.3%) showing inflammation in the CNS. All 15 neonates displayed lymphohistiocytic meningoencephalomyelitis affecting most frequently the mesencephalon and the parietal and temporal lobes. The majority of infiltrating cells were CD3-positive T cells, followed by CD79α-positive B cells and CD68-positive microglia/macrophages. Malformations like por- and hydranencephaly, frequently found in the temporal lobe, showed associated demyelination and axonal loss. SBV antigen was detected in 37 out of 82 (45.1%) neonatal brains by immunohistochemistry. In particular, SBV antigen was found in 93.3% (14 out of 15 ruminants) and 32.8% (22 out of 67 ruminants) of animals with and without encephalitis, respectively. Highest amounts of virus-protein expression levels were found in the temporal lobe. Our findings suggest that: (i) different brain regions display differential susceptibility to SBV infection; (ii) inflammatory cells in the CNS are found only in a minority of virus infected animals; (iii) malformations occur in association with and without inflammation in the CNS; and (iv) viral antigen is strongly associated with the presence of inflammation in naturally infected animals. Further studies are required to explore the cell tropism and pathogenesis of SBV infection in ruminants. PMID:23667545

  8. Systemic corticosteroid monotherapy for clinically diagnosed acute rhinosinusitis: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venekamp, R.P.; Bonten, M.J.; Rovers, M.M.; Verheij, T.J.; Sachs, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with acute rhinosinusitis are frequently encountered in primary care. Although corticosteroids are being increasingly used for symptom control, evidence supporting their use is inconclusive. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to examine the effectiveness of systemic cort

  9. Central nervous system involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: diagnosis by immunophenotyping

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    Camila Silva Peres Cancela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system is the most commonly affected extramedullary site in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although morphologic evaluation of the cerebrospinal fluid has been traditionally used for diagnosing central nervous system involvement, it is a method of low sensitivity. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of immunophenotyping in the detection of blasts in the cerebrospinal fluid from children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  10. Acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of systemic lupus erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monov, Simeon; Hristova, Ruska; Dacheva, Rositza; Toncheva, Reni; Shumnalieva, Russka; Shoumnalieva-Ivanova, Viara; Monova, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease characterized by autoantibody production, complement activation, and deposition of immune complexes in tissues and organs. SLE can involve any region of the visual system. Although ocular manifestations are not part of the classification criteria for SLE, they can be observed in up to one-third of the patients with SLE. They are rarely reported at the time of disease onset. Retinal vasculitis is usually associated with active generalized disease. Due to its low frequency, we report a case of acute necrotizing retinal vasculitis as onset of SLE. Patient concerns and diagnosis: A 25-year-old white female was referred to the rheumatology clinic with gradually and rapid deterioration of the vision due to abnormal vessel permeability in the right fundus with edema along the vessels, occlusion of arterial branches in the middle periphery with leakage of the dye in these areas and indentical but less prominent changes with cotton wool spots in the papillomacular area and extensive hemorrhages in the left eye. The onset of malar rash, arthralgias and positive antinuclear, anti-double stranded DNA, anti-ribosomal P and anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies with decreased C4 complement levels, as well as the positive lupus-band test confirmed the diagnosis of SLE. Interventions: Aggressive immunomodulating therapy with high-dose methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and cyclophosphamide was used for suppression of the disease activity followed by azathioprine as maintaince therapy. Outcomes: Substantial improvement and partial resorption of the vasculitic changes, including central retinal artery and vein, was achieved prominently in the left eye. The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and written informed consent was obtained from the patient. Because of this, there is no need to conduct special ethic review and the ethical approval is not necessary

  11. Role of the Innate Immune System in the Pathogenesis of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lierop, Pieter P. E.; Samsom, Janneke N.; Escher, Johanna C.; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E. S.

    2009-01-01

    Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory diseases of the intestinal tract commonly denoted as inflammatory bowel diseases. It has been proposed that these diseases result from aberrant mucosal immune responses to nonpathogenic microbial residents of the intestines. Recently, it

  12. An unusual cause of acute kidney injury due to oxalate nephropathy in systemic scleroderma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascio, Heather M; Joya, Christie A; Plasse, Richard A; Baker, Thomas P; Flessner, Michael F; Nee, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Oxalate nephropathy is an uncommon cause of acute kidney injury. Far rarer is its association with scleroderma, with only one other published case report in the literature. We report a case of a 75-year-old African-American female with a history of systemic scleroderma manifested by chronic pseudo-obstruction and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) treated with rifaximin, who presented with acute kidney injury with normal blood pressure. A renal biopsy demonstrated extensive acute tubular injury with numerous intratubular birefringent crystals, consistent with oxalate nephropathy. We hypothesize that her recent treatment with rifaximin for SIBO and decreased intestinal transit time in pseudo-obstruction may have significantly increased intestinal oxalate absorption, leading to acute kidney injury. Oxalate nephropathy should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute kidney injury in scleroderma with normotension, and subsequent evaluation should be focused on bowel function to include alterations in gut flora due to antibiotic administration.

  13. Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswal Shyam

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The upper respiratory tract functions to protect lower respiratory structures from chemical and biological agents in inspired air. Cellular oxidative stress leading to acute and chronic inflammation contributes to the resultant pathology in many of these exposures and is typical of allergic disease, chronic sinusitis, pollutant exposure, and bacterial and viral infections. Little is known about the effective means by which topical treatment of the nose can strengthen its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defenses. The present study was undertaken to determine if naturally-occurring plant oils with reported antioxidant activity can provide mechanisms through which upper respiratory protection might occur. Methods Controlled exposure of the upper respiratory system to ozone and nasal biopsy were carried out in healthy human subjects to assess mitigation of the ozone-induced inflammatory response and to assess gene expression in the nasal mucosa induced by a mixture of five naturally-occurring antioxidant oils - aloe, coconut, orange, peppermint and vitamin E. Cells of the BEAS-2B and NCI-H23 epithelial cell lines were used to investigate the source and potential intracellular mechanisms of action responsible for oil-induced anti-inflammatory activity. Results Aerosolized pretreatment with the mixed oil preparation significantly attenuated ozone-induced nasal inflammation. Although most oil components may reduce oxidant stress by undergoing reduction, orange oil was demonstrated to have the ability to induce long-lasting gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes linked to Nrf2, including HO-1, NQO1, GCLm and GCLc, and to mitigate the pro-inflammatory signaling of endotoxin in cell culture systems. Nrf2 activation was demonstrated. Treatment with the aerosolized oil preparation increased baseline levels of nasal mucosal HO-1 expression in 9 of 12 subjects. Conclusions These data indicate that selected oil-based antioxidant

