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Sample records for acute stroke care

  1. Regional variation in acute stroke care organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Venturelli, Paula; Robinson, Thompson; Lavados, Pablo M; Olavarría, Verónica V; Arima, Hisatomi; Billot, Laurent; Hackett, Maree L; Lim, Joyce Y; Middleton, Sandy; Pontes-Neto, Octavio; Peng, Bin; Cui, Liying; Song, Lily; Mead, Gillian; Watkins, Caroline; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Pandian, Jeyaraj; de Silva, H Asita; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-12-15

    Few studies have assessed regional variation in the organisation of stroke services, particularly health care resourcing, presence of protocols and discharge planning. Our aim was to compare stroke care organisation within middle- (MIC) and high-income country (HIC) hospitals participating in the Head Position in Stroke Trial (HeadPoST). HeadPoST is an on-going international multicenter crossover cluster-randomized trial of 'sitting-up' versus 'lying-flat' head positioning in acute stroke. As part of the start-up phase, one stroke care organisation questionnaire was completed at each hospital. The World Bank gross national income per capita criteria were used for classification. 94 hospitals from 9 countries completed the questionnaire, 51 corresponding to MIC and 43 to HIC. Most participating hospitals had a dedicated stroke care unit/ward, with access to diagnostic services and expert stroke physicians, and offering intravenous thrombolysis. There was no difference for the presence of a dedicated multidisciplinary stroke team, although greater access to a broad spectrum of rehabilitation therapists in HIC compared to MIC hospitals was observed. Significantly more patients arrived within a 4-h window of symptoms onset in HIC hospitals (41 vs. 13%; Porganisation and treatment. Future multilevel analyses aims to determine the influence of specific organisational factors on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Critical care management of acute ischemic stroke.

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    Coplin, William M

    2012-06-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can have profound and devastating effects on the CNS and several other organs. Approximately 15% to 20% of patients with AIS are admitted to an intensive care unit and cared for by a multidisciplinary team. This article discusses the critical care management of patients with AIS. Patients with AIS require attention to airway, pulmonary status, blood pressure, glucose, temperature, cardiac function, and, sometimes, life-threatening cerebral edema. The lack of disease-specific data has led to numerous management approaches and limited guidance on choosing among them. Existing guidelines emphasize risk factors, prevention, natural history, and prevention of bleeding but provide little discussion of the complex critical care issues involved in caring for patients with AIS.

  3. mStroke: "Mobile Stroke"-Improving Acute Stroke Care with Smartphone Technology.

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    Andrew, Benjamin Y; Stack, Colleen M; Yang, Julian P; Dodds, Jodi A

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of method and time of system activation on clinical metrics in cases utilizing the Stop Stroke (Pulsara, Inc.) mobile acute stroke care coordination application. A retrospective cohort analysis of stroke codes at 12 medical centers using Stop Stroke from March 2013 to May 2016 was performed. Comparison of metrics (door-to-needle time [DTN] and door-to-CT time [DTC], and rate of DTN ≤ 60 minutes [goal DTN]) was performed between subgroups based on method (emergency medical service [EMS] versus emergency department [ED]) and time of activation. Effects were adjusted for confounders (age, sex, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score) using multiple linear and logistic regression. The final dataset included 2589 cases. Cases activated by EMS were more severe (median NIHSS score 8 versus 4, P technology provides unique insight into acute stroke codes. Activation of mobile electronic stroke coordination in the field appears to promote a more expedited and successful care process. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Development of smartphone application that aids stroke screening and identifying nearby acute stroke care hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Hyo Suk; Heo, JoonNyung; Kim, Jinkwon; Kim, Young Dae; Song, Tae Jin; Park, Eunjeong; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2014-01-01

    The benefits of thrombolytic treatment are time-dependent. We developed a smartphone application that aids stroke patient self-screening and hospital selection, and may also decrease hospital arrival time. The application was developed for iPhone and Android smartphones. Map data for the application were adopted from the open map. For hospital registration, a web page (http://stroke119.org) was developed using PHP and MySQL. The Stroke 119 application includes a stroke screening tool and real-time information on nearby hospitals that provide thrombolytic treatment. It also provides information on stroke symptoms, thrombolytic treatment, and prescribed actions when stroke is suspected. The stroke screening tool was adopted from the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale and is displayed in a cartoon format. If the user taps a cartoon image that represents abnormal findings, a pop-up window shows that the user may be having a stroke, informs the user what to do, and directs the user to call emergency services. Information on nearby hospitals is provided in map and list views, incorporating proximity to the user's location using a Global Positioning System (a built-in function of smartphones). Users can search for a hospital according to specialty and treatment levels. We also developed a web page for hospitals to register in the system. Neurology training hospitals and hospitals that provide acute stroke care in Korea were invited to register. Seventy-seven hospitals had completed registration. This application may be useful for reducing hospital arrival times for thrombolytic candidates.

  5. The effects of telemedicine on racial and ethnic disparities in access to acute stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Michael J; Wu, Tzu-Ching; Mullen, Michael T; Albright, Karen C; Wolff, Catherine; Boehme, Amelia K; Branas, Charles C; Grotta, James C; Savitz, Sean I; Carr, Brendan G

    2016-03-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities have been previously reported in acute stroke care. We sought to determine the effect of telemedicine (TM) on access to acute stroke care for racial and ethnic minorities in the state of Texas. Data were collected from the US Census Bureau, The Joint Commission and the American Hospital Association. Access for racial and ethnic minorities was determined by summing the population that could reach a primary stroke centre (PSC) or telemedicine spoke within specified time intervals using validated models. TM extended access to stroke expertise by 1.5 million residents. The odds of providing 60-minute access via TM were similar in Blacks and Whites (prevalence odds ratios (POR) 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.001). The odds of providing access via TM were also similar for Hispanics and non-Hispanics (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000), even after adjustment for urbanization (POR 1.000, 95% CI 1.000-1.000). We found that telemedicine increased access to acute stroke care for 1.5 million Texans. While racial and ethnic disparities exist in other components of stroke care, we did not find evidence of disparities in access to the acute stroke expertise afforded by telemedicine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Characteristics of Inpatient Care and Rehabilitation for Acute First-Ever Stroke Patients

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    Chang, Won Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Il; Lee, Sam-Gyu; Oh, Gyung-Jae; Lim, Young Shil

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to analyze the status of inpatient care for acute first-ever stroke at three general hospitals in Korea to provide basic data and useful information on the development of comprehensive and systematic rehabilitation care for stroke patients. Materials and Methods This study conducted a retrospective complete enumeration survey of all acute first-ever stroke patients admitted to three distinct general hospitals for 2 years by reviewing medical records. Both ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were included. Survey items included demographic data, risk factors, stroke type, state of rehabilitation treatment, discharge destination, and functional status at discharge. Results A total of 2159 patients were reviewed. The mean age was 61.5±14.4 years and the ratio of males to females was 1.23:1. Proportion of ischemic stroke comprised 54.9% and hemorrhagic stroke 45.1%. Early hospital mortality rate was 8.1%. Among these patients, 27.9% received rehabilitation consultation and 22.9% underwent inpatient rehabilitation treatment. The mean period from admission to rehabilitation consultation was 14.5 days. Only 12.9% of patients were transferred to a rehabilitation department and the mean period from onset to transfer was 23.4 days. Improvements in functional status were observed in the patients who had received inpatient rehabilitation treatment after acute stroke management. Conclusion Our analysis revealed that a relatively small portion of patients who suffered from an acute first-ever stroke received rehabilitation consultation and inpatient rehabilitation treatment. Thus, applying standardized clinical practice guidelines for post-acute rehabilitation care is needed to provide more effective and efficient rehabilitation services to patients with stroke. PMID:25510773

  7. [A Delphi Method Survey of the Core Competences of Post-Acute-Care Nurses in Caring for Acute Stroke Patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Shu-Ching; Yeh, Lily; Lu, Meei-Shiow; Lin, Pei-Yu

    2015-12-01

    Post-acute care (PAC) service is becoming increasingly important in Taiwan as a core focus of government policies that are designed to ensure continuity of care. In order to improve PAC nursing education and quality of care, the present study applies a modified Delphi method to identify the core competences of nurses who provide PAC services to acute stroke patients. We surveyed 18 experts in post-acute care and long-term care anonymously using a 29-question questionnaire in order to identify the essential professional skills that are required to perform PAC effectively. The results of this survey indicate that the core competences of PAC may be divided into two categories: Case Management and Care Management. Case Management includes Direct Care, Communication, Health Care Education, Nursing Consulting, and Family Assessment & Health Care. Care Management includes Interdisciplinary Teamwork, Patient Care Management, and Resource Integration. The importance and practicality of each item was evaluated using a 7-point Likert scale. The experts required 2 rounds to reach a consensus about the importance and 3 rounds to determine the practicality of PAC core competences. This process highlighted the differing points of view that are held by professionals in the realms of nursing, medicine, and national health policy. The PAC in-job training program in its current form inadequately cul-tivates core competence in Care Management. The results of the present study may be used to inform the development of PAC nurse orientation training programs and continuing education courses.

  8. Thrombolysis in Stroke within 30 Minutes: Results of the Acute Brain Care Intervention Study

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    Zinkstok, Sanne M.; Beenen, Ludo F.; Luitse, Jan S.; Majoie, Charles B.; Nederkoorn, Paul J.; Roos, Yvo B.

    2016-01-01

    Time is brain: benefits of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) in ischemic stroke last for 4.5 hours but rapidly decrease as time progresses following symptom onset. The goal of the Acute Brain Care (ABC) intervention study was to reduce the door-to-needle time (DNT) to ≤30 minutes by optimizing

  9. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  10. Effects of Centralizing Acute Stroke Services on Stroke Care Provision in Two Large Metropolitan Areas in England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Stephen; Hoffman, Alex; Hunter, Rachael M.; Boaden, Ruth; McKevitt, Christopher; Perry, Catherine; Pursani, Nanik; Rudd, Anthony G.; Turner, Simon J.; Tyrrell, Pippa J.; Wolfe, Charles D.A.; Fulop, Naomi J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose— In 2010, Greater Manchester and London centralized acute stroke care into hyperacute units (Greater Manchester=3, London=8), with additional units providing ongoing specialist stroke care nearer patients’ homes. Greater Manchester patients presenting within 4 hours of symptom onset were eligible for hyperacute unit admission; all London patients were eligible. Research indicates that postcentralization, only London’s stroke mortality fell significantly more than elsewhere in England. This article attempts to explain this difference by analyzing how centralization affects provision of evidence-based clinical interventions. Methods— Controlled before and after analysis was conducted, using national audit data covering Greater Manchester, London, and a noncentralized urban comparator (38 623 adult stroke patients, April 2008 to December 2012). Likelihood of receiving all interventions measured reliably in pre- and postcentralization audits (brain scan; stroke unit admission; receiving antiplatelet; physiotherapist, nutrition, and swallow assessments) was calculated, adjusting for age, sex, stroke-type, consciousness, and whether stroke occurred in-hospital. Results— Postcentralization, likelihood of receiving interventions increased in all areas. London patients were overall significantly more likely to receive interventions, for example, brain scan within 3 hours: Greater Manchester=65.2% (95% confidence interval=64.3–66.2); London=72.1% (71.4–72.8); comparator=55.5% (54.8–56.3). Hyperacute units were significantly more likely to provide interventions, but fewer Greater Manchester patients were admitted to these (Greater Manchester=39%; London=93%). Differences resulted from contrasting hyperacute unit referral criteria and how reliably they were followed. Conclusions— Centralized systems admitting all stroke patients to hyperacute units, as in London, are significantly more likely to provide evidence-based clinical

  11. Temporal Changes in the Quality of Acute Stroke Care in Five National Audits across Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffi Hillmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Data on potential variations in delivery of appropriate stroke care over time are scarce. We investigated temporal changes in the quality of acute hospital stroke care across five national audits in Europe over a period of six years. Methods. Data were derived from national stroke audits in Germany, Poland, Scotland, Sweden, and England/Wales/Northern Ireland participating within the European Implementation Score (EIS collaboration. Temporal changes in predefined quality indicators with comparable information between the audits were investigated. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate adherence to quality indicators over time. Results. Between 2004 and 2009, individual data from 542,112 patients treated in 538 centers participating continuously over the study period were included. In most audits, the proportions of patients who were treated on a SU, were screened for dysphagia, and received thrombolytic treatment increased over time and ranged from 2-fold to almost 4-fold increase in patients receiving thrombolytic therapy in 2009 compared to 2004. Conclusions. A general trend towards a better quality of stroke care defined by standardized quality indicators was observed over time. The association between introducing a specific measure and higher adherence over time might indicate that monitoring of stroke care performance contributes to improving quality of care.

