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Sample records for acute suppurative thyroiditis

  1. Case of concurrent Riedel's thyroiditis, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ji Taek; Lee, Jung Hwan; Kim, So Hun; Hong, Seong Bin; Nam, Moonsuk; Kim, Yong Seong; Chu, Young Chae

    2013-03-01

    Riedel's thyroiditis (RT) is a rare chronic inflammatory disease of the thyroid gland. It is characterized by a fibroinflammatory process that partially destroys the gland and extends into adjacent neck structures. Its clinical manifestation can mask an accompanying thyroid neoplasm and can mimic invasive thyroid carcinoma. Therefore, diagnosis can be difficult prior to surgical removal of the thyroid, and histopathologic examination of the thyroid is necessary for a definite diagnosis. The concurrent presence of RT and other thyroid diseases has been reported. However, to our knowledge, the association of RT with acute suppurative thyroiditis and micropapillary carcinoma has not been reported. We report a rare case of concurrent RT, acute suppurative thyroiditis, and micropapillary carcinoma in a 48-year-old patient.

  2. Routes of infection of acute suppurative thyroiditis diagnosed by barium examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, J.; Kobayashi, Y.; Hara, K.; Kishino, B.; Fushimi, H.; Sawada, S.; Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka; Osaka National Hospital; Kansai Medical Univ.

    1986-01-01

    A fistula between the left pyriform sinus and the left thyroid gland region has been reported to be the route of infection in several cases of acute suppurative thyroiditis. Another four patients with acute suppurative thyroiditis have been encountered in whom a fistula from the hypopharynx was demonstrated radiographically. In three patients the fistulous tract was situated on the right side, and in one of these cases the fistula originated from the epiglottic vallecula rather than the pyriform sinus. These locations have not been reported earlier. Endoscopic examination was valuable for confirming the diagnosis. (orig.)

  3. Acute suppurative thyroiditis secondary to piriform sinus fistula: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, O.; Anorbe, E.; Aisa, P.; Saez De Ormijana, J.; Aguirre, X.; Paraiso, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present a typical case of acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST), associated with a piriform sinus fistula. We illustrate the case with an ultrasound picture of a hypoechogenic perithyroid mass and a CT scan using intravenous iodine contrast showing a perithyroid hypodense mass with peripheral enhancement, the mass also having intrathyroid involvement. When clinical and radiological findings suggest the presence of AST, it is necessary to rule out the presence of a piriform sinus fistula by means of a radiological study with barium contrast. Piriform sinus fistula is a rare abnormality derived from the branchial arch which is directly related to recurrent episodes of AST; surgical excision is hence, necessary to avoid such episodes

  4. Acute suppurative thyroiditis secondary to piriform sinus fistula: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diez, O.; Anorbe, E.; Aisa, P.; Saez De Ormijana, J.; Aguirre, X.; Paraiso, M.

    1998-01-01

    We present a typical case of acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST), associated with a piriform sinus fistula. We illustrate the case with an ultrasound picture of a hypoechogenic perithyroid mass and a CT scan using intravenous iodine contrast showing a perithyroid hypodense mass with peripheral enhancement, the mass also having intrathyroid involvement. When clinical and radiological findings suggest the presence of AST, it is necessary to rule out the presence of a piriform sinus fistula by means of a radiological study with barium contrast. Piriform sinus fistula is a rare abnormality derived from the branchial arch which is directly related to recurrent episodes of AST; surgical excision is hence, necessary to avoid such episodes. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Acute suppurative thyroiditis secondary to piriform sinus fistula: a case report

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    Diez, O.; Anorbe, E.; Aisa, P.; Saez De Ormijana, J.; Aguirre, X.; Paraiso, M. [Department of Radiology, Hospital Santiago Apostol, C/Olaguibel 29, E01004 Vitoria-Gasteiz (Spain)

    1998-11-01

    We present a typical case of acute suppurative thyroiditis (AST), associated with a piriform sinus fistula. We illustrate the case with an ultrasound picture of a hypoechogenic perithyroid mass and a CT scan using intravenous iodine contrast showing a perithyroid hypodense mass with peripheral enhancement, the mass also having intrathyroid involvement. When clinical and radiological findings suggest the presence of AST, it is necessary to rule out the presence of a piriform sinus fistula by means of a radiological study with barium contrast. Piriform sinus fistula is a rare abnormality derived from the branchial arch which is directly related to recurrent episodes of AST; surgical excision is hence, necessary to avoid such episodes. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  6. Thyrotoxicosis followed by Hypothyroidism due to Suppurative Thyroiditis Caused by Nocardia brasiliensis in a Patient with Advanced Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teckie, G2; Bhana, S A; Tsitsi, J M L; Shires, R

    2014-03-01

    Acute thyroiditis is an extremely rare complication of nocardiosis. We report a patient with hyperthyroidism due to suppurative thyroiditis caused by Nocardia brasiliensis. A 38-year-old Black male presented with features of thyrotoxicosis, sepsis and airway obstruction. He had no evidence of underlying thyroid disease, but was severely immunocompromised as a result of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. He had previously been diagnosed with pulmonary nocardiosis and also had nocardial abscesses on his anterior chest wall. Investigations revealed thyrotoxicosis, with a FT4 of 43.2 pmol/l and a suppressed TSH Nocardia.

  7. Acute suppurative parotitis in a 33-day-old patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avcu, Gulhadiye; Belet, Nursen; Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar

    2015-06-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is a rare disease in childhood. Its incidence is higher in premature newborns. Parotid swelling and pus drainage from Stenson's duct is pathognomonic, and Staphylococcus aureus is the causative agent in most cases. Here, a 33-day-old patient with acute suppurative parotitis is presented. © The Author [2015]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Percutaneous biliary drainage in acute suppurative cholangitis with biliary sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Lyul; Cho, June Sik; Kwon, Soon Tae; Lee, Sang Jin; Rhee, Byung Chull

    1993-01-01

    Acute suppurative cholangitis is a severe inflammatory process of the bile duct occurred as result of partial or complete obstruction of the bile duct, and may manifest clinically severe form of disease, rapidly deteriorating to life-threatening condition. We analyzed emergency percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage in 20 patients of acute suppurative cholangitis with biliary sepsis to evaluate the therapeutic effect and complication of the procedure. The underlying cause were 12 benign disease(stones) and eight malignant tumors and among eight malignant tumors, bile duct stones(n=4) and clonorchiasis(n=1) were combined. Percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage was performed successfully in 17 of 20 patients resulting in improvement of general condition and failed in three patients. The procedure were preterminated due to the patient's condition in two and biliary-proto fistula was developed in one. After biliary decompression by percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage, effective and successful elective surgery was performed in nine cases, which were seven biliary stones and two biliary cancer with stones. Our experience suggest that emergency percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage is an initial and effective treatment of choice for acute suppurative cholangitis with sepsis and a safe alternative for nonsurgical treatment

  9. [Thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffet, Camille; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of thyroiditis encompasses a broad spectrum of thyroid disorders. Analysis of signs and symptoms, biochemical changes, neck ultrasound characteristics and radioactive iodine uptake values allows an accurate diagnosis. Recent studies of the whole genome have helped to identify many susceptibility genes for autoimmune thyroiditis. However, none of these genes contribute to a significant increase in risk of developing this thyroiditis. Clinical awareness of the characteristic presentations of exceptional thyroiditis (acute suppurative thyroiditis, Riedel's thyroiditis) is an important issue. Selenium administration seems to be beneficial for reducing the incidence of thyroiditis. Finally, certain drug-induced thyroiditis remains a therapeutic challenge for the physician.

  10. Acute suppurative parotitis: a dreadful complication in elderly surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampropoulos, Pavlos; Rizos, Spyros; Marinis, Athanasios

    2012-08-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis (ASP) is a severe infection seen particularly in elderly surgical patients. Factors that increase the risk of ASP include post-operative dehydration, debilitating conditions, and immunosuppressed states. Case report and literature review. An 82-year-old female patient was admitted because of paralytic ileus, dehydration, and poor oral hygiene, and was in distress. After two days of hospitalization, the patient developed a progressive painful swelling of her right parotid gland and fever up to 39.0°C. Computed tomography scanning showed an abscess in the parotid gland. Because of her progressive clinical deterioration, the patient underwent operative drainage of the abscess and removal of the necrotic material. Unfortunately, she suffered multiple organ dysfunction syndrome and died. Acute suppurative parotitis requires prompt aggressive treatment that nevertheless may fail.

  11. Thyroidal abscesses in third and fourth branchial anomalies: not only a paediatric diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruijff, Schelto; Sywak, Mark S; Sidhu, Stan B; Shun, Albert; Novakovic, Daniel; Lee, James C; Delbridge, Leigh W

    2015-01-01

    Acute suppurative thyroiditis and recurrent abscess formation due to third and fourth branchial anomalies typically present in children. However, thyroid abscesses in branchial anomalies may occur in adulthood as well. Failure to recognize and delayed drainage of a neck abscess may lead to a fulminant life-threatening outcome. This is a retrospective case series. The study group comprised all patients presenting over a 12-month period from January to December 2012 with thyroid abscesses and a branchial cleft anomaly in two centres, one adult and the other paediatric. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, surgical management, definitive histology and outcomes were documented. Five patients were identified with a history of thyroid abscesses. Only one was a child (aged 9 years) with the other four being adults (aged 20, 34, 37 and 41 years). All patients had third or fourth left branchial cleft anomalies, presenting as suppurative thyroiditis with a left-sided thyroid abscess. Management options ranged from abscess drainage on initial presentation, primary thyroid lobectomy or delayed thyroid lobectomy following abscess drainage. Acute suppurative thyroidits and thyroid abscesses is not just a paediatric diagnosis but may present at any age. In both children and adults, a thyroid abscess almost always arises from branchial cleft anomalies. © 2014 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  12. Acute suppurative neonatal parotitis: Case report.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khan, Sardar U

    2012-02-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis is very rare. One review of the English-language literature spanning 35 years found only 32 cases. Most cases are managed conservatively with antibiotic therapy; early antibiotic treatment reduces the need for surgery. The predominant organism is Staphylococcus aureus. We report a new case of neonatal suppurative parotitis in a 3-week-old boy. The patient was diagnosed on the basis of parotid swelling, a purulent exudate from a Stensen duct, and the growth of pathogenic bacteria in culture. He responded well to 9 days of intravenous antibiotic therapy. We also discuss the microbiologic and clinical patterns of this disease.

  13. Acute suppurative parotitis with spread to the deep neck spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M A; Docktor, J W

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the case of an elderly, diabetic woman who became dehydrated and developed acute suppurative parotitis, which caused marked swelling of her left face and neck. The parotid infection also extended by continuity into the lateral pharyngeal space and contiguous deep neck spaces, causing airway-threatening, extensive inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis and parapharyngeal soft tissues. The differential diagnosis and diagnostic rationale is discussed. The anatomy of the stylomandibular area is reviewed to explain how infection of the parotid can spread to the pharynx.

  14. Necrotic cervical nodes: Usefulness of diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the differentiation of suppurative lymphadenitis from malignancy

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    Kato, Hiroki, E-mail: hkato@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki, E-mail: masa_gif@yahoo.co.jp [Department of Radiology, Gifu University School of Medicine, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1194 (Japan); High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu University Hospital, Gifu (Japan); Kato, Zenichiro, E-mail: zenkato@mac.com [Department of Pediatrics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Teramoto, Takahide, E-mail: t-tera@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Pediatrics, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke, E-mail: kmizuta@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Aoki, Mitsuhiro, E-mail: aoki@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Makita, Hiroki, E-mail: makitah@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan); Kato, Keizo, E-mail: keizo@gifu-u.ac.jp [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Sciences, Gifu University School of Medicine, Gifu (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for the differentiation between suppurative lymphadenitis and malignancy in necrotic cervical lymph nodes. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with suppurative lymphadenitis, 40 with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), eight with lymphoma, and six with thyroid cancer were accompanied by necrotic cervical nodes. All 69 patients underwent 1.5-T MR imaging including DW and 58 underwent gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging. Necrotic area-to-spinal cord signal intensity ratios (SIR) on T1-, T2- and DW images and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) [10{sup −3} mm{sup 2}/s] were correlated with the pathologies. Results: Nineteen necrotic cervical nodes with suppurative lymphadenitis, 67 with SCC, 10 with lymphoma, and 12 with thyroid cancer were identified. SIR on DW images was higher in suppurative lymphadenitis (2.50 ± 1.21) than in malignancies (1.29 ± 0.67) (p < .01), and ADC value was lower in suppurative lymphadenitis (0.89 ± 0.21) than in malignancies (1.46 ± 0.46) (p < .01). SIR on T1-weighted images was higher in thyroid cancer (1.95 ± 0.53) than in suppurative lymphadenitis (0.87 ± 0.17), SCC (0.92 ± 0.13), and lymphoma (0.95 ± 0.09) (p < .01). No significant difference in SIR on T2-weighted images was found between suppurative lymphadenitis (1.46 ± 0.50) and malignancies (1.61 ± 0.56). Conclusion: DW imaging with ADC measurements may play a supplementary role in the differentiation of necrotic cervical nodes between suppurative lymphadenitis and malignancy.

  15. Discrimination of suppurative cholangitis from nonsuppurative cholangitis with computed tomography (CT)

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    Lee, Nam Kyung [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kimsuk@medigate.net; Lee, Jun Woo; Kim, Chang Won [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Gwang Ha; Kang, Dae Hwan [Department of Gastrointestinal Internal Medicine, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Hong Jae [Department of Surgery, Pusan National University Hospital, Pusan National University School of Medicine and Medical Research Institute, Pusan National University, Busan 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    Purpose: Suppurative cholangitis is characterized by obstruction, inflammation, and pyogenic infection of the biliary tract. This disease represents a true emergency. The purpose of this study was to compare the computed tomography (CT) findings between acute calculous suppurative and nonsuppurative cholangitis and to determine if there are findings that assist in the differential diagnosis. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with acute suppurative cholangitis were enrolled in this study. Findings at endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreaticography (ERCP) were the standard of reference for suppurative cholangitis. To compare the findings of suppurative cholangitis with those of nonsuppurative cholangitis, 35 patients with nonsuppurative cholangitis were randomly selected. The following findings were evaluated: the presence of papillitis, the presence of stones in the ampulla, the presence of intrahepatic stones, the presence of early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver, the degree of bile duct dilatation, the degree of bile duct wall thickening and presence of cholecystitis. Sensitivity and specificity for each of the individual findings were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed the Pearson {chi}{sup 2} test, Fisher's exact test and the Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Papillitis showed the highest specificity 86% with 60% sensitivity. Marked inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver during the arterial phase showed 80% specificity with 60% sensitivity. In multivariate logistic analysis, papillitis and marked early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver were the most significant predictors of acute suppurative cholangitis. The combination of these two CT findings improved specificity (97% specificity) for the diagnosis of suppurative cholangitis. Conclusion: Papillitis and marked early inhomogeneous enhancement of the liver were found to be the most discriminative CT findings for the diagnosis of acute suppurative cholangitis and the

  16. Thyroid storm precipitated by acute biliary pancreatitis

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    Mehrdad Karimi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is an acute, life-threatening exacerbation and sudden releasing large amounts of thyroid hormone in a short period of time. Nevertheless, critical aggravation of hyperthyroidism typically resulted from concurrent disorder. Synchronous management of thyroid storm along with its precipitant, such as infection is recommended. We described the case of an acute biliary pancreatitis complicated with a thyroid storm. The patient was successfully managed with a quick surgical intervention and further critical care for thyroid storm. Although it is widely believed that pancreatitis is seldom concurrent with thyrotoxicosis, thyroid storm can be precipitated by a variety of factors, including intra-abdominal infections such as acute pancreatitis or perforated peptic ulcer. In conclusion, acute pancreatitis in patients with thyrotoxicosis seems to be extremely rare, but such patients should be managed intensively against underlying thyroid disorders as well as pancreatitis.

  17. [Effects of vacuum sealing drainage technique in acute and chronic suppurative tenosynovitis of hand].

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    Wang, H; Xia, F; Xing, D M; Ren, D; Feng, W; Chen, Y; Xiao, Z H; Zhao, Z M

    2017-05-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of vacuum sealing drainage technique in acute and chronic suppurative tenosynovitis of hand. Methods: A total of 9 cases acute and chronic suppurative tenosynovitis patients from January 2013 to April 2015 in Puai Hospital Affiliated to Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology were retrospectively reviewed. There were 6 males and 3 females, aging from 27 to 65 years, the average age was 55 years. There were 3 cases of index finger, 3 cases of middle finger, 2 cases of ring finger, 1 case include three fingers. The infection causes included stabbing with fishbone in 3 cases, stabbing with animal bone fragments in 3 cases, wound by sawdust in 3 cases, meat grinder injury in 1 case, multiple fingers crush injury postoperative infection of garbage truck in 1 case. Bacterial infection included 2 cases with Staphylococcus aureus, 2 cases with Staphylococcus epidermidis, 1 case with normal Escherichia coli, 1 case with mixed infection of Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella oxytoca and Staphylococcus, 1 case with Bauman Acinetobacter bacillus, 1 case with Proteus mirabilis and 1 case of no growth of pathogenic bacteria culture. After thorough debridement, vacuum sealing drainage was used to observe the characteristics of irrigation fluid, the formation of cavity inflammation, the prognosis of infection and the recovery of finger function. Results: Seven patients with suppurative tenosynovitis were treated for 7 to 14 days, replaced the vacuum sealing drainage dressing once; 1 patient was an illustration of the finger tip defect flap infected patients after 21 days of treatment, replaced the vacuum sealing drainage dressing twice, 1 patient was an illustration of the central refers to trauma, postoperative infection patients 28 d, replaced three times in the VSD. The follow-up time was 3 to 12 months (mean 8.2 months), 7 patients without tendon necrosis, secondary suture with no infection, 2 cases of

  18. Painful Hashimoto's thyroiditis: myth or reality?

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    Rotondi, M; Capelli, V; Locantore, P; Pontecorvi, A; Chiovato, L

    2017-08-01

    Neck pain is a common complain, being in most cases due to non-thyroidal causes. However, a minority of patients suffer from painful thyroid diseases. Among them, sub-acute thyroiditis (SAT) is the most frequent one. Rare thyroid-related causes of neck pain include hemorrhage within a thyroid nodule as well as Riedel's thyroiditis and suppurative thyroiditis. In the last 30 years, a few cases of a painful variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) have been described. Biochemical, ultrasound, and histologic features were clearly suggestive for HT in all of the published cases and definitely ruled out the diagnosis of SAT. While sound descriptions of painful HT are present in the literature, it is important to emphasize that only 20 cases were reported from the year 2000 until now. The condition, however, is clinically relevant because neck pain was reported to be refractory both to steroids and to other analgesic drugs, being thyroidectomy the only effective treatment for pain relief in these patients. This short review analyzes currently available data supporting a role for HT as a rare cause of neck pain.

  19. Thyroid Echography-induced Thyroid Storm and Exacerbation of Acute Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakabayashi, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Naomi; Suzuki, Toshiaki; Asano, Ryotaro; Saito, Hideki; Nomura, Hidekimi; Isomura, Daichi; Okada, Hisayuki; Sugiura, Ryo; Oka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    Hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm affect cardiac circulation in some conditions. Several factors including trauma can induce thyroid storms. We herein describe the case of a 57-year-old woman who experienced a thyroid storm and exacerbation of acute heart failure on thyroid echography. She initially demonstrated a good clinical course after medical rate control for atrial fibrillation; however, thyroid echography for evaluating hyperthyroidism led to a thyroid storm and she collapsed. A multidisciplinary approach stabilized her thyroid hormone levels and hemodynamics. Thus, the medical staff should be prepared for a deterioration in the patient's condition during thyroid echography in heart failure patients with hyperthyroidism.

  20. Acute suppurative appendicitis associated with Enterobius vermicularis: an incidental finding or a causative agent? A case report.

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    Efared, Boubacar; Atsame-Ebang, Gabrielle; Soumana, Boubacar Marou; Tahiri, Layla; Hammas, Nawal; El Fatemi, Hinde; Chbani, Laila

    2017-10-06

    Histological acute appendicitis patterns associated with Enterobius vermicularis is an extremely rare finding. The exact role of this parasite in acute appendicitis is controversial as usually resected specimens show no evidence of histological inflammation. We present herein a case of a 21-year-old male Arabic patient who presented with clinical syndrome of acute appendicitis. Emergency appendectomy was performed and the histopathological examination of the resected specimen showed the presence of E. vermicularis as well as intense acute inflammatory patterns such as mucosal ulceration and suppurative necrosis. The post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged with appropriate anti-helmintic drug prescription. Acute appendicitis due to E. vermicularis is a very rare occurrence. The histopathological analysis of resected specimens should pay special attention to search for this parasite for adequate post-operative treatment of patients.

  1. Suppurative processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinner, M.G.

    1983-01-01

    Suppurative process in the case of bronchiectatic disease, abscess and gang rene of lungs, has been described. Characteristic signs of roentgenologic pictu re of the above-mentioned diseases are considered. It is shown,that in most cas es roentgenologic studies give a possibility to make a high-quality diagnosis of suppurative processes

  2. Concomitant Suppurative Parotitis and Condylar Osteomyelitis.

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    Vorrasi, John; Zinberg, Geoffrey

    2017-03-01

    Parotitis is a common occurrence in the immunocompromised, dehydrated, and malnourished patient as a result of dysfunctional ductal and parotid cells. Inflammation can be acute or chronic based on clinical history, and it can be suppurative based on the presence of micro or macro abscess formation within the substance of the gland. This report presents a case of concomitant condylar osteomyelitis and chronic suppurative parotitis in the setting of previous methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus foot infection. Ultimately, resection of osteomyelitis, drainage of parotid infection, and intravenous antibiotic therapy led to full resolution of the infection and symptoms. The final pathology of osteomyelitis of the temporomandibular joint and methicillin-resistant S aureus infection is an unusual consequence of chronic parotitis. The patient was restored with a total joint replacement approximately 3 months after resection with no recurrence of infection after 24 months. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [The specific features of the clinical course of acute suppurative otitis media of viral and mixed viral-bacterial etiology in the children of the preschool age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtsig, E Yu; Bugaichuk, O V

    The objective of the present study was to elucidate the spectrum of the pathogenic agents responsible for the development of acute suppurative otitis media in the children of the preschool age and to reveal the specific clinical features of this disease depending on its etiological factors. The study involved 138 patients (186 ears) of either sex at the age from 1 year to 84 months who presented with acute suppurative otitis media. The following methods were employed for the purpose of the study: analysis of the patients' complaints and the past medical histories, examination of the ENT organs, microbiological (bacteriological and virological) studies of secretion from the tympanic cavity, diagnostic endoscopy of the nasal cavity and nasopharynx, laboratory investigations. The study allowed to reveal the characteristic clinical manifestations of the pathology of interest depending on its etiology.

  4. A case report of thyroid storm induced by acute sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu-Yin Yeh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is a rare but life-threatening condition, which can be induced by many critical diseases. We reported a 40-year-old woman with thyroid goiter manifesting with acute sepsis-induced hyperthyroidism. She mainly presented with abdominal bloating, diarrhea, lower limbs edema and exertional dyspnea. The lactate was 9.5 mmol/L and procalcitonin was 3.8 ng/mL, suggesting acute sepsis. The thyroid echo showed bilateral thyroid goiter. Relevant data included a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 0.03 μIU/mL; free tetraiodothyronine, 5.67 ng/dL; thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antibody, 76.9% (normal range, < 14%; and antimicrosomal antibody titer, 1:102400 (normal range, < 1:100, suggesting toxic goiter with thyroid storm. Piperacillin/tazobactam, methimazole and Lugol's iodine achieved a good outcome. The symptoms of early sepsis and those of thyroid storm could be similar. Therefore, a careful history taking, a thorough physical examination and a high degree of suspicion could make early diagnosis and appropriate treatment.

  5. Thyroid adenoma following treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapaport, R.; Morishima, A.; Wolff, J.A.; Ryan, B.; Walters, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    Sequelae of the treatment of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) include multiple effects on the endocrine system, especially as it relates to growth and puberty. Thyroid dysfunction, and in particular, the occurrence of thyroid neoplasia, has been only rarely described. We report the development of benign thyroid neoplasms in two patients 9 years following the diagnosis and treatment of ALL. Both patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid with noncystic cold nodules found on thyroid scan. In light of these observations, and along with previous reports of malignant thyroid neoplasia in children with ALL, long-term careful observation of children successfully treated for ALL is indicated. 17 references

  6. Acute thyrotoxicosis secondary to destructive thyroiditis associated with cardiac catheterization contrast dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvi, Laura; Daniels, Gilbert H

    2011-04-01

    Thyrotoxicosis caused by destructive thyroiditis is self-limited and results from the subacute release of preformed thyroid hormone. Common etiologies include painful subacute thyroiditis and silent (painless) subacute thyroiditis (including postpartum thyroiditis, amiodarone-associated destructive thyroiditis, and lithium-associated thyroiditis). Thyrotoxicosis commonly evolves slowly over a matter of weeks. We report a unique case of severe thyrotoxicosis caused by acute- onset painful destructive thyroiditis in a patient who received large amounts of nonionic contrast dye Hexabrix® for cardiac catheterization. The results of thyroid function and physical examination were normal before the catheterization. The acute onset of severe thyroid pain, rapid increase in serum Free Thyroxine Index, and thyroglobulin concentrations with a triiodothyronine to free thyroxine index ratio of thyroiditis, likely related to direct toxicity from the iodinated contrast material. In light of the large number of patients who receive these contrast agents during cardiac catheterization, clinicians should be advised of this potentially serious complication, particularly in the setting of unstable cardiac disease.

  7. Ultrasonography of various thyroid diseases in children and adolescents: A pictorial essay

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    Hong, Hyun Sook; Lee, Eun Hye; Jeong, Sun Hye; Park, Ji Sang; Lee, Heon [Dept. of Radiology, Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Thyroid imaging is indicated to evaluate congenital hypothyroidism during newborn screening or in cases of a palpable thyroid mass in children and adolescents. This pictorial essay reviews the ultrasonography (US) of thyroid diseases in children and adolescents, including normal thyroid gland development, imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (dysgenesis, [aplasia, ectopy, hypoplasia], dyshormonogenesis, transient hypothyroidism, thyroglossal duct cyst), diffuse thyroid disease (Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and suppurative thyroiditis), and thyroid nodules. The primary imaging modalities for evaluating thyroid diseases are US and radionuclide scintigraphy. Additionally, US can be used to guide aspiration of detected nodules.

  8. Afican Health Sciences Vol 10 No 1.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    Both lung fields were clear on auscultation His abdomen was flat and soft with a firm sausage-shaped non-tender ... risk factor for colorectal neoplasia10. .... Keywords: Thyroid, Abscess, Klebsiella Pneumoniae, Acute Suppurative Thyroiditis.

  9. Acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis mimicking anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid: A complicated case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaya, Hiroaki; Konno, Wataru; Fukami, Satoru; Hirabayashi, Hideki; Haruna, Shin-ichi

    2014-12-01

    The fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis is uncommon, accounting for approximately 10% of all cases of Hashimoto thyroiditis. We report a case of this variant that behaved like a malignant neoplasm. The patient was a 69-year-old man who presented with a right-sided anterior neck mass that had been rapidly growing for 2 weeks. Fine-needle aspiration cytology revealed clusters of large multinucleated cells suggestive of an anaplastic carcinoma. A week after presentation, we ruled out that possibility when the mass had shrunk slightly. Instead, we diagnosed the patient with an acute exacerbation of Hashimoto thyroiditis on the basis of laboratory findings. We performed a right thyroid lobectomy, including removal of the isthmus, to clarify the pathology and alleviate pressure symptoms. The final diagnosis was the fibrous variant of Hashimoto thyroiditis, with no evidence of malignant changes. Physicians should keep in mind that on rare occasions, Hashimoto thyroiditis mimics a malignant neoplasm.

  10. Acute and emergency care for thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid hormones affect all organ systems and, in excess, can cause increased metabolic rate, heart rate, ventricle contractility, and gastrointestinal motility as well as muscle and central nervous system excitability. Thyroid storm is the extreme manifestation of thyrotoxicosis with an estimated incidence of 0.20 per 100,000 per year among hospitalized patients in Japan. The mortality of thyroid storm without treatment ranges from 80% to 100%; but with treatment, the mortality rate is between 10% and 50%. The diagnostic strategy for thyroid storm may take into consideration Burch–Wartofsky scoring or Akamizu's diagnostic criteria. Multiple treatment aims need to be addressed in managing thyroid storm effectively. This paper puts together all aspects to be considered for the management of hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm during the acute and emergency phase as well as consideration of special populations. PMID:29123713

  11. Acute and emergency care for thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrose, Alzamani Mohammad

    2015-07-01

    Thyroid hormones affect all organ systems and, in excess, can cause increased metabolic rate, heart rate, ventricle contractility, and gastrointestinal motility as well as muscle and central nervous system excitability. Thyroid storm is the extreme manifestation of thyrotoxicosis with an estimated incidence of 0.20 per 100,000 per year among hospitalized patients in Japan. The mortality of thyroid storm without treatment ranges from 80% to 100%; but with treatment, the mortality rate is between 10% and 50%. The diagnostic strategy for thyroid storm may take into consideration Burch-Wartofsky scoring or Akamizu's diagnostic criteria. Multiple treatment aims need to be addressed in managing thyroid storm effectively. This paper puts together all aspects to be considered for the management of hyperthyroidism and thyroid storm during the acute and emergency phase as well as consideration of special populations.

  12. Acute paraparesis as presentation of an occult follicular thyroid carcinoma: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Baião

    Full Text Available Introduction: Follicular thyroid carcinoma is the second most frequent type of well differentiated thyroid tumours. It is usually confined to the thyroid gland, however it can metastasize in a later stage of the disease. Signs and symptoms associated with bone metastasis are rare as first clinical manifestations. Case report: An 84-year-old female complained with acute paraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an extensive intraosseous infiltrating lesion compatible with a bone metastasis from an occult tumour. Biopsy samples were compatible with bone metastasis from a follicular thyroid carcinoma. The patient was submitted to total thyroidectomy followed by iodine ablative therapy. Discussion: Follicular thyroid carcinoma presentation with symptoms related to bone metastasis is rare. Patients with bone lesions, such as pathological fractures or compressive symptoms should be studied since they may have clinically unapparent lesions from an unknown tumour. Patients with FTC should be submitted to total thyroidectomy. Bone lesions may be addressed to improve quality of life however this decision depends on disease extent. Conclusion: Acute paraparesis is a rare form of presentation of thyroid carcinoma. These neoplasms must be taken into account when investigating metastasis to the bone from unknown neoplasms. Keywords: Acute paraparesis, Follicular thyroid carcinoma, Bone metastasis, Case report

  13. Een pijnlijke hals door acute suppuratieve thyreoïditis veroorzaakt door Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bon, A. C.; Krudop, W.; van Eeden, S.; Schreuder, M. C. J.; Nieveen van Dijkum, E. J. M.; Fliers, E.; Wiersinga, W. M.

    2008-01-01

    A 53-year-old woman presented with fever accompanied by chills and an extremely painful swelling of her right thyroid lobe. She was initially diagnosed as having subacute thyroiditis, but after 14 days her disease appeared to be caused by a destructive suppurative thyroiditis due to Salmonella group

  14. Suppurative retropharyngeal lymphadenitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barreda, R.; Mancuso, A.A.; Stringer, S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the natural history of pharyngeal and peripharyngeal infections, as seen on CT and MR images, and use imaging data to help determine which cases represent medical versus surgical disease. The authors analyzed CT scans of 22 patients with cellulitis and abscesses affecting the pharynx, peritonsillar region, and neck. The presence of abscess, suppurative adenopathy (cervical or retropharyngeal), and pharyngeal and peripharyngeal swelling was tabulated. Results were compared with surgical findings. Long-term follow-up was available in all patients. Twelve patients had suppurative retropharyngeal abscess and secondary retropharyngeal swelling; nine resolved with antibiotic therapy alone. One underwent drainage because of critical airway compression, one because the disease was bilateral and refractory to medical management, and one at the discretion of the referring surgeon

  15. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis with MSCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the CT appearance of acute appendicitis and investigate diagnostic value of MSCT on acute appendicitis. Methods: The type and CT appearance of 15 cases with acute appendicitis proved by surgery and histopathology or clinic was analyzed retrospectively. Multi-stages scanning was carried out on the whole abdomen with 16 row CT. Post processing techniques including MPR, CPR and MIP were performed to observe the lesions. Results: There were 3 acute suppurative appendicitis, 12 acute gangrene and perforative appendicitis and appendiceal abscess. Complication occurred in 10 cases with gangrene and perforative appendix or appendix molten. The complication included 4 pelvic abscess, 3 intra-abdminal abscess, 1 combined pelvic and intra-abdominal abscess, 4 conglutination bowel obstruction, 1 ureteritis stegnosis and 1 abdominal wall fistulae. The exact ratio of CT diagnosis on acute suppurative appendicitis and appendiceal abscess reached 93.3% preoperatively. It is difficult to distinguish between acute suppurative appendicitis and acute gangrenous appendicitis without perforation. Conclusion: The MSCT appearance of acute appendicitis was marked and of important value on diagnosis of acute appendicitis. (authors)

  16. Thyrotoxicosis-induced acute myocardial infarction due to painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Jung, Tae Sik; Hahm, Jong Ryeal; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Lee, Sang Min; Jung, Jung Hwa; Kim, Soo Kyoung; Chung, Soon Il

    2011-10-01

    Thyrotoxicosis influences cardiovascular hemodynamics and can induce coronary vasospasm. Patients with thyrotoxicosis-induced acute myocardial infarction (AMI) are unusual and almost all reported cases have been associated with Graves' disease. Patients with painless thyroiditis show a thyrotoxic phase during the early stages. Here we describe a very rare case of thyrotoxicosis with painless thyroiditis-induced AMI. A 35-year-old Korean man visited the emergency room for a 2-hour duration of typical AMI chest pain. The patient did not have any coronary artery disease (CAD) risk factors. The electrocardiogram showed 3 mm of ST-segment elevation in leads II, III, and aVF, which is consistent with inferior AMI. We immediately treated the patient with aspirin, clopidogrel, and nitroglycerine and performed emergent coronary angiography. Coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries without any stenotic lesions. Consistent with AMI, cardiac enzyme levels of serum creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB, and troponin-I were also elevated. Laboratory findings showed thyrotoxicosis without any thyroid autoantibodies. A 99m-technetium scintigraphy showed markedly decreased thyroid uptake compatible with thyroiditis. We treated the patient with calcium channel blockers and nitrates. The patient spontaneously recovered normal thyroid function after 6 weeks of observation and did not complain of chest pain. Thyrotoxicosis due to painless thyroiditis provoked AMI in a young man who had no atherosclerotic coronary lesions and no CAD risk factors.

  17. Chronic suppurative otitis media in Gombe, Nigeria | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media is a common problem in developing countries and it is necessary to determine the local epidemiology for ... Method: A retrospective study of 206 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (COSM). ... Children within the age group of 0 – 10 years were the most affected.

  18. Granulomatous Thyroiditis: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Darshan P; Bhagat, Ramesh; Nakanishi, Yukihiro; Wang, Alun; Moroz, Krzysztof; Falk, Nadja K

    2017-09-01

    Granulomatous disease in the thyroid gland has been linked to viral, bacterial and autoimmune etiologies. The most common granulomatous disease of the thyroid is subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, which is presumed to have a viral or post-viral inflammatory cause. Bacterial etiologies include tuberculosis, actinomycosis, and nocardiosis, but are extremely rare. Disseminated actinomycosis and nocardiosis more commonly affect organ-transplant patients with the highest susceptibility within the first year after transplant surgery. A 45-year-old African American male, who received his third kidney transplant for renal failure secondary to Alport Syndrome, presented with numerous subcutaneous nodules and diffuse muscle pain in the neck. Further workup revealed bilateral nodularity of the thyroid. Fine needle aspiration of these nodules demonstrated suppurative granulomatous thyroiditis. Subsequent right thyroid lobectomy showed granulomatous thyroiditis with filamentous micro-organisms, morphologically resembling Nocardia or Actinomyces. Disseminated granulomatous disease presenting in the thyroid is very rare, and typically afflicts immune-compromised patients. The overall clinical, cytologic and histologic picture of this patient strongly points to an infectious etiology, likely Nocardia, in the setting of recent organ transplantation within the last year. © 2017 by the Association of Clinical Scientists, Inc.

  19. ACUTE APPENDICITIS- SONOLOGICAL AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjani M. Reddy

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The aim of the study is to study the- 1. Correlation between sonological and histopathological diagnosis of acute appendicitis. 2. Prevalence of acute appendicitis in various age groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted in the Department of Radiodiagnosis, MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Bangalore, for a period of 2 years from March 2013 to February 2015. Data collection was prospective. A computer-assisted search of all the reports of ultrasonography with the diagnosis of acute appendicitis was conducted within the departmental database. A total of 244 patients (128 male patients and 116 female patients with acute appendicitis were identified and the study was conducted. RESULTS In the study, total of 244 patients were diagnosed with acute appendicitis. Out of these, 128 patients were males and 116 patients were females. The incidence of acute appendicitis was most prevalent in age group between 21 to 30 years (36.5% in our study. The least incidence was noted in age group of above 60 yrs. with only 1 out of 244 patients (0.4% was diagnosed with acute appendicitis. The histological features noted were suppuration/inflammation, gangrenous, lymphoid hyperplasia and perforation. In our study, 143 inflammation/suppuration (58.6%, 37 gangrenous (15.1%, 24 lymphoid hyperplastic (9.8% and 1 perforation (0.4% was noted. Hence, the incidence of inflammation/suppuration was found to be most common and perforation was found to be the least finding. The suppurative/inflammatory feature was most common histological type in all the age groups except for the age group above 60 yrs. The gangrenous features were most commonly seen in the age group between 11 to 20 yrs. followed by 20 to 30 yrs. Faecolith was most commonly found in age group of 21 to 30 yrs. (12 cases followed by age group of 11 to 20 yrs. (10 cases. CONCLUSION It was noted that the incidence of acute appendicitis was most commonly noted in younger age group

  20. Chronic suppurative otitis media: Socio-economic implications in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic suppurative otitis media: Socio-economic implications in a tertiary hospital in Northern Nigeria. ... This paper highlights the socio-economic burden of chronic suppurative otitis media on a ... minimum wage for individuals in our environment where the cost of health care is the sole responsibility of the patient.

  1. Neonatal suppurative parotitis over the last 4 decades: report of three new cases and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Essam A; Seoudi, Tarek M; Al-Amir, Mohamad; Al-Esnawy, Ahmad A

    2013-02-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis is a rare disease. Only 32 cases were reported in the English-language literature between 1970 and 2004. We searched Medline for acute, neonatal, bacterial, suppurative, parotitis, facial, preauricular swelling starting from 1970, limiting our search to the English-language literature. We reviewed all the reported cases together with three more managed in our department. We identified nine new cases since 2004. The total number of patients reviewed was 44, including our patients. Most of them were male (77%). The majority developed unilateral inflamed parotid swelling (77%) and exuded pus from the ipsilateral Stensen duct. Fever was seen in fewer than half of them (47%). Premature babies constituted a third of the patients. Staphylococcus aureus was the leading causative agent (61%). Most patients responded well to conservative treatment with antibiotics (77%). The most frequently used combination of antibiotics was an anti-staphylococcal agent with either an aminoglycoside or a third-generation cephalosporin. A minority required surgical drainage. No deaths were reported in the group studied after 1970. Neonatal suppurative parotitis is rare but easy to diagnose and if readily treated with appropriate antibiotics the outcome is excellent. © 2012 The Authors. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.

  2. Recurrent thyroid abscess - Is it a fourth branchial archanomaly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, A A; Pandya, V K; Chougule, Sachin; Nair, Unnikrishnnan

    2006-04-01

    Branchial fistulae are of congenital origin(6) and consists of skin lined tract opening internally at junction of cartilaginous and bony meatus in case of 1(st) arch anomaly, tonsillar fossa in case of 2(nd) arch, while 3(rd) and 4(th) arch sinuses have internal opening at level of pyriform sinus or below. A complete tract of 3(rd) or 4(th) arch fistulae is yet to be described. Fourth arch fistulae(1) have a distinct clinical pattern of internal opening at pyriform apex, are left sided and associated with suppurative thyroiditis(3), they manifest at a younger age and treatment involves excision of tract with ipsilateral thyroid lobectomy.

  3. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  4. Sterile Osteitis and Suppurative Arthritis Associated with Pannus Responding to Colchicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Engin Tezcan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sterile suppurative arthritis is characterized by neutrophilic infiltration of joints without any causative pathogen. Here, we present a 32-year-old man with refractory osteitis and erosive suppurative oligoarthritis with pannus. Treatments with multiple disease modifying antirheumatic drugs were all unsuccessful. However, he had clinical response to colchicine and the synovial hypertrophy and the pannus in the MRI of his left shoulder resolved. In this case, the effects of colchicine on neutrophils might have played a role in treating neutrophilic sterile suppurative arthritis, which, in adults, might be a distinct oligoarticular disease.

  5. Sterile osteitis and suppurative arthritis associated with pannus responding to colchicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tezcan, Mehmet Engin; Ekinci, Ozgür; Uçar, Murat; Göker, Berna

    2013-01-01

    Sterile suppurative arthritis is characterized by neutrophilic infiltration of joints without any causative pathogen. Here, we present a 32-year-old man with refractory osteitis and erosive suppurative oligoarthritis with pannus. Treatments with multiple disease modifying antirheumatic drugs were all unsuccessful. However, he had clinical response to colchicine and the synovial hypertrophy and the pannus in the MRI of his left shoulder resolved. In this case, the effects of colchicine on neutrophils might have played a role in treating neutrophilic sterile suppurative arthritis, which, in adults, might be a distinct oligoarticular disease.

  6. Acute response of the thyroid to external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, I.

    1983-01-01

    The study showed that the thyroid gland to a measurable degree is acutely influenced by external radiation. Animal experimental studies suggest that the functional reduction mainly is determined by cell loss in mitosis. The transitory fall in RAIU demonstrated in the present study is hardly explainable by cell death or changes in the TSH concentration alone. Part of the explanation could by vascular changes, which may reduce the iodine uptake, but a direct influence on the enzyme systems of the cells may play a role, too. The fall in TSH concentration in the patients irradiated to the neck apparently is not explainable by cell destruction alone either, and the fine-needle aspirates revealed no signs of any essential cell degeneration or destruction. Thus, it must be concluded that the cause of the early fall in TSH concentration is still unexplained. The changes during and immediately after radiotherpy in the thyroid hormone levels suggested a - possibly transient - damage to the thyroid. However, the follow-up study demonstrated that the thyroid function continued its slow decrease. The study tells little about the genesis of the functional changes. In all essentials, the findings are compatible with cell loss due to mitotic death being the main cause of the functional reduction. The fall in the radioiodine uptake and the transient dises in the TSH concentration can hardly be explained by cell loss alone, and the rise in the TSH concentration during the first four months of the study period, too, suggested the possibility of contributory mechanisms. (author)

  7. Pattern of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media at the National Ear Care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media at the National Ear Care Centre Kaduna, Nigeria. ... Background: Chronic suppurative otitis media constitutes a major cause of otorhinolaryngological clinic visits in Nigeria, therefore it is pertinent to determine the local ... Children under 10 years constituted the majority (n=64).

  8. The anti-thyroid antibody and I-131 uptake in thyroid disorder patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridul Alam; Fatema Sultana Haque; Mohammad Abdul Karim; Liaquat Ali; Omer Faruque; Azad Khan, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    The problem of thyroid disorder is extensive in Bangladesh, even more than that of other developing countries. The high incidence rate of goiter is reduced after universal iodine supplement. This study has been undertaken to study the an-thyroid anti-body level among the thyroid disorder population (anti-TPO and anti-thyrogobulin antibody) and TSAb among Graves' disease and sub-acute thyroiditis. This study was performed over 300 persons of them 150 have some type of thyroid (patient) disorder and 150 have got no clinical thyroid disorder (volunteer). We also studied TSH receptor anti-body (TSAb) in 112 Graves' disease patients and 86 patients with sub-acute thyroiditis. All the patient had I-131 Uptake in 24 hours. Among the patient 42(28%) had elevated anti-TPO, 12(8%) had borderline and 96(64%) had normal anti-TPO. It was found the uptake percentage of this group of patient hade slight lower than average uptake of our population. 13±5% It was found that 28(18.6%) had elevated anti thyrogobulin anti-body, 9 (6.2%) had borderline and 113(75.3%) had normal level anti thyrogobulin anti-body. It was also that found the uptake percentage of this group of patient had slight lower than average uptake of our population. We also found that 21% patient had elevated both the antibodies. Among the normal volunteer 24(16%) had elevated anti-TPO, 8 (5.3%) had borderline and 118(78.7%) had normal level of anti-TPO. Thyroid 1-131 uptake was 15±4%. It was found that 14(9.3%) had elevated anti thyrogobulin anti-body, 6(4.1%) had borderline and 130 (76.6%) had normal level of anti thyrogobulin anti-body. Among the normal volunteer 6% had elevated both the antibodies. It was found 91% patient Graves' disease had positive TSAb and 92% of' sub-acute thyroiditis has negative TSAb, I-131 uptake was 31±8% among this group of patient.. Thyroid stimulating antibody is found in 91% of Graves' disease and very few patient with sub-acute thyroiditis. The uptake of I-131 in sub-acute

  9. [Acute otitis media: could it be a sentinel indicator of health care?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera-Gaytán, David Alejandro; Valle-Alvarado, Gabriel; Krug-Llamas, Ernesto; Grajales-Muñiz, Concepción

    2014-01-01

    Acute otitis media is the most common bacterial disease in children under five years; therefore, is one of the most common causes of pediatric consultation. Our objective was to determine the feasibility to consider this disease as a sentinel factor of medical attention. All the new cases of acute otitis media registered between 2008 and 2011 were collected and analyzed. Proportions, ratios, and incidence rates were determined. Also, the limits for proportions were calculated using mid P exact test. In children under five years, we observed 20 % of the cases of non-suppurative otitis media, and suppurative otitis media in 17 %. The reason for acute respiratory infection in relation to cases of otitis media in children of this age increased from 87:1 in 2008 to 53:1 in 2011. The reason of suppurative otitis media decreased in children under five years, even in 2009, when it was registered the highest number of new cases of acute respiratory infection. It was not feasible to determine if acute otitis media is a sentinel indicator; however, we could monitor medical attention indirectly.

  10. [Non-autoimmune thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Leonardo F L; Mana, Daniela L; Bruno, Oscar D

    2014-01-01

    The term thyroiditis comprises a group of thyroid diseases characterized by the presence of inflammation, including autoimmune and non-autoimmune entities. It may manifest as an acute illness with severe thyroid pain (subacute thyroiditis and infectious thyroiditis), and conditions in which the inflammation is not clinically evident evolving without pain and presenting primarily thyroid dysfunction and/or goiter (drug-induced thyroiditis and Riedel thyroiditis). The aim of this review is to provide an updated approach on non-autoimmune thyroiditis and its clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects.

  11. Suppurative intracranial processes in 15 domestic ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Lopes Câmara

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In addition to listeriosis which is relatively common in ruminants, there are three other uncommon suppurative intracranial processes (SIP identifiable in adult ungulates as brain abscess, basilar empyema and suppurative meningitis. The present paper reports the epidemiological, clinical, laboratorial, pathological and microbiological findings of 15 domestic ruminants with SIP. A total of 15 animals were selected (eight sheep, four cattle and three goats; with the definitive diagnoses of basilar empyema (n=3, brain abscess (n=1, listeriosis (n=5 and suppurative meningitis (n=6. Hematology revealed leukocytosis with inversion of the lymphocyte/ neutrophil ratio in 4 cases. In the majority of animals, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF presented light yellow coloration and cloudy aspect due to neutrophilic pleocytosis (15 - 997 leukocytes/µL. Microbiological culture of CSF or central nervous system (CNS fragments resulted on isolation of Trueperella (Arcanobacterium pyogenes,Listeria monocytogenes,Escherichia coli and Stenotrophomonas sp. In a goat with thalamic abscess, microbiological assay was not performed, but Gram positive bacilli type bacteria were observed in histology. The diagnosis of these outbreaks was based on the association of epidemiological, clinical, pathological and bacteriological findings; reiterating that the infectious component remains an important cause of CNS disease in domestic ruminants and also shows the need for dissemination of information about the most effective preventive measures for the ranchers.

  12. Prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in patients with acute atrial fibrillation attended at a cardiology emergency room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juarez Neuhaus Barbisan

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Atrial fibrillation occurs frequently in patients with thyrotoxicosis, while it has low prevalence in adults of the general population. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in subjects with atrial fibrillation is 0 to 24%, a wide variation that is attributed to the different methodologies applied. However, continuous use of amiodarone in patients with previous atrial fibrillation may interfere with these prevalence rates. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we present the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in adult patients who presented at a cardiac emergency room with acute atrial fibrillation, using a sensitive thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH assay and triiodothyronine (T3 and thyroxine (T4 determination. TYPE OF STUDY: Cross-sectional study SETTING: Emergency room of a tertiary care facility. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 72 patients with atrial fibrillation who presented at the emergency room not more than 48 hours after its onset. PROCEDURES: A standardized questionnaire and 12-lead electrocardiogram were applied, and T3, T4 and TSH were determined. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: TSH, T3 and T4 determination. RESULTS: Among these patients, 16.6% had altered thyroid function tests: 6.9% had hyperthyroidism, 5.6% hypothyroidism and 4.2% had increased T4 levels, by means of amiodarone use. CONCLUSION: The high prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in our study, especially hyperthyroidism, suggests that routine thyroid testing with sensitivethyroid-stimulating hormone assay is required in patients with acute atrial fibrillation.

  13. Causes of appearance of scintigraphic hot areas on thyroid scintigraphy analyzed with clinical features and comparative ultrasonographic findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwata, Masahiro [Hikone Municipal Hospital, Shiga (Japan); Kasagi, Kanji [Takamatsu Red Cross Hospital, Kagawa (Japan); Hatabu, Hiroto [Univ. of Pennsylvania Medical Center, PA (United States); Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine

    2002-06-01

    This study was done retrospectively to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) findings in thyroid scintigraphic hot areas (HA). Three-thousand, eight-hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients who underwent {sup 99m}Tc-pertechnetate (n=3435) or {sup 123}I (n=457) scintigraphy were analyzed. HA were regarded as present when the tracer concentration was greater than the remaining thyroid tissue, or when hemilobar uptake was observed. High-resolution US examinations were performed with a real-time electronic linear scanner with a 7.5 or 10 MHz transducer. One hundred and four (2.7%) were found to be scintigraphic HA (n=120). US revealed a nodular lesion or well-demarcated thyroid tissue corresponding to the HA in 94 areas (78.4%, Category 1), an ill-defined region with different echogenicity in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 2), and no correlating lesion in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 3). These 104 patients included 43 with adenomatous goiter (59 areas), 33 with adenoma, 11 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 with primary thyroid cancer, 4 with euthyroid ophthalmic Graves' disease (EOG), 3 with hemilobar atrophy or hypogenesis, 2 with hemilobar agenesis, 2 with hypothyroidism with blocking-type TSH-receptor antibodies (TSHRAb), 1 with acute suppurative thyroiditis. Among the 59 adenomatous nodules and 33 adenomas, 51 (86.4%) and 32 (97.0%), respectively, belonged to Category 1. A solitary toxic nodule was significantly larger and occurs more often in older patients than in younger patients. On the other hand, all 17 patients with known autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, EOG and hypothyroidism with blocking TSHRAb belonged to Category 2 or 3. Possible underlying mechanisms are hyperfunctioning tumors or nodules, localized functioning thyroid tissue freed from autoimmune destruction, inflammation or tumor invasion, congenital abnormality, clusters of hyperactive follicular cells caused by long-term TSH and/or TSHRAb stimulation, asymmetry

  14. Causes of appearance of scintigraphic hot areas on thyroid scintigraphy analyzed with clinical features and comparative ultrasonographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji

    2002-01-01

    This study was done retrospectively to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) findings in thyroid scintigraphic hot areas (HA). Three-thousand, eight-hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients who underwent 99m Tc-pertechnetate (n=3435) or 123 I (n=457) scintigraphy were analyzed. HA were regarded as present when the tracer concentration was greater than the remaining thyroid tissue, or when hemilobar uptake was observed. High-resolution US examinations were performed with a real-time electronic linear scanner with a 7.5 or 10 MHz transducer. One hundred and four (2.7%) were found to be scintigraphic HA (n=120). US revealed a nodular lesion or well-demarcated thyroid tissue corresponding to the HA in 94 areas (78.4%, Category 1), an ill-defined region with different echogenicity in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 2), and no correlating lesion in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 3). These 104 patients included 43 with adenomatous goiter (59 areas), 33 with adenoma, 11 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 with primary thyroid cancer, 4 with euthyroid ophthalmic Graves' disease (EOG), 3 with hemilobar atrophy or hypogenesis, 2 with hemilobar agenesis, 2 with hypothyroidism with blocking-type TSH-receptor antibodies (TSHRAb), 1 with acute suppurative thyroiditis. Among the 59 adenomatous nodules and 33 adenomas, 51 (86.4%) and 32 (97.0%), respectively, belonged to Category 1. A solitary toxic nodule was significantly larger and occurs more often in older patients than in younger patients. On the other hand, all 17 patients with known autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, EOG and hypothyroidism with blocking TSHRAb belonged to Category 2 or 3. Possible underlying mechanisms are hyperfunctioning tumors or nodules, localized functioning thyroid tissue freed from autoimmune destruction, inflammation or tumor invasion, congenital abnormality, clusters of hyperactive follicular cells caused by long-term TSH and/or TSHRAb stimulation, asymmetry, etc. Scintigraphic HA are

  15. Causes of appearance of scintigraphic hot areas on thyroid scintigraphy analyzed with clinical features and comparative ultrasonographic findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Masahiro; Kasagi, Kanji; Hatabu, Hiroto; Misaki, Takashi; Iida, Yasuhiro; Fujita, Toru; Konishi, Junji

    2002-06-01

    This study was done retrospectively to analyze the ultrasonographic (US) findings in thyroid scintigraphic hot areas (HA). Three-thousand, eight-hundred and thirty-nine consecutive patients who underwent 99mTc-pertechnetate (n = 3435) or 123I (n = 457) scintigraphy were analyzed. HA were regarded as present when the tracer concentration was greater than the remaining thyroid tissue, or when hemilobar uptake was observed. High-resolution US examinations were performed with a real-time electronic linear scanner with a 7.5 or 10 MHz transducer. One hundred and four (2.7%) were found to be scintigraphic HA (n = 120). US revealed a nodular lesion or well-demarcated thyroid tissue corresponding to the HA in 94 areas (78.4%, Category 1), an ill-defined region with different echogenicity in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 2), and no correlating lesion in 13 areas (10.8%, Category 3). These 104 patients included 43 with adenomatous goiter (59 areas), 33 with adenoma, 11 with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 5 with primary thyroid cancer, 4 with euthyroid ophthalmic Graves' disease (EOG), 3 with hemilobar atrophy or hypogenesis, 2 with hemilobar agenesis, 2 with hypothyroidism with blocking-type TSH-receptor antibodies (TSHRAb), I with acute suppurative thyroiditis. Among the 59 adenomatous nodules and 33 adenomas, 51 (86.4%) and 32 (97.0%), respectively, belonged to Category 1. A solitary toxic nodule was significantly larger and occurs more often in older patients than in younger patients. On the other hand, all 17 patients with known autoimmune thyroid diseases including Hashimoto's thyroiditis, EOG and hypothyroidism with blocking TSHRAb belonged to Category 2 or 3. Possible underlying mechanisms are 1) hyperfunctioning tumors or nodules, 2) localized functioning thyroid tissue freed from autoimmune destruction, inflammation or tumor invasion, 3) congenital abnormality, 4) clusters of hyperactive follicular cells caused by long-term TSH and/or TSHRAb stimulation, 5) asymmetry, etc

  16. Thyroid gland disorder emergencies: thyroid storm and myxedema coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampton, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Although thyroid dysfunction will develop in more than 12% of the US population during their lifetimes, true thyroid emergencies are rare. Thyroid storm and myxedema coma are endocrine emergencies resulting from thyroid hormone dysregulation, usually coupled with an acute illness as a precipitant. Careful assessment of risk and rapid action, once danger is identified, are essential for limiting morbidity and mortality related to thyroid storm and myxedema coma. This article reviews which patients are at risk, explains thyroid storm and myxedema coma, and describes pharmacological treatment and supportive cares.

  17. A study of bacterial pathogens and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mofatteh, M R; Shahabian Moghaddam, F; Yousefi, M; Namaei, M H

    2018-01-01

    To assess the frequency of bacterial agents in chronic suppurative otitis media and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns of isolates among patients. A total of 185 patients clinically diagnosed with chronic suppurative otitis media were interviewed and middle-ear effusion samples were collected using sterile swabs. All bacterial isolates were identified by conventional microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion. Staphylococci spp. (64.9 per cent) were the most prevalent bacteria isolated, followed by Klebsiella spp. (12.9 per cent) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (10.3 per cent). The most effective antibiotic for treatment of bacterial chronic suppurative otitis media was ciprofloxacin. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in bacterial infestations among chronic suppurative otitis media patients and the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the bacterial isolates based on gender and age (p > 0.05). Our findings highlight the importance of a continuous and periodic evaluation of the bacteriological profile and antibiotic susceptibility patterns in chronic suppurative otitis media patients for efficacious treatment of the infection.

  18. [A case of brucellosis presenting with suppurative parotitis involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanmaz, Lutfi; Karakeçili, Faruk; Çıkman, Aytekin; Özçiçek, Fatih; Karavaş, Erdal

    2016-01-01

    Brucellosis is a common zoonotic infection caused by Brucella bacteria. Brucella infections are usually presented with various clinical manifestations, and often accompanied by multiple organ involvements. In this article, we present a case of brucellosis with suppurative parotitis involvement accompanied by parotid abscess and fistula in a 60-year-old male patient. According to the literature review we conducted regarding complications of brucellosis, our case is the first case reported in the literature. Significant improvement in patient's suppurative parotitis and clinical findings was observed at the fifth week of combination antibiotic therapy. Patient's complaints resolved completely after eight weeks of treatment.

  19. STUDY OF EXTRA CRANIAL COMPLICATIONS OF CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanal Mohan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM refers to a chronic inflammatory condition of the middle ear and mastoid cavity. There is acute inflammation of middle ear leading to irritation and then inflammation of the mucosa producing oedema. Breakdown of the epithelium causes ulceration subsequent infection and formation of granuloma/granulation tissue. Granuloma formation leads to the development of polyps in middle ear. Factors influencing development of complications are, age, low socio-economic status, virulence of organism, immune compromised host, previous surgeries, fractures, fistulas, cholesteatoma. The complications developed spread through various modes like direct bone erosion, thrombophlebitis, preformed pathways, congenital bony defects, sutures of skull that remains patent, old fractures-heal by fibrosis, defects caused by surgery, oval and round windows, infection from labyrinth. The extracranial complications which can be encountered in chronic suppurative otitis media are, acute mastoiditis, petrositis, facial nerve palsy, labyrinthitis and discharging sinuses. MATERIALS AND METHODS Sample size for the present study was fifty four. This study was done in the Department of ENT, Travancore Medical College, Kollam. This study was done from January 2015 To January 2016. Detailed clinical history was taken and the clinical examination was conducted. The extracranial complications were noted and reported. RESULTS In the present study, maximum number of cases belonged male sex which was thirty eight cases. Sixteen cases belonged to female sex. Maximum number of cases which amounted to forty one in number belonged to age group zero to twenty years, followed by age group twenty to forty years which amounted to eleven cases, followed by age group forty to sixty which amounted to two cases. No cases were reported in age group more than sixty years in our study. Based on socioeconomic data, maximum number of cases belonged to low

  20. Simultaneous branchial cleft and thyroid disorders may present a management challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Jane L; Veivers, David; Sidhu, Stan B; Sywak, Mark S; Shun, Albert; Delbridge, Leigh W

    2005-09-01

    Cysts, sinuses or abscesses arising from second, third or fourth branchial cleft remnants may lie either within the body of, or in close proximity to the thyroid gland. Given their infrequent nature they may pose both diagnostic and management challenges for the treating surgeon when they occur in association with thyroid disorders. This is a case series. All patients with concomitant thyroid disorders and a branchial cleft anomaly treated in the University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit in the 10-year period 1994-2003 comprised the study group. Patient demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, surgical management, definitive histology and outcomes were documented. Six patients were identified with an age range of 3-76 years and a male : female ratio of 1:5. Five branchial cleft anomalies were left sided, one was right sided. Two patients had second cleft anomalies, both of which were initially thought to represent metastatic lymph nodes in association with thyroid cancer. A further two patients had third cleft abnormalities presenting as suppurative thyroiditis. The final two patients had fourth cleft abnormalities causing intraoperative management problems. Branchial cleft remnants and anomalies are rare but may occur in association with thyroid disease. They may pose a diagnostic and management dilemma either preoperatively, when mistaken for metastatic thyroid cancer, or intraoperatively when mistaken for a thyroid nodule.

  1. Acute thyroid eye disease (TED): principles of medical and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verity, D H; Rose, G E

    2013-03-01

    The active inflammatory phase of thyroid eye disease (TED) is mediated by the innate immune system, and management is aimed at aborting this self-limited period of autoimmune activity. In most patients with TED, ocular and adnexal changes are mild and management involves controlling thyroid dysfunction, cessation of smoking, and addressing ocular surface inflammation and exposure. In patients with acute moderate disease, this being sufficient to impair orbital functions, immunosuppression reduces the long-term sequelae of acute inflammation, and adjunctive fractionated low-dose orbital radiotherapy is used as a steroid-sparing measure. Elective surgery is often required following moderate TED, be it for proptosis, diplopia, lid retraction, or to debulk the eyelid, and this should be delayed until the disease is quiescent, with the patient stable and weaned off all immunosuppression. Thus, surgical intervention during the active phase of moderate disease is rarely indicated, although clinical experience suggests that, where there is significant orbital congestion, early orbital decompression can limit progression to more severe disease. Acute severe TED poses a major risk of irreversible loss of vision due to marked exposure keratopathy, 'hydraulic' orbital congestion, or compressive optic neuropathy. If performed promptly, retractor recession with or without a suture tarsorrhaphy protects the ocular surface from severe exposure and, in patients not responding to high-dose corticosteroid treatment, decompression of the deep medial orbital wall and floor can rapidly relieve compressive optic neuropathy, as well as alleviate the inflammatory and congestive features of raised orbital pressure.