  14. The role of ZAP70 kinase in acute lymphoblastic leukemia infiltration into the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsadeq, Ameera; Fedders, Henning; Vokuhl, Christian; Belau, Nele M.; Zimmermann, Martin; Wirbelauer, Tim; Spielberg, Steffi; Vossen-Gajcy, Michaela; Cario, Gunnar; Schrappe, Martin; Schewe, Denis M.

    2017-01-01

    Central nervous system infiltration and relapse are poorly understood in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We examined the role of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in preclinical models of central nervous system leukemia and performed correlative studies in patients. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells was modulated using short hairpin ribonucleic acid-mediated knockdown or ectopic expression. We show that zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 regulates CCR7/CXCR4 via activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases. High expression of zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 in acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells resulted in a higher proportion of central nervous system leukemia in xenografts as compared to zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 low expressing counterparts. High zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 also enhanced the migration potential towards CCL19/CXCL12 gradients in vitro. CCR7 blockade almost abrogated homing of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to the central nervous system in xenografts. In 130 B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 117 T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 and CCR7/CXCR4 expression levels were significantly correlated. Zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression correlated with central nervous system disease in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and CCR7/CXCR4 correlated with central nervous system involvement in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients. In multivariate analysis, zeta-chain-associated protein kinase 70 expression levels in the upper third and fourth quartiles were associated with central nervous system involvement in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (odds ratio=7.48, 95% confidence interval, 2.06–27.17; odds ratio=6.86, 95% confidence interval, 1.86–25.26, respectively). CCR7 expression in the upper fourth quartile correlated with

  15. Characterization of inflammatory markers associated with systemic lupus erythematosus patients undergoing treatment

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    Rodolfo Pessato Timóteo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize the inflammatory profiles of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus receiving standard treatment compared to healthy controls. Patients and methods: Peripheral venous blood was collected from systemic lupus erythematosus patients (n = 14 and controls (n = 18 at enrollment. Blood samples were used for quantification, by flow cytometry, of CD11b (integrin and Chemokine receptor CXCR2 expression surface antigen in neutrophils and lymphocytes, while cytokines were assayed in serum samples. Purified neutrophils were assayed by their ability to phagocytize human plasma-opsonized zymosan. Results: Patients had a median (interquartile range disease activity index of 1.0 (0-2.0 characteristic of patients in remission. Interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 serum concentrations were significantly higher in the patient group compared to controls and the phagocytic index of circulating neutrophils was significantly reduced in patients compared to controls. The levels of interleukin-2, interleukin-5, interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha did not significantly differ between patients and controls. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the integrin expression levels were reduced in lymphocytes (but not in neutrophils obtained from systemic lupus erythematosus patients, while surface expression of the chemokine receptor 2 was similar in both neutrophils and lymphocytes. Conclusion: Systemic lupus erythematosus patients receiving standard treatment presented with elevated systemic levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-10, reduced neutrophil phagocytic capacity, and reduced lymphocyte expression of integrin even when symptoms were in remission. These alterations to innate immune components may put these individuals at a greater risk for acquiring infections.

  16. Pancreatic ductal system obstruction and acute recurrent pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M Delhaye; C Matos; M Arvanitakis; J Devière

    2008-01-01

    Acute recurrent pancreatitis is a clinical entity largely associated with pancreatic ductal obstruction.This latter includes congenital variants,of which pancreas divisum is the most frequent but also controversial,chronic pancreatitis,tumors of the pancreaticobiliary junction and sphincter of Oddi dysfunction.This review summarizes current knowledge about diagnostic work-up and therapy of these conditions.

  17. Long-term effects of an acute and systemic administration of LPS on adult neurogenesis and spatial memory

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    Jorge eValero

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The cognitive reserve is the capacity of the brain to maintain normal performance while exposed to insults or ageing. Increasing evidences point to a role for the interaction between inflammatory conditions and cognitive reserve status during Alzheimer's disease (AD progression. The production of new neurons along adult life can be considered as one of the components of the cognitive reserve. Interestingly, adult neurogenesis is decreased in mouse models of AD and following inflammatory processes. The aim of this work is to reveal the long-term impact of a systemic inflammatory event on memory and adult neurogenesis in wild type (WT and triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD.4 month-old mice were intraperitoneally injected once with saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS and their performance on spatial memory analyzed with the Morris water maze (MWM test 7 weeks later. Our data showed that a single intraperitoneal injection with LPS has a long-term impact in the production of hippocampal neurons. Consistently, LPS-treated WT mice showed less doublecortin-positive neurons, less synaptic contacts in newborn neurons, and decreased dendritic volume and complexity. These surprising observations were accompanied with memory deficits. 3xTg-AD mice showed a decrease in new neurons in the dentate gyrus compatible with, although exacerbated, the pattern observed in WT LPS-treated mice. In 3xTg-AD mice, LPS injection did not significantly affected the production of new neurons but reduced their number of synaptic puncta and impaired memory performance, when compared to the observations made in saline-treated 3xTg-AD mice. These data indicate that LPS treatment induces a long-term impairment on hippocampal neurogenesis and memory. Our results show that acute neuroinflammatory events influence the production of new hippocampal neurons, affecting the cognitive reserve and leading to the development of memory deficits associated to Alzheimer's disease