  12. [Implementation of a regional system for the emergency care of acute ischemic stroke: Initial results].

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    Soares-Oliveira, Miguel; Araújo, Fernando

    2014-06-01

    Implementing integrated systems for emergency care of patients with acute ischemic stroke helps reduce morbidity and mortality. We describe the process of organizing and implementing a regional system to cover around 3.7 million people and its main initial results. We performed a descriptive analysis of the implementation process and a retrospective analysis of the following parameters: number of patients prenotified by the pre-hospital system; number of times thrombolysis was performed; door-to-needle time; and functional assessment three months after stroke. The implementation process started in November 2005 and ended in December 2009, and included 11 health centers. There were 3574 prenotifications from the prehospital system. Thrombolysis was performed in 1142 patients. The percentage of patients receiving thrombolysis rose during the study period, with a maximum of 16%. Median door-to-needle time was 62 min in 2009. Functional recovery three months after stroke was total or near total in 50% of patients. The regional system implemented for emergency care of patients with acute ischemic stroke has led to health gains, with progressive improvements in patients' access to thrombolysis, and to greater equity in the health care system, thus helping to reduce mortality from cerebrovascular disease in Portugal. Our results, which are comparable with those of international studies, support the strategy adopted for implementation of this system. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  13. Informal caregiving burden and perceived social support in an acute stroke care facility.

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    Akosile, Christopher Olusanjo; Banjo, Tosin Olamilekan; Okoye, Emmanuel Chiebuka; Ibikunle, Peter Olanrewaju; Odole, Adesola Christiana

    2018-04-05

    Providing informal caregiving in the acute in-patient and post-hospital discharge phases places enormous burden on the caregivers who often require some form of social support. However, it appears there are few published studies about informal caregiving in the acute in-patient phase of individuals with stroke particularly in poor-resource countries. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of caregiving burden and its association with patient and caregiver-related variables and also level of perceived social support in a sample of informal caregivers of stroke survivors at an acute stroke-care facility in Nigeria. Ethical approval was sought and obtained. Fifty-six (21 males, 35 females) consecutively recruited informal caregivers of stroke survivors at the medical ward of a tertiary health facility in South-Southern Nigeria participated in this cross-sectional survey. Participants' level of care-giving strain/burden and perceived social support were assessed using the Caregiver Strain Index and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support respectively. Caregivers' and stroke survivors' socio-demographics were also obtained. Data was analysed using frequency count and percentages, independent t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and partial correlation at α =0.05. The prevalence of care-giving burden among caregivers is 96.7% with a high level of strain while 17.9% perceived social support as low. No significant association was found between caregiver burden and any of the caregiver- or survivor-related socio-demographics aside primary level education. Only the family domain of the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was significantly correlated with burden (r = - 0.295). Informal care-giving burden was highly prevalent in this acute stroke caregiver sample and about one in every five of these caregivers rated social support low. This is a single center study. Healthcare managers and professionals in acute care facilities

  14. Emergency Overcrowding Impact on the Quality of Care of Patients Presenting with Acute Stroke

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    Mehdi Momeni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Emergency overcrowding is defined as when the amount of care required for patients overcomes the available amount. This can cause delays in delivering critical care in situations like stroke. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the possible impact of emergency department (ED crowding on the quality of care for acute stroke patients. Methods: In this cross-sectional prospective study, all patients with symptoms of acute stroke presenting to the ED of educational hospitals were enrolled. All patients were assessed and examined by the emergency medicine (EM residents on shift and a questionnaire was filled out for them. The amount of time that passed from the first triage to performing the required interventions and delivering health services were recorded by the triage nurse. ED crowding was measured by the occupancy rate. Then, the correlation between all of the variables and ED crowding level were calculated. Results: The average daily bed occupancy rate was 184.9 ± 54.3%. The median time passed from the first triage to performing the interventions were as follows: the first EM resident visit after 34 min, the first neurologic visit after 138 min, head CT after 134 min, ECG after 104 min and ASA administration after 210 min. There was no statistically significant relationship between the ED occupancy rate and the time elapsed before different required health services in the management of stroke patients either throughout an entire day or during each 8-hour interval (p > 0.05. Conclusion: In the current study, the ED occupancy rate was not significantly correlated with the time frame associated with management of admitted acute stroke patients.

  15. Integrating palliative care within acute stroke services: developing a programme theory of patient and family needs, preferences and staff perspectives

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    Burton Christopher R

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Palliative care should be integrated early into the care trajectories of people with life threatening illness such as stroke. However published guidance focuses primarily on the end of life, and there is a gap in the evidence about how the palliative care needs of acute stroke patients and families should be addressed. Synthesising data across a programme of related studies, this paper presents an explanatory framework for the integration of palliative and acute stroke care. Methods Data from a survey (n=191 of patient-reported palliative care needs and interviews (n=53 exploring experiences with patients and family members were explored in group interviews with 29 staff from 3 United Kingdom stroke services. A realist approach to theory building was used, constructed around the mechanisms that characterise integration, their impacts, and mediating, contextual influences. Results The framework includes two cognitive mechanisms (the legitimacy of palliative care and individual capacity, and behavioural mechanisms (engaging with family; the timing of intervention; working with complexity; and the recognition of dying through which staff integrate palliative and stroke care. A range of clinical (whether patients are being ‘actively treated’, and prognostic uncertainty and service (leadership, specialty status and neurological focus factors appear to influence how palliative care needs are attended to. Conclusions Our framework is the first, empirical explanation of the integration of palliative and acute stroke care. The specification in the framework of factors that mediate integration can inform service development to improve the outcomes and experiences of patients and families.

  16. Nursing care for stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulek, Zeliha; Poulsen, Ingrid; Gillis, Katrin

    2018-01-01

    AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To conduct a survey of the clinical nursing practice in European countries in accordance with the European Stroke Strategies (ESS) 2006, and to examine to what extent the ESS have been implemented in stroke care nursing in Europe. BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death...... comprising 61 questions based on the ESS and scientific evidence in nursing practice was distributed to representatives of the European Association of Neuroscience Nurses, who sent the questionnaire to nurses active in stroke care. The questionnaire covered the following areas of stroke care: Organization...... of stroke services, Management of acute stroke and prevention including basic care and nursing, and Secondary prevention. RESULTS: Ninety-two nurses in stroke care in 11 European countries participated in the survey. Within the first 48 hours after stroke onset, 95% monitor patients regularly, 94% start...

  17. No Racial Difference in Rehabilitation Therapy Across All Post-Acute Care Settings in the Year Following a Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolarus, Lesli E; Feng, Chunyang; Burke, James F

    2017-12-01

    Black stroke survivors experience greater poststroke disability than whites. Differences in post-acute rehabilitation may contribute to this disparity. Therefore, we estimated racial differences in rehabilitation therapy utilization, intensity, and the number of post-acute care settings in the first year after a stroke. We used national Medicare data to study 186 168 elderly black and white patients hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of stroke in 2011. We tabulated the proportion of stroke survivors receiving physical, occupational, and speech and language therapy in each post-acute care setting (inpatient rehabilitation facility, skilled nursing facility, and home health agency), minutes of therapy, and number of transitions between settings. We then used generalized linear models to determine whether racial differences in minutes of physical therapy were influenced by demographics, comorbidities, thrombolysis, and markers of stroke severity. Black stroke patients were more likely to receive each type of therapy than white stroke patients. Compared with white stroke patients, black stroke patients received more minutes of physical therapy (897.8 versus 743.4; P rehabilitation therapy utilization or intensity after accounting for patient characteristics. It is unlikely that differences in rehabilitation utilization or intensity are important contributors to racial disparities in poststroke disability. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Frequency Of Hyperthermia In Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Visiting A Tertiary Care Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maheshwari, A. K.; Kumar, P.; Alam, M. T.; Aurangzeb, M.; Imran, K.; Masroor, M.; Parkash, J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of hyperthermia in acute ischemic stroke patients visiting a tertiary care hospital in a developing country. Study Design: Cross-sectional, observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Medical Wards of Civil Hospital, Karachi, from January to June 2013. Methodology: Patients aged = 18 years of either gender with acute ischemic stroke presenting within 24 hours of onset of symptoms were included. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants as well as approval of ethical review committee of the institute. Axillary temperature by mercury thermometer was monitored at the time of admission and after every 6 hours for 3 days. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 17.0 (SPSS Inc., IL, Chicago, USA). Result: A total of 106 patients of ischemic stroke were included. The mean age of enrolled participants was 60.1 ±9.5 years. Among these, 61 (57.5 percentage) were males and 45 (42.5 percentage) females. Among all patients, 51.9 percentage presented with loss of consciousness, 30.2 percentage with slurred speech, 77.4 percentage with limb weakness, and 9.4 percentage with decrease vision. A total of 17 (16 percentage) patients with ischemic stroke developed hyperthermia. When the prevalence of hyperthermia was stratified according to age, among patients of < 60 years of age, 26 percentage developed hyperthermia compared to 7.1 percentage in patients of = 60 years of age (p=0.008). On gender stratification, among male patients, 14.8 percentage developed hyperthermia compared to 17.8 percentage in female patients (p=0.43). Conclusion: It is concluded from this study that the frequency of hyperthermia in ischemic stroke was 16 percentage and it should be looked for as it has significant impact on the outcome. The hyperthermia was significantly more common in younger adults as compared to older adults. However, gender had no influence on the prevalence rate of hyperthermia. (author)

  19. Feeding practice in acute stroke patients in a tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md Titu; Al-Amin, Mohammad; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Imran; Ayaz, K F M; Zakaria, M H; Ahmed, Srijoni; Ahasan, H A M Nazmul

    2010-12-01

    Feeding is a basic component of care and it is the most common and difficult management issue for stroke patients. Objective of this study was to know the practice of feeding (oral & nasogastric tube feeding), different types of food used and their caloric value in stroke patients. This direct observational study was done from June 2010 to November 2010, in different medicine wards of Dhaka Medical College Hospital, and included 100 acute stroke patients confirmed by CT scan or MRI of brain and duration of hospital stay for at least 24 hours. Out of 100 cases, 22% took their feeding orally and 78% cases through nasogastric tube. Artificial milk powder 66% cases (NG tube vs. Orally, 58% vs. 8%), juice 18% (NG tube 13% vs. orally 5%), horlicks & juice & soup 10% (NG tube vs. Orally, 7% vs. 3%), khichury 2% orally, bread & egg & shuji 4% cases orally. In 100 cases studied, none of them fulfilled the calorie requirement up to the standard level according to the guideline of Nutrition & Food Science Institute, of Dhaka University, Bangladesh. Though this study was small scale but the magnitude of under nutrition among stroke patients revealed is alarming and needs urgent attention.