  2. The predictive value of thyroid hormone levels on the neurological outcomes of patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-dong CHEN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation between thyroid hormone levels in patients with acute ischemic stroke and the severity of disease and short-term prognosis. Methods According to the level of serum total triiodothyronine (TT3, 98 patients who presented first acute ischemic stroke and without history of thyroid abnormality were divided into low TT3 group and normal TT3 group. Thyroid hormone levels and neurological function defect of those patients were tested, and their neural functional recovery after 3 months was evaluated.  Results Low TT3 group had more severe neural function defect compared to normal TT3 group (χ2 = 58.134, P = 0.000. There were no significant differences on total thyroxine (TT4; t = 1.636, P = 0.105 and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH; t = 1.059, P = 0.292 between 2 groups. There was a significantly negative correlation between TT3 levels and National Insititute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score on admission (r = -0.672, P = 0.000. Patients with low TT3 showed a significantly smaller percentage of neurological function improvement on both NIHSS ( χ2 = 8.993, P = 0.003 and modified Rankin Scale (mRS; χ2 = 6.247, P = 0.012 scores compared to those with normal TT3 at 90 d after onset.  Conclusions Low T3 level is associated with the severity of acute ischemic stroke and neural functional recovery, suggesting serum T3 level may be a predictor of neural function improvement in patients with acute ischemic stroke. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2015.02.009

  3. Childhood suppurative otitis media in Abakaliki: Isolated microbes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-05

    Mar 5, 2011 ... Background: Suppurative otitis media (SOM) is the most common pediatric problem ... Objective: Determine the bacteriology of SOM in children in Abakaliki and .... to chronicity caused by its attendant social and neurological.

  4. Recurrent otorrhea in chronic suppurative otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Bjarnsholt, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Dispersal of bacteria from a biofilm in the middle ear, serving as a bacterial reservoir, could explain the recurrent and chronic nature of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). The objective of this study is to investigate if the same strains of bacteria could be detected in repeated episodes...

  5. Chronic suppurative osteomyelitis of subcondylar region: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G Ravi; Syed, Basheer Ahmed; Prasad, N; Praveen, Sp

    2013-05-01

    Chronic suppurative osteomyelitis (CSO) of the maxillofacial region is primarily caused by infections of odontogenic microorganisms. It may also arise as a complication of dental extractions, maxillofacial trauma, inadequate treatment of a fracture and irradiation to the mandible. This condition is characterized by areas of devitalized bone (sequestra) which serves as a nidus for recurrent episodes of infection. This case report describes a case of CSO in an untreated right subcondylar fracture of the mandible which was successfully treated with a combination of antibiotic therapy and surgical debridement in an 8-year-old boy. How to cite this article: Kumar GR, Syed BA, Prasad N, Praveen SP. Chronic Suppurative Osteomyelitis of Subcondylar Region: A Case Report. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(2): 119-123.

  6. A new endoscopic therapeutic method for acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis post Roux-en-Y anastomosis: endoscopic retrograde cholangiography through jejunostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuo YANG

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available  Objective  To probe the value of endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC through jejunostomy in patients in whom ERC could not be performed via the mouth after Roux-en-Y anastomosis on the upper gastrointestinal tract. Methods  In two patients suffering from acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis after a radical operation for cholangiocarcinoma, ERC could not be performed through the mouth due to the presence of a long non-functional jejunal loop. A jejunostomy was first done in the afferent loop of the jejunum, and a gastroscope was then inserted via the jejunostomy and passed retrogradely, to find the stoma of the cholangiointestinal anastomosis. ERC was then successfully performed, and followed by endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD. Results  The operation was successful. It was found that cholangio-jejunostomy stoma was narrow, and a large amount of purulent mucus was present in the enlarged intrahepatic duct. ERC was done to enlarge the stoma, and a stent was placed into the main branch of the intrahepatic duct. Two patients achieved surgical success and smooth recovery after the operation. Conclusion  ERC through a jejunostomy in the patients who had Roux-en-Y cholangiojejunostomy following radical resection for cholangiocarcinoma, is a safe and effective surgical procedure.

  7. Assessment of senses of hearing and balance in chronic suppurative otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babić Borivoj

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic suppurative otitis media is among the most frequent illnesses treated in ENT wards. To establish the diagnosis, otomicroscopy alone usually suffice. Assessing the sense of hearing, often the sense of balance, too, is mandatory. Assessment of hearing will show the extent of conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. Apart from this, sometimes, when the finding is not obvious, it is necessary to conduct audiological investigation in more detail in order to establish whether the diagnosis of chronic suppurative otitis media is correct. Existence and extent of conductive hearing loss or confIrmation of tympanic membrane perforation by tympanometry can help a great deal. Also, some new results about the site of perforation and the middle ear volume influence on conductive hearing loss may help have a better insight into chronic suppurative otitis media. Assessing the sense of balance may show dysfunctions with not yet necessarily permanent damage: perilymphatic fistula and benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. Unilateral or bilateral damage may be diagnosed with appropriate tests of vestibuloocular reflex (VOR: spontaneous nystagmus, head impulse test, head shaking test. These bedside tests do not require bulky, expensive equipment for stimulus delivery or special equipment for recording nystagmus. In addition, their significance is their ability to provide enough information without performing caloric testing which is contraindicated in chronic suppurative otitis media.

  8. Thymic cyst: a fourth branchial cleft anomaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayan, Smriti; MacLean, Jonathan; Sommer, Doron

    2010-01-01

    We report a unique case of a fourth branchial cleft cyst found within the thymus of an adult patient. In the literature to date, there have been no reports of such a finding in the adult population. These anomalies can often cause recurrent acute suppurative thyroiditis or recurrent deep neck abscesses. Delay in recognizing the underlying etiology can lead to significant complications.

  9. Bacterial Dynamics of Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media in Makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AOM) and chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and their antibiotic susceptibility ... Screening of children < 5 years for CSOM at clinics, primary schools, nurseries and children rehabilitation centres should be considered and antibiotic ...

  10. Suppurative supraclavicular bacille calmette-guerine lymphadenitis - A case report, awareness and management options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U S Udgaonkar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnosis of Bacille calmette-guerine (BCG adenitis is clinical. Conventional laboratory tests do not differentiate BCG adenitis from tuberculous adenitis. We report a case of a 3-month-old healthy baby presenting with suppurative BCG adenitis. FNAC revealed AFB on ZN-Staining, later confirmed to be Mycobacterium bovis by multiplex PCR. The treatment of suppurative BCG adenitis is needle aspiration. Anti-tubercular treatment is unwarranted.

  11. [Thyroid emergencies : Thyroid storm and myxedema coma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzweg, C; Reincke, M; Gärtner, R

    2017-10-01

    Thyroid emergencies are rare life-threatening endocrine conditions resulting from either decompensated thyrotoxicosis (thyroid storm) or severe thyroid hormone deficiency (myxedema coma). Both conditions develop out of a long-standing undiagnosed or untreated hyper- or hypothyroidism, respectively, precipitated by an acute stress-associated event, such as infection, trauma, or surgery. Cardinal features of thyroid storm are myasthenia, cardiovascular symptoms, in particular tachycardia, as well as hyperthermia and central nervous system dysfunction. The diagnosis is made based on clinical criteria only as thyroid hormone measurements do not differentiate between thyroid storm and uncomplicated hyperthyroidism. In addition to critical care measures therapy focusses on inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis and secretion (antithyroid drugs, perchlorate, Lugol's solution, cholestyramine, thyroidectomy) as well as inhibition of thyroid hormone effects in the periphery (β-blocker, glucocorticoids).Cardinal symptoms of myxedema coma are hypothermia, decreased mental status, and hypoventilation with risk of pneumonia and hyponatremia. The diagnosis is also purely based on clinical criteria as measurements of thyroid hormone levels do not differ between uncomplicated severe hypothyroidism and myxedema coma. In addition to substitution of thyroid hormones and glucocorticoids, therapy focusses on critical care measures to treat hypoventilation and hypercapnia, correction of hyponatremia and hypothermia.Survival of both thyroid emergencies can only be optimized by early diagnosis based on clinical criteria and prompt initiation of multimodal therapy including supportive measures and treatment of the precipitating event.

  12. Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in locally advanced thyroid cancer: Acute toxicity results of a phase I study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbano, Teresa Guerrero; Clark, Catharine H.; Hansen, Vibeke N.; Adams, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Elizabeth A.; Mc Nair, Helen; Bidmead, A. Margaret; Warrington, Jim; Dearnaley, David P.; Harmer, Clive; Harrington, Kevin J.; Nutting, Christopher M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: This phase 1 study was designed to determine the toxicity of accelerated fractionation IMRT in locally advanced thyroid cancer. Methods: Patients with high risk locally advanced thyroid cancer who required post-operative EBRT were recruited. A single-phase inverse-planned-simultaneous-boost was delivered by IMRT: 58.8 Gy/28F (daily) to the primary tumour and involved nodes and 50 Gy/28F to the elective nodes. Acute (NCICTCv.2.0) and late toxicity (RTOG and modified LENTSOM) was collected. Results: Thirteen patients were treated (7 medullary thyroid, 2 Hurthle cell and 4 well differentiated thyroid cancer). G3 and G2 radiation dermatitis rates were 38.5% and 31%; G3 and G2 mucositis rates 8% and 53% and G3 and G2 pain 23% and 54%. Thirty-one percentage required enteral feeding. G3 and G2 xerostomia rates were 0% and 31%. Recovery was seen, with 62% patients having dysphagia G ≤ 1 2 months after IMRT. Thirty percent of patients developed L'Hermitte's syndrome. No grade 4 toxicity was observed. No dose limiting toxicity was found. Conclusions: Accelerated fractionation IMRT in this group of patients is feasible and safe. The acute toxicity appeared acceptable and early indicators of late toxicity moderate and similar to what would be expected with conventional RT. Longer follow up is required to quantify late side effects

  13. Higher Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, Triiodothyronine and Thyroxine Values Are Associated with Better Outcome in Acute Liver Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastasiou, Olympia; Sydor, Svenja; Sowa, Jan-Peter; Manka, Paul; Katsounas, Antonios; Syn, Wing-Kin; Führer, Dagmar; Gieseler, Robert K; Bechmann, Lars P; Gerken, Guido; Moeller, Lars C; Canbay, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Changes in thyroid hormone levels, mostly as non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS), have been described in many diseases. However, the relationship between acute liver failure (ALF) and thyroid hormone levels has not yet been clarified. The present study evaluates potential correlations of select thyroid functional parameters with ALF. 84 consecutively recruited ALF patients were grouped according to the outcome of ALF (spontaneous recovery: SR; transplantation or death: NSR). TSH, free thyroxine (fT4), free triiodothyronine (fT3), T4, and T3 were determined. More than 50% of patients with ALF presented with abnormal thyroid parameters. These patients had greater risk for an adverse outcome than euthyroid patients. SR patients had significantly higher TSH, T4, and T3 concentrations than NSR patients. Albumin concentrations were significantly higher in SR than in NSR. In vitro T3 treatment was not able to rescue primary human hepatocytes from acetaminophen induced changes in mRNA expression. In patients with ALF, TSH and total thyroid hormone levels differed significantly between SR patients and NSR patients. This might be related to diminished liver-derived transport proteins, such as albumin, in more severe forms of ALF. Thyroid parameters may serve as additional indicators of ALF severity.

  14. Suppurative otitis and ascending meningoencephalitis associated with Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae in a captive Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) with toxoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannitti, Federico; Schapira, Andrea; Anderson, Mark; Clothier, Kristin

    2014-09-01

    A 6-year-old female Parma wallaby (Macropus parma) at a zoo in California developed acute ataxia and left-sided circling. Despite intensive care, clinical signs progressed to incoordination and prostration, and the animal was euthanized. At necropsy, the left tympanic cavity was filled with homogeneous suppurative exudate that extended into the cranium expanding the meninges and neuroparenchyma in the lateral and ventral aspect of the caudal ipsilateral brainstem and medulla oblongata. Microscopically, the brainstem showed regional severe suppurative meningoencephalitis with large numbers of neutrophils, fewer macrophages, and lymphocytes admixed with fibrin, necrotic cellular debris, hemorrhage, and mineralization, with numerous intralesional Gram-negative bacilli. Bacteroides spp. and Porphyromonas spp. were isolated on anaerobic culture from the meninges, and the bacteria were further characterized by partial 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing as Bacteroides tectus and Porphyromonas gulae. Bacterial aerobic culture from the meninges yielded very low numbers of mixed flora and Proteus spp., which were considered contaminants. Culture of Mycoplasma spp. from middle ear and meninges was negative. Additionally, Toxoplasma gondii cysts were detected by immunohistochemistry in the heart and brain, and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were detected in serum. The genera Bacteroides and Porphyromonas have been associated with oral disease in marsupials; but not with otitis and meningoencephalitis. The results of the present work highlight the importance of performing anaerobic cultures in the diagnostic investigation of cases of suppurative otitis and meningoencephalitis in macropods. © 2014 The Author(s).

  15. Remarkable Presentation: Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Arising from Chronic Hyperthyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib G. Zalzal

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Undifferentiated anaplastic carcinoma rarely develops from chronic hyperthyroidism. Although acute hyperthyroidism can develop prior to anaplastic transformation, chronic hyperthyroidism was thought to be a protective measure against thyroid malignancy. Methods. A 79-year-old female presented acutely to the hospital with dyspnea. She had been taking methimazole for chronic hyperthyroidism due to toxic thyroid nodules, previously biopsied as benign. Upon admission, imaging showed tracheal compression, requiring a total thyroidectomy with tracheostomy for airway management. Results. Pathology demonstrated undifferentiated anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. The patient passed away shortly after hospital discharge. Despite treatment with methimazole for many years, abrupt enlargement of her toxic multinodular goiter was consistent with malignant transformation. Chronic hyperthyroidism and toxic nodules are rarely associated with thyroid malignancy, with only one previous report documenting association with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. Conclusion. Progressive thyroid enlargement and acute worsening of previously controlled hyperthyroidism should promote concern for disease regardless of baseline thyroid function.

  16. Pediatric Suppurative Parotitis in Cambodia 2007-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin Elisabeth; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor Put; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. B. pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; one child developed a facial nerve palsy. PMID:22531239

  17. aerobic bacteria in safe type chronic suppurative otitis media

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PUBLICATIONS1

    Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be the best choices for empiric therapy in patients with CSOM. In contrast, the use of amoxyclav, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone should be discour- aged. INTRODUCTION. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a persistent inflammatory disorder of the middle.

  18. Microbiological profile of chronic suppurative otits media among HIV ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Immune compromised HIV/AIDS infected children have consistently shown a higher prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media than their immune competent counterparts.This study aimed to compare the microbial isolates from ear discharges in HIV infected and non infected children. Method: This was a ...

  19. Microbiology of chronic suppurative otitis media at Queen Elizabeth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is still a significant health problem in developing countries. Therefore, it was pertinent to determine the local Malawian microbiology in order to guide adequate treatment, avoid complications, and provide records for future reference. Aim The study sought to determine ...

  20. Microbiology of chronic suppurative otitis media at Queen Elizabeth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is still a significant health problem in developing countries. Therefore, it was pertinent to determine the local Malawian microbiology in order to guide adequate treatment, avoid complications, and provide records for future reference. Aim. The study sought to determine ...

  1. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis Presented with Pain and Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ergenç, Hasan; Yaylacı, Selçuk; Arpacı, Dilek; Varım, Ceyhun; Tamer, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The Painful Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis is an atypical form of the Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis whichis characterized with pain and fever in the thyroid gland. In this letter presentation, our aimis to present a case who is 49 years old female patient whose clinical presentation was inaccordance with sub-acute thyroiditis; however, who was detected having thyroid autoantibodypositivity and whom we diagnosed with the Painful Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis.Keywords: Hashimoto Thyroiditis, painful, treatme...

  2. Microbiology of chronic suppurative otitis media at Queen Elizabeth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Background. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is still a significant health problem in developing countries. Therefore, it was pertinent to determine ..... CSOM was most prevalent in children and young adults than in older participants. This is similar to studies reported by others in India and Pakistan9,10.

  3. Effects of hyper- and hypo- thyroidism on oxidative stress of the eye in experimental acute anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Diker, S; Ataoglu, O; Dolapci, M; Akata, F; Hasanreisôglu, B; Turkozkan, N

    1996-02-01

    Glutathione peroxidase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the homogenated anterior segment of rat eyes with endotoxin induced acute anterior uveitis in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Malondialdehyde concentrations were found to be significantly increased (p 0.05). These results suggest that excess or deficiency of the thyroid hormones cause alterations in the malondialdehyde levels and glutathione peroxidase activities of the rat eyes in endotoxin induced uveitis, and hyperthyroidism may increase the oxidative stress in endotoxin induced acute anterior uveitis.

  4. Paediatric chronic suppurative otitis media in the Free State ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is a chronic infection of the middle ear cleft. In sub-Saharan Africa >50% of cases occur in children <10 years of age. Objectives. To describe the otological, audiological and bacteriological findings in children with CSOM. Methods. We conducted a prospective study at ...

  5. Aerobic bacteria in safe type chronic suppurative otitis media in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone. Ciprofloxacin and gentamicin appear to be the best choices for empiric therapy in patients with CSOM. In contrast, the use of amoxyclav, cotrimoxazole, cefuroxime, cefaclor and ceftriaxone should be discouraged. Keywords: Aerobic bacteria, Chronic suppurative otitis media, Gezira ...

  6. Thyroid diseases and cerebrovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Squizzato, A.; Gerdes, V. E. A.; Brandjes, D. P. M.; Büller, H. R.; Stam, J.

    2005-01-01

    Background and Purpose-Acute cerebral ischemia has been described in different diseases of the thyroid gland, and not only as a result of thyrotoxic atrial fibrillation and cardioembolic stroke. The purpose of this review is to summarize the studies on the relationship between thyroid diseases and

  7. Thyrotoxic thyroiditis after radiotherapy for Hodgkin's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blitzer, J.B.; Paolozzi, F.P.; Gottlieb, A.J.; Zamkoff, K.W.; Chung, C.T.

    1985-01-01

    Exposure of the thyroid gland to ionizing radiation has been associated with a variety of abnormalities. Among these are tardive hypothyroidism and an increased risk of developing thyroid nodules and cancer. Although acute thyroiditis has been known to complicate radioactive iodine 131 therapy, it has rarely been associated with external beam irradiation. Thyrotoxic painless thyroiditis developed in two patients after mantle-field irradiation for Hodgkin's disease

  8. Pathophysiologic effects of stable iodine used as a thyroidal blocking agent to reduce thyroid radiation exposure. Final progress report, November 1, 1976--December 31, 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, D.V.; Hurley, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    In order to determine whether acute administration of iodide leads to any undesirable effects in the general population, we studied a group of patients who received iodinated radiographic contrast medium in the course of routine x-ray diagnostic procedures. We were particularly interested in investigating the possibility that administration of iodine could damage thyroid follicular cells leading to release of intrathyroidal antigens such as thyroglobulin into the blood. An increase in serum thyroglobulin might, in turn, either initiate or exacerbate thyroid autoimmunity in susceptible individuals, leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. We looked for undesirable effects due to the administration of iodide in 3 ways: a possible acute toxic effect on thyroid follicular cells was investigated by determining serum thyroglobulin immediately prior to and 24 hours after injection of iodinated contrast medium; an effect on thyroid autoimmunity was investigated by determining thyroid autoantibodies immediately prior to and 3 to 6 months after injection of iodinated contrast medium; and acute and chronic effects on thyroid function were investigated by performing thyroid function tests immediately prior to, 24 hours after and 3 to 6 months after injection of iodinateed contrast medium.

  9. Pathophysiologic effects of stable iodine used as a thyroidal blocking agent to reduce thyroid radiation exposure. Final progress report, November 1, 1976--December 31, 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, D.V.; Hurley, J.R.

    1977-01-01

    In order to determine whether acute administration of iodide leads to any undesirable effects in the general population, we studied a group of patients who received iodinated radiographic contrast medium in the course of routine x-ray diagnostic procedures. We were particularly interested in investigating the possibility that administration of iodine could damage thyroid follicular cells leading to release of intrathyroidal antigens such as thyroglobulin into the blood. An increase in serum thyroglobulin might, in turn, either initiate or exacerbate thyroid autoimmunity in susceptible individuals, leading to autoimmune thyroiditis. We looked for undesirable effects due to the administration of iodide in 3 ways: a possible acute toxic effect on thyroid follicular cells was investigated by determining serum thyroglobulin immediately prior to and 24 hours after injection of iodinated contrast medium; an effect on thyroid autoimmunity was investigated by determining thyroid autoantibodies immediately prior to and 3 to 6 months after injection of iodinated contrast medium; and acute and chronic effects on thyroid function were investigated by performing thyroid function tests immediately prior to, 24 hours after and 3 to 6 months after injection of iodinateed contrast medium

  10. Pathogenic agents of chronic suppurative otitis media in Ilorin, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Chronic suppurative otitis media is still highly prevalent in our environment, affecting mainly children. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of pathogenic isolates is different from those of other regions of Nigeria with increasing resistance recorded for some organisms. Hence, where possible and available, ...

  11. Pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and suppurative hidradenitis (PASH)--a new autoinflammatory syndrome distinct from PAPA syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun-Falco, Markus; Kovnerystyy, Oleksandr; Lohse, Peter; Ruzicka, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    PAPA syndrome is a recently identified hereditary autoinflammatory syndrome clinically characterized by pyogenic arthritis, severe acne, and pyoderma gangrenosum. It is caused by mutations in the PSTPIP1 gene and may be closely linked to the aseptic abscesses syndrome, which has been shown to be associated with CCTG repeat amplification in the promoter region of PSTPIP1. We describe two unrelated patients with a clinical presentation quite similar to, yet distinct from, PAPA syndrome. Both patients had pyoderma gangrenosum and acute or remittent acne conglobata, but, in contrast to PAPA syndrome, lacked any episodes of pyogenic arthritis. Instead, they had suppurative hidradenitis. Mutations in PSTPIP1 exons 1 to 15 were excluded. In the promoter region, an increased repetition of the CCTG microsatellite motif was present on one allele in both patients. Alterations of the most commonly affected exons of the MEFV, NLRP3, and TNFRSF1A genes also were not detectable. One patient was treated with the interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist anakinra and responded well, although without complete remission. This implies that IL-1ß may be of pathogenetic importance. Small number of patients, no gene mutation identified, and unclear efficacy of therapy are limitations. The clinical triad of pyoderma gangrenosum, acne, and suppurative hidradenitis represents a new disease entity within the spectrum of autoinflammatory syndromes, similar to PAPA and aseptic abscesses syndrome. For this disease, we propose the acronym "PASH" syndrome. PASH syndrome may respond to IL-1ß blockade. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babcock, Diane S.

    2006-01-01

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  13. Gradenigo's Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Petrous Apicitis, and Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taklalsingh, Nicholas; Falcone, Franco; Velayudhan, Vinodkumar

    2017-09-28

    BACKGROUND Gradenigo's syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo's syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo's syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). CASE REPORT A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed petrous apicitis with mastoiditis and abscess formation in the cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna). The case was complicated by the development of palsy of the fourth (trochlear) cranial nerve, fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, and sixth (abducens) cranial nerve, with radiological changes indicating infection involving the seventh (facial) cranial nerve, and eighth (vestibulocochlear) cranial nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae, sensitive to ceftriaxone. The patient improved with surgery that included a left mastoidectomy and debridement of the petrous apex, followed by a ten-week course of antibiotics. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the infection. CONCLUSIONS This report is of an atypical case of Gradenigo's syndrome. It is important to recognize that the classical triad of Gradenigo's syndrome, suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, may also involve chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which may lead to involvement of other cranial nerves, petrous apicitis (apical petrositis), and bacterial meningitis.

  14. Acute Kidney Injury and Rhabdomyolysis as an Initial Presentation of Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deephak Swaminath

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The myopathy associated with hypothyroidism is usually mild and causes myalgia,stiffness, fatigability, and muscle weakness. Severe forms of myopathy, such as rhabdomyolysiswith acute kidney injury (AKI, have rarely been reported in hypothyroidpatients. We describe a young patient who presented with generalized body aches,cramps, and abdominal pain with vomiting after physical exercise. His laboratory studiesdemonstrated that he had rhabdomyolysis and AKI secondary to hypothyroidism;both resolved with thyroid hormone replacement. Hypothyroidism should be consideredin the differential diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis when common causes are excluded.

  15. Thyroid disease in the pediatric patient: emphasizing imaging with sonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, Diane S. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2006-04-15

    Thyroid disease does occur in the pediatric patient, and imaging plays an important role in its evaluation. A review is presented of normal development of the thyroid gland, the technique and indications for thyroid sonography, and key imaging features of congenital thyroid disorders (ectopic or absent thyroid, infantile goiter, thyroglossal duct remnants), benign thyroid masses (follicular adenoma, degenerative nodules, colloid and thyroid cysts), malignant masses (follicular, papillary and medullary carcinoma) and diffuse thyroid disease (acute bacterial thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Grave's disease). (orig.)

  16. Pediatric suppurative parotitis in Cambodia between 2007 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesser, Nicole; Pocock, Joanna; Moore, Catrin E; Soeng, Sona; Chhat, Hor P; Sar, Poda; Limmathurotsakul, Direk; Day, Nicholas; Thy, Vann; Sar, Vuthy; Parry, Christopher M

    2012-08-01

    The causes of suppurative parotitis in Cambodian children are not known. We describe 39 cases at the Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, between January 2007 and July 2011 (0.07/1000 hospital attendances). The median age was 5.7 years with no neonates affected. Burkholderia pseudomallei was cultured in 29 (74%) cases. No deaths occurred; 1 child developed facial nerve palsy.

  17. Acute neonatal parotid abscess: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreesh Kolekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment.

  18. Acute neonatal parotid abscess: A rare case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolekar, Shreesh; Chincholi, Tejas S.; Kshirsagar, Ashok; Porwal, Narendra

    2016-01-01

    Acute suppurative parotitis is uncommon in children and is very rare in neonates. Most common organism isolated is Staphylococcus aureus. We present a 15-day-old full-term breast-fed female neonate with left-sided acute parotid abscess. The baby presented with a left preauricular swelling, pain and redness. Pus was exuded from left Stensen's duct on compression of the gland externally. Early diagnosis and proper intravenous antibiotics are the keys to the treatment. PMID:28051052

  19. Surveillance of multidrug resistant suppurative infection causing bacteria in hospitalized patients in an Indian tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Nabakishore Nayak; Rajesh K. Lenka; Rabindra N. Padhy

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine antibiograms of a cohort of suppurative bacteria isolated from wound-swabs from hospitalized patients of all economic groups of a typical Indian teaching hospital. Methods: In surveillance, antibiotic resistance patterns of 10 species of suppurative bacteria isolated from wound-swabs over a period of 24 months were recorded. Those were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity test, using 16 prescribed antibiotics of 5 different groups (3 aminoglycosides, 4 beta-lactams, 3 ...

  20. [Post-partum thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Celestino; Alves, Marta; Delgado, Luís; Medina, J Luís

    2009-01-01

    In the post-partum period the immune alterations are associated with the multiple autoimmune diseases relapse. After birth, immune-tolerance variation slowly disappear, and is observed a return to a normal state - after an exacerbation period - of autoimmune reactivity, during which a great increase in T cells and autoantibodies is observed. In this period - 3 to 9 months after birth - the thyroid autoimmune disease relapses or reappears. The reactivation of the immune system in the post-partum period unchains an acute phase of celular destruction which characterizes the post-partum thyroiditis.

  1. Necrotizing suppurative nephritis in a Japanese black feedlot steer due to Proteus mirabilis infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tadatsugu; Iizuka, Ayako; Kojima, Hirokazu; Kimura, Kumiko; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Haritani, Makoto

    2017-04-05

    A Japanese black feedlot steer suddenly died after exhibiting astasia and cramping of the extremities. Necropsy of the animal revealed that the right kidney was enlarged and pale with severe nephrolithiasis. The urinary bladder displayed mucosal hemorrhage. Upon bacteriological investigation, Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the liver, spleen, right kidney, lungs and urine. Histopathological examination revealed necrotizing suppurative nephritis with the presence of numerous gram-negative bacilli and fibrinous suppurative cystitis with no bacilli. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the bacteria and cytoplasm of the macrophages stained positively with P. mirabilis antiserum. Electron microscopy revealed the presence of numerous bacteria in the renal tubules. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing the histopathological aspects of nephritis caused by P. mirabilis in cattle.

  2. Chronic suppurative otitis media in a birth cohort of children in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2011-01-01

    Inuits of the Arctic experience very high rates of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), yet world-wide, very little is known about the epidemiology of CSOM. The study aims were to determine incidence, median age at debut, risk factors, and associated population attributable risks for CSOM...

  3. Demography, types, outcome and relationship of surgically treated intracranial suppuration complicating chronic suppurative otitis media and bacterial rhinosinusitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olufemi Emmanuel Idowu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surgically treated intracranial suppurations (ICS are uncommon, life-threatening neurosurgical emergencies. They can result from complication of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM and bacterial rhinosinusitis (BRS. The objective of this study was to know the frequency of BRS and CSOM and relate it to its rare complication of surgically treated ICS while also describing the demography, type and outcome of ICS that resulted from BRS and CSOM. Materials and Methods: All patients that presented to the Otorhinolaryngological department and Neurosurgical unit of the same institution with clinical and radiological features of CSOM, BRS, and ICS were prospectively studied over a 5-year period. Patients were followed up for a minimum of 3 months. Results: Two thousand, two hundred and seventy-nine patients presented during the 5-year study period. Of all these patients, 1511 had CSOM (66.3% and 768 (33.7% presented with features of BRS. Eleven (0.73% had ICS complicating their CSOM while 8 (1.04% cases of surgically treated ICS followed BRS. Bacterial rhinosinusitis was not more likely to lead to ICS (P = 0.4348. The Odds ratio (OR of a child ≤ 18 years of age with CSOM developing ICS was 5.24 (95% Confidence interval 1.13-24.34; P = 0.0345, while it was 7.60 (95% Confidence interval 1.52-37.97; P = 0.0134 for children with BRS. Conclusions: The most common type of ICS complicating CSOM and BRS was brain abscess and subdural empyema, respectively. Children are more prone to develop surgical ICS following CSOM and BRS. The proportion of males that had ICS was higher in both CSOM and BRS patients. Optimal outcome is achieved in patients that presented with GCS of 13 and above.

  4. Gradenigo’s Syndrome in a Patient with Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media, Petrous Apicitis, and Meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taklalsingh, Nicholas; Falcone, Franco; Velayudhan, Vinodkumar

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 58 Final Diagnosis: Bacterial meningitis Symptoms: Altered mental status • headache • neck stiffness • vomiting Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare disease Background: Gradenigo’s syndrome includes the triad of suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve. Gradenigo’s syndrome is rare, and the diagnosis is easily overlooked. This case is the first to report Gradenigo’s syndrome presenting with meningitis on a background of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) and petrous apicitis (apical petrositis). Case Report: A 58-year-old male African American presented with headaches and confusion. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head showed petrous apicitis with mastoiditis and abscess formation in the cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna). The case was complicated by the development of palsy of the fourth (trochlear) cranial nerve, fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, and sixth (abducens) cranial nerve, with radiological changes indicating infection involving the seventh (facial) cranial nerve, and eighth (vestibulocochlear) cranial nerve. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture results were positive for Klebsiella pneumoniae, sensitive to ceftriaxone. The patient improved with surgery that included a left mastoidectomy and debridement of the petrous apex, followed by a ten-week course of antibiotics. Follow-up MRI showed resolution of the infection. Conclusions: This report is of an atypical case of Gradenigo’s syndrome. It is important to recognize that the classical triad of Gradenigo’s syndrome, suppurative otitis media, ipsilateral sixth (abducens) cranial nerve palsy and facial pain in the distribution of the fifth (trigeminal) cranial nerve, may also involve chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), which may lead to involvement of other cranial nerves, petrous apicitis

  5. Thyroid function profile in cord blood and postnatal changes at 24 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studying the acute postnatal changes of newborn thyroid function is essential for determining the best timing of screening for congenital hypothyroidism. There is paucity of literature on neonatal thyroid function and particularly the postnatal changes in Nigeria. Objectives: To describe the profile of thyroid ...

  6. Acute pancreatitis: clinical vs. CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, M.C.; Barkin, J.; Isikoff, M.B.; Silver stein, W.; Kalser, M.

    1982-01-01

    In a prospective study of 91 patients with acute pancreatitis, computed tomographic (CT) findings were correlated with the clinical type of acute pancreatitis. In acute edematous pancreatitis (63 patients; 16 with repeat CT), CT was normal (28%) or showed inflammation limited to the pancreas (61%). Phlegmonous changes were present in 11%, including one patient with focal pancreatic hemorrhage, indicating that clinically unsuspected hemorrhagic pancreatitis can occur. In acute necrotizing (hemorrhagic, suppurative) pancreatitis (nine patients; eight with repeat CT), no patient had a normal CT scan and 89% had phlegmonous changes. One patient had hemorrhagic pancreatitis and three had abscesses. In acute exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis (10 patients; three with repeat CT), there were pancreatic calcifications (70%), a focal mass (40%), and pancreatic ductal dilation (30%). On follow-up CT, the findings of acute pancreatitis did not always disappear with resolution of the clinical symptons. This was especialy true of phlegmonous pancreatitis, where the CT findings could persist for months

  7. Acute Placental Infection Due to Klebsiella pneumoniae: Report of a Unique Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice M. Lage

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available A 40-year-old woman, gravida 9, with seven healthy children and a history of one abortion (p 7 + 1 , presented at 18 weeks of gestation with fever and malodorous vaginal discharge. Ultrasound revealed a macerated fetus. The placenta showed acute chorioamnionitis and acute villitis with microabscess formation. Blood and vaginal cultures both grew Klebsiella pneumoniae. This is the first reported case in English literature of Klebsiella pneumoniae causing suppurative placentitis leading to fetal demise.

  8. Florid Cemento-Osseous Dysplasia Simultaneous the Chronic Suppurative Osteomyelitis in Mandible.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Mateus Barros; de Oliveira Lima, Amanda Laísa; Júnior, Marcus Antônio Brêda; Santos, Milkle Bruno Pessoa

    2016-11-01

    The florid cemento-osseous dysplasia is an uncommon condition nonneoplastic, of unknown cause with higher prevalence in melanodermic women, limited the maxillary bones, is characterized by the presence of dispersed and diffuse radiopaque calcifications, constituted of bone and dense cemento; however, when the bone is infected it induces the suppuration and formation of osseous sequestra, thus resulting in an osteomyelitis frame. The patient was attended in a Dental Specialties Center in the state of Alagoas, Brazil, presenting on clinical examination edema and extra oral fistula with pus drainage in hemiface submandibular of the right side. Radiographically it was possible to observe area of sclerosis and osseous sequestra involving the right side region of the mandible body, and it increases zones of the bone density. In association with clinical data and complementary diagnosis examinations, the option of treatment adopted was the complete removal of the bone fragment, followed by adaptation and plate fixation and titanium screws to reduce the risk of mandibular fracture. The aim of the present paper was to relate a clinical patient of florid cemento-osseous dysplasia simultaneous the chronic suppurative osteomyelitis, highlighting their clinical, radiographic, and histological characteristics, as well as their diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Hypothyroidism and hyponatremia: data from a series of patients with iatrogenic acute hypothyroidism undergoing radioactive iodine therapy after total thyroidectomy for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, L; Parenti, G; Simontacchi, G; Rastrelli, G; Giuliani, C; Ognibene, A; Peri, A

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of hypothyroidism as a cause of hyponatremia in a clinical model of iatrogenic acute hypothyroidism due to thyroid hormone withdrawal prior to ablative radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy after total thyroidectomy. The study group consisted of 101 differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients (77 women and 24 men). Plasma concentration of thyroid-stimulating hormone ([TSH]) and sodium ([Na + ]) was evaluated before total thyroidectomy (pre[TSH] and pre[Na + ]) and on the day of RAI therapy (post[TSH] and post[Na + ]). The frequency of hypothyroidism-associated hyponatremia was 4 % (4/101). Pre[Na + ] was significantly higher than post[Na + ] (140.7 ± 1.6 vs 138.7 ± 2.3 mEq/L, p = 0.012). Moreover, a linear correlation was identified between pre[Na + ] and post[Na + ]. Iatrogenic acute hypothyroidism-related hyponatremia is uncommon. However, because of the significant reduction of [Na + ] in the transition from euthyroidism to iatrogenic hypothyroidism, the value of pre[Na + ] should be viewed as a parameter to be considered. Since it acts as an independent risk factor for the development of hyponatremia, patients with a pre[Na + ] close to the lower limit of normal range may deserve a closer monitoring of [Na + ].

  10. Current concepts in the pathogenesis and treatment of chronic suppurative otitis media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittal, Rahul; Lisi, Christopher V.; Gerring, Robert; Mittal, Jeenu; Mathee, Kalai; Narasimhan, Giri; Azad, Rajeev K.; Yao, Qi; Grati, M'hamed; Yan, Denise; Eshraghi, Adrien A.; Angeli, Simon I.; Telischi, Fred F.

    2015-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear associated with infection. Despite appropriate therapy, acute OM (AOM) can progress to chronic suppurative OM (CSOM) associated with ear drum perforation and purulent discharge. The effusion prevents the middle ear ossicles from properly relaying sound vibrations from the ear drum to the oval window of the inner ear, causing conductive hearing loss. In addition, the inflammatory mediators generated during CSOM can penetrate into the inner ear through the round window. This can cause the loss of hair cells in the cochlea, leading to sensorineural hearing loss. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus are the most predominant pathogens that cause CSOM. Although the pathogenesis of AOM is well studied, very limited research is available in relation to CSOM. With the emergence of antibiotic resistance as well as the ototoxicity of antibiotics and the potential risks of surgery, there is an urgent need to develop effective therapeutic strategies against CSOM. This warrants understanding the role of host immunity in CSOM and how the bacteria evade these potent immune responses. Understanding the molecular mechanisms leading to CSOM will help in designing novel treatment modalities against the disease and hence preventing the hearing loss. PMID:26248613

  11. Thyroid cancer following diagnostic iodine-131 administration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, P.; Holm, L.-E.; Boice, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    To provide quantitative data on the risk of thyroid cancer following 131 I exposure, 34104 patients administered 131 I for diagnostic purposes were followed for up to 40 years. Mean thyroid dose was estimated as 1.1 Gy, and 67 thyroid cancers occurred in contrast to 49.7 expected [standardized incidence ratio (SIR)=1.35; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.71]. Excess cancers were apparent only among patients referred because of a suspected thyroid tumor and no increased risk was seen among those referred for other reasons. Further, risk was not related to radiation dose to the thyroid gland, time since exposure, or age at exposure. The slight excess of thyroid cancer, then appeared due to the underlying thyroid condition and not radiation exposure. Among those under age 20 years when 131 I was administered, a small excess risk (3 cancers vs 1.8 expected) was about 2-10 times lower than that predicted from A-bomb data. These data suggest that protraction of dose may result in a lower risk than acute x-ray exposure of the same total dose

  12. A Review: Radiographic Iodinated Contrast Media-Induced Thyroid Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Angela M.; Braverman, Lewis E.; Brent, Gregory A.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Thyroid hormone production is dependent on adequate iodine intake. Excess iodine is generally well-tolerated, but thyroid dysfunction can occur in susceptible individuals after excess iodine exposure. Radiological iodinated contrast media represent an increasingly common source of excess iodine. Objective: This review will discuss the thyroidal response after acute exposure to excess iodine; contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction; risks of iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction in vulnerable populations, such as the fetus, neonate, and patients with impaired renal function; and recommendations for the assessment and treatment of contrast iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction. Methods: Data for this review were identified by searching PubMed, Google Scholar, and references from relevant articles from 1948 to 2014. Conclusions: With the increase in the use of computed tomography scans in the United States, there is increasing risk of contrast-induced thyroid dysfunction. Patients at risk of developing iodine-induced thyroid dysfunction should be closely monitored after receiving iodinated contrast media and should be treated as needed. PMID:25375985

  13. THYROID HORMONE REVERSES AGING-INDUCED MYOCARDIAL FATTY ACID OXIDATION DEFECTS AND IMPROVES THE RESPONSE TO ACUTELY INCREASED AFTERLOAD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ledee, Dolena; Portman, Michael A.; Kajimoto, Masaki; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron

    2013-06-07

    Background: Subclinical hypothyroidism occurs during aging in humans and mice and may contribute to development of heart failure. Aging also impairs myocardial fatty acid oxidation, causing increased reliance on flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) to maintain function. We hypothesize that the metabolic changes in aged hearts make them less tolerant to acutely increased work and that thyroid hormone reverses these defects. Methods: Studies were performed on young (Young, 4-6 months) and aged (Old, 22-24 months) C57/BL6 mice at standard (50 mmHg) and high afterload (80 mmHg). Another aged group received thyroid hormone for 3 weeks (Old-TH, high afterload only). Function was measured in isolated working hearts along with substrate fractional contributions (Fc) to the citric acid cycle (CAC) using perfusate with 13C labeled lactate, pyruvate, glucose and unlabeled palmitate and insulin. Results: Cardiac function was similar between Young and Old mice at standard afterload. Palmitate Fc was reduced but no individual carbohydrate contributions differed. CAC and individual substrate fluxes decreased in aged. At high afterload, -dP/dT was decreased in Old versus Young. Similar to low afterload, palmitate Fc was decreased in Old. Thyroid hormone reversed aging-induced changes in palmitate Fc and flux while significantly improving cardiac function. Conclusion: The aged heart shows diminished ability to increase cardiac work due to substrate limitations, primarily impaired fatty acid oxidation. The heart accommodates slightly by increasing efficiency through oxidation of carbohydrate substrates. Thyroid hormone supplementation in aged mice significantly improves cardiac function potentially through restoration of fatty acid oxidation.

  14. Follow-up of a case of subacute thyroiditis with uncommon thyroid {sup 99m}Tc uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhe; Li, Chengjiang, E-mail: 10518093zz@163.com [Medical College of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou (China). Hospital of Medical College. Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism

    2013-07-01

    Thyroidal 99mTc uptake in the acute thyrotoxic phase of subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is always inhibited. However, a patient with SAT had signs in the right-side thyroid gland with transient thyrotoxicosis and slightly high 99mTc uptake levels in the right lobe, low 99mTc uptake in the left lobe, and normal overall uptake. Histological examination showed cellular destruction and granulomatous inflammatory changes in the right lobe, with marked interstitial fibrosis in the left lobe. The patient was thyrotrophin-receptor antibody (TRAb) positive. After a short course of prednisolone, SAT-like symptoms and signs improved. TRAb-positivity resolved spontaneously after 22 months, and TSH levels were slightly low for 22 months. Levels then kept normal in the following four years. In conclusion, high 99mTc uptake by the right lobe was due to the combined effects of TRAb and left thyroid gland fibrosis. (author)

  15. A Case of Pyriform Sinus Fistula Infection with Double Tracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masato Shino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pyriform sinus fistula is a rare clinical entity and the precise origin remains controversial. The fistula is discovered among patients with acute suppurative thyroiditis or deep neck infection of the left side of the neck and is usually located in the left pyriform sinus. To the best of our knowledge, only a single tract has been reported to be responsible for pyriform sinus fistula infection. We present a case of a 13-year-old female patient with a pyriform sinus fistula that caused a deep infection of the left side of the neck and showed double-tract involvement discovered during surgical resection of the entire fistula. Both tracts arose around the pyriform sinus and terminated at the upper portion of the left lobe of the thyroid.

  16. Emergency thyroidectomy in infected thyroid cyst due to spontaneous gas forming organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masood, R.; Chudhary, I.A.; Shaumaila, T.

    2008-01-01

    We are reporting a case of a young female, who presented to emergency room with sudden increase in thyroid swelling, high fever and acute respiratory distress. Clinical diagnosis of spontaneous infection of thyroid cyst was made. Operative finding was infection of thyroid cyst with gas formation. Systemic antibiotics and operative intervention by subtotal thyroidectomy led to recovery of the patient. (author)

  17. Suppurative Inflammation and Local Tissue Destruction Reduce the Penetration of Cefuroxime to Infected Bone Implant Cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L Kruse; Koch, J; Henriksen, N Lind

    2017-01-01

    with Staphylococcus aureus IAO present for 5 days. In the present study, a comprehensive histopathological characterization of the peri-implant bone tissue was performed and correlated with the reduced penetration of cefuroxime. In two pigs, the levels of oxygen, pyruvate and lactate was estimated in the implant...... cavity. A peri-implant pathological bone area (PIBA) developed with a width of 1.2 up to 3.8 mm. PIBAs included: (1) suppuration, resulting in destruction of the implant cavity contour, and (2) a non-vascular zone of primarily necrotic bone tissue. A strong negative correlation was seen between PIBA...... width and cefuroxime area under the concentration time curves (AUC[0-last]) and peak concentration of cefuroxime (Cmax). All metabolic measurements demonstrated hypoxia. In conclusion, subacute suppurative bone inflammation with local tissue destruction can result in decreased penetration of antibiotics...

  18. Anaerobic bacteria in upper respiratory tract and head and neck infections: microbiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Itzhak

    2012-04-01

    Anaerobes are the predominant components of oropharyngeal mucous membranes bacterial flora, and are therefore a common cause of bacterial infections of endogenous origin of upper respiratory tract and head and neck. This review summarizes the aerobic and anaerobic microbiology and antimicrobials therapy of these infections. These include acute and chronic otitis media, mastoiditis and sinusitis, pharyngo-tonsillitis, peritonsillar, retropharyngeal and parapharyngeal abscesses, suppurative thyroiditis, cervical lymphadenitis, parotitis, siliadenitis, and deep neck infections including Lemierre Syndrome. The recovery from these infections depends on prompt and proper medical and when indicated also surgical management. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Interferin with thyroid scintigraphy: the effects of interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction upon thyroid scintigraphy in patients with the hepatitis C virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rome, S.P.; Karamoskos, P.; Schlicht, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is increasing. Interferon alpha therapy is often used to treat patients who are HCV positive. Thyroid gland autoimmunity and dysfunction has been reported to occur with variable frequency during INF-alpha therapy in patients with the HCV. This study reviews the scintigraphic findings of thyroid scans in such patients in order to assess for the effects on thyroid scintigraphy. To our knowledge, there has been no comprehensive study of this important occurrence to date. There were a number of patients with the HCV being treated at our institution between 23/09/1996 and 09/08/2000. Some of them received INF-alpha therapy, certain were subsequently diagnosed with thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction. Eight were imaged with thyroid scintigraphy and reviewed. The scintigraphic findings in the 8 patients fell into two broad categories; 4 demonstrated changes of Graves' disease, and 3 changes of thyroiditis (1 of these was sub-acute). One hypothyroid patient with anti-thyroglobulin antibodies had normal thyroid scintigraphy. Six patients were found to have antithyroid antibodies. One patient with thyroiditis tested negative to antithyroid antibodies. One patient was not tested for antithyroid antibodies. Interferon alpha induced thyroid gland autoimmunity and/or dysfunction can markedly affect the thyroid scintigraphic findings of patients with the hepatitis C virus. This hitherto undescribed occurrence on thyroid scintigraphy has important practical implications of which Nuclear Medicine Specialists need to be aware in order to correctly interpret thyroid scintigraphy studies in such patients. The clinical presentation and effects on imaging appearances are varied. The Nuclear Medicine Specialist can play a central role in establishing the causal link. Awareness of this occurrence enables the Nuclear Medicine Specialist to add value to the referral. This occurrence will become an increasingly common

  20. Selenium supplementation in thyroid associated ophthalmopathy:an update

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    Aruna Dharmasena

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effect of selenium (Se has already been proven in thyroid disease and thyroid associated ophthalmopathy (TAO. In spite of clear scientific proof of its benefits in TAO, there appears to be no clear agreement among the clinicians regarding its optimum dose, duration of the treatment, efficacy and safety to date. In this review, the author summarises the findings of 135 English language articles published on this subject over the past four decades from 1973 to 2013. The regulation and metabolism of thyroid hormones require a steady supply of Se and recent studies have revealedseveral possible mechanisms by which Se improves the severity of thyroid disease and TAO. These mechanisms include 1 inhibitory effect of HLA-DR molecule expression on thyrocytes; 2 profound reductions of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH receptor antibodies (TSHR-Ab and TPO antibodies (TPO-Ab; 3 prevention of dysregulation of cell-mediated immunity and B cell function; 4 neutralising reactive oxygen species (ROS and inhibition of redox control processes required for the activation, differentiation and action of lymphocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer cells involved in both acute and chronic orbital inflammation in TAO; 5 inhibition of expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and 6 inhibition of prostaglandin and leukotriene synthesis. An increased oxidative stress has been observed in both acute and chronic phases of thyroid disease with raised tissue concentrations of ROS. The benefits of Se supplementation in individuals with TAO appear to be proportionate to the degree of systemic activity of the thyroid disease. The maximal benefit of Se supplementation is therefore seen in the subjects who are hyperthyroid. Restoration of euthyroidism is one of the main goals in the management of TAO and when anti-thyroid drugs are combined with Se, the patients with Graves’ disease (GD and autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT achieved euthyroidism faster than

  1. Long-term follow-up of chronic suppurative otitis media in a high-risk children cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Homøe, Preben; Andersson, Mikael

    2011-01-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) is the leading cause of mild to moderate hearing impairment in children worldwide and a major public health problem in many indigenous populations. There is a lack of basic epidemiological facts and knowledge on the development of CSOM, as the disease...

  2. Acute scrotal swelling caused by scrotal suppurative appendicitis in a young infant: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Rajendran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A 70d old infant who had reducible bilateral inguinal hernia was found to have acute bilateral scrotal swelling, erythema and tenderness without intestinal obstruction. Radiography and ultrasonography studies detected right side inguinoscrotal hernia. With a diagnosis of strangulated inguinal hernia on right side, exploration was done. Amyand's hernia and acute scrotal appendicitis were found. Appendectomy, bilateral inguinal herniotomy and scrotal fixation of testes were done. Scrotal appendicitis is an exceptionally rare cause of acute scrotum in young infants. Scrotal manifestations and scrotal complications of acute appendicitis in children are reviewed. This case stresses the need for emergency exploration of acute scrotum in which there is diagnostic dilemma

  3. RETROPHARYNGEAL ABSCESS FROM FISHBONE IN ADULT IMMUNOCOMPETENT HOST PRESENTING AS ACUTE THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Attard

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Retropharyngeal abscesses (RPA are rare in adults. We report a case of a healthy adult with RPA presenting with clinical symptoms of acute thyroiditis. A 37-yr-old female presented with a painful mass in the anterior region of the neck, sore throat, mild fever and dysphagy for liquids and solids. Neck emergency US disclosed normal thyroid ventrally displaced by a huge retropharyngeal hypoechoic mass. Direct laryngoscopy revealed erythema of the posterior pharyngeal wall with bulges (8 cm preventing the correct visualization of the glottic plane. CT confirmed the presence of retropharyngeal abscess and laryngoscopic drainage was performed. The patient was discharged on 11th post-operative day, in good condition. The high mortality rate of retropharyngeal abscess is related to its association with invasion of contiguous structures and mediastinum: once mediastinitis occurs, mortality reaches 50%, even with antibiotic therapy. CT is fundamental for the diagnosis, but in many cases, as our, ultrasonography of the neck may play a pivotal role as quickly as possible. Surgical treatment (intraoral incision and drainage is the better definitive and resolutive treatment. The clinical diagnosis of retropharyngeal abscess in adult can be difficult because of the lacking and non specificity of clinical presentation. It is recommended to collect accurate clinical history, careful examination of the head and neck and use of early ultrasound examination of the neck, which in real time can give precise indications to guide the diagnosis and therapy. The management of a retropharyngeal abscess depends on the patient’s clinical condition, moving from conservative treatment with steroids and antibiotics to reanimation and aggressive surgical drainage.

  4. Suppurative peritonitis by Klebsiella pneumoniae in captive gold-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Maria F L; Teixeira, Rodrigo H F; Ribeiro, Vanessa L; Cunha, Marcos P V; Oliveira, Maria G X; Davies, Yamê M; Silva, Ketrin C; Silva, Ana P S; Lincopan, Nilton; Moreno, Andrea M; Knöbl, Terezinha

    2016-02-01

    This report describes an outbreak of suppurative peritonitis caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in an adult female of captive golden-handed tamarin (Saguinus midas midas). Two virulent and multidrug-resistant strains were isolated and classified through MLST as ST60 and ST1263. The microbiological diagnosis works as a support tool for preventive measures. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Thyroid ophthalmopathy revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machado, Karina Freitas Soares; Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune orbital disorder closely associated with Graves' disease, although both conditions may also occur isolatedly. Thyroid ophthalmopathy may precede, coincide or follow the thyroid dysfunction onset and may rarely occur in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The extra ocular muscles are most frequently involved and become enlarged resulting in ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other relevant signs include palpebral retraction, conjunctival hyperemia and periorbitary edema. Visual loss may occur in association with compressive optic neuropathy at the orbital apex. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is characterized by inflammation, congestion, hypertrophy and fibrosis involving fat and the orbital muscles. The disease activity is divided into two phases: an acute or inflammatory phase and a second one corresponding to an inactive phase associated with fibrotic changes and fat infiltration of the retrobulbar tissues. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging methods are indicated in case of doubt or suspicion of optic neuropathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis, allowing the evaluation of the critical region of the orbital apex. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice considering the superior tissue contrast resolution, besides the capacity of evaluating the disease activity by means of long TR sequences and detecting inflammatory changes, with a relevant role in a timely therapeutic planning, which may improve the prognosis. (author)

  6. The immune impact of mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy on rabbits of acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Suqin; Pei, Fenghua; Wang, Xinhong; Li, Deliang; Zhao, Lixia; Song, Yanyan; Chen, Zhendong; Liu, Bingrong

    2017-09-12

    This study was conducted to evaluate the immune impact of mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy on rabbits of acute suppurative appendicitis and to determine whether TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in this process. 48 rabbits were assigned into 4 groups: group I, the mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy group; group II, the appendectomy group; group III, the model group; and group IV, the blank group. White blood cells decreased, while levels of C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, interleukin-4, and interleukin-10 increased on the 2 nd day in group I and II. IgA in feces decreased at 2 weeks, while fecal microbiota changed at 2 and 4 weeks after appendectomy. CD8 + cells in appendix of group I increased within 8 weeks. Upregulated expression of TLR4, MYD88, and nuclear NF-κB were detected on the 2 nd day in group I and II. Mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy and appendectomy are effective ways for acute suppurative appendicitis. Mimic endoscopic retrograde appendicitis therapy was more preferable due to its advantage in maintaining intestinal immune function. TLR4/MYD88/NF-κB signaling pathway was activated in acute phase of appendicitis.

  7. Acute and transient activation of pituitary-thyroid axis during unforced restriction in rats: component of nonshivering thermogenesis in conscious animals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, P; Földes, O; Macho, L; Kvetnanský, R

    1983-01-01

    Groups of 6-8 male Wistar Olac SPF rats weighing about 300 g were subjected to unforced restriction (UR) in small cages with a metallic bottom and a Plexiglas cover for various intervals from 2 min to 72 h. An acute activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis was found which was manifested by an increase of thyrotropin (TSH) and thyroxine (T4) levels at 2-5 min of UR. This was presumably due to the emotional effect of a rapid transfer and to the placing of the animals into restriction cages. Later, between 3 and 6 h of UR, another, and more pronounced period of activation of the pituitary-thyroid axis and of the peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism was repeatedly observed which lasted until about 36-48 h and was manifested by a highly significant increase of TSH, T4, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and 3,3',5'-triiodothyronine (rT3) levels. It was concluded that this phenomenon presumably may be a component of nonshivering thermogenesis resulting from a decreased muscular activity and resembling the conditions occurring under cold stress. Such a view was supported by findings of highly increased nonesterified fatty acid levels in plasma in restricted animals, by unchanged levels of TSH and thyroid hormones found in unrestricted animals kept individually in regular group cages and, finally, by a preventive effect of ambient temperature of 32 degrees C on the pituitary-thyroid activation at 6 h of UR. In some experiments, no substantial differences in hormone levels were found between the animals kept in Plexiglas or stainless wire-mesh restriction cages. Finally, a multifold increase of prolactin level in plasma was found as early as 2 min of UR, the peak being observed between 5 and 20 min and a decrease to about the initial level at about 360 min.

  8. Dose-dependent acute effects of recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) on thyroid size and function. Comparison of 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 mg of rhTSH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Søren; Nielsen, Viveque Egsgaard; Bonnema, Steen Joop

    2009-01-01

    Context: Recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) is used to augment the effect of radioiodine therapy for nontoxic multinodular goitre. Reports of acute thyroid swelling and hyperthyroidism warrant safety studies evaluating whether these side-effects are dose-dependent. Objective: To determine the effects...... on thyroid size and function of various doses of rhTSH. Design: In nine healthy male volunteers the effect of placebo, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.9 mg of rhTSH was examined in a paired design including four consecutive study rounds. Main outcome measures: Were evaluated at baseline, 24h, 48h, 96h, 7 days and 28 days...... after rhTSH and included: Thyroid volume (TV) estimation by planimetric ultrasound, and thyroid function by serum TSH, freeT3, freeT4 and Tg levels. Results: Following placebo or 0.1 mg rhTSH the TV did not change significantly from baseline at any time. At 24 and 48 hours after administration of 0.3 mg...

  9. Cochlear pathology in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walby, A P; Barrera, A; Schuknecht, H F

    1983-01-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (COM) is reported to cause elevation of bone-conduction thresholds either by damage to cochlear sensorineural structures or by alteration in the mechanics of sound transmission in the ear. A retrospective study was made of the medical records of 87 patients with unilateral uncomplicated COM to document that abnormality in bone conduction does exist. In a separate study the cochlear pathology in 12 pairs of temporal bones with unilateral COM was studied by light microscopy. Infected ears showed higher than normal mean bone-conduction thresholds by amounts ranging from 1 dB at 500 Hz to 9.5 dB at 4,000 Hz. The temporal bones showed no greater loss of specialized sensorineural structures in infected ears than in normal control ears. Because there is no evidence that COM caused destruction of hair cells or cochlear neurons, alteration in the mechanics of sound transmission becomes a more plausible explanation for the hearing losses.

  10. 2016 Guidelines for the management of thyroid storm from The Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society (First edition).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Tetsurou; Isozaki, Osamu; Suzuki, Atsushi; Wakino, Shu; Iburi, Tadao; Tsuboi, Kumiko; Kanamoto, Naotetsu; Otani, Hajime; Furukawa, Yasushi; Teramukai, Satoshi; Akamizu, Takashi

    2016-12-30

    Thyroid storm is an endocrine emergency which is characterized by multiple organ failure due to severe thyrotoxicosis, often associated with triggering illnesses. Early suspicion, prompt diagnosis and intensive treatment will improve survival in thyroid storm patients. Because of its rarity and high mortality, prospective intervention studies for the treatment of thyroid storm are difficult to carry out. We, the Japan Thyroid Association and Japan Endocrine Society taskforce committee, previously developed new diagnostic criteria and conducted nationwide surveys for thyroid storm in Japan. Detailed analyses of clinical data from 356 patients revealed that the mortality in Japan was still high (∼11%) and that multiple organ failure and acute heart failure were common causes of death. In addition, multimodal treatment with antithyroid drugs, inorganic iodide, corticosteroids and beta-adrenergic antagonists has been suggested to improve mortality of these patients. Based on the evidence obtained by nationwide surveys and additional literature searches, we herein established clinical guidelines for the management of thyroid storm. The present guideline includes 15 recommendations for the treatment of thyrotoxicosis and organ failure in the central nervous system, cardiovascular system, and hepato-gastrointestinal tract, admission criteria for the intensive care unit, and prognostic evaluation. We also proposed preventive approaches to thyroid storm, roles of definitive therapy, and future prospective trial plans for the treatment of thyroid storm. We hope that this guideline will be useful for many physicians all over the world as well as in Japan in the management of thyroid storm and the improvement of its outcome.

  11. Fetuin A as a new marker of inflammation in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratli, S; Uzunlulu, M; Gonenli, G; Oguz, A; Isbilen, B

    2015-03-01

    Fetuin-A levels are reported to be low as a negative acute phase reactant in systemical inflammatory situations. Hashimoto thyroiditis is characterized with inflammation. In this study, we hypothesised that the serum fetuin A levels could be found to be low due to inflammation in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. For this purpose, serum fetuin A levels in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were compared with those in healthy subjects. A total of 85 participants (11 male, 74 female, mean age: 38.60±10.14 years) were included. The patient group consisted of 44 Hashimoto thyroiditis patients with subclinical hypothyroidism (7 male, 37 female) and the control group consisted of 41 healthy subjects (4 male, 37 female). Groups were compared according to their demographic, anthropometric and biochemical data and serum fetuin-A levels. Correlation analysis was used for determining the relation between fetuin A levels and clinical parameters. Fetuin-A levels of the patient group were found lower than those of the control group (0.58±0.50 g/L versus 1.53±1.60 g/L, P=0.001). Fetuin-A levels were not correlated with clinical parameters such as TSH, C-reactive protein, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, glucose, and lipids. These findings supported the hypothesis that serum fetuin A levels could be found to be low as a negative acute phase reactant in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis. Fetuin A can be considered as an indicator of inflammation in Hashimoto thyroiditis.