  18. Outer membrane vesicles derived from Escherichia coli induce systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

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    Kyong-Su Park

    Full Text Available Sepsis, characterized by a systemic inflammatory state that is usually related to Gram-negative bacterial infection, is a leading cause of death worldwide. Although the annual incidence of sepsis is still rising, the exact cause of Gram-negative bacteria-associated sepsis is not clear. Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs, constitutively secreted from Gram-negative bacteria, are nano-sized spherical bilayered proteolipids. Using a mouse model, we showed that intraperitoneal injection of OMVs derived from intestinal Escherichia coli induced lethality. Furthermore, OMVs induced host responses which resemble a clinically relevant condition like sepsis that was characterized by piloerection, eye exudates, hypothermia, tachypnea, leukopenia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, dysfunction of the lungs, hypotension, and systemic induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6. Our study revealed a previously unidentified causative microbial signal in the pathogenesis of sepsis, suggesting OMVs as a new therapeutic target to prevent and/or treat severe sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacterial infection.

  19. Analysis of inflammatory response in human plasma samples by an automated multicapillary electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof

    2004-01-01

    A new automated multicapillary zone electrophoresis instrument with a new high-resolution (HR) buffer (Capillarys with HR buffer) for analysis of human plasma proteins was evaluated. Albumin, alpha(1)-antitrypsin, alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen, immunoglobulin (Ig)A, IgG and IgM were determined nephelometrically in 200 patient plasma samples. The same samples were then analyzed on the Capillarys system (Sebia, Paris, France). The albumin concentration from the nephelometric determination was used for quantification of the individual peaks in the capillary electrophoresis (CE) electropherogram. There was strong linear correlation between the nephelometric and electrophoretic determination of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (R(2) = 0.906), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (R(2) =0.894) and haptoglobin (R(2) = 0.913). There was also good correlation between the two determinations of gamma-globulins (R(2) = 0.883), while the correlation was weaker for fibrinogen (R(2) = 0.377). The Capillarys instrument is a reliable system for plasma protein analysis, combining the advantages of full automation, good analytical performance and high throughput. The HR buffer in combination with albumin quantification allows the simultaneous quantification of inflammatory markers in plasma samples without the need for nephelometric determination of these proteins.

  20. [Clinical variations of chronic generalized periodontitis, genetic polymorphism and systemic production of inflammatory cytokines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorovich, E Sh; Pomorgailo, E G; Khomutova, E Yu; Stepanov, S S

    2015-01-01

    Carriage of polymorphic alleles of genes of cytokines-interleukines IL-1β, IL-1RN, TNFα, IL-4 can be a specific feature of chronic periodontitis patients. Genetic tests can be used to predict the course of the disease at its early manifestations. Objective: To establish the relationship of clinical manifestations of periodontal disease, inflammatory cytokines gene polymorphism and systemic levels of cytokine production. Periodontal tissue assessment and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) were performed in 150 periodontitis patients. A molecular--genetic testing for the presence of polymorphic alleles of genes IL-1β -511 C>T and +3953 C>T, IL-1RN (VNTR intron 2), IL-4 (VNTR intron 3), TNFα-308 G>A; content determined IL-1β, TNFα, IL-4 in peripheral blood was carried out in 150 patients with periodontitis and 150 healthy donors. Based on the analysis of the speed and nature of the supporting bone resorption and clinical manifestations patients are divided in "aggressive", "moderately progressive" and "slowly progressive" periodontits course groups. Disease severity was associated with distribution of genotypes and alleles of polymorphic genes cytokine IL-1RN (VNTR intron 2), TNFα-308 G>A and IL-4 (VNTR intron 3); haplotype IL-1β-511 TIL-1β +3953 T/IL-1RN 2R. There was no statistically significant difference in systemic level of IL-1β, TNFα and IL-4 between periodontitis groups but the donor level of cytokines was 2-4 times less.

  1. Retinol, β-carotene and oxidative stress in systemic inflammatory response syndrome

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    Carla Nogueira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: patients suffering systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS constitute a group susceptible to elevated levels of oxidative stress. This study’s aim is to evaluate the state of oxidative stress and levels of serum retinol and β-carotene in these patients. Methods: forty-six patients were divided into 2 groups: those those without diet (G1; n=18 and those with enteral nutritional support (G2; n=28. Serum levels of retinol and total carotenoids were measured. C-reactive protein (CRP levels and Apache scores were also calculated. Oxidative stress was estimated by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS levels. Results: the patients’ median age was 66.9 (SD=19.3 years. Lower concentrations of retinol and carotenoids were found in 68.6 and 66.7% of G1, respectively. In G2, despite average vitamin A levels being 8078 + 4035, retinol and β-carotene were considered insufficient (31.2 and 33.4%, respectively. No difference was noted between the 2 groups, according to the variables studied, with the exception being PCR and β-carotene (p=0.002; p=0.01. Conclusion: the data presented in this study supports the need to establish/revise clinical practices in treating SIRS patients, in light of this micronutrient’s role in the immune system and antioxidant defense without it interfering with its toxicity.

  2. Metabolic syndrome, inflammation and atherosclerosis - the role of adipokines in health and in systemic inflammatory rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Maria José; Fonseca, João Eurico

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) events are among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases. It has been hypothesized that, in addition to the traditional CV risk factors, inflammation is a major contributor to atherogenesis. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) stands for a cluster of risk factors associated with insulin resistance and increased abdominal fat. Inflammation and MetS are intimately linked. Inflammatory biomarkers are frequently elevated in people with MetS and, conversely, the prevalence of MetS is higher in patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic diseases, such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Inflammatory cytokines impair insulin sensitivity and can induce an adverse lipoprotein profile as seen in MetS. Furthermore, the presence of MetS correlates with increased subclinical atherosclerosis, major adverse CV events and death, making an important contribution to the CV burden in inflammatory diseases. Adipose tissue has recently emerged as an active organ that produces and secretes numerous mediators - adipokines - particularly relevant in energy homeostasis, inflammation, immune regulation and angiogenesis. These mediators arise as a potential link between MetS, inflammation and atherogenesis. Understanding the complex regulation and function of adipokines in health and disease is a priority since it may lead to new preventive and therapeutic interventions aiming to decrease CV risk.