  20. Innovation in Systems of Care in Acute Phase of Ischemic Stroke. The Experience of the Catalan Stroke Programme

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    Rosa M. Vivanco-Hidalgo

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Stroke, and mainly ischemic stroke, is the second cause of death and disability. To confront the huge burden of this disease, innovative stroke systems of care are mandatory. This requires the development of national stroke plans to offer the best treatment to all patients eligible for reperfusion therapies. Key elements for success include a high level of organization, close cooperation with emergency medical services for prehospital assessment, an understanding of stroke singularity, the development of preassessment tools, a high level of commitment of all stroke teams at Stroke Centres, the availability of a disease-specific registry, and local government involvement to establish stroke care as a priority. In this mini review, we discuss recent evidence concerning different aspects of stroke systems of care and describe the success of the Catalan Stroke Programme as an example of innovation. In Catalonia, reperfusion treatment rates have increased in recent years and currently are among the highest in Europe (17.3% overall, 14.3% for IVT, and 6% for EVT in 2016.

  1. Remote Collaboration, Decision Support, and On-Demand Medical Image Analysis for Acute Stroke Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sales Barros, Renan; Borst, Jordi; Kleynenberg, Steven; Badr, Celine; Ganji, Rama-Rao; de Bliek, Hubrecht; Zeng-Eyindanga, Landry-Stephane; van den Brink, Henk; Majoie, Charles; Marquering, Henk; Olabarriaga, Silvia Delgado

    2015-01-01

    Acute stroke is the leading cause of disabilities and the fourth cause of death worldwide. The treatment of stroke patients often requires fast collaboration between medical experts and fast analysis and sharing of large amounts of medical data, especially image data. In this situation, cloud

  2. Administrative data linkage to evaluate a quality improvement program in acute stroke care, Georgia, 2006-2009.

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    Ido, Moges Seyoum; Bayakly, Rana; Frankel, Michael; Lyn, Rodney; Okosun, Ike S

    2015-01-15

    Tracking the vital status of stroke patients through death data is one approach to assessing the impact of quality improvement in stroke care. We assessed the feasibility of linking Georgia hospital discharge data with mortality data to evaluate the effect of participation in the Georgia Coverdell Acute Stroke Registry on survival rates among acute ischemic stroke patients. Multistage probabilistic matching, using a fine-grained record integration and linkage software program and combinations of key variables, was used to link Georgia hospital discharge data for 2005 through 2009 with mortality data for 2006 through 2010. Data from patients admitted with principal diagnoses of acute ischemic stroke were analyzed by using the extended Cox proportional hazard model. The survival times of patients cared for by hospitals participating in the stroke registry and of those treated at nonparticipating hospitals were compared. Average age of the 50,579 patients analyzed was 69 years, and 56% of patients were treated in Georgia Coverdell Acute Stroke Registry hospitals. Thirty-day and 365-day mortality after first admission for stroke were 8.1% and 18.5%, respectively. Patients treated at nonparticipating facilities had a hazard ratio for death of 1.14 (95% confidence interval, 1.03-1.26; P = .01) after the first week of admission compared with patients cared for by hospitals participating in the registry. Hospital discharge data can be linked with death data to assess the impact of clinical-level or community-level chronic disease control initiatives. Hospitals need to undertake quality improvement activities for a better patient outcome.

  3. Stroke Care 2: Stroke rehabilitation

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    Langhorne, P.; Bernhardt, J.; Kwakkel, G.

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a common, serious, and disabling global health-care problem, and rehabilitation is a major part of patient care. There is evidence to support rehabilitation in well coordinated multidisciplinary stroke units or through provision of early supported provision of discharge teams. Potentially

  4. The effect of out of hours presentation with acute stroke on processes of care and outcomes: analysis of data from the Stroke Improvement National Audit Programme (SINAP.

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    James T P Campbell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is inconsistent evidence that patients with stroke admitted to hospital out of regular working hours (such as weekends experience worse outcomes. We aimed to identify if inequalities in the quality of care and mortality exist in contemporary stroke care in England. METHODS: SINAP is a prospective database of acute stroke patients, documenting details of processes of care over the first 72 hours. We compared quality of care indicators and mortality at 72 hours, 7 days and 30 days, for patients who arrived within normal hours (Monday-Friday 8am to 6pm and for those who arrived out of hours, using multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazard models. Quality of care was defined according to time from arrival at hospital to interventions (e.g., brain scan, and whether the patient received therapeutic interventions (such as thrombolysis. RESULTS: 45,726 stroke patients were admitted to 130 hospitals in England between 1 April 2010 and 31 January 2012. Patients admitted out of hours (n = 23779 had more features indicative of worse prognosis (haemorrhagic stroke, reduced consciousness, pre stroke dependency. Out of hours admission was significantly associated with longer delays in receiving a CT scan or being admitted to a stroke unit, and reduced odds of receiving thrombolysis. After adjusting for casemix, there was no consistent evidence of higher mortality for patients admitted out of hours, but patients admitted at the weekends had a higher risk of 30 day mortality (OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.06-1.21. CONCLUSION: Inequalities in the provision of stroke care for people admitted out of regular hours persist in contemporary stroke in England. The association with mortality is small and largely attributable to higher illness severity in patients admitted out of hours.

  5. Preferences of general practitioners regarding an application running on a personal digital assistant in acute stroke care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huis in 't Veld, M.H.A.; van Til, Janine Astrid; IJzerman, Maarten Joost; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2005-01-01

    An application was developed to optimize information exchange in acute stroke care, with which general practitioners (GPs) could consult hospital emergency units. However, it was difficult to obtain clear preferences from GPs regarding the functional requirements of the information to be transferred

  6. Acute stroke imaging research roadmap

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wintermark, Max; Albers, Gregory W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Bammer, Roland; Baron, Jean-Claude; Davis, Stephen; Demaerschalk, Bart M.; Derdeyn, Colin P.; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Eastwood, James D.; Fiebach, Jochen B.; Fisher, Marc; Furie, Karen L.; Goldmakher, Gregory V.; Hacke, Werner; Kidwell, Chelsea S.; Kloska, Stephan P.; Koehrmann, Martin; Koroshetz, Walter; Lee, Ting-Yim; Lees, Kennedy R.; Lev, Michael H.; Liebeskind, David S.; Ostergaard, Leif; Powers, William J.; Provenzale, James; Schellinger, Peter; Silbergleit, Robert; Sorensen, Alma Gregory; Wardlaw, Joanna; Warach, Steven

    The recent "Advanced Neuroimaging for Acute Stroke Treatment" meeting on September 7 and 8, 2007 in Washington DC, brought together stroke neurologists, neuroradiologists, emergency physicians, neuroimaging research scientists, members of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

  7. Basics of acute stroke treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haass, A.

    2005-01-01

    Acute stroke presents an emergency that requires immediate referral to a specialized hospital, preferably with a stroke unit. Disability and mortality are reduced by 30% in patients treated in stroke units compared to those treated on regular wards, even if a specialized team is present on the ward. Systolic blood pressure may remain high at 200-220 mmHg in the acute phase and should not be lowered too quickly. Further guidelines for basic care include: optimal O 2 delivery, blood sugar levels below 100-150 mg%, and lowering body temperature below 37.5 C using physical means or drugs. Increased intracranial pressure should be treated by raising the upper body of the patient, administration of glycerol, mannitol, and/or sorbitol, artificial respiration, and special monitoring of Tris buffer. Decompressive craniectomy may be considered in cases of ''malignant'' media stroke and expansive cerebellar infarction. Fibrinolysis is the most effective stroke treatment and is twice as effective in the treatment of stroke than myocardial infarction. Fibrinolysis may be initiated within 3 h of a stroke in the anterior circulation. If a penumbra is detectable by ''PWI-DWI mismatch MRI,'' specialized hospitals may perform fibrinolysis up to 6 h after symptom onset. In cases of stroke in the basilar artery, fibrinolysis may be performed even later after symptom onset. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis is performed in these cases using rt-PA or urokinase. Follow-up treatment of stroke patients should not only address post-stroke depression and neuropsychological deficits, but also include patient education about risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.) [de

  8. Quality in Acute Stroke Care (QASC): process evaluation of an intervention to improve the management of fever, hyperglycemia, and swallowing dysfunction following acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Peta; Levi, Christopher; D'Este, Catherine; McElduff, Patrick; McInnes, Elizabeth; Hardy, Jennifer; Dale, Simeon; Cheung, N Wah; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Quinn, Clare; Ward, Jeanette; Evans, Malcolm; Cadilhac, Dominique; Griffiths, Rhonda; Middleton, Sandy

    2014-08-01

    Our randomized controlled trial of a multifaceted evidence-based intervention for improving the inpatient management of fever, hyperglycemia, and swallowing dysfunction in the first three-days following stroke improved outcomes at 90 days by 15%. We designed a quantitative process evaluation to further explain and illuminate this finding. Blinded retrospective medical record audits were undertaken for patients from 19 stroke units prior to and following the implementation of three multidisciplinary evidence-based protocols (supported by team-building workshops, and site-based education and support) for the management of fever (temperature ≥37·5°C), hyperglycemia (glucose >11 mmol/l), and swallowing dysfunction in intervention stroke units. Data from 1804 patients (718 preintervention; 1086 postintervention) showed that significantly more patients admitted to hospitals allocated to the intervention group received care according to the fever (n = 186 of 603, 31% vs. n = 74 of 483, 15%, P < 0·001), hyperglycemia (n = 22 of 603, 3·7% vs. n = 3 of 483, 0·6%, P = 0·01), and swallowing dysfunction protocols (n = 241 of 603, 40% vs. n = 19 of 483, 4·0%, P ≤ 0·001). Significantly more patients in these intervention stroke units received four-hourly temperature monitoring (n = 222 of 603, 37% vs. n = 90 of 483, 19%, P < 0·001) and six-hourly glucose monitoring (194 of 603, 32% vs. 46 of 483, 9·5%, P < 0·001) within 72 hours of admission to a stroke unit, and a swallowing screen (242 of 522, 46% vs. 24 of 350, 6·8%, P ≤ 0·0001) within the first 24 hours of admission to hospital. There was no difference between the groups in the treatment of patients with fever with paracetamol (22 of 105, 21% vs. 38 of 131, 29%, P = 0·78) or their hyperglycemia with insulin (40 of 100, 40% vs. 17 of 57, 30%, P = 0·49). Our intervention resulted in better protocol adherence in intervention stroke units

  9. Biomarkers for acute diagnosis and management of stroke in neurointensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olena Y Glushakova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of current management of critically ill stroke patients depends on rapid assessment of the type of stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, and on a patient′s general clinical status. Thrombolytic therapy with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA is the only effective treatment for ischemic stroke approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA, whereas no treatment has been shown to be effective for hemorrhagic stroke. Furthermore, a narrow therapeutic window and fear of precipitating intracranial hemorrhage by administering r-tPA cause many clinicians to avoid using this treatment. Thus, rapid and objective assessments of stroke type at admission would increase the number of patients with ischemic stroke receiving r-tPA treatment and thereby, improve outcome for many additional stroke patients. Considerable literature suggests that brain-specific protein biomarkers of glial [i.e. S100 calcium-binding protein B (S100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP] and neuronal cells [e.g., ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1, neuron-specific enolase (NSE, αII-spectrin breakdown products SBDP120, SBDP145, and SBDP150, myelin basic protein (MBP, neurofilament light chain (NF-L, tau protein, visinin-like protein-1 (VLP 1, NR2 peptide] injury that could be detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and peripheral blood might provide valuable and timely diagnostic information for stroke necessary to make prompt management and decisions, especially when the time of stroke onset cannot be determined. This information could include injury severity, prognosis of short-term and long-term outcomes, and discrimination of ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke. This chapter reviews the current status of the development of biomarker-based diagnosis of stroke and its potential application to improve stroke care.