  12. Lugol’s solution-induced painless thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Wei Yang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Lugol’s solution is usually employed for a limited period for thyroidectomy preparation in patients with Graves’ disease and for the control of severe thyrotoxicosis and thyroid storm. We describe a rare case of Lugol’s solution-induced painless thyroiditis. In November 2014, a 59-year-old woman was prescribed Lugol’s solution four drops per day for the alleviation of menopausal symptoms. She was referred to our clinic in June 2015 for fatigue, hair loss, and a 20-lb weight loss without thyroid pain or discomfort. Physical examination revealed a normal thyroid gland. On 7 May 2015, laboratory tests revealed a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH 0.01 U/L with elevated free T4 3.31 ng/dL (42.54 pmol/L. Repeat testing on 25 May 2015 showed spontaneous normalization of the free thyroid hormone levels with persistently low TSH 0.10 U/L. Following these results, a family physician prescribed methimazole 10 mg PO TID and very soon after, the TSH concentration rose to >100 U/L along with subnormal free T4 and T3 levels. Methimazole was promptly discontinued, namely within 18 days of its initiation. Over the course of the next few months, the patient spontaneously achieved clinical and biochemical euthyroidism. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of painless thyroiditis induced by Lugol’s solution, which has not been reported before. Lugol’s solution is a short-term medication given for the preparation of thyroidectomy in patients with Graves’ disease and for the control of severe thyrotoxicosis. Iodine excess can cause both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. Rarely, Lugol’s solution can cause acute painless thyroiditis.

  13. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of Subacute Granulomatous Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sun Young; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Ki Keun; Hong, Soon Won; Park, Cheong Soo; Kim, Byung Moon

    2006-01-01

    We wanted to describe the characteristic ultrasonography (US) features and clinical findings for making the diagnosis of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis. A total of 31 lesions from 27 patients were confirmed as subacute granulomatous thyroiditis by US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings such as the lesion's size, margin and shape, the discrepancy between length and breadth and the vascularity. The clinical findings such as acute neck pain or fever were reviewed. The follow-up clinical and ultrasonographic data were reviewed for 15 patients. The thyroid gland was found to be enlarged in five patients, it was normal size in 20 patients and it was smaller in two patients. All the lesions had focally ill-defined hypoechogenicity. Hypervascularity was not noted in any of the lesions. Painful neck swelling was present in 18 patients. An accompanying fever was documented in nine of the 18 patients. Twelve patients showed disappearance (n = 3) or a decreased size (n = 9) of their lesions on follow-up US. The presence of ill-defined hypoechoic thyroid lesions without a discrete round or oval shape is characteristic for subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, and particularly when this is associated with painful neck swelling and/or fever

  14. Ultrasonographic Characteristics of Subacute Granulomatous Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Young [Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Min Jung; Oh, Ki Keun; Hong, Soon Won; Park, Cheong Soo [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Byung Moon [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    We wanted to describe the characteristic ultrasonography (US) features and clinical findings for making the diagnosis of subacute granulomatous thyroiditis. A total of 31 lesions from 27 patients were confirmed as subacute granulomatous thyroiditis by US-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy. We analyzed the ultrasonographic findings such as the lesion's size, margin and shape, the discrepancy between length and breadth and the vascularity. The clinical findings such as acute neck pain or fever were reviewed. The follow-up clinical and ultrasonographic data were reviewed for 15 patients. The thyroid gland was found to be enlarged in five patients, it was normal size in 20 patients and it was smaller in two patients. All the lesions had focally ill-defined hypoechogenicity. Hypervascularity was not noted in any of the lesions. Painful neck swelling was present in 18 patients. An accompanying fever was documented in nine of the 18 patients. Twelve patients showed disappearance (n = 3) or a decreased size (n = 9) of their lesions on follow-up US. The presence of ill-defined hypoechoic thyroid lesions without a discrete round or oval shape is characteristic for subacute granulomatous thyroiditis, and particularly when this is associated with painful neck swelling and/or fever.

  15. [Hashimoto's thyroiditis(chronic thyroiditis), IgG4-related thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Mitsuyasu

    2012-11-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis emerges in patients who have genetic preponderance such as SNPs of CTLA-4 and risk factors such as excess intake of iodine, pregnancy or postpartum period, and smoking. Such risk factors also affect the entire clinical course. One of the major outcomes in Hashimoto's thyroiditis appears to be increased in cardio-vascular risks through subclinical hypothyroidism and concomitant metabolic syndrome, but in most cases, treatment with L-T4 has little effects on cardio-vascular benefit or quality of life. The pregnant women also have risks for obstetric complications and postpartum thyroid dysfunction. The women who have anti-TPO antibodies, type 1 diabetes, or previous history of post-partum thyroid dysfunction are recommended to be measured their TSH. It is noteworthy that Hashimoto's thyroiditis is sometimes complicated with encephalopathy, papillary carcinoma, or IgG4-related thyroiditis. IgG4-related thyroiditis is partly similar but partly discerned from a variant of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The pathogenetic roles of this variant on autoimmune-based thyroiditis remain unclear.

  16. Thyroid Storm Triggered by Strangulation in a Patient with Undiagnosed Graves’ Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge I. Conte

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid storm is the life-threatening end-organ manifestation of severe thyrotoxicosis. If left untreated, thyroid storm may cause acute heart failure, multiorgan dysfunction, and death. A high degree of suspicion is necessary to make the diagnosis and start antithyroid medications to decrease mortality. Thyroid storm is generally seen in patients with Graves’ disease but should also be suspected in patients with fever, tachycardia, altered mental status, and risk factors including local trauma to the neck, such as strangulation. Based on our review, we report the first case of thyroid storm after strangulation as the presentation of previously undiagnosed Graves’ disease.

  17. Black Thyroid Associated with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad Kandil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Black thyroid is a rare pigmented change seen almost exclusively in patients upon minocycline ingestion, and the process has previously been thought to be generally benign. There have been 61 reported cases of black thyroid. We are aware of 13 cases previously reported in association with thyroid carcinoma. This paper reports six patients with black thyroid pigmentation in association with thyroid carcinoma. Design. The medical records of six patients who were diagnosed with black thyroid syndrome, all of whom underwent thyroid surgery, were reviewed. Data on age, gender, race, preoperative fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNA, thyroid function levels, and pathology reports were collected. Main Outcome. The mean age was 60 years. There were 5 females, 4 of whom were African American. All patients were clinically and biochemically euthyroid. Black pigmentation was not diagnosed in preoperative FNA, and only one patient had a preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The other patients underwent surgery and were found to have black pigmentation of the thyroid associated with carcinoma. Conclusions. FNA does not diagnose black thyroid, which is associated with thyroid carcinoma. Thyroid glands with black pigmentation deserve thorough pathologic examination, including several sections of each specimen.

  18. The risk of hearing loss in a population with a high prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2013-01-01

    Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) affects 65-330 million people in the developing part of the world and develops in early childhood. Knowledge of the long-term effects on hearing is scarce. Hearing loss (HL) can cause reduced ability to communicate, impair language development and academic...

  19. Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Renal Impairment in a Patient with Hypothyroidism: A Case Report

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    Arshi Naz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 33-year-old male with hypothyroidism who developed acute renal impairment with rhabdomyolysis after strenuous physical activity (snow shoveling. His thyroid function test confirmed marked hypothyroidism. Severe elevation of serum CK consistent with rhabdomyolysis was noted and an elevated creatinine indicated acute renal impairment. Patient’s condition improved significantly after starting him on thyroid hormone replacement therapy and aggressive hydration. Acute renal impairment with rhabdomyolysis in patients with hypothyroidism is quite rare and we expect that this case report adds to the existing literature on this subject. We also emphasize that thyroid status should be evaluated in patients with unexplained acute renal impairment and presenting with the symptoms of muscle involvement.

  20. Soft tissue hematoma of the neck due to thyroid rupture with unusual mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Tsukahara

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although hemorrhage from the thyroid gland without blunt trauma is rare, emergency physicians should regard possible thyroid gland rupture in patients with swelling of the neck or acute respiratory failure after direct/indirect trauma to the neck. Observation or operative management for limited or expanding hematoma are appropriately based on fundamental neck trauma principles.

  1. Thyroid Allostasis–Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzitomaris, Apostolos; Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E.; Hering, Steffen; Urban, Aline; Dietrich, Barbara; Abood, Assjana; Klein, Harald H.; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid feedback control is a dynamic, adaptive system. In situations of illness and deprivation of energy representing type 1 allostasis, the stress response operates to alter both its set point and peripheral transfer parameters. In contrast, type 2 allostatic load, typically effective in psychosocial stress, pregnancy, metabolic syndrome, and adaptation to cold, produces a nearly opposite phenotype of predictive plasticity. The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS) or thyroid allostasis in critical illness, tumors, uremia, and starvation (TACITUS), commonly observed in hospitalized patients, displays a historically well-studied pattern of allostatic thyroid response. This is characterized by decreased total and free thyroid hormone concentrations and varying levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) ranging from decreased (in severe cases) to normal or even elevated (mainly in the recovery phase) TSH concentrations. An acute versus chronic stage (wasting syndrome) of TACITUS can be discerned. The two types differ in molecular mechanisms and prognosis. The acute adaptation of thyroid hormone metabolism to critical illness may prove beneficial to the organism, whereas the far more complex molecular alterations associated with chronic illness frequently lead to allostatic overload. The latter is associated with poor outcome, independently of the underlying disease. Adaptive responses of thyroid homeostasis extend to alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations during fetal life, periods of weight gain or loss, thermoregulation, physical exercise, and psychiatric diseases. The various forms of thyroid allostasis pose serious problems in differential diagnosis of thyroid disease. This review article provides an overview of physiological mechanisms as well as major diagnostic and therapeutic implications of thyroid allostasis under a variety of developmental and straining conditions. PMID:28775711

  2. Thyroid Allostasis–Adaptive Responses of Thyrotropic Feedback Control to Conditions of Strain, Stress, and Developmental Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Chatzitomaris

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid feedback control is a dynamic, adaptive system. In situations of illness and deprivation of energy representing type 1 allostasis, the stress response operates to alter both its set point and peripheral transfer parameters. In contrast, type 2 allostatic load, typically effective in psychosocial stress, pregnancy, metabolic syndrome, and adaptation to cold, produces a nearly opposite phenotype of predictive plasticity. The non-thyroidal illness syndrome (NTIS or thyroid allostasis in critical illness, tumors, uremia, and starvation (TACITUS, commonly observed in hospitalized patients, displays a historically well-studied pattern of allostatic thyroid response. This is characterized by decreased total and free thyroid hormone concentrations and varying levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH ranging from decreased (in severe cases to normal or even elevated (mainly in the recovery phase TSH concentrations. An acute versus chronic stage (wasting syndrome of TACITUS can be discerned. The two types differ in molecular mechanisms and prognosis. The acute adaptation of thyroid hormone metabolism to critical illness may prove beneficial to the organism, whereas the far more complex molecular alterations associated with chronic illness frequently lead to allostatic overload. The latter is associated with poor outcome, independently of the underlying disease. Adaptive responses of thyroid homeostasis extend to alterations in thyroid hormone concentrations during fetal life, periods of weight gain or loss, thermoregulation, physical exercise, and psychiatric diseases. The various forms of thyroid allostasis pose serious problems in differential diagnosis of thyroid disease. This review article provides an overview of physiological mechanisms as well as major diagnostic and therapeutic implications of thyroid allostasis under a variety of developmental and straining conditions.

  3. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, White Matter Hyperintensities, and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher O. Leonards

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH concentrations are frequently altered in acute ischemic stroke patients. It is becoming increasingly apparent that various hormones in the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis may be associated with functional stroke outcome. We have previously shown that white matter hyperintensities (WMH of presumed vascular origin are strong indicators of functional outcome. It is unclear whether an association exists between WMH and TSH. We therefore sought to determine whether TSH levels, measured in acute ischemic stroke patients, are associated with WMH and functional outcome. Methods: We analyzed all first ischemic stroke patients who participated in the Berlin ‘Cream & Sugar' Study (NCT 01378468 and completed a 1-year follow-up assessment from January 2009 to March 2013. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: (1 low TSH (0.1-0.44 μU/ml; (2 normal TSH (0.44-2.5 μU/ml, and (3 high TSH (2.5-20 μU/ml. WMH were assessed using the Fazekas and Wahlund visual rating scales. Functional outcome was assessed using the modified Rankin Scale and was performed via telephone at 1 year by a certified rater. Results: 183 patients were included [median age 66, interquartile range (IQR 54-75; 33% females; median National Institute of Health Stroke Scale 3, IQR 1-4, range 0-24]. Venous samples were collected a median of 4 days (IQR 3-5 following initial symptom onset between 8 and 9 a.m. following a 10-hour fast. Patients with normal TSH levels (n = 132; 72% had significantly higher rates of prestroke diabetes than patients with high TSH levels (normal TSH 17%; high TSH 1%; p = 0.03. Additionally, patients with normal TSH levels tended to have higher estimated glomerular filtration rates than patients with high and low TSH concentrations (normal TSH median estimated glomerular filtration rates: 83 ml/min/1.73 m2; high TSH median estimated glomerular filtration rates: 76 ml/min/1.73 m2; low TSH median: 78 ml/min/1.73 m2; p

  4. Polymorphisms in Toll-like receptors 2 and 4 genes and their expression in chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jotic, Ana; Jesic, Snezana; Zivkovic, Maja; Tomanovic, Nada; Kuveljic, Jovana; Stankovic, Aleksandra

    2015-12-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have a prominent role in inducing innate immune response. It has been suggested that regulation of TLRs is involved in the pathogenesis of chronic otitis media. TLR 2 and TLR 4 polymorphisms were connected with susceptibility to acute otitis and chronic otitis with effusion. The objective of this study was to establish expression of TLR 2 and 4 on middle ear mucosa in different types of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), and the influence of gene polymorphisms TLR 2 Arg753Gln and TLR 4 Thr399Ile and Asp299Gly to susceptibility to CSOM. Middle ear mucosa and full blood samples were obtained from 85 patients with chronic suppurative otitis media with and without cholesteatoma. Control group for mucosal TLR expression consisted of 71 samples of middle ear mucosa taken from patients with otosclerosis, and control group for DNA polymorphism consisted of 100 full blood samples in healthy subjects. DNA polymorphism detection was done with restriction fragment length polymorphism in RT PCR. Expression of TLR 2 and 4 was determined with immunohistochemical staining. TLR 2 and TLR 4 expression on the middle ear mucosa was not influenced by age of the patients with chronic otitis media. Incidence of TLR 2 Arg753Gln polymorphism was significantly higher in patients with chronic otitis media, compared to control group. Significant association between TLR 2 Arg753Gln polymorphism and different types of mucosal changes in patients with chronic otitis media was established. TLR 2 and 4 expression on experimental group mucosa was significantly different compared to control group, where there was no expression (p=0.000). Strong dependence of TLR 2 and TLR 4 expression on middle ear mucosa with different mucosal changes and immunohistochemical activity after staining was detected. Certain polymorphisms in TLR genes could be indicative for susceptibility to chronic otitis media. Expression of TLR 2 and 4 on middle ear mucosa was more dependable on

  5. Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroiditis Resources Thyroiditis Brochure PDF Thyroiditis FAQs PDF En Español Tiroiditis El folleto de Tiroiditis Tiroiditis, Preguntas Frecuentes (FAQ) Search ...

  6. Suppurative cervical lymphadenitis in infancy: microbiology and sociology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Mitchell L; Seif, Joseph M; Whigham, Amy S; Mims, James W; Shetty, Avinash K; Evans, Adele K

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the associations between patient age, sociological factors, and the microbiology of pediatric neck infections. Retrospective chart review of children up to 5 years old who underwent surgical management of suppurative cervical lymphadenitis. A total of 76 individuals met inclusion criteria; 93% of culture-positive infections were caused by Staphylococcus aureus in infants, compared with 59% in children between 13 months and 5 years of age (P = .002). Of the S aureus isolates, 51% were methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) and 49% were methicillin-sensitive S aureus. Methicillin resistance was associated with African American race (P = .004); 67% of participants received empirical antibiotics prior to admission. Of these, 73% received antibiotics in the β-lactam class, and 25% received treatment with clindamycin. Incidence of MRSA is high in infants with cervical lymphadenitis who fail empirical antibiotic therapy and require surgical management. Empirical coverage for cervical lymphadenitis with β-lactam antibiotics may provide inadequate coverage for early infection in this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Thyroid dysfunction and neoplasia in children receiving neck irradiation for cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleming, I.D.; Black, T.L.; Thompson, E.I.; Pratt, C.; Rao, B.; Hustu, O.

    1985-01-01

    The reported relationship of radiation exposure and thyroid carcinoma stimulated this retrospective study of 298 patients treated at St. Jude Children's Hospital with radiation therapy to the neck for childhood cancer to identify patients who developed subsequent thyroid abnormalities. This series includes 153 patients with Hodgkin's disease, 95 with acute lymphocytic leukemia, 28 with lymphoepithelioma, and 22 with miscellaneous tumors. Inclusion in the study required 5 years of disease-free survival following therapy for their original tumor, which included thyroid irradiation. Follow-up has been 100%. Most patients also received chemotherapy. Seventeen patients were found to have decreased thyroid reserve with normal levels of free triiodothyroxine (T3) or free thyroxin, (T4) and an elevated level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). In nine patients hypothyroidism developed, with decreased T3 or T4 levels and an elevated level of TSH. One hyperthyroid patient was identified. Two patients had thyroiditis, and seven had thyroid neoplasms: (carcinoma in two, adenoma in two, colloid nodule in one, and undiagnosed nodules in two). This survey has demonstrated an increased incidence of thyroid dysfunction and thyroid neoplasia when compared to the general population. The importance of long-term follow-up for thyroid disease is emphasized in patients who have received thyroid irradiation. The possible role of subclinical hypothyroidism with TSH elevation coupled with radiation damage to the thyroid gland as a model for the development of neoplastic disease is discussed

  8. Gram stain microbiological pattern of upper extremities suppuration at Baptist Medical Centre, Ogbomoso Nigeria: a fifteen month review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oke, A J; Olaolorun, D A; Meier, D E; Tarpley, J L

    2011-06-01

    Sixty-eight (68) patients with serious upper extremity suppurative infections, presenting within a period of fifteen (15) months, were prospectively studied clinically, Gram stain of aspirates/pus were performed, specimen cultured, planted, and where indicated glucose levels and haemoglobin genotype determined. Half of the patients had hand infections. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from thirty-nine (39) patients. Gram Negative bacilli, including Salmonella were more isolated from patients with diabetes mellitus or Hgb SS or SC. The Gram stain results correlated with the culture result 90%. When Gram Positive cocci were demonstrated in the primary microscopic examination, cultures were not mandatory. When no organism was demonstrated on primary Gram stain or the patient was diabetic or a sickler, cultures of the specimens were done. The Gram stain, well performed, remains a useful, inexpensive, technologically appropriate laboratory test for abetting decision making in patients with upper extremity suppurative infections. Organisms encountered in this study included: Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Coliforms.

  9. Non-visualized Thyroid Gland by Tc-{sup 99m} MIBI Scan with Normal Thyroid Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koca, Gokhan; Atilgan, Hasan Ikbal; Baskin, Aylin; Demirel, Koray; Korkmaz, Meliha [Ankara Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    We present the case of a 21-year-old man who was referred to us for parathyroid scintigraphy with high blood levels of intact parathormone and osteoporosis. Several methods and radiopharmaceuticals, e.g., Tc-99m MIBI and Tl-201 chloride/Tc-99m pertechnetate (Tl-201/TcPO{sup -4}) subtraction, are commonly used for this purpose. We present the case of a thyroid gland that demonstrates quite normal Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake, no accumulation of Tc-99m MIBI, and very low grade Tl-201 uptake. To the best of our knowledge, no similar case has been reported previously. A 21-year-old male with osteoporosis and growth-development retardation was referred for MIBI parathyroid scan because of high blood levels of intact parathormone and bone-specific alkaline-phosphatase, which were 219.4 (15-88 pg/ml) and 355 (21-58 U/L), respectively. In his Tc-99m pertechnetate (TcPO{sup -4}) pinhole scintigraphy, bilateral clearly visualized radioactivity accumulation in the thyroid gland was seen. In both early or late images of the Tc-99m MIBI parathyroid scan, the thyroid gland was not visualized. Therefore, a Tl-201/TcPO{sub -4} subtraction scan method was used. However, the Tl-201 accumulation level in the thyroid gland was not sufficient for the subtraction method. In his thyroid ultrasonography, the thyroid gland echo was homogenous, and there was neither any solid nor cystic lesion. The physical examination of his neck was normal. Other laboratory findings were all normal as follows. TSH: 3.03 (0.35-5.6 IU/mL), free T3: 3.66 (2.5-3.9 pg/mL), free T4: 0.90 (0.59-1.3 ng/dL), Anti-TPO:0.3 (0.40 IU/mL), Anti-TG-Ab: <2.2 (0-+u/L), TSH receptor Ab: 1.0 (0.14 U/L), osteocalcine: 9.13 (1.5-15 ng/dL), growth hormone: 1.3 (0.014-5.21), calcitonin:17 (0.150 ng/mL), sedimentation:6 (0.15 mm/h). There were no significant symptoms of acute or chronic thyroiditis. The cause for discordant uptake in the thyroid gland with T1-201 and Tc-99m MIBI scan could not be provided through clinical or

  10. Thyroid cancer. Reevaluation of an experimental model for radiogenic endocrine carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, K.H.

    1984-11-01

    The status of experimental studies of radiogenic thyroid cancer is appraised, and some older data are reinterpreted in the light of more recent findings. Problems of thyroid dosimetry, particularly the dosimetry of internal radioiodides, are discussed. The steps in radiation carcinogenesis during the acute phase, the latent phase, and the phase of tumor growth are discussed in terms of thyroid epithelial cell population changes. The roles of three cell populations (undamaged or completely repaired epithelial cells, oncogenically initiated cells, and terminally damaged but functionally competent cells) in neoplasia are described. Finally, the implications for man of these experimental results and conclusions are discussed. 89 refs., 4 figs

  11. Dual ectopic thyroid associated with thyroid hemiagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shigenori; Masuda, Teruyuki; Ishimori, Masatoshi

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of a 15-year-old girl with a midline neck mass that was first noted 2 or 3 years previously. She had been treated with levothyroxine (L-T4) for congenital hypothyroidism until 11 years of age. Ultrasonography revealed an atrophic right thyroid (1.0 × 1.6 × 2.6 cm in size) and a mass (2.3 × 1.0 × 3.5 cm in size) in the upper part of the neck. No left lobe of the thyroid was detected. On further evaluation, Tc-99m pertechnetate thyroid scintigraphy and CT showed ectopic thyroid tissue in the lingual region and infrahyoid region. Thus, she was diagnosed as having dual ectopic thyroid and thyroid hemiagenesis. The atrophic right thyroid was thought be non-functional. Treatment with L-T4 was started to reduce the size of the dual ectopic thyroid tissue. This may be the first reported case of dual ectopic thyroid associated with hemiagenesis detected only by ultrasonography. Ultrasonography can confirm the presence or absence of orthotopic thyroid tissue in patients with ectopic thyroid.The cause of congenital hypothyroidism should be examined.Clinical manifestation of ectopic thyroid may appear when the treatment with L-T4 is discontinued.Annual follow-up is needed in all children when their thyroid hormone replacement is stopped.

  12. High-frequency conductive hearing loss as a diagnostic test for incomplete ossicular discontinuity in non-cholesteatomatous chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnamurti M A Sarmento

    Full Text Available Chronic suppurative otitis media, with or without cholesteatoma, may lead to erosion of the ossicles and discontinuity of the ossicular chain. In incomplete ossicular discontinuity (IOD, partial erosion of the ossicles occurs, but some sound transmission is noted throughout the ossicular chain. High-frequency conductive hearing loss (HfCHL has been considered a hallmark of incomplete ossicular discontinuity. This study aims to evaluate the use of HfCHL as a preoperative predictor of IOD in patients with non-cholesteatomatous chronic suppurative otitis media. The HfCHL test was defined as the preoperative air-bone gap (ABG at 4 kHz minus the average of the ABG at 0.25 and 0.5 kHz. The test was applied in 328 patients before surgery and compared to intraoperative findings as the gold standard. At surgery, 201 (61.3% patients had an intact ossicular chain, 44 (13.4% had a complete ossicular discontinuity, and 83 (25.3% exhibited an IOD. The best cutoff level was calculated as 10 dB. The HfCHL test to diagnose IOD had a sensitivity of 83% and a specificity of 92% with a post-test probability of 78% and a likelihood ratio of 10.2. We concluded that the HfCHL test is highly effective in predicting IOD in patients with non-cholesteatomatous chronic suppurative otitis media and that it should be used routinely as a screening test prior to surgery.

  13. Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Thyroid Association ® Postpartum Thyroiditis www.thyroid.org What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland that ... as they should. What are the symptoms of postpartum thyroiditis? Thyroiditis is a general term that refers ...

  14. Thyroid dysfunction among long-term survivors of bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sklar, C.A.; Kim, T.H.; Ramsay, N.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thyroid function studies were followed serially in 27 long-term survivors (median 33 months) of bone marrow transplantation. There were 15 men and 12 women (median age 13 1/12 years, range 11/12 to 22 6/12 years). Aplastic anemia (14 patients) and acute nonlymphocytic leukemia (eight patients) were the major reasons for bone marrow transplantation. Pretransplant conditioning consisted of single-dose irradiation combined with high-dose, short-term chemotherapy in 23 patients, while four patients received a bone marrow transplantation without any radiation therapy. Thyroid dysfunction occurred in 10 of 23 (43 percent) irradiated patients; compensated hypothyroidism (elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels only) developed in eight subjects, and two patients had primary thyroid failure (elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and low T4 index). The abnormal thyroid studies were detected a median of 13 months after bone marrow transplantation. The four subjects who underwent transplantation without radiation therapy have remained euthyroid (median follow-up two years). The only variable that appeared to correlate with the subsequent development of impaired thyroid function was the type of graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis employed; the irradiated subjects treated with methotrexate alone had a higher incidence of thyroid dysfunction compared to those treated with methotrexate combined with antithymocyte globulin and prednisone (eight of 12 versus two of 11, p less than 0.05). The high incidence and subtle nature of impaired thyroid function following single-dose irradiation for bone marrow transplantation are discussed

  15. The thyroid and environmental stress in mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, V. A.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of hyperoxia at ambient pressure on thyroid function and thyroid hormone metabolism have been assessed. Thyroidal activity was depressed in mice and rats by exposure to hyperoxia, due at least in part to a decrease in the rate of secretion of pituitary thyrotropin. The effects of hyperoxia on the peripheral deiodination of thyroxine were dependent on the concentration of oxygen employed and/or the duration of exposure. When significant changes were observed a reduction in the rate of deiodination and in the deiodinative clearance of T sub 4 occurred. Hyperoxia also resulted in a marked fall in circulating T sub 4 concentration and a decrease in T sub 4-binding activity in serum. Many of these effects of hyperoxia were prevented by the concomitant administration of large amounts of Vitamin E. These decreases in thyroid function and T sub 4 metabolism were associated with a decrease in the rate of whole body oxygen consumption. It was concluded that the deleterious effects of oxygen in the rat were not due to an oxygen induced hyperthyroid state in the peripheral tissues. Thyroxine was shown to be essential for survival during acute cold stress.

  16. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpartum thyroiditis and silent thyroiditis could occur closely to each other; however, the link between these disorders is not well established. This report is to remind physicians of the possibility of recurrent silent thyroiditis in women with a history of postpartum thyroiditis. PMID:24987536

  17. Thyroid cancer in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, Giacomo; Vermiglio, Francesco; Moleti, Mariacarla

    2017-01-01

    Ectopy is the most common embryogenetic defect of the thyroid gland, representing between 48 and 61% of all thyroid dysgeneses. Persistence of thyroid tissue in the context of a thyroglossal duct remnant and lingual thyroid tissue are the most common defects. Although most cases of ectopic thyroid are asymptomatic, any disease affecting the thyroid may potentially involve the ectopic tissue, including malignancies. The prevalence of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in lingual thyroid and thyroglossal duct cyst is around 1% of patients affected with the above thyroid ectopies. We here review the current literature concerning primary thyroid carcinomas originating from thyroid tissue on thyroglossal duct cysts and lingual thyroid. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Recurrent Silent Thyroiditis as a Sequela of Postpartum Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Hanseree, Preaw; Salvador, Vincent Bryan; Sachmechi, Issac; Kim, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Thyroiditis encompasses a group of disorders characterized by thyroid inflammation. Though clinically indistinguishable from silent thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis occurs in women within 12 months after delivery. Recurrent postpartum thyroiditis in subsequent pregnancies is common, but recurrent silent thyroiditis is rare. We reported a case of patient with recurrent episodes of thyroiditis, unrelated to pregnancy, after an episode of postpartum thyroiditis. It is of interest that postpar...

  19. Thyroid Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Surgery Resources Thyroid Surgery Brochure PDF Thyroid Surgery FAQs PDF En Español Cirugia De La Tiroides El folleto de Cirugia De La Tiroides Search Thyroid ...

  20. Oedema of the neck after ablation of the thyroid with radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goolden, A.W.G.; Kam, K.C.; Fitzpatrick, M.L.; Munro, A.J.

    1986-01-01

    Six out of 30 patients who underwent thyroid ablation with 131 I during the period 1975-85 developed acute oedema of the neck within 48 h of the therapeutic dose. The condition was painless and responded well to treatment with corticosteroids. The early onset and absence of pain distinguish this complication from radiation thyroiditis. Dosage calculations and thermoluminescent-dosemeter measurements of the dose at various points on the anterior surface of the neck of a patient with a toxic adenoma of the thyroid treated with 131 I were in fairly good agreement with one another and confirmed that the oedema of the neck could not be a direct effect of irradiation on the extrathyroidal tissues. It is suggested that this phenomenon may be a hypersensitivity reaction associated with massive destruction of thyroid tissue. (author)

  1. Thyroid stimulating hormone and subclinical thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Yongtie

    2008-01-01

    Subclinical thyroid dysfunction has mild clinical symptoms. It is nonspecific and not so noticeable. It performs only for thyroid stimulating hormone rise and decline. The value of early diagnosis and treatment of thyroid stimulating hormone in subclinical thyroid dysfunction were reviewed. (authors)

  2. The role of selenium, vitamin C, and zinc in benign thyroid diseases and of selenium in malignant thyroid diseases: Low selenium levels are found in subacute and silent thyroiditis and in papillary and follicular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starzinger Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thyroid physiology is closely related to oxidative changes. The aim of this controlled study was to evaluate the levels of nutritional anti-oxidants such as vitamin C, zinc (Zn and selenium (Se, and to investigate any association of them with parameters of thyroid function and pathology including benign and malignant thyroid diseases. Methods This controlled evaluation of Se included a total of 1401 subjects (1186 adults and 215 children distributed as follows: control group (n = 687, benign thyroid disease (85 children and 465 adults; malignant thyroid disease (2 children and 79 adults. Clinical evaluation of patients with benign thyroid disease included sonography, scintigraphy, as well as the determination of fT3, fT4, TSH, thyroid antibodies levels, Se, Zn, and vitamin C. Besides the routine oncological parameters (TG, TSH, fT4, ultrasound Se was also determined in the cases of malignant disease. The local control groups for the evaluation of Se levels were taken from a general practice (WOMED as well as from healthy active athletes. Blood samples were collected between 8:00 and 10:30 a.m. All patients lived in Innsbruck. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS 14.0. The Ho stated that there should be no differences in the levels of antioxidants between controls and thyroid disease patients. Results Among the thyroid disease patients neither vitamin C, nor Zn nor Se correlated with any of the following parameters: age, sex, BMI, body weight, thyroid scintigraphy, ultrasound pattern, thyroid function, or thyroid antibodies. The proportion of patients with benign thyroid diseases having analyte concentrations below external reference cut off levels were 8.7% of cases for vitamin C; 7.8% for Zn, and 20.3% for Se. Low Se levels in the control group were found in 12%. Se levels were significantly decreased in cases of sub-acute and silent thyroiditis (66.4 ± 23.1 μg/l and 59.3 ± 20.1 μg/l, respectively as well as in

  3. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  4. Primary thyroid lymphoma: a rare thyroid malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukhtar, R.; Khattak, R.; Mateen, A.

    2011-01-01

    Incidence of thyroidal masses is very high with predominance in females. Most of these masses are benign. Malignancy can be of thyroid or non-thyroid origin. Surgery is treatment of choice in the former but not in latter. Primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) is a rare cause of thyroid malignancy of non-thyroid origin which is highly treatable without surgery but early diagnosis is important requisite to have better outcome. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) is an important tool in early diagnosis of PTL, which enables doctors to treat patient better without major surgery and its morbidity. Two cases of primary thyroid lymphoma are hereby presented. The patient diagnosed on FNAC had better outcome than the one who had major surgery. (author)

  5. Clinical study on the incidence of vancomycin intraocular injection in treatment with suppurative endophthalmitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Qin Duan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To estimate the clinical significance of the microculture of humor and vitreous and vancomycin intraocular injection in treatment of suppurative endophthalmitis associated with intraocular foreign bodies.METHODS: Totally 65 patients with penetrating eye trauma and retained intraocular foreign bodies in emergency operation and intraocular injection from January 2012 to September 2014 were regarded as the study group, another 62 patients with penetrating eye trauma and retained intraocular foreign bodies in emergency operation without intraocular injection before August 2011 were regarded as the control group. Aqueous humor and vitreous humor were taken from each patient of the study group and the control group for bacteria and fungus cultivation. The study group was treated with 1mg vancomycin intraocular injection after operation, while the control group was not. RESULTS: The incidence of endophthalmitis in the control group was 16%(10 cases, while in the study group was 3%(2 cases, with significant difference between two groups(x2=6.32, PP>0.05. The positive rate of vitreous humor germiculture in study group was 14%(9 cases, and the incidence of endophthalmitis was 3%. The positive rate of vitreous humor germiculture in control group was 11%(7 casesand the incidence of endophthalmitis was 16%, with significant differences between two groups(PCONCLUSION: Intraocular foreign bodies treated with emergency operation and vancomycin intraocular injections can decrease the incidence of suppurative endophthalmitis and have a good vision prognosis for the second stage of operation.

  6. Thyroid ophthalmopathy revisited; Oftalmopatia tireoidea revisitada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, Karina Freitas Soares; Garcia, Marcelo de Mattos [Colegio Brasileiro de Radiologia e Diagnostico por Imagem (CBR), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Axial Centro de Imagem, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: marcelomgarcia@superig.com.br, e-mail: ce@axialmg.com.br

    2009-07-15

    Thyroid ophthalmopathy is an autoimmune orbital disorder closely associated with Graves' disease, although both conditions may also occur isolatedly. Thyroid ophthalmopathy may precede, coincide or follow the thyroid dysfunction onset and may rarely occur in euthyroid and hypothyroid patients. The extra ocular muscles are most frequently involved and become enlarged resulting in ophthalmoplegia and proptosis. Other relevant signs include palpebral retraction, conjunctival hyperemia and periorbitary edema. Visual loss may occur in association with compressive optic neuropathy at the orbital apex. Thyroid ophthalmopathy is characterized by inflammation, congestion, hypertrophy and fibrosis involving fat and the orbital muscles. The disease activity is divided into two phases: an acute or inflammatory phase and a second one corresponding to an inactive phase associated with fibrotic changes and fat infiltration of the retrobulbar tissues. The diagnosis is based on clinical findings and imaging methods are indicated in case of doubt or suspicion of optic neuropathy. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging can confirm the diagnosis, allowing the evaluation of the critical region of the orbital apex. Magnetic resonance imaging is the method of choice considering the superior tissue contrast resolution, besides the capacity of evaluating the disease activity by means of long TR sequences and detecting inflammatory changes, with a relevant role in a timely therapeutic planning, which may improve the prognosis. (author)

  7. Inflation-deflation test as a predictor of aditus patency in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Regi; Chrisolyte, Shipra; Rupa, V

    2009-09-01

    To assess eustachian tubal function (ETF) preoperatively in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) with central perforation by performing the inflation-deflation test. To correlate the results of the inflation-deflation test with the finding of aditus patency or block in patients with CSOM STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, cohort Tertiary care hospital Eighty adult patients with chronic suppurative otitis media and central perforation were recruited into the study. There were 45 males and 35 females. All patients underwent preoperative inflation-deflation test followed by cortical mastoidectomy and tympanoplasty. The patency of the aditus was assessed intraoperatively. Equalization of pressure on inflation-deflation test and intraoperative assessment of aditus patency Of a total of 80 patients, 49 patients were found to have discharging ears and 31 had dry ears at the time of surgery. In dry ears the inflation-deflation test had a sensitivity of 93% in predicting aditus patency although the specificity was lower at 67%. In discharging ears the sensitivity in predicting aditus patency was 72% and the specificity was 67%. The eustachian tube inflation-deflation test is a sensitive test for predicting aditus patency in patients with dry ears but less so in patients with discharging ears. Hence, it could be used in the former to avoid unnecessary exploration of the mastoid.

  8. [Clinical case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montasser, Dina Ibrahim; Hassani, Mohamed; Zajjari, Yassir; Bahadi, Abdelali; Alayoud, Ahmed; Hamzi, Amine; Hassani, Kawtar; Moujoud, Omar; Asseraji, Mohamed; Kadiri, Moncif; Aatif, Taoufik; El Kabbaj, Driss; Benyahia, Mohamed; Allam, Mustapha; Akhmouch, Ismail; Oualim, Zouhir

    2010-04-01

    Although the clinic picture is often indicative of muscle manifestations in patients with hypothyroidism, signs and symptoms of this condition are variable from simple elevation of serum muscle enzymes with myalgia, muscle weakness, cramps to rhabdomyolysis with acute renal failure which remains a rare event. Thyroid hormones affect the function of almost every body organ, and thyroid dysfunction produces a wide range of metabolic disturbances. Hypothyroidism is associated with significant effects on the kidney which the pathophysiology seems to be multifactorial, but the exact mechanisms remain poorly understood. Hypothyroidism as a cause of renal impairment is usually overlooked, leading to unnecessary diagnostic procedures. The main objective of our observation is to report a case of acute renal failure revealing an autoimmune hypothyroidism in which thyroid hormone substitution led to a significant improvement in muscular, thyroid and renal disorders. Copyright 2010 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Thyroid hormone synthesis and anti-thyroid drugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The inhibition of thyroid hormone synthesis is required for the treatment of hyperthyroidism and this can be achieved by one or more anti-thyroid drugs. The most widely used anti-thyroid drug methimazole (MMI) inhibits the production of thyroid hormones by irreversibly inactivating the enzyme TPO. Our studies show that the ...

  10. Chronic suppurative otitis media in a birth cohort of children in Greenland: population-based study of incidence and risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben; Pipper, Christian Bressen

    2011-01-01

    Inuits of the Arctic experience very high rates of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM), yet world-wide, very little is known about the epidemiology of CSOM. The study aims were to determine incidence, median age at debut, risk factors, and associated population attributable risks for CSOM...

  11. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy

  12. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimny, M.

    2008-01-01

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  13. Thyroid Hemiagenesis Associated with Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Nsame

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hemiagenesis is a rare congenital anomaly resulting from failure of one thyroid lobe development. We report a 23-year-old female presented with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis in left lobe, associated with hemiagenesis of right lobe and isthmus which was previously diagnosed as Graves’ hyperthyroidism, but developed further into Hashimoto’s thyroiditis after being treated with antithyroid drugs. The symptoms of hyperthyroidism in the current case led to the diagnostic confirmation by scintiscanning of an absent lobe. The antithyroid pharmacotherapy by thiamazole was used. However, due to symptoms of hypothyroidism, it was discontinued two months later, so thyroid hormone substitution was reintroduced. Antithyroid antibody studies and ultrasonography documented the presence of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

  14. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  15. Morphological evidence of biofilm formation in Greenlanders with chronic suppurative otitis media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Homøe, Preben; Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Wessman, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    Biofilm may explain the recurrences and recalcitrant episodes of otorrhea in chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). This study investigates bacterial biofilm in Greenlanders with CSOM and chronic otitis media with effusion (COME). The study is partly blinded, prospective and retrospective. Six...... were analyzed with microscopy and peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridization (PNA-FISH). Biofilm was confirmed in 83% of CSOM smears but in none of the COME smears. Mucosal biofilm was confirmed in 80% of the biopsies from adults with CSOM. This study provides direct morphological evidence...... of biofilm in samples from human CSOM. This may help to explain the microbiological mechanisms of the disease and alter the treatment strategy in the future....

  16. Thyroid Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... beats. All of these activities are your body's metabolism. Thyroid problems include Goiter - enlargement of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism - when your thyroid gland makes more thyroid hormones ...

  17. CURRENT ASPECTS OF ACUTE STREPTOCOCCAL TONSILLOPHARYNGITIS DIAGNOSTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Polyakov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute tonsillopharyngitis in children is one of the most common reasons for medical consultations. The majority of acute pharyngeal inflammatory diseases are viral. The frequency of bacterial tonsillopharyngitis in children (the main causative agent is group A Streptococcus, GAS is about 20–30%. In spite of it antibiotics are prescribed for 95% of patients, thus it is inappropriate. On the other hand misdiagnosis of acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis and antibiotics refusal can lead to suppurative and nonsuppurative rheumatic complications. Some prominent trials have shown a poor ability of signs and inflammatory biomarkers to identify tonsillopharyngitis streptococcal vs. viral. So it is impossible to use them as indication for antibiotic. The experience of clinical score use (McIsaac etc. have also demonstrated a poor prognostic value. As a result the throat swab culture is the «gold standard» of acute streptococcal tonsillopharyngitis. It has such limitations as rare microbiology labs, method technology, the price and the delay in obtaining result. An alternative technique is GAS rapid antigen detecting test (RADT for the identification of GAS directly from throat swabs. The world data shows a high sensitivity and specificity of modern RADTs.

  18. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Erik K.; Bible, Keith C.; Doherty, Gerard M.; Mandel, Susan J.; Nikiforov, Yuri E.; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W.; Sawka, Anna M.; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G.; Sherman, Steven I.; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L.; Tuttle, R. Michael; Wartofsky, Leonard

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer. Methods: The specific clinical questions addressed in these guidelines were based on prior versions of the guidelines, stakeholder input, and input of task force members. Task force panel members were educated on knowledge synthesis methods, including electronic database searching, review and selection of relevant citations, and critical appraisal of selected studies. Published English language articles on adults were eligible for inclusion. The American College of Physicians Guideline Grading System was used for critical appraisal of evidence and grading strength of recommendations for therapeutic interventions. We developed a similarly formatted system to appraise the quality of such studies and resultant recommendations. The guideline panel had complete editorial independence from the ATA. Competing interests of guideline task force members were regularly updated, managed, and communicated to the ATA and task force members. Results: The revised guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules include recommendations regarding initial evaluation, clinical and ultrasound criteria for fine-needle aspiration biopsy, interpretation of fine-needle aspiration biopsy results, use of molecular markers, and management of benign thyroid nodules. Recommendations regarding the initial management of thyroid cancer include those relating to screening for thyroid cancer, staging and risk assessment, surgical management, radioiodine remnant ablation and therapy

  19. The Influence of Thyroid Function, Inflammation, and Obesity on Risk Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury by Cystatin C in the Emergency Department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Schanz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: There is a growing role for emergency departments (ED in assessing acute kidney injury (AKI for hospital admissions but there are few studies addressing acute kidney injury biomarkers and confounding factors in the ED. Cystatin C (CysC, a newer renal biomarker, is influenced by thyroid function, inflammation and obesity. This study aims to be the first study to address the impact of these parameters in the ED. Methods: Admitted patients (n=397 were enrolled in the ED at Robert-Bosch-Hospital, Stuttgart, Germany. Daily serum creatinine (sCr was recorded for AKI classification by Kidney Diseases Improves Global Outcome (KDIGO criteria. CysC, thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH, thyroxine (T4, C-reactive protein (CRP and body mass index (BMI were registered at enrollment in the ED. Serum samples were collected at enrollment, after 6 hours and in the following mornings (day 1 to day 3. The correlation of CysC and sCr was studied on a two variable logistic regression model. A linear predictor was computed to predict minimal AKI stage and area under the curve (AUC was calculated. Results: Of 397 patients enrolled for classification by KDIGO AKI criteria, n=152 (38% developed AKI, n=69 (17.4% reached AKI stage I, n=70 (17.6% AKI stage II, and n=13 (3% AKI stage III. Although a correlation between CRP and CysC levels was shown (rho=0.376, this didn't affect the predictive ability for AKI according to our data. We compared receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves (DeLong test of CysC to ROC curves of CysC with the additional variables TSH, BMI, and CRP respectively. Our data shows that addition of CRP, TSH, or BMI does not improve prediction of AKI stage beyond prediction based solely on CysC levels. Conclusions: CysC is known to be influenced by thyroid function, inflammation and obesity, but in our large ED population there was no significant impact of these factors on the diagnostic accuracy of CysC to detect AKI in ED patients.

  20. 2015 American Thyroid Association Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Bryan R; Alexander, Erik K; Bible, Keith C; Doherty, Gerard M; Mandel, Susan J; Nikiforov, Yuri E; Pacini, Furio; Randolph, Gregory W; Sawka, Anna M; Schlumberger, Martin; Schuff, Kathryn G; Sherman, Steven I; Sosa, Julie Ann; Steward, David L; Tuttle, R. Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Thyroid nodules are a common clinical problem, and differentiated thyroid cancer is becoming increasingly prevalent. Since the American Thyroid Association's (ATA's) guidelines for the management of these disorders were revised in 2009, significant scientific advances have occurred in the field. The aim of these guidelines is to inform clinicians, patients, researchers, and health policy makers on published evidence relating to the diagnosis and management of thyroid nodules and d...

  1. [Autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krátký, Jan; Jiskra, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Association between autoimmune thyroiditis (CLT) and thyroid cancer remains not clear. Although both diseases often occur simultaneously in histological samples, it is not yet clear whether CLT can be regarded as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy. This review focus on the known epidemiological and molecular genetics links between both diseases. Most studies have shown a significant association between thyroid cancer and positive antibodies to thyroglobulin and histological evidence of CLT, as well. Both disorders share some risk factors (greater incidence in women, in areas with adequate supply of iodine and in patients after radiotherapy of the neck) and molecular genetics linkage. For example: RET/PTC rearrangements could be more often found in carcinomas associated with CLT, but this mutation could be found in benign lesions such as CLT, as well. CLT seems to be a positive prognostic factor in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. It is associated with less invasive forms of tumor, lower occurrence of infiltrated lymphatic nodes and a lower risk of recurrence.

  2. Sonographic features of thyroid nodules that may help distinguish clinically atypical subacute thyroiditis from thyroid malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Fu-shun; Wang, Wei; Wang, Yan; Xu, Ming; Liang, Jin-yu; Zheng, Yan-ling; Xie, Xiao-yan; Li, Xiao-xi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate sonographic features for distinguishing clinically atypical subacute thyroiditis from malignant thyroid nodules. A total of 165 hypoechoic thyroid nodules without calcification in 135 patients with histologic diagnosis were included in this study. These nodules were classified into 2 groups: a thyroiditis group (55 nodules in 36 patients) and a malignancy group (110 nodules in 99 patients). The sonographic features of the groups were retrospectively reviewed. No significant differences were detected for the variables of marked echogenicity, a taller-than-wide shape, and mixed vascularity. However, a poorly defined margin was detected more frequently in the thyroiditis group than the malignancy group (P thyroiditis, with sensitivity and specificity of 87.3% and 80.9%, respectively. Centripetal reduction echogenicity was observed exclusively in the thyroiditis group, with high specificity (100%) but low sensitivity (21.8%) for atypical subacute thyroiditis diagnosis. All of the thyroiditis nodules with a positive color signal showed noninternal vascularity (negative predictive value, 100%). There is a considerable overlap between the sonographic features of atypical subacute thyroiditis and thyroid malignancy. However, the margin, echogenicity, and vascularity type are helpful indicators for differential diagnosis of atypical subacute thyroiditis. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  3. Evidence-based management of otitis media: a 5S model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, J D; Yung, M W

    2015-02-01

    The 5S model proposes five hierarchical levels (systems, summaries, synopses, syntheses and studies) of pre-appraised evidence to guide evidence-based practice. This review aimed to identify and summarise pre-appraised evidence at the highest available 5S level for the management of different subsets of otitis media: acute otitis media, otitis media with effusion, chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma in both adults and children. Data sources were pre-appraised evidence resources. Evidence freely available from sources at the highest available level of the 5S model were summarised for this review. System level evidence exists for acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. Summary level evidence exists for recurrent acute otitis media and medical management of chronic suppurative otitis media. There is an absence of randomised controlled trials to prove the efficacy of surgical management of chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma. Until randomised controlled trial data are generated, consensus publications on the surgical management of chronic suppurative otitis media and cholesteatoma should be used to guide best practice.

  4. Thyroid hormones regulate skeletal muscle regeneration after acute injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Anna Lúcia R C; Albuquerque, João Paulo C; Matos, Marina S; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P; Rosenthal, Doris; da Costa, Vânia Maria Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroid statuses during the initial phase of skeletal muscle regeneration in rats. To induce hypo- or hyperthyroidism, adult male Wistar rats were treated with methimazole (0.03%) or T4 (10 μg/100 g), respectively, for 10 days. Three days before sacrifice, a crush injury was produced in the solear muscles of one half of the animals, while the other half remained intact. T3, T4, TSH, and leptin serum levels were not affected by the injury. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly increased in hyperthyroid and hyper-injury animals. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by the significant increase in serum TSH levels in hypothyroid and hypo-injury animals. Injury increased cell infiltration and macrophage accumulation especially in hyperthyroid animals. Both type 2 and type 3 deiodinases were induced by lesion, and the opposite occurred with the type 1 isoform, at least in the control and hyperthyroid groups. Injury increased both MyoD and myogenin expression in all the studied groups, but only MyoD expression was increased by thyroidal status only at the protein level. We conclude that thyroid hormones modulate skeletal muscle regeneration possibly by regulating the inflammatory process, as well as MyoD and myogenin expression in the injured tissue.

  5. Thyroid autoimmunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, Wilmar M.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD) is a multifactorial disease in which autoimmunity against thyroid antigens develops against a particular genetic background facilitated by exposure to environmental factors. Immunogenicity of the major thyroid antigens thyroid peroxidase, thyroglobulin (TG) and

  6. Thyroid Function Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Thyroid Function Tests Leer en Español Thyroid Function Tests FUNCTION HOW DOES THE THYROID GLAND FUNCTION? ... Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid Function Tests Resources Thyroid Function Tests Brochure PDF En ...

  7. Painless thyroiditis associated to thyroid carcinoma: role of initial ultrasonography evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentini, Raisa Bressan; Macedo, Bruno Mussoi de; Izquierdo, Rogério Friedrich; Meyer, Erika Laurini Souza

    2016-04-01

    Even though it is a rare event, most associations of thyroid carcinoma with subacute thyroiditis described in the literature are related to its granulomatous form (Quervain's thyroiditis). We present a patient with subacute lymphocytic thyroiditis (painless thyroiditis) and papillary thyroid cancer that was first suspected in an initial ultrasound evaluation. A 30-year old female patient who was referred to the emergency room due to hyperthyroidism symptoms was diagnosed with painless thyroiditis established by physical examination and laboratory findings. With the presence of a palpable painless thyroid nodule an ultrasound was prescribed and the images revealed a suspicious thyroid nodule, microcalcification focus in the heterogeneous thyroid parenquima and cervical lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration biopsy was taken from this nodule; cytology was assessed for compatibility with papillary thyroid carcinoma. Postsurgical pathology evaluation showed a multicentric papillary carcinoma and lymphocytic infiltration. Subacute thyroiditis, regardless of type, may produce transitory ultrasound changes that obscure the coexistence of papillary carcinoma. Due to this, initial thyroid ultrasound evaluation should be delayed until clinical recovery. We recommended a thyroid ultrasound exam for initial evaluation of painless thyroiditis, particularly in patients with palpable thyroid nodule. Further cytological examination is recommended in cases presenting with suspect thyroid nodule and/or non-nodular hypoechoic (> 1 cm) or heterogeneous areas with microcalcification focus.

  8. Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ... Institute. (2014). Thyroid Cancer . Bomeli, S.R., LeBeau, S.O., Ferris, R.L. (2010). Evalution of a Thyroid Nodule . ...

  9. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T/sub 4/) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T/sub 4/ 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of /sup 3/H-dihydroalprenolol to ..beta..-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function.

  10. Influence of thyroid states on stress gastric ulcer formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, D.E.; Walker, C.H.; Mason, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that thyroid states may affect the acute development of gastric lesions induced by cold-resistant stress. Normal (euthyroid), hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats were used. Gastric lesion incidence and severity was significantly increased in hypothyroid rats, whereas in contrast hyperthyroid rats developed significantly less gastric lesions. As anticipated, plasma levels of thyroxin (T 4 ) were significantly elevated in hyperthyroid rats, and undetectable in hypothyroid rats. Acute pretreatment with i.p. cimetidine, but not T 4 1 h prior to stress completely prevented gastric lesions formation in hypothyroid rats. Finally, binding of 3 H-dihydroalprenolol to β-adrenergic receptors on brain membranes prepared from frontal cortex was reduced by 20% in hypothyroid rats after 3 h of stress. These and other data contained herein suggest that thyroid hormones contribute to modulate the responsiveness of the gastric mucosa to stress. The increase rate of ulcerogenesis observed in hypothyroid rats appears to be mediated by gastric acid secretion. The central mechanism for this response may involve decreased brain nonadrenergic receptor function

  11. Follicular thyroid carcinoma masquerading as subacute thyroiditis diagnosis using ultrasonography and radionuclide thyroid angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, R.; Jayaram, G.

    1991-01-01

    The rare presentation of a follicular thyroid carcinoma mimicking the clinical and radionuclide features of subacute thyroiditis is described. Granulomatous thyroiditis was initially suspected on the clinical basis. Repeat fine needle aspiration cytology was suggestive of acinar proliferation with hyperfunction. Ultrasonography revealed a solid nodule with a peripheral sonolucent halo. Radionuclide angiography showed intense arterial flow of Tc-99m pertechnetate through the right lobe thyroid enlargement suggestive of malignant thyroid pathology. Surgical excision and histopathological examination revealed a follicular carcinoma involving the right lobe. 31 refs., 4 figs

  12. Thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications.

  13. Thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Falk, S.

    1990-01-01

    Presenting a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid disease, this volume provides a comprehensive picture of current thyroid medicine and surgery. The book integrates the perspectives of the many disciplines that deal with the clinical manifestations of thyroid disorders. Adding to the clinical usefulness of the book is the state-of-the-art coverage of many recent developments in thyroidology, including the use of highly sensitive two-site TSH immunoradionetric measurements to diagnose thyroid activity; thyroglobulin assays in thyroid cancer and other diseases; new diagnostic applications of MRI and CT; treatment with radionuclides and chemotherapy; new developments in thyroid immunology, pathology, and management of hyperthyroidism; suppressive treatment with thyroid hormone; and management of Graves' ophthalmopathy. The book also covers all aspects of thyroid surgery, including surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism; papillary, follicular, and other carcinomas; thyroidectomy; and prevention and management of complications

  14. Burkitts primary thyroid lymphoma coexistence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higuera, A.; Vicente, J.; Lazaro, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    Th primary thyroid lymphoma is a rare neoplasm, above all in children. We present a case of a child with Burkitt's thyroid lymphoma as the only manifestation of this disease, associated to lymphocytic thyroiditis. Clinically, it initiated as a rapidly growing goiter with compressive symptomatology. The X-ray findings are described: hypoechoic and hypodense multiple nodes that affect the right thyroid lobe and isthmus, with extraglandular extension to the vascular space and to the mediastinum. The differential diagnosis is considered with other more frequent thyroid pathologies in this age group. (Author) 14 refs

  15. Dual thyroid ectopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Akeely, Mohammed H.

    2003-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid gland is a rare embryological fault of thyroid development .Dual ectopic thyroid is more rare and only 8 cases have been reported in the literature. The author presents a case of dual ectopic thyroid in a 16 year old boy with an anterior red neck mass, which is gradually growing in size particularly in last 2 years. The initial diagnosis was thyroglossal duct cyst. Thyroid function test revealed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone. Ultrasound of the neck did not show thyroid gland in its normal pre tracheal position. Thyroid scan (Technetium 99)revealed the diagnosis of dual thyroid ectopia(lingual and subhyoid). (author)

  16. [The influence of interleukin gene polymorphism on the serum cytokine level in the patients presenting with chonic suppurative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baike, E V; Vitkovsky, Yu A; Dutova, A A

    The objective of the present work was to study the influence of allelic variant associations of 1-beta interleukin (C3953T, &511C, T31C), interleukin-6 (C174G), and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (G308A) gene polymorphisms on the serum cytokine level in the patients presenting with chronic suppurative otitis media. A total of 299 patients at the age varying from 16 to 55 years with this condition divided into three groups were examined. Group 1 was comprised of 146 patients suffering from the tubotympanic form of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). Group 2 was composed of 153 patients with epitympanic antral form of this condition. The control group included 183 subjects who have never suffered pathological changes in the middle ear. Human genomic DNA was analyzed with the use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The serum cytokine levels were measured by the solid-state enzyme immunoassay in the beginning and at the end of the treatment period. The study has demonstrated that 56.2% of the healthy residents of the trans-Baikal region had the C/T Il-1b (C3953T) genotype. 79.1% of the patients presenting with the carious carious-destructive form of chronic suppurative otitis media were the heterozygous carriers of the T511C gene of 1-beta interleukin and had the maximally high concentrations of this interleukin in the blood serum. A rise in the production of the pro-inflammatory mediator (IL-6) was found to be related to the severity of the inflammatory process in the middle ear. The TNF-alpha content in the patients with CSOM during the active period of the disease proved to increase by a factor of 6 in comparison with that in the subjects of the control group irrespective of the type of mutation.

  17. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima, Marcus Aurelho de; Marinho, Euripedes Oliveira; Marinho, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Santos, Lister Arruda Modesto dos; Raphael, Cristiane Mendes

    2000-01-01

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body 99m Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  18. ACUTE APENDICITIS IN LIVER TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca-Neto, Olival Cirilo Lucena da; Lima, Heloise Caroline de Souza; Melo, Paulo Sérgio Vieira de; Lemos, Roberto; Leitão, Laércio; Amorim, Américo Gusmão; Lacerda, Cláudio Moura

    2016-03-01

    Appendicitis is a common cause of emergency surgery that in the population undergoing organ transplantation presents a rare incidence due to late diagnosis and treatment. To report the occurrence of acute appendicitis in a cohort of liver transplant recipients. Retrospective analysis in a period of 12 years among 925 liver transplants, in witch five cases of acute appendicitis were encountered. Appendicitis occurred between three and 46 months after liver transplantation. The age ranged between 15 and 58 years. There were three men and two women. The clinical presentations varied, but not discordant from those found in non-transplanted patients. Pain was a symptom found in all patients, in two cases well located in the right iliac fossa (40%). Two patients had symptoms characteristic of peritoneal irritation (40%) and one patient had abdominal distention (20%). All patients were submitted to laparotomies. In 20% there were no complications. In 80% was performed appendectomy complicated by suppuration (40%) or perforation (40%). Superficial infection of the surgical site occurred in two patients, requiring clinical management. The hospital stay ranged from 48 h to 45 days. Acute appendicitis after liver transplantation is a rare event being associated with a high rate of drilling, due to delays in diagnosis and therapy, and an increase in hospital stay.

  19. Impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of pathological incidental thyroid carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Eric; Heffron, Cynthia; Murphy, Matthew; O'Leary, Gerard; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of lymphocytic thyroiditis on incidence of incidental thyroid cancers. We conducted a retrospective review of 713 consecutive patients who underwent thyroidectomies. Incidental thyroid cancer was defined as an unexpected cancer discovered on pathological examination outside the index nodule undergoing preoperative cytology. We excluded 65 cases because of preoperative diagnosis of thyroid cancer, and 68 because of nonincidental cancer within the index nodule. Among the remaining 580 cases, there were 43 cases (7.4%) of incidental thyroid cancers. Incidental thyroid cancers were significantly associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis (relative risk = 2.5; p = .03). Sixteen of 56 patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis had Graves' disease, none of whom had incidental thyroid cancer. The risk of incidental thyroid cancer associated with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis was significantly higher in non-Graves' than patients with Graves' disease (p = .05). The risk of incidental thyroid cancer is significantly increased in patients with moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis. Moderate/severe lymphocytic thyroiditis associated with Graves' disease seems to have a lower risk of incidental thyroid cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 122-127, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Thyroid disorders after radiation therapy in childhood

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    Ekaterina Ivanovna Bobrova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AimThe aim of our study was to analyze thyroid status in adults after treatment for malignancies in childhood and its relationship with dose and type of radiotherapy.Material and methodsThyroid function (TSH, free T4, anti-TPO, thyroid ultrasound and FNA (in case of thyroid nodules more than 1 cm were evaluated in 106 adults with a history of radiotherapy for brain tumors (BT, acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL in childhood and compared with that in healthy controls (n = 33.Group 1 (cranial irradiation 18 Gy: 11 men and 17 women (median age 21.7 ± 4.2 yrs (range 15–30, 14.6 ± 4 years after treatment for ALL.Group 2 (craniospinal irradiation 35 Gy + boost to the tumor 55 Gy: 28 men and 20 women (median age 19.48 ± 2.76 yrs (range 15 – 26, 7.84 ± 4.68 years after treatment for brain tumors (BT.Group 3 (local irradiation of cervix and mediastinum mean dose 30.9 ± 9.17 Gy: 13 men and 16 women (median age 28.2 ± 6.31 yrs (range 17 – 44, 11.37 ± 7.25 years after treatment for HL.ResultsMaximal incidence of hypothyroidism was in the group 2 – 58.3% (35.4% – primary, 4.2% – central, 18.8% – mixed. Prevalence of hypothyroidism in groups 1 (9.09% and 3 (17.24% doesn't significantly differ from controls. Thyroid volume was lower (mean 4.58±2.39 ml in group 2 (p<0.001 in compare with other groups and control. TSH was higher (mean 3.72±2.51 MEd/l in the same group in compare with group 1 and control (p=0.001. Incidence of thyroid nodules (10.34% – group 1; 8.3% – group 2; 20.7% – group 3 doesn't significantly differ between groups and controls (p=0.277.ConclusionsThese data indicate that treatment of cancer in childhood is associated with development of thyroid abnormality later during the life, and there is a possible link between craniospinal irradiation and incidence of hypo-thyroidism.