  3. Morin, a dietary bioflavonol suppresses monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in an animal model of acute gouty arthritis with reference to NLRP3 inflammasome, hypo-xanthine phospho-ribosyl transferase, and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Chitra; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2016-09-05

    The anti-inflammatory effect of morin, a dietary bioflavanol was explored on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis. Morin treatment (30mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated the ankle swelling and the levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and articular elastase along with an increased anti-oxidant status (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in the joint homogenate of MSU crystal-induced rats. Histological assessment revealed that morin limited the diffusion of joint space, synovial hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltrations. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 (nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome, caspase-1, pro-inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1, inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 was found downregulated and HPRT (hypo-xanthine phospho-ribosyl transferase) mRNA expression was upregulated in morin treated MSU crystal-induced rats. In addition, morin treatment reduced the protein expression of NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated that morin exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect on MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats.

  4. 电刺激迷走神经对大鼠急性内脏炎症痛的保护作用%PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ELECTRICAL STIMULATION OF VAGUS NERVE ON ACUTE INFLAMMATORY VISCERAL PAIN IN RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于泓波; 于泓淼; 张锦

    2011-01-01

    目的:应用大鼠急性内脏炎症疼痛模型,研究胆碱能抗炎通路对急性内脏炎症疼痛的保护作用.方法:SD大鼠32只,随机分为4组.(1)假手术组(Sham);(2)疼痛模型组(EIP);(3)迷走神经切断疼痛模型组(VGX);(4)迷走神经电刺激疼痛模型组(STM),术毕即刻持续电刺激20min.各组模型制备完毕,电刺激后0,1,2h检测TNF-α,并每15min进行疼痛学评分,连续记录2h.结果:Sham组与EIP,VGX,STM组比较,在1h,2h时TNF-α有显著性差异,疼痛评分在120min内有显著性差异,EIP与VGX组比较TNF-α在1,2h时无差异,疼痛评分无差异.STM与VGX组及EIP组比较,TNF-α在1,2h时有显著性差异,疼痛评分在90min内有显著性差异.结论:电刺激迷走神经可以减轻急性内脏炎性疼痛,减轻TNF-α的释放,对急性内脏炎性疼痛具有保护作用.%Objective:To investigate the protective effect of electrical stimulation of efferent vagus on the acute inflammatory visceral pain of rats.Methods: 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham operation group; EIP gorup( acute inflammatory visceral pain model and bilateral cervical vagus nerve isolation), VGX group (bilateral cervical vagotomy after acute inflammatory visceral pain model) and STM group( after bilateral cervical vagus nerve isolation and acute inflammatory visceral pain model, the distal end of left vagus nerve trunk was stimulated by a stimulation module with constant voltage for 20 min immediately).Blood samples were collected at 0, 1, 2h after operation and pain scores were recorded every 15 minutes for 2 hours.Serum TNF-α was determined 0, 1, 2h after vagal stimulation.Results: Concentration of serum TNF-α significantly increased after establishment of acute inflammatory pain model ( P < 0.01 ).In STM group the serum TNF-α level and pain score were significantly decreased.Conclusion: Direct electrical stimulation of the peripheral vagus nerve can significantly attenuate peak

  5. Risk-Based Classification System of Patients With Newly Diagnosed Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-24

    Adult B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Adult T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Childhood T Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

  6. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eisenhut Michael

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalites in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed.

  7. What is the best treatment to decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine release in acute skeletal muscle injury induced by trauma in rats: low-level laser therapy, diclofenac, or cryotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Patrícia; Tomazoni, Shaiane Silva; Frigo, Lucio; de Carvalho, Paulo de Tarso Camillo; Vanin, Adriane Aver; Santos, Larissa Aline; Albuquerque-Pontes, Gianna Móes; De Marchi, Thiago; Tairova, Olga; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Álvaro Brandão; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto

    2014-03-01

    Currently, treatment of muscle injuries represents a challenge in clinical practice. In acute phase, the most employed therapies are cryotherapy and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. In the last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has becoming a promising therapeutic agent; however, its effects are not fully known. The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of sodium diclofenac (topical application), cryotherapy, and LLLT on pro-inflammatory cytokine levels after a controlled model of muscle injury. For such, we performed a single trauma in tibialis anterior muscle of rats. After 1 h, animals were treated with sodium diclofenac (11.6 mg/g of solution), cryotherapy (20 min), or LLLT (904 nm; superpulsed; 700 Hz; 60 mW mean output power; 1.67 W/cm(2); 1, 3, 6 or 9 J; 17, 50, 100 or 150 s). Assessment of interleukin-1β and interleukin-6 (IL-1β and IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels was performed at 6 h after trauma employing enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. LLLT with 1 J dose significantly decreased (p cryotherapy groups. On the other hand, treatment with diclofenac and cryotherapy does not decrease pro-inflammatory cytokine levels compared to the non-treated injured group. Therefore, we can conclude that 904 nm LLLT with 1 J dose has better effects than topical application of diclofenac or cryotherapy in acute inflammatory phase after muscle trauma.