  10. Measurement of the potential geographic accessibility from call to definitive care for patient with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freyssenge, J; Renard, F; Schott, A M; Derex, L; Nighoghossian, N; Tazarourte, K; El Khoury, C

    2018-01-12

    The World Health Organization refers to stroke, the second most frequent cause of death in the world, in terms of pandemic. Present treatments are only effective within precise time windows. Only 10% of thrombolysis patients are eligible. Late assessment of the patient resulting from admission and lack of knowledge of the symptoms is the main explanation of lack of eligibility. The aim is the measurement of the time of access to treatment facilities for stroke victims, using ambulances (firemen ambulances or EMS ambulances) and private car. The method proposed analyses the potential geographic accessibility of stroke care infrastructure in different scenarios. The study allows better considering of the issues inherent to an area: difficult weather conditions, traffic congestion and failure to respect the distance limits of emergency transport. Depending on the scenario, access times vary considerably within the same commune. For example, between the first and the second scenario for cities in the north of Rhône county, there is a 10 min difference to the nearest Primary Stroke Center (PSC). For the first scenario, 90% of the population is 20 min away of the PSC and 96% for the second scenario. Likewise, depending on the modal vector (fire brigade or emergency medical service), overall accessibility from the emergency call to admission to a Comprehensive Stroke Center (CSC) can vary by as much as 15 min. The setting up of the various scenarios and modal comparison based on the calculation of overall accessibility makes this a new method for calculating potential access to care facilities. It is important to take into account the specific pathological features and the availability of care facilities for modelling. This method is innovative and recommendable for measuring accessibility in the field of health care. This study makes possible to highlight the patients' extension of care delays. Thus, this can impact the improvement of patient care and rethink the

  11. Cerebrogenic tachyarrhythmia in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A S Praveen Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiac abnormalities following acute stroke are frequent and seen in both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. The changes seen in electrocardiogram (ECG consist of repolarization abnormalities such as ST elevation, ST depression, negative T waves, and QT prolongation. Among tachyarrhythmias, atrial fibrillation is the most common and occurrence of focal atrial tachycardia is very rare though any cardiac arrhythmias can follow acute stroke. We report a case of focal atrial tachycardia following acute ischemic stroke in 50-year-old female without structural heart disease, and their mechanisms and clinical implications.

  12. Short- and longer-term health-care resource utilization and costs associated with acute ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson BH

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Barbara H Johnson,1 Machaon M Bonafede,1 Crystal Watson2 1Outcomes Research, Truven Health Analytics, Cambridge, MA, USA; 2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Biogen, Cambridge, MA, USA Objectives: The mean lifetime cost of ischemic stroke is approximately $140,048 in the United States, placing stroke among the top 10 most costly conditions among Medicare beneficiaries. The objective of this study was to describe the health-care resource utilization and costs in the year following hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke (AIS.Methods: This retrospective claims analysis quantifies utilization and costs following inpatient admission for AIS among the commercially insured and Medicare beneficiaries in the Truven Health databases. Patients who were 18 years or older and continuously enrolled for 12 months before and after an AIS event occurring (index between January 2009 and December 2012 were identified. Patients with AIS in the year preindex were excluded. Demographic and clinical characteristics were evaluated at admission and in the preindex, respectively. Direct costs, readmissions, and inpatient length of stay (LOS were described in the year postindex.Results: The eligible populations comprised 20,314 commercially insured patients and 31,037 Medicare beneficiaries. Average all-cause costs were $61,354 and $44,929 (commercial and Medicare, respectively in the first year after the AIS. Approximately 50%–55% of total 12-month costs were incurred between day 31 and day 365 following the incident AIS. One quarter (24.6% of commercially insured patients and 38.8% of Medicare beneficiaries were readmitted within 30 days with 16.6% and 71.7% (commercial and Medicare, respectively of those having a principal diagnosis of AIS. The average AIS-related readmission length of stay was nearly three times that of the initial hospitalization for both commercially insured patients (3.8 vs 10.8 days and Medicare beneficiaries (4.0 vs 10.8 days

  13. Improving discharge care: the potential of a new organisational intervention to improve discharge after hospitalisation for acute stroke, a controlled before–after pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Andrew, Nadine E; Stroil Salama, Enna; Hill, Kelvin; Middleton, Sandy; Horton, Eleanor; Meade, Ian; Kuhle, Sarah; Nelson, Mark R; Grimley, Rohan

    2017-01-01

    Objective Provision of a discharge care plan and prevention therapies is often suboptimal. Our objective was to design and pilot test an interdisciplinary, organisational intervention to improve discharge care using stroke as the case study using a mixed-methods, controlled before–after observational study design. Setting Acute care public hospitals in Queensland, Australia (n=15). The 15 hospitals were ranked against a benchmark based on a composite outcome of three discharge care processes....

  14. Stroke code improves intravenous thrombolysis administration in acute ischemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Chen

    Full Text Available Timely intravenous (IV thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke is associated with better clinical outcomes. Acute stroke care implemented with "Stroke Code" (SC may increase IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA administration. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of SC on thrombolysis.The study period was divided into the "pre-SC era" (January 2006 to July 2010 and "SC era" (August 2010 to July 2013. Demographics, critical times (stroke symptom onset, presentation to the emergency department, neuroimaging, thrombolysis, stroke severity, and clinical outcomes were recorded and compared between the two eras.During the study period, 5957 patients with acute ischemic stroke were admitted; of these, 1301 (21.8% arrived at the emergency department within 3 h of stroke onset and 307 (5.2% received IV-tPA. The number and frequency of IV-tPA treatments for patients with an onset-to-door time of <3 h increased from the pre-SC era (n = 91, 13.9% to the SC era (n = 216, 33.3% (P<0.001. SC also improved the efficiency of IV-tPA administration; the median door-to-needle time decreased (88 to 51 min, P<0.001 and the percentage of door-to-needle times ≤60 min increased (14.3% to 71.3%, P<0.001. The SC era group tended to have more patients with good outcome (modified Rankin Scale ≤2 at discharge (49.5 vs. 39.6%, P = 0.11, with no difference in symptomatic hemorrhage events or in-hospital mortality.The SC protocol increases the percentage of acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV-tPA and decreases door-to-needle time.

  15. Stroke: advances in medical therapy and acute stroke intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Kevin M; Lal, Brajesh K; Meschia, James F

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based therapeutic options for stroke continue to emerge based on results from well-designed clinical studies. Ischemic stroke far exceeds hemorrhagic stroke in terms of prevalence and incidence, both in the USA and worldwide. The public health effect of reducing death and disability related to ischemic stroke justifies the resources that have been invested in identifying safe and effective treatments. The emergence of novel oral anticoagulants for ischemic stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation has introduced complexity to clinical decision making for patients with this common cardiac arrhythmia. Some accepted ischemic stroke preventative strategies, such as carotid revascularization for asymptomatic carotid stenosis, require reassessment, given advances in risk factor management, antithrombotic therapy, and surgical techniques. Intra-arterial therapy, particularly with stent retrievers after intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, has recently been demonstrated to improve functional outcomes and will require investment in system-based care models to ensure that effective treatments are received by patients in a timely fashion. The purpose of this review is to describe recent advances in medical and surgical approaches to ischemic stroke prevention and acute treatment. Results from recently published clinical trials will be highlighted along with ongoing clinical trials addressing key questions in ischemic stroke management and prevention where equipoise remains.

  16. Plasma cytokines in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Boysen, Gudrun; Christensen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    GOALS: The aim of this study was to test the relations between plasma cytokines and the clinical characteristics, course, and risk factors in acute stroke. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The analysis was based on 179 patients with acute stroke included within 24 hours of stroke onset. On inclusion and 3...... months later plasma levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (sTNF-R2) were...

  17. Therapeutic hypothermia for acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Weber, Uno Jakob; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2003-01-01

    Experimental evidence and clinical experience show that hypothermia protects the brain from damage during ischaemia. There is a growing hope that the prevention of fever in stroke will improve outcome and that hypothermia may be a therapeutic option for the treatment of stroke. Body temperature...... obvious therapeutic potential, hypothermia as a form of neuroprotection for stroke has been investigated in only a few very small studies. Therapeutic hypothermia is feasible in acute stroke but owing to serious side-effects--such as hypotension, cardiac arrhythmia, and pneumonia--it is still thought...

  18. Registration of acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Cathrine; Mehnert, Frank; Thomsen, Reimar Wernich

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The validity of the registration of patients in stroke-specific registries has seldom been investigated, nor compared with administrative hospital discharge registries. The objective of this study was to examine the validity of the registration of patients in a stroke-specific registry...... (The Danish Stroke Registry [DSR]) and a hospital discharge registry (The Danish National Patient Registry [DNRP]). METHODS: Assuming that all patients with stroke were registered in either the DSR, DNRP or both, we first identified a sample of 75 patients registered with stroke in 2009; 25 patients...... in the DSR, 25 patients in the DNRP, and 25 patients registered in both data sources. Using the medical record as a gold standard, we then estimated the sensitivity and positive predictive value of a stroke diagnosis in the DSR and the DNRP. Secondly, we reviewed 160 medical records for all potential stroke...

  19. Enablers of the implementation of tissue plasminogen activator in acute stroke care: a cross-sectional survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Grady

    Full Text Available To assess emergency physicians' perceptions of individual and system enablers to the use of tissue Plasminogen Activator in acute stroke.Australian fellows and trainees of Australasian College for Emergency Medicine completed a 57-item online survey assessing enablers to implementation of evidence-based practice across six domains: knowledge, skills, modelling, monitoring, feedback, and maintenance. Demographic and workplace characteristics were obtained. Descriptive statistics were calculated to describe demographic and workplace characteristics of responders, and survey responses. Each domain received an overall score (% based on the number of responders agreeing with all items within the domain.A total of 429 (13% Australasian College for Emergency Medicine members responded. 17.7% of respondents reported they and/or their workplace met all knowledge-related enablers, however only 2.3% had all skill-related enablers in place. Of respondents who decide which patients receive tissue Plasminogen Activator treatment, 18.1% agreed that all maintenance-related enablers are in place at their hospital, compared to 6.6% for those who do not decide which patients receive tissue Plasminogen Activator treatment. None of the respondents had all items in place cross all domains.Even when allowing for the low response rate, it seems likely there is a lack of individual and system enablers supporting the implementation of best-practice stroke care in a number of Australian hospitals. Quality improvement programs could target all domains, particularly the skills-training and feedback emergency physicians receive, to aid implementation of tissue Plasminogen Activator treatment for acute stroke.