  1. Presentations and Outcome of Thyroiditis from a Tertiary Care Hospital of Karachi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahar, Saeed Ahmed; Shahid, Muhammad; Sarfaraz, Aqiba; Shaikh, Zuhaib-u-Ddin; Shaikh, Shiraz; Shahid, Nadia

    2015-10-01

    To assess the clinical presentations and short-term outcomes of patients with thyroiditis presenting to a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Case series. Department of Endocrinology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from June 2014 to February 2015. Patients between 18 and 70 years of age with acute onset of thyroiditis confirmed on thyroid scan or clinical judgment presenting to the outpatient services were included in the study. Pregnant females, psychiatric patients and patients having other chronic illnesses were excluded from the study. A total of 26 patients with thyroiditis attended the endocrine clinic. Mean age of patients was 41.2 ± 11.12 years. There were 18 (69.2%) females. Clinical presentations were fever (65.4%), tender neck (23.1%), goiter (19.2%), localized tenderness in neck and palpable lymph nodes (26.9%). Major symptoms reported were: sore throat (69.2%), weight loss (38.5%), upper respiratory tract infection, thyroid pain, tremor, sweating and fever of unknown origin in 26.9% cases. All the patients had raised Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR). Low Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) 1.8 ng/dL. Complete recovery was seen in 88.5% patients while 11.5% had early hypothyroidism. Fever and sore throat were the main presenting features of thyroiditis patients. ESR was raised in all patients. A majority of patients had complete recovery with appropriate management; however, few cases developed hypothyroidism.

  2. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases and thyroid nodules by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Kyoko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Nakaji, Shunsuke; Shinagawa, Toshihito

    2007-01-01

    Imanishi et al. have previously reported that the changes in CT values reveal not only the change in iodine concentration in thyroid follicles, but also represent secondary changes in follicular content and follicular cells and/or interstitial structures. Thus, we performed thyroid CT without contrast material in 138 controls, 417 cases with diffuse thyroid diseases, and 279 cases with thyroid nodules, and evaluated the CT images based on the relation between the change in CT values and pathological changes. In 89% of the controls and 43% of patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, the thyroid CT revealed diffuse high density. In contrast, the 94% of thyroids that demonstrated diffuse low density were from patients with diffuse thyroid diseases. Eighty-four percent of malignant nodules and 64% of benign nodules had inhomogeneous densities, and only 26% of benign thyroid nodules had homogeneous density. However, 71% of nodules that showed high and low densities with regular and clear borders, and 82% of nodules that showed papillary proliferation in a cyst pattern were benign. Although only 58% of nodules with calcification were malignant, 66% of nodules with calcification in the central portion, and 86% of nodules with calcification of a disseminated and convergent pattern in distribution were malignant. Sixty-two percent of thyroids that surrounded nodules had chronic thyroiditis, hypoplasia and/or adenomatous goiter. Thus, unclear borders between a nodule and the surrounding thyroid tissue did not increase the possibility of malignancy. However, the unclear and/or lobulated border between a nodule and extra thyroid tissue increased the possibility of malignancy. We concluded that thyroid CT without contrast material is useful for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (author)

  3. PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN CHRONIC SUPPURATIVE OTITIS MEDIA- A DRUGSENSITIVITY STUDY

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    Anoop M

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Chronic suppurative otitis media is one among the commonest ENT disease seen in day-to-day practice. It is seen mainly among low socioeconomic class. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was conducted in the Department of ENT, Shadan Institute of Medical Sciences. Fifty patients with CSOM of all age groups and both sexes attending the Outpatient Department of ENT were selected randomly for the study. RESULTS From our study, we found mainly children of age group 10-11 years commonly affected. They belong to poor socioeconomic background. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most common organism isolated in the present study. Ciprofloxacin was found to be the most sensitive antibiotic to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. CONCLUSION We noticed that drug resistance is on the rise due to misuse of antibiotics, over-the-counter treatment, inadequate period of therapy and less awareness among public regarding drug resistance. Constant monitoring of antibiotic sensitivity is needed to prevent drug resistance in CSOM.

  4. [Comparative study of two treatment methods for acute periodontal abscess].

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    Jin, Dong-mei; Wang, Wei-qian

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this short-term study was to compare the clinical efficacy of 2 different methods to treat acute periodontal abscesses. After patient selection, 100 cases of acute periodontal abscess were randomly divided into two groups. The experimental group was treated by supra- and subgingival scaling, while the control group was treated by incision and drainage. A clinical examination was carried out to record the following variables: subjective clinical variables including pain, edema, redness and swelling; objective clinical variables including gingival index(GI), bleeding index(BI), probing depth(PD),suppuration, lymphadenopathy and tooth mobility. The data was analyzed with SPSS 19.0 software package. RESULES: Subjective clinical variables demonstrated statistically significant improvements with both methods from the first day after treatment and lasted for at least 30 days(P0.05), but the experimental group showed more improvement in edema and redness than the control group(Pperiodontal abscesses.

  5. Thyroid hormone regulates the expression of the sonic hedgehog signaling pathway in the embryonic and adult Mammalian brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desouza, Lynette A; Sathanoori, Malini; Kapoor, Richa; Rajadhyaksha, Neha; Gonzalez, Luis E; Kottmann, Andreas H; Tole, Shubha; Vaidya, Vidita A

    2011-05-01

    Thyroid hormone is important for development and plasticity in the immature and adult mammalian brain. Several thyroid hormone-responsive genes are regulated during specific developmental time windows, with relatively few influenced across the lifespan. We provide novel evidence that thyroid hormone regulates expression of the key developmental morphogen sonic hedgehog (Shh), and its coreceptors patched (Ptc) and smoothened (Smo), in the early embryonic and adult forebrain. Maternal hypo- and hyperthyroidism bidirectionally influenced Shh mRNA in embryonic forebrain signaling centers at stages before fetal thyroid hormone synthesis. Further, Smo and Ptc expression were significantly decreased in the forebrain of embryos derived from hypothyroid dams. Adult-onset thyroid hormone perturbations also regulated expression of the Shh pathway bidirectionally, with a significant induction of Shh, Ptc, and Smo after hyperthyroidism and a decline in Smo expression in the hypothyroid brain. Short-term T₃ administration resulted in a significant induction of cortical Shh mRNA expression and also enhanced reporter gene expression in Shh(+/LacZ) mice. Further, acute T₃ treatment of cortical neuronal cultures resulted in a rapid and significant increase in Shh mRNA, suggesting direct effects. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays performed on adult neocortex indicated enhanced histone acetylation at the Shh promoter after acute T₃ administration, providing further support that Shh is a thyroid hormone-responsive gene. Our results indicate that maternal and adult-onset perturbations of euthyroid status cause robust and region-specific changes in the Shh pathway in the embryonic and adult forebrain, implicating Shh as a possible mechanistic link for specific neurodevelopmental effects of thyroid hormone.

  6. Subacute thyroiditis in Western Saudi Arabia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qari, Faiza A.; Maimani, Abdulroaf A.

    2005-01-01

    TSH, was observed in 6 (26%) of our patients with positive thyroid antibodies during the first 6 months of follow up. There were no reported cases of recurrent or permanent hypothyroidism in our cohort study. Subacute thyroiditis is an uncommon disease that should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute anterior neck pain, sore throat and fever especially in patients who do not respond to treatment. In the clinical setting, radioiodine uptake can help exclude other diseases, confirm the diagnosis and expedite the initiation of appropriate therapy to relieve symptoms. (author)

  7. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Tae Kwan; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Jung, Soo Jin [Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC) in the thyroid pyramidal lobe (TPL). A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  8. Acute Mastoiditis in Children: Susceptibility Factors and Management

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    Slobodan Spremo

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to review our experience with clinical course, diagnostic and therapeutic profile of children treated for acute mastoiditis, and to investigate for possible susceptibility factors. Study was designed as retrospective review of pediatric patients presenting with acute mastoiditis secondary to acute otitis media over the last 6 years, from 2000 to 2006. The study involved children aged from 1 to 16 years treated for acute mastoiditis and subsequent intratemporal and intracranial complications in Clinic for otorhinolaryngology, Clinic Center Banja Luka. Selected clinical parameters, mastoid coalescence and risk factors for necessity of surgical intervention were analyzed. Medical history review of a total of 13 patients with acute mastoiditis was analyzed. Acute coalescent mastoiditis occurred 11 patients (84% while noncoalescent form of acute mastoiditis occurred in 2 cases (16%. Intracranial complication occurred in 3 patients (2 meningitis and 1 peridural intracranial abscess, while 2 patients had intratemporal complication (subperiostal abscess associated to coalescent mastoiditis. We observed clinical profile of acute mastoiditis in regard to pathology found on the tympanic membrane, middle ear mucosa and destructions on the bony wall of the middle ear and mastoid. The main signs of progressive infection were tympanic membrane perforation, pulsatile suppurative secretion from the mucosa, and intratemporal abscess. All patients with coalescent mastoiditis required mastoidectomy, while noncoalescent mastoiditis was treated conservatively with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics and myringotomy. In conclusion acute mastoiditis is uncommon but serious complication of acute otitis media in children associated with significant morbidity. Coalescent mastoiditis concomitant with subperiostal abscess, intracranial complications and mastoiditis not responsive after 48 hours to intravenous antibiotics should urge clinician to timely

  9. Thyroid disease: thyroid function tests and interpretation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases of the thyroid are among the most prevalent of medical conditions, especially in women, but the symptoms can be relatively nonspecific or mild. For this reason, clinicians have been placing increased reliance on the laboratory for assistance in the diagnosis of thyroid disorders. In the 1950s, only one thyroid.

  10. SIALOLITHIASIS IN PATIENTS WITH THYROID CANCER: TREATMENT, REHABILITATION AND PREVENTION

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    Малика Нурдыновна Доклаева

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Diseases of the salivary glands is one of the most frequent pathologies among dental patients. Salivolithiasis is most common among the diseases of the salivary glands. Half of the patients after the surgery relapse stone formation. One of the etiological causes salivolithiasis is a violation of mineral metabolism. Known effects of thyroid hormones on the balance of bone remodeling. The aim of our study was to improve treatment of patients with salivolithiasis in thyroid pathology. Materials and methods. To determine thyroid function in patients were studied: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, free thyroxine (free T4.. State of mineral metabolism was assessed by content in the blood calcium-regulating hormones parathyrin (PTH (pg / ml and calcitonin (CAT (pg / ml, a marker of bone resorption-Cross laps (ng / ml and bone formation - osteocalcin (ng / ml. Postoperatively, the patients were divided into two groups: the first consisted of patients with preoperative correction of thyroid status at the doctor, endocrinologist, the second (control - without preoperative correction of thyroid status doctor endocrinologist. Results. In the control group of patients compared with the group that received the necessary correction, much heavier passed the postoperative period. Output. Reasonable pharmacological correction in violation of mineral metabolism in patients with calculous sialadenitis is the best procedure that can reduce the number of complications such as acute exacerbations of chronic sialadenitis.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-4-1

  11. Latent childhood thyroid carcinoma in diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, A; Mimouni, M; Kovalivker, M; Griffel, B

    1983-07-01

    Diffuse thyroid enlargement in a child is a rare presenting symptom of thyroid carcinoma. A papillary carcinoma may be hidden in a diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis and should be carefully searched for during surgery. Furthermore, the finding, in frozen sections, of psammoma bodies in a lymphocytic thyroiditis should raise the suspicion of an occult malignant neoplasm. A case illustrating these diagnostic difficulties in a 5-year-old child is presented.

  12. Severe Hyperthyroidism Presenting with Acute ST Segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction

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    Dayan Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Acute myocardial infarction is life-threatening. A cardiac troponin rise accompanied by typical symptoms, ST elevation or depression is diagnostic of acute myocardial infarction. Here, we report an unusual case of a female who was admitted with chest pain. However, she did not present with a typical profile of an acute myocardial infarction patient. Case Presentation. A 66-year-old Han nationality female presented with chest pain. The electrocardiogram (ECG revealed arched ST segment elevations and troponin was elevated. However, the coronary angiography showed a normal coronary arterial system. Thyroid function tests showed that this patient had severe hyperthyroidism. Conclusion. Our case highlights the possibility that hyperthyroidism may cause a large area of myocardium injury and ECG ST segment elevation. We suggest routine thyroid function testing in patients with chest pain.

  13. [Painless thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Ken; Fujikawa, Megumi; Bandai, Sachiko

    2006-12-01

    Painless thyroiditis is characterized by painless low-uptake thyrotoxicosis (thyrotoxicosis without hyperthyroidism). Destructive damage of the thyroid has been thought to be the mechanism for self-limited thyrotoxicosis. However, hydrolysis of thyroglobulin must be responsible for the release of excessive thyroid hormone. Low-uptake of iodine and excessive release of thyroid hormone suggest the uncoupling of hormone synthesis and hormone secretion in the thyroid gland. Suppressed serum TSH level, various cytokines or growth factors including TGFbeta1, and thyroglobulin itself may be responsible for the suppressed hormone synthesis. The mechanism for persistent hormone release despite suppressed hormone synthesis should be clarified. Quantitative TSH binding inhibitor immunoglobulin assay is helpful for the differential diagnosis of painless thyroiditis and Graves' hyperthyroidism.

  14. Twenty cases of ectopic thyroid gland detected by thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Teisuke; Kubo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Shozo

    1988-01-01

    20 cases of ectopic thyroid gland were detected out of 5,261 thyroid scintigraphy from 1973. Except for 1 case, all cases were female. Considering of thyroid function, 11 cases were euthyroid and rest of 9 cases were hypothyroid function. Clinical symptom of hypothyroid cases were mainly retarded linear growth and high value of serum TSH and in case of euthyroid cases were sublingual tumor and fullness or tightness in throat. Thyroid scintigraphy is very useful to diagnose the sublingual tumor whether it is ectopic thyroid gland or not. In case of congenital hypothyroidism children, ectopic thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism is definitely diagnosed by thyroid scintigraphy. (author)

  15. Myeloid Sarcoma of the Uterine Cervix as Presentation of Acute Myeloid Leukaemia after Treatment with Low-Dose Radioiodine for Thyroid Cancer: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Sophie Weingertner

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of acute myeloid leukaemia after low-dose radioiodine therapy and its presentation as a myeloid sarcoma of the uterine cervix are both rare events. We report a case of acute myeloid leukaemia revealed by a myeloid sarcoma of the uterine cervix in a 48-year-old woman, 17 months after receiving a total dose of 100 mCi 131I for papillary thyroid cancer. A strict hematological follow-up of patients treated with any dose of 131I is recommended to accurately detect any hematological complications which might have been underestimated. Unusual presentations, such as chloroma of the uterine cervix, may reveal myeloid malignancy and should be kept in mind.

  16. [Thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer: Brazilian consensus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Ana Luiza; Ward, Laura S; Carvalho, Gisah A; Graf, Hans; Maciel, Rui M B; Maciel, Léa M Zanini; Rosário, Pedro W; Vaisman, Mario

    2007-07-01

    Thyroid nodules are a common manifestation of thyroid diseases. It is estimated that approximately 10% of adults have palpable thyroid nodules with the frequency increasing throughout life. The major concern on nodule evaluation is the risk of malignancy (5-10%). Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounts for 90% of all thyroid malignant neoplasias. Although most patients with cancer have a favorable outcome, some individuals present an aggressive form of the disease and poor prognostic despite recent advances in diagnosis and treatment. Here, a set of clinical guidelines for the evaluation and management of patients with thyroid nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer was developed through consensus by 8 member of the Department of Thyroid, Sociedade Brasileira de Endocrinologia e Metabologia. The participants are from different reference medical centers within Brazil, to reflect different practice patterns. Each committee participant was initially assigned to write a section of the document and to submit it to the chairperson, who revised and assembled the sections into a complete draft document, which was then circulated among all committee members for further revision. All committee members further revised and refined the document. The guidelines were developed based on the expert opinion of the committee participants, as well as on previously published information.

  17. Correlation between serum lead and thyroid diseases: papillary thyroid carcinoma, nodular goiter, and thyroid adenoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jie; Jin, Langping; Yang, Fan; Wang, Junbo; Wang, Ouchen; Gao, Ying

    2017-10-01

    Studies have showed that lead was associated with human health. However, the effects of lead on thyroid functions are inconsistent, and studies based on Chinese population are fragmentary. To evaluate the correlation between lead and thyroid functions of Chinese with different thyroid diseases, we conducted a hospital-based study. Ninety-six papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), 10 nodular goiter (NG), and 7 thyroid adenoma (TA) patients were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, China. Serum triiodothyronine (T3), free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxin (FT4), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were evaluated with chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Serum lead was assessed with ICP-MASS. Partial correlation was used to explore the correlations of serum lead and thyroid diseases. Compared to PTC, the level of lead was significantly higher in TA, and lower in NG (p lead was negatively correlated with TSH (r s  =  - 0.27, p lead at quartile4 (r s  = 0.61, p lead and FT3 or FT4 in any group. The results suggested that lead might have different etiological roles in these three thyroid diseases.

  18. Thyroid Metastasis from Breast Carcinoma Accompanied by Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma

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    Song-I Yang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis to the thyroid gland is very rare. Recently, we experienced a case of thyroid metastasis from breast cancer accompanying a papillary thyroid. A 51-year-old female patient presented with a palpated lymph node on her left lateral neck. The patient had undergone a left modified radical mastectomy followed by chemotherapy and hormonal therapy 12 years prior. Ultrasonography of the neck revealed a malignant looking nodule at the left thyroid lobe, measuring 0.9 × 0.9 cm, and several cystic nodules at the right thyroid lobe. Ultrasonography of the neck additionally revealed a malignant looking lymph node at the right level VI. Fine-needle aspiration of the left thyroid lobe resulted in a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma and that of the right level VI in Hurthle cell lesion. The patient had a total thyroidectomy with selective dissection of the left neck node. Pathologic assessment of the specimen revealed metastatic carcinoma from the breast carcinoma and papillary thyroid carcinoma. Although the thyroid gland is highly vascularized, metastasis of malignant tumors to the thyroid is relatively rare and detection of metastasis shows a low frequency. So a careful evaluation of thyroid tumor should be considered in a patient with a history of other malignancy.

  19. Papillary thyroid microcarcinoma in a thyroid pyramidal lobe

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    Tae Kwun Ha

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available

    We report an extremely rare case of papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC in the thyroid Epub ahead of print pyramidal lobe (TPL. A 48-year-old woman underwent ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration for a small thyroid nodule in the right lobe in local clinic, and it revealed a malignant cytology. On preoperative ultrasonography for tumor staging in our hospital, another small suspiciously malignant hypoechoic nodule was detected in the left TPL. Total thyroidectomy and central nodal dissection were performed. Histopathology confirmed PTMCs in the left TPL and both thyroid lobes. Ultrasonography for TPL should be required for complete evaluation of possible multifocality of thyroid malignancy.

  20. Thyroglossal Duct Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma and Synchronous Lingual Thyroid Atypia

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    Timothy Yoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroglossal duct and lingual thyroid ectopic lesions are exceedingly rare synchronous findings. Papillary thyroid carcinoma of these ectopic thyroid sites is well understood but still a rare finding. This case points to some management nuances in regard to ectopic thyroid screening with imaging and also shows the effectiveness of minimally invasive transoral robotic surgery for lingual thyroid.

  1. Ultrasonographic Findings of Papillary Thyroid Cancer with or without Hashimoto's Thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Young; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee [Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This study was designed to compare the ultrasonographic features of papillary thyroid carcinoma with and without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This retrospective study included 190 patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma which was proven by neck surgery. The difference in the ultrasonographic findings between papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 61 of 190 patients following neck surgery. The incidence of coexisting papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was significantly higher in women (p=0.0026). In addition, the frequency of macrocalcification in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was also significantly higher (p=0.0009). Conversely,other ultrasonographic findings including the shape, margin, echogenicity and calcifications, for patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma without Hashimoto's thyroiditis, were not statistically significant. We also found that patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis who showed no calcification on ultrasonography tended not to detect the papillary carcinoma at a higher frequency. On ultrasonography, macrocalcifications occurred more frequently in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis than those without Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Malignant thyroid nodules without calcifications in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis more often could not be detected. Therefore, it is important carefully examine patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

  2. Pre-operative ultrasound identification of thyroiditis helps predict the need for thyroid hormone replacement after thyroid lobectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Lilah F; Iupe, Isabella M; Edeiken-Monroe, Beth S; Warneke, Carla L; Hansen, Mandy O; Evans, Douglas B; Lee, Jeffrey E; Grubbs, Elizabeth G; Perrier, Nancy D

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate whether pre-operative thyroiditis identified by ultrasound (US) could help predict the need for thyroid hormone replacement (THR) following thyroid lobectomy. Data from patients who underwent thyroid lobectomy in 2006-2011, were not taking THR pre-operatively, and had ≥1 month of follow-up were reviewed retrospectively. THR was prescribed for relatively elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and hypothyroid symptoms. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the percentage of patients who required THR at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months postoperatively, and Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate prognostic factors for requiring post-thyroid lobectomy THR. During follow-up, 45 of 98 patients required THR. Median follow-up among patients not requiring THR was 11.6 months (range, 1.2 to 51.3 months). Six months after thyroid lobectomy, 22% of patients were taking THR (95% confidence interval [CI], 15-32%); the proportion increased to 46% at 12 months (95% CI, 36-57%) and 55% at 18 months (95% CI, 43-67%). On univariate analysis, significant prognostic factors for postoperative THR included a pre-operative TSH level >2.5 μ international units [IU]/mL (hazard ratio [HR], 2.8; 95% CI, 1.4-5.5; P = .004) and pathology-identified thyroiditis (HR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.3-4.3; P = .005). Patients with both pre-operative TSH >2.5 μIU/mL and US-identified thyroiditis had a 5.8-fold increased risk of requiring postoperative THR (95% CI, 2.4-13.9; P2.5 μIU/mL significantly increases the risk of requiring THR after thyroid lobectomy. Thyroiditis can add to that prediction and guide pre-operative patient counseling and surgical decision making. US-identified thyroiditis should be reported and post-thyroid lobectomy patients followed long-term (≥18 months).

  3. Chronic myeloid leukaemia following radioiodine therapy for carcinoma thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bundi, R S; Scott, J S; Halnan, K E [Institute of Radiotherapeutics, Glasgow (UK)

    1977-01-01

    The majority of cases reported in the literature of leukemia following treatment of thyroid disease (thyrotoxicosis and carcinoma) are of acute variety. A description is given of the development of chronic myeloid leukemia in a case of carcinoma of the thyroid treated with radioiodine and megavoltage X-ray therapy. The case history contains details of radioiodine and X-ray doses administered over the years 1961 to 1972 to a male patient, on whom a right hemithyroidectomy was carried out in 1960. The results of blood counts are also recorded for the period up to 1973. The patient died, at 57, in 1974. A total of 860 mCi of /sup 131/I was administered and the first abnormal blood count was noted two months after the last therapeutic dose. Estimates have been made of blood and thyroid doses from /sup 131/I. There has been only one other report in the literature of the development of chronic myeloid leukemia following radioiodine therapy for carcinoma of the thyroid, and although the leukemogenic hazard of /sup 131/I cannot be ruled out for this patient, it is possible that the development of leukemia was coincidental rather than due to the radioiodine therapy.

  4. ANTIBACTERIAL PROPERTIES OF HOLMIUM TO CAUSATIVE AGENTS OF SUPPURATIVE -INFLAMMATORY COMPLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubnaya H. N.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Article denotes to determination of antibacterial action of polyoxometalate holmium to causative agents of suppurative-inflammatory process in wounds of patients, which were suffered from trauma. Method of serial dilutions was used for determination of minimal inhibiting concentration (MIC of holmium to staphylococci, enterococci and E. coli. Registration of holmium action shows the strong antibacterial influence to staphylococci and enterococci (MIC of holmium action to staphylococcal and enterococcal strains same 1 10 M, to strains of E.coli – 2,5 10 M. Solutions of holmium don’t have antibacterial action to strains of E.coli.

  5. Thyroiditis: an integrated approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Lori B; Stewart, Christopher; Gaitonde, David Y

    2014-09-15

    Thyroiditis is a general term that encompasses several clinical disorders characterized by inflammation of the thyroid gland. The most common is Hashimoto thyroiditis; patients typically present with a nontender goiter, hypothyroidism, and an elevated thyroid peroxidase antibody level. Treatment with levothyroxine ameliorates the hypothyroidism and may reduce goiter size. Postpartum thyroiditis is transient or persistent thyroid dysfunction that occurs within one year of childbirth, miscarriage, or medical abortion. Release of preformed thyroid hormone into the bloodstream may result in hyperthyroidism. This may be followed by transient or permanent hypothyroidism as a result of depletion of thyroid hormone stores and destruction of thyroid hormone-producing cells. Patients should be monitored for changes in thyroid function. Beta blockers can treat symptoms in the initial hyperthyroid phase; in the subsequent hypothyroid phase, levothyroxine should be considered in women with a serum thyroid-stimulating hormone level greater than 10 mIU per L, or in women with a thyroid-stimulating hormone level of 4 to 10 mIU per L who are symptomatic or desire fertility. Subacute thyroiditis is a transient thyrotoxic state characterized by anterior neck pain, suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone, and low radioactive iodine uptake on thyroid scanning. Many cases of subacute thyroiditis follow an upper respiratory viral illness, which is thought to trigger an inflammatory destruction of thyroid follicles. In most cases, the thyroid gland spontaneously resumes normal thyroid hormone production after several months. Treatment with high-dose acetylsalicylic acid or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is directed toward relief of thyroid pain.

  6. Chapter 3. Thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubiana, M.; Perez, R.

    1975-01-01

    In the context of a functional thyroid exploration study the physiopathology of the thyroid was reviewed on the basis of data supplied by the use of radioisotopes, especially radioiodine. It was pointed out in this respect that the functional activity of the thyroid is closely bound up with the iodine metabolism. The different stages of the iodine metabolism were therefore described in relation to the methods used for their exploration: study of iodine intake to the thyroid and uptake measurement; hormonogenesis and secretion of hormone iodine; transport and circulation of thyroid hormones; exploration of the hypothalamus-pituitary gland-thyroid axis. It was pointed out in addition that the morphological examination often complements the thyroid function exploration and is carried out whenever thyroid palpation reveals an anomaly. Data obtained by scintigraphy are given in this repect. Furthermore the remarkable capacity of hyperthyroid tissues to concentrate radioactive iodine may be used therapeutically to perform an endogenous irradiation of the thyroid. The treatment of both hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancers with radioactive iodine was studied [fr

  7. Steroid-Responsive Epilepsia Partialis Continua with Anti-Thyroid Antibodies: A Spectrum of Hashimoto's Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Masuda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: When a neuropsychiatric symptom due to encephalopathy develops in a patient with anti-thyroid antibodies, especially when the symptom is steroid-responsive, Hashimoto's encephalopathy (HE needs to be included in the differential diagnosis of the patient. Although HE is an elusive disease, it is thought to cause various clinical presentations including seizures, myoclonus, and epilepsia partialis continua (EPC. Case Report: We present the case of a 33-year-old Japanese woman who acutely developed EPC in the right hand as an isolated manifestation. A thyroid ultrasound showed an enlarged hypoechogenic gland, and a thyroid status assessment showed euthyroid with high titers of thyroid antibodies. A brain MRI revealed a nodular lesion in the left precentral gyrus. Corticosteroid treatment resulted in a cessation of the symptom. Conclusions: A precentral nodular lesion can be responsible for steroid-responsive EPC in a patient with anti-thyroid antibodies and may be caused by HE. The serial MRI findings of our case suggest the presence of primary demyelination, with ischemia possibly due to vasculitis around the demyelinating lesion.

  8. [Clinico-pathological features of papillary thyroid cancer coexistent with Hashimoto's thyroiditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Sarolta; Győry, Ferenc; Nagy, Endre; Méhes, Gábor; Molnár, Csaba

    2017-02-01

    Former studies suggest the frequent coexistence of Hashimoto's thyreoditis with papillary thyroid cancer, frequently featured by multifocal carcinogenesis but lower clinical stages compared to thyroid cancers lacking thyroiditis. We examined the clinico-pathological correlations between Hashimoto's thyroditis and papillary thyroid cancer in our region in the North-Eastern part of Hungary. We included a total of 230 patients with papillary thyroid cancer who underwent thyroid surgery at the Surgical Department of the University of Debrecen. Patients' sex, age, multifocality of thyroid cancer and clinical stage were evaluated. Cases included 40 patients (17.4%) with (4 male, 36 female) and 190 (82.6%) patients without HT (44 male, 146 female). Hashimoto's thyroiditis related thyroid cancer was almost exclusively associated with the papillary histological type. Multifocality of papillary cancer was significantly more frequent with coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis (16/40; 40.0%) compared to cases uninvolved (45/190; 23.7%; p = 0.034). In contrast, lymph node metastasis was significantly less frequent among patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (4 pN1 [36.4%]; 7 pN0 [63.6%]) then without it (34 pN1 [82.9%]; 7 pN0 [17.1%]; p = 0.002). Higher frequency and multifocality of papillary thyroid cancer might be the consequence of preexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis to be considered as a preneoplastic stimulus supporting carcinogenesis, though the exact pathomechanism of this correlation is not clear yet. Orv. Hetil., 2017, 158(5), 178-182.

  9. [Thyroid nodule].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerc, Jérôme

    2005-01-31

    The thyroid nodule is a frequent, most often benign, chronic, multifocal and slowly progressive disease. The first line strategy is to diagnose cancerous nodules (thyroid nodules is controversial since the prognosis of thyroid cancer is excellent for lesions measuring less than 20 mm. Though imaging accuracy is quite limited in assessing the diagnosis of thyroid cancer, both ultrasounds (US) and thyroid scan are helpful to enhance nodular identification (>30%), to sort the nodules relevant for cytological sampling and to optimize the follow-up, the major source of health costs. Suspicious and non contributive FNAs must have a control FNA within 6 months. Nodules with a non suspicious FNA (>85%) require long term follow-up. This follow-up is mainly morphological. New or evolutive nodules, as assessed by palpation or US, will require iterative FNAs or should be considered for surgery. In patients with hyperfunctioning nodules on the scan (10 to 20%), a yearly evaluation of the TSH level is sufficient. These nodules account either for autonomously functioning ones, which slowly develop towards thyrotoxicosis, or for hyperplastic nodules frequently disclosing a lymphocytic thyroiditis. Morbidity due to thyroid autonomy is still underestimated especially in aging patients with TSH levels thyroid nodule is suggested.

  10. Thyroid profiles in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone and episodes of thyrotoxicosis, including repeated painless thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniyama, Matsuo; Otsuka, Fumiko; Tozaki, Teruaki; Ban, Yoshiyuki

    2013-07-01

    Thyrotoxic disease can be difficult to recognize in patients with resistance to thyroid hormone (RTH) because the clinical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis cannot be observed, and thyrotropin (TSH) may not be suppressed because of hormone resistance. Painless thyroiditis is a relatively common cause of thyrotoxicosis, but its occurrence in RTH has not been reported. We assessed the thyroid profile in a patient with RTH and episodes of thyrotoxicosis who experienced repeated painless thyroiditis. A 44-year-old Japanese woman with RTH, which was confirmed by the presence of a P453A mutation in the thyroid hormone receptor β (TRβ) gene, showed a slight elevation of the basal levels of thyroid hormones, which indicated that her pituitary RTH was mild. She experienced a slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia concomitant with TSH suppression. A diagnosis of painless thyroiditis was made because of the absence of TSH receptor antibodies, low Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake by the thyroid gland, and transient suppression followed by a slight elevation of TSH following the elevation of thyroid hormones. The patient's complaints of general malaise and occasional palpitations did not change throughout the course of painless thyroiditis. Three years later, painless thyroiditis occurred again without any deterioration of the clinical manifestations. Mild pituitary RTH can be overcome by slight exacerbation of hyperthyroxinemia during mild thyrotoxicosis. When pituitary resistance is severe and TSH is not suppressed, thyrotoxicosis may be overlooked.

  11. Pediatric Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Pediatric Thyroid Cancer Patient Health Information News media ... and neck issues, should be consulted. Types of thyroid cancer in children: Papillary : This form of thyroid cancer ...

  12. Anaplastic thyroid cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000352.htm Anaplastic thyroid cancer To use the sharing features on this page, ... of cancer of the thyroid gland. Causes Anaplastic thyroid cancer is an invasive type of thyroid cancer that ...

  13. Thyroiditis: Symptoms to sequelae - An Indian experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sneha, S.; Krishna, B.A.; Madhavi, C.; Sangeeta, T.; Rijju, G.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroiditis presents with symptoms varying from thyrotoxicosis to hypothyroidism. In fairly a large number of patients the symptoms are very subtle and hence clinical diagnosis is difficult to make without laboratory assistance. In view of this we undertook a study to assess the patterns of clinical presentation and the behavioral pattern of patients with thyroiditis. Materials and Methods: Totally 43 patients were included in the study with clinical suspicion of thyroiditis. 31 patients presented with symptoms of thyrotoxicosis while 6 patients presented with hypothyroid symptoms. Six patients presented with history of acute upper respiratory tract infection with tender thyromegaly and euthyroid status. These patients were subjected to thyroid scan (43 patients), sonography (6 patients), thyroid antibody levels estimation (43 patients), FNAC evaluation (3 patients) and T3, T4, TSH estimation (43 patients). The patients were followed up for a period of 6 months to 2 years. Clinical evaluation and T3, T4 and TSH evaluation was performed. Result: 19 of the 31 patients (61.29%) who presented with thyrotoxicosis progressed to hypothyroid state both clinically and biochemically. 11 of the 31 patients (35.48%) reverted to euthyroid status. One patient continued to maintain thyrotoxic state at the end of 2 years and was treated with antithyroid measures. In the hypothyroid group of six patients, four patients continued to maintain hypothyroid state while two patients reverted to euthyroid status during follow up. In the euthyroid group of six patients four patients developed hypothyroid status and the other two patients remained euthyroid. The 99m- Tco4 scan demonstrated poor and patchy uptake in all the patients. Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that majority of the patients (72.09%) of thyroiditis present with thyrotoxic symptoms. The sequelae of hypothyroidism was seen in 61.29% of patients in this group. We observed an interesting finding of patients

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Severe acute maternal morbidity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycaemic coma, thyroid crisis. Acute thromobocytopenia requiring a platelet transfusion. Coma lasting 2 12 hours, or intracerebral or subarachnoid haemorrhage. For any reason. For any reason. Management-based. Intensive care admission. Emergency hysterectomy. Anaesthetic accidents.

  15. TIPS FOR THE RADIOLOGIST Use of MR sialography and T2W fat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acute non-suppurative parotitis (as found in mumps), early Sjögren's syndrome, or suppurative parotitis as seen following duct obstruction. Sometimes there is strong insistence on retrograde contrast sialography; however, this may exacerbate the pre-existing inflammatory process.1. The imaging of a young patient expands ...

  16. [Perioperative thyroid storm in a patient with undiscovered hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Shinji; Nishmyama, Tomoki; Hanaoka, Kazuo

    2005-04-01

    Thyroid storm can develop in patients with longstanding untreated hyperthyroidism. It is more often precipitated by an acute event such as surgery, trauma, or infection. We experienced a case in whom thyroid storm occurred during surgery, while he had no preoperative diagnosis of thyroid disease. A 30-year-old man was scheduled for left tympanoplasty. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with sevoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen. Heart rate and rectal temperature went up to 140 beats x min(-1) and 39 degrees C, respectively, in 3 hours during surgery. Cooling blanket, cold fluid infusion, flurbiprofen, diltiazem, and verapamil were used to decrease body temperature and heart rate. Surgery was completed and after emergence he was in agitation for 4 hours along with hyperpyrexia and tachycardia. He was diagnosed as hyperthyroidism by postoperative physical and laboratory examination. Thiamazole and propranorol were administered. In one week, symptom has declined with body temperature and heart rate of around 36 degrees C and 90 beats x min(-1), respectively. We should be more careful about evaluation of preoperative patients.

  17. [Characteristics of thyroid carcinoma in Grave's disease Hashimoto's thyroiditis and nodular goiter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipović, A; Paunović, I

    2003-01-01

    The biology of thyroid cancer represents a spectrum of behavior ranging from well-differentiated lesions with an excellent prognosis to anaplastic carcinoma, which is almost fatal. For this reason, it is important that clinicians have methods at their disposal to asses the characteristics of patient's thyroid malignancy. In this work we discuss the behavior of differentiated thyroid cancer in associated diseases of thyroid as: Graves' disease, chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis--Hashimoto and nodular goiter. This is retrospectively reviewing of 50 patients treated for differentiated thyroid carcinoma at Department of surgery, Clinical Centre of Montenegro in Podgorica from 1998 until 2003. We evaluated occurrence, as well as the role of this diseases in patients with thyroid cancer. We found a more favorable course of thyroid cancer in the presence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and nodular goiter, a contrary Graves' disease. In associated diseases of thyroid, a significantly greater proportion of patients with thyroid cancer, have modular goiter.

  18. [Immunohistochemical profile of angiogenesis in the thyroid gland in various thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurua, N Z; Gogiashvili, L E; Tsagareli, Z G

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of the study - to determine the feature of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) expression in the thyroid gland (TG) in various thyroid diseases. Material - thyroid tissue (operative material) with histologically confirmed diagnosis: 10 - follicular adenoma, 17 - multinodular goiter, 8 - thyroiditis Hashimoto, 8 - papillary carcinoma, 10 - intact (normal) thyroid samples (forensic autopsy). The immunohistochemical study of the material showed the following results: the increase of the Hürtle cells population 40 % or more indicates a hyperthyroidism tendency despite TSH+ receptor status. Under the thyroid pathology TSH and VEGF expression appears in thyrocytes and also in microvascular endothelial cells. VEGF expression is below the norm in the Hashimoto thyroiditis. VEGF is involved not only in angiogenesis, but in pathophysiological shifts in thyroid tissue. Microvessel density (MVD) and TSH positive receptor status under the thyroid pathology testify the absence of the endothelial cells transformation, however, this index can not serve as a biopothential prognostic marker of thyroid disease.

  19. Acute hypothyroidism in a severely ill surgical patient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, T; Hjortsø, N C

    1988-01-01

    A case of acute postoperative hypothyroidism in a 62-year old woman is presented. One month before emergency admission because of a perforated gastric ulcer the patient had normal thyroid function, despite removal of a thyroid adenoma 20 years earlier. Following surgery the patient developed circ...... circulatory instability, renal insufficiency, hypothermia and immeasurable concentrations of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). Treatment with triiodothyronine was commenced but the patient died following an episode of severe hypotension....

  20. Aspergillus thyroiditis in a renal transplant recipient mimicking subacute thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solak, Y; Atalay, H; Nar, A; Ozbek, O; Turkmen, K; Erekul, S; Turk, S

    2011-04-01

    Fungal pathogens are increasingly encountered after renal transplantation. Aspergillus causes significant morbidity and mortality in transplant patients. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence owing to unique features of the thyroid gland. Most cases are caused by Aspergillus species and have been described in immunocompromised patients. Presentation may be identical with that of subacute thyroiditis, in which hyperthyroidism features and painful thyroid are the prominent findings. Diagnosis can be ascertained by fine-needle aspiration of thyroid showing branching hyphae of Aspergillus. We describe a renal transplant patient who developed Aspergillus thyroiditis as part of a disseminated infection successfully treated with voriconazole. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  1. Thyroid Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too low Hashimoto’s disease , of the most common cause of hypothyroidism thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer Your doctor will ... of hyperthyroidism—and Hashimoto’s disease —the most common cause of hypothyroidism. Thyroid antibodies are made when your immune system ...

  2. The effect of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis on patients with thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Ma, Xiao-Peng; Deng, Fu-Sheng; Liu, Zheng-Rong; Wei, Hou-Qing; Wang, Xi-Hong; Chen, Hao

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) and malignant tumors of the thyroid. A retrospective review of 647 patients who underwent thyroid surgery at the Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery in Anhui Provincial Hospital, China in 2012 was performed. The clinicopathological characteristics of patients with thyroid malignancies and CLT were collected. CLT was diagnosed by histopathological method. Among 647 patients, 144 patients had thyroid malignancies and 108 patients had been diagnosed with CLT. Moreover, in total, 44 patients had thyroid malignancies coexistent with CLT: forty-one (93.2%) patients had been diagnosed with the papillary thyroid cancer (PTC); two (4.5%) patients suffered from medullary carcinoma; and one (2.3%) patient suffered from lymphoma. The morbidity of thyroid malignancies in patients with CLT was significantly higher than that in patients without CLT (40.7% versus 18.6%; P CLT compared with those without CLT (P CLT and without CLT. Female predominance was observed in patients with CLT. CLT may have no effect on the progression of thyroid malignant tumor. Nevertheless, the influences of CLT on the prognosis of the thyroid carcinoma still need to be investigated with a larger sample size.

  3. Total Thyroidectomy for Thyroid Cancer Followed by Thyroid Storm due to Thyrotropin Receptor Antibody Stimulation of Metastatic Thyroid Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkestad, Lars; Brandt, Frans; Brix, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Graves disease (GD) is an autoimmune condition characterized by the presence of antibodies against the thyrotropin receptor (TRAB), which stimulate the thyroid gland to produce excess thyroid hormone. Theoretically, TRAB could stimulate highly differentiated thyroid cancer tissue and...... treatment continued until after the fourth RAI dose. Hypothyroidism did not occur until following the fifth RAI treatment. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: We present a patient initially diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis and subsequently with metastatic follicular variant of papillary thyroid cancer. It is suggested...... that TRAB stimulated the highly differentiated extrathyroidal metastatic thyroid tissue to produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone, delayed diagnosis, and potential aggravation of the course of thyroid cancer....

  4. Thyroid and Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hypothyroidism in Children and Adolescents Pediatric Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Thyroid Nodules in Children and Adolescents Thyroid and Weight Resources Thyroid and Weight Brochure PDF En Español La Tiroides y el Peso El folleto de La Tiroides y el ...

  5. Pathological evaluation of thyroid glands in Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Wenquan; Xiao Haipeng; Cheng Wei; Yang Jianyong; Chen Guorui; Ling Qibo

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the pathological morphology of thyroid specimen after thyroid arteries embolization. In order to select appropriate size of embolizing granules, the diameters of thyroid arteries in Graves' disease were measured. Methods: Multiple slides of embolized thyroid tissues from superior pole, body and inferior pole of the resected thyroid glands were made. After being embedded and stained, pathological morphology was observed and diameters of arteries in various parts of thyroid glands were measured under microscopy. Results: Pathological examination of thyroid glands showed that superior and inferior thyroid arteries and most of their branches were embolized with ischemic necrosis and fibrosis in the embolized thyroid tissue. Follicular epithelium appeared as flat or cubic shapes with colloid reduction. Average diameter of main branches of superior artery was 440-550 μm and that of inferior artery was 300-375 μm. The diameters of capillary network in the thyroid body was 120-250 μm, and the non-embolized ones was 40-110 μm. The diameter of isthmus was 130-150 μm. Conclusions: Pathological morphology of Graves' disease after thyroid arteries embolization showed that the excretion of thyroid glands would be decreased and equivalents to subtotal thyroidectomy

  6. Diagnosis of acute appendicitis: Current criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Fernandez, Zenen

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of present paper was to identify some features related to preoperative diagnosis of acute appendicitis, according the selected variables, as well as to establish comparisons with findings from other authors. METHODS: We made a prospective, descriptive and observational study of 560 patients operated on and discharged with the histopathology diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Patients were seen in General Surgery Service of the 'Saturnino Lora' Teaching Provincial Hospital of Santiago de Cuba during year 2006. RESULTS: Among the more significant results were the predominance of young males with a mean age of 25,2 years, and the preponderance of the clinical diagnosis. Mean time of preoperative course was greater in men, and there was a predominance of gangrenous and perforated varieties, although the primacy was for the suppurative appendicitis. In the deceased ones the more severe pathologic histology ways were detected, and these were elderlies presenting with atypical clinical manifestations of disease. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical method has nowadays is of capital significance, since thorough it is possible early to diagnose this so common urgency, and to reduce the preoperative course time, whose length is cause of a unnecessary morbidity and mortality. (author)

  7. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been

    2012-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  8. Thyroid nodules and thyroid autoimmunity in the context of environmental pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benvenga, Salvatore; Antonelli, Alessandro; Vita, Roberto

    2015-12-01

    Evidence suggests that in most industrialized countries autoimmune disorders, including chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis, are increasing. This increase parallels the one regarding differentiated thyroid cancer, the increment of which is mainly due to the papillary histotype. A number of studies have pointed to an association between chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis and differentiated thyroid cancer. The upward trend of these two thyroid diseases is sustained by certain environmental factors, such as polluting substances acting as endocrine disrupting chemicals. Herein we will review the experimental and clinical literature that highlights the effects of environmental and occupational exposure to polluting chemicals in the development of autoimmune thyroid disease or differentiated thyroid cancer. Stakeholders, starting from policymarkers, should become more sensitive to the consequences for the thyroid resulting from exposure to EDC. Indeed, the economic burden resulting from such consequences has not been quantified thus far.

  9. Monolateral suppurative parotitis in a neonate and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decembrino, Lidia; Ruffinazzi, Giulia; Russo, Fabio; Manzoni, Paolo; Stronati, Mauro

    2012-07-01

    Neonatal suppurative parotitis is a rare condition characterized by swelling, pain, and erythema over the affected gland. Antimicrobials and adequate hydration are an essential part of treatment. Surgical intervention is reserved for organized abscesses and for infections not responding to medical management. A case report and review of the literature. Only few case reports and case series are reported in literature on neonatal parotitis. Transmission of bacteria seems to occur mainly by ascending spread through Stensen's duct, or by hematogenous spread from a distant focus. Dehydration, low birth weight, immune suppression, ductal obstruction, oral trauma and structural abnormalities of the parotid gland are recognised as risk factors. The most common pathogen is Staphylococcus aureus. Other less frequent agents are other Gram-positive cocci, Gram-negative bacilli and rarely anaerobic bacteria. Advances in antimicrobial therapy have improved both outcome and prognosis. Thanks to the prompt antibiotic treatment complications are now drastically reduced. Ultrasound examination may help in the diagnosis and monitoring of clinical course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased Prevalence of Chronic Lymphocytic Thyroiditis in Korean Patients with Papillary Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Mo; Park, Sohee; Lee, Joo Young; Won, Young-Joo; Shin, Aesun; Kong, Hyun-Joo; Choi, Kui-Sun; Lee, You Jin; Chung, Ki- Wook; Jung, Kyu-Won

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, some reports have suggested that papillary thyroid cancers are more frequently associated with lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study investigated a potential increase in the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients. Materials and Methods We used national epidemiological survey data on thyroid cancer patients diagnosed in 1999, 2005, and 2008. A retrospective medical record survey was conducted by representative sampling of a national cancer incidence database. The analysis included 5,378 papillary thyroid cancer patients aged 20–79 years. We calculated the age-standardized prevalence and age-adjusted prevalence ratios using a binomial regression model with a log link for the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients by sex for each year. Results The prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis among papillary thyroid cancer patients was 4.0% and 12.8% for men and women in 1999, 6.5% and 24.6% in 2005, and 10.7% and 27.6% in 2008, respectively. Between 1999 and 2008, the age-standardized prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased 4.1-fold in male patients and 2.0-fold in female patients with papillary thyroid cancer. The prevalence of other thyroid diseases, however, did not increase in either gender. Conclusions Among Korean papillary thyroid cancer patients, the prevalence of chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis increased between 1999 and 2008, whereas the prevalence of other thyroid disorders did not change. PMID:24927027

  11. [Antibacterial prevention of suppurative complications after operations on the large intestine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, M I; Pomelov, V S; Vandiaev, G K; Ialgashev, T Ia; Blatun, L A

    1983-05-01

    The data on comparative study of complications after operations on the large intestine are presented. During the preoperative period, 62 patients of the control group were treated with phthalylsulfathiazole, nevigramon and nystatin. Thirty-nine patients of the test group were treated with metronidazole and kanamycin monosulfate. Kanamycin monosulfate was used 3 days before the operation in a dose of 0.5 g orally 4 times a day whereas metronidazole in a dose of 0.5 g 3 times a day. The last doses of the drugs were administered 4-5 hours before the operation. After the operations the patients were treated with kanamycin sulfate for 3-5 days in a daily dose of 2 g intramuscularly. The number of the postoperative suppurative complications decreased from 22 to 5 per cent. No lethal outcomes were registered in the test group. The number of lethal outcomes in the control group amounted to 8 per cent.

  12. Thyroid nodules, thyroid function and dietary iodine in the Marshall islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, T; Fujimori, K; Simon, S L; Bechtner, G; Edwards, R; Trott, K R

    1999-08-01

    Thyroid nodules have been found to be common in the population of the Marshall Islands. This has been attributed to potential exposure of radioiodines from the nuclear weapons tests on Bikini and Eniwetok between 1946 and 1958. In order to get a full picture of thyroid pathology in the Marshallese population potentially exposed to radioactive fallout we performed a large thyroid screening programme using palpation, high resolution ultrasound and fine needle biopsies of palpable nodules. In addition, various parameters of thyroid function (free T3, free T4, thyroid stimulating hormone [TSH]) and anti-thyroid antibodies were examined in large proportions of the total population at risk. Since dietary iodine deficiency is an established risk factor for thyroid nodules, iodine concentration in urine samples of 362 adults and 119 children was measured as well as the iodine content of selected staple food products. The expected high prevalence of thyroid nodules was confirmed. There was no indication of an increased rate of impaired thyroid function in the Marshallese population. A moderate degree of iodine deficiency was found which may be responsible for some of the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in the Marshallese population. Studies on the relationship between exposure to radioiodines and thyroid nodules need to take dietary iodine deficiency into account in the interpretation of findings.

  13. Pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid deseases treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Інна Миколаївна Владимирова

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the increase of endocrine diseases is observed worldwide. Diabetes mellitus and thyroid gland pathologies are the most widespread. Endocrine diseases can be acute or chronic. In some cases, they are life threatening.There are different reasons of thyroid gland pathologies development. Both poor nutrition and poor quality water use, and unfavorable environmental conditions, including radiation, are among them. Iodine deficiency is determined to be one of the main reasons of these diseases.Aim. Determination of the pharmacotherapeutic directions of iodine herbal remedies use for different groups of thyroid diseases treatment.Methods. Thyroid stimulating action determination (primary screening and model pathology has been carried out by the method of “goiter reaction” in rats at the Central Scientific-Research Laboratory of National University of Pharmacy. Determination of thyroid hormone blood level in rats has been carried out at the Laboratory of Radioactive Endocrinology of the State Institution “Grigoriev Institute for medical Radiology NAMS of Ukraine”.Results. According to the research results generalization, correctness of developed algorithms was confirmed; peculiarities of the influence on pathological processes in thyroid, and prospects of implementation and use of herbs and herbal remedies for thyroid diseases prevention and treatment were determined.Conclusion. Obtained experimental data are actual for the modern medicine, and new scientific research, specifying their place in etiology, pathogenesis and peculiarities of clinical course of many diseases, will improve the efficiency of treatment and prevention of thyroid diseases

  14. Acute and chronic hypothyroidism are associated with similar left ventricular diastolic dysfunction relative to the euthyroid state: results of doppler echocardiographic comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauna, A; Messuti, H; Papadopulos, G; Benchuga, G; Viale, F; Marlowe, R J; Silva Croome, M C

    2011-10-01

    How the duration of hypothyroidism affects left ventricular diastolic function is not well-characterized. We sought to compare left ventricular diastolic function in acutely vs chronically hypothyroid patients vs euthyroid controls, and within individuals while on vs off T4. We prospectively performed such comparisons measuring pulsed-wave and color M-mode Doppler echocardiographic variables: early or late mitral peak velocities (E wave or A wave, respectively), E wave/A wave ratio, E wave deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), mitral flow propagation velocity (Vp), E wave/Vp ratio. Subjects comprised the acute HYPO group, 10 patients undergoing T4 withdrawal ≥ 6 months post-primary treatment for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC); the chronic HYPO group, 23 treatment-naïve Hashimoto thyroiditis patients; and 21 healthy euthyroid controls. Subjects were adults aged ≤ 60 yr, predominantly female, with sinus rhythm; exclusion criteria were cardiovascular or thyroid disorder besides DTC (Hashimoto thyroiditis) in acute (chronic) HYPO patients or medication (besides thyroid hormone) affecting cardiac or thyroid function. Mean IVRT was significantly delayed and mean Vp, significantly slowed in both HYPO groups vs controls (p<0.0005), but did not differ between HYPO groups. These variables also were significantly impaired (p<0.05) within individuals when off vs on T4 (no.=8 acute, 10 chronic HYPO patients). Both HYPO groups had elevated mean E wave/Vp ratios vs controls, but the elevation reached significance (p<0.05) only in the larger chronic HYPO group. Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is largely similar in acutely or chronically hypothyroid patients off T4 vs healthy controls or the same patients on T4.

  15. Development of an ear cap in chronic suppurative otitis media using additive manufacturing and TRIZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mawale, Mahesh B; Kuthe, Abhaykumar; Mawale, Anupama M; Dahake, Sandeep W

    2018-06-01

    The prevalence rate of chronic suppurative otitis media is high and its treatment continues to be a challenge for the otorhinolaryngologists. Due to middle ear infection, there may be pain, hearing loss and spontaneous rupture of the eardrum which results in perforation. Infections can cause a hole in the eardrum as a side effect of otitis media. The patients suffering from ear perforation or having a hole in eardrum require preventing entry of water in the ear. This article describes the development of ear cap using additive manufacturing and TRIZ (a collaborative tool) to prevent the entry of water in the ear during chronic otitis media.

  16. Acute exposure to synthetic pyrethroids causes bioconcentration and disruption of the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, Wenqing; Xu, Chao; Lu, Bin; Lin, Chunmian; Wu, Yongming; Liu, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) have the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system in mammals; however, little is known of the effects of SPs and underlying mechanisms in fish. In the current study, embryonic zebrafish were exposed to various concentrations (1, 3 and 10 μg/L) of bifenthrin (BF) or λ-cyhalothrin (λ-CH) until 72 h post fertilization, and body condition, bioaccumulation, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of related genes along the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis examined. Body weight was significantly decreased in the λ-CH exposure groups, but not the BF exposure groups. BF and λ-CH markedly accumulated in the larvae, with concentrations ranging from 90.7 to 596.8 ng/g. In both exposure groups, alterations were observed in thyroxine (T 4 ) and triiodothyronine (T 3 ) levels. In addition, the majority of the HPT axis-related genes examined, including CRH, TSHβ, TTR, UGT1ab, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα, were significantly upregulated in the presence of BF. Compared to BF, λ-CH induced different transcriptional regulation patterns of the tested genes, in particular, significant stimulation of TTR, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα levels along with concomitant downregulation of Dio1. Molecular docking analyses revealed that at the atomic level, BF binds to thyroid hormone receptor (TRα) protein more potently than λ-CH, consequently affecting HPT axis signal transduction. In vitro and in silico experiments disclosed that during the early stages of zebrafish development, BF and λ-CH have the potential to disrupt thyroid endocrine system. - Highlights: • Following respective exposure of embryos to BF and λ-CH, thyroid endocrine disruption was investigated in zebrafish embryos. • Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 levels) were significantly altered after being exposed to BF and λ-CH. • Gene transcription modulation in the HPT axis was examined. • BF and λ-CH bioconcentration in zebrafish larvae were evident. • BF binds to thyroid hormone

  17. Acute exposure to synthetic pyrethroids causes bioconcentration and disruption of the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid axis in zebrafish embryos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tu, Wenqing [Research Institute of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Institute of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Xu, Chao, E-mail: chaoxu@zjut.edu.cn [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Lu, Bin; Lin, Chunmian [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Biological and Environmental Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310032 (China); Wu, Yongming [Research Institute of Poyang Lake, Jiangxi Academy of Sciences, Nanchang 330029 (China); Liu, Weiping [Institute of Environmental Science, College of Environmental and Resource Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) have the potential to disrupt the thyroid endocrine system in mammals; however, little is known of the effects of SPs and underlying mechanisms in fish. In the current study, embryonic zebrafish were exposed to various concentrations (1, 3 and 10 μg/L) of bifenthrin (BF) or λ-cyhalothrin (λ-CH) until 72 h post fertilization, and body condition, bioaccumulation, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of related genes along the hypothalamus–pituitary–thyroid (HPT) axis examined. Body weight was significantly decreased in the λ-CH exposure groups, but not the BF exposure groups. BF and λ-CH markedly accumulated in the larvae, with concentrations ranging from 90.7 to 596.8 ng/g. In both exposure groups, alterations were observed in thyroxine (T{sub 4}) and triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) levels. In addition, the majority of the HPT axis-related genes examined, including CRH, TSHβ, TTR, UGT1ab, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα, were significantly upregulated in the presence of BF. Compared to BF, λ-CH induced different transcriptional regulation patterns of the tested genes, in particular, significant stimulation of TTR, Pax8, Dio2 and TRα levels along with concomitant downregulation of Dio1. Molecular docking analyses revealed that at the atomic level, BF binds to thyroid hormone receptor (TRα) protein more potently than λ-CH, consequently affecting HPT axis signal transduction. In vitro and in silico experiments disclosed that during the early stages of zebrafish development, BF and λ-CH have the potential to disrupt thyroid endocrine system. - Highlights: • Following respective exposure of embryos to BF and λ-CH, thyroid endocrine disruption was investigated in zebrafish embryos. • Thyroid hormones (T3 and T4 levels) were significantly altered after being exposed to BF and λ-CH. • Gene transcription modulation in the HPT axis was examined. • BF and λ-CH bioconcentration in zebrafish larvae were evident. • BF binds to thyroid

  18. Chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto thyroiditis; Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; Autoimmune thyroiditis; Chronic autoimmune thyroiditis; Lymphadenoid goiter - Hashimoto; Hypothyroidism - Hashimoto; Type 2 polyglandular autoimmune ...

  19. Thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji

    1992-01-01

    This chapter reviews the correlation between thyroid disease, other than cancer, and radiation in the literature. Radiation-induced thyroid disturbance is discussed in the context of external and internal irradiation. External irradiation of 10 to 40 Gy may lower thyroid function several months or years later. Oral administration of I-131 is widely given to patients with Basedow's disease; it may also lower thyroid function with increasing radiation doses. When giving 70 Gy or more of I-131, hypothyroidism has been reported to occur in 20-30% and at least 10%. Thyroiditis induced with internal I-131 irradiation has also been reported, but no data is available concerning external irradiation-induced thyroiditis. The incidence of nodular goiter was found to be several ten times higher with external irradiation than internal irradiation. Thyroid disturbance is correlated with A-bomb survivors. A-bomb radiation can be divided into early radiation within one minute after A-bombing and the subsequent residual radiation. Nodular goiter was significantly more frequent in the exposed group than the non-exposed group; it increased with increasing radiation doses and younger age (20 years or less) at the time of exposure. The incidence of decrease in thyroid function was higher with increasing radiation doses. However, in the case of Nagasaki, the incidence of hypothyroidism was significantly higher in the low-dose exposed group, especially A-bomb survivors aged 10-39 at the time of exposure and women. (N.K.)

  20. X-irradiation of thyroid during therapy of patients with multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agte, B.S.; Efimova, A.S.; Kalmykova, T.N.; Bajkova, V.P.