  8. Comparison of Existing Clinical Scoring Systems in Predicting Severity and Prognoses of Hyperlipidemic Acute Pancreatitis in Chinese Patients: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Sun, Rui Qing; Jia, Rong Rong; Ma, Xiu Ying; Cheng, Li; Tang, Mao Chun; Zhao, Yan

    2015-06-01

    It is important to identify the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) in the early course of the disease. Clinical scoring systems may be helpful to predict the prognosis of patients with early AP; however, few analysts have forecast the accuracy of scoring systems for the prognosis in hyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis (HLAP). The purpose of this study was to summarize the clinical characteristics of HLAP and compare the accuracy of conventional scoring systems in predicting the prognosis of HLAP. This study retrospectively analyzed all consecutively diagnosed AP patients between September 2008 and March 2014. We compared the clinical characteristics between HLAP and nonhyperlipidemic acute pancreatitis. The bedside index for severity of acute pancreatitis (BISAP), Ranson, computed tomography severity index (CTSI), and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) scores were applied within 48 hours following admission. Of 909 AP patients, 129 (14.2%) had HLAP, 20 were classified as severe acute pancreatitis (SAP), 8 had pseudocysts, 9 had pancreatic necrosis, 30 had pleural effusions, 33 had SIRS, 14 had persistent organ failure, and there was 1 death. Among the HLAP patients, the area under curves for BISAP, Ranson, SIRS, and CTSI in predicting SAP were 0.905, 0.938, 0.812, and 0.834, 0.874, 0.726, 0.668, and 0.848 for local complications, and 0.904, 0.917, 0.758, and 0.849 for organ failure, respectively. HLAP patients were characterized by younger age at onset, higher recurrence rate, and being more prone to pancreatic necrosis, organ failure, and SAP. BISAP, Ranson, SIRS, and CTSI all have accuracy in predicting the prognosis of HLAP patients, but each has different strengths and weaknesses.

  9. DNAemia detection by multiplex PCR and biomarkers for infection in systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Fitting

    Full Text Available Fast and reliable assays to precisely define the nature of the infectious agents causing sepsis are eagerly anticipated. New molecular biology techniques are now available to define the presence of bacterial or fungal DNA within the bloodstream of sepsis patients. We have used a new technique (VYOO® that allows the enrichment of microbial DNA before a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR for pathogen detection provided by SIRS-Lab (Jena, Germany. We analyzed 72 sepsis patients and 14 non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS patients. Among the sepsis patients, 20 had a positive blood culture and 35 had a positive microbiology in other biological samples. Of these, 51.4% were positive using the VYOO® test. Among the sepsis patients with a negative microbiology and the non-infectious SIRS, 29.4% and 14.2% were positive with the VYOO® test, respectively. The concordance in bacterial identification between microbiology and the VYOO® test was 46.2%. This study demonstrates that these new technologies offer great hopes, but improvements are still needed.

  10. IL-9 signaling affects central nervous system resident cells during inflammatory stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoli; Cao, Fang; Cui, Langjun; Ciric, Bogoljub; Zhang, Guang-Xian; Rostami, Abdolmohamad

    2015-12-01

    Interleukin (IL) 9, a dominant cytokine in Th9 cells, has been proven to play a pathogenic role in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), by augmenting T cell activation and differentiation; however, whether IL-9 signaling affects central nervous system (CNS)-resident cells during CNS autoimmunity remains unknown. In the present study, we found that the IL-9 receptor (IL-9R) was highly expressed in astrocytes, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs), oligodendrocytes and microglia cells, and that its expression was significantly upregulated in brain and spinal cord during EAE. In addition, IL-9 increased chemokine expression, including CXCL9, CCL20 and MMP3, in primary astrocytes. Although IL-9 had no effect on the proliferation of microglia cells, it decreased OPC proliferation and differentiation when in combination with other pro-inflammatory cytokines, but not with IFN-γ. IL-9 plus IFN-γ promoted OPC proliferation and differentiation. These findings indicate that CNS-restricted IL-9 signaling may be involved in the pathogenesis of MS/EAE, thus providing a potential therapeutic target for future MS/EAE treatment through disruption of CNS cell-specific IL-9 signaling.

  11. Role of E.coli DNA in systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Wen-dong; ZHOU Hong; ZHENG Jiang; XIA Pei-yuan; QIN Xiao-jian; LU Yong-ling; XIAO Guang-xia

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether bacterial DNA involving in the pathogenesis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and possible mechanism. Methods: Escherichia coli DNA (EC DNA) was extracted from Escherichia coli 25922 with alkaline lysis method. The mice mortality was observed after EC DNA was injected into mice via caudal vein. The changes of serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels in rats were measured with ELISA after rats were given EC DNA. Calf thymus DNA and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were used as the control, respectively. Results: EC DNA led mice to death with notable dose-effect relationship (LD50=11.51 mg/kg), but CT DNA didn't. The peak level of TNF-αwas lower in EC DNA group than in LPS group (P<0. 05), though the former reaching the peak I h earlier than the latter. However, they had coordinate ability to induce IL-6 release in rats, and no significant difference was seen in serum IL-6 peak level between 2 groups. Conclusion: EC DNA leads mice to death, and induces the increases of serum TNF-αand IL-6 levels in rats. EC DNA has the effect equal to LPS in inducing SIRS by triggering cytokines cascade.

  12. Angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory system SNPs moderate the association between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Taylor F; Anastopoulos, Arthur D; Garrett, Melanie E; Arias-Vasquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Oades, Robert D; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Philip; Gill, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan K; Sergeant, Joseph A; Kollins, Scott H; Faraone, Stephen V; Ashley-Koch, Allison

    2014-12-01

    Low birth weight is associated with increased risk for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); however, the etiological underpinnings of this relationship remain unclear. This study investigated if genetic variants in angiogenic, dopaminergic, neurotrophic, kynurenine, and cytokine-related biological pathways moderate the relationship between birth weight and ADHD symptom severity. A total of 398 youth from two multi-site, family-based studies of ADHD were included in the analysis. The sample consisted of 360 ADHD probands, 21 affected siblings, and 17 unaffected siblings. A set of 164 SNPs from 31 candidate genes, representing five biological pathways, were included in our analyses. Birth weight and gestational age data were collected from a state birth registry, medical records, and parent report. Generalized Estimating Equations tested for main effects and interactions between individual SNPs and birth weight centile in predicting ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within neurotrophic (NTRK3) and cytokine genes (CNTFR) were associated with ADHD inattentive symptom severity. There was no main effect of birth weight centile on ADHD symptom severity. SNPs within angiogenic (NRP1 & NRP2), neurotrophic (NTRK1 & NTRK3), cytokine (IL16 & S100B), and kynurenine (CCBL1 & CCBL2) genes moderate the association between birth weight centile and ADHD symptom severity. The SNP main effects and SNP × birth weight centile interactions remained significant after adjusting for multiple testing. Genetic variability in angiogenic, neurotrophic, and inflammatory systems may moderate the association between restricted prenatal growth, a proxy for an adverse prenatal environment, and risk to develop ADHD.