  20. Effect of a provincial system of stroke care delivery on stroke care and outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapral, Moira K.; Fang, Jiming; Silver, Frank L.; Hall, Ruth; Stamplecoski, Melissa; O’Callaghan, Christina; Tu, Jack V.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Systems of stroke care delivery have been promoted as a means of improving the quality of stroke care, but little is known about their effectiveness. We assessed the effect of the Ontario Stroke System, a province-wide strategy of regionalized stroke care delivery, on stroke care and outcomes in Ontario, Canada. Methods: We used population-based provincial administrative databases to identify all emergency department visits and hospital admissions for acute stroke and transient ischemic attack from Jan. 1, 2001, to Dec. 31, 2010. Using piecewise regression analyses, we assessed the effect of the full implementation of the Ontario Stroke System in 2005 on the proportion of patients who received care at stroke centres, and on rates of discharge to long-term care facilities and 30-day mortality after stroke. Results: We included 243 287 visits by patients with acute stroke or transient ischemic attack. The full implementation of the Ontario Stroke System in 2005 was associated with an increase in rates of care at stroke centres (before implementation: 40.0%; after implementation: 46.5%), decreased rates of discharge to long-term care facilities (before implementation: 16.9%; after implementation: 14.8%) and decreased 30-day mortality for hemorrhagic (before implementation: 38.3%; after implementation: 34.4%) and ischemic stroke (before implementation: 16.3%; after implementation: 15.7%). The system’s implementation was also associated with marked increases in the proportion of patients who received neuroimaging, thrombolytic therapy, care in a stroke unit and antithrombotic therapy. Interpretation: The implementation of an organized system of stroke care delivery was associated with improved processes of care and outcomes after stroke. PMID:23713072

  1. Acute ischemic stroke. Imaging and intervention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.G.; Lev, M.H.; Hirsch, J.A.; Koroshetz, W.J.; Schaefer, P.

    2006-01-01

    This timely book provides basic, practical and up-to-date information on how to use imaging to diagnose and treat patients with acute ischemic stroke. Written by physicians from the Massachusetts General Hospital and faculty from the Harvard Medical School, the book distills years of experience in the day-to-day management of acute stroke patients, as well as leading-edge basic and clinical research, into a practical guide. With the growing awareness that modern CT and MR imaging can meaningfully improve the outcome of the acute stroke patient, this book provides the practical information to advance the capacities of providers in delivering the most advanced care for this disease. (orig.)

  2. Feasibility of incorporating functionally relevant virtual rehabilitation in sub-acute stroke care: perception of patients and clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Marika; Chan Chun Kong, Daniel; Levin, Mindy F

    2018-03-11

    To determine user satisfaction and safety of incorporating a low-cost virtual rehabilitation intervention as an adjunctive therapeutic option for cognitive-motor upper limb rehabilitation in individuals with sub-acute stroke. A low-cost upper limb virtual rehabilitation application incorporating realistic functionally-relevant unimanual and bimanual tasks, specifically designed for cognitive-motor rehabilitation was developed for patients with sub-acute stroke. Clinicians and individuals with stroke interacted with the intervention for 15-20 or 20-45 minutes, respectively. The study had a mixed-methods convergent parallel design that included a focus group interview with clinicians working in a stroke program and semi-structured interviews and standardized assessments (Borg Perceived Exertion Scale, Short Feedback Questionnaire) for participants with sub-acute stroke undergoing rehabilitation. The occurrence of adverse events was also noted. Three main themes emerged from the clinician focus group and patient interviews: Perceived usefulness in rehabilitation, satisfaction with the virtual reality intervention and aspects to improve. All clinicians and the majority of participants with stroke were highly satisfied with the intervention and perceived its usefulness to decrease arm motor impairment during functional tasks. No participants experienced major adverse events. Incorporation of this type of functional activity game-based virtual reality intervention in the sub-acute phase of rehabilitation represents a way to transfer skills learned early in the clinical setting to real world situations. This type of intervention may lead to better integration of the upper limb into everyday activities. Implications for Rehabilitation • Use of a cognitive-motor low-cost virtual reality intervention designed to remediate arm motor impairments in sub-acute stroke is feasible, safe and perceived as useful by therapists and patients for stroke rehabilitation.

  3. Stroke Care 1 Medical treatment in acute and long-term secondary prevention after transient ischaemic attack and ischaemic stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rothwell, Peter M.; Algra, Ale; Amarenco, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. Without improvements in prevention, the burden will increase during the next 20 years because of the ageing population, especially in developing countries. Major advances have occurred in secondary prevention during the past three decades,

  4. Auditory Hallucinations in Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Lampl

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Auditory hallucinations are uncommon phenomena which can be directly caused by acute stroke, mostly described after lesions of the brain stem, very rarely reported after cortical strokes. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of this phenomenon. In a cross sectional study, 641 stroke patients were followed in the period between 1996–2000. Each patient underwent comprehensive investigation and follow-up. Four patients were found to have post cortical stroke auditory hallucinations. All of them occurred after an ischemic lesion of the right temporal lobe. After no more than four months, all patients were symptom-free and without therapy. The fact the auditory hallucinations may be of cortical origin must be taken into consideration in the treatment of stroke patients. The phenomenon may be completely reversible after a couple of months.

  5. Clozapine Intoxication Mimicking Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Villarreal

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic drug prescribed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. The risk of adverse hematologic, cardiovascular, and neurologic effects has tempered its use, and reports of overdoses remain rare. We report a case of accidental acute clozapine intoxication in a clozapine-naïve patient, who presented with symptoms mimicking acute stroke and later developed status epilepticus. Clozapine intoxication is a rare presentation in the emergency department with potential for iatrogenic harm if not correctly identified.

  6. Effects of golden hour thrombolysis: a Prehospital Acute Neurological Treatment and Optimization of Medical Care in Stroke (PHANTOM-S) substudy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebinger, Martin; Kunz, Alexander; Wendt, Matthias; Rozanski, Michal; Winter, Benjamin; Waldschmidt, Carolin; Weber, Joachim; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B; Audebert, Heinrich J

    2015-01-01

    The effectiveness of intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke is time dependent. The effects are likely to be highest if the time from symptom onset to treatment is within 60 minutes, termed the golden hour. To determine the achievable rate of golden hour thrombolysis in prehospital care and its effect on outcome. The prospective controlled Prehospital Acute Neurological Treatment and Optimization of Medical Care in Stroke study was conducted in Berlin, Germany, within an established infrastructure for stroke care. Weeks were randomized according to the availability of a specialized ambulance (stroke emergency mobile unit (STEMO) from May 1, 2011, through January 31, 2013. We included 6182 consecutive adult patients for whom a stroke dispatch (44.1% male; mean [SD] age, 73.9 [15.0] years) or regular care (45.0% male; mean [SD] age, 74.2 [14.9] years) were included. The STEMO was deployed when the dispatchers suspected an acute stroke during emergency calls. If STEMO was not available (during control weeks, when the unit was already in operation, or during maintenance), patients received conventional care. The STEMO is equipped with a computed tomographic scanner plus a point-of-care laboratory and telemedicine connection. The unit is staffed with a neurologist trained in emergency medicine, a paramedic, and a technician. Thrombolysis was started in STEMO if a stroke was confirmed and no contraindication was found. Rates of golden hour thrombolysis, 7- and 90-day mortality, secondary intracerebral hemorrhage, and discharge home. Thrombolysis rates in ischemic stroke were 200 of 614 patients (32.6%) when STEMO was deployed and 330 of 1497 patients (22.0%) when conventional care was administered (P golden hour thrombolysis was 6-fold higher after STEMO deployment (62 of 200 patients [31.0%] vs 16 of 330 [4.9%]; P golden hour thrombolysis had no higher risks for 7- or 90-day mortality (adjusted odds ratios, 0.38 [95% CI, 0.09-1.70]; P = .21 and 0.69 [95% CI

  7. STUDY OF ACUTE ISCHAEMIC STROKE IN ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Aslam Shaikh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Stroke affects 16.9 million people annually and the greatest burden of stroke is in low- and middle-income countries where 69% of all strokes occur. Stroke risk factors, mortality and outcomes differ in developing countries as compared to the developed world. Stroke incidence increases with increasing age and has an impact on daily living in many areas with increasing life expectancy. Old people constitute the majority of stroke victims. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 101 elderly patients of acute ischaemic stroke fulfilling inclusion and exclusion criteria who were admitted to M.S. Ramaiah Hospital between January 2014 and June 2016 were included in the study. Outcome was assessed by National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS score at admission, day 5 and at discharge, duration of hospital stay and inpatient mortality. RESULTS The mean age of the patients was 67.70±8.77 years. 67.3% of the patients were males. Hypertension (72.3%, diabetes mellitus (51.5% and dyslipidaemia (48.5% were the most common co-morbid conditions. Mean NIHSS score at the time of admission was 12±5.1, on day 5 was 8.47±4.75 and at the time of discharge was 3.27±3.33. Mean duration of hospital stay was 9.01±6.45 days and mortality was seen in 4 patients (4%. Most common site for infarct was in the middle cerebral artery territory (71.71%. CONCLUSION With continuing rapid increase in life expectancy and improvement in medical care, the proportion of elderly with stroke will rise. Therefore, stroke in the elderly is rapidly becoming a major public health concern.

  8. Applying principles from the game theory to acute stroke care: Learning from the prisoner's dilemma, stag-hunt, and other strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saposnik, Gustavo; Johnston, S Claiborne

    2016-04-01

    Acute stroke care represents a challenge for decision makers. Decisions based on erroneous assessments may generate false expectations of patients and their family members, and potentially inappropriate medical advice. Game theory is the analysis of interactions between individuals to study how conflict and cooperation affect our decisions. We reviewed principles of game theory that could be applied to medical decisions under uncertainty. Medical decisions in acute stroke care are usually made under constrains: short period of time, with imperfect clinical information, limit understanding about patients and families' values and beliefs. Game theory brings some strategies to help us manage complex medical situations under uncertainty. For example, it offers a different perspective by encouraging the consideration of different alternatives through the understanding of patients' preferences and the careful evaluation of cognitive distortions when applying 'real-world' data. The stag-hunt game teaches us the importance of trust to strength cooperation for a successful patient-physician interaction that is beyond a good or poor clinical outcome. The application of game theory to stroke care may improve our understanding of complex medical situations and help clinicians make practical decisions under uncertainty. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  9. The chain of care enabling tPA treatment in acute ischemic stroke : a comprehensive review of organisational models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lahr, Maarten M. H.; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; Vroomen, Patrick; van der Zee, D.J.; Buskens, Erik

    Protracted and partial implementation of treatment with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) within 4.5 h after acute stroke onset results in potentially eligible patients not receiving optimal treatment. The goal of this study was to review the performance of various organisational models

  10. Effect of aphasia on acute stroke outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K.; Martin-Schild, Sheryl; Marshall, Randolph S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of aphasia on outcomes during acute stroke admission, controlling for total NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores and loss of consciousness. Methods: Data from the Tulane Stroke Registry were used from July 2008 to December 2014 for patient demographics, NIHSS scores, length of stay (LOS), complications (sepsis, deep vein thrombosis), and discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score. Aphasia was defined as a score >1 on question 9 on the NIHSS on admission and hemiparesis as >1 on questions 5 or 6. Results: Among 1,847 patients, 866 (46%) had aphasia on admission. Adjusting for NIHSS score and inpatient complications, those with aphasia had a 1.22 day longer LOS than those without aphasia, whereas those with hemiparesis (n = 1,225) did not have any increased LOS compared to those without hemiparesis. Those with aphasia had greater odds of having a complication (odds ratio [OR] 1.44, confidence interval [CI] 1.07–1.93, p = 0.0174) than those without aphasia, which was equivalent to those having hemiparesis (OR 1.47, CI 1.09–1.99, p = 0.0137). Controlling for NIHSS scores, aphasia patients had higher odds of discharge mRS 3–6 (OR 1.42 vs 1.15). Conclusion: Aphasia is independently associated with increased LOS and complications during the acute stroke admission, adding $2.16 billion annually to US acute stroke care. The presence of aphasia was more likely to produce a poor functional outcome than hemiparesis. These data suggest that further research is necessary to determine whether establishing adaptive communication skills can mitigate its consequences in the acute stroke setting. PMID:27765864

  11. Acute pediatric stroke: contributors to institutional cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Colin M; Wang, Wei; Seiber, Eric; Lo, Warren

    2011-11-01

    Recent studies examined the overall cost of pediatric stroke, but there are little data regarding the sources of these costs. We examined an administrative database that collected charges from 24 US children's hospitals to determine the sources of costs for acute hospital care of stroke. We used International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision codes to search the Pediatric Health Information System. From 2003 to 2009 there were 1667 patients who had a primary diagnosis of stroke, 703 of which were hemorrhagic and 964 were ischemic. Individual costs, excluding physician charges, were gathered under 7 categories that were ranked to determine which contributed the most to total cost. Individual costs were ranked within their categories. We analyzed costs based on stroke type. Total costs were adjusted using the US Consumer Price Index to compare increases with the rate of inflation. Median total cost for any stroke was $19,548 (interquartile range, $10,764-$40,721). The category "other/nursing" contributed the most to hospital costs followed by imaging, laboratory, and pharmacy. Brain MRI and CT contributed the most to imaging costs. Hemorrhagic strokes (median $24,843) were more expensive than ischemic strokes (median $16,954). Total cost increased from 2003 to 2009, but no overall annual trend emerged after controlling for gender, age, race, and hospital. This is the first in-depth analysis of cost for pediatric stroke care. The highest cost categories are potential targets for cost containment but are also crucial for effective diagnosis and treatment. Necessary yet prudent use of imaging technologies and inpatient stays may be strategies for cost containment.