    1985-01-01

    X-radiation of 27 patients with thyroid at acute therapeutically resistant, progradient form of multiple sclerosis has been applied. Indistinct therapeutic effect attributed to depression of auto-aggressive allergic processes in cerebrospinal formations is noted in 20 patients after one or two courses of radiotherapy. The method can be used in complex therapy of progradient forms of multiple sclerosis

  1. Sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer in patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, Sara M; Benson, Carol B; Arthaud, Dylan M; Alexander, Erik K; Frates, Mary C

    2015-04-01

    To determine whether the sonographic appearance of thyroid cancer differs in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients with histologically proven thyroid cancer who had thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies measured and sonography performed preoperatively were included. We evaluated each nodule for size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo, and vascularity and evaluated the background heterogeneity of the gland. There were 162 thyroid cancers in 145 patients. Forty-two patients (29.0%) had Hashimoto thyroiditis with positive TPO antibodies, and 103 patients (71.0%) had negative TPO antibodies. The background echogenicity was more often heterogeneous in TPO antibody-positive patients compared to those who had negative TPO antibodies (57.1% versus 26.2%; P= .0005). Comparing cancers in TPO antibody-positive to TPO antibody-negative patients, there was no significant difference in the size, echogenicity, composition, margins, halo presence, calcification presence and type, or vascularity of the cancerous nodule (P > .05). Among TPO antibody-positive patients, comparing thyroid cancerous nodules in patients with heterogeneous glands to those with homogeneous glands, there was no significant difference in any sonographic characteristic except the margin of the nodule, which was more often irregular or poorly defined in heterogeneous glands and more often smooth in homogeneous glands (Pthyroid cancer are similar in patients with and without Hashimoto thyroiditis. Among patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and thyroid cancer, the sonographic appearance of the cancerous nodule is similar, except that cancerous nodule margins are more likely to be irregular or poorly defined when the gland is heterogeneous. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. Parasitic thyroid nodule in a patient with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Lima, Marcus Aurelho de; Marinho, Euripedes Oliveira; Marinho, Marco Aurelio de Oliveira; Santos, Lister Arruda Modesto dos; Raphael, Cristiane Mendes [Universidade do Triangulo Mineiro, Uberlandia, MG (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Clinica Medica

    2000-04-01

    A case of parasitic thyroid nodule is presented. The patient was a non symptomatic 53-year-old white woman, on irregular course of L-thyroxine to treat hypothyroidism due to Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Without a history of thyroid trauma or surgery, she presented a 1.6 x 0.7 x 0.5 cm right pre-laryngeal lymph node-like mass which, on ultrasonography, appeared distinct from the gland. TSH, thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody serum levels were elevated and T4-free level was normal. Thyroid and total body {sup 99m} Tc isonitrile scintiscan showed a topic thyroid without radionuclide uptake in the nodule. Fine-needle aspiration of the nodule showed epithelial cells with nuclear atypia and oncocitic changes plus intense lymphoid infiltration and germinative center formation, simulating lymph node metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Conventional biopsy revealed a parasitic thyroid nodule with Hashimoto's chronic thyroiditis. Parasitic thyroid nodule must always be remembered so that unnecessary surgical assessment and undesirable sequels may be avoided. (author)

  3. Thyroid activity in heat adaptation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, B.C.; Varshney, V.P.; Sanwal, P.C.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of acute and chronic (22 day round-the-clock) exposure to microenvironmental heat stress (37 deg C DBT) on thyroid activity was studied in Hariana x Holstein Frisian, Hariana x Brown Swiss and Hariana x Jersey non-cycling F 1 crossbred heifers. Vis-a-vis their no-heat norms, the percentage uptake of tri-iodothyronine- 125 I by resin registered a steep fall (about 45 to 60 percent) on acute heat exposures reaching a minimum value in about 2 hrs. The levels started recouping by the 2nd day, plateuing out on the 5th day onwards at slightly subnormal level with up and down fluctuations throughout the three week duration of exposure to heat. There were no significant differences in the pattern or magnitude of response amongst breeds, though in case of Holstein Frisian and Brown Swiss cross-breds the levels of T 3 tended, at times, to overshoot the no-stress norm. (author)

  4. Thyroid Tubercle of Zuckerkandl: importance in thyroid surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sheahan, Patrick

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The Tubercle of Zuckerkandl (TZ), which is the remant of the lateral thyroid process, is an important anatomic structure that serves as a reliable landmark for the recurrent laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery. Furthermore, removal of the TZ is critical for the adequate performance of a total thyroidectomy. However, there is little mention of the TZ in surgical textbooks or papers. METHODS: Prospective observational study of 138 consecutive thyroid surgeries. The presence of the TZ, its size, and relationship to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 211 thyroid lobes were included in the study. The TZ was identified in 61.1% of all thyroid lobes. The median size was 8 mm (range = 3-40 mm). A TZ was more commonly identified on the right (69.6%) than on the left side (53.2%) (P = .02). The recurrent laryngeal nerve was found deep to the TZ in 98.4% of cases. CONCLUSIONS: A TZ is present in the majority of thyroid lobes. Awareness of the TZ is critical in performing an adequate total thyroidectomy, and is very useful as a landmark for the recurrent laryngeal nerve.

  5. Hashimoto's Thyroiditis Pathology and Risk for Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paparodis, Rodis; Imam, Shahnawaz; Todorova-Koteva, Kristina; Staii, Anca

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) has been found to coexist with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in surgical specimens, but an association between the two conditions has been discounted by the medical literature. Therefore, we performed this study to determine any potential relationship between HT and the risk of developing DTC. Methods: We collected data for thyrotropin (TSH), thyroxine (T4), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) titers, surgical pathology, and weight-based levothyroxine (LT4) replacement dose for patients who were referred for thyroid surgery. Patients with HT at final pathology were studied further. To estimate thyroid function, patients with preoperative hypothyroid HT (Hypo-HT) were divided into three equal groups based on their LT4 replacement: LT4-Low (1.43 μg/kg). A group of preoperatively euthyroid (Euth-HT) patients but with HT by pathology was also studied. All subjects were also grouped based on their TPO-Ab titer in TPO-high (titer >1:1000) or TPO-low/negative (titer thyroid glands (LT4-Low) but not in fully hypothyroid HT (LT4-Mid and LT4-High). High TPO-Ab titers appear to protect against DTC in patients with HT. PMID:24708347

  6. Thyroid effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maxon, H.; Thomas, S.; Buncher, C.; Book, S.; Hertzberg, V.

    1985-01-01

    Risk coefficients for thyroid disorders have been developed for both 131 I and external x or gamma low-LET radiation. A linear, no-threshold model has been used for thyroid neoplasms. A linear, threshold model has been used for other thyroid disorders. Improvements since the Reactor Safety Study were made possible by relevant new animal and human data. Major changes are as follows. Animal data are used to supplement the human experience where necessary. A specific risk estimate model is used for thyroid neoplasms, which accounts for observed effects of gender and age at exposure on risk. For thyroid cancer, the basis of the risk coefficients is the experience of North Americans following x-irradiation for benign disease in childhood. This recognizes possible differences in susceptibility in people of different heritage. A minimum induction period for thyroid neoplasms following irradiation is used to define periods at risk. An upper bound risk coefficient for cancer induction following exposure to 131 I is based on human experience at relatively low dose exposures. While the overall lifetime risks of death due to thyroid cancer are consistent with projections by the ICRP, BEIR III, and UNSCEAR Reports, the current model permits greater flexibility in determining risk for population subgroups. 88 references, 8 tables

  7. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho; Kang, Byung Chul

    1999-01-01

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 ± 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 ± 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  8. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-01-01

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients

  9. Risk of thyroid cancer in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules with an emphasis on family history of thyroid cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JHwang, Shin Hye; Kim, Eun Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-15

    To determine the factors associated with thyroid cancer, focusing on first-degree family history and ultrasonography (US) features, in euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. This retrospective study included 1310 thyroid nodules of 1254 euthyroid asymptomatic patients who underwent US-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy between November 2012 and August 2013. Nodule size and clinical risk factors- such as patient age, gender, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer, multiplicity on US and serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels - were considered together with US features to compare benign and malignant nodules. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the risk of thyroid malignancy according to clinical and US characteristics. Although all of the clinical factors and US findings were significantly different between patients with benign and malignant nodules, a solitary lesion on US (p = 0.041–0.043), US features and male gender (p < 0.001) were significant independent risk factors for thyroid malignancy in a multivariate analysis. Patient age, a first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and high normal serum TSH levels did not independently significantly increase the risk of thyroid cancer. However, multicollinearity existed between US assessment and patient age, first-degree family history of thyroid cancer and serum TSH values. Ultrasonography findings should be the primary criterion used to decide the management of euthyroid asymptomatic patients with thyroid nodules. The concept of first-degree family history as a risk factor for thyroid malignancy should be further studied in asymptomatic patients.

  10. Likelihood ratio-based differentiation of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse hashimoto thyroiditis: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Xia, Yu; Jiang, Yu-Xin; Dai, Qing; Li, Xiao-Yi

    2012-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of sonography for discriminating nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis from papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. This study included 20 patients with 24 surgically confirmed Hashimoto thyroiditis nodules and 40 patients with 40 papillary thyroid carcinoma nodules; all had sonographically evident diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis. A retrospective review of the sonograms was performed, and significant benign and malignant sonographic features were selected by univariate and multivariate analyses. The combined likelihood ratio was calculated as the product of each feature's likelihood ratio for papillary thyroid carcinoma. We compared the abilities of the original sonographic features and combined likelihood ratios in diagnosing nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma by their sensitivity, specificity, and Youden index. The diagnostic capabilities of the sonographic features varied greatly, with Youden indices ranging from 0.175 to 0.700. Compared with single features, combinations of features were unable to improve the Youden indices effectively because the sensitivity and specificity usually changed in opposite directions. For combined likelihood ratios, however, the sensitivity improved greatly without an obvious reduction in specificity, which resulted in the maximum Youden index (0.825). With a combined likelihood ratio greater than 7.00 as the diagnostic criterion for papillary thyroid carcinoma, sensitivity reached 82.5%, whereas specificity remained at 100.0%. With a combined likelihood ratio less than 1.00 for nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis, sensitivity and specificity were 90.0% and 92.5%, respectively. Several sonographic features of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis and papillary thyroid carcinoma in a background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis were significantly different. The combined likelihood ratio may be superior to original sonographic features for

  11. Thyroid function study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da

    1976-01-01

    A short revision of thyroid physiology is done. The radioisotopes of common use in thyroid investigation and the choice of the most appropriated ones are discussed. A table showing radioisotopes frequently used in this study, with their main characteristics is presented. Among several isotopic assays in thyroid propaedeutics, those that refer to the function study, topographic studies and tests 'in vitro' are pointed out. Exploration methods 'in vivo' are treated, such as: thyroid uptake; urinary excretion; thyroid scintigraphy, with scintigraphic imagings; stimulation test by TSH; suppression test; pbi; clearance test with perchlorate; iodine deficiency test and thyroid study with technetium. 'In vitro' proofs like triiodothyronine (T 3 ) and thyroxine (T 4 ) assays, as well as free thyroxine index, are treated. At last, the therapeutics by Iodine 131 is commented and emphasis is given to its application on the treatment of hyperthyroidism and thyroid carcinoma [pt

  12. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  13. Diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal uptake in the thyroid gland identified by using FDG-PET. Prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Seiji; Ishibashi, Masatoshi; Hiromatsu, Yuji; Kaida, Hayato; Miyake, Ikuyo; Uchida, Masafumi; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate and evaluate the prevalence of incidental thyroid diffuse and diffuse-plus-focal fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in healthy subjects who underwent cancer screening on positron emission tomography (PET) scan, and also to evaluate the prevalence of thyroid cancer and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We carried out a retrospective review of 1626 subjects who underwent PET scanning at our institution. Diffuse uptake was defined as FDG uptake in the whole thyroid gland, whereas diffuse-plus-focal uptake was defined as a thyroid lesion with both diffuse uptake and focal FDG uptake. The maximum standardized uptake value of the thyroid lesions was recorded and reviewed. In each selected subject with positive thyroid FDG uptake, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, thyroid hormone, and thyroid antibodies were measured. Fine needle aspiration cytology was performed on patients with a definite nodule using ultrasonography. Twenty-nine subjects (1.78%) were identified as having either diffuse FDG uptake (n=25, 1.53%) or diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake (n=4, 0.24%). All subjects with diffuse FDG uptake were diagnosed as having Hashimoto's thyroiditis. In 1 of the 25 subjects with diffuse FDG uptake and two of the four with diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake, histopathologic diagnosis showed papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, PET scan did not detect papillary carcinoma associated with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in one of the three subjects. Our results suggest that although diffuse FDG uptake usually indicates Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the risk of thyroid cancer must be recognized in both diffuse FDG uptake and diffuse-plus-focal FDG uptake on PET scan. (author)

  14. Diagnostic Accuracy of Detecting Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Thyroid Cancer Patients Who Underwent Thyroid Surgery: Comparison of Ultrasonography, Positron Emission Tomography/CT, Contrast Enhanced CT, and Anti-Thyroid Antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Gyun; Lee, Tae Hyun; Park, Dong Hee; Nam, Sang Been [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Cancer Center Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography (US), F18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (PET/CT), contrast enhanced CT (CECT), serum anti-thyroid antibody for detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis in thyroid cancer patients who underwent neck surgery. A total of 150 patients with suspicious for thyroid cancer, who had previously undergone US guided needle aspiration of thyroid, were evaluated with the use of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. The four studies were performed within two months before neck surgery. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed by histopathological results. The diagnostic accuracy of US, PET/CT, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody were calculated statistically. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was diagnosed in 51 out of the 150 patients, following neck surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of US were 76.5%, 92.9%, 84.8%, 88.5%, and 87.3%, respectively. The corresponding values of PET/CT were 37.3%, 96.0%, 82.6%, 74.8%, and 76.0%, and CECT were 62.7%, 89.9%, 76.2%, 82.4%, and 80.7%, and serum anti-thyroid antibody level were 90.2%, 93.9%, 88.5%, 94.9%, and 92.7%, respectively. McNemar test revealed significant difference among PET/CT and others, but no significant differences among US, CECT and serum anti-thyroid antibody. Overall, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed most accurate diagnostic performance. In detecting Hashimoto's thyroiditis, serum anti-thyroid antibody showed higher diagnostic accuracy than others. US also showed relatively high diagnostic accuracy.

  15. Reevaluation of the Thyroid Scan for the Assessment of Pathophysiologic Status of Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, In Sook; Nah, Jung Il; Kim, Deog Yoon

    1991-01-01

    To diagnosis and understand the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease, not only hormonal measurements but also thyroid scan is believed to have a unique role. Especially in the cases of the change of the thyroid function by thyroiditis, it is emphasized that thyroid scan can be helpful in differential diagnosis, Discordant results of thyroid hormone levels and thyroid scan are found in transient hyperthyroidism, or in transient hypothyroidism. We analysed and reevaluated thyroid scan to look at the importance of thyroid scan. The results are summarised as follows: 1) 80%. of hyperthyroid patients had hyperthyroidism increased RAIU with even density, they are compatible with Graves' disease. 2) 2.1% of hyperthyroid patients had normal or decreased RAIU, which are classified as high iodine turn over genuine hyperthyroidism. 3) 8.5% of hyperthyroid patients had markedly decreased RAIU at both 2 hour and 24 hour, whose pathologic processes are suggested to be heterogenous namely subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and pamless thyroiditis. 4) 45% of hypothyroid patients had increased 24 hr RAIU, 30% of hypothyroid patients were normal, 25%, decreased. In conclusion, thyroid scan should be reevaluated its useful role to asses the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease. Especially in cases of transient thyrotoxicosis, thyroid scan is essential to diagnose and follow up the disease process.

  16. Reevaluation of the Thyroid Scan for the Assessment of Pathophysiologic Status of Thyroid Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woo, In Sook; Nah, Jung Il; Kim, Deog Yoon [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-03-15

    To diagnosis and understand the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease, not only hormonal measurements but also thyroid scan is believed to have a unique role. Especially in the cases of the change of the thyroid function by thyroiditis, it is emphasized that thyroid scan can be helpful in differential diagnosis, Discordant results of thyroid hormone levels and thyroid scan are found in transient hyperthyroidism, or in transient hypothyroidism. We analysed and reevaluated thyroid scan to look at the importance of thyroid scan. The results are summarised as follows: 1) 80%. of hyperthyroid patients had hyperthyroidism increased RAIU with even density, they are compatible with Graves' disease. 2) 2.1% of hyperthyroid patients had normal or decreased RAIU, which are classified as high iodine turn over genuine hyperthyroidism. 3) 8.5% of hyperthyroid patients had markedly decreased RAIU at both 2 hour and 24 hour, whose pathologic processes are suggested to be heterogenous namely subacute thyroiditis, postpartum thyroiditis, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and pamless thyroiditis. 4) 45% of hypothyroid patients had increased 24 hr RAIU, 30% of hypothyroid patients were normal, 25%, decreased. In conclusion, thyroid scan should be reevaluated its useful role to asses the pathophysiologic status of thyroid disease. Especially in cases of transient thyrotoxicosis, thyroid scan is essential to diagnose and follow up the disease process.

  17. Risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chien-Liang; Cheng, Shih-Ping; Lin, Hui-Wen; Lai, Yuen-Liang

    2014-03-01

    The causative relationship between autoimmune thyroiditis and thyroid cancer remains a controversial issue. The aim of this population-based study was to investigate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis. From the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database 2005 (LHID2005) of Taiwan, we identified adult patients newly diagnosed with thyroiditis between 2004 and 2009 (n = 1,654). The comparison cohort (n = 8,270) included five randomly selected age- and sex-matched controls for each patient in the study cohort. All patients were followed up from the date of cohort entry until they developed thyroid cancer or to the end of 2010. Multivariate Cox regression was used to assess the risk of developing thyroid cancer. A total of 1,000 bootstrap replicates were created for internal validation. A total of 35 patients developed thyroid cancer during the study period, of whom 24 were from the thyroiditis cohort and 11 were from the comparison cohort (incidence 353 and 22 per 100,000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for thyroid cancer in patients with thyroiditis was 13.24 (95 % CI 6.40-27.39). Excluding cancers occurring within 1 year of follow-up, the HR remained significantly increased (6.64; 95 % CI 2.35-18.75). Hypothyroidism was not an independent factor associated with the occurrence of thyroid cancer. We found an increased risk for the development of thyroid cancer after a diagnosis of thyroiditis, independent of comorbidities.

  18. MINIMALLY INVASIVE OPEN THYROIDECTOMY IN THYROID CANCER WITH COEXISTENT HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rumen Nenkov

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the minimally invasive thyroidectomy challenges is the application of this technique in the surgical treatment of thyroid cancer. The use of minimally invasive open approach in co-existence of thyroid cancer with Hashimoto thyroiditis is well known provocation to the skills of the surgeon working in the field of thyroid surgery.Aim: To report our results and to present the possibilities of minimally invasive open approach in the surgical treatment of thyroid carcinoma and coexistent Hashimoto thyroiditis. Patients and methods: For the period from 2008 to 2011, 641 patients were operated on in our clinic using minimally invasive open approach. In 32 of these patients presence of Hashimoto thyroiditis was found in combination with thyroid cancer. All patients were females, 26 to 46 years age. Patients were selected according to designed and accepted for our institution criteria. The procedures were performed using ultrasound (harmonic shears (Harmonic Focus® and Harmonic Ace®, Ethicon Endo-Surgery. The operative time, incidence, type and severity of complications, length of hospital stay, safety and reliability of the surgical procedure were analyzed. Results: The operative incision length in all cases was between 2.0-2.5 cm. In 27 patients papillary thyroid carcinoma and in 5 patients – follicular variant of the neoplasm were found. The tumor size ranged between 0.5 and 1.5 cm. In all patients total thyroidectomy using harmonic scalpel was performed. Lymph node metastases in the central neck compartment were not found in any of the cases. The rate, type and severity of complications did not exceed those for patients who underwent conventional thyroidectomy. All patients leaved the hospital in the first 24 postoperative hours. The follow-up did not reveal remnant thyroid tissue in thyroid gland bed or recurrence of the disease.Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the feasibility and reliability of minimally invasive open approach with

  19. Sonographic decreased echogenicity of thyroid parenchyma in asymptomatic population: Correction with thyroid function and thyroid autoimmune activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Park, Noh Hyuck; Park, Chan Sub; Lee, Ji Ye [Dept. of Radiology, Myongji Hospital, Seonam University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Chun, Kyung Ah [Dept. of Radiology, Catholic Kwandong University School of Medicine, Gangneung (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Seong Yoon [Div. of Hematology-Oncology, Dept. of Internal Medicine, Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Park, Hee Jin [Dept. of of Radiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the correlation between decreased echogenicity of thyroid and thyroid hormones or autoantibodies. From January 2009 to December 2011, 543 patients with decreased parenchymal echogenicity [M:F = 133:410, median age: 42 years (range: 9-82 years)], who did not have solid nodule, symptom or medication related to thyroid and underwent thyroid function test were retrospectively reviewed. Images were classified based on the degree of hypoechogenicity, heterogenicity or thyroid size. 1) Group A: mild decreased echogenicity, group B: marked decreased echogenicity, 2) group Ho: homogeneous echogenicity, group He: heterogeneous echogenicity, 3) group 1: decreased size, group 2: normal size, group 3: increased size. Differences in triiodiothyronyne (T3), free-thyroxine (fT4), thyrotropin (TSH), anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb), and anti-TSH receptor antibody (TSH-rAb) were evaluated among groups. T3, fT4, and TSH levels differed between groups A and B (p < 0.001, p = 0.001, p < 0.001). TgAb and TPOAb of group B were higher than group A (p = 0.006, p < 0.001). TPOAb of group He was higher than group Ho (p < 0.001). TSH-rAb and TPOAb of group 3 were higher than group 2 (p = 0.017, p < 0.001). The patients with findings of markedly decreased, heterogeneous echogenicity or thyroid enlargement may have abnormal thyroid function and autoantibodies. These may facilitate the physicians' decision to order tests for thyroid function and autoimmune activity.

  20. Thyroid cancer - medullary carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid - medullary carcinoma; Cancer - thyroid (medullary carcinoma); MTC; Thyroid nodule - medullary ... in children and adults. Unlike other types of thyroid cancer, MTC is less likely to be caused by ...

  1. IL-1β a potential factor for discriminating between thyroid carcinoma and atrophic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun-Krichen, Maha; Bougacha-Elleuch, Noura; Mnif, Mouna; Bougacha, Fadia; Charffedine, Ilhem; Rebuffat, Sandra; Rebai, Ahmed; Glasson, Emilie; Abid, Mohamed; Ayadi, Fatma; Péraldi-Roux, Sylvie; Ayadi, Hammadi

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between cytokines and others soluble factors (hormones, antibodies...) can play an important role in the development of thyroid pathogenesis. The purpose of the present study was to examine the possible correlation between serum cytokine concentrations, thyroid hormones (FT4 and TSH) and auto-antibodies (Tg and TPO), and their usefulness in discriminating between different thyroid conditions. In this study, we investigated serum from 115 patients affected with a variety of thyroid conditions (44 Graves' disease, 17 Hashimoto's thyroiditis, 11 atrophic thyroiditis, 28 thyroid nodular goitre and 15 papillary thyroid cancer), and 30 controls. Levels of 17 cytokines in serum samples were measured simultaneously using a multiplexed human cytokine assay. Thyroid hormones and auto-antibodies were measured using ELISA. Our study showed that IL-1β serum concentrations allow the discrimination between atrophic thyroiditis and papillary thyroid cancer groups (p = 0.027).

  2. Endoscopic-Assisted Surgery for Pyriform Sinus Fistula in Chinese Children: A 73-Consecutive-Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Qingfeng; Lv, Zhibao; Xiao, Xianmin; Xu, Weijue; Liu, Jiangbin; Wu, Yibo

    2016-01-01

    Complete resection of the pyriform sinus fistula (PSF) tract is challenging due to repeated infection and inadequate procedures. We present our experiences with intraoperative endoscopic-assisted intubation or instillation of dye through the internal opening as a guide to identify the tract. We retrospectively reviewed the charts of 73 consecutive patients diagnosed with PSF during 1999 until 2014 from two tertiary referral centers. Demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, treatment, and outcome were analyzed. The intraoperative endoscopy was successfully conducted in all 73 cases. No gender predominance was observed. Of the anomalies, 94.5% were left-sided. Presenting symptoms consisted of neck abscess (n = 48), acute suppurative thyroiditis/thyroid abscess (n = 9), neck mass with or without dyspnea (n = 12), and thyroid nodule (n = 4). Barium esophagography and computed tomography scan with oral or intravenous contrast had a satisfactory positive predictive value. Partial thyroidectomy was performed on 25 cases (34.2%) if the ipsilateral thyroid was involved. Good outcome was achieved in all but 3 patients (70/73, 95.9%) during a median follow-up of 4 years (range, 8 months-14 years). Two patients developed postoperative complications: temporary vocal fold motion impairment and left-sided Horner's syndrome, respectively. PSF recurred in 1 case. A complete resection is essential for good outcomes. Intraoperative intubation or methylene blue injection by endoscopy can simplify the identification of the fistula tract during surgical exploration.

  3. Thyroid endocrine disruption in zebrafish larvae after exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhui Zhai

    Full Text Available Phthalates are extensively used as plasticizers in a variety of daily-life products, resulting in widespread distribution in aquatic environments. However, limited information is available on the endocrine disrupting effects of phthalates in aquatic organisms. The aim of the present study was to examine whether exposure to mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, the hydrolytic metabolite of di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP disrupts thyroid endocrine system in fish. In this study, zebrafish (Danio rerio embryos were exposed to different concentrations of MEHP (1.6, 8, 40, and 200 μg/L from 2 h post-fertilization (hpf to 168 hpf. The whole-body content of thyroid hormone and transcription of genes involved in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT axis were examined. Treatment with MEHP significantly decreased whole-body T4 contents and increased whole-body T3 contents, indicating thyroid endocrine disruption. The upregulation of genes related to thyroid hormone metabolism (Dio2 and UGT1ab might be responsible for decreased T4 contents. Elevated gene transcription of Dio1 was also observed in this study, which might assist to degrade increased T3 contents. Exposure to MEHP also significantly induced transcription of genes involved in thyroid development (Nkx2.1 and Pax8 and thyroid hormone synthesis (TSHβ, NIS and TG. However, the genes encoding proteins involved in TH transport (transthyretin, TTR was transcriptionally significantly down-regulated after exposure to MEHP. Overall, these results demonstrate that acute exposure to MEHP alters whole-body contents of thyroid hormones in zebrafish embryos/larvae and changes the transcription of genes involved in the HPT axis, thus exerting thyroid endocrine toxicity.

  4. Thyroid and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Shunichi; Namba, Hiroyuki; Nagataki, Shigenobu (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1993-11-01

    The topic 'Thyroid and Radiation' is both an old and new area to be solved by human beings. The thyroid is an organ that is usually susceptible to exposure to ionizing radiation, both by virtue of its ability to concentrate radioiodine (internal radiation) and by routine medical examination: Chest X-ray, Dental X-ray, X-irradiation of cervical lymph nodes etc. (external radiation). Iodine-131 is widely used for the therapy of Graves' disease and thyroid cancers, of which the disadvantage is radiation-induced hypothyroidism but not complications of thyroid tumor. The thyroid gland is comparatively radioresistant, however, the data obtained from Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Marshall islands indicates a high incidence of external radiation-induced thyroid tumors as well as hypothyroidism. The different biological effects of internal and external radiation remains to be further clarified. Interestingly, recent reports demonstrate the increased number of thyroid cancer in children around Chernobyl in Belarus. In this review, we would like to introduce the effect of radiation on the thyroid gland at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. Furthermore the clinical usefulness of iodine-131, including the safety-control for radiation exposure will be discussed. (author) 50 refs.

  5. Thyroid autoantibodies and differentiated thyroid cancer: revue of 662 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izembart, M.; Dagousset, F.; Chevalier, A.; Hassid, V.; Leger, A.; Barritault, L.; Clerc, J.

    1999-01-01

    The incidence of thyroid autoantibodies is clearly increased in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to re-evaluate frequency and evolution of anti-thyroglobulin and anti-microsomal (anti-peroxidase) autoantibodies in 662 patients with thyroid carcinoma treated with 131 radioiodine. Ours results obtained with 'classical' methods confirmed others earlier reports. When using more sensitive methods to detect thyroglobulin antibodies we obtained an increase in positive results and a more frequent association with anti-microsomal antibodies. Antibodies became undetectable with a variable period, ranging from a few months to 13 years in one case. If we suppose that the disappearance of antibodies is linked to the thyroid tissue disappearance, thyroid cancer follow up ought to include anti-thyroglobulin and anti-peroxidase antibodies, both directed against thyroid antigens. A decrease of both antibodies seems to indicate a favorable prognostic factor whereas an increase may suggest relapse. (author)

  6. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases by computed tomography and 123I thyroidal uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yoshiko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ehara, Norishige

    1991-01-01

    Understanding the iodine kinetics in the thyroid is useful for the diagnosis of a patient with diffuse thyroid disease. In this study, 9 controls and 50 patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, we evaluated diffuse thyroid diseases with 123 I thyroidal uptake and volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content measured by computed tomography. There was no significant correlation between volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content of the thyroid and 123 I thyroidal uptake. The thyroid volume in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly larger than that in the control group. The thyroid iodine concentration in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly smaller than that in the control group. The thyroid net iodine content in Hashimoto's disease was significantly smaller than that in the control group. Although most of the patients with Graves' disease had more increased radioiodine thyroidal uptake than the control group, there was no significant difference between them in the mean of the thyroid net iodine content. But the variance of net iodine contents in the former was significantly larger than that in the latter. The thyroid net iodine content was very low in all patients with very high thyroglobulin hemaggrugated antibody (TGHA) value although it was nearly normal in some patients with normal TGHA value. It was suggested that iodine concentration and net iodine content might be determined not only by iodine uptake but also by release and/or leakage of iodine compounds from the thyroid, which might depend on some antithyroid antibodies. (author)

  7. Diffuse sclerosing variant of thyroid carcinoma presenting as Hashimoto thyroiditis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukasović, Anamarija; Kuna, Sanja Kusacić; Ostović, Karmen Trutin; Prgomet, Drago; Banek, Tomislav

    2012-11-01

    The aim of report is to present a case of a rare diffuse sclerosing variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma. A 15-year old girl referred for ultrasound examination because of painless thyroid swelling lasting 10 days before. An ultrasound of the neck showed diffusely changed thyroid parenchyma, without nodes, looking as lymphocytic thyroiditis Hashimoto at first, but with snow-storm appearance, predominantly in the right lobe. Positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-AT) also suggested Hashimoto thyroiditis. Repeated US-FNAB (fine needle-aspiration biopsy) of the right lobe revealed diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma and patient underwent total thyreoidectomy. Patohistologic finding confirmed diffuse sclerosing variant of a papillary thyroid carcinoma in the both thyroid lobes and several metastatic lymph nodes. Two months later patient recived radioablative therapy with 3700 MBq (100 mCi) of 1-131 followed by levothyroxine replacement. At the moment, patient is without evidence of local or distant metastases and next regular control is scheduled in 6 months. In conclusion, a diffuse sclerosing variant is rare form of papillary thyroid carcinoma that echographically looks similar to Hashimoto thyroiditis and sometimes could be easily overlooked.

  8. Evaluation of thyroid nodules by 123I thyroid scintigraphy and computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Yoshiko; Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ehara, Norishige

    1991-01-01

    We have already reported that computed tomography (CT) could be used to quantify iodine concentration in the thyroid. Correlation between CT value and iodine concentration in thyroid tissues was represented by the following formula (n=31, r=0.96): iodine concentration=(CT value-65)/104 (mg/g). In this study, we evaluated thyroid nodules by 123 I thyroid scintigraphy and histograms of CT values in the nodules. Radioiodine accumulation and the histograms on CT of the thyroid nodules were correlated with the histopathology of 35 thyroid nodules (22 benign nodules, 13 malignant nodules) of 27 patients. Results showed no definite correlation between radioiodine accumulation in the thyroid nodule and the pattern on CT reflecting iodine concentration in the nodule. Some nodules with little radioiodine accumulation had considerable iodine concentration. Benign thyroid nodules tended to have lower iodine concentration than malignant nodules. Fifteen (94%) of 16 nodules showing only minimal iodine concentration were benign. We conclude that the function and/or differentiation of tumor cells in the thyroid nodule must be evaluated not only radioiodine accumulation in the nodule but also by iodine concentration in the nodule and that thyroid nodules with only minimal iodine concentration are most likely benign. (author)

  9. Thyroid hormone therapy following the thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horster, F.A.

    1986-01-01

    Medication with thyroid hormones following total thyroidectomy for thyroid carcinoma is based on the following principles: 1. The patient is informed about the lifelong necessity of taking a thyroid hormones daily before breakfast. This hormone must be given orally and its bioligical effect is identical with that of the tyhroid hormone secreted by the healthy thyroid gland. 2. The daily dosage of thyroid hormones may be assessed on the basis of the following parameters: a) the patient's clinical euthyroidism, b) suppression of thyrotropic activity, c) unrestricted tolerance of the preparation. 3. The in vitro parameters associated with optimal medication should be within the following ranges: Thyroxine value (TT4 or FT4): above the normal range, triiodothyronine value (TT3 or FT3): within the upper normal range and thyrotropin value (TSH 'ultrasensitive' or TRH-test): suppressed. (orig.) [de

  10. Pineal thyroid relationship in psychic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, P.N.; Prasad, G.C.; Udupa, K.N.

    1981-01-01

    Pineal hormone and thyroid functions, were studied simultaneously in rats after the induction of acute psychic stress as well as exogenous administration of melatonin, thyroxine and also after thyroidectomy. A gradual increase in 131 I uptake, serum PBI and melatonin levels were observed in blood, reaching maximum on 8th day of psychic stress. Melatonin administration resulted in hypothyroidism whereas thyroxine increased the activity of pineal qland. Thyroidectomy revealed a gradual decrease in melatonin content of pineal gland whereas supplementation with thyroxine resulted in a melatonin content similar to that observed in sham operated (control) group. (author)

  11. Ultrasound sonoelastography in the evaluation of thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchała, Marek; Szmyt, Krzysztof; Sławek, Sylwia; Zybek, Ariadna; Szczepanek-Parulska, Ewelina

    2014-01-01

    Sonoelastography (USE) is a constantly evolving imaging technique used for the noninvasive and objective estimation of tissue stiffness. Several USE methods have been developed, including Quasi-Static or Strain Elastography and Shear Wave Elastography. The utility of USE has been demonstrated in differentiating between malignant and benign thyroid lesions. Recently, USE has been applied in the evaluation of thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD).Thyroid inflammatory illnesses constitute a diverse group of diseases and may manifest various symptoms. These conditions may share some parallel clinical, biochemical, and ultrasonographic features, which can lead to diagnostic difficulties. USE may be an additional tool, supporting other methods in the diagnosis and treatment monitoring of thyroid diseases, other than thyroid nodular disease.The aim of this article was to analyse and summarise the available literature on the applicability of different elastographic techniques in the diagnosis, differentiation and monitoring of various types of thyroiditis and AITD. Advantages and limitations of this technique are also discussed.

  12. Pregnancy and Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... People Who Were Treated with hGH Thyroid Disease & Pregnancy Thyroid disease is a group of disorders that ... prescribes. What role do thyroid hormones play in pregnancy? Thyroid hormones are crucial for normal development of ...

  13. Thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El Baba KA

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Khalid A El Baba1, Sami T Azar21Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Bahrain Specialist Hospital, Manama, Bahrain; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, American University of Beirut-Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Timely treatment of thyroid disease during pregnancy is important in preventing adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. Thyroid abnormalities are very often subclinical in nature and not easily recognized without specific screening programs. Even mild maternal thyroid hormone deficiency may lead to neurodevelopment complications in the fetus. The main diagnostic indicator of thyroid disease is the measurement of serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and free thyroxine levels. Availability of gestation-age-specific thyroid-stimulating hormone thresholds is an important aid in the accurate diagnosis and treatment of thyroid dysfunction. Pregnancy-specific free thyroxine thresholds not presently available are also required. Large-scale intervention trials are urgently needed to assess the efficacy of preconception or early pregnancy screening for thyroid disorders. Accurate interpretation of both antepartum and postpartum levels of thyroid hormones is important in preventing pregnancy-related complication secondary to thyroid dysfunction. This article sheds light on the best ways of management of thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy in order to prevent any possible maternal or fetal complication.Keywords: TSH, HCG, TBG

  14. Coexistence of papillary thyroid cancer and Hashimoto thyroiditis in children: report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koibuchi, Harumi; Omoto, Kiyoka; Fukushima, Noriyoshi; Toyotsuji, Tomonori; Taniguchi, Nobuyuki; Kawano, Mikihiko

    2014-07-01

    This report documents 3 pediatric papillary thyroid carcinoma cases with associated Hashimoto thyroiditis. In all 3 cases, hypoechoic nodules accompanied by multiple echogenic spots were noted on sonography of the thyroid. Hashimoto thyroiditis was suspected on the basis of positive thyroid autoantibody test results and pathologic examinations of thyroidectomy specimens, which revealed chronic thyroiditis with lymphocytic infiltration as the background of papillary thyroid carcinoma development. The potential for papillary carcinoma development warrants close follow-up, and meticulous sonographic examinations must be performed in children with Hashimoto thyroiditis. © 2014 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  15. Co-Existence of Thyroid Nodule and Thyroid Cancer in Children and Adolescents with Hashimoto Thyroiditis: A Single-Center Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Meliksah; Savas-Erdeve, Senay; Aycan, Zehra

    2016-01-01

    Currently, there is an inadequate number of studies on nodule and malignancy development in children and adolescents with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT). Patients who were diagnosed with HT between 2004 and 2013 were included in the study. The HT diagnosis was made with a heterogeneous appearance on thyroid ultrasonography and the elevation of antithyroid peroxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) was performed in cases with a nodule size >1 cm or who had ultrasonography findings indicating malignancy. A total of 39 (13%) thyroid nodules were detected in 300 patients with a diagnosis of HT. Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) was diagnosed in 2 of the 12 cases in whom FNAB was performed. The thyroid nodule was detected at the same time as HT in the 2 cases with malignancy. The PTC diagnosis was made 2 years after the HT diagnosis in the first case and 3 years later in the second case. The largest diameter of the thyroid nodule was 5 mm in both cases. The thyroid nodule rate on an HT background was found to be 13%, and the thyroid malignancy rate was 0.67% in our study. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Double thyroid ectopia (with incidental papillary thyroid microcarcinoma) (2010: 8b)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal); Martins, Mariluz [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Lisbon (Portugal); Andre, Saudade [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia de Francisco Gentil-Centro de Lisboa, Department of Pathology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2010-11-15

    We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a long-standing history of a slow-growing left submandibular mass. Imaging was diagnostic as it disclosed an absent orthotopic thyroid gland and heterogeneous masses, with both solid and cystic components, as well as calcifications in the left sublingual/submandibular space and in the left paramedian aspect of the tongue base, consistent with double thyroid ectopia, originating from central and lateral thyroid anlages, respectively. Pathology confirmed an ectopic thyroid goiter in the left submandibular space with an incidental papillary microcarcinoma. Scintigraphy also demonstrated ectopic thyroid tissue in the left tongue base. (orig.)

  17. Thyroid Cancer Presenting with Concomitant Metastatic Breast Cancer in the Thyroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Wang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid is an unusual site to find cancer metastasis. When it does occur, such cancer spread is often manifested in multiple metastases and generally suggests a poor prognosis. We presented here a 49-year-old woman recently diagnosed with thyroid cancer, who had been treated for stage IIA breast cancer 8 years ago. After radical right thyroidectomy and left subtotal thyroidectomy, her pathological report showed papillary thyroid carcinoma, right thyroid, with concomitant metastatic breast carcinoma. This is the first case of which we are aware involving coexisting thyroid cancer and metastatic breast cancer in the ipsilateral lobe. Moreover, the circumstances of this case show a very unique clinical course compared with previous studies. Given the unusual circumstances of our case, we further discuss the relationship between thyroid cancer and breast cancer.

  18. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable...... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age......-related reference ranges. Equally important, the intraindividual variability of the thyroid hormone measurements is much narrower than the interindividual variation (reflecting the reference interval). The best laboratory assessment of thyroid function is a free thyroid hormone estimate combined with TSH...

  19. Euthyroid sick syndrome in patients with acute renal failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilic Slobodan; Vlajkovic Marina; Rajic Milena; Bogicevic Momcilo

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate serum thyroid hormone profile in acute renal failure (ARF) patients according to the initial 131I-OIH clearance value as a predictor of ARF outcome. Patients and methods: Radioimmuno-assays of T4, T3, FT4, FT3, rT3 and TSH were performed in 32 ARF patients within 7 days and 6 months after ARF onset. The patients were divided into three groups according to the kidney function recovery potential measured by 131I-OIH clearance as follows: Group I: high probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance >250 ml/min), Group II: intermediate probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance 151-250 ml/min) and Group III: low probability for kidney recovery (131I-OIH clearance <150 ml/min). The results were compared with those obtained in 20 healthy patients. Results: Total thyroid hormone and TSH values are displayed in the table, Values of total T4 and TSH were slightly declined in the Group I but without reaching the statistical significance, while total T3 value was significantly decreased seven days after ARF onset. In the groups with intermediate and low probability for kidney recovery both T3 and T4 values were significantly dropped, being most prominent in the III group. After six months, the most severe fall of thyroid hormone levels without reaching the normalization was found only in the Group III while in the Group I and II normalization of total thyroid hormone levels was achieved. At the end of the observation period ARF patients with low probability for kidney recovery were found significantly lower values of TSH. Conclusion: Acute renal failure affects thyroid function leading to euthyroid sick syndrome characterized by declined serum T3 and T4 without TSH elevation. Thyroid hormone a disturbance is in accordance with the impairment of renal function being the most pronounced in patient with low probability for kidney recovery. This pattern of altered thyroid hormone levels could be a result of

  20. Hashimoto's thyroiditis following Graves' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Husaini; Muallima, Nur; Adam, John M F; Sanusi, Harsinen

    2010-01-01

    Both Graves' disease and chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's thyroiditis) are autoimmune diseases of thyroid gland. Graves' disease is caused by stimulation of TSH receptor located on the thyroid gland by an antibody, which is known as TSH receptor antibody (TRAb). Furthermore, this may lead to hyperplasia and hyperfunction of the thyroid gland. On the contrary, the cause of Hashimoto's thyroiditis is thought due to a TSH stimulation-blocking antibody (TSBAb) which blocks the action of TSH hormone and subsequently brings damage and atrophy to thyroid gland. Approximately 15-20% of patients with Graves' disease had been reported to have spontaneous hypothyroidism resulting from the chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease). Pathogenesis for chronic thyroiditis following anti-thyroid drug treatment in patients with Graves' disease remains unclear. It has been estimated that chronic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease, which occurs following the Graves' disease episode is due to extended immune response in Graves' disease. It includes the immune response to endogenous thyroid antigens, i.e. thyroid peroxidase and thyroglobulin, which may enhance lymphocyte infiltration and finally causes Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We report four cases of chronic thyroiditis (Hashimoto's disease) in patients who have been previously diagnosed with Graves' hyperthyroidism. In three cases, Hashimoto's thyroiditis occurs in 7 to 25 years after the treatment of Grave's disease; while the other case has it only after few months of Grave's disease treatment. The diagnosis of Hashimoto's disease (chronic thyroiditis) was based on clinical manifestation, high TSHs level, positive thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody, and supported by positive results of fine needle aspiration biopsy. Moreover, the result of histopathological test has also confirmed the diagnosis in two cases. All cases have been successfully treated by levothyroxine treatment.

  1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone, anti-thyroid antibodies, and pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowden, Torie C; Schisterman, Enrique F; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Perkins, Neil J; Silver, Robert; Radin, Rose; Kim, Keewan; Galai, Noya; DeCherney, Alan H; Mumford, Sunni L

    2017-12-01

    Overt thyroid dysfunction has been associated with adverse obstetric outcomes. However, less is known regarding subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity and their relationship to pregnancy complications. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between prepregnancy anti-thyroid antibodies and subclinical hypothyroidism and preterm delivery, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preeclampsia. We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of 18- to 40-year-old women with 1-2 previous pregnancy losses (n=1193) who participated in a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial of low-dose aspirin. Prepregnancy levels of thyroid-stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, thyroglobulin antibody, and thyroid peroxidase antibody were measured. Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals were estimated with the use of generalized linear models with adjustment for age and body mass index. Among women with an ongoing pregnancy of >20 weeks estimated gestational age, there was no association between prepregnancy thyroid-stimulating hormone level (>2.5 vs ≤2.5 mIU/L) and preterm delivery (adjusted relative risk, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-1.47), gestational diabetes mellitus (adjusted relative risk, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-3.04), or preeclampsia (adjusted relative risk, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 0.71-2.04). Similarly, among women with thyroid antibodies, there was no increase in the likelihood of preterm delivery (relative risk, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.65-2.45), gestational diabetes mellitus (relative risk, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-3.49), or preeclampsia (relative risk, 1.02; 95% confidence interval, 0.54-1.92), compared with women without these antibodies. Among women with 1-2 previous pregnancy losses, subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity were not associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery, gestational diabetes mellitus, or preeclampsia. These data support current

  2. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-05-04

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant "hot" nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases of benign hyperfunctioning nodules. A literature review of surgical patients with solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules managed by thyroid resection revealed an estimated 3.1% prevalence of malignancy. A separate literature search uncovered 76 cases of reported malignant hot thyroid nodules, besides the present case. Of these, 78% were female and mean age at time of diagnosis was 47 years. Mean nodule size was 4.13 ± 1.68 cm. Laboratory assessment revealed T3 elevation in 76.5%, T4 elevation in 51.9%, and subclinical hyperthyroidism in 13% of patients. Histological diagnosis was papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) in 57.1%, follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) in 36.4%, and Hurthle cell carcinoma in 7.8% of patients. Thus, hot thyroid nodules harbor a low but non-trivial rate of malignancy. Compared to individuals with benign hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules, those with malignant hyperfunctioning nodules are younger and more predominantly female. Also, FTC and Hurthle cell carcinoma are found more frequently in hot nodules than in general. We were unable to find any specific characteristics that could be used to distinguish between malignant and benign hot nodules.

  3. Thyroid cancer around Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beral, V.

    1997-01-01

    The author's presentation on thyroid cancer around Chernobyl will focus on four different things. First will be the time trends, or the pattern of thyroid cancer occurrence before and after the accident. It is now very well known that the increase in thyroid cancer in children in several areas has been unprecedented. Second, the author discusses thyroid cancer in general and patterns of thyroid cancer around the world before the Chernobyl accident, including differences by age and pathology. Third, the author presents relatively crude analyses of risk according to dose to the thyroid gland. And last, the author attempts to contrast the findings for thyroid cancer in relation to the internal radioiodine dose in Chernobyl studies with analyses of the effects of external dose on thyroid cancer incidence. The bottom line to be developed is similar to that presented by Elaine Ron with regard to effects of external dose on thyroid cancer. The similarities between the childhood finding from Chernobyl studies and external radiation studies appear more remarkable than the differences

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  5. Evaluation of thyroid function tests in non-thyroidal illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutte, D.P.

    1988-01-01

    Normal thyroid physiology and pathophysiology with reference to non-thyroidal illness (NTI) is reviewed including specific disease states and drugs and their effect on thyroid function tests. The diagnostic utility of two new highly sensitive thyrotrophin (TSH) assays as screening tests for thyroid dysfunction are evaluated and compared with conventional thyroid function assays. A group of 40 patients with NTI was studied. This group was compared to a group of normal controls and a group of thyrotoxic patients. Conventional thyroid function tests yielded many values outside the reference range in the NTI group. The general pattern that emerged was decreased total triiodothyronine levels in 70% of NTI patients, normal to low thyroxine values, increased mean free thyroxine values (dialysis), low mean values for the free thyroxine index and varying results for newer commercial assays for free thyroxine according to methodology. The TSH response to intravenous thyroliberin (TRH) was found to be blunted compared to controls. Basal TSH levels were measured with two ultasensitive TSH assays. The immunoradiometric assays yielded fewer values outside the reference range in the NTI group than conventional thyroid function tests. This assay yielded undetectable basal TSH levels in all thyrotoxic patients and could reliably separate thyrotoxic patients from the NTI group. Basal TSH levels with ultrasensitive TSH assays correlated well with the TSH response to TRH (TSH) and could obviate the need for TRH tests. Ultrasensitive TSH assays are promising first line screening tests in NTI. 120 refs., 13 figs., 7 tabs

  6. Thyroid hormone antibodies and Hashimoto's thyroiditis in mongrel dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajatanavin, R.; Fang, S.L.; Pino, S.; Laurberg, P.; Braverman, L.E.; Smith, M.; Bullock, L.P.

    1989-05-01

    Abnormally elevated serum T3 concentrations measured by RIA were observed in 19 clinically euthyroid or hypothyroid mongrel dogs. The serum T4 concentrations in these sera were low, normal, or high. Measurement of the intensity of thyroid hormone binding to serum proteins was determined by equilibrium dialysis. A marked decrease in the percent free T3 was observed in these abnormal sera. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, pH 7.4, of normal dog serum enriched with tracer /sup 125/I-labeled thyroid hormones demonstrated binding of (/sup 125/I)T4 to transthyretin, thyroid hormone-binding globulin, and albumin and of (/sup 125/I)T3 primarily to thyroid hormone-binding globulin. In all abnormal sera, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated strikingly higher binding of T3 to immunoglobulin (Ig). Eleven of 16 abnormal sera had minimal to moderate binding of T4 to Ig. The percent free T4 was lower only in dogs whose sera demonstrated markedly increased binding of T4 to Ig. All abnormal sera tested had positive antithyroglobulin antibodies, consistent with the diagnosis of autoimmune lymphocytic thyroiditis. As in humans, antibodies to thyroid hormones in dogs are more common in the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and should be considered when elevated serum thyroid hormone concentrations are observed in the absence of clinical thyrotoxicosis. When an antibody to only one thyroid hormone is present, a marked discrepancy in the serum concentrations of T3 and T4 will be observed.

  7. Sarcoidosis and Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Fazzi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Most of the studies have shown a higher risk for subclinical and clinical hypothyroidism, antithyroid autoantibodies [overall antithyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAb], and in general, thyroid autoimmunity, overall in the female gender in patients with sarcoidosis (S. A significantly higher prevalence of clinical hypothyroidism and Graves’ disease was also described in female S patients with respect to controls. Gallium-67 (Ga-67 scyntigraphy in S patients, in the case of thyroid uptake, suggests the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism. For this reason, ultrasonography and thyroid function should be done in the case of Ga-67 thyroid uptake. In conclusion, thyroid function, TPOAb measurement, and ultrasonography should be done to assess the clinical profile in female S patients, and the ones at high risk (female individuals, with TPOAb positivity, and hypoechoic and small thyroid should have periodically thyroid function evaluations and suitable treatments.

  8. Neonatal thyroid screening results are related to gestational maternal thyroid function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuppens, S.M.I.; Kooistra, L.; Wijnen, H.A.; Vader, H.L.; Hasaart, T.H.M.; Oei, S.G.; Vulsma, T.; Pop, V.J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relationship between maternal thyroid function at each pregnancy trimester and neonatal screening results. Background Overt maternal thyroid dysfunction during gestation is associated with poor neonatal thyroid function. However, research on the relationship between suboptimal

  9. Association between Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Thyroid Cancer in 64,628 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resende de Paiva, Christina; Grønhøj, Christian; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing although explanatory causes are lacking. A link between cancer and inflammation is well documented but unclear for autoimmune thyroid diseases and TC. We aimed to systematically review the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT......) and papillary, follicular, medullary, anaplastic thyroid carcinoma, and thyroid lymphoma (TL). METHODS: PubMed, OVID Medline, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched from 1955 to 2016. The inclusion criteria were age >18 years, ≥20 cases of HT or TC. We collectively examined the incidence of HT...... in TC and of TC in HT. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies (64,628 subjects) published between 1955 and 2016 from 13 countries. We found a relative risk (RR) of HT among papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) of 2.36 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.55-3.29, p 

  10. Changes is radioactive iodine metabolism in acute chemical intoxications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selyutitskij, G.V.; Likhtarev, I.A.; Volkova, N.V.; Zvonova, I.A.; Ostryakova, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that the response of the endocrine system (iodine-absorbing and hormone-secreting fUnctions of the thyroid) as studied by the radioactive iodine test may be a reasonably versatile indicator of the response of the thyroid component of the endocrine system to acute intoxication of the organism. Trials of this test using seven chemical substances have confirmed that the radioiodine test is a sufficienty universal method to be used in setting sanitary and hygienic standards for permissible levels of chemical substances

  11. Benign Thyroid Conditions Associated with Increased Risk of Thyroid Cancer Later in Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new study from the National Cancer Institute and Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark, researchers report an association between diagnosis of hyperthyroidism and thyroiditis (inflammation of the thyroid gland), two benign thyroid conditions, and increased risk of differentiated thyroid cancer.

  12. Thyroid Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyroid cancer can be of four main types. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is hard to cure with current treatments, whereas papillary (the most common), follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer can usually be cured. Start here to find information on thyroid cancer treatment, screening, research, and statistics.

  13. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  14. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  15. Hyperfunction thyroid nodules: Their risk for becoming or being associated with thyroid cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji Hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki Hyun [Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study. Thyroid nodules depicted on ultrasonography were classified based on size and categorized as benign, indeterminate, or suspicious malignant nodules according to ultrasonographic findings. The thyroid nodules were determined as either hyperfunctioning or coexisting nodules and were then correlated with pathologic results. In 32 patients, 42 hyperfunctioning nodules (mean number per patient, 1.31; range, 1-6) were observed on thyroid scans and 68 coexisting nodules (mean, 2.13; range, 0-7) were observed on ultrasonography. Twenty-five patients (78.1%) had at least one hyperfunctioning (n = 17, 53.1%) or coexisting (n = 16, 50.0%) nodule that showed a suspicious malignant feature larger than 5 mm (n = 8, 25.0%), or an indeterminate feature 1 cm or greater (n = 20, 62.5%) in diameter, which could have been indicated by using fine needle aspiration (FNA). Seven patients were proven to have 11 thyroid cancers in 3 hyperfunctioning and 8 coexisting nodules. All of these had at least one thyroid cancer, which could have been indicated by using FNA. The estimated minimal risk of thyroid cancer was 6.5% (7/107). Patients with hyperfunctioning nodules may not be safe from thyroid cancer because hyperfunctioning nodules can coexist with thyroid cancer nodules. To screen out these cancers, ultrasonography should be performed.

  16. Hashimoto thyroiditis, anti-thyroid antibodies and systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posselt, Rayana T; Coelho, Vinícius N; Skare, Thelma L

    2018-01-01

    To study the prevalence of Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT), anti-thyroid autoantibodies (anti-thyroglobulin or TgAb and thyroperoxidase or TPOAb) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. To analyze if associated HT, TgAb and/or TPOAb influence clinical or serological profiles, disease activity and/or its cumulative damage. Three hundred and one SLE patients and 141 controls were studied for thyroid stimulating hormone, thyroxin, TgAb and TPOAb by chemiluminescence and immunometric assays. Patients' charts were reviewed for serological and clinical profiles. Activity was measured by SLE Disease Activity Index and cumulative damage by Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index for SLE. SLE patients were divided into: (i) with HT; (ii) with anti-thyroid antibodies but without HT; and (iii) without HT and without anti-thyroid antibodies, and were then compared. Furthermore, SLE patients were compared according to the number of positive anti-thyroid antibodies. Hashimoto thyroiditis prevalence in SLE was 12.6% and 5.6% in controls (P = 0.02; odds ratio = 2.4; 95% CI = 1.09-5.2). Lupus patients with HT had less malar rash (P = 0.02) and more anti-Sm (P = 0.04). Anti-Sm was more common in those with two anti-thyroid antibodies than in those with one or negative. The presence of HT or the number of positive autoantibodies did not associate either with disease activity (P = 0.95) or with cumulative damage (P = 0.98). There is a two-fold increased risk of HT in SLE patients. Anti-Sm antibodies favor this association and also double antibody positivity. Disease activity and cumulative damage are not related to HT or with autoantibodies. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. Primary thyroid lymphoma: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo-Cheol; Han, Moon Hee E-mail: hanmh@radcom.snu.ac.kr; Kim, Keon Ha; Jae, Hwan Jun; Lee, Sang Hyun; Kim, Sam Soo; Kim, Kwang Hyun; Chang, Kee-Hyun

    2003-06-01

    Introduction: To evaluate the computed tomographic (CT) findings of primary thyroid lymphoma. Methods and material: The clinicopathological data and CT images of nine patients with primary thyroid lymphoma were retrospectively reviewed. The CT appearances were classified into three types: type 1, a solitary nodule surrounded by normal thyroid tissue; type 2, multiple nodules in the thyroid, and type 3, a homogeneously enlarged both thyroid glands with a reduced attenuation with or without peripheral thin hyperattenuating thyroid tissue. Results: All patients had a rapidly enlarging thyroid mass and coexistent Hashimoto's thyroiditis. One patient showed type 1 pattern, three type 2, and five type 3. Six patients had homogeneous tumor isoattenuating to surrounding muscles. The tumors had a strong tendency to compress normal remnant thyroid and the surrounding structure without invasion. Conclusion: Primary thyroid lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when old female had a homogeneous thyroidal mass isoattenuating to muscles, which does not invade surrounding structures.

  18. Thyroid dosimetry after the Chernobyl accident and thyroid cancer in iodine deficient areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szybinski, Z [Jagiellonian Univ., Cracow (Poland). Dept. of Endocrinology

    1996-08-01

    Of the radionuclides generated from 235-U and 239-Pu in a core of the nuclear reactor, radioiodines particularly 131-I, is the most significant in view of its huge quantities, easy dispersion and cumulation in the human thyroid in case of a nuclear accident. After nuclear accident in Chernobyl 20-50 million Ci of 131-I was released. Depending on the dose absorbed to the thyroid, 131-I can cause a late appearance of a thyroid nodule or cancer and/or thyroid destruction leading to hypothyroidism. Thyroid irradiation may origin from two sources: external cumulative radiation mainly of gamma type and internal related to 131-I cumulation. So far most information on the risk factors of the thyroid cancer due to is related to from external radiation, but there is no scientific basis to believe that internal radiation cannot induce the thyroid cancer. Thyroid dosimetry after Chernobyl accident in near and far field is essential for calculation of the thyroid cancer risk coefficient due to radiation. 1 tab.

  19. Thyroid evaluation with radioassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashkar, F.S.

    1983-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is given therapeutically for the treatment of hypothyroidism and in goiterous conditions. When administered in full maintenance dosage, it interrupts the operation of the homeostatic mechanism that evokes excesses of thyrotropin (TSH) in response to various goiterogenic stimuli or impending thyroid failure, resulting in thyroid gland enlargement. All patients with treated thyroid cancer are maintained indefinitely on full replacement dosages of thyroid hormone to eliminate endogenous TSH and its trophic effect, thereby minimizing recurrence and growth of the tumor. A high-risk group of patients that were irradiated to the head and neck in childhood for various reasons are placed on thyroid hormone therapy prophylactically to turn off their endogenous TSH if they are found free of thyroid nodularity on initial evaluation. The adequacy of thyroid hormone therapy and the regularity of its intake can be ultimately evaluated by the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) stimulation test, where no TSH response indicates adequate therapy and a normal TSH response suggests inadequate or irregular treatment

  20. Hyperfunction Thyroid Nodules: Their Risk for Becoming or Being Associated with Thyroid Cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun Sun; Kim, Ji-hoon; Na, Dong Gyu; Paeng, Jin Chul; Min, Hye Sook; Choi, Seung Hong; Sohn, Chul Ho; Chang, Ki-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Objective To retrospectively evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer in patients with hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules through ultrasonographic-pathologic analysis. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approval was obtained and informed consent was waived. From 2003 to 2007, 107 patients consecutively presented with hot spots on thyroid scans and low serum thyroid-stimulating hormone levels. Among them, 32 patients who had undergone thyroid ultrasonography were analyzed in this study....

  1. Evaluation of diffuse thyroid diseases by computed tomography and sup 123 I thyroidal uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Yoshiko (Saint Marianna Univ., Kawasaki, Kanagawa (Japan). School of Medicine); Imanishi, Yoshimasa; Ehara, Norishige (and others)

    1991-10-01

    Understanding the iodine kinetics in the thyroid is useful for the diagnosis of a patient with diffuse thyroid disease. In this study, 9 controls and 50 patients with diffuse thyroid diseases, we evaluated diffuse thyroid diseases with {sup 123}I thyroidal uptake and volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content measured by computed tomography. There was no significant correlation between volume, iodine concentration, and net iodine content of the thyroid and {sup 123}I thyroidal uptake. The thyroid volume in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly larger than that in the control group. The thyroid iodine concentration in Graves' and Hashimoto's diseases was significantly smaller than that in the control group. The thyroid net iodine content in Hashimoto's disease was significantly smaller than that in the control group. Although most of the patients with Graves' disease had more increased radioiodine thyroidal uptake than the control group, there was no significant difference between them in the mean of the thyroid net iodine content. But the variance of net iodine contents in the former was significantly larger than that in the latter. The thyroid net iodine content was very low in all patients with very high thyroglobulin hemaggrugated antibody (TGHA) value although it was nearly normal in some patients with normal TGHA value. It was suggested that iodine concentration and net iodine content might be determined not only by iodine uptake but also by release and/or leakage of iodine compounds from the thyroid, which might depend on some antithyroid antibodies. (author).

  2. Expression of stanniocalcin 1 in thyroid side population cells and thyroid cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, Suguru; Sasaki, Yoshihito; Matsubara, Tsutomu; Seo, Daekwan; Miyakoshi, Masaaki; Murata, Tsubasa; Ozaki, Takashi; Kakudo, Kennichi; Kumamoto, Kensuke; Ylaya, Kris; Cheng, Sheue-yann; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Hewitt, Stephen M; Ward, Jerrold M; Kimura, Shioko

    2015-04-01

    Mouse thyroid side population (SP) cells consist of a minor population of mouse thyroid cells that may have multipotent thyroid stem cell characteristics. However the nature of thyroid SP cells remains elusive, particularly in relation to thyroid cancer. Stanniocalcin (STC) 1 and 2 are secreted glycoproteins known to regulate serum calcium and phosphate homeostasis. In recent years, the relationship of STC1/2 expression to cancer has been described in various tissues. Microarray analysis was carried out to determine genes up- and down-regulated in thyroid SP cells as compared with non-SP cells. Among genes up-regulated, stanniocalcin 1 (STC1) was chosen for study because of its expression in various thyroid cells by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Gene expression analysis revealed that genes known to be highly expressed in cancer cells and/or involved in cancer invasion/metastasis were markedly up-regulated in SP cells from both intact as well as partial thyroidectomized thyroids. Among these genes, expression of STC1 was found in five human thyroid carcinoma-derived cell lines as revealed by analysis of mRNA and protein, and its expression was inversely correlated with the differentiation status of the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated higher expression of STC1 in the thyroid tumor cell line and thyroid tumor tissues from humans and mice. These results suggest that SP cells contain a population of cells that express genes also highly expressed in cancer cells including Stc1, which warrants further study on the role of SP cells and/or STC1 expression in thyroid cancer.