  13. Human Microbiome and Learning Healthcare Systems: Integrating Research and Precision Medicine for Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong, Kim H; Mack, David R; Stintzi, Alain; O'Doherty, Kieran C

    2017-03-10

    Healthcare institutions face widespread challenges of delivering high-quality and cost-effective care, while keeping up with rapid advances in biomedical knowledge and technologies. Moreover, there is increased emphasis on developing personalized or precision medicine targeted to individuals or groups of patients who share a certain biomarker signature. Learning healthcare systems (LHS) have been proposed for integration of research and clinical practice to fill major knowledge gaps, improve care, reduce healthcare costs, and provide precision care. To date, much discussion in this context has focused on the potential of human genomic data, and not yet on human microbiome data. Rapid advances in human microbiome research suggest that profiling of, and interventions on, the human microbiome can provide substantial opportunity for improved diagnosis, therapeutics, risk management, and risk stratification. In this study, we discuss a potential role for microbiome science in LHSs. We first review the key elements of LHSs, and discuss possibilities of Big Data and patient engagement. We then consider potentials and challenges of integrating human microbiome research into clinical practice as part of an LHS. With rapid growth in human microbiome research, patient-specific microbial data will begin to contribute in important ways to precision medicine. Hence, we discuss how patient-specific microbial data can help guide therapeutic decisions and identify novel effective approaches for precision care of inflammatory bowel disease. To the best of our knowledge, this expert analysis makes an original contribution with new insights poised at the emerging intersection of LHSs, microbiome science, and postgenomics medicine.

  14. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Parth J; Nayi, Vipul R; Johnson, David A; Vinik, Aaron I

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to "adiposopathy." Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics.

  15. The Role of Gut Microflora and the Cholinergic Anti-inflammatory Neuroendocrine System in Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parekh, Parth J.; Nayi, Vipul R.; Johnson, David A.; Vinik, Aaron I.

    2016-01-01

    The obesity epidemic has drastically impacted the state of health care in the United States. Paralleling this epidemic is the incidence of diabetes mellitus, with a notable shift toward a much younger age of onset. While central to the pathogenesis of diabetes associated with obesity is the role of inflammation attributed to “adiposopathy.” Emerging data suggest that changes in sympathetic/parasympathetic balance regulated by the brain precede changes in the inflammatory cascade. It has now been established that the gut microflora contributes significantly to the activation and inhibition of autonomic control and impact the set of the neuroinflammatory inhibitory reflex mediated by the cholinergic nervous system. There has been a paradigm shift toward further investigating commensal bacteria in the pathogenesis of obesity and diabetes mellitus and its complications, as dysbiosis is thought to play a pivotal role in diabetic-associated disorders. This paper is intended to evaluate the role of intestinal dysbiosis in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus and examine the potential for restoration of balance via use of probiotics. PMID:27375553

  16. The Relationship between Sarcopenia and Systemic Inflammatory Response for Cancer Cachexia in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Young; Kim, Young Saing; Seo, Ja-Young; Park, Inkeun; Ahn, Hee Kyung; Jeong, Yu Mi; Kim, Jeong Ho; Kim, Nambeom

    2016-01-01

    Background The prognostic significance of sarcopenia, an important component of cancer cachexia, has been demonstrated in oncologic patients. Catabolic drivers have been suggested to be key features of cancer cachexia. Objective To determine the relationship between systemic inflammatory markers and CT-determined muscle mass in patients with SCLC. Methods Cross-sectional muscle areas were evaluated at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3) using baseline CT images in 186 SCLC patients. Sarcopenia was defined as a L3 muscle index (L3MI, muscle area at L3/height2) of Sarcopenia was present in 128 patients (68.8%), and sarcopenic patients had significant serum lymphocyte counts and albumin levels (p = 0.002 and 0.041, respectively), and higher NLRs and CRP levels (p = 0.011 and 0.026) than non-sarcopenic patients. Multivariable analysis revealed that CRP independently predicted L3MI (β = -0.208; 95% CI, -0.415 to -0.002; p = 0.048), along with gender and BMI (p values cancer cachexia. PMID:27537502

  17. Successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, David T S; King, Tony; Cameron, Kenneth

    2010-09-01

    This brief communication describes the successful treatment of acute systemic anaphylaxis in a wild-born but captive infant western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) in the Republic of Congo. The infant demonstrated signs of acute respiratory distress, lingual swelling, and reaction to intradermal tuberculin, given 55 hr earlier. Details of the treatment with steroids, anesthetic induction, and i.v. epinephrine are all reported, and potential antigens that may have initiated the anaphylactic shock are discussed.