  12. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  13. Barriers and enablers to implementing clinical treatment protocols for fever, hyperglycaemia, and swallowing dysfunction in the Quality in Acute Stroke Care (QASC) Project--a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Simeon; Levi, Christopher; Ward, Jeanette; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; Jammali-Blasi, Asmara; D'Este, Catherine; Griffiths, Rhonda; Quinn, Clare; Evans, Malcolm; Cadilhac, Dominique; Cheung, N Wah; Middleton, Sandy

    2015-02-01

    The Quality in Acute Stroke Care (QASC) trial evaluated systematic implementation of clinical treatment protocols to manage fever, sugar, and swallow (FeSS protocols) in acute stroke care. This cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in 19 stroke units in Australia. To describe perceived barriers and enablers preimplementation to the introduction of the FeSS protocols and, postimplementation, to determine which of these barriers eventuated as actual barriers. Preimplementation: Workshops were held at the intervention stroke units (n = 10). The first workshop involved senior clinicians who identified perceived barriers and enablers to implementation of the protocols, the second workshop involved bedside clinicians. Postimplementation, an online survey with stroke champions from intervention sites was conducted. A total of 111 clinicians attended the preimplementation workshops, identifying 22 barriers covering four main themes: (a) need for new policies, (b) limited workforce (capacity), (c) lack of equipment, and (d) education and logistics of training staff. Preimplementation enablers identified were: support by clinical champions, medical staff, nursing management and allied health staff; easy adaptation of current protocols, care-plans, and local policies; and presence of specialist stroke unit staff. Postimplementation, only five of the 22 barriers identified preimplementation were reported as actual barriers to adoption of the FeSS protocols, namely, no previous use of insulin infusions; hyperglycaemic protocols could not be commenced without written orders; medical staff reluctance to use the ASSIST swallowing screening tool; poor level of engagement of medical staff; and doctors' unawareness of the trial. The process of identifying barriers and enablers preimplementation allowed staff to take ownership and to address barriers and plan for change. As only five of the 22 barriers identified preimplementation were reported to be actual barriers at

  14. Piracetam for acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Stefano; Celani, Maria Grazia; Cantisani, Teresa Anna; Righetti, Enrico

    2012-09-12

    Piracetam has neuroprotective and antithrombotic effects that may help to reduce death and disability in people with acute stroke. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 1999, and previously updated in 2006 and 2009. To assess the effects of piracetam in acute, presumed ischaemic stroke. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (last searched 15 May 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1966 to May 2011), EMBASE (1980 to May 2011), and ISI Science Citation Index (1981 to May 2011). We also contacted the manufacturer of piracetam to identify further published and unpublished studies. Randomised trials comparing piracetam with control, with at least mortality reported and entry to the trial within three days of stroke onset. Two review authors extracted data and assessed trial quality and this was checked by the other two review authors. We contacted study authors for missing information. We included three trials involving 1002 patients, with one trial contributing 93% of the data. Participants' ages ranged from 40 to 85 years, and both sexes were equally represented. Piracetam was associated with a statistically non-significant increase in death at one month (approximately 31% increase, 95% confidence interval 81% increase to 5% reduction). This trend was no longer apparent in the large trial after correction for imbalance in stroke severity. Limited data showed no difference between the treatment and control groups for functional outcome, dependence or proportion of patients dead or dependent. Adverse effects were not reported. There is some suggestion (but no statistically significant result) of an unfavourable effect of piracetam on early death, but this may have been caused by baseline differences in stroke severity in the trials. There is not enough evidence to assess the effect of piracetam on dependence.

  15. Improving discharge care: the potential of a new organisational intervention to improve discharge after hospitalisation for acute stroke, a controlled before-after pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Andrew, Nadine E; Stroil Salama, Enna; Hill, Kelvin; Middleton, Sandy; Horton, Eleanor; Meade, Ian; Kuhle, Sarah; Nelson, Mark R; Grimley, Rohan

    2017-08-04

    Provision of a discharge care plan and prevention therapies is often suboptimal. Our objective was to design and pilot test an interdisciplinary, organisational intervention to improve discharge care using stroke as the case study using a mixed-methods, controlled before-after observational study design. Acute care public hospitals in Queensland, Australia (n=15). The 15 hospitals were ranked against a benchmark based on a composite outcome of three discharge care processes. Clinicians from a 'top-ranked' hospital participated in a focus group to elicit their success factors. Two pilot hospitals then participated in the organisational intervention that was designed with experts and consumers. Hospital clinicians involved in discharge care for stroke and patients admitted with acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack. A four-stage, multifaceted organisational intervention that included data reviews, education and facilitated action planning. Three discharge processes collected in Queensland hospitals within the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry were used to select study hospitals: (1) discharge care plan; (2) antihypertensive medication prescription and (3) antiplatelet medication prescription (ischaemic events only). Primary measure: composite outcome. Secondary measures: individual adherence changes for each discharge process; sensitivity analyses. The performance outcomes were compared 3 months before the intervention (preintervention), 3 months postintervention and at 12 months (sustainability). Data from 1289 episodes of care from the two pilot hospitals were analysed. Improvements from preintervention adherence were: antiplatelet therapy (88%vs96%, p=0.02); antihypertensive prescription (61%vs79%, porganisational intervention. The intervention warrants further application and trialling on a larger scale. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  16. Measuring Quality Improvement in Acute Ischemic Stroke Care: Interrupted Time Series Analysis of Door-to-Needle Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Margreet van Dishoeck

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In patients with acute ischemic stroke, early treatment with recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA improves functional outcome by effectively reducing disability and dependency. Timely thrombolysis, within 1 h, is a vital aspect of acute stroke treatment, and is reflected in the widely used performance indicator ‘door-to-needle time' (DNT. DNT measures the time from the moment the patient enters the emergency department until he/she receives intravenous rtPA. The purpose of the study was to measure quality improvement from the first implementation of thrombolysis in stroke patients in a university hospital in the Netherlands. We further aimed to identify specific interventions that affect DNT. Methods: We included all patients with acute ischemic stroke consecutively admitted to a large university hospital in the Netherlands between January 2006 and December 2012, and focused on those treated with thrombolytic therapy on admission. Data were collected routinely for research purposes and internal quality measurement (the Erasmus Stroke Study. We used a retrospective interrupted time series design to study the trend in DNT, analyzed by means of segmented regression. Results: Between January 2006 and December 2012, 1,703 patients with ischemic stroke were admitted and 262 (17% were treated with rtPA. Patients treated with thrombolysis were on average 63 years old at the time of the stroke and 52% were male. Mean age (p = 0.58 and sex distribution (p = 0.98 did not change over the years. The proportion treated with thrombolysis increased from 5% in 2006 to 22% in 2012. In 2006, none of the patients were treated within 1 h. In 2012, this had increased to 81%. In a logistic regression analysis, this trend was significant (OR 1.6 per year, CI 1.4-1.8. The median DNT was reduced from 75 min in 2006 to 45 min in 2012 (p Conclusion and Implications: The DNT steadily improved from the first implementation of thrombolysis. Specific

  17. RecoverNow: Feasibility of a Mobile Tablet-Based Rehabilitation Intervention to Treat Post-Stroke Communication Deficits in the Acute Care Setting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen H Mallet

    Full Text Available Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients' access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke.We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP, patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability.Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most "convenient".Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care.

  18. RecoverNow: Feasibility of a Mobile Tablet-Based Rehabilitation Intervention to Treat Post-Stroke Communication Deficits in the Acute Care Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallet, Karen H; Shamloul, Rany M; Corbett, Dale; Finestone, Hillel M; Hatcher, Simon; Lumsden, Jim; Momoli, Franco; Shamy, Michel C F; Stotts, Grant; Swartz, Richard H; Yang, Christine; Dowlatshahi, Dar

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of patients diagnosed with stroke experience some degree of aphasia. With limited health care resources, patients' access to speech and language therapies is often delayed. We propose using mobile-platform technology to initiate early speech-language therapy in the acute care setting. For this pilot, our objective was to assess the feasibility of a tablet-based speech-language therapy for patients with communication deficits following acute stroke. We enrolled consecutive patients admitted with a stroke and communication deficits with NIHSS score ≥1 on the best language and/or dysarthria parameters. We excluded patients with severe comprehension deficits where communication was not possible. Following baseline assessment by a speech-language pathologist (SLP), patients were provided with a mobile tablet programmed with individualized therapy applications based on the assessment, and instructed to use it for at least one hour per day. Our objective was to establish feasibility by measuring recruitment rate, adherence rate, retention rate, protocol deviations and acceptability. Over 6 months, 143 patients were admitted with a new diagnosis of stroke: 73 had communication deficits, 44 met inclusion criteria, and 30 were enrolled into RecoverNow (median age 62, 26.6% female) for a recruitment rate of 68% of eligible participants. Participants received mobile tablets at a mean 6.8 days from admission [SEM 1.6], and used them for a mean 149.8 minutes/day [SEM 19.1]. In-hospital retention rate was 97%, and 96% of patients scored the mobile tablet-based communication therapy as at least moderately convenient 3/5 or better with 5/5 being most "convenient". Individualized speech-language therapy delivered by mobile tablet technology is feasible in acute care.