  3. Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2017-07-01

    The risk of thyroid cancer increases and persists for decades among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood, although the long-term effects of childhood exposure to medium to low doses of radiation on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases have remained unclear. To evaluate radiation dose responses for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid disease among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years old at exposure underwent thyroid examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation between 2007 and 2011, which was 62 to 66 years after the bombing. Data from 2668 participants (mean age, 68.2 years; 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; dose range, 0 to 4.040 Gy) were analyzed. Dose-response relationships between atomic bomb radiation dose and the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease), and positive for antithyroid antibodies. Prevalences were determined for hypothyroidism (129 cases, 7.8%), hyperthyroidism (32 cases of Graves' disease, 1.2%), and positive for antithyroid antibodies (573 cases, 21.5%). None of these was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Neither thyroid antibody-positive nor -negative hypothyroidism was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Additional analyses using alternative definitions of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism found that radiation dose responses were not significant. Radiation effects on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases were not observed among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood, at 62 to 66 years earlier. The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  4. Ectopic lingual thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amani, Mohammed El Amine; Benabadji, Nadjia; Benzian, Zakaria; Amani, Souad

    2012-01-01

    Thyroid ectopy is characterized by the presence of thyroid tissue outside its normal position resulting from a defect of the thyroid diverticulum migration from the base of the tongue until its final pre-tracheal position. One case is presented in a 12-year-old girl patient who consults for a failure to thrive estimated at less than three standard deviations (SD). Bone age was estimated at 8 years late compared to chronological age. The hormonal assessment showed hypothyroidism with negative thyroid antibodies. Cervical ultrasound was revealed thyroid parenchyma pre-dominantly left in place while sweeping the area under chin showed a nodular formation of the base of the tongue. Thyroid scan with technetium 99 m showed a selective uptake of radiotracer in sublingual position. Cervical computed tomography revealed a posterior median sublingual mass spontaneously hyperdense and enhancing sharply after injection of contrast. Treatment with thyroxine allowed obtaining euthyroidism. This case asks us to be careful before aetiological diagnosis of hypothyroidism in children, because although this is rare, the presence of a thyroid parenchyma up to the cervical ultrasound does not eliminate the presence of ectopic tissue

  5. Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma Metastatic to the Thyroid, Presenting Like Anaplastic Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Pollak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis of uterine cancer to the head and neck is extremely rare. We report what we believe to be the first documented case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastasizing to the thyroid gland. An 80-year-old woman was referred to the otolaryngology service with a rapidly growing neck mass. The mass appeared to originate from the thyroid gland. Her clinical presentation was consistent with anaplastic thyroid carcinoma. A tracheostomy was performed. An open biopsy established the diagnosis of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, consistent with a gynecologic primary. The patient had undergone a hysterectomy 5 years prior for endometrioid adenocarcinoma. The thyroid tumor histology and immunophenotype corresponded well with her prior endometrial carcinoma, indicating that the thyroid mass was a metastasis from the endometrial primary. Radiotherapy appears to offer good local disease control in this rare case of endometrioid adenocarcinoma metastatic to the thyroid.

  6. GNAq mutations are not identified in papillary thyroid carcinomas and hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassol, Clarissa A; Guo, Miao; Ezzat, Shereen; Asa, Sylvia L

    2010-12-01

    Activating mutations of GNAq protein in a hotspot at codon 209 have been recently described in uveal melanomas. Since these neoplasms share with thyroid carcinomas a high frequency of MAP kinase pathway-activating mutations, we hypothesized whether GNAq mutations could also play a role in the development of thyroid carcinomas. Additionally, activating mutations of another subtype of G protein (GNAS1) are frequently found in hyperfunctioning thyroid adenomas, making it plausible that GNAq-activating mutations could also be found in some of these nodules. To investigate thyroid papillary carcinomas and thyroid hyperfunctioning nodules for GNAq mutations in exon 5, codon 209, a total of 32 RET/PTC, BRAF, and RAS negative thyroid papillary carcinomas and 13 hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules were evaluated. No mutations were identified. Although plausible, GNAq mutations seem not to play an important role in the development of thyroid follicular neoplasms, either benign hyperfunctioning nodules or malignant papillary carcinomas. Our results are in accordance with the literature, in which no GNAq hotspot mutations were found in thyroid papillary carcinomas, as well as in an extensive panel of other tumors. The molecular basis for MAP-kinase pathway activation in RET-PTC/BRAF/RAS negative thyroid carcinomas remains to be determined.

  7. [Acute neonatal suppurative parotiditis: about three clinical cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isfaoun, Zineb; Radouani, Mohammed Amine; Azzaoui, Sihame; Knouni, Houria; Aguenaou, Hassan; Barkat, Amina

    2016-01-01

    The following case study reports three cases of neonatal bacterial parotiditis observed over a period of seven months. Diagnosis is often based on patient's clinical features: they typically include hyperthermia, swelling, erythema, warmth as well as local tenderness and purulent discharge at Stensen duct during the massage of the parotid. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by ultrasound and by culture of parotid purulent secretion. They are mainly of nosocomial origin and are generally caused by prematurity and dehydration. Early treatment improves patient outcome. Risk factors such as age should lead clinicians to start empiric antibiotic therapy first and then antibiotic therapy based on direct examination of pus extracted from Stensen duct. Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus Viridans and anaerobic germs are most commonly isolated. Acute parotiditis are extremely rare in the neonatal period: less than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. We here report three rather peculiar cases. The diagnosis was suspected on the basis of signs of local inflammation.

  8. [Thyroid and pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwen, K A; Lehnert, H

    2018-05-17

    During pregnancy thyroid hormones have profound effects on embryonal/fetal development and maternal health. Therefore, thyroid gland disorders should be immediately diagnosed and adequately treated. Pregnancy-specific physiological alterations during pregnancy cause changes in the reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and trimester-specific thresholds must be taken into account. This article summarizes the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects before, during and after pregnancy. With reference to the period prior to pregnancy, the article discusses iodide supplementation, preconceptional examination of thyroid gland metabolism and the importance of thyroid gland functional disorders for fertility and fulfilling the desire to have children. With a view to the period during pregnancy, the effect of hypothyroxinemia, hypothyroidism, and hyperthyroidism as well as the effects of their treatment on the development of the child are explained. Finally, a description is given of what must be paid attention to in the breast-feeding period and in postpartum thyroiditis.

  9. Association between Hashimoto's Thyroiditis and Thyroid Cancer in 64,628 Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Resende de Paiva, Christina; Grønhøj, Christian; Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The incidence of thyroid cancer (TC) is increasing although explanatory causes are lacking. A link between cancer and inflammation is well documented but unclear for autoimmune thyroid diseases and TC. We aimed to systematically review the association between Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT...... in TC and of TC in HT. RESULTS: We identified 36 studies (64,628 subjects) published between 1955 and 2016 from 13 countries. We found a relative risk (RR) of HT among papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) of 2.36 [95% confidence intervals (CIs) 1.55-3.29, p ....07-1.85, p = 0.016), and an RR of TL among HT of 9.74 (95% CI 3.93-24.13, p thyroid cancer....

  10. Quantitative assessment of thyroid gland elasticity with shear-wave elastography in pediatric patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemirli, Sedat Giray; Bayramoglu, Zuhal; Caliskan, Emine; Sari, Zeynep Nur Akyol; Adaletli, Ibrahim

    2018-01-18

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common autoimmune thyroid disorder in the pediatric age range. Measurement of thyroid gland size is an essential component in evaluation and follow-up of thyroid pathologies. Along with size, tissue elasticity is becoming a more commonly used parameter in evaluation of parenchyma in inflammatory diseases. The aim of the current study was to assess thyroid parenchyma elasticity by shear-wave elastography in pediatric patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis; and compare the elasticity values to a normal control group. In this study; thyroid glands of 59 patients with a diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis based on ultrasonographic and biochemical features, and 26 healthy volunteers without autoimmune thyroid disease and thyroid function disorders, were evaluated with shear-wave elastography. Patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis were further subdivided into three categories based on gray-scale ultrasonography findings as focal thyroiditis (grade 1), diffuse thyroiditis (grade 2), and fibrotic thyroid gland (grade 3). Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (n = 59) had significantly higher elasticity values (14. 9 kPa; IQR 12.9-17.8 kPa) than control subjects (10.6 kPa; IQR 9.0-11.3 kPa) (p thyroiditis, 23 patients had focal thyroiditis involving less than 50% of the gland categorized as grade 1, 24 patients had diffuse involvement of the thyroid gland categorized as grade 2, and 12 patients had marked hyperechoic septations and pseudonodular appearance categorized as grade 3 on gray-scale ultrasound. Based on elastography, grade 3 patients had significantly higher elasticity values (19.7 kPa; IQR 17.8-21.5 kPa) than patients with grade 2 (15.5 kPa; IQR 14.5-17.8 kPa) and grade 1 thyroiditis (12.8 kPa; IQR 11.9-13.1 kPa) (p thyroiditis had significantly higher elasticity values than those with grade 1 thyroiditis (p thyroiditis. Our results indicate that shear-wave elastography could be used to evaluate the degree of

  11. Ultrasonographic evaluation of Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Comparison of size and echo change with thyroid function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Rae; Cho, Jae Hyun; Kim, Yun Jeong; Kim, Hyun Man; Park, Rae Woong; Suh, Jung Ho [Aju University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Byung Chul [Ewha Womans University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-12-15

    To demonstrate sonographic features of Hashimoto's thyroiditis according to the thyroid function. We reviewed 54 thyroid ultrasonographic examinations of untreated Hashimoto's thyroiditis. We reviewed thyroid ultrasonographic examinations and focused on the presence of ill-defined low echoic lesions and glandular enlargement. We performed another thyroid ultrasonographic examination of 14 healthy volunteers, in order to obtain normal size of thyroid gland. Comparison was made between these morphologic characteristics and functional stage of the disease. The mean diameter of thyroid gland was 2.16 {+-} 0.43 cm in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and 1.41 {+-} 0.42 cm in normal control group of the thyroid gland. There was no statistically significant relationship between thyroid function and size. There was morphologic abnormalities in 46 patients (85%). Among them, 7 patients revealed diffuse low echogenicity in the entire thyroid gland, 32 patients showed peripherally located, ill-defined focal hypoechoic lesion, and 7 patients showed solitary or multiple. well-defined nodular lesions. Decreased echogenicity of the thyroid gland was related to hypothyroid status. Hashimoto's thyroiditis has specific morphologue characteristics in ultrasonographic features, which are well correlated with thyroid function.

  12. Thyroid uptake of 67Ga-citrate is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism in patients with sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ferrannini, Ele; Fazzi, Piera; Grosso, Mariano; Boni, Giuseppe; Mariani, Giuliano

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the association of gallium-67 ( 67 Ga)-citrate thyroid uptake with the presence of thyroid disorders in patients with sarcoidosis (S patients). Eighty-four S patients were evaluated by a complete thyroid work-up (neck ultrasound, circulating thyroid hormones and anti-thyroid antibodies, fine-needle aspiration). In S patients with 67 Ga thyroid uptake (respect those without): serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, the titre of anti-thyroid peroxidase (AbTPO) and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (AbTg), and the prevalence of S patients with hypothyroidism or with positive AbTg or AbTPO was significantly higher; a thyroid hypoechoic pattern was more frequent. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was not significantly different between the two groups. Two cases of papillary thyroid cancer were observed in S patients without 67 Ga thyroid uptake, whilst no case in those with 67 Ga thyroid uptake. 67 Ga thyroid uptake is associated with the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism in S patients; thyroid function and ultrasonography should be performed in the presence of 67 Ga thyroid uptake. (orig.)

  13. Comparison level of thyroid and thyroid related hormones between sudanese males and females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madani, H.; Hassan, AME.; Basama, N. K.; Mohamed, W.A.S.; Eltayeb, N. H.; Elsayed, B. B.

    2012-12-01

    The function of the thyroid gland is under the control of pituitary gland through the thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). It secretes the thyroid hormones tetra-iodo-thyronine (T 4 ) and Tri-iodo-thyronine (T 3 ). More secretion of thyroid hormones (hyperthyroidism) and low secretion (hypothyroidism) sometimes happen. This study was carried out to determine thyroid disorders in patients referred to radioimmunoassay (RIA) laboratory of Sudan Atomic Energy Commission (SAEC) during 2006-2010 for the thyroid function test. Disorders were detected using radioimmunoassay and Immuno radiometric assay. The total number of patients referred during these years were found to be 4700 sudanese patients, among them 4165 were females representing 88.6% compared to 535 males representing 11.4%. The total concentration of thyroid hormones thyroxine (T 4 ), tri iodine thyronine (T 3 ) and thyroid simulating stimulating hormones (TSH) were d terminated the prevalence of euthyroid was (66.5%), hypothyroidism was (11.8%) and of hyperthyroidism was (21.7%). These percentages did not vary significantly with sex. (Author)

  14. Glioblastoma multiforme and papillary thyroid carcinoma - A rare combination of multiple primary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroopa Pulivarthi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We are describing a 19-year-old white woman who presented with two synchronous primary cancers, namely glioblastoma multiforme and papillary thyroid cancer. The patient was admitted with dizziness, headache, and vomiting. CT head revealed acute intraparenchymal hematoma in the right cingulate gyrus and the splenium of the corpus callosum. Carotid and cerebral angiogram were unremarkable. MRI of the brain demonstrated a non-enhancing and non-hemorrhagic component of the lesion along the lateral margin of the hemorrhage just medial to the atrium of the right lateral ventricle that was suspicious for a tumor or metastasis. Brain biopsy confirmed it as glioblastoma mutiforme. CT chest was done to rule out primary cancer that revealed a 11 mm hypodense lesion in the left lobe of the thyroid and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy confirmed it as papillary thyroid carcinoma. We should evaluate for multiple primary malignancies in young patients who are found to have primary index cancer.

  15. The relationship between procalcitonin and thyroid autoantibodies in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncul, Ali; Ates, Ihsan; Arikan, Mehmet Fettah; Yilmaz, Nisbet; Topcuoglu, Canan; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric; Altay, Mustafa

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the serum levels of procalcitonin and its association with autoantibodies in patients with euthyroid Hashimoto's thyroiditis. A total of 80 participants were included in the study; 40 of which were newly diagnosed with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, aged over 18, and 40 of which were healthy volunteers. The serum levels of procalcitonin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. Thyroid function tests were analyzed in hormone laboratory with Electro-chemiluminescence immunoassay. Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients had higher median procalcitonin levels than those of the control group (34.3 pg/mL vs 27.8 pg/mL respectively; P=.037). Also, male patients had higher median procalcitonin levels as compared to female patients (37 pg/mL vs 27 pg/mL respectively; P=.013). In the Hashimoto's thyroiditis group, procalcitonin level was positively correlated with anti-thyroglobulin and anti-thyroid peroxidase levels (r=.559, Pthyroid peroxidase levels were identified to be an independent predictor in diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The fact that procalcitonin was found to be correlated with thyroid autoantibodies and found to be an independent risk factor for Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the regression analysis in the framework of this study urges us to think that procalcitonin may be associated with the autoimmunity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Efficacy of thyroid ultrasound elastography in differential diagnosis of small thyroid nodules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dighe, Manjiri, E-mail: dighe@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology, Box 357115, 1959 NE Pacific Street, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Luo, Si [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, William H. Foege Building, N510B, 3720 15th Ave NE, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States); Cuevas, Carlos, E-mail: cuevas@u.washington.edu [Department of Radiology, Box 357115, 1959 NE Pacific Street, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Kim, Yongmin, E-mail: ykim@u.washington.edu [Department of Bioengineering, University of Washington, Box 355061, Seattle, WA 98195-5061 (United States)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To explore the efficacy of thyroid ultrasound (US) elastography in differential diagnosis of small thyroid nodules. Methods: This HIPAA-compliant study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and all patients provided written informed consent. Thirty-five patients with 38 small thyroid nodules as seen on transverse ultrasound image formed our study population. An US examination and a separate thyroid elastography examination with pulsation from the carotid artery used as the compression source were performed before fine-needle aspiration. Baseband US data were acquired for off-line elastography processing, where a semi-quantitative index for each nodule was calculated. The Kruskal–Wallis nonparametric rank sum test was used to assess equality of population means among the different types of thyroid nodules. Maximum likelihood estimation of the curve parameters for a binomial receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was performed. Results: Elasticity contrast index calculated with elastography was effective in distinguishing between small papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTMC, n = 8) and other lesions (n = 30) in small thyroid nodules (p = 0.0036). The area under the ROC curve for diagnosing PTMCs was 0.812 with a 95% confidence interval of 0.653–0.920. The cut-off value of ECI of 3.6 led to a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 60% for detecting PTMCs. Conclusion: Noninvasive evaluation of small thyroid nodules is possible using thyroid US elastography with in vivo compression to pick out the most suspicious thyroid nodules for fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and avoid FNA in benign nodules.

  17. Challenges in interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnant women with autoimmune thyroid disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, Ulla; Bliddal, Sofie; Rasmussen, Åse Krogh

    2011-01-01

    Physiological changes during gestation are important to be aware of in measurement and interpretation of thyroid function tests in women with autoimmune thyroid diseases. Thyroid autoimmune activity is decreasing in pregnancy. Measurement of serum TSH is the first-line screening variable....... Measurement of antithyroperoxidase and/or TSH receptor antibodies adds to the differential diagnosis of autoimmune and nonautoimmune thyroid diseases....... for thyroid dysfunction also in pregnancy. However, using serum TSH for control of treatment of maternal thyroid autoimmunity infers a risk for compromised foetal development. Peripheral thyroid hormone values are highly different among laboratories, and there is a need for laboratory-specific gestational age...

  18. The thyroid nodule. Thyrotropin and peripheral thyroid hormones; Der Schilddruesenknoten. TSH und periphere Hormone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimny, M. [Klinikum Hanau (Germany). Inst. fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2008-09-15

    Thyrotropin, free triodothyronine and thyroxine represent the standard serological parameters for the diagnostic work-up of the thyroid but only a minority of thyroid nodules present with subclinical or overt thyroid disorders. Besides a review of the regulation and principle of function of thyroid hormones as well as the effects of subclinical or overt hyperthyroidism, the significant role of these parameters beyond the assessment of hyperthyroidism in thyroid nodules is discussed. There is evidence that the level of thyrotropin within the normal range is predictive for the relevance of autonomous functioning nodules and the risk of malignancy of non-functioning thyroid nodules. Furthermore, the ratio of triodothyronine and thyroxine indicates the etiology of hyperthyroidism. Thyrotropin represents the main parameter to determine the adequate dose of thyroid hormone therapy of thyroid nodules. (orig.)

  19. Autoimmune encephalopathy associated with thyroid autoantibodies as the cause of reversible cognitive impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Dobbin Chow

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We herewith describe a patient with acute confusion, expressive aphasia and generalized seizures. A through workup excluded most causes of encephalopathy. He was, however, found to have TSH = 18.6 MIU/ml, T3reverse = 0.44nmol/L, T4 = 0.8ng/dl and Anti-Thyroid-Peroxidase AB titer >1000 IU/ml. Based on the above findings the patient was diagnosed with Hashimoto's encephalopathy and his mental status showed dramatic improvement (MMS 30/30 with high dose prednisone. Hashimoto's encephalopathy is rare disorder of presumed autoimmune origin characterized by cognitive decline, seizures, neuro-psychiatric symptoms, high titers of Anti-Thyroid-Peroxidase AB, and a positive response to steroids.

  20. Thyroid function and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurberg, Peter; Knudsen, Nils; Andersen, Stig; Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Karmisholt, Jesper

    2012-10-01

    Important interaction exists between thyroid function, weight control, and obesity. Several mechanisms seem to be involved, and in studies of groups of people the pattern of thyroid function tests depends on the balance of obesity and underlying thyroid disease in the cohort studied. Obese people with a normal thyroid gland tend to have activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis with higher serum TSH and thyroid hormones in serum. On the other hand, small differences in thyroid function are associated with up to 5 kg difference in body weight. The weight loss after therapy of overt hypothyroidism is caused by excretion of water bound in tissues (myxoedema). Many patients treated for hyperthyroidism experience a gain of more weight than they lost during the active phase of the disease. The mechanism for this excessive weight gain has not been fully elucidated. New studies on the relation between L-T3 therapy and weight control are discussed. The interaction between weight control and therapy of thyroid disease is important to many patients and it should be studied in more detail.

  1. “Focal thyroid inferno” on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Xianshui; Guo, Limei; Zhang, Huabin; Ran, Weiqiang; Fu, Peng; Li, Zhiqiang; Chen, Wen; Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jinrui; Jia, Jianwen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The χ 2 test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using “focal thyroid inferno” as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of “focal thyroid inferno” is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  2. Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... body work normally. There are several types of cancer of the thyroid gland. You are at greater ... imaging tests, and a biopsy to diagnose thyroid cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cancer you ...

  3. A Case of Painful Hashimoto Thyroiditis that Mimicked Subacute Thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Hye Mi; Kim, Miyeon; Bae, Jaeseok; Kim, Jo-Heon; Lee, Jeong Won; Lee, Sang Ah; Koh, Gwanpyo

    2012-01-01

    Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) is an autoimmune thyroid disorder that usually presents as a diffuse, nontender goiter, whereas subacute thyroiditis (SAT) is an uncommon disease that is characterized by tender thyroid enlargement, transient thyrotoxicosis, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). Very rarely, patients with HT can present with painful, tender goiter or fever, a mimic of SAT. We report a case of painful HT in a 68-year-old woman who presented with pain and tenderness in a chronic goiter. Her ESR was definitely elevated and her thyroid laboratory tests suggested subclinical hypothyroidism of autoimmune origin. 99mTc pertechnetate uptake was markedly decreased. Fine needle aspiration biopsy revealed reactive and polymorphous lymphoid cells and occasional epithelial cells with Hürthle cell changes. Her clinical symptoms showed a dramatic response to glucocorticoid treatment. She became hypothyroid finally and is now on levothyroxine therapy. PMID:22570820

  4. PREGNANCY AND THYROID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Gaberšček

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In conditions with appropriate iodine intake, thyroid gland adapts to changes during pregnancy without any consequences. Fetal need for thyroid hormones in the first trimester is directly connected with transplacental transport of thyroid hormones. Fetal synthesis of thyroid hormones depends on availability of iodine in the feto-placental unit. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism during pregnancy are risk factors for pregnant woman and for normal development of fetus and child.Conclusions. Pregnant women with appropriately treated thyroid diseases have the same outcome of pregnancy as healthy women, and neuroendocrinological development of children is not impaired. If the disease is unrecognized or untreated, complications of pregnancy and delivery occur more frequently. Therefore, timely recognition and treatment of the diseases with appropriate drugs during pregnancy and, also, after delivery is very important.

  5. Molecular mechanisms of thyroid tumorigenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, K.; Fuehrer, D.

    2008-01-01

    Thyroid nodules are the most frequent endocrine disorder and occur in approximately 30% of the German population. Thyroid nodular disease constitutes a very heterogeneous entity. A striking diversity of possible functional and morphological features of a thyroid tumour derived from the same thyroid ancestor cell, is a hallmark of thyroid tumorigenesis and is due to specific genetic alterations. Defects in known candidate genes can be found in up to 70% of differentiated thyroid carcinomas and determine the respective cancer phenotype. Papillary thyroid cancers (PTC) harbour BRAF (or much less frequently RAS) mutations in sporadically occurring tumours, while radiation-induced PTC display chromosomal rearrangements such as RET, TRK, APR9 / BRAF. These genetic events results in constitutive MAPKinase activation. Follicular thyroid cancers (FTC) harbour RAS mutations or PAX8/ PPARγ rearrangements, both of which, however have also been identified in follicular adenoma. In addition, recent studies show, that activation of PI3K/AKT signalling occurs with high frequency in follicular thyroid tumours. Undifferentiated (anaplastic) thyroid cancers (ATC) display genetic features of FTC or PTC, in addition to aberant activation of multiple tyrosinkinase pathways (overexpression or mutations in PI3K and MAPK pathways). This underscores the concept of a sequential evolution of ATC from differentiated thyroid cancer, a process widely conceived to be triggered by p53 inactivation. In contrast, the molecular pathogenesis of benign thyroid tumours, in particular cold thyroid nodules is less known, except for toxic thyroid nodules, which arise from constitutive activation of cAMP signalling, predominantly through TSHR mutations. (orig.)

  6. European Thyroid Association Guidelines for Ultrasound Malignancy Risk Stratification of Thyroid Nodules in Adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Russ, Gilles; Bonnema, Steen J; Erdogan, Murat Faik

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid ultrasound (US) is a key examination for the management of thyroid nodules. Thyroid US is easily accessible, noninvasive, and cost-effective, and is a mandatory step in the workup of thyroid nodules. The main disadvantage of the method is that it is operator dependent. Thyroid US assessment......, called EU-TIRADS. This comprises a thyroid US lexicon; a standardized report; definitions of benign and low-, intermediate-, and high-risk nodules, with the estimated risks of malignancy in each category; and indications for FNA. Illustrated by numerous US images, the EU-TIRADS aims to serve physicians...

  7. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas of thyroid in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Mimicking benign cystic nodule on ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Yohan; Kim, Soo Jin; Hur, Joon Ho; Park, Sung Hee; Lee, Sun Jin; Lee, Tae Jin

    2013-01-01

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) of the thyroid is uncommon and mostly occur in patients with a Hashimoto's thyroiditis (82%). We present a case on SEP of thyroid in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which mimics growing benign cystic masses on serial ultrasonography.

  8. Clinical significance of endogenously labelled thyroid hormones in the diagnosis of thyroidal autonomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters, W.; Kutzim, H.

    1983-01-01

    The clinical value of the determination of 123 I concentration in serum 48 hrs after tracer administration ( 123 I) 48 is investigated with special regard to thyroidal autonomy. Serum radioiodine concentration, thyroid radioiodide uptake at 4 and at 48 hrs were measured in 74 healthy subjects and patients with simple goiter, in 36 patients with thyroidal autonomy (diagnosis by thyroid suppression test), and in 20 hyperthyroid patients. 83% of the patients with elevated radioiodine concentration belonged to the group of thyroidal autonomy. The product of radioiodine concentration and thyroid radioiodide uptake is a much better parameter. 95% of the patients in which this product was elevated, belonged to the autonomy group (5% diagnostic error). Also in the control group the diagnostic error was 5%. The combination of ( 123 I) 48 with the result of the TRH-test is very useful in excluding thyroidal autonomy, if ( 123 I) 48 is normal and the TRH-test is positive (100% of the patients have regulated thyroid glands.) 94% of the patients having elevated ( 123 I) 48 and a negative TRH-test belonged to the group of thyroidal autonomy. A very useful combination for the diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism is the determination of the product of ( 123 I) 48 and the uptake together with the pulse rate or fine tremor of the fingers (or TRH-test). The results suggest that the determination of ( 123 I) 48 is a very good parameter of thyroidal autonomy beside the thyroid suppression test. It may be used alone for the diagnosis of thyroidal autonomy if the suppression test is contraindicated. In the diagnosis of borderline hyperthyroidism its determination makes the suppression test unnecessary in many instances. (orig.) [de

  9. Post partum lymphocytic thyroiditis in North Indian population: a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Rajnish; Mondal, Anupam; Taneja, Vijay; Bansal, J.K.; Khanna, C.M.; Sharma, Manisha

    1999-01-01

    Two hundred and sixty one Indian women from Delhi and surrounding territory were prospectively evaluated to determine the frequency of post-partum thyroiditis upto 12 weeks of postpartum. Thirty one (11.8%) of the 261 cases included in our study developed thyroid disease. Twenty four (77%) of the patients who developed thyroiditis were found to have high titres of thyroid antibodies. Of these 24 patients, 21 (67.7%) tested positive for antimicrosomal antibodies and 17 (54.8%) tested positive for antithyroglobulin antibodies. Patients were found to have a spectrum of thyroid dysfunction. Transient hypothyroidism developed in 17 patients, I patient developed persistent hypothyroidism, 7 had transient thyrotoxicosis and 6 developed euthyroid goiters. Twenty two patients had goiters ranging from grade OB to grade II. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis in 20 patients, while 2 had colloid goiter. It is concluded from our study that there is a significant incidence of post partum thyroid disease in the female population representative of North India, and most of the patients (93.5%) develop transient thyroid disorder. (author)

  10. Coexistence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma with papillary carcinoma of thyreoglossal duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čizmić Milica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Simultaneous presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and papillary thyroidal carcinoma in thyroidal gland with papillary carcinoma association in thyroglossal duct is quite rare. The questions like where the original site of primary process, is where metastasis is, what the cause of coexisting of these diseasesis present a diagnostic dilemma. Case report. We presented a case of a 53-year old female patient, with the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and symptoms of subclinical hypothyreosis and nodal changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland, according to clinical investigation. Morphological examination of thyroidal gland, ultrasound examination and scintigraphy with technetium (Tc confirmed the existence of nonhomogenic tissue with parenchyma nodular changes in the right lobe of thyroidal gland that weakly bonded Tc. Fine needle biopsy in nodal changes, with cytological analyses showed no evidence of atypical thyreocites. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was confirmed on the basis of the increased values of anti-microsomal antibodies, the high levels of thyreogobulin 117 ng/ml and TSH 6.29 μIU/ml. The operation near by the nodular change in the right lobe of thyroidal gland revealed pyramidal lobe spread in the thyroglossal duct. Total thyroidectomia was done with the elimination of thyroglossal duct. Final patohystological findings showed papillary carcinoma in the nodal changes pT2, N0 and in the thyroglossal duct with the presence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the residual parenchyme of the thyroid gland. After the surgery the whole body scintigraphy with iodine 131 (131I did not reveal accumulation of 131I in the body, while the fixation in the neck was 1%. After that, the patient was treated with thyroxin with suppressionsubstitution doses. Conclusion. Abnormality in embrional development of thyroidal tissue might be the source of thyroidal carcinoma or the way of spreading of metastasis of primary thyroidal carcinoma from thyroid

  11. Poorly Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Barletta, Justine A

    2014-12-01

    Poorly differentiated thyroid carcinoma (PDTC) has been recognized for the past 30 years as an entity showing intermediate differentiation and clinical behavior between well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas (ie, papillary thyroid carcinoma and follicular thyroid carcinoma) and anaplastic thyroid carcinoma; however, there has been considerable controversy around the definition of PDTC. In this review, the evolution in the definition of PDTC, current diagnostic criteria, differential diagnoses, potentially helpful immunohistochemical studies, and molecular alterations are discussed with the aim of highlighting where the diagnosis of PDTC currently stands. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Thyroid imaging in goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maier, R.

    1994-01-01

    Since Cassen und Taylor and Stewart introduced 131 iodine scans of the thyroid, these have become an integral part of the routine diagnostic procedures for thyroid disease. Today 131 I is no longer used due to its excessive radioactivity; 123 iodine or 99m technetium are now preferred. Pitfalls in the use of 99m Tc are that in some thyroid disorders, such as certain forms of thyroid carcinomas and chronic thyroiditis, a normal iodine trapping (but not organification) may occur. This mechanism can lead to false conclusions. (orig.) [de

  13. A Study on 99mTc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake in various thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sung Jae; Min, Hae Sook; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1974-01-01

    The 99m Tc-pertechnetate thyroid uptake rates(20 min) were measured in 24 healthy normal subjects, 140 patients with nontoxic goiter and 98 patients with thyrotoxicosis who were treated at the Thyroid Clinic, Seoul National University Hospital, from August 1972 to August 1973. Diagnostic reliabilities and correlations between 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) and other thyroid function tests were evaluated. The observed results were as follows:1) The 99m TcO 4 - thyroid uptake rates (20 min) in normal subjects, euthyroid group and hyperthyroid group were 4.1±0.9%, 5.2±1.8% and 29.7±10.6%. There was a significant difference between the mean of the euthyroid group and the mean of the hyperthyroid group and so differentiation between them can be easy. 2) In the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism, the reliabilities of 99m TcO 4 - thyroid uptake rate(20 min), 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs), serum T 3 resin uptake rate, serum T 4 and T 7 were 87.9-97.9%, 81.2-94.4%, 87.9-97.9%, 90.5-99.3% and 93.7-100%. 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) is more accurate than 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs) in the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism. 3) 99m TcO 4 -thyroid uptake rate (20 min) was well correlated with 131 I thyroid uptake rate (24 hrs), serum T 3 resin uptake rate, serum T 4 and T 7 . Points in favor of 99m Tc are that it gives a small radiation dose to the thyroid, that tests can be repeated at the short interval, the study can be completed at a single patient visit and it is particularly well suited for the assessment of thyroid function in patients being treated with an antithyroid drug.

  14. Painless giant cell thyroiditis diagnosed by fine needle aspiration and associated with intense thyroidal uptake of gallium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.R.; Moreno, A.J.; Pittman, D.L.; Jones, J.D.; Spicer, M.J.; Tracy, K.P.

    1986-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman presented with fever, goiter, and no evidence of pain or tenderness in the thyroid. A diagnosis of silent thyroiditis was made after obtaining evidence of biochemical thyrotoxicosis, intense gallium-67 citrate thyroidal localization, and cytologic thyroiditis. Fine needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid revealed numerous giant cells in all areas of the thyroid, typical of subacute thyroiditis. This is believed to be the first time painless thyroiditis is reported with the classic cytologic feature of painful subacute thyroiditis

  15. Diffuse sclerosing variant of thyroid papillary carcinoma: Diagnostic challenges occur with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chin Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse sclerosing papillary thyroid carcinoma (DSPTC is a relatively rare variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma with distinct histological features, radiological characteristics, and biological aggressiveness. Compared with conventional papillary thyroid carcinoma, DSPTC is characterized by scattered microscopic tumor islands, diffuse fibrosis, calcification, and abundant lymphocytic aggregation. A preoperative diagnosis is challenging in the absence of nodules and scanty fine needle aspiration cytology samples. We describe a unique DSPTC patient, an 18-year-old woman who presented with a neck mass that grew slowly for 2 years. The palpable neck mass was nontender, well defined, firm, and unmovable. Laboratory studies showed normal thyroid function and positive autoimmune markers: antithyroglobulin antibody = 1:1600 and antimicrosomal antibody = 1:1600. A neck ultrasound showed diffusely prominent microcalcifications with one small vague nodule. Hashimoto's thyroiditis with an accompanying malignancy was suspected. Based on the result of intraoperative pathology reports, the patient was given a total thyroidectomy. Lymph node dissection and histological analysis revealed bilateral DSPTC in addition to lymphocytic thyroiditis in nonmalignant areas of the thyroid. Clinical and histological diagnostic challenges usually occur when DSPTC presents with a diffuse thyroid enlargement, dispersed microscopic tumor islands (frequently without mass formation, extensive fibrosis, and abundant lymphocytic infiltration mimicking thyroiditis.

  16. A solitary hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma: review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Mirfakhraee, Sasan; Mathews, Dana; Peng, Lan; Woodruff, Stacey; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2013-01-01

    Hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid are thought to only rarely harbor thyroid cancer, and thus are infrequently biopsied. Here, we present the case of a patient with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule harboring thyroid carcinoma and, using MEDLINE literature searches, set out to determine the prevalence of and characteristics of malignant ?hot? nodules as a group. Historical, biochemical and radiologic characteristics of the case subjects and their nodules were compared to those in cases o...

  17. [Riedel thyroiditis: two cases report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rongjin; Wang, Junguo

    2014-10-01

    Riedel thyroiditis is a benign disease, which is often self-limited. Examinations, such as CT and histologic diagnosis can distinguish it from malignant neoplasms and hashimoto's thyroiditis. Riedel thyroiditis is an uncommon form of chronic thyroiditis in which the thyroid gland is replaced by fibrous tissue. It can be cured by surgery and medicine.

  18. Diffuse Thyroid Metastasis From Lung Cancer Mimicking Thyroiditis on 99mTc-Pertechnetate Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Rui; Gao, Shan; Feng, Jinteng; Wang, Yuanbo; Zhang, Guangjian

    2017-09-01

    Possible thyroiditis was suspected in a 56-year-old man who initially presented sore throat because laboratory examinations revealed decreased serum thyroid hormone and the Tc-pertechnetate scintigraphy showed no tracer uptake by the thyroid gland. However, subsequent examination demonstrated that the absence of pertechnetate activity in the thyroid was due to complete replacement of thyroid gland by the metastasis from lung adenocarcinoma, which was unknown at the initial presentation.

  19. Protocol for thyroid remnant ablation after recombinant TSH in thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitoia, F.; Salvai, M.E.; Niepomniszcze, H.; Tamer, E. El

    2009-01-01

    In some countries, in order to perform rhTSH-aided thyroid remnant ablation (TRA) after surgery, it is generally necessary to confirm that thyroidectomy has been almost complete. Otherwise, the nuclear medicine specialist will not administer a high radioiodine dose because it might be hazardous due to the possibility of thyroid remnant actinic thyroiditis. Considering this, it would be necessary to use two rhTSH kits (one for diagnostic purposes and the other one to administer the 131 I dose). In this study, we used an alternative protocol for TRA with the use of one kit of rhTSH in twenty patients diagnosed with low risk papillary thyroid carcinoma. All patients had negative titers of anti-thyroglobulin antibodies. Successful thyroid remnant ablation was confirmed with an undetectable rhTSH stimulated thyroglobulin level ( [es

  20. Targeting the thyroid gland with thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)-nanoliposomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolino, Donatella; Cosco, Donato; Gaspari, Marco; Celano, Marilena; Wolfram, Joy; Voce, Pasquale; Puxeddu, Efisio; Filetti, Sebastiano; Celia, Christian; Ferrari, Mauro; Russo, Diego; Fresta, Massimo

    2014-08-01

    Various tissue-specific antibodies have been attached to nanoparticles to obtain targeted delivery. In particular, nanodelivery systems with selectivity for breast, prostate and cancer tissue have been developed. Here, we have developed a nanodelivery system that targets the thyroid gland. Nanoliposomes have been conjugated to the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), which binds to the TSH receptor (TSHr) on the surface of thyrocytes. The results indicate that the intracellular uptake of TSH-nanoliposomes is increased in cells expressing the TSHr. The accumulation of targeted nanoliposomes in the thyroid gland following intravenous injection was 3.5-fold higher in comparison to untargeted nanoliposomes. Furthermore, TSH-nanoliposomes encapsulated with gemcitabine showed improved anticancer efficacy in vitro and in a tumor model of follicular thyroid carcinoma. This drug delivery system could be used for the treatment of a broad spectrum of thyroid diseases to reduce side effects and improve therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Hashimoto thyroiditis: Part 1, sonographic analysis of the nodular form of Hashimoto thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lauren; Middleton, William D; Teefey, Sharlene A; Reading, Carl C; Langer, Jill E; Desser, Terry; Szabunio, Margaret M; Hildebolt, Charles F; Mandel, Susan J; Cronan, John J

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the sonographic appearance of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis. As part of an ongoing multiinstitutional study, patients who underwent ultrasound examination and fine-needle aspiration of one or more thyroid nodules were analyzed for multiple predetermined sonographic features. Patients completed a questionnaire, including information about thyroid function and thyroid medication. Patients (n = 61) with fine-needle aspiration cytologic results consistent with nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis (n = 64) were included in the study. The mean (+/- SD) diameter of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis was 15 +/- 7.33 mm. Nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis occurred as a solitary nodule in 36% (23/64) of cases and in the setting of five or more nodules in 23% (15/64) of cases. Fifty-five percent (35/64) of the cases of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis occurred within a sonographic background of diffuse Hashimoto thyroiditis, and 45% (29/64) of cases occurred within normal thyroid parenchyma. The sonographic appearance was extremely variable. It was most commonly solid (69% [42/61] of cases) and hypoechoic (47% [27/58] of cases). Twenty percent (13/64) of nodules had calcifications (seven with nonspecific bright reflectors, four with macrocalcifications, and three eggshell), and 5% (3/64) of nodules had colloid. Twenty-seven percent (17/64) of nodules had a hypoechoic halo. The margins were well defined in 60% (36/60) and ill defined in 40% (24/60) of nodules. On Doppler analysis, 35% (22/62) of nodules were hypervascular, 42% (26/62) were isovascular or hypovascular, and 23% (14/62) were avascular. The sonographic features and vascularity of nodular Hashimoto thyroiditis were extremely variable.

  2. Management Guidelines for Children with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Gary L; Waguespack, Steven G; Bauer, Andrew J; Angelos, Peter; Benvenga, Salvatore; Cerutti, Janete M; Dinauer, Catherine A; Hamilton, Jill; Hay, Ian D; Luster, Markus; Parisi, Marguerite T; Rachmiel, Marianna; Thompson, Geoffrey B; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-07-01

    Previous guidelines for the management of thyroid nodules and cancers were geared toward adults. Compared with thyroid neoplasms in adults, however, those in the pediatric population exhibit differences in pathophysiology, clinical presentation, and long-term outcomes. Furthermore, therapy that may be recommended for an adult may not be appropriate for a child who is at low risk for death but at higher risk for long-term harm from overly aggressive treatment. For these reasons, unique guidelines for children and adolescents with thyroid tumors are needed. A task force commissioned by the American Thyroid Association (ATA) developed a series of clinically relevant questions pertaining to the management of children with thyroid nodules and differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Using an extensive literature search, primarily focused on studies that included subjects ≤18 years of age, the task force identified and reviewed relevant articles through April 2014. Recommendations were made based upon scientific evidence and expert opinion and were graded using a modified schema from the United States Preventive Services Task Force. These inaugural guidelines provide recommendations for the evaluation and management of thyroid nodules in children and adolescents, including the role and interpretation of ultrasound, fine-needle aspiration cytology, and the management of benign nodules. Recommendations for the evaluation, treatment, and follow-up of children and adolescents with DTC are outlined and include preoperative staging, surgical management, postoperative staging, the role of radioactive iodine therapy, and goals for thyrotropin suppression. Management algorithms are proposed and separate recommendations for papillary and follicular thyroid cancers are provided. In response to our charge as an independent task force appointed by the ATA, we developed recommendations based on scientific evidence and expert opinion for the management of thyroid nodules and DTC in

  3. Thyroid uptake of {sup 67}Ga-citrate is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and hypothyroidism in patients with sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonelli, Alessandro; Fallahi, Poupak; Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Ferrannini, Ele [University of Pisa and CNR Institute of Clinical Physiology, Metabolism Unit, Department of Internal Medicine, Pisa (Italy); Fazzi, Piera [University of Pisa, Respiratory Pathophysiology Section, Cardiac and Thoracic Department, Pisa (Italy); Grosso, Mariano; Boni, Giuseppe; Mariani, Giuliano [University of Pisa, Regional Center of Nuclear Medicine, Medical School, Pisa (Italy)

    2009-01-15

    To evaluate the association of gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga)-citrate thyroid uptake with the presence of thyroid disorders in patients with sarcoidosis (S patients). Eighty-four S patients were evaluated by a complete thyroid work-up (neck ultrasound, circulating thyroid hormones and anti-thyroid antibodies, fine-needle aspiration). In S patients with {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake (respect those without): serum thyroid-stimulating hormone, the titre of anti-thyroid peroxidase (AbTPO) and/or anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (AbTg), and the prevalence of S patients with hypothyroidism or with positive AbTg or AbTPO was significantly higher; a thyroid hypoechoic pattern was more frequent. The prevalence of thyroid nodules was not significantly different between the two groups. Two cases of papillary thyroid cancer were observed in S patients without {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake, whilst no case in those with {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake. {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake is associated with the presence of aggressive autoimmune thyroiditis and hypothyroidism in S patients; thyroid function and ultrasonography should be performed in the presence of {sup 67}Ga thyroid uptake. (orig.)

  4. Thyroid volume in hypothyroidism due to autoimmune disease follows a unimodal distribution: evidence against primary thyroid atrophy and autoimmune thyroiditis being distinct diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlé, Allan; Pedersen, Inge Bülow; Knudsen, Nils

    2009-01-01

    CONTEXT: Primary overt autoimmune hypothyroidism is often divided into primary idiopathic hypothyroidism with thyroid atrophy (Ord's disease) and hypothyroidism with goitre (Hashimoto's disease). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to characterize the two subtypes of disease. DESIGN...... program including thyroid ultrasonography and measurements of thyroid autoantibodies. Of the 144 patients investigated (58% of all invited), 139 were compared with 556 sex-, age-, and region-matched controls from the cohort. RESULTS: Patients had lower median (11.6 ml vs. 13.5 ml, P = 0.001) and a more...... dispersed distribution of thyroid volumes compared with controls (P thyroid volume showed a Gaussian distribution in both males and females with no bimodal pattern. Nearly all patients had measurable thyroid autoantibodies, but with increasing thyroid volume (quartile I, II, III, and IV...

  5. The clinician and the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A. (Bonn Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Nuklearmedizin)

    1991-09-01

    The goiter prevalence in iodine-deficient regions is up to 25%-54%. The most frequent disease in these endemic areas is non-toxic goiter, which is, however, oftentimes connected with autonomously functioning thyroid tissue leading to borderline or overt hyperthyroidism. Other thyroid diseases like cancer, thyroiditis and hypothyroidism play only a miner role in a thyroid clinic, while cases of Graves' disease may be observed more frequently. The most cost-effective tools to evaluate thyroid patients are the hand, ear and mouth of the thyroid clinician. The differential diagnosis of thyroid disorders may be evaluated by a battery of diagnostic tools like in-vitro tests and high performance imaging modalities. Once the diagnosis is established, the appropriate therapeutic procedures (drugs, radioiodine, surgery) have to be chosen. This review should be considered as a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. In addition, special problems concerning elderly patients and pregnant women are discussed, including the differential diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (orig.).

  6. The clinician and the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biersack, H.J.; Hotze, A.

    1991-01-01

    The goiter prevalence in iodine-deficient regions is up to 25%-54%. The most frequent disease in these endemic areas is non-toxic goiter, which is, however, oftentimes connected with autonomously functioning thyroid tissue leading to borderline or overt hyperthyroidism. Other thyroid diseases like cancer, thyroiditis and hypothyroidism play only a miner role in a thyroid clinic, while cases of Graves' disease may be observed more frequently. The most cost-effective tools to evaluate thyroid patients are the hand, ear and mouth of the thyroid clinician. The differential diagnosis of thyroid disorders may be evaluated by a battery of diagnostic tools like in-vitro tests and high performance imaging modalities. Once the diagnosis is established, the appropriate therapeutic procedures (drugs, radioiodine, surgery) have to be chosen. This review should be considered as a guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of thyroid diseases. In addition, special problems concerning elderly patients and pregnant women are discussed, including the differential diagnosis of thyroid diseases. (orig.)

  7. Molecular pathology and thyroid FNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poller, D N; Glaysher, S

    2017-12-01

    This review summarises molecular pathological techniques applicable to thyroid FNA. The molecular pathology of thyroid tumours is now fairly well understood. Molecular methods may be used as a rule-in test for diagnosis of malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg BRAF V600E point mutation, use of a seven-gene mutational panel (BRAF V600E, RAS genes, RET/PTC or PAX8/PPARG rearrangement), or as a comprehensive multigene next-generation sequencing panel, eg ThyroSeq v2. Molecular methods can also be applied as rule-out tests for malignancy in thyroid nodules, eg Afirma or ThyroSeq v2 or as markers of prognosis, eg TERT promoter mutation or other gene mutations including BRAF V600E, TP53 and AKT1, and as tests for newly defined tumour entities such as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary like nuclei, or as a molecular marker(s) for targeted therapies. This review describes practical examples of molecular techniques as applied to thyroid FNA in routine clinical practice and the value of molecular diagnostics in thyroid FNA. It describes the range of molecular abnormalities identified in thyroid nodules and thyroid cancers with some practical applications of molecular methods to diagnosis and prognosis of thyroid nodules and thyroid cancer. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Acute inflammatory thyromegaly following checkpoint inhibition: A new imaging entity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik H. Middlebrooks, MD

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Immune checkpoint blockade (CPB utilizing such agents as ipilimumab, nivolumab, or pembrolizumab has revolutionized melanoma therapy and has seen continued utilization in numerous other malignancies in recent years. However, these agents come at the price of inflammatory immune-related adverse events. Despite the increasing recognition of biochemical thyroid dysfunction associated with CPB, information regarding potential imaging findings is sparse. We describe the first 2 cases of acute thyroiditis following CPB presenting as diffuse thyromegaly documented by computed tomography, ultrasound, and iodine uptake imaging. Given the rise in the use of CPB, it is important for radiologists to recognize potential imaging manifestations of therapy immune-related adverse events to avoid erroneous diagnosis and to prompt the biochemical investigation of thyroid function.

  9. Graves' disease following subacute thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Yoshishige; Kurihara, Hideo; Sasaki, Jun

    2011-12-01

    Subacute thyroiditis is a painful, inflammatory disease frequently accompanied with fever. It is suspected to be a viral infectious disease, while Graves' disease is an autoimmune disease. Thus, there appears to be no etiological relationship between the two diseases. A total of 25,267 thyroid disease patients made their first visits to our thyroid clinic during a period of 24 years between 1985 and 2008. Among them, subacute thyroiditis and Graves' disease accounted for 918 patients (3.6%) and 4,617 patients (18.2%), respectively. We have encountered 7 patients (one male and six female) with subacute thyroiditis followed by Graves' disease in this period (0.15% of the 4,617 patients with Graves' disease and 0.76% of the 918 patients with subacute thyroiditis). The age ranges were 40~66 years (mean 48.7 years) at the onset of subacute thyroiditis. The intervals between the onsets of subacute thyroiditis and Graves' disease were 1~8 months (mean 4.7 months). Because Graves' disease was preceded by subacute thyroiditis, the signs and symptoms of both diseases were evident together in the intervening period. The diagnosis of Graves' disease in those patients is always difficult because of atypical signs and symptoms and an unclear onset time. The causes of the Graves'disease that followed subacute thyroiditis are still unknown. However, the inflammatory nature of subacute thyroiditis may lead to the activation of the autoimmune response in susceptible subjects, resulting in the onset of Graves' disease. Graves' disease should be suspected when a high blood level of thyroid hormone persists after subacute thyroiditis.

  10. MR imaging of diffuse thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Masaaki; Fujii, Koichi; Ohnishi, Takuya; Higashikawa, Motoki; Araki, Yutaka; Hamada, Tatsumi; Ishida, Osamu

    1996-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 38 diffuse goiters, including 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. MR findings were analyzed as to degree of swelling, margin, internal structures including homogeneity and low intensity bands. With regard to signal intensity, thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios on T1 and T2-weighted images were measured in 19 normal thyroid glands, 30 chronic thyroiditis and 8 Basedow disease. Additionally thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios were compared between 19 hypothyroid glands and 11 euthyroid glands in chronic thyroiditis. Chronic thyroiditis tended to show lobulated margins, inhomogeneous intensity, and low intensity bands connecting with vessels or not. Basedow disease tended to display smooth margins, inhomogeneous intensity and low intensity bands connecting with vessels. Thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of Basedow disease and chronic thyroiditis were significantly higher than those of normal thyroid gland at all sequences. In chronic thyroiditis thyroid-muscle-signal intensity ratios of euthyroid glands were significantly higher than those of hypothyroid glands. MR imaging could reflect pathologic features of diffuse goiters. Moreover, MR imaging is potentially contributory to speculate about thyroid function and degree of serious condition in diffuse thyroid disorders. (author)

  11. Thyroid and the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Karas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The cardiovascular signs and symptoms of thyroid disease are some of the most clinically relevant findings that accompany both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism. On the basis of the understanding of the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on the heart and cardiovascular system, it is possible to explain the changes in cardiac output, cardiac contractility, blood pressure and rhythm disturbances that result from thyroid dysfunction. In the present review will integrate what is known about the mechanisms of thyroid hormone action on the heart and the alterations in thyroid hormone metabolism that accompany chronic congestive heart failure.

  12. Thyroid carcinoma in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhzari, F.

    2002-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is rare in children, with only 3-6% of thyroid malignancies occurring in children, and constitutes but 6% of head and neck tumors. Over 95% thyroid cancer are differentiated, and 10% of these occur in children of adolescents. Any of the histologic types that occur in adults may be in children, but they are most often differentiated thyroid carcinomas. The etiologies of thyroid carcinoma are unknown, but factors considered in pathogenesis include irradiation, sex and age. The incandesce of thyroid carcinoma in a solitary coddle in a child has been described as high as 70%. History and /or physical examination alone are unlikely to advance the diagnosis, and with exception of plasma CT in medullary thyroid carcinoma, blood studies are unhelpful in the diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma. Radiographs and ultrasound imaging are helpful in planning treatment and follow-up, but are unlikely to be needed for initial diagnosis. One of the main indication of thyroid scan in the pediatric group is thyroid nodule. FNAB is established as the most effective method of diagnosis in adults, although in children it may be less reliable. While radionuclide scintigraphy may be considered for initial screening, FNAB is well established and its specificity allows it to negate the need for a substantial number of operation. Treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma in children is more controversial. Some authors maintain that modified or subtotal thyroidectomy is appropriation this disease, others maintain that total thyroidectomy is required Nevertheless, radioiodine therapy is considered to be standard in the treatment of iodine-avid thyroid carcinomas for ablation of the thyroid remnant following surgery and for treatment of iodine-avid distant diseases. The front-line treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma is aggressive surgery. Total thyroidectomy is indicated, In general treatment with chemotherapy, extemal radiation and I-131 are not helpful, however radioactive

  13. Thyroid Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Thyroid Problems Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic ... enough thyroid hormone, usually of the thyroxine (T4) type of hormone. Your T4 levels can drop temporarily ...

  14. Investigations on the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on the function and structure of the thyroid gland of adult and perinatal rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, W.T. Jr.

    1979-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that PCB may cause alterations in thyroid structure and thyroxine metabolism. The administration of PCB to rats results in an enlargement of the thyroid gland, lowered serum thyroxine concentration, and increased conjugation and excretion of thyroxine-glucuronide in the bile. These findings suggest that some of the metabolic alterations produced by intoxication with PCB may be related to alterations in thyroid structure and function. Therefore, the objectives of this investigation were: (a) to evaluate the acute, subchronic and delayed effects of PCB on the structure and function of the thyroid gland in adult Osborne-Mendel rats; (b) to compare the changes produced by PCB with those produced by iodide excess and deficiency, and thyrotropin and thyroxine administration; (c) to investigate the fine structural changes and hormonal alterations in thyroid glands of perinatal rats exposed in utero and by the milk to PCB; and (d) to determine the alterations in the biliary excretion of 125 I-thyroxine and fine structural changes in thyroid glands of the glucuronyltransferase deficient homozygous Gunn rat exposed to PCB

  15. Ultrasound assessment of thyroid gland volume in diabetic patients without overt thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nduka, Christopher C; Adeyekun, Ademola A

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease are known to mutually influence each other. Thyroid disease can worsen glycaemic control in diabetes, and patients with diabetes mellitus have increased incidence of thyroid disorders such as increase in size, compared to the normal population. The aim of the study was to sonographically assess thyroid gland volume in Nigerian adult diabetic patients and compare with apparently healthy adults (controls). The study setting was the Department of Radiology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH) Nigeria. The thyroid gland in 120 diabetic subjects and equal number of apparently healthy controls was scanned with a 5-12 MHz linear transducer of a SONOACE X4 Machine. Thyroid gland volume was assessed. Statistical analysis was done with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17 (SPSS Inc, Chicago, IL, USA). Diabetics had significantly increased thyroid volume compared to age matched male and female control subjects (11.5 ± 5.2 cm3 vs 7.4 ± 1.9 cm3; Pthyroid volume among diabetics. Diabetics have higher thyroid gland dimensions, compared to apparently healthy subjects. Gland proliferation from circulating insulin may play a role. This is not influenced by gender.

  16. Empirical antimicrobial therapy of acute dentoalveolar abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matijević Stevo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The most common cause of acute dental infections are oral streptococci and anaerobe bacteria. Acute dentoalveolar infections are usually treated surgically in combination with antibiotics. Empirical therapy in such infections usually requires the use of penicillin-based antibiotics. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical efficiency of amoxicillin and cefalexin in the empirical treatment of acute odontogenic abscess and to assess the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolated bacteria in early phases of its development. Methods. This study included 90 patients with acute odontogenic abscess who received surgical treatment (extraction of a teeth and/or abscess incision and were divided into three groups: two surgicalantibiotic groups (amoxicillin, cefalexin and the surgical group. In order to evaluate the effects of the applied therapy following clinical symptoms were monitored: inflammatory swelling, trismus, regional lymphadentytis and febrility. In all the patients before the beginning of antibiotic treatment suppuration was suched out of the abscess and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria was tested by using the disk diffusion method. Results. The infection signs and symptoms lasted on the average 4.47 days, 4.67 days, and 6.17 days in the amoxicillin, cefalexin, and surgically only treated group, respectively. A total of 111 bacterial strains were isolated from 90 patients. Mostly, the bacteria were Gram-positive facultative anaerobs (81.1%. The most common bacteria isolated were Viridans streptococci (68/111. Antibiotic susceptibility of isolated bacteria to amoxicillin was 76.6% and cefalexin 89.2%. Conclusion. Empirical, peroral use of amoxicillin or cefalexin after surgical treatment in early phase of development of dentoalveolar abscess significantly reduced the time of clinical symptoms duration in the acute odontogenic infections in comparison to surgical treatment only. Bacterial strains

  17. Thyroid Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are four types of thyroid cancer. These are papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic thyroid cancer. Papillary is the most common type of thyroid cancer. Find evidence-based information on thyroid cancer treatment, screening, research, genetics, and statistics.

  18. Thyroid Radiation Dose and Other Risk Factors of Thyroid Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vathaire, Florent; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue S; Hawkins, Mike; Guibout, Catherine; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Pacquement, Hélène; Diop, Fara; Kalhouche, Amar; Benadjaoud, Mohamedamine; Winter, David; Jackson, Angela; Bezin Mai-Quynh, Giao; Benabdennebi, Aymen; Llanas, Damien; Veres, Cristina; Munzer, Martine; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Deutsch, Eric; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Diallo, Ibrahima; Rubino, Carole

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is a frequent complication of childhood cancer radiotherapy. The dose response to thyroid radiation dose is now well established, but the potential modifier effect of other factors requires additional investigation. This study aimed to investigate the role of potential modifiers of the dose response. We followed a cohort of 4338 5-year survivors of solid childhood cancer treated before 1986 over an average of 27 years. The dose received by the thyroid gland and some other anatomical sites during radiotherapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual conditions in which irradiation was delivered. Fifty-five patients developed thyroid carcinoma. The risk of thyroid carcinoma increased with a radiation dose to the thyroid of up to two tenths of Gy, then leveled off for higher doses. When taking into account the thyroid radiation dose, a surgical or radiological splenectomy (>20 Gy to the spleen) increased thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0), high radiation doses (>5 Gy) to pituitary gland lowered this risk (RR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Patients who received nitrosourea chemotherapy had a 6.6-fold (95% CI, 2.5-15.7) higher risk than those who did not. The excess RR per Gy of radiation to the thyroid was 4.7 (95% CI, 1.7-22.6). It was 7.6 (95% CI, 1.6-33.3) if body mass index at time of interview was equal or higher than 25 kg/m(2), and 4.1 (95% CI, 0.9-17.7) if not (P for interaction = .1). Predicting thyroid cancer risk following childhood cancer radiation therapy probably requires the assessment of more than just the radiation dose to the thyroid. Chemotherapy, splenectomy, radiation dose to pituitary gland, and obesity also play a role.

  19. [Subclinical thyroid diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrazil, V

    2007-01-01

    Subclinical thyroids disease (STD) is recently defined term in clinical thyroidology, which includes mainly functional disorders. Basic diagnostic signs are: normal values of thyroid hormones (fT4, fT3) and elevated TSH level (subclinical hypothyroidism) or suppresed TSH level (subclinical hyperthyroidism). In a category of STD may be included subclinical autoimunne thyroiditis (elevated level of thyroid antigens antibodies and/or hypoechogenity in sonographic screen, increased volume of the thyroid without clinical symptoms and/or autoimminity) and microscopic lesions of papillary thyroid carcinoma. Subclinical hypothyroidism may be dangerous for tendency to development of manifest hypothyroidism and for risk of disorders of lipid profile and development of atherosclerosis and its organ complication (esp. myocardial infarction). Subclinical hyperthyroidism is a risk factor of cardiac arythmias and probably can increase a risk of cardiovascular mortality) as well for osteoporosis (esp. in peri- and post-climacteric women), and last but not least for degenerative diseases of brain (?). Indication of treatment of STD is a matter of controversies. Recomendations of experts, varied from "no therapy, monitoring only" to "treat always". Treatment of risk groups (esp. pregnant women) is probably nowadays a most rationale recommendations since results of sofisticated prospective studies will be available.

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  2. Value of radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid imaging in diagnosis of painless thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Rusen; Feng Yong; Hu Yingjian; He Hongyuan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate clinical value of radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid imaging in diagnosis of painless thyroiditis (PT). Methods: Seventy cases of PT patients, 50 cases of GD patients and 50 cases of healthy persons were retrospectively analyzed by using radioactive iodine uptake, thyroid imaging and serological examination. Results: PT group radioactive iodine uptake rate was significantly lower than the control group, GD group was significantly higher than the control group, PT group and the GD group difference was significant (F=64.88, P<0.01). Thyroid image of PT group is not clear, or no to be seen, thyroid image of GD group can be clearly visible. Conclusion: Radioactive iodine uptake and thyroid imaging play an irreplaceable role in the identification of PT and GD, and the method is simple and effective too. (authors)

  3. The risk factor of thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusama, Tomoko

    1979-01-01

    For the purposes of radiation protection, the noteworthy risk of thyroid is carcinogenesis. The risk factor which ICRP presented in the publication-26 is 5 x 10 - 6 rem - 1 . This numerical value is based upon the estimated likelihood of inducing fatal thyroid cancer. On the other hand, the risk factor presented by the BEIR report is 4 x 10 - 6 yr - 1 . This value was decided after consideration of the risks of both fatal and non-fatal cancer of thyroid. The following features distinguished thyroid cancer from malignancy of other tissue from medical point of view. 1) A large difference between incidence and mortality in case of thyroid cancer is recognized, because the thyroid cancer could be successfully treated by surgical or radiological treatment. 2) The high prevalence of clinically silent tumor in thyroid gland has been reported. The incidence of thyroid cancer, therefore, is very dependent on methods of medical inspection. The prevalence of radiation induced thyroid cancer is modified by various factors such as age, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is very important factors such as ave, sex, latency, dose and dose rate. The latent period is a very important factor in the estimation of accumulated total risk of thyroid malignancy. What is included in the risk caused by thyroid irradiation must be investigated. The risk of non-fatal cancer should be considered in the same way as that of fatal cancer. The dose-equivalent limit of thyroid in non-uniform irradiation caused by radioactive iodine is decided by the limit for non-stochastic effects. Therefore the further consideration of non-stochastic effects of thyroid is necessary. (author)

  4. WOMEN IN CANCER THEMATIC REVIEW: Thyroid-stimulating hormone in thyroid cancer: does it matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Hannah; Boelaert, Kristien

    2016-11-01

    Differentiated thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and the incidence is increasing rapidly worldwide. Appropriate diagnosis and post-treatment monitoring of patients with thyroid tumours are critical. Fine needle aspiration cytology remains the gold standard for diagnosing thyroid cancer, and although there have been significant refinements to this technique, diagnostic surgery is often required for patients suspected to have malignancy. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is higher in patients with malignant thyroid nodules than in those with benign disease, and TSH is proportionally increased in more aggressive tumours. Importantly, we have shown that the pre-operative serum TSH concentration independently predicts the presence of malignancy in subjects presenting with thyroid nodules. Establishing the use of TSH measurements in algorithms identifying high-risk thyroid nodules in routine clinical practice represents an exciting, cost-efficient and non-invasive approach to optimise thyroid cancer diagnosis. Binding of TSH to receptors on thyrocytes stimulates a number of growth promoting pathways both in normal and malignant thyroid cells, and TSH suppression with high doses of levothyroxine is routinely used after thyroidectomy to prevent cancer recurrence, especially in high-risk tumours. This review examines the relationship between serum TSH and thyroid cancer and reflects on the clinical potential of TSH measurements in diagnosis and disease monitoring. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology.