  18. Concurrent use of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, and angiotensin receptor blockers with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and risk of acute kidney injury: nested case-control study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapi, Francesco; Azoulay, Laurent; Yin, Hui; Nessim, Sharon J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess whether a double therapy combination consisting of diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers with addition of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and the triple therapy combination of two of the aforementioned antihypertensive drugs to which NSAIDs are added are associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. Design Retrospective cohort study using nested case-control analysis. Setting General practices contributing data to the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to the Hospital Episodes Statistics database. Participants A cohort of 487 372 users of antihypertensive drugs. Main outcome measures Rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals of acute kidney injury associated with current use of double and triple therapy combinations of antihypertensive drugs with NSAIDs. Results During a mean follow-up of 5.9 (SD 3.4) years, 2215 cases of acute kidney injury were identified (incidence rate 7/10 000 person years). Overall, current use of a double therapy combination containing either diuretics or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers with NSAIDs was not associated with an increased rate of acute kidney injury. In contrast, current use of a triple therapy combination was associated with an increased rate of acute kidney injury (rate ratio 1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12 to 1.53). In secondary analyses, the highest risk was observed in the first 30 days of use (rate ratio 1.82, 1.35 to 2.46). Conclusions A triple therapy combination consisting of diuretics with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and NSAIDs was associated with an increased risk of acute kidney injury. The risk was greatest at the start of treatment. Although antihypertensive drugs have cardiovascular benefits, vigilance may be warranted when they are used concurrently with NSAIDs. PMID:23299844

  19. Artificial and bioartificial support systems for acute and acute-on-chronic liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergard, Lise L; Liu, Jianping; Als-Nielsen, Bodil;

    2003-01-01

    Artificial and bioartificial support systems may provide a "bridge" for patients with severe liver disease to recovery or transplantation.......Artificial and bioartificial support systems may provide a "bridge" for patients with severe liver disease to recovery or transplantation....

  20. Systemic inflammatory changes and increased oxidative stress in rural Indian women cooking with biomass fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, Anindita, E-mail: anidu14@gmail.com [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Peking University, Beijing (China); Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India); Ray, Manas Ranjan; Banerjee, Anirban [Department of Experimental Hematology, Chittaranjan National Cancer Institute, 37, S.P. Mukherjee Road, Kolkata-700 026 (India)

    2012-06-15

    The study was undertaken to investigate whether regular cooking with biomass aggravates systemic inflammation and oxidative stress that might result in increase in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rural Indian women compared to cooking with a cleaner fuel like liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). A total of 635 women (median age 36 years) who cooked with biomass and 452 age-matched control women who cooked with LPG were enrolled. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were measured by ELISA. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by leukocytes was measured by flow cytometry, and erythrocytic superoxide dismutase (SOD) was measured by spectrophotometry. Hypertension was diagnosed following the Seventh Report of the Joint Committee. Tachycardia was determined as pulse rate > 100 beats per minute. Particulate matter of diameter less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively) in cooking areas was measured using real-time aerosol monitor. Compared with control, biomass users had more particulate pollution in indoor air, their serum contained significantly elevated levels of IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and CRP, and ROS generation was increased by 37% while SOD was depleted by 41.5%, greater prevalence of hypertension and tachycardia compared to their LPG-using neighbors. PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} levels were positively associated with markers of inflammation, oxidative stress and hypertension. Inflammatory markers correlated with raised blood pressure. Cooking with biomass exacerbates systemic inflammation, oxidative stress, hypertension and tachycardia in poor women cooking with biomass fuel and hence, predisposes them to increased risk of CVD development compared to the controls. Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress may be the mechanistic factors involved in the development of CVD. -- Highlights: ► Effect of chronic biomass smoke exposure on

  1. Systemic Mastocytosis Presenting as Acute Appendicitis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed A. Akbar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Systemic mastocytosis is characterized by abnormal growth and accumulation of mast cells in various organs. Gastrointestinal (GI symptoms are common disease manifestations in this disease and can significantly impair the quality of life. Signs of GI systemic mastocytosis include steatorrhea, malabsorption, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, portal hypertension, and ascites. Acute appendicitis as a presenting feature in systemic mastocytosis has not been reported in the literature previously. In this report, we discuss the case of a female patient with systemic mastocytosis (c-KIT D816V (+ who was admitted for right-sided acute abdominal pain. Laboratory study revealed an normal white blood cell count with eosinophilia and an elevated serum tryptase level of 23 μg/l. CT of the abdomen and pelvis showed an enlarged appendix of 12 mm in diameter, with minimal wall enhancement. Laparoscopic appendectomy was performed. The appendix was found to be hyperemic and firm, and it was densely adherent to the posterior cecum, the surrounding peritoneal wall, and the overlying mesenteric fat. Pathology revealed acute appendicitis with greater than 30 mast cells per high-power field by immunoperoxidase studies with mast cell tryptase and CD117. The patient subsequently improved and was discharged home. This case is the first reported case with a histological diagnosis of acute appendicitis resulting from mast cell infiltration. Physicians should be aware of acute appendicitis as a manifestation of systemic mastocytosis. Prompt diagnosis and management may prevent potentially fatal complications of appendiceal perforation and peritonitis.

  2. Cross-Sector Review of Drivers and Available 3Rs Approaches for Acute Systemic Toxicity Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidle, Troy; Robinson, Sally; Holmes, Tom; Creton, Stuart; Prieto, Pilar; Scheel, Julia; Chlebus, Magda

    2010-01-01

    Acute systemic toxicity studies are carried out in many sectors in which synthetic chemicals are manufactured or used and are among the most criticized of all toxicology tests on both scientific and ethical grounds. A review of the drivers for acute toxicity testing within the pharmaceutical industry led to a paradigm shift whereby in vivo acute toxicity data are no longer routinely required in advance of human clinical trials. Based on this experience, the following review was undertaken to identify (1) regulatory and scientific drivers for acute toxicity testing in other industrial sectors, (2) activities aimed at replacing, reducing, or refining the use of animals, and (3) recommendations for future work in this area. PMID:20484382

  3. Design and In Vivo Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ketoprofen Delayed Delivery Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerciello, Andrea; Auriemma, Giulia; Morello, Silvana; Pinto, Aldo; Del Gaudio, Pasquale; Russo, Paola; Aquino, Rita P

    2015-10-01

    For the treatment of inflammatory-based diseases affected by circadian rhythms, the development of once-daily dosage forms is required to target early morning symptoms. In this study, Zn-alginate beads containing ketoprofen (K) were developed by a tandem technique prilling/ionotropic gelation. The effect of main critical variables on particles micromeritics, inner structure as well as on drug loading and in vitro drug release was studied. The in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy was evaluated using a modified protocol of carrageenan-induced edema in rat paw administering beads to rats by oral gavage at 0, 3, or 5 h before edema induction. Good drug loading and desired particle size and morphology were obtained for the optimized formulation F20. In vitro dissolution studies showed that F20 had a gastroresistant behavior and delayed release of the drug in simulated intestinal fluid. The in vitro delayed release pattern was clearly reflected in the prolonged anti-inflammatory effect in vivo of F20, compared to pure ketoprofen; F20, administered 3 h before edema induction, showed a significant anti-inflammatory activity, reducing maximum paw volume in response to carrageenan injection, whereas no response was observed for ketoprofen. The designed beads appear a promising platform suitable for a delayed release of anti-inflammatory drugs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 104:3451-3458, 2015.