  19. The Riks-Stroke story: building a sustainable national register for quality assessment of stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Kjell; Hulter Åsberg, Kerstin; Appelros, Peter; Bjarne, Daniela; Eriksson, Marie; Johansson, Asa; Jonsson, Fredrik; Norrving, Bo; Stegmayr, Birgitta; Terént, Andreas; Wallin, Sari; Wester, Per-Olov

    2011-04-01

    Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register, is the world's longest-running national stroke quality register (established in 1994) and includes all 76 hospitals in Sweden admitting acute stroke patients. The development and maintenance of this sustainable national register is described. Riks-Stroke includes information on the quality of care during the acute phase, rehabilitation and secondary prevention of stroke, as well as data on community support. Riks-Stroke is unique among stroke quality registers in that patients are followed during the first year after stroke. The data collected describe processes, and medical and patient-reported outcome measurements. The register embraces most of the dimensions of health-care quality (evidence-based, safe, provided in time, distributed fairly and patient oriented). Annually, approximately 25,000 patients are included. In 2009, approximately 320,000 patients had been accumulated (mean age 76-years). The register is estimated to cover 82% of all stroke patients treated in Swedish hospitals. Among critical issues when building a national stroke quality register, the delicate balance between simplicity and comprehensiveness is emphasised. Future developments include direct transfer of data from digital medical records to Riks-Stroke and comprehensive strategies to use the information collected to rapidly implement new evidence-based techniques and to eliminate outdated methods in stroke care. It is possible to establish a sustainable quality register for stroke at the national level covering all hospitals admitting acute stroke patients. Riks-Stroke is fulfilling its main goals to support continuous quality improvement of Swedish stroke services and serve as an instrument for following up national stroke guidelines. © 2010 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2010 World Stroke Organization.

  20. Causes and Treatment of Acute Ischemic Stroke During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terón, Ina; Eng, Melissa S; Katz, Jeffrey M

    2018-05-21

    Treatment recommendations for pregnancy associated ischemic stroke are scarce. This may be due to the fact that, in general, obstetricians tend not to make recommendations for stroke patients and neurologists are not commonly involved in the care of pregnant women. Herein, we review the multiple etiologies of ischemic stroke during pregnancy, considerations for diagnostic testing, and acute treatment and prevention options, including associated risks specific to the pregnant and puerperal state. Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and endovascular thrombectomy have been used successfully to treat pregnant women with acute ischemic stroke. Recent national guidelines recommend considering tPA use during pregnancy for moderate and severe strokes if the potential benefits offset the risks of uterine hemorrhage. Pregnancy-associated ischemic stroke is rare, but can be devastating, and recanalization therapy should not be systematically withheld. Women who are at risk for stroke should be followed carefully, and providers caring for pregnant women should be educated regarding stroke signs and symptoms. Many of the standard post stroke diagnostic modalities may be used safely in pregnancy, and primary and secondary stroke prevention therapy must be tailored to avoid fetal toxicity.

  1. Acute stroke unit improves stroke management-four years on from INASC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, E; Keenan, R; Cunningham, N; O'Malley, G; O'Connor, M; Lyons, D; Peters, C

    2015-02-01

    The Irish Heart Foundation carried out the Irish National Audit of Stroke Care (INASC) in 2008. Management practices were significantly poorer than those in the UK Sentinel audits. Since then an acute stroke unit has been established in University Hospital Limerick. A stroke database was established. 12 key indicators of stroke management audited by INASC were identified. Results were compared to those in INASC. 89 stroke patients were admitted. 8 of the 12 key indicators scored significantly better than in INASC. 92.5% had a brain scan within 24hrs (INASC-40%, p = strokes received anti-thrombotics (INASC-85%, p = 0.001). 94% had rehab goals agreed by MDT (22% in INASC p = 0.0000). 55% were treated in stroke unit (2% in INASC, p = 0.0000). MDT input improved with regard to physiotherapy (87% vs 43% in INASC, p = Stroke management has significantly improved from 2008, however some deficiencies remain.

  2. Perfusion CT in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eckert, Bernd; Roether, Joachim; Fiehler, Jens; Thomalla, Goetz

    2015-01-01

    Modern multislice CT scanners enable multimodal protocols including non-enhanced CT, CT angiography, and CT perfusion. A 64-slice CT scanner provides 4-cm coverage. To cover the whole brain, a 128 - 256-slice scanner is needed. The use of perfusion CT requires an optimized scan protocol in order to reduce exposure to radiation. As compared to non-enhanced CT and CT angiography, the use of CT perfusion increases detection rates of cerebral ischemia, especially small cortical ischemic lesions, while the detection of lacunar and infratentorial stroke lesions remains limited. Perfusion CT enables estimation of collateral flow in acute occlusion of large intra- or extracranial arteries. Currently, no established reliable thresholds are available for determining infarct core and penumbral tissue by CT perfusion. Moreover, perfusion parameters depend on the processing algorithms and the software used for calculation. However, a number of studies point towards a reduction of cerebral blood volume (CBV) below 2 ml/100 g as a critical threshold that identifies infarct core. Large CBV lesions are associated with poor outcome even in the context of recanalization. The extent of early ischemic signs on non-enhanced CT remains the main parameter from CT imaging to guide acute reperfusion treatment. Nevertheless, perfusion CT increases diagnostic and therapeutic certainty in the acute setting. Similar to stroke MRI, perfusion CT enables the identification of tissue at risk of infarction by the mismatch between infarct core and the larger area of critical hypoperfusion. Further insights into the validity of perfusion parameters are expected from ongoing trials of mechanical thrombectomy in stroke.

  3. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  4. Transition of care for acute stroke and myocardial infarction patients: from hospitalization to rehabilitation, recovery, and secondary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, DaiWai M; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Alexander, Karen P; Kendrick, Amy S; Irvine, Julian R; Wing, Liz; Coeytaux, Remy R; Dolor, Rowena J; Duncan, Pamela W; Graffagnino, Carmelo

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To review the available published literature to assess whether evidence supports a beneficial role for coordinated transition of care services for the postacute care of patients hospitalized with first or recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI). This review was framed around five areas of investigation: (1) key components of transition of care services, (2) evidence for improvement in functional outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, (3) associated risks or potential harms, (4) evidence for improvement in systems of care, and (5) evidence that benefits and harms vary by patient-based or system-based characteristics. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE(®), CINAHL(®), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Embase(®). REVIEW METHODS We included studies published in English from 2000 to 2011 that specified postacute hospitalization transition of care services as well as prevention of recurrent stroke or MI. RESULTS A total of 62 articles representing 44 studies were included for data abstraction. Transition of care interventions were grouped into four categories: (1) hospital -initiated support for discharge was the initial stage in the transition of care process, (2) patient and family education interventions were started during hospitalization but were continued at the community level, (3) community-based models of support followed hospital discharge, and (4) chronic disease management models of care assumed the responsibility for long-term care. Early supported discharge after stroke was associated with reduced total hospital length of stay without adverse effects on functional recovery, and specialty care after MI was associated with reduced mortality. Because of several methodological shortcomings, most studies did not consistently demonstrate that any specific intervention resulted in improved patient-or system -based outcomes. Some studies included more than one intervention, which made it difficult to determine the effect of individual

  5. Transition of care for acute stroke and myocardial infarction patients: from hospitalization to rehabilitation, recovery, and secondary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, DaiWai M; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Alexander, Karen P; Kendrick, Amy S; Irvine, Julian R; Wing, Liz; Coeytaux, Remy R; Dolor, Rowena J; Duncan, Pamela W; Graffagnino, Carmelo

    2011-10-01

    To review the available published literature to assess whether evidence supports a beneficial role for coordinated transition of care services for the postacute care of patients hospitalized with first or recurrent stroke or myocardial infarction (MI). This review was framed around five areas of investigation: (1) key components of transition of care services, (2) evidence for improvement in functional outcomes, morbidity, mortality, and quality of life, (3) associated risks or potential harms, (4) evidence for improvement in systems of care, and (5) evidence that benefits and harms vary by patient-based or system-based characteristics. MEDLINE(®), CINAHL(®), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Embase(®). We included studies published in English from 2000 to 2011 that specified postacute hospitalization transition of care services as well as prevention of recurrent stroke or MI. A total of 62 articles representing 44 studies were included for data abstraction. Transition of care interventions were grouped into four categories: (1) hospital -initiated support for discharge was the initial stage in the transition of care process, (2) patient and family education interventions were started during hospitalization but were continued at the community level, (3) community-based models of support followed hospital discharge, and (4) chronic disease management models of care assumed the responsibility for long-term care. Early supported discharge after stroke was associated with reduced total hospital length of stay without adverse effects on functional recovery, and specialty care after MI was associated with reduced mortality. Because of several methodological shortcomings, most studies did not consistently demonstrate that any specific intervention resulted in improved patient-or system -based outcomes. Some studies included more than one intervention, which made it difficult to determine the effect of individual components on clinical outcomes. There was

  6. Dilemma in the emergency setting: hypomagnesemia mimicking acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rico M

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available María Rico, Laura Martinez-Rodriguez, Davinia Larrosa-Campo, Sergio Calleja Neurology Department, Central University Hospital of Asturias, Oviedo, Spain Background: Stroke mimics may account for up to 30% of all acute stroke consultations. However, in the emergency setting, accurate diagnosis is not always possible.Methods: Case report and review of the literature.Results: A 73-year-old woman was admitted to the emergency department with acute aphasia and right hemiparesis. The National Institute of Health Stroke Score was 21, compatible with severe stroke, so she received thrombolysis. Laboratory testing demonstrated severe hypomagnesemia. She had been taking proton pump inhibitors for years and neuroimaging did not demonstrate signs of acute ischemic disease. After correcting the metabolic alterations with intravenous and oral supplemental magnesium, the patient was discharged asymptomatic. No further episodes have been registered to date.Conclusion: Hypomagnesemia might cause acute neurological symptoms that could be confused with stroke. A careful history is essential for diagnosis but suspicion of stroke mimic should not prevent tPA administration. Keywords: hypomagnesemia, stroke mimic, aphasia, stroke

  7. Part 11: adult stroke: 2010 American Heart Association Guidelines for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Cucchiara, Brett; Adeoye, Opeolu; Meurer, William; Brice, Jane; Chan, Yvonne Yu-Feng; Gentile, Nina; Hazinski, Mary Fran

    2010-11-02

    Advances in stroke care will have the greatest effect on stroke outcome if care is delivered within a regional stroke system designed to improve both efficiency and effectiveness. The ultimate goal of stroke care is to minimize ongoing injury, emergently recanalize acute vascular occlusions, and begin secondary measures to maximize functional recovery. These efforts will provide stroke patients with the greatest opportunity for a return to previous quality of life and decrease the overall societal burden of stroke.

  8. Predictors and Outcomes of Dysphagia Screening After Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joundi, Raed A; Martino, Rosemary; Saposnik, Gustavo; Giannakeas, Vasily; Fang, Jiming; Kapral, Moira K

    2017-04-01

    Guidelines advocate screening all acute stroke patients for dysphagia. However, limited data are available regarding how many and which patients are screened and how failing a swallowing screen affects patient outcomes. We sought to evaluate predictors of receiving dysphagia screening after acute ischemic stroke and outcomes after failing a screening test. We used the Ontario Stroke Registry from April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2013, to identify patients hospitalized with acute ischemic stroke and determine predictors of documented dysphagia screening and outcomes after failing the screening test, including pneumonia, disability, and death. Among 7171 patients, 6677 patients were eligible to receive dysphagia screening within 72 hours, yet 1280 (19.2%) patients did not undergo documented screening. Patients with mild strokes were significantly less likely than those with more severe strokes to have documented screening (adjusted odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41-0.64). Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including pneumonia (adjusted odds ratio, 4.71; 95% CI, 3.43-6.47), severe disability (adjusted odds ratio, 5.19; 95% CI, 4.48-6.02), discharge to long-term care (adjusted odds ratio, 2.79; 95% CI, 2.11-3.79), and 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 2.42; 95% CI, 2.09-2.80). Associations were maintained in patients with mild strokes. One in 5 patients with acute ischemic stroke did not have documented dysphagia screening, and patients with mild strokes were substantially less likely to have documented screening. Failing dysphagia screening was associated with poor outcomes, including in patients with mild strokes, highlighting the importance of dysphagia screening for all patients with acute ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Effects of Slow-Stroke Back Massage on Symptom Cluster in Adult Patients With Acute Leukemia: Supportive Care in Cancer Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladinia, Mojtaba; Baraz, Shahram; Shariati, Abdolali; Malehi, Amal Saki

    Patients with acute leukemia usually experience pain, fatigue, and sleep disorders, which affect their quality of life. Massage therapy, as a nondrug approach, can be useful in controlling such problems. However, very few studies have been conducted on the effects of massage therapy on the complications of leukemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of slow-stroke back massage (SSBM) on the symptom cluster in acute leukemia adult patients undergoing chemotherapy. In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients with acute leukemia were allocated randomly to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received SSBM 3 times a week (every other day for 10 minutes) for 4 weeks. The pain, fatigue, and sleep disorder intensities were measured using the numeric rating scale. The sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Statistical tests of χ, t test, and the repeated-measure analysis of variance were used for data analysis. Results showed that the SSBM intervention significantly reduced the progressive sleep disorder, pain, fatigue, and improved sleep quality over time. Slow-stroke back massage, as a simple, noninvasive, and cost-effective approach, along with routine nursing care, can be used to improve the symptom cluster of pain, fatigue, and sleep disorders in leukemia patients. Oncology nurses can increase their knowledge regarding this symptom cluster and work to diminish the cluster components by using SSBM in adult leukemia patients.