  5. Thyroid diseases and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Grandi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Thyroid diseases and diabetes mellitus are the most common endocrine diseases during pregnancy. Internal Medicine doctors could be involved in the management of pregnant women affected by thyroid diseases, in particular if an Endocrine Unit lacks in the hospital; it is mandatory that they have the skills to cope with these diseases. METHODS In this work authors describe the most common thyroid abnormalities that can occur during pregnancy: hypothyroidism (clinical and subclinical, hyperthyroidism (clinical and sub-clinical, autoimmune thyroiditis (in particular the so called post-partum thyroiditis, nodular diseases and cancer. They discuss moreover the peculiar pathophysiologic mechanisms by which these diseases appear, the diagnostic tools and the therapies, according to their own experience and the more recent international guidelines. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS It is important to evaluate thyroid function tests before and during pregnancy, at 16th and 28th gestational week; it is mandatory to cure also the “sub-clinical” hypothyroidism during pregnancy, when TSH level are higher than 5 μIU/mL; the optimal dose of levo-thyroxine during pregnancy is, average, 30-50% higher than that used before pregnancy; it is not correct to treat mild or sub-clinical hyperthyroidism; propylthyouracil is the best drug to treat hyperthyroidism during pregnancy; the post-partum thyroiditis is generally transient, so that a careful monitoring of thyroid function is advisable, in particular after 9-12 months of therapy; thyroid cancer, if discovered during pregnancy, generally has no negative effects on the outcome of the pregnancy; it would be better to treat surgically thyroid cancer during the last trimester of the pregnancy.

  6. Radionuclides in thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadev, V.

    1980-01-01

    The three main areas of application of radionuclides in thyroid disease will be reviewed. Firstly thyroid radionuclide imaging in thyroid swellings, in relationship to lumps in the neck and ectopic thyroid tissue such as retrosternal goitre, and lingual goitre will be described. Future developments in the field including tomographic scanning, using the coded aperture method, and fluorescent scans and ultrasound are reviewed. The second area of application is the assessment and evaluation of thyroid function and the therapy of Grave's Disease and Plummer's Disease using radioiodine. The importance of careful collection of the line of treatment, results of treatment locally and the follow-up of patients after radioiodine therapy will be described. The third area of application is in the diagnosis and therapy of thyroid cancer. Investigation of thyroid swelling, and the diagnosis of functioning metastases are reported. The therapeutic iodine scan as the sole evidence of functioning metastatic involvement is recorded. Histological thyroid cancer appears to be increasingly encountered in clinical practice and the plan of management in relation to choice of cases for therapeutic scanning is discussed with case reports. Lastly the role of whole body scanning in relationship to biochemical markers is compared. In the changing field of nuclear medicine radionuclide applications in thyroid disease have remained pre-eminent and this is an attempt to reassess its role in the light of newer developments and local experience in the Institute of Radiotherapy, Oncology and Nuclear Medicine. (author)

  7. The etiology of thyroid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellabarba, Diego

    1983-01-01

    The etiology of thyroid tumors is a complex subject, complicated by the fact that these tumors are not one entity, but separate neoplasms with different histology, evolution and prognosis. The recognized etiological factors of thyroid cancer include the iodine content of the diet, the inheritance, racial predispositions, the presence of an autoimmune thyroiditis and mostly, the exposure of the thyroid gland to external radiation following radiotherapy. The role played by these factors varies from one type of tumor to another. Thyroid radiation probably represents the most important factor in the development of a papillary carcinoma, with other factors (iodine-rich diet, inheritance, racial predispositions) having a minor role. The follicular carcinoma is more common in regions with low-iodine diet, therefore suggesting that TSH stimulation could be an etiological factor of these tumors. Thyroid radiation may also be carcinogenic for follicular carcinoma although less than for papillary carcinoma. Anaplastic carcinoma appears to originate from a papillary carcinoma already in the thyroid gland. In medullary carcinoma, inheritance plays a major role (autosomal dominant) and lymphomas occur in thyroids already affected by autoimmune thyroiditis. Recent experimental studies have suggested other possible cellular factors as responsible for the development of thyroid tumors. They include an alteration of the responsivity of TSH cellular receptors and the monoclonal mutation of C-cells. These new factors could provide a new insight on the etiology of thyroid tumors

  8. [Some neurologic and psychiatric complications in endocrine disorders: the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aszalós, Zsuzsa

    2007-02-18

    Thyroid hormones are of primary importance for the perinatal development of the central nervous system, and for normal function of the adult brain. These hormones primarily regulate the transcription of specific target genes. They increase the cortical serotonergic neurotransmission, and play an important role in regulating central noradrenergic and GABA function. Thyroid deficiency during the perinatal period results in mental retardation. Hypothyroidism of the adults causes most frequently dementia and depression. Other less common clinical pictures include myxoedema coma, dysfunction of cerebellum and cranial nerves. Hypothyroidism also increases predisposition of stroke. Peripheral diseases frequently include polyneuropathy, carpal tunnel syndrome, myalgic state, and rarely myokymia. Nearly all the hyperthyroid patients show minor psychiatric signs, and infrequently psychosis, dementia, confusion state, depression, apathetic thyrotoxicosis, thyrotoxic crisis, seizures, pyramidal signs, or chorea occur. The peripheral complications may be indicated by chronic thyrotoxic myopathy, infiltrative ophthalmopathy, myasthenia gravis, periodic hypokalemic paralysis and polyneuropathy. Generalized resistance to thyroid hormone was confirmed in a number of patients with attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Significantly elevated antithyroid antibody titers characterize Hashimoto's encephalopathy. This condition is a rare, acute - subacute, serious, life threatening, but steroid-responsive, relapsing-remitting, autoimmune disease.

  9. The association between thyroid malignancy and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis: should it alter the surgical approach?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükaşık, Oktay; Hasdemir, Ahmet Oğuz; Yalçın, Erol; Celep, Bahadır; Sengül, Serkan; Yandakçı, Kemal; Tunç, Gündüz; Küçükpınar, Tevfik; Alkoy, Seval; Cöl, Cavit

    2011-01-01

    The relation between thyroid neoplasms and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis (CLT) is controversial. While it is accepted that focal lymphocytic thyroiditis develops secondarily to malignancy, it is not clear whether diffuse lymphocytic thyroiditis has a tendency to develop into thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between CLT and malignant tumours of the thyroid and evaluate the surgical approach to CLT cases. In this study, 917 patients operated on for thyroid diseases were investigated retrospectively. Seventy-seven (8.4%) patients histopathologically diagnosed as having CLT (either non-specific or Hashimoto's thyroiditis) were investigated for any concurrent malignant neoplasm. Fifteen patients in whom CLT and thyroid malignancy were coexisting were included in the study. In the pathological evaluation of 917 cases, malignancy in the thyroid was found in 97 (10.6%) cases. Seventy-seven cases were categorised as CLT. Of these 77, 16 (20.8%) were Hashimoto's thyroiditis (specific CLT) and the other 61 (79.2%) were non-specific CLT. In 15 cases, thyroid malignancy was found to be concurrent with CLT. Of the malignities, nine (60%) were papillary carcinoma, three (20%) medullar carcinoma, one (6.6%) follicular carcinoma, one (6.6%) Hurthle cell carcinoma, and one (6.6%) lymphoma. In our series, the rate of the development of malignancy against the background of CLT was 19.48%, while the rate in the groups without CLT was 9.76%, with a statistically significant difference between the groups (p = 0.008). CLT cases should be evaluated more carefully in terms of malignancy. If a nodule is detected on thyroiditis, the minimal surgical intervention should be lobectomy. Total thyroidectomy should be considered as preferable to subtotal thyroidectomy because of its many advantages such as controlling thyroiditis, removing the probability of reoperation, and hormonal stability.

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... typically performed on people who have or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: ... such as lumps (nodules) or inflammation determine whether thyroid cancer has spread beyond the thyroid gland evaluate changes ...

  11. Radioimmunoassay measurements of serum thyrotropin in patients with hypothalamic-pituitary and thyroid diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Kiyoshi; Azukizawa, Mizuo; Azukizawa, Hisako; Hosokawa, Mitsuko; Nishi, Keiko

    1975-01-01

    Serum TSH was measured by means of double antibody radioimmunoassay using a commercial Kit Daiichi, in 21 normal subjects, 200 patients with thyroid disease and 130 patients with hypothalamic-pituitary diseases. Serum TSH concentrations in normal subjects were <2 to 8 μU/ml which rose to 8-40 μU/ml after administration of 500 μg TRH intravenously. Serum TSH was undetectable and did not respond to TRH in all untreated patients and in some euthyroid patients with Graves' disease after treatment. Undetectable TSH and no response to TRH were also observed in most patients with a hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule and those with subacute thyroiditis in the acute phase. In some patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and all patients with adult myxedema and cretinism, serum TSH levels were increased and showed hyperresponse to TRH. The ratio of bioassay and radioimmunoassay potency estimates for TSH in sera obtained before TRH was not statistically different from that obtained after TRH administration to patients with primary hypothyroidism. Elevated serum TSH was promptly decreased by the administration of thyroid hormone to the patients. More than 50% of patients with pituitary adenoma, acromegaly and craniopharyngioma showed normal basal TSH and no or low response of TSH to TRH. Administration of TRH failed to stimulate a rise in serum TSH in 2 sisters with isolated TSH deficiency with cretinism. Basal TSH was undetectable and showed delayed response to TRH in patients with anorexia nervosa. (auth.)

  12. Hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, K; Konno, M; Sato, T; Matsuura, N

    1980-10-01

    We studied two cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules in children. A 9-year-old girl and an 11-year-old girl had thyroid masses in otherwise nonpalpable thyroid glands. Scintiscan showed hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. The former patient had elevated values for T4 and T3, and plasma thyrotropin (TSH) level failed to respond to stimulation with thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH), whereas the latter patient had normal values for T4, and T3 and plasma TSH response to TRH was normal. After the surgical removal of nodules, scintiscan exhibited radioactivity in the contralateral lobe of the thyroid gland in the former and in the ectopic thyroid tissue in the latter. Results of microscopic examinations of thyroid nodules were consistent with adenomatous goiter.

  13. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma with functional autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaturu, Subhashini; Fowler, Marjorie R

    2002-01-01

    To present a case of papillary carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule. We chronicle the clinical and laboratory findings in a patient with a painless neck mass, with a particular focus on the pathologic findings after surgical removal of the right thyroid lobe. A 39-year-old woman had an enlarging nodule of the right thyroid lobe. Results of thyroid function tests suggested subclinical hyperthyroidism. Two months later, the patient complained of increasing swelling in the neck (but still had no symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism). Thus, resection of the right thyroid lobe was performed. Pathologic analysis disclosed low-grade papillary thyroid carcinoma within the nodule, with a small rim of compressed inactive-appearing thyroid tissue surrounding the nodule. Subsequently, she underwent total thyroidectomy and follow-up care for thyroid carcinoma. Although solitary hyperfunctioning nodules of the thyroid gland are usually considered benign, the current case suggests that the diagnosis of autonomous thyroid nodules does not preclude thyroid carcinoma in a functioning nodule.

  14. Neurological complications in thyroid surgery: a surgical point of view on laryngeal nerves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EMANUELA eVARALDO

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cervical branches of the vagus nerve that are pertinent to endocrine surgery are the superior and the inferior laryngeal nerves: their anatomical course in the neck places them at risk during thyroid surgery. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve (EB is at risk during thyroid surgery because of its close anatomical relationship with the superior thyroid vessels and the superior thyroid pole region. The rate of EB injury (which leads to the paralysis of the cricothyroid muscle varies from 0 to 58%. The identification of the EB during surgery helps avoiding both an accidental transection and an excessive stretching. When the nerve is not identified,the ligation of superior thyroid artery branches close to the thyroid gland is suggested, as well as the abstention from an indiscriminate use of energy-based devices that might damage it. The inferior laryngeal nerve (RLN runs in the tracheoesophageal groove toward the larynx, close to the posterior aspect of the thyroid. It is the main motor nerve of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles, and also provides sensory innervation to the larynx. Its injury finally causes the paralysis of the omolateral vocal cord and various sensory alterations: the symptoms range from mild to severe hoarseness, to acute airway obstruction and swallowing impairment. Permanent lesions of the RNL occur from 0.3 to 7% of cases, according to different factors. The surgeon must be aware of the possible anatomical variations of the nerve which should be actively searched for and identified. Visual control and gentle dissection of RLN are imperative. The use of intraoperative nerve monitoring has been safely applied but, at the moment, its impact in the incidence of RLN injuries has not been clarified. In conclusion, despite a thorough surgical technique and the use of intraoperative neuromonitoring, the incidence of neurological complications after thyroid surgery cannot be suppressed, but should be maintained in a

  15. Thyroid gland removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... thyroidectomy; Thyroidectomy; Subtotal thyroidectomy; Thyroid cancer - thyroidectomy; Papillary cancer - thyroidectomy; Goiter - thyroidectomy; Thyroid nodules - ... Kaplan EL, Angelos P, James BC, Nagar S, Grogan RH. Surgery ...

  16. Thyroid dysfunction and pregnancy outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Nazarpour

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pregnancy has a huge impact on the thyroid function in both healthy women and those that have thyroid dysfunction. The prevalence of thyroid dysfunction in pregnant women is relatively high. Objective: The objective of this review was to increase awareness and to provide a review on adverse effect of thyroid dysfunction including hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmune positivity on pregnancy outcomes. Materials and Methods: In this review, Medline, Embase and the Cochrane Library were searched with appropriate keywords for relevant English manuscript. We used a variety of studies, including randomized clinical trials, cohort (prospective and retrospective, case-control and case reports. Those studies on thyroid disorders among non-pregnant women and articles without adequate quality were excluded. Results: Overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism has several adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. Overt hyperthyroidism was associated with miscarriage, stillbirth, preterm delivery, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, preeclampsia and fetal thyroid dysfunction. Overt hypothyroidism was associated with abortion, anemia, pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia, placental abruption, postpartum hemorrhage, premature birth, low birth weight, intrauterine fetal death, increased neonatal respiratory distress and infant neuro developmental dysfunction. However the adverse effect of subclinical hypothyroidism, and thyroid antibody positivity on pregnancy outcomes was not clear. While some studies demonstrated higher chance of placental abruption, preterm birth, miscarriage, gestational hypertension, fetal distress, severe preeclampsia and neonatal distress and diabetes in pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism or thyroid autoimmunity; the other ones have not reported these adverse effects. Conclusion: While the impacts of overt thyroid dysfunction on feto-maternal morbidities have been clearly

  17. Interphase ribosomal RNA cistron staining in thyroid epithelial cells in Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, N N; Grynyeva, E N; Blagosklonnaya, Y V

    1996-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the expression of ribosomal cistrons in human thyroid epithelial cells (TECs) of patients with Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis and benign and malignant tumours of the thyroid gland.

  18. Ultrasound examination of the thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaenepoel, L.; Demeester-Mirkine, N.; Sacre, R.; Jockheer, M.H.; van Geertruyden, J.

    1982-07-01

    Ultrasound examination of the thyroid offers an accurate morphological picture and the possibility of comparing objectively the size of lobes and lesions over long periods. Cysts and calcifications, mostly benign, are readily recognized. Neoplastic lesions in our series were all less reflective than normal thyroid tissue. But so were the majority of benign nodules. In hyperthyroidism, subacute thyroiditis and Hashimoto's thyroiditis, the thyroid tissue is much less echogenic than in the normal gland.

  19. Radiation and thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazo, Edward

    2014-01-01

    An International Workshop on Radiation and Thyroid Cancer took place on 21-23 February 2014 in Tokyo, Japan, to support the efforts of the Fukushima Prefecture and the Japanese government in enhancing public health measures following the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident in March 2011. The workshop, which was designed to develop a state-of-the-art scientific understanding of thyroid cancer in children and of radiation-induced thyroid cancer (papillary carcinoma) in particular, was co-organised by the Japanese Ministry of the Environment (MOE), the Fukushima Medical University (FMU) and the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA). It brought together the world's top experts in the field, including medical doctors, epidemiologists and radiological risk assessment specialists from ten countries. Although rare, thyroid cancer occurs naturally, with the risk of developing a thyroid cancer increasing with age. Cases are usually identified when a thyroid carcinogenic nodule grows enough to be felt with a patient's fingers, at which point the patient visits a medical doctor to identify the nature of the growth. In many countries around the world, the incidence rate of naturally occurring thyroid cancer is on the order of less than 1 per year per 100 000 children (from ages 0 to 18). Statistically, this rate appears to be increasing in many countries, with young girls slightly more at risk than young boys. A second but very different means of detecting thyroid cancer cases is through thyroid ultrasound screening examinations on subjects who do not demonstrate any symptoms. Ultrasound screening is a more sensitive approach that can detect very small nodules (< 5 mm) and cysts (< 20 mm) which would not normally be perceived through simple palpitation. However, because thyroid ultrasound screening examinations are much more effective, the number of thyroid cancer cases per examination will normally be larger than the number per capita found through national cancer

  20. Thyroid Stimulating Hormone Receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Tuncel

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR plays a pivotal role in thyroid hormone metabolism. It is a major controller of thyroid cell function and growth. Mutations in TSHR may lead to several thyroid diseases, most commonly hyperthyroidism. Although its genetic and epigenetic alterations do not directly lead to carcinogenesis, it has a crucial role in tumor growth, which is initiated by several oncogenes. This article will provide a brief review of TSHR and related diseases.

  1. Thyroid Hormone Receptor Mutations in Cancer and Resistance to Thyroid Hormone: Perspective and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan D. Rosen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone, operating through its receptors, plays crucial roles in the control of normal human physiology and development; deviations from the norm can give rise to disease. Clinical endocrinologists often must confront and correct the consequences of inappropriately high or low thyroid hormone synthesis. Although more rare, disruptions in thyroid hormone endocrinology due to aberrations in the receptor also have severe medical consequences. This review will focus on the afflictions that are caused by, or are closely associated with, mutated thyroid hormone receptors. These include Resistance to Thyroid Hormone Syndrome, erythroleukemia, hepatocellular carcinoma, renal clear cell carcinoma, and thyroid cancer. We will describe current views on the molecular bases of these diseases, and what distinguishes the neoplastic from the non-neoplastic. We will also touch on studies that implicate alterations in receptor expression, and thyroid hormone levels, in certain oncogenic processes.

  2. Static and dynamic thyroid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Static images as isolated investigation in thyroid diagnosis mainly provides morphologic information, and therefore sonography is largely applied for this purpose. 99m Tc-pertechnetate scans or 123 I-scans are indicated in cases of malpositions and serve to clarify lesions of unknown dignity. Additionally 201 Tl-chloride is suited for examinations with regard to metabolically active thyroid tissue, whereby differential diagnostic laboratory tests must be carried out to exclude parathyroid adenoma. Dynamic thyroid scans before and after regulation tests (suppression, stimulation) reflect the physiological correlation between the iodine avidity of the thyroid, the peripheral thyroid hormone concentrations and the hypophyseal regulation in the TRH-test. The main application of this procedure is the clarification of thyroid autonomy, i.e. indication, detection, quantification or exclusion of thyroid autonomy. For the treatment of immunogenic thyrotoxicosis, dynamic thyroid scintigraphy provides important information about the onset of remission, thus permitting to end thyreostatic therapy. (orig.) [de

  3. Thyroid dysfunction: an autoimmune aspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farah Aziz; Al-Jameil, Noura; Khan, Mohammad Fareed; Al-Rashid, May; Tabassum, Hajera

    2015-01-01

    Auto immune thyroid disease (AITD) is the common organ specific autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and Grave's disease (GD) are its well-known sequelae. It occurs due to loss of tolerance to autoantigens thyroid peroxidase (TPO), thyroglobulin (Tg), thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSH-R) which leads to the infiltration of the gland. T cells in chronic autoimmune thyroiditis (cAIT) induce apoptosis in thyroid follicular cells and cause destruction of the gland. Presences of TPO antibodies are common in HT and GD, while Tg has been reported as an independent predictor of thyroid malignancy. Cytokines are small proteins play an important role in autoimmunity, by stimulating B and T cells. Various cytokines IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-14, TNF-α and IFN-γ are found in thyroid follicular cells which enhance inflammatory response with nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandins.

  4. Overexpression of BID in thyroids of transgenic mice increases sensitivity to iodine-induced autoimmune thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background BID functions as a bridge molecule between death-receptor and mitochondrial related apoptotic pathways to amplify apoptotic signaling. Our previous studies have demonstrated a substantial increase in BID expression in primary normal thyroid epithelia cells treated with inflammatory cytokines, including the combination of IFNγ and IL-1β or IFNγ and TNFα. The aim of this study was to determine whether an increase in BID expression in thyroid can induce autoimmune thyroiditis. Methods A transgenic mouse line that expresses human BID in thyroid cells was established by fusing a mouse thyroglobulin (Tg) promoter upstream of human BID (Tg-BID). We tested whether the increased expression of pro-apoptotic BID in thyroid would induce autoimmune thyroiditis, both in the presence and absence of 0.3% iodine water. Results Our data show that Tg-BID mice in a CBA/J (H-2 k) background do not spontaneously develop autoimmune thyroiditis for over a year. However, upon ingestion of iodine in the drinking water, autoimmune thyroiditis does develop in Tg-BID transgenic mice, as shown by a significant increase in anti-Tg antibody and mononuclear cell infiltration in the thyroid glands in 30% of mice tested. Serum T4 levels, however, were similar between iodine-treated Tg-BID transgenic mice and the wild type mice. Conclusions Our data demonstrate that increased thyroid expression of BID facilitates the development of autoimmune thyroiditis induced by iodine uptake. However, the overexpression of BID itself is not sufficient to initiate thyroiditis in CBA/J (H-2 k) mice. PMID:24957380

  5. Ultrasound-Detected Thyroid Nodule Prevalence and Radiation Dose from Fallout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Land, C. E.; Zhumadilov, Z.; Gusev, B. I.; Hartshorne, M. H.; Wiest, P. W.; Woodward, P. W.; Crooks, L. A.; Luckyanov, N. K.; Fillmore, C. M.; Carr, Z.; Abisheva, G.; Beck, H. L.; Bouville, A.; Langer, J.; Weinstock, R.; Gordeev, K. I.; Shinkarev, S.; Simon, S. L.

    2014-01-01

    Settlements near the Semipalatinsk Test Site (SNTS) in northeastern Kazakhstan were exposed to radioactive fallout during 1949–1962. Thyroid disease prevalence among 2994 residents of eight villages was ascertained by ultrasound screening. Malignancy was determined by cytopathology. Individual thyroid doses from external and internal radiation sources were reconstructed from fallout deposition patterns, residential histories and diet, including childhood milk consumption. Point estimates of individual external and internal dose averaged 0.04 Gy (range 0–0.65) and 0.31 Gy (0–9.6), respectively, with a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.46. Ultrasound-detected thyroid nodule prevalence was 18% and 39% among males and females, respectively. It was significantly and independently associated with both external and internal dose, the main study finding. The estimated relative biological effectiveness of internal compared to external radiation dose was 0.33, with 95% confidence bounds of 0.09–3.11. Prevalence of papillary cancer was 0.9% and was not significantly associated with radiation dose. In terms of excess relative risk per unit dose, our dose–response findings for nodule prevalence are comparable to those from populations exposed to medical X rays and to acute radiation from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings. PMID:18363427

  6. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer-A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F L; de Freitas, Mariana L; Ferreira, Andrea C F

    2017-06-12

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer.

  7. Flavonoids, Thyroid Iodide Uptake and Thyroid Cancer—A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Carlos F. L.; de Freitas, Mariana L.; Ferreira, Andrea C. F.

    2017-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the endocrine system and the incidence has been increasing in recent years. In a great part of the differentiated carcinomas, thyrocytes are capable of uptaking iodide. In these cases, the main therapeutic approach includes thyroidectomy followed by ablative therapy with radioiodine. However, in part of the patients, the capacity to concentrate iodide is lost due to down-regulation of the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), the protein responsible for transporting iodide into the thyrocytes. Thus, therapy with radioiodide becomes ineffective, limiting therapeutic options and reducing the life expectancy of the patient. Excessive ingestion of some flavonoids has been associated with thyroid dysfunction and goiter. Nevertheless, studies have shown that some flavonoids can be beneficial for thyroid cancer, by reducing cell proliferation and increasing cell death, besides increasing NIS mRNA levels and iodide uptake. Recent data show that the flavonoids apingenin and rutin are capable of increasing NIS function and expression in vivo. Herein we review literature data regarding the effect of flavonoids on thyroid cancer, besides the effect of these compounds on the expression and function of the sodium-iodide symporter. We will also discuss the possibility of using flavonoids as adjuvants for therapy of thyroid cancer. PMID:28604619

  8. Development of a PBPK model of thiocyanate in rats with an extrapolation to humans: A computational study to quantify the mechanism of action of thiocyanate kinetics in thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willemin, Marie-Emilie; Lumen, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Thyroid homeostasis can be disturbed due to thiocyanate exposure from the diet or tobacco smoke. Thiocyanate inhibits both thyroidal uptake of iodide, via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), and thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis in the thyroid, via thyroid peroxidase (TPO), but the mode of action of thiocyanate is poorly quantified in the literature. The characterization of the link between intra-thyroidal thiocyanate concentrations and dose of exposure is crucial for assessing the risk of thyroid perturbations due to thiocyanate exposure. We developed a PBPK model for thiocyanate that describes its kinetics in the whole-body up to daily doses of 0.15 mmol/kg, with a mechanistic description of the thyroidal kinetics including NIS, passive diffusion, and TPO. The model was calibrated in a Bayesian framework using published studies in rats. Goodness-of-fit was satisfactory, especially for intra-thyroidal thiocyanate concentrations. Thiocyanate kinetic processes were quantified in vivo, including the metabolic clearance by TPO. The passive diffusion rate was found to be greater than NIS-mediated uptake rate. The model captured the dose-dependent kinetics of thiocyanate after acute and chronic exposures. Model behavior was evaluated using a Morris screening test. The distribution of thiocyanate into the thyroid was found to be determined primarily by the partition coefficient, followed by NIS and passive diffusion; the impact of the latter two mechanisms appears to increase at very low doses. Extrapolation to humans resulted in good predictions of thiocyanate kinetics during chronic exposure. The developed PBPK model can be used in risk assessment to quantify dose-response effects of thiocyanate on TH. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of thiocyanate (SCN − ) was calibrated in rats in a Bayesian framework. • The intra-thyroidal kinetics of thiocyanate including NIS and TPO was modeled. • Passive diffusion rate for SCN − seemed to be greater than the NIS

  9. Development of a PBPK model of thiocyanate in rats with an extrapolation to humans: A computational study to quantify the mechanism of action of thiocyanate kinetics in thyroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willemin, Marie-Emilie; Lumen, Annie, E-mail: Annie.Lumen@fda.hhs.gov

    2016-09-15

    Thyroid homeostasis can be disturbed due to thiocyanate exposure from the diet or tobacco smoke. Thiocyanate inhibits both thyroidal uptake of iodide, via the sodium-iodide symporter (NIS), and thyroid hormone (TH) synthesis in the thyroid, via thyroid peroxidase (TPO), but the mode of action of thiocyanate is poorly quantified in the literature. The characterization of the link between intra-thyroidal thiocyanate concentrations and dose of exposure is crucial for assessing the risk of thyroid perturbations due to thiocyanate exposure. We developed a PBPK model for thiocyanate that describes its kinetics in the whole-body up to daily doses of 0.15 mmol/kg, with a mechanistic description of the thyroidal kinetics including NIS, passive diffusion, and TPO. The model was calibrated in a Bayesian framework using published studies in rats. Goodness-of-fit was satisfactory, especially for intra-thyroidal thiocyanate concentrations. Thiocyanate kinetic processes were quantified in vivo, including the metabolic clearance by TPO. The passive diffusion rate was found to be greater than NIS-mediated uptake rate. The model captured the dose-dependent kinetics of thiocyanate after acute and chronic exposures. Model behavior was evaluated using a Morris screening test. The distribution of thiocyanate into the thyroid was found to be determined primarily by the partition coefficient, followed by NIS and passive diffusion; the impact of the latter two mechanisms appears to increase at very low doses. Extrapolation to humans resulted in good predictions of thiocyanate kinetics during chronic exposure. The developed PBPK model can be used in risk assessment to quantify dose-response effects of thiocyanate on TH. - Highlights: • A PBPK model of thiocyanate (SCN{sup −}) was calibrated in rats in a Bayesian framework. • The intra-thyroidal kinetics of thiocyanate including NIS and TPO was modeled. • Passive diffusion rate for SCN{sup −} seemed to be greater than the NIS

  10. Thyroid Emphysema Following Penetrating Neck Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet Karadağ

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although traumatic thyroid gland rupture or hemorrhage is usually seen in goitrous glands, injuries of the normal thyroid gland after neck trauma have rarely been described in the literature. We describe a 44-year-old man who presented with thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema (SCE that occurred after penetrating neck trauma. CT images showed complete resolution of thyroid emphysema and subcutaneous emphysema at follow-up examination. Neck injuries can be life threatening. After penetrating neck traumas, physicians should consider subtle esophageal or tracheal laceration. Thyroid emphysema can occur as the result of penetrating neck trauma. The mechanism of emphysema of the thyroid parenchyma can be explained by the thyroid gland’s presence in a single visceral compartment that encompasses the larynx, trachea and thyroid gland. We describe an unusual case of thyroid emphysema of a normal thyroid gland following a penetrating neck injury.

  11. Papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomous hyperfunctioning thyroid nodule: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tfayli, Hala M; Teot, Lisa A; Indyk, Justin A; Witchel, Selma Feldman

    2010-09-01

    Whereas thyroid nodules are less common among children than among adults, the anxiety generated by the finding of a thyroid nodule is high because 20% of nodules found in children contain thyroid cancer. Discovery of a nodule in the context of hyperthyroidism is usually comforting due to the presumption that the nodule represents a benign toxic adenoma. An 11-year-old girl presented with heavy menses, fatigue, and a right thyroid mass. Laboratory evaluation revealed elevated triiodothyronine and undetectable thyroid-stimulating hormone. Thyroid ultrasonography revealed a 3.5 cm nonhomogenous nodule, and scintigraphy was consistent with an autonomous hyper-functioning nodule. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy could not rule out malignancy, and patient underwent right hemithyroidectomy and isthmusectomy. Pathology was consistent with papillary thyroid carcinoma. We report the discovery of papillary thyroid carcinoma in an autonomously hyperfunctioning nodule in an 11-year-old girl. Detection of an autonomously functioning thyroid nodule in children and adolescents does not exclude the possibility of thyroid carcinoma and warrants careful evaluation and appropriate therapy.

  12. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hober Didier

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40 in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment.

  13. Viruses and thyroiditis: an update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desailloud, Rachel; Hober, Didier

    2009-01-01

    Viral infections are frequently cited as a major environmental factor involved in subacute thyroiditis and autoimmune thyroid diseases This review examines the data related to the role of viruses in the development of thyroiditis. Our research has been focused on human data. We have reviewed virological data for each type of thyroiditis at different levels of evidence; epidemiological data, serological data or research on circulating viruses, direct evidence of thyroid tissue infection. Interpretation of epidemiological and serological data must be cautious as they don't prove that this pathogen is responsible for the disease. However, direct evidence of the presence of viruses or their components in the organ are available for retroviruses (HFV) and mumps in subacute thyroiditis, for retroviruses (HTLV-1, HFV, HIV and SV40) in Graves's disease and for HTLV-1, enterovirus, rubella, mumps virus, HSV, EBV and parvovirus in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. However, it remains to determine whether they are responsible for thyroid diseases or whether they are just innocent bystanders. Further studies are needed to clarify the relationship between viruses and thyroid diseases, in order to develop new strategies for prevention and/or treatment. PMID:19138419

  14. Diagnosis, Surgical Treatment, Recovery, and Eventual Necropsy of a Leopard (Panthera pardus with Thyroid Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Malmlov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old, male, castrated, captive-born leopard (Panthera pardus presented to Colorado State University’s Veterinary Teaching Hospital with a two-week history of regurgitation. Thoracic radiographs and ultrasound revealed a well-differentiated cranioventral mediastinal mass measuring 7.5 × 10 × 5.5 cm, impinging the esophagus. A sternotomy followed by mass excision was performed. The mass was diagnosed as an ectopic thyroid carcinoma. The leopard recovered from surgery with minimal complications and returned to near-normal activity levels for just under 6 months before rapidly declining. He had an acute onset of severe dyspnea and lethargy and was euthanized. On postmortem examination the tumor was found to involve the lung, liver, thyroid, parietal pleura, bronchial lymph nodes, and the internal intercostal muscles. This case report describes the history, diagnosis, surgical treatment, postoperative care, and recovery as well as the eventual decline, euthanasia, and necropsy of a leopard with thyroid carcinoma. When compared to thyroid carcinomas of domestic animals, the leopard’s disease process more closely resembles the disease process seen in domestic canines compared to domestic cats.

  15. [Thyroid and cardiovascular disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyśko, Dorota; Gajek, Jacek

    2004-05-01

    In this study three problems concerning interactions between thyroid and cardiovascular system are discussed. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, pleural effusion, hyperlipidaemia, arterial hypertension may be consequences of thyroid disorders leading to inappropriate hormone secretion. During such illnesses as heart failure, myocardial infarction and in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery profound changes may occur in thyroid hormone metabolism known as sick euthyroid syndrome. Treatment with amiodarone may lead to changes in thyroid tests results and to development of hypothyroidism or thyrotoxicosis.

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  17. Study on serum thyroid peroxidase antibody levels in autoimmune thyroid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhixiang; Zheng Lan; Xu Shujin; Guan Jinghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of changes of serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) in patients with hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism and simple goiter. Methods: Serum TPO-Ab, TMA,TGA and FT 3 , FT 4 , TSH levels were measured with radioimmunoassay(RIA) in 69 patients with hyperthyroidism, 53 patients with hypothyroidism, 45 patients with simple goiter and 20 controls. Results: The positive rate of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab) (82%-92.5%) was higher than that of thyroidglobulim antibody(TGA) (44.2%) and thyroid microsome antibody(TMA) (60.4-69.8%) in all patients with AICD. Conclusion: TPO-Ab could be taken as an important indicator in assessment of treatment and prognosis in patients with auto- immune thyroid diseases. (authors)

  18. Surgery of thyroid gland in Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishdorj, Ts

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The surgery department of Central Hospital no.1 operated on 1690 thyroid disease patients in last 7 years (2000-2007). Patients' ages were 9-80 years. Female : Male ratio 10 : 1. In the last years morbidity is changed, Diffuse toxic Goiter has decreased, Thyroid nodule and cancer has increased. During last 7 years we have operated 164 patients for thyroid mass. 69 cases (51.54%) of them were thyroid carcinoma. In this 69 cases include Anaplastic carcinoma 3, Papillary carcinoma 36, follicular carcinoma 30 cases. 80 percent patients from thyroid cancer cases were diagnosed in pre-operative period, 20 percent were diagnosed in inter and post-operation period. For thyroid cancer cases we made the following operations: - Total thyroidectomy 20 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 30 cases, Hemithyroidectomy 29 cases. After operation 49 patients were sent for radioactive I-131 treatment and 3 cases which recurred, were operated a second time. In the treatment of DTG, there has been a decrease in the number of surgeries, while great increase in the use of I-131. From 1990 to 1999 have been done 1307 operations, because of thyroid disease: - 580 (44.37%) for DTG, 636 (48.66%) for thyroid nodule, 37 ( 2.83%) for thyroid cancer. From 2000 to 2007 we have conducted 1608 operations, because of thyroid disease: 473 (29.41%) for DTG, 919 (57.15%) for thyroid nodule and 134 (8.33%) for thyroid cancer. All operations were done by O.V.Nicolaev's method. (intracapsular resection). Conclusion: 1. the numbers of thyroid cases which have been treated by operation is changing. There are an increasing number of cases of Thyroid nodule and thyroid cancer. 2. There is need to improve preoperative diagnostics. 3. Combination of surgery treatment and radioactive I131 treatment gave good results for thyroid cancer. (author)

  19. Effect of adrenal hormones on thyroid secretion and thyroid hormones on adrenal secretion in the sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, I R; Jacks, F

    1975-01-01

    1. Previous work has shown that after stressful stimuli, sheep initially secrete increased amounts of thyroid hormone, at a time when adrenal secretion is also elevated. 2. This study was designed to evaluate (a) any short-term activation or inhibition of thyroid secretion by exogenous cortisol or ACTH administered in quantities comparable to those secreted after stress in sheep and (b) any short-term effect that exogenous thyroxine or triiodothyronine may have on the concentration of plasma cortisol in the sheep. 3. Thyroid activity was measured by determination of plasma protein bound 125I (PB125I) and total 125I in thyroid vein and mixed venous (jugular) blood. Plasma cortisol and thyroxine concentrations were measured by a competitive protein-binding assay at intervals for up to 5 hr after commencement of the experiment. 4. No evidence of an activation of thyroid secretion was found during cortisol or ACTH infusion, as monitored by thyroid vein PB125I. Similarly there was no evidence of any inhibition of thyroid function, as measured by continued secretion of thyroid hormones into thyroid vein blood. 5. No effect on plasma cortisol concentration due to thyroid hormone treatment was observed. 6. It was concluded that (a) elevated circulating corticosteroids in physiological concentrations have no short-term effects on thyroid activity in the sheep and (b) the short-term alterations in thyroid and adrenal cortical secretion observed during stress in the sheep could not be attributed to direct interaction of elevated thyroid hormone concentrations with adrenal cortical secretion. PMID:170400

  20. Thyroid Duplication and Papillary Carcinoma in an Ectopic Thyroid. A Case Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alberto Puerto Lorenzo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with a palpable tumor located in midline of the anterior neck above the hyoid bone, initially diagnosed as a thyroglossal duct cyst. Preliminary study of the lesion was conducted, both clinically and radiologically and cytologically. The tumor was removed through surgery by conventional technique. The paraffin biopsy defined the existence of thyroid papillary carcinoma. Despite this condition, the patient had thyroid gland in normal location. It is considered to be a curious case, combining the concepts of thyroid duplication and ectopic thyroid, with the presence, in this last one, of papillary carcinoma.

  1. The relation between the change of pathology and the metergasis of immunity after thyroid arterial embolization in treating hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Min; Zhao Wei; Shen Jin; Yu Yongzhong; Yi Genfa; Xiang Shutian; Li Liyuan; Yang Huiying; Li Hong; Lu Guijun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between change of thyroid tissues and thyroid auto- antibody after thyroid arterial embolization in the treatment of hyperthyroidism caused by Graves' disease with observation on changes of histopathology and thyroid auto-antibody in 3 years after thyroid arterial embolization, and to understand the foundation of the therapeutic action after arterial embolization. Methods: 1. Thirty-eight patients with Graves' disease treated by transcathter arterial embolization had been tested serum TT3, TT4, FT3, FT4, rT3, TSH, TGAb, TPOAb, TRAb and followed up with color Doppler ultrasound respectively at different periods (before arterial embolization and 7 day, 6 month, 3 year after arterial embolization). 2. 23 patients underwent needle aspiration biopsy of the thyroid gland. Results: Volume of thyroid gland instantly dwindled in size after thyroid arterial embolization or within a few days. The changes of histopathology mainly showed acute ischemic necrosis 7 days after thyroid arterial embolization and followed by fibrous hyperplasia mesenchymal proliferation and follicular atrophy occurring 6 months and 3 years afterward. TGAb, TPOAb at the 3rd year after thyroid arterial embolization were higher than those before the thyriod arterial embolization. FT3, FT4, TRAb at 6 month after thyroid arterial embolization were lower than those of the 3 years. Conclusion: Maladjustment of immunity in GD patients would be improved through the treatment of thyroid arterial embolization, synchronously with the promotion in histopathology. The outcomings of the shrinkage of thyroid tissue, decrease of thyroxin secretion and improvement of immunity provide a combination therapy for GD. (authors)

  2. The Study on the Thyroid Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Ho

    1982-01-01

    Several recent advances in our knowledge of thyroid physiology have broad application to the diagnosis and management of thyroid disorders. For in the thyroid, more than other end-ocrine organs, pathophysiology can be translated directly into the diagnosis and management of thyroid disease. Graves' disease is a syndrome including goiter with hyperthyroidism, exophthalmos and dermatopathy. The pathogenesis of Graves' disease is not yet clearly identified, but various autoantibodies to the thyroid gland and immunapathalogic studied indicate that autoimmune processes are involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. The diagnosis and management of Graves' disease are largely dependent on radionuclide technique as radioimmunoassay, radioactive iodine therapy and so on. Several laboratory tests are also developed to determine the remission of this disease including TRH stimulation test, T 3 , suppression test and detection of thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins. Autoimmune thyroiditis is almost certainly a primary immunologic disease and the incidence tends to increase recently, mainly due to the application of biopsy technique is thyroid diseases. Thyroid nodules have been a great challenge to physicians because of the possibility of malignancy. But recently, cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate provides a very simple and also reliable diagnostic method in patients with thyroid nodules. In 163 patients with thyroid nodules, only 19.3% was revealed to be malignant. Therefore cytologic examination of thyroid aspirate and thyroid biopsy should be included in the diagnosis of nodular patients prior to surgical intervention. In this paper, a comprehensive review is presented on the pathogenesis, clinical features, laboratory findings and therapeutic modalities of various thyroid diseases on the basis of over 80 researches performed during the past 20 years at radioisotope clinic, Seoul National University Hospital.

  3. Occurrence of otitis media in children and assessment of treatment options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nwokoye, N N; Egwari, L O; Olubi, O O

    2015-08-01

    Otitis media is a more frequent occurrence in children, and the disease may progress from an acute to chronic state if appropriate and timely intervention is not initiated. A total of 212 children aged 6 months to 10 years were examined and treated for otitis media, in a 13-month hospital-based study. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 130 (61.3 per cent) of the patients. There were 82 (38.7 per cent) chronic suppurative otitis media cases. The incidence of acute otitis media and chronic suppurative otitis media in the first year of life was 54.6 per cent and 45.1 per cent respectively. Chronic suppurative otitis media patients were assigned to one of three treatment groups. Recovery occurred in 70.4 per cent of amoxicillin-treated patients, in 88.9 per cent of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid treated patients and in 96.4 per cent of culture and antibiotic sensitivity test patients. Relapses were seen only in the amoxicillin (five cases) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (two cases) groups. The success rate in patients treated with antibiotics makes this option mandatory for an established diagnosis.

  4. High prevalence of thyroid FDG uptake on PET study in patients with thyroid hormone replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, J.-Q.; Kumar, R.; Xiu, Y.; Dadparvar, S.; Kung, J.W.; Kunjunmen, B.D.; Feng, Q.; Alavi, A.; Zhuang, H.

    2004-01-01

    Thyroid uptake is commonly seen on whole-body FDG-PET images. One well-known cause for this uptake is hyperthyroidism. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hypothyroidism also affects FDG uptake by the thyroid gland. Hospital records of 2765 patients who had undergone whole-body FDG-PET imaging for malignancies were retrospectively reviewed. Among them, those who had thyroid cancer, history of thyroid ablation for hyperthyroidism, neck lymphoma, and other types of head and neck cancer or recent neck surgery were excluded from analysis. The prevalence and level of thyroid FDG uptake in the remaining 1939 patients was compared with the state of patients' thyroid function. There were 141 hypothyroid subjects and the rest (n=1798) were euthyroid. The prevalence of thyroid tissue uptake in euthyroid subjects was 2.34% (42 of 1798), while it was 22% (31 out of 141) in hypothyroid patients. This was statistically significant. Similarly, the prevalence of hypothyroidism in patients in patients showing thyroid uptake was 42.5% (31 of 73), while it was 5.9% (110 of 1866) in patients without thyroid uptake. This was again statistically significant (p<0.001). Based on this retrospective analysis it was concluded that the prevalence of increased thyroid FDG uptake is significantly higher in patients with hypothyroidism than those who are euthyroid. (author)

  5. Thyroid Disease Around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniakas, Anastasios; Davies, Louise; Zafereo, Mark E

    2018-06-01

    Thyroid disease is one of the most common pathologies in the world, with two of the most clinically important subgroups being iodine deficiency and thyroid goiter, and thyroid cancer. This review looks at the current state of thyroid disease in the world and evaluates the future direction in terms of thyroid disease treatment and prevention. Several of the most impactful epidemiologic studies are presented and analyzed, as well as a brief overview of the current socioeconomic burden of disease. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exposure to non-ionizing radiation provokes changes in rat thyroid morphology and expression of HSP-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misa-Agustiño, Maria J; Jorge-Mora, Teresa; Jorge-Barreiro, Francisco J; Suarez-Quintanilla, Juan; Moreno-Piquero, Eduardo; Ares-Pena, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation at 2.45 GHz may modify the morphology and expression of genes that codify heat shock proteins (HSP) in the thyroid gland. Diathermy is the therapeutic application of non-ionizing radiation to humans for its beneficial effects in rheumatological and musculo-skeletal pain processes. We used a diathermy model on laboratory rats subjected to maximum exposure in the left front leg, in order to study the effects of radiation on the nearby thyroid tissue. Fifty-six rats were individually exposed once or repeatedly (10 times in two weeks) for 30 min to 2.45 GHz radiation in a commercial chamber at different non-thermal specific absorption rates (SARs), which were calculated using the finite difference time domain technique. We used immunohistochemistry methods to study the expression of HSP-90 and morphological changes in thyroid gland tissues. Ninety minutes after radiation with the highest SAR, the central and peripheral follicles presented increased size and the thickness of the peripheral septa had decreased. Twenty-four hours after radiation, only peripheral follicles radiated at 12 W were found to be smaller. Peripheral follicles increased in size with repeated exposure at 3 W power. Morphological changes in the thyroid tissue may indicate a glandular response to acute or repeated stress from radiation in the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis. Further research is needed to determine if the effect of this physical agent over time may cause disease in the human thyroid gland. PMID:25649190

  7. Primary echinococcus cyst of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Rensburg, P.S.J.; Joubert, I.S.; Nel, C.J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Although echinococcosis is not rare in South Africa, the location of a hydatid cyst in the thyroid is unusual. It usually presents as a solitary nodule, which may mimic a thyroid carcinoma. The routine use of aspiration cytology in the workup of cases of single thyroid nodules may complicate the further management of patients with a hydatid cyst of the thyroid; anaphylaxis and dissemination may occur and technical difficulties may be experienced during operation. A case of echinococcal cyst of the thyroid presenting as a single thyroid nodule, suspected to be thyroid cancer, is reported. 4 refs

  8. Disguised Thyroid Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, John M.; Catz, Boris

    1965-01-01

    In six cases of hyperthyroidism and two of chronic thyroiditis herein described, the initial features of the diseases were misinterpreted as attributable to other kinds of illness such as myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal malignant disease, malabsorption syndrome, psychosis, simple exophthalmos and endemic goiter. The characteristic signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism (in six patients) and chronic thyroiditis (in two patients) were present at the outset but were not identified. Intensive questioning and alertness were required to elicit these characteristics. The symptoms improved or disappeared after the true disease was controlled. In the studies of these cases, the usefulness of a number of laboratory tests was illustrated—thyroid suppression studies, 4 to 6-hour and 24-hour radioactive iodine uptake, T3 uptake by the red cells and determinations of 24-hour urine creatine, antithyroglobulin antibody titer and long-acting thyroid stimulating hormone. The manifestations of thyroid diseases are many and varied. The term “masked hyperthyroidism” may in part be a reflection of the “masked physician” unless he uses his clinical detective abilities. PMID:14347981

  9. Identification of Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies and Clinical Thyroid Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Medici (Marco); E. Porcu (Eleonora); G. Pistis (Giorgio); A. Teumer (Alexander); S.J. Brown (Stephen); R.A. Jensen (Richard); R. Rawal (R.); G.L. Roef (Greet); T.S. Plantinga (Theo S.); S.H.H.M. Vermeulen (Sita); J. Lahti (Jari); M.C. Simmonds (Mark); L.L.N. Husemoen (Lise Lotte); R.M. Freathy (Rachel); B.M. Shields (Beverley); D. Pietzner (Diana); R. Nagy (Rebecca); L. Broer (Linda); L. Chaker (Layal); T.I.M. Korevaar (Tim); M.G. Plia (Maria Grazia); C. Sala (Cinzia); U. Völker (Uwe); J.B. Richards (Brent); F.C. Sweep (Fred); C. Gieger (Christian); T. Corre (Tanguy); E. Kajantie (Eero); L. Thuesen (Leif); Y.E. Taes (Youri); W.E. Visser (Wil Edward); A.T. Hattersley (Andrew); J. Kratzsch (Jürgen); A. Hamilton (Amy); W. Li (Wei); G. Homuth (Georg); M. Lobina (Monia); S. Mariotti (Stefano); N. Soranzo (Nicole); M. Cocca (Massimiliano); M. Nauck (Matthias); C. Spielhagen (Christin); H.A. Ross (Alec); A.M. Arnold (Alice); M. van de Bunt (Martijn); S. Liyanarachchi (Sandya); M. Heier (Margit); H.J. Grabe (Hans Jörgen); C. Masciullo (Corrado); T.E. Galesloot (Tessel); E.M. Lim (Ee Mun); G. Reischl (Gunilla); P.J. Leedman (Peter); S. Lai (Sandra); A. Delitala (Alessandro); A. Bremner (Alexandra); D.I.W. Philips (David I.); J.P. Beilby (John); A. Mulas (Antonella); M. Vocale (Matteo); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); T. Forsen (Tom); A. James (Alan); E. Widen (Elisabeth); J. Hui (Jennie); H. Prokisch (Holger); E.E. Rietzschel (Ernst); A. Palotie (Aarno); W. Feddema (Wouter); S.J. Fletcher (Stephen); K. Schramm (Katharina); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); A. Kluttig (Alexander); D. Radke (Dörte); M. Traglia (Michela); G. Surdulescu (Gabriela); H. He (Hao); J.A. Franklyn (Jayne); D. Tiller (Daniel); B. Vaidya (Bijay); T. Meyer (Thorsten); T. Jorgensen (Torben); K. Hagen (Knut); P.C. O'Leary (Peter); E. Wichmann (Eric); A.R.M.M. Hermus (Ad); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); T. Ittermann (Till); A. Hofman (Albert); E. Bosi (Emanuele); D. Schlessinger (David); H. Wallaschofski (Henri); N. Pirastu (Nicola); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); A. de la Chapelle (Albert); R.T. Netea-Maier (Romana ); J.E. Gough (Julie); H. Meyer zu Schwabedissen (Henriette); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); J.-M. Kaufman (Jean-Marc); A. Linneberg (Allan); K. Räikkönen (Katri); J.W.A. Smit (Jan); L.A.L.M. Kiemeney (Bart); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); J.P. Walsh (John); C. Meisinger (Christa); M. den Heijer (Martin); T.J. Visser (Theo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); S.G. Wilson (Scott); H. Völzke (Henry); A.R. Cappola (Anne); D. Toniolo (Daniela); S. Sanna (Serena); S. Naitza (Silvia); R.P. Peeters (Robin)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractAutoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves'

  10. Thyroid storm: an updated review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiha, Maguy; Samarasinghe, Shanika; Kabaker, Adam S

    2015-03-01

    Thyroid storm, an endocrine emergency first described in 1926, remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. No laboratory abnormalities are specific to thyroid storm, and the available scoring system is based on the clinical criteria. The exact mechanisms underlying the development of thyroid storm from uncomplicated hyperthyroidism are not well understood. A heightened response to thyroid hormone is often incriminated along with increased or abrupt availability of free hormones. Patients exhibit exaggerated signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism and varying degrees of organ decompensation. Treatment should be initiated promptly targeting all steps of thyroid hormone formation, release, and action. Patients who fail medical therapy should be treated with therapeutic plasma exchange or thyroidectomy. The mortality of thyroid storm is currently reported at 10%. Patients who have survived thyroid storm should receive definite therapy for their underlying hyperthyroidism to avoid any recurrence of this potentially fatal condition. © The Author(s) 2013.

  11. Iodine deficiency and thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Michael B; Boelaert, Kristien

    2015-04-01

    Iodine deficiency early in life impairs cognition and growth, but iodine status is also a key determinant of thyroid disorders in adults. Severe iodine deficiency causes goitre and hypothyroidism because, despite an increase in thyroid activity to maximise iodine uptake and recycling in this setting, iodine concentrations are still too low to enable production of thyroid hormone. In mild-to-moderate iodine deficiency, increased thyroid activity can compensate for low iodine intake and maintain euthyroidism in most individuals, but at a price: chronic thyroid stimulation results in an increase in the prevalence of toxic nodular goitre and hyperthyroidism in populations. This high prevalence of nodular autonomy usually results in a further increase in the prevalence of hyperthyroidism if iodine intake is subsequently increased by salt iodisation. However, this increase is transient because iodine sufficiency normalises thyroid activity which, in the long term, reduces nodular autonomy. Increased iodine intake in an iodine-deficient population is associated with a small increase in the prevalence of subclinical hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity; whether these increases are also transient is unclear. Variations in population iodine intake do not affect risk for Graves' disease or thyroid cancer, but correction of iodine deficiency might shift thyroid cancer subtypes toward less malignant forms. Thus, optimisation of population iodine intake is an important component of preventive health care to reduce the prevalence of thyroid disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Alternative approaches in thyroid surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, E; Wächter, S; Bartsch, D K

    2017-08-01

    In thyroid surgery multiple different cervical minimally invasive (partly endoscopically assisted) and extracervical endoscopic (partly robot-assisted) approaches have been developed in the last 20 years. The aim of all these alternative approaches to the thyroid gland is optimization of the cosmetic result. The indications for the use of alternative and conventional approaches are principally the same. Important requirements for the use of alternative methods are nevertheless a broad experience in conventional thyroid operations of the thyroid and adequate patient selection under consideration of the size of the thyroid and the underlying pathology. Contraindications for the use of alternative approaches are a large size of the thyroid gland including local symptoms, advanced carcinomas, reoperations and previous radiations of the anterior neck. The current article gives an overview of the clinically implemented alternative approaches for thyroid surgery. Of those the majority must still be considered as experimental. The alternative approaches to the thyroid gland can be divided in cervical minimally invasive, extracervical endosopic (robot-assisted) and transoral operations (natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, NOTES). Since conventional thyroid operations are standardized procedures with low complication rates, alternative approaches to the thyroid gland are considered critically in Germany. The request for a perfect cosmetic result should not overweigh patients' safety. Only a few alternative approaches (e. g. MIVAT, RAT) can yet be considered as a safe addition in experienced hands in highly selected patients.

  13. Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo–larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Winson K.; Chan, King Ming

    2012-01-01

    We performed waterborne exposures of 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) or bisphenol A (BPA) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo–larvae and quantitatively measured the expression of genes belonging to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to assess for adverse thyroid function. For analysis on the effects of BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes, zebrafish embryo–larvae were acutely exposed to lethal concentrations of the chemical agents in order to determine the 96 h-LC50 (96 h lethal median concentration) and 96 h-EC50 (96 h effective median concentration) values. Further exposures at sub-lethal concentrations were then carried out and total RNA samples were extracted to quantify the mRNA expression levels of the genes of interest. In larvae, BDE-47 was found to have significantly induced many genes of interest, namely thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, thyroid receptors α and β, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin. TBBPA only significantly induced three genes of interest (thyroid receptor α, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin) while BPA only induced thyroid stimulating hormone. In embryos, BDE-47 significantly induced the sodium iodide symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone. TBBPA significantly induced thyroid receptor α and thyroid stimulating hormone, while BPA did not significantly induce any of the genes. Most genes were only induced at the 75% 96 h-LC50 or 96 h-EC50 value; however, thyroid peroxidase and thyroid stimulating hormone demonstrated upregulation in a level as little as the 10% 96 h-LC50 value. The present study provides a new set of data on zebrafish mRNA induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes from exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA, or BPA. This information would serve useful for elucidating the toxicological mechanism of brominated flame retardants, assessing appropriate safety levels in the environment for these compounds, as well

  14. Disruption of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis in zebrafish embryo-larvae following waterborne exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Winson K. [Biochemistry Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Chan, King Ming, E-mail: kingchan@cuhk.edu.hk [Biochemistry Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Environmental Science Program, School of Life Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Sha Tin, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2012-02-15

    We performed waterborne exposures of 2,2 Prime ,4,4 Prime -tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA) or bisphenol A (BPA) on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo-larvae and quantitatively measured the expression of genes belonging to the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis to assess for adverse thyroid function. For analysis on the effects of BDE-47, TBBPA and BPA on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes, zebrafish embryo-larvae were acutely exposed to lethal concentrations of the chemical agents in order to determine the 96 h-LC50 (96 h lethal median concentration) and 96 h-EC50 (96 h effective median concentration) values. Further exposures at sub-lethal concentrations were then carried out and total RNA samples were extracted to quantify the mRNA expression levels of the genes of interest. In larvae, BDE-47 was found to have significantly induced many genes of interest, namely thyroglobulin, thyroid peroxidase, thyroid receptors {alpha} and {beta}, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin. TBBPA only significantly induced three genes of interest (thyroid receptor {alpha}, thyroid stimulating hormone, and transthyretin) while BPA only induced thyroid stimulating hormone. In embryos, BDE-47 significantly induced the sodium iodide symporter and thyroid stimulating hormone. TBBPA significantly induced thyroid receptor {alpha} and thyroid stimulating hormone, while BPA did not significantly induce any of the genes. Most genes were only induced at the 75% 96 h-LC50 or 96 h-EC50 value; however, thyroid peroxidase and thyroid stimulating hormone demonstrated upregulation in a level as little as the 10% 96 h-LC50 value. The present study provides a new set of data on zebrafish mRNA induction of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid genes from exposure to BDE-47, TBBPA, or BPA. This information would serve useful for elucidating the toxicological mechanism of brominated flame retardants, assessing appropriate safety levels in the environment for

  15. [Diagnosis and treatment of congenital fourth branchial anomaly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang-si; Zhang, Si-yi; Luo, Xiao-ning; Song, Xin-han; Zhan, Jian-dong; Chen, Shao-hua; Lu, Zhong-ming

    2010-10-01

    To discuss the anatomic features, clinical presentations, diagnosis, differentiations and treatments of congenital fourth branchial anomaly(CFBA). The clinical data of 8 patients with CFBA were retrospectively analyzed. Of the 8 patients aging from 27 to 300 months (median age: 114 months), 4 male and 4 female; 3 untreated previously and 5 recurrent. All lesions, including 1 cyst, 3 sinus (with internal opening) and 4 fistula, located in the left necks. Three patients presented acute suppurative thyroiditis, 4 deep neck abscesses, and 1 neck lump. Preoperative examinations included barium esophagogram, direct laryngoscopy, ultrasonography, CT, MRI, and so on. The principles of managements were adequate drainage, infection control during acute period and radical surgery during quiescent period. Classic surgical approach consisted of complete excision of branchial lesions, dissection of recurrent laryngeal nerve and partial thyroidectomy. Selective neck dissection was applied in recurrent cases to extirpate branchial lesions, scarrings and inflammatory granuloma. Postoperatively, 1 case was with local incision infection which healed by wound care; 1 case was with temporary vocal cord paralysis which completely recovered 1 month after operation. No recurrence was found in all of 8 cases with follow-up of 13 to 42 months (median: 21 months). CFBA relates closely anatomically with recurrent laryngeal nerve and thyroid grand. The barium esophagogram and direct laryngoscopy are the most useful diagnostic tools. CT and MRI are all beneficial to the diagnosis of CFBA. The treatment key to CFBA is the complete excision of lesion during a quiescent period after inflammatory control, together with the dissection of recurrent laryngeal nerve, partial thyroidectomy and partial resection of lamina of thyroid cartilage (if necessary), which all can decrease the risk of complications and recurrence. For recurrent cases, selective neck dissection is a safe and effective surgical

  16. Emerging therapies for thyroid carcinoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, S

    2012-02-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is the most commonly diagnosed endocrine malignancy. Its incidence is currently rising worldwide. The discovery of genetic mutations associated with the development of thyroid cancer, such as BRAF and RET, has lead to the development of new drugs which target the pathways which they influence. Despite recent advances, the prognosis of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma is still unfavourable. In this review we look at emerging novel therapies for the treatment of well-differentiated and medullary thyroid carcinoma, and advances and future directions in the management of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma.

  17. Solitary extramedullary plasmacytomas of thyroid in Hashimoto's thyroiditis: Mimicking benign cystic nodule on ultrasonography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Yohan; Kim, Soo Jin; Hur, Joon Ho; Park, Sung Hee; Lee, Sun Jin; Lee, Tae Jin [Chung-Ang University Hospital, Chung-Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Solitary extramedullary plasmacytoma (SEP) of the thyroid is uncommon and mostly occur in patients with a Hashimoto's thyroiditis (82%). We present a case on SEP of thyroid in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, which mimics growing benign cystic masses on serial ultrasonography.