  4. Influence of dexamethasone on inflammatory mediators and NF-кB expression in multiple organs of rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Ping Zhang; Ling Zhang; Lin-Jie Chen; Qi-Hui Cheng; Jian-Mei Wang; Wei Cai; Hai-Ping Shen; Jun Cai

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To observe the therapeutic effects of dexamethasone on rats with severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) and investigate the influences of dexamethasone on the inflammatory mediators and NF-κB expression in multiple organs of SAP rats as well as the mechanisms involved.METHODS: Ninety Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with SAP were randomly divided into the model group (n = 45) and dexamethasone treatment group (n = 45), and another 45 rats were selected for the sham operation group. All groups were randomly subdivided into the 3 h, 6 h and 12 h groups, each group containing 15 rats.The survival of all groups and pathological changes of multiple organs (liver, kidney and lung) were observed at different time points after the operation. The pathological score of multiple organs was carried out, followed by the determination of amylase, endotoxin and TNF-α contents in blood. The tissue microarray was used to detect the expression levels of NF-κB p65 protein in multiple organs.RESULTS: There was no marked difference between the model group and treatment group in the survival rate. The amylase contentof the treatment group was significantly lower compared to the model group at 12 h (P < 0.01, 7791.00 vs 9195.00). Moreover, the endotoxin and TNF-α levels of the treatment group were significantly lower than that of the model group at 6 h and 12 h (P < 0.01, 0.040 vs 0.055, 0.042 vs 0.059 and P < 0.05, 58.30 vs 77.54, 38.70 vs 67.30, respectively).Regarding the changes in liver NF-κB expression, the model group significantly exceeded the sham operation group at 3 h (P < 0.01, 1.00 vs 0.00), and the treatment group significantly exceeded the sham operation group at 12 h (P < 0.01, 1.00 vs 0.00), whereas no marked difference was observed between the model group and treatment group at all time points. The kidney NF-κB expression level in the treatment group significantly exceeded the model group (P < 0.05, 2.00 vs 0.00) and the sham operation group (P < 0.01, 2.00 vs

  5. Early preventive treatment for severe acute pancreatitis combined with lung injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学民; 刘青光; 潘承恩

    2002-01-01

    @@ Severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) can cause systematic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS),which leads to injury or failure of the internal organs and systems.1 Among them,acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS)is a severe or fatal complication.In this article,the early preventive treatment for SAP combined with lung injure is studied.

  6. Neurogenic stunned myocardium - do we consider this diagnosis in patients with acute central nervous system injury and acute heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzewska-Schmidt, Magdalena; Gawecka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM) is defined as myocardial injury and dysfunction of a sudden onset, occurring after various types of acute brain injury as a result of an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system. The typical spectrum of clinically observed abnormalities includes acute left ventricular failure, not uncommonly progressing to cardiogenic shock with hypotension that requires inotropic agents, pulmonary oedema and various arrhythmias. Commonly-seen electrocardiographic changes include: prolonged QT interval, ST segment changes, T-wave inversion, a new Q-wave or U-wave. Echocardiography shows both an impaired both systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle. Biochemical markers of NSM comprise metabolic acidosis and increased cardiac enzymes and markers: creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB, troponin I and B-type natriuretic peptide. The main cause of NSM is myocardial injury induced by local catecholamine release from nerve endings within the myocardium. Recently, a theory has been proposed to classify NSM as one of the stress-related cardiomyopathies, together with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, acute left ventricular failure in the critically ill, cardiomyopathy associated with pheochromacytoma and exogenous catecholamine administration. The occurrence of NSM increases the risk of life-threatening complications, death, and worsens neurologic outcome. As far as we know, treatment should generally focus on the underlying neurologic process in order to maximize neurologic recovery. Improvement in neurologic pathology leads to rapid improvement in cardiac function and its full recovery, as NSM is a fully reversible condition if the patient survives. Awareness of the existence of NSM and a deeper knowledge of its etiopathology may reduce diagnostic errors, optimise its treatment.

  7. Intestinal Behçet's Disease: A True Inflammatory Bowel Disease or Merely an Intestinal Complication of Systemic Vasculitis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Duk Hwan; Cheon, Jae Hee

    2016-01-01

    Behçet's disease (BD) is a multi-systemic inflammatory disorder of an unknown etiology and shows a chronic recurrent clinical course. When the disease involves the alimentary tract, it is called intestinal BD because of its clinical importance. Intestinal BD is more frequently reported in East Asian countries than in Western or Middle Eastern countries. While any part of the gastrointestinal tract can be involved, the most common location of intestinal BD is the ileocecal area. A few, large, deep ulcerations with discrete border are characteristic endoscopic findings of intestinal BD. Currently, there is no single gold standard test or pathognomonic finding of intestinal BD. However, recently developed novel diagnostic criteria and a disease activity index have helped in assessing intestinal BD. As intestinal BD shares a lot of characteristics with inflammatory bowel disease, including genetic background, clinical manifestations, and therapeutic strategies, distinguishing between the two diseases in clinical practice is quite difficult. However, biologic agents such as a