  10. Transthyretin Concentrations in Acute Stroke Patients Predict Convalescent Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isono, Naofumi; Imamura, Yuki; Ohmura, Keiko; Ueda, Norihide; Kawabata, Shinji; Furuse, Motomasa; Kuroiwa, Toshihiko

    2017-06-01

    For stroke patients, intensive nutritional management is an important and effective component of inpatient rehabilitation. Accordingly, acute care hospitals must detect and prevent malnutrition at an early stage. Blood transthyretin levels are widely used as a nutritional monitoring index in critically ill patients. Here, we had analyzed the relationship between the transthyretin levels during the acute phase and Functional Independence Measure in stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation. We investigated 117 patients who were admitted to our hospital with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke from February 2013 to October 2015 and subsequently transferred to convalescent hospitals after receiving acute treatment. Transthyretin concentrations were evaluated at 3 time points as follows: at admission, and 5 and 10 days after admission. After categorizing patients into 3 groups according to the minimum transthyretin level, we analyzed the association between transthyretin and Functional Independence Measure. In our patients, transthyretin levels decreased during the first 5 days after admission and recovered slightly during the subsequent 5 days. Notably, Functional Independence Measure efficiency was significantly associated with the decrease in transthyretin levels during the 5 days after admission. Patients with lower transthyretin levels had poorer Functional Independence Measure outcomes and tended not to be discharged to their own homes. A minimal transthyretin concentration (stroke patients undergoing convalescent rehabilitation. In particular, an early decrease in transthyretin levels suggests restricted rehabilitation efficiency. Accordingly, transthyretin levels should be monitored in acute stroke patients to indicate mid-term rehabilitation prospects. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute ischemic stroke prognostication, comparison between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ossama Y. Mansour

    2014-11-20

    Nov 20, 2014 ... patients with acute ischemic stroke in comparison with the NIHSS and the GCS. Methods: .... All patients received a CT scan of the brain on admission. Diagnostic ... adjusted for age, sex, Charlson Index and Oxfordshire. 248.

  12. Retrospective checking of compliance with practice guidelines for acute stroke care: a novel experiment using openEHR’s Guideline Definition Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Providing scalable clinical decision support (CDS) across institutions that use different electronic health record (EHR) systems has been a challenge for medical informatics researchers. The lack of commonly shared EHR models and terminology bindings has been recognised as a major barrier to sharing CDS content among different organisations. The openEHR Guideline Definition Language (GDL) expresses CDS content based on openEHR archetypes and can support any clinical terminologies or natural languages. Our aim was to explore in an experimental setting the practicability of GDL and its underlying archetype formalism. A further aim was to report on the artefacts produced by this new technological approach in this particular experiment. We modelled and automatically executed compliance checking rules from clinical practice guidelines for acute stroke care. Methods We extracted rules from the European clinical practice guidelines as well as from treatment contraindications for acute stroke care and represented them using GDL. Then we executed the rules retrospectively on 49 mock patient cases to check the cases’ compliance with the guidelines, and manually validated the execution results. We used openEHR archetypes, GDL rules, the openEHR reference information model, reference terminologies and the Data Archetype Definition Language. We utilised the open-sourced GDL Editor for authoring GDL rules, the international archetype repository for reusing archetypes, the open-sourced Ocean Archetype Editor for authoring or modifying archetypes and the CDS Workbench for executing GDL rules on patient data. Results We successfully represented clinical rules about 14 out of 19 contraindications for thrombolysis and other aspects of acute stroke care with 80 GDL rules. These rules are based on 14 reused international archetypes (one of which was modified), 2 newly created archetypes and 51 terminology bindings (to three terminologies). Our manual compliance checks for

  13. Stroke Mortality in Intensive Care Unit from Tertiary Care Neurological Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lekhjung Thapa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stroke is the second most common cause of death and major cause of disability worldwide. About a quarter of stroke patients are dead within a month, about a third by 6 months, and a half by 1 year. Although the most substantial advance in stroke has been the routine management of patients in stroke care units, intensive care unit has remained the choice for stroke patients’ care in developing countries. This study explores the mortality of stroke patients in intensive care unit setting in tertiary care neurological centre in a developing country. Methods: We collected data of stroke patients admitted in our ICU from August 2009 to Aug 2010 and analyzed. Results: Total 44 (10.25% patients were admitted for acute stroke. Age ranged from 17-93 years. Low GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale, uncontrolled hypertension and aspiration pneumonia were common indications for admission in ICU. Total 23 (52.3% patients had hemorrhagic stroke and 21(47.7% patients had ischemic stroke. 13 (29.54% patients of stroke died within 7 days, 9 (69.23% patients of hemorrhagic stroke died within 6 days, and 4 patients (30.76% of ischemic stroke died within 7 days. 6 (13.63% patients left hospital against medical advice. All of these patients had ischemic stroke. Conclusions: Stroke mortality in intensive care unit remains high despite of care in tertiary neurological center in resource poor settings. Stroke care unit, which would also help dissemination of knowledge of stroke management, is an option for improved outcome in developing countries Keywords: intensive care unit; mortality; stroke; stroke care unit.

  14. Stroke Laterality Bias in the Management of Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluskey, Gavin; Wade, Carrie; McKee, Jacqueline; McCarron, Peter; McVerry, Ferghal; McCarron, Mark O

    2016-11-01

    Little is known of the impact of stroke laterality on the management process and outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Consecutive patients admitted to a general hospital over 1 year with supratentorial AIS were eligible for inclusion in the study. Baseline characteristics and risk factors, delays in hospital admission, imaging, intrahospital transfer to an acute stoke unit, stroke severity and classification, length of hospital admission, as well as 10-year mortality were measured and compared among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. There were 141 patients (77 men, 64 women; median age 73 [interquartile range 63-79] years), There were 71 patients with left hemisphere AIS and 70 with right hemisphere AIS. Delays to hospital admission from stroke onset to neuroimaging were similar among right and left hemisphere AIS patients. Delay in transfer to an acute stroke unit (ASU) following hospital admission was on average 14 hours more for right hemisphere compared to left hemisphere AIS patients (P = .01). Laterality was not associated with any difference in 10-year survival. Patients with mild and nondominant AIS merit particular attention to minimize their intrahospital transfer time to an ASU. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Costs of stroke and stroke services: Determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koopmanschap Marc A

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients. This paper discusses patient costs after stroke and compares costs between regular and stroke service care. Methods Costs were calculated within the framework of the evaluation of three experiments with stroke services in the Netherlands. Cost calculations are base on medical consumption data and actual costs. Results 598 patients were consecutively admitted to hospital after stroke. The average total costs of care per patient for the 6 month follow-up are estimated at €16,000. Costs are dominated by institutional and accommodation costs. Patients who die after stroke incur less costs. For patients that survive the acute phase, the most important determinants of costs are disability status and having a partner – as they influence patients' stroke careers. These determinants also interact. The most efficient stroke service experiment was most successful in co-ordinating patient flow from hospital to (nursing home, through capacity planning and efficient discharge procedures. In this region the costs of stroke service care are the same as for regular stroke care. The other experiments suffered from waiting lists for nursing homes and home care, leading to "blocked beds" in hospitals and nursing homes and higher costs of care. Costs of co-ordination are estimated at about 3% of total costs of care. Conclusion This paper demonstrates that by organising care for stroke patients in a stroke service, better health effects can be achieved with the same budget. In addition, it provides insight in need, predisposing and enabling factors that determine costs of care after stroke.

  16. Angiotensin receptor blockade in acute stroke. The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Murray, Gordon; Boysen, Gudrun

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure following acute stroke is common, and yet early antihypertensive treatment is controversial. ACCESS suggested a beneficial effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker candesartan in the acute phase of stroke, but these findings need to be confirmed in new, large...

  17. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  18. [Primary emergencies: management of acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leys, Didier; Goldstein, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The emergency diagnostic strategy for acute ischemic stroke consists of:--identification of stroke, based on clinical examination (sudden onset of a focal neurological deficit);--identification of the ischemic or hemorrhagic nature by MRI or CT;--determination of the early time-course (clinical examination) and the cause. In all strokes (ischemic or hemorrhagic), treatment consists of:--the same general management (treatment of a life-threatening emergency, ensuring normal biological parameters except for blood pressure, and prevention of complications);--decompressive surgery in the rare cases of intracranial hypertension. For proven ischemic stroke, other therapies consist of: rt-PA for patients admitted with 4.5 hours of stroke onset who have no contraindications, and aspirin (160 to 300 mg) for patients who are not eligible for rt-PA. These treatments should be administered within a few hours. A centralized emergency call system (phone number 15 in France) is the most effective way of achieving this objective.

  19. Satisfaction with palliative care after stroke: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blacquiere, Dylan; Bhimji, Khadija; Meggison, Hilary; Sinclair, John; Sharma, Michael

    2013-09-01

    The determinants of satisfaction for families of acute stroke patients receiving palliative care have not been extensively studied. We surveyed families to determine how they perceived palliative care after stroke. Families of patients palliated after ischemic stroke, intracerebral, or subarachnoid hemorrhage were approached. Four weeks after the patient's death, families were administered the After-Death Bereaved Family Member Interview to determine satisfaction with the care provided. Fifteen families participated. Families were most satisfied with participation in decision making and least satisfied with attention to emotional needs. In stroke-specific domains, families had less satisfaction with artificial feeding, hydration, and communication. Overall satisfaction was high (9.04 out of 10). Families of patients receiving palliative care at our institution showed generally high satisfaction with palliation after stroke; specific domains were identified for improvement. Further study in larger populations is required.

  20. Acute stroke unit improves stroke management-four years on from INASC.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, E

    2015-02-01

    The Irish Heart Foundation carried out the Irish National Audit of Stroke Care (INASC) in 2008. Management practices were significantly poorer than those in the UK Sentinel audits. Since then an acute stroke unit has been established in University Hospital Limerick. A stroke database was established. 12 key indicators of stroke management audited by INASC were identified. Results were compared to those in INASC. 89 stroke patients were admitted. 8 of the 12 key indicators scored significantly better than in INASC. 92.5% had a brain scan within 24hrs (INASC-40%, p = < 0.001). 100