  18. Management of hyperfunctioning single thyroid nodules in the era of minimally invasive thyroid surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Charles; Sidhu, Stan; Sywak, Mark; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-05-01

    Both surgical excision and radioiodine ablation are effective modalities in the management of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. Minimally invasive thyroid surgery (MITS) using the lateral mini-incision approach has previously been demonstrated to be a safe and effective technique for thyroid lobectomy. As such MITS may offer advantages as a surgical approach to hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules without the need for a long cervical incision or extensive dissection associated with formal open hemithyroidectomy. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of MITS for the treatment of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules. This is a retrospective case study. Data were obtained from the University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit Database from 2002 to 2007. There were 86 cases of hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules surgically removed during the study period, of which 10 (12%) were managed using the MITS approach. The ipsilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve was identified and preserved in all cases with no incidence of temporary or permanent nerve palsy. The external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve was visualized and preserved in eight cases (80%). There were no cases of postoperative bleeding. There was one clinically significant follicular thyroid carcinoma in the series (10%). In nine of 10 cases (90%) normalization of thyroid function followed surgery. MITS is a safe and effective procedure, achieving the benefits of a minimally invasive procedure with minimal morbidity. As such it now presents an attractive alternative to radioiodine ablation for the management of small hyperfunctioning thyroid nodules.

  19. 355 Ocular Muscles Myopathy Associated with Autoimmune Thyroiditis. Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Camaño, Eugenia; Castrejon-Vázquez, Isabel; Plazola-Hernández, Sara I.; Moguel-Ancheita, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Background Thyroid-associated orbitopathy is commonly associated with Graves' disease with lid retraction, exophthalmos, and periorbital swelling, but rarely with autoimmune thyroiditis or euthyroid state. We reviewed 3 cases from our hospital whose antibodies to anti-receptor of TSH were normal. Methods Case 1: 60 year-old non-diabetic woman with bilateral glaucoma in treatment, recurrent media otitis and euthyroidism, acute onset of painless diplopia, and lid ptosis in the left eye. MRI of orbit showed increased size of the III right cranial pair and high levels of thyroid autoantibodies (Tab) anti-tiroglobulin (ATG) 115.1, anti-thyroid peroxidase (ATPO) 1751 U/mL. She started oral deflazacort 30 mg each 3 days. Sixty days later, complete remission of eye symptoms correlated with lower auto-antibodies level (ATG 19 ATPO 117). Case 2: 10 year-old girl. At age 8, she had diplopia, lid ptosis and limitations of upper gaze in the left eye. The neurological study discarded ocular myasthenia; with thyroid goitier, and hypothyrodism, she started oral levothyroxin. At age 10 with normal IRM Botulinic toxin was injected, without change. High levels of Tab were found, ATG 2723, ATPO 10.7. She started oral deflazacort 30 mg each 3 days, azathioprin 100 mg, daily. Actually, Tab levels are almost normal, but she remains with ocular alterations. Case 3: 56 year-old woman, Grave´s disease with exophtalmos in 1990, treated with I131 and immunosupression, with good outcome; obesity, hypertension and bilateral glaucoma in treatment. She suddenly presented diplopia and IV pair paresia of the right eye. A year later, ATb were found slightly elevated, ATG 100 years ATPO 227; despite prednisone 50 mg, each 3 days and azathioprin 150 mg/daily treatment, a surgical procedure was required for relieve the ocular symptoms. Results We found only 3 cases previously reported with this type of eye thyroid disease. Is important to note that awareness of this atypical form of orbitopathy

  20. Identification of novel genetic Loci associated with thyroid peroxidase antibodies and clinical thyroid disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medici, M.; Porcu, E.; Pistis, G.; Teumer, A.; Brown, S.J.; Jensen, R.A.; Rawal, R.; Roef, G.L.; Plantinga, T.S.; Vermeulen, S.; Lahti, J.; Simmonds, M.J.; Husemoen, L.L.; Freathy, R.M.; Shields, B.M.; Pietzner, D.; Nagy, R.; Broer, L.; Chaker, L.; Korevaar, T.I.; Plia, M.G.; Sala, C.; Volker, U.; Richards, J.B.; Sweep, F.C.; Gieger, C.; Corre, T.; Kajantie, E.; Thuesen, B.; Taes, Y.E.; Visser, W.E.; Hattersley, A.T.; Kratzsch, J.; Hamilton, A.; Li, W.; Homuth, G.; Lobina, M.; Mariotti, S.; Soranzo, N.; Cocca, M.; Nauck, M.; Spielhagen, C.; Ross, A.; Arnold, A.; Bunt, M. van de; Liyanarachchi, S.; Heier, M.; Grabe, H.J.; Masciullo, C.; Galesloot, T.E.; Lim, E.M.; Reischl, E.; Leedman, P.J.; Lai, S.; Delitala, A.; Bremner, A.P.; Philips, D.I.; Beilby, J.P.; Mulas, A.; Vocale, M.; Abecasis, G.; Forsen, T.; James, A.; Widen, E.; Hui, J.; Prokisch, H.; Rietzschel, E.E.; Palotie, A.; Feddema, P.; Fletcher, S.J.; Schramm, K.; Rotter, J.I.; Kluttig, A.; Radke, D.; Traglia, M.; Surdulescu, G.L.; He, H.; Franklyn, J.A.; Tiller, D.; Vaidya, B.; Meyer, T.; Jorgensen, T.; Eriksson, J.G.; O'Leary, P.C.; Wichmann, E.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Psaty, B.M.; Ittermann, T.; Hofman, A.; Bosi, E.; Schlessinger, D.; Wallaschofski, H.; Pirastu, N.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Chapelle, A. dela; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Gough, S.C.; Meyer Zu Schwabedissen, H.; Frayling, T.M.; Kaufman, J.M.; Smit, J.W.; Kiemeney, B.; et al.,

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). As the

  1. Identification of Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies and Clinical Thyroid Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medici, M.; Porcu, E.; Pistis, G.; Teumer, A.; Brown, S.J.; Jensen, R.A.; Rawal, R.; Roef, G.L.; Plantinga, T.S.; Vermeulen, S.H.; Lahti, J.; Simmonds, M.J.; Husemoen, L.L.N.; Freathy, R.M.; Shields, B.M.; Pietzner, D.; Nagy, R.; Broer, L.; Chaker, L.; Korevaar, T.I.M.; Plia, M.G.; Sala, C.; Volker, U.; Richards, J.B.; Sweep, F.C.; Gieger, C.; Corre, T.; Kajantie, E.; Thuesen, B.; Taes, Y.E.; Visser, W.E.; Hattersley, A.T.; Kratzsch, J.; Hamilton, A.; Li, W.; Homuth, G.; Lobina, M.; Mariotti, S.; Soranzo, N.; Cocca, M.; Nauck, M.; Spielhagen, C.; Ross, A.; Arnold, A.; van de Bunt, M.; Liyanarachchi, S.; Heier, M.; Grabe, H.J.; Masciullo, C.; Galesloot, T.E.; Lim, E.M.; Reischl, E.; Leedman, P.J.; Lai, S.; Delitala, A.; Bremner, A.P.; Philips, D.I.W.; Beilby, J.P.; Mulas, A.; Vocale, M.; Abecasis, G.; Forsen, T.; James, A.; Widen, E.; Hui, J.; Prokisch, H.; Rietzschel, E.E.; Palotie, A.; Feddema, P.; Fletcher, S.J.; Schramm, K.; Rotter, J.I.; Kluttig, A.; Radke, D.; Traglia, M.; Surdulescu, G.L.; He, H.L.; Franklyn, J.A.; Tiller, D.; Vaidya, B.; Meyer, T.; Jorgensen, T.; Eriksson, J.G.; O'Leary, P.C.; Wichmann, E.; Hermus, A.R.; Psaty, B.M.; Ittermann, T.; Hofman, A.; Bosi, E.; Schlessinger, D.; Wallaschofski, H.; Pirastu, N.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; de la Chapelle, A.; Netea-Maier, R.T.; Gough, S.C.L.; Meyer zu Schwabedissen, H.; Frayling, T.M.; den Heijer, M.; Naitza, S.; Peeters, R.P.

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease). As the

  2. Upon delineation of normal thyroid from diffuse goiter by terminal thumb phalanx measurement and thyroid scintiscan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoenle, R.

    1987-01-01

    In 265 euthyroid patients the terminal thumb phalanx was measured for estimation of a normal thyroid according to the WHO rules of a normal thyroid. The results show up that hitherto published values of a normal thyroid seem to be too high and should be re-evaluated. This is confirmed by comparison with thyroid scans of 28 patients who were normal by WHO criteria, as length and width of the thyroidal lobe as well as the calculated thyroid volume were below or in the lower range of the hitherto published data of a normal thyroid. For delineation of a normal thyroid the average size of the terminal thumb phalanx seems to be less valuable, as in one third of the cases there was no concordance with the WHO rule. The measurement of the terminal thumb phalanx by ruler as a reference value is simple and fast to be performed. (orig.) [de

  3. Scintigraphy in benign thyroid disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlstedt, J.

    2004-01-01

    For diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of benign thyroidal disorders thyroidal scintigraphy has to be seen in full strength in relation to thyroid hormone metabolism and regulation. Thyroidal iodine avidity can easily be assessed by TcTU ( 99m Tc-thyroid-up-take 20 min p.inj.), as the well known standard measure for the service of goiter patients. TcTU and TSH show concordance, i.e. direct correlation, when thyroid regulation is intact, however there is no correlation, i.e. discordance, in disorders such as destruction, autonomy oder immunogenic stimulation. The strategy to evaluate concordance/discordance of TcTU and TSH in outpatient routine work (''one stop shop'') is demonstrated in a variety of clinical situations being not always conform to current guide lines and recommendations. (orig.)

  4. Effect of soybean derivatives (glycine max) on thyroid of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1977-01-01

    The effect of a Brazilian variety soybean and their comercial products on thyroid gland is studied. Soybean derivatives are tested in rats through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and semichronic experiments of 16 to 29 days. The autoclaved extract administered after 6 to 24 hours decreases the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake. Semichronic experiments show that the factor found in soybean provokes both an increase or a reduction in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake, depending ou the oeriod of action [pt

  5. Environmental Issues in Thyroid Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Antonelli, Alessandro; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    Environmental factors are determinant for the appearance of autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) in susceptible subjects. Increased iodine intake, selenium, and vitamin D deficiency, exposure to radiation, from nuclear fallout or due to medical radiation, are environmental factors increasing AITD. Cigarette smoking is associated with Graves' disease and Graves' ophthalmopathy, while it decreases the risk of hypothyroidism and thyroid autoimmunity. Viral infections are important environmental factors in the pathogenesis of AITD, too, particularly human parvovirus B19 (EVB19) and hepatitis C virus. Among the many chemical contaminants, halogenated organochlorines and pesticides variably disrupt thyroid function. Polychlorinated biphenyls and their metabolites and polybrominated diethyl ethers bind to thyroid transport proteins, such as transthyretin, displace thyroxine, and disrupt thyroid function. Among drugs, interferon- and iodine-containing drugs have been associated with AITD. Moreover intestinal dysbiosis causes autoimmune thyroiditis. To reduce the risk to populations and also in each patient, it is necessary to comprehend the association between environmental agents and thyroid dysfunction.

  6. EVALUATION OF QUANTITATIVE THYROID SCINTIGRAPHY FOR DIAGNOSIS AND STAGING OF DISEASE SEVERITY IN CATS WITH HYPERTHYROIDISM: COMPARISON OF THE PERCENT THYROIDAL UPTAKE OF PERTECHNETATE TO THYROID-TO-SALIVARY RATIO AND THYROID-TO-BACKGROUND RATIOS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Mark E; Guterl, Jade N; Rishniw, Mark; Broome, Michael R

    2016-07-01

    Thyroid scintigraphy is commonly used for evaluation of cats with hyperthyroidism, with the thyroid-to-salivary ratio (T/S) being the most common method to quantify the degree of thyroid activity and disease. Calculation of thyroid-to-background ratios (T/B) or percent thyroidal uptake of (99m) TcO(-) 4 (TcTU) has only been reported in a few studies. The purpose of this prospective, cross-sectional study was to evaluate a number of quantitative scintigraphic indices as diagnostic tests for hyperthyroidism, including the T/S, three different T/B, TcTU, and estimated thyroid volume. Of 524 cats referred to our clinic for evaluation of suspected hyperthyroidism, the diagnosis was confirmed (n = 504) or excluded (n = 20) based on results of a serum thyroid panel consisting of thyroxine (T4 ), triiodothyronine (T3 ), free T4 (fT4 ), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) concentrations. In the hyperthyroid cats, median values for TcTU, T/S, and three T/B ratios were all significantly higher (P hyperthyroidism, but the T/S ratio had the highest test accuracy. The T/S ratio correlated strongly with the TcTU (r = 0.85). However, the TcTU had a higher and more significant correlation (P metabolic activity of the feline adenomatous thyroid gland. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  7. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, S.L.; McDougall, I.R. [Stanford Univ. School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Constine, L.S. [Strong Memorial Hospital, Rochester, NY (United States)

    1995-03-30

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves` disease or euthyroid Graves` ophthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity. 39 refs.

  8. Thyroid abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, Steven L.; McDougall, I. Ross; Constine, Louis S.

    1995-01-01

    The thyroid gland is the largest pure endocrine gland in the body and one of the organs most likely to produce clinically significant abnormalities after therapeutic external radiation. Radiation doses to the thyroid that exceed approximately 26 Gy frequently produce hypothyroidism, which may be clinically overt or subclinical, as manifested by increased serum thyrotropin and normal serum-free thyroxine concentrations. Pituitary or hypothalamic hypothyroidism may arise when the pituitary region receives doses exceeding 50 Gy with conventional, 1.8-2 Gy fractionation. Direct irradiation of the thyroid may increase the risk of Graves' disease or euthyroid Graves' opthalmopathy. Silent thyroiditis, cystic degeneration, benign adenoma, and thyroid cancer have been observed after therapeutically relevant doses of external radiation. Direct or incidental thyroid irradiation increases the risk for well-differentiated, papillary, and follicular thyroid cancer from 15- to 53-fold. Thyroid cancer risk is highest following radiation at a young age, decreases with increasing age at treatment, and increases with follow-up duration. The potentially prolonged latent period between radiation exposure and the development of thyroid dysfunction, thyroid nodularity, and thyroid cancer means that individuals who have received neck or pituitary irradiation require careful, periodic clinical and laboratory evaluation to avoid excess morbidity

  9. Thyroid Hormone Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... THYROID HORMONES? Desiccated ( dried and powdered ) animal thyroid ( Armour ®), now mainly obtained from pigs, was the most ... hormone can increase the risk or heart rhythm problems and bone loss making the use of thyroxine ...

  10. Thyroid function and thyroid antibodies in recurrent miscarriage women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahran, A. B. H.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine thyroid status in recurrent miscarriage Sudanese women and to determine the association between thyroid antibodies and miscarriage. The study included patients attending obstetrics and gynecology unit at Khartoum teaching hospital and Omdurman New hospital since June 2008 to Jan 2009, these patients were complaining of vaginal bleeding. Sixty, apparently healthy pregnant women with history of unexplained recurrent miscarriages during the first trimester, their ages ranged between 20 and 45 years were selected as target group. Forty healthy, normal pregnant women of the same gestational age and known to reach term and had healthy labor, patients with age ranged between 17 and 41 years were selected from (SAEC), referral clinic center at Khartoum Teaching and Omdurman New Hospitals as control group. The two groups were physically examined and their thyroid glands were seen by the physician. Questionnaires were completed for all the subjects. Patients with metabolic or endocrinologic disorders, genital organ anamoly, uterine myoma, mal nourishment or exposed to toxic substances were excluded from the study. Five ml of venous blood samples were collected from the target and control subjects. Thyroid function test and thyroid antibodies (TT 4 , TT 3 , FT 4 , FT 3 , TSH, TPO-Ab and Tg-Ab) were measured for the two groups (target and control ) using RIA technique. The results of this study showed that there was a significant decrease decrease in the concentrations of thyroid hormones (TT 4 and TT 3 ) in the target group (p-value = 0.0001 and 0.004 respectively) compared with the control group. Moreover, there was a significant elevation in the concentration of TSH in the target group (p- value = 0.0001). The free T-4 concentration was lower but not significant in the target group (p-value=0.075), FT 3 level was similar in both groups (p-value = 0.591). The presence of abnormal high concentrations of TT 4 in control and target groups

  11. Functional insulin receptors are overexpressed in thyroid tumors: is this an early event in thyroid tumorigenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frittitta, L; Sciacca, L; Catalfamo, R; Ippolito, A; Gangemi, P; Pezzino, V; Filetti, S; Vigneri, R

    1999-01-15

    Insulin receptor (IR), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family, is expressed in normal thyroid cells and affects thyroid cell proliferation and differentiation. The authors measured IR content in benign and malignant thyroid tumors by three independent methods: a specific radioimmunoassay, 125I-insulin binding studies, and immunohistochemistry. The results obtained were compared with the IR content in paired, adjacent, normal thyroid tissue. To assess IR function in thyroid carcinoma cells, glucose uptake responsiveness to insulin was also studied in a human transformed thyroid cell line (B-CPAP) and in follicular carcinoma cells in primary culture. In 9 toxic adenomas, the average IR content was similar to that observed in the 9 paired normal thyroid tissue specimens from the same patients (2.2+/-0.3 vs. 2.1+/-0.3). In 13 benign nonfunctioning, or "cold," adenomas, the average IR content was significantly higher (P thyroid tissue (4.0+/-0.4 vs. 1.6+/-0.2 and 5.6+/-1.0 vs. 1.8+/-0.2, respectively). The finding of a higher IR content in benign "cold" adenomas and in thyroid carcinomas was confirmed by both binding and immunostaining studies. The current studies indicate that 1) IR content is elevated in most follicular and papillary differentiated thyroid carcinomas, and 2) IR content is also elevated in most benign follicular adenomas ("cold" nodules) but not in highly differentiated, hyperfunctioning follicular adenomas ("hot" nodules), which very rarely become malignant. This observation suggests that increased IR expression is not restricted to the thyroid malignant phenotype but is already present in the premalignant "cold" adenomas. It may contribute, therefore, to thyroid tumorigenesis and/or represent an early event that gives a selective growth advantage to transformed thyroid cells.

  12. Thyroid Ultrasonography in Differentiation between Graves' Disease and Hashimoto's Thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishdad, P; Pishdad, G R; Tavanaa, S; Pishdad, R; Jalli, R

    2017-03-01

    Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis are the most common causes of hyper and hypothyroidism, respectively. Differentiation of these 2 diseases, if the patient is euthyroid, may sometimes be extremely difficult on the basis of clinical and laboratory findings. The purpose of this study was to determine the sensitivity and specificity of gray scale sonography in differentiation of Graves' disease from Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This study included 149 patients divided into three groups, patients with Graves' disease (34 patients, mean age = 36.8 ± 10.17 years), Patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (62 patients, mean age = 33.4 ± 12.16 years) and control group (53 healthy people, mean age = 34.74 ± 16.87 years). Members of all groups were referred to a single radiologist for thyroid sonography for evaluation of thyroid echogenicity pattern. A total of 117 women and 32 men were examined by sonography. The most common sonographic pattern in Hashimoto and Graves' was homogenous hypo-echogenicity which was observed in 45.2% and 47.1% of cases, respectively. Peripheral hypo-echogenicity pattern was seen in 40.3% of Hashimoto's group with 100% specificity and 40.3% sensitivity. Central-hypoechogenic pattern was observed in 17.6% of Graves' group with 100% and 17.6% specificity and sensitivity, respectively. Our findings indicate that sonography has high specificity but low sensitivity in the diagnosis of either Graves' disease or Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is therefore not possible to differentiate between these two diseases using sonography alone. Confirmation by laboratory data is also needed.

  13. Amiodarone: Effects on thyroid function and the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braverman, L.E.; Safran, M.; Bambini, G.; Pinchera, A.; Martino, E.

    1985-01-01

    In addition to the effects of Amiodarone on the peripheral metabolism of the thyroid hormones and on pituitary TSH secretion, a major complication of therapy is the relatively high frequency of iodide-induced thyroid dysfunction. The mean T 4 and T 3 concentration following Amiodarone application was measured in euthyroid, hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients and in control patients with and without cardiac disorders. Furthermore, the serum TSH was determined in euthyroid Amiodarone-treated euthyroid patients. 131 I uptake was studied in patients with Amiodarone-associated thyrotoxicosis. The difficulties of the therapy of Amiodarone-induced hyper-thyroidism are outlined. Preliminary studied of the effect of Amiodarone and its analogues on the metabolism of thyroid hormones in the rat indicate that Amiodarone may act as a thyroid hormone agonist in the pituitary. (MG)

  14. Cabozantinib (thyroid cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is used to treat a certain type of thyroid cancer that is getting worse and that has spread ... only gives information about cabozantinib capsules (Cometriq) for thyroid cancer. If you are using this medication for advanced ...

  15. Thyroid Disease in the Older Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment with radioactive iodine together. There is some controversy about what the normal level of TSH is ... VA 22041 thyroid@thyroid.org Contact Form Legal Privacy | Terms of Use AMERICAN THYROID ASSOCIATION ® , ATA ® , THYROID ® , ...

  16. Long-term Tympanic Membrane Pathology Dynamics and Spontaneous Healing in Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ramon Gordon; Koch, Anders; Homøe, Preben

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: Children in the developing parts of the world have a high prevalence of chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM). It is estimated that 65 to 330 million people worldwide have CSOM, yet very little is known about the natural course of the disease. The Inuit population of the Arctic......-based cohort of 591 children originally examined during 1993 to 1994 at 3 to 8 years of age. Follow-up was attempted among 348 individuals still living in the areas. Video otoscopy and tympanometry were used. Data on otologic disease, ear surgery, and antibiotic use for otitis media were collected from medical...... of spontaneous healing was not influenced by the age at which CSOM was diagnosed in the initial study. Thirty-nine individuals (17%) had CSOM in either the initial study or at follow-up. Of these, 2 had never received antibiotic treatment for otitis media, and 15 had been treated less than 3 times. Eighty...

  17. Carcinoma of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botta Zunino, L.

    1992-01-01

    Reference is made to the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodule, reaffirming the concepts of algorithm study, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures and cost-effectiveness. Stressing once again the place of cytology and the concept of selecting patients for surgery, surgical tactics in front of the thyroid nodule and the need for probate multidisciplinary study and treatment of this pathology. Briefly discusses the most controversial treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinomas, the sine qua non of the pathologist in the operating room in thyroid surgery and the value of the quantification of nuclear DNA in the diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors (Author) [es

  18. Genetics Home Reference: Hashimoto thyroiditis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Hashimoto thyroiditis Hashimoto thyroiditis Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Hashimoto thyroiditis is a condition that affects the function of ...

  19. Thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuyama, Koukichi

    1992-01-01

    There are several useful diagnostic examinations for thyroid disease. The diagnostic value of CT in thyroid disease is still controvertial, although CT has become a routine clinical examination, since the plain CT does not always identify tumors accurately. In this paper, we introduce for the first time thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT) which may improve the diagnostic value of CT. The technique combines CT with thyroid lymphography. We performed TLG-CT in 92 patients with various thyroid diseases and 20 normal controls and classified the radiological features into the following 6 types: entire (normal thyroid); moth-eaten (Hashimoto's thyroiditis); defect (follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter); lobate (papillary carcinoma); localized (various thyroid diseases); and extrathyroid defect (parathyroid tumor). In addition, we examined the relationship between TLG-CT type and the macroscopic appearance of the cut surface of the thyroid and lymph node metastasis in 20 patients with papillary carcinoma. The results suggest that papillary TLG-CT type carcinomas have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis. Our preliminary results suggest that TLG-CT is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of thyroid disease and the assessment of the pathologic diagnosis as well as lymph node metastasis. (author)

  20. Cytologic aspects of an interesting case of medullary thyroid carcinoma coexisting with Hashimoto′s thyroiditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidish K Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Among primary thyroid neoplasms, papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL are known to coexist and are pathogenetically linked with Hashimoto′s thyroiditis (HT. However, HT occurring in association with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC is rarely documented. We report here an interesting case. A 34-year-old female with a solitary thyroid nodule underwent fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC that was interpreted as "MTC with admixed reactive lymphoid cells, derived possibly from a pretracheal lymph node." Total thyroidectomy specimen showed "MTC with coexisting HT." At a later stage, a follow-up FNAC from the recurrent thyroid swelling showed features consistent with HT. As an academic exercise, the initial smears on which a diagnosis of MTC was offered were reviewed to look for evidence of coexisting HT that showed scanty and patchy aggregates of reactive lymphoid cells without Hόrthle cells. Our case highlights an unusual instance of MTC in concurrence with HT that can create a tricky situation for cytopathologists.

  1. Profile of Hashimoto's Thyroiditis in Sri Lankans: Is There an Increased Risk of Ancillary Pathologies in Hashimoto's Thyroiditis?

    OpenAIRE

    Siriweera, Eranga Himalee; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi Vajira Illangakoon

    2010-01-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis has been reported to be associated with many neoplastic and nonneoplastic thyroid pathologies. This retrospective study aims to determine the demographic profile of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Sri Lankans, document ancillary pathologies in Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and determine whether there is an increased risk of occurrence of malignancies, benign neoplasms, and nonneoplastic benign lesions in Hashimoto's thyroiditis by comparing with thyroids showing multinodular goi...

  2. [Lymph node and distant metastases of thyroid gland cancer. Metastases in the thyroid glands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, K W

    2015-11-01

    The different biological features of the various major entities of thyroid cancer, e.g. papillary, follicular, poorly differentiated, anaplastic and medullary, depend to a large extent on their different metastatic spread. Papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) has a propensity for cervical lymphatic spread that occurs in 20-50 % of patients whereas distant metastasis occurs in thyroid cancer (FTC) has a marked propensity for vascular but not lymphatic invasion and 10-20 % of FTC develop distant metastases. At the time of diagnosis approximately one third of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases show lymph node metastases, in 10-15 % distant metastases and 25 % develop metastases during the course of the disease. Poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic thyroid cancer (ATC) spread via both lymphatic and vascular invasion. Thus distant metastases are relatively uncommon in DTC and when they occur, long-term stable disease is the typical clinical course. The major sites of distant metastases are the lungs and bone. Metastases to the brain, breasts, liver, kidneys, muscle and skin are relatively rare or even rare. The thyroid gland itself can be a site of metastases from a variety of other tumors. In autopsy series of patients with disseminated cancer disease, metastases to the thyroid gland were found in up to 10 % of cases. Metastases from other primary tumors to the thyroid gland have been reported in 1.4-3 % of patients who have surgery for suspected cancer of the thyroid gland. The most common primary cancers that metastasize to the thyroid gland are renal cell (48.1 %), colorectal (10.4 %), lung (8.3 %) and breast cancer (7.8 %) and surprisingly often sarcomas (4.0 %).

  3. [Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allelein, S; Feldkamp, J; Schott, M

    2017-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases of the thyroid gland are considered to be the most frequent cause of thyroid gland disorders. Autoimmune thyroid diseases consist of two subgroups: autoimmune thyroiditis (AIT) and Graves' disease. The AIT is the most common human autoimmune disease. Infiltration of the thyroid gland with cytotoxic T‑cells can lead to an initial thyrotoxicosis und during the course to hypothyroidism due to destruction of the thyroid gland. Substitution with Levothyroxine is indicated for manifest hypothyroidism and subclinical hypothyroidism with increased thyroid antibodies with the intention of normalizing the serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Graves' disease is characterized by the appearance of stimulating TSH receptor antibodies leading to hyperthyroidism. Endocrine ophthalmopathy may also occur. Ablative therapy with radioiodine therapy or thyroidectomy is administered to patients with Graves' disease without remission after at least 1 year of antithyroid drug therapy.

  4. Relational Stability of Thyroid Hormones in Euthyroid Subjects and Patients with Autoimmune Thyroid Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoermann, Rudolf; Midgley, John E.M.; Larisch, Rolf; Dietrich, Johannes W.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim Operating far from its equilibrium resting point, the thyroid gland requires stimulation via feedback-controlled pituitary thyrotropin (TSH) secretion to maintain adequate hormone supply. We explored and defined variations in the expression of control mechanisms and physiological responses across the euthyroid reference range. Methods We analyzed the relational equilibria between thyroid parameters defining thyroid production and thyroid conversion in a group of 271 thyroid-healthy subjects and 86 untreated patients with thyroid autoimmune disease. Results In the euthyroid controls, the FT3-FT4 (free triiodothyronine-free thyroxine) ratio was strongly associated with the FT4-TSH ratio (tau = −0.22, p < 0.001, even after correcting for spurious correlation), linking T4 to T3 conversion with TSH-standardized T4 production. Using a homeostatic model, we estimated both global deiodinase activity and maximum thyroid capacity. Both parameters were nonlinearly and inversely associated, trending in opposite directions across the euthyroid reference range. Within the panel of controls, the subgroup with a relatively lower thyroid capacity (<2.5 pmol/s) displayed lower FT4 levels, but maintained FT3 at the same concentrations as patients with higher functional and anatomical capacity. The relationships were preserved when extended to the subclinical range in the diseased sample. Conclusion The euthyroid panel does not follow a homogeneous pattern to produce random variation among thyroid hormones and TSH, but forms a heterogeneous group that progressively displays distinctly different levels of homeostatic control across the euthyroid range. This suggests a concept of relational stability with implications for definition of euthyroidism and disease classification. PMID:27843807

  5. Find an Endocrinology - Thyroid Specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... History Resource Center Patients Thyroid Information Find an Endocrinology – Thyroid Specialist Patient Support Links Clinical Thyroidology for ... Access Thyroid Online Access Clinical Thyroidology Online Video Endocrinology Donate Give Online Research Accomplishments Ridgway Legacy Fund ...

  6. Potential relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) mutation status in papillary thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Rui-Chao; Jin, Lang-Ping; Chen, En-Dong; Dong, Si-Yang; Cai, Ye-Feng; Huang, Guan-Li; Li, Quan; Jin, Chun; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Wang, Ou-Chen

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential relationship between Hashimoto's thyroiditis and BRAF(V600E) mutation status in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). A total of 619 patients with PTC who underwent total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection were enrolled in this study. Univariable and multivariate analyses were used. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was present in 35.9% (222 of 619) of PTCs. Multivariate logistic regressions showed that BRAF(V600E) mutation, sex, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis were independent factors for Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Female sex, more frequent extrathyroidal extension, and a higher incidence of lymph node metastasis were significantly associated with PTCs accompanied by BRAF(V600E) mutation without Hashimoto's thyroiditis compared with PTCs accompanied by BRAF(V600E) mutation with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was negatively associated with BRAF(V600E) mutation, extrathyroidal extension, and lymph node metastasis. In addition, Hashimoto's thyroiditis was related to less lymph node metastasis and extrathyroidal extension in PTCs with BRAF(V600E) mutation. Therefore, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a potentially protective factor in PTC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: E1019-E1025, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Is 18F-FDG PET/CT useful for distinguishing between primary thyroid lymphoma and chronic thyroiditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadate, Masashi; Yoshida, Katsuya; Ishii, Akihiro; Koizumi, Masayuki; Tochigi, Naobumi; Suzuki, Yoshio; Ryu, Yoshiharu; Nakagawa, Tassei; Umehara, Isao; Shibuya, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    This study aims to investigate the usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for distinguishing between primary thyroid lymphoma (PTL) and chronic thyroiditis. We retrospectively reviewed the data of 196 patients with diffuse (18)F-FDG uptake of the thyroid gland and enrolled patients who were diagnosed as having PTL or chronic thyroiditis based on the medical records, pathological findings, and laboratory data. The enrolled patients comprised 10 PTL patients (M/F = 4:6) and 51 chronic thyroiditis patients (M/F = 8:43). Images had been acquired on a PET/CT scanner at 100 minutes after intravenous injection of (18)F-FDG. The PTL group consisted of 7 patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 3 with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUV(max)) was significantly higher in the PTL group than that in the chronic thyroiditis group (25.3 ± 8.0 and 7.4 ± 3.2, P thyroiditis group (46.1 ± 7.0 HU and 62.1 ± 6.9 HU, P thyroiditis. Thus, (18)F-FDG PET/CT may be useful for distinguishing between PTL and chronic thyroiditis.

  8. Increased 18F-FDG uptake mimicking thyroid cancer in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmid, Daniel T.; Kneifel, Stefan; Merrill, Griff; Goerres, Gerhard W.; Stoeckli, Sandro J.; Padberg, Barbara-C.

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old patient with a known paravertebral malignant schwannoma, sent to us for postoperative staging. A combined whole-body PET/CT scan showed only poor 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the region of the primary tumor but distinct increased fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left and right thyroid gland. Thyroid sonography showed two hypoechogenic nodules. Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy of one nodule showed oxyphil transformed cells, compatible with malignancy. Based on these findings, the patient underwent a subtotal thyroidectomy. Histopathology of the specimen revealed a chronic follicular Hashimoto's thyroiditis. This case demonstrates that Hashimoto's thyroiditis can mimic thyroid cancer in PET but also in sonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy. (orig.)

  9. Incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and solitary cold nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, R.A.; Calandra, D.B.; McCall, A.; Shah, K.H.; Lawrence, A.M.; Paloyan, E.

    1985-01-01

    The reported incidence of thyroid carcinoma in Hashimoto's thyroiditis varies widely. For this reason the specific subpopulation of patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a solitary cold nodule was analyzed. Between 1972 and 1984 we operated on 146 consecutive patients with solitary cold nodules and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. There were 47 carcinomas, for an incidence of 32%. The mean age of the 146 patients was 43 1/2 years (median 44 years), with 126 females and 20 males. There was a history of prior head and neck radiation exposure in 54 patients, with a 33% incidence of thyroid carcinoma. The 92 patients without a history of radiation exposure had a 31.5% incidence of carcinoma. The frequency of multicentricity (bilateralism) was 33% in the group that underwent radiation and 24% in the group that did not. To date, with a mean follow-up of 4.7 years, there have been no deaths and no evidence of recurrence. In conclusion, we report a 32% incidence of thyroid carcinoma in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and a solitary cold nodule, with no apparent difference between the patients with or without a history of radiation exposure, although there was a higher incidence of bilateralism (33% versus 24%) in the carcinomas of the patients with a history of head and neck irradiation. We suggest that the operative management of these patients is total thyroidectomy for those with a history of head and neck radiation and thyroid lobectomy for patients with no history of radiation, followed by contralateral lobectomy if a carcinoma is demonstrated

  10. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  11. Severe rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure in an adolescent with hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comak, Elif; Koyun, Mustafa; Kiliçarslan-Akkaya, Bahar; Bircan, Iffet; Akman, Sema

    2011-01-01

    Hypothyroidism has been reported rarely as the cause of rhabdomyolysis in adults and children. We present here a non-compliant adolescent with a diagnosis of hypothyroidism who developed rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure with no additional predisposing factor. A 13-year-old girl with a previous history of hypothyroidism due to thyroid hypoplasia presented with generalized myalgia, malaise, vomiting, and oliguria lasting for three days. Neurological examination revealed bilateral marked weakness and tenderness of muscles of both lower and upper extremities. Urine had bloody appearance and urine analysis showed blood reaction with dipstick test, but there were no erythrocytes on microscopic examination. Serum creatine phosphokinase and myoglobin levels were elevated. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels were high, and free thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels were low, compatible with uncontrolled hypothyroidism. Renal function tests showed acute renal failure. Other causes of rhabdomyolysis such as muscular trauma, drugs, toxins, infections, vigorous exercise, and electrolyte abnormalities were excluded. Hemodialysis was administered for 24 sessions. After L-thyroxine therapy, thyroid function tests normalized, muscle strength improved, serum muscle enzyme levels returned to normal levels, and renal function tests recovered. One must be aware that rhabdomyolysis may develop in a non-compliant patient with hypothyroidism.

  12. American Thyroid Association Statement on Remote-Access Thyroid Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berber, Eren; Bernet, Victor; Fahey, Thomas J; Kebebew, Electron; Shaha, Ashok; Stack, Brendan C; Stang, Michael; Steward, David L; Terris, David J

    2016-03-01

    Remote-access techniques have been described over the recent years as a method of removing the thyroid gland without an incision in the neck. However, there is confusion related to the number of techniques available and the ideal patient selection criteria for a given technique. The aims of this review were to develop a simple classification of these approaches, describe the optimal patient selection criteria, evaluate the outcomes objectively, and define the barriers to adoption. A review of the literature was performed to identify the described techniques. A simple classification was developed. Technical details, outcomes, and the learning curve were described. Expert opinion consensus was formulated regarding recommendations for patient selection and performance of remote-access thyroid surgery. Remote-access thyroid procedures can be categorized into endoscopic or robotic breast, bilateral axillo-breast, axillary, and facelift approaches. The experience in the United States involves the latter two techniques. The limited data in the literature suggest long operative times, a steep learning curve, and higher costs with remote-access thyroid surgery compared with conventional thyroidectomy. Nevertheless, a consensus was reached that, in appropriate hands, it can be a viable option for patients with unilateral small nodules who wish to avoid a neck incision. Remote-access thyroidectomy has a role in a small group of patients who fit strict selection criteria. These approaches require an additional level of expertise, and therefore should be done by surgeons performing a high volume of thyroid and robotic surgery.

  13. Low Serum Vitamin D Is Associated with Anti-Thyroid Peroxidase Antibody in Autoimmune Thyroiditis

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Dong Yeob; Kim, Kwang Joon; Kim, Daham; Hwang, Sena; Lee, Eun Jig

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The association between autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITDs) and vitamin D deficiency is controversial. We aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] and anti-thyroid antibody levels. Materials and Methods 25(OH)D3, anti-thyroid antibodies, and thyroid function measured in 304 patients who visited the endocrinology clinic were analyzed. The patients were subgrouped into the AITDs or non-AITDs category according to the presence or absence of anti-t...

  14. Thyroid hormone signaling in the hypothalamus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alkemade, Anneke; Visser, Theo J.; Fliers, Eric

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Proper thyroid hormone signaling is essential for brain development and adult brain function. Signaling can be disrupted at many levels due to altered thyroid hormone secretion, conversion or thyroid hormone receptor binding. RECENT FINDINGS: Mutated genes involved in thyroid

  15. 'Focal thyroid inferno' on color Doppler ultrasonography: A specific feature of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Xianshui, E-mail: fuxs1968@163.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Guo, Limei, E-mail: guolimei@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Pathology, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Zhang, Huabin, E-mail: huabinzhang@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Ran, Weiqiang, E-mail: ranwq-sina@vip.sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Fu, Peng, E-mail: fupeng01@gmail.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Zhiqiang, E-mail: lizhq126@126.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Chen, Wen, E-mail: wendy7989@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jiang, Ling, E-mail: papayaling@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Jinrui, E-mail: jinrui_wang@sina.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China); Jia, Jianwen, E-mail: drjia88@sohu.com [Department of Ultrasound, Peking University Third Hospital, 49 Huayuanbeilu Road, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate color-Doppler features predictive of focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Materials and methods: A total of 521 patients with 561 thyroid nodules that underwent surgeries or gun biopsies were included in this study. These nodules were divided into three groups: focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (104 nodules in 101 patients), benignity other than focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis (73 nodules in 70 patients), and malignancy (358 nodules in 350 patients). On color Doppler sonography, four vascularity types were determined as: hypovascularity, marked internal flow, marked peripheral flow and focal thyroid inferno. The {chi}{sup 2} test was performed to seek the potential vascularity type with the predictive ability of certain thyroid pathology. Furthermore, the gray-scale features of each nodule were also studied. Results: The vascularity type I (hypovascularity) was more often seen in focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis than other benignity and malignancy (46% vs. 20.5% and 19%). While the type II (marked internal flow) showed the opposite tendency (26.9% [focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis] vs. 45.2% [other benignity] and 52.8% [malignancy]). However, type III (marked peripheral flow) was unable to predict any thyroid pathology. Importantly, type IV (focal thyroid inferno) was exclusive to focal Hashimoto's thyroiditis. All 8 type IV nodules appeared to be solid, hypoechoic, and well-defined. Using 'focal thyroid inferno' as an indicator of FHT, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 7.7% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The vascularity type of 'focal thyroid inferno' is specific for focal Hashimoto thyroiditis. Recognition of this particular feature may avoid unnecessary interventional procedures for some solid hypoechoic thyroid nodules suspicious of malignancy.

  16. HASHIMOTO THYROIDITIS AND VESTIBULAR DYSFUNCTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarella, Giuseppe; Russo, Diego; Monzani, Fabio; Petrolo, Claudio; Fattori, Bruno; Pasqualetti, Giuseppe; Cassandro, Ettore; Costante, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this review was to analyze the existing literature concerning the relationship between Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT) and vestibular dysfunction. We used electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library) to search and collect all published articles about the association between HT and vestibular disorders. Several observational and retrospective studies have postulated a relationship between thyroid autoimmunity and vestibular disorders. In most cases, an appropriate control group was lacking, and the impact of thyroid functional status could not precisely be established. In recent years, two well-designed prospective studies have provided convincing evidence that the association is not random. One article reported that patients with Ménière disease (MD) had a significantly higher prevalence of positive anti-thyroid autoantibody as compared to healthy controls. Moreover, more than half of MD patients had either positive anti-thyroid or non-organ-specific autoantibody titers, compared to less than 30% of both patients with unilateral vestibular paresis without cochlear involvement and healthy controls. Another study found that patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) had significantly higher serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and antithyroid autoantibody levels than healthy controls. Additionally, almost one-fifth of euthyroid patients with HT had signs of BPPV. The published results indicate that patients with MD or BPPV are potential candidates to also develop HT. Thus, in HT patients, the presence of even slight symptoms or signs potentially related to vestibular lesions should be carefully investigated. AITD = autoimmune thyroid disease; BPPV = benign paroxysmal positional vertigo; EH = endolymphatic hydrops; HT = Hashimoto thyroiditis; L-T 4 = L-thyroxine; MD = Ménière disease; PS = Pendred syndrome; Tg = thyroglobulin; TPO = thyroid peroxidase; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.

  17. Effect of the ingestion of soybeans derivatives (Glycine max) on rat thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filisetti, T.M.C.C.

    1978-01-01

    Soybean derivatives were tested in rat through acute experiments of 3 to 24 hours and two semichronic experiments of 16 and 29 days. The acute essay were realized with Total Extract (TEs) obtained from Defated Soybean Flour by precipitation in an aqueous medium and posteriorly in acetone. The percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake by 100 gr. of rat was decreased by the Total Autoclaved Extract administered by gastric tube after 6 and 24 hours. The Total Extract, without previous autoclaving showed effect on the gland after 6 hours and lost its activity 24 hours after its administration. TEs obtained from Comercial Soybean Products as: Proteic Concentrate, Tosted Flour and Milk also provoked a decrease in percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake after 24 hours by 100 gr. of rat. The semichronic experiments were realized with Soybean fraction products, which were incorporated to experimental diet. The first of 16 days, showed a reduction in percentage of iodide ( 131 I) uptake by 10mg of thyroid and an increase of the triiodothyronine-binding capacity of rat serm. In the second of 29 days an increase was observed in the percentage of iodine ( 131 I) uptake by 10mg of thyroid, caused by the factor in study and no alteration of seric hormones. The thyroid hormones and their precursors were also assayed and an increase of monoiodotyrosine (MIT), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) was noted, as well as a decrease of diiodotyrosine (DIT) and inorganic iodine. An increase in the MIT/DIT ratio and decrease in T 3 /T 4 ratio, were observed. In preliminary physicochemical tests, the fraction sephadex G-25 showed a positive reaction for ninhidrin, Molish and flavenoids [pt

  18. Identification of Novel Genetic Loci Associated with Thyroid Peroxidase Antibodies and Clinical Thyroid Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Medici, Marco; Porcu, Eleonora; Pistis, Giorgio

    2014-01-01

    , goiter and thyroid cancer were studied. Individuals with a high genetic risk score had, besides an increased risk of TPOAb-positivity (OR: 2.18, 95% CI 1.68-2.81, P = 8.1×10(-8)), a higher risk of increased thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (OR: 1.51, 95% CI 1.26-1.82, P = 2.9×10(-6)), as well......Autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) are common, affecting 2-5% of the general population. Individuals with positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPOAbs) have an increased risk of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Hashimoto's thyroiditis), as well as autoimmune hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease.......12-1.39, P = 6.2×10(-5)). The MAGI3 variant was also associated with an increased risk of hypothyroidism (OR: 1.57, 95% CI 1.18-2.10, P = 1.9×10(-3)). This first GWAS meta-analysis for TPOAbs identified five newly associated loci, three of which were also associated with clinical thyroid disease...

  19. Ectopic papillary thyroid carcinoma in the mediastinum without any tumoral involvement in the thyroid gland. A Case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiee, Susan; Sadrizade, Ali; Jafarian, Amirhosein; Zakavi, Seyed Rasoul; Ayati, Narjess

    2013-01-01

    Ectopic thyroid tissue results from abnormal embryologic development and migration of the thyroid gland. True malignant transformation in ectopic thyroid tissue is extremely rare and is always diagnosed after surgical excision of the lesion by pathology examinations. There are well-documented cases of ectopic thyroid cancer while primary tumoral lesion occurs in the orthotopic thyroid, but only rare cases of ectopic PTC without any evidence of occult thyroid cancer in the orthotopic thyroid or cervical lymph nodes have been reported. We report on a 39 year old woman who was operated for a mediastinal mass. The initial diagnosis was a malignant thymic lesion, which was later confirmed to be a papillary thyroid carcinoma. Consequently, total thyroidectomy was performed and pathology report showed normal thyroid tissue with no evidence of any neoplastic involvement. Until now, only one similar case has been reported

  20. Multifocal hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma without metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Akiko T; Hirano, Shigeru; Asato, Ryo; Tanaka, Shinzo; Kitani, Yoshiharu; Honda, Nobumitsu; Fujiki, Nobuya; Miyata, Kouji; Fukushima, Hideyuki; Ito, Juichi

    2008-09-01

    Hyperthyroidism due to thyroid carcinoma is rare, and most cases are caused by hyperfunctioning metastatic thyroid carcinoma rather than primary carcinoma. Among primary hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma, multifocal thyroid carcinoma is exceedingly rare, with the only one case being reported in the literature. Here, we describe the case of a 62-year-old woman with multifocal functioning thyroid carcinoma. Technetium-99m (99m Tc) scintigraphic imaging showed four hot areas in the thyroid gland. Histopathological examination of all four nodules revealed papillary carcinoma, corresponding to hot areas in the 99m Tc scintigram. DNA sequencing of the thyrotropin receptor (TSH-R) gene from all nodules revealed no mutation, indicating that activation of TSH-R was unlikely in the pathophysiogenesis of hyperfunctioning thyroid carcinoma in the present case.

  1. Radiation-associated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razack, M.S.; Sako, K.; Shimaoka, K.; Getaz, E.P.; Rao, U.; Parthasarathy, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since February, 1977, 735 patients having a history of receiving radiation therapy for benign conditions of the head and neck areas during infancy and childhood were examined in a thyroid screening program, and 159 patients were found to have palpable thyroid nodules. These patients had thyroid function tests and indirect laryngoscopy and were followed closely on suppression therapy consisting of either Cytomel or thyroid extract. Thyroidectomy was advised in those in whom the nodules persisted or increased in size. This study documents the incidence of carcinoma and other benign pathological changes and postoperative complications in this group of patients. So far, 49 patients had either a lobectomy with isthmusectomy or a total thyroidectomy. Eleven patients were found to have carcinoma (six had papillary, fou had mixed papillary and follicular, and one had follicular carcinoma). Three patients had a therapeutic modified neck dissection following the documentaion of microscopic involvement of paratracheal lymph nodes. A high incidence of chronic nonspecific thyroiditis, postradiation fibrosis, and follicular adenomas were also found in these patients. Three patients had temporary hypocalcemia (two weeks) and none had wound infection, hematoma, or postoperative nerve palsy. Of patients who had surgical resection, 22.4% showed thyroid carcinoma

  2. Radiation-associated thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razack, M.S.; Sako, K.; Shimaoka, K.; Getaz, E.P.; Rao, U.; Parthasarathy, K.L.

    1980-01-01

    Since February 1977, 735 patients having a history of receiving radiation therapy for benign conditions of the head and neck areas during infancy and childhood were examined in a thyroid screening program, and 159 patients were found to have palpable thyroid nodules. These patients had thyroid function tests and indirect laryngoscopy and were followed closely on suppression therapy consisting of either Cytomel or thyroid extract. Thyroidectomy was advised in those in whom the nodules persisted or increased in size. This study documents the incidence of carcinoma and other benign pathological changes and postoperative complications in this group of patients. So far, 49 patients had either a lobectomy with isthmusectomy or a total thyroidectomy. Eleven patients were found to have carcinoma (six had papillary, four had mixed papillary and follicular, and one had follicular carcinoma). Three patients had a therapeutic modified neck dissection following the documentation of microscopic involvement of paratracheal lymph nodes. A high incidence of chronic nonspecific thyroiditis, postradiation fibrosis, and follicular adenomas were also found in these patients. Three patients had temporary hypocalcemia (two weeks) and none had wound infection, hematoma, or postoperative nerve palsy. Of patients who had surgical resection, 22.4% showed thyroid carcinoma

  3. Thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A. Polacco, MD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid abscess is a rare condition, and consequently diagnosis is often delayed. Causes include 3rd and 4th branchial cleft anomalies, hematogenous spread of infection, trauma from esophageal foreign body, and fine needle aspiration. Thyroid abscesses carry potential morbidity with thyroid and parathyroid gland destruction, tracheal compression, tracheal or esophageal fistula, internal jugular vein thrombophlebitis, and sepsis. The authors report a case of a 33-year old woman with a thyroid abscess following traumatic intubation. Thyroid abscess should be considered in patients presenting with anterior neck pain and swelling with a recent history of traumatic intubation, ultrasound or CT with contrast being the ideal diagnostic modalities.

  4. Nitrate intake and the risk of thyroid cancer and thyroid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Mary H; Kilfoy, Briseis A; Weyer, Peter J; Anderson, Kristin E; Folsom, Aaron R; Cerhan, James R

    2010-05-01

    Nitrate is a contaminant of drinking water in agricultural areas and is found at high levels in some vegetables. Nitrate competes with uptake of iodide by the thyroid, thus potentially affecting thyroid function. We investigated the association of nitrate intake from public water supplies and diet with the risk of thyroid cancer and self-reported hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism in a cohort of 21,977 older women in Iowa who were enrolled in 1986 and who had used the same water supply for >10 years. We estimated nitrate ingestion from drinking water using a public database of nitrate measurements (1955-1988). Dietary nitrate intake was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire and levels from the published literature. Cancer incidence was determined through 2004. We found an increased risk of thyroid cancer with higher average nitrate levels in public water supplies and with longer consumption of water exceeding 5 mg/L nitrate-N (for >or=5 years at >5 mg/L, relative risk [RR] = 2.6 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.1-6.2]). We observed no association with prevalence of hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism. Increasing intake of dietary nitrate was associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer (highest vs. lowest quartile, RR = 2.9 [1.0-8.1]; P for trend = 0.046) and with the prevalence of hypothyroidism (odds ratio = 1.2 [95% CI = 1.1-1.4]), but not hyperthyroidism. Nitrate may play a role in the etiology of thyroid cancer and warrants further study.

  5. Thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuyama, Koukichi (Kansai Medical Univ., Moriguchi, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-10-01

    There are several useful diagnostic examinations for thyroid disease. The diagnostic value of CT in thyroid disease is still controvertial, although CT has become a routine clinical examination, since the plain CT does not always identify tumors accurately. In this paper, we introduce for the first time thyroid lymphography-computed tomography (TLG-CT) which may improve the diagnostic value of CT. The technique combines CT with thyroid lymphography. We performed TLG-CT in 92 patients with various thyroid diseases and 20 normal controls and classified the radiological features into the following 6 types: entire (normal thyroid); moth-eaten (Hashimoto's thyroiditis); defect (follicular adenoma and adenomatous goiter); lobate (papillary carcinoma); localized (various thyroid diseases); and extrathyroid defect (parathyroid tumor). In addition, we examined the relationship between TLG-CT type and the macroscopic appearance of the cut surface of the thyroid and lymph node metastasis in 20 patients with papillary carcinoma. The results suggest that papillary TLG-CT type carcinomas have a high incidence of lymph node metastasis. Our preliminary results suggest that TLG-CT is a potentially valuable diagnostic tool in the detection of thyroid disease and the assessment of the pathologic diagnosis as well as lymph node metastasis. (author).

  6. Thyroid ultrasonography: Pitfalls and techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon hyeong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Kim, Soo Jin; Kwak, Jin Young [Dept. of Radiology, Research Institute of Radiological Science, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    Thyroid ultrasonography (US) plays a key role in the diagnosis and management of thyroid-related diseases. The aim of this article was to illustrate various pitfalls that can occur in utilizing thyroid US and techniques to prevent them. In this article, we present cases demonstrating the common pitfalls associated with US equipment, performance, normal thyroid structures, misinterpretations, and surrounding structures. Knowledge of these areas is essential to avoid misdiagnosis or improper disease management.

  7. Screening for thyroid cancer in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagataki, S.; Ashizawa, K.

    1996-01-01

    In the screening of the thyroid diseases in the radiation exposed cohort, it is essential to make correct diagnosis and to measure radiation dose in every subjects in the cohort and to analyze the dose response relationship by the most appropriate statistical method. Thus, thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma and autoimmune hypothyroidism were confirmed to be radiation-induced thyroid diseases among atomic bomb survivors. A group of investigators from Nagasaki university have been working in the thyroid part of Chernobyl Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project, and more than 80000 children were screened in 5 diagnostic centers (Mogilev, Gomel, Kiev, Korosten and Klincy). In order to make correct diagnosis, thyroid echo-tomography, measurements of serum levels of free thyroxine, TSH, titers of anti-thyroid antibodies were performed in every children in the cohort and aspiration biopsy was performed when necessary. Whole body Cs 137 radioactivity was also determined in every subjects. Children with thyroid cancer confirmed by histology (biopsy or operation) were 2 in Mogilev, 19 in Gomel, 6 in Kiev, 5 in Korosten and 4 in Klincy (until 1994). Since children screened in each center were less than 20000, prevalence of thyroid cancer was remarkably high (lowest 100 and highest 1000/million children) when compared to the other parts of the world (0.2 to 5/million/year). However, there was no dose response relationship between the prevalence of cancer or nodule and whole body Cs 137 radioactivity. Although a significant correlation between thyroid cancer and reconstructed thyroid I 131 dose was presented, there are no previous reports to prove that I 131 produces thyroid cancer in human. Investigation on external radiation and short lived isotopes along with I 131 may be important to elucidate the cause of thyroid cancer

  8. Summary of thyroid findings in Marshallese 22 years after exposure to radioactive fallout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conard, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    Inhabitants of several atolls in the Marshall Islands were accidently exposed to fallout radiation following a detonation of a high yield thermonuclear device during experiments at Bikini in the Pacific Proving Grounds in March 1954. The most serious acute effects of the exposure were due to penetrating gamma radiation. Contamination of the skin in the Rongelap group resulted in widespread beta burns and epilation. These lesions healed and hair regrew normally within several months. Radiochemical urine analyses revealed that measurable amounts of radionuclides, including 131 I, were absorbed internally from ingestion of contaminated food and water and from inhalation. No acute effects due to this internal exposure were seen. Late thyroid effects from radioiodine absorption are described. Follow-up examinations have revealed, except for one fatal case of leukemia and extensive thyroid lesions, only a few findings that might be related to radiation exposure. A group of more than 200 Rongelap people who were relatives of exposed people, but had been away from the island at the time of the accident, moved back with the exposed people to their home island in 1957 and have served as an ideal comparison population for the studies. Results of medical examinations carried out on these populations for the past 22 years are reviewed

  9. Pathophysiology of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, M.G.R.; Nadkarni, G.D.

    1999-01-01

    The main physiological function of the thyroid gland is to produce thyroid hormones. The primary physiological control over iodine transport, organification and hormone synthesis appears to be through thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). Regulation of tumor cells, biochemical studies in experimental tumors, role of oxygen free radical and antioxidants, role of proteases in metastasis, influence of growth factors and influence of sex hormones and receptors are discussed

  10. Thyroid hormone metabolism in poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darras V.M.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid hormone (TH receptors preferentially bind 3.5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3. Therefore the metabolism of thyroxine (T4 secreted by the thyroid gland in peripheral tissues, resulting in the production and degradation of receptor-active T3, plays a major role in thyroid function. The most important metabolic pathway for THs is deiodination. Another important pathway is sulfation, which is a reversible pathway that has been shown to interact with TH deiodination efficiency. The enzymes catalysing TH deiodination consist of three types. Type 1 deiodinase (D1 catalyses both outer ring (ORD and inner ring deiodinalion (IRD. Type II deiodinase (D2 only catalyses ORD while type III (D3 only catalyses IRD. The three chicken deiodinase cDNAs have been cloned recently. These enzymes all belong to the family of selenoproteins. Ontogenetic studies show that the availability of deiodinases is regulated in a tissue specific and developmental stage dependent way. Characteristic for the chicken is the presence of very high levels off, inactivating D3 enzyme in the embryonic liver. Hepatic D3 is subject to acute regulation in a number of situations. Both growth hormone and glucocorticoid injection rapidly decrease hepatic D3 levels, hereby increasing plasma T3 without affecting hepatic D1 levels. The inhibition of D3 seems to be regulated mainly at the level of D3 gene transcription. The effect of growth hormone on D3 expression persists throughout life, while glucocorticoids start to inhibit hepatic D1 expression in posthatch chickens. Food restriction in growing chickens increases hepatic D3 levels. This contributes to the decrease in plasma T3 necessary to reduce energy loss. Refeeding restores hepatic D3 and plasma T3 to control levels within a few hours. It can be concluded that the tissue and time dependent regulation of the balance between TH activating and inactivating enzymes plays an essential role in the control of local T3 availability and hence in

  11. Foetal and neonatal thyroid disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetti, G; Zavallone, A; Gentili, L; Beck-Peccoz, P; Bona, G

    2002-10-01

    Thyroid hormones have been shown to be absolutely necessary for early brain development. During pregnancy, both maternal and foetal thyroid hormones contribute to foetal brain development and maternal supply explains why most of the athyreotic newborns usually do not show any signs of hypothyroidism at birth. Foetal and/or neonatal hypothyroidism is a rare disorder. Its incidence, as indicated by neonatal screening, is about 1:4000. Abnormal thyroid development (i.e. agenesia, ectopic gland, hypoplasia) or inborn errors in thyroid hormone biosynthesis are the most common causes of permanent congenital hypothyroidism. Recent studies reported that mutations involving Thyroid Transcriptor Factors (TTF) such as TTF-1, TTF-2, PAX-8 play an important role in altered foetal thyroid development. Deficiency of transcriptor factor (Pit-1, Prop-1, LHX-3) both in mother and in the foetus represents another rare cause of foetal hypothyroidism. At birth clinical picture may be not always so obvious and typical signs appear only after several weeks but a delayed diagnosis could have severe consequences consisting of delayed physical and mental development. Even if substitutive therapy is promptly started some learning difficulties might still arise suggesting that intrauterine adequate levels of thyroid hormones are absolutely necessary for a normal neurological development. Placental transfer of maternal antithyroid antibodies inhibiting fetal thyroid function can cause transient hypothyroidism at birth. If the mother with thyroid autoimmune disease is also hypothyroid during pregnancy and she doesn't receive substitutive therapy, a worse neurological outcome may be expected for her foetus. Foetal and/or neonatal hyperthyroidism is a rare condition and its incidence has been estimated around 1:4000-40000, according to various authors. The most common causes are maternal thyroid autoimmune disorders, such as Graves' disease and Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Rarer non autoimmune causes

  12. The absence of CD56 expression can differentiate papillary thyroid carcinoma from other thyroid lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Golu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The neural cell adhesion molecule CD56 is an antigen important for the differentiation of the follicular epithelium. Recent studies have reported low or absent expression of CD56 in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC and its presence in normal thyroid tissue, benign thyroid lesions, and most follicular non-PTC tumors. Aim: We wish to estimate the value of CD56 in the differentiation of PTC (including follicular variant-PTC [FV-PTC] from other nontumoral lesions and follicular thyroid neoplasias. Settings and Design: This was a retrospective, case–control study. Subjects and Methods: We analyzed the expression of CD56 in normal thyroid follicular tissue, 15 nonneoplastic thyroid lesions (nodular hyperplasia, Graves' disease, and chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto, and 38 thyroid follicular cell neoplasms (25 cases of PTC. The immunohistochemical reactions were performed on sections stained with anti-CD56 antibody. Statistical Analysis Used: We used the Chi-square test, values of P< 0.05 being considered statistically significant. Risk analysis was applied on these studied groups, by calculating the odds ratio (OR value. Results: Our results indicated that CD56 immunoexpression had differentiated PTC from benign nonneoplastic lesions (P = 0.002, as well as from follicular neoplasias (P = 0.046. There were no significant differences regarding CD56 expression between FV-PTC and classical PTC (P = 0.436. The immunoexpression of CD56 has differentiated PTC from other thyroid non-PTC lesions (P < 0.001, with 26.4 OR value. Conclusions: CD56 has been proved to be a useful marker in the diagnosis of PTC, including FV-PTC. Its absence can help differentiate FV-PTC from other thyroid nodules with follicular patterns.

  13. Thyroid hormones and fetal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pemberton, H N; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D

    2005-08-01

    Thyroid hormones are intricately involved in the developing fetal brain. The fetal central nervous system is sensitive to the maternal thyroid status. Critical amounts of maternal T3 and T4 must be transported across the placenta to the fetus to ensure the correct development of the brain throughout ontogeny. Severe mental retardation of the child can occur due to compromised iodine intake or thyroid disease. This has been reported in areas of the world with iodine insufficiency, New Guinea, and also in mother with thyroid complications such as hypothyroxinaemia and hyperthyroidism. The molecular control of thyroid hormones by deiodinases for the activation of thyroid hormones is critical to ensure the correct amount of active thyroid hormones are temporally supplied to the fetus. These hormones provide timing signals for the induction of programmes for differentiation and maturation at specific stages of development. Understanding these molecular mechanisms further will have profound implications in the clinical management of individuals affected by abnormal maternal of fetal thyroid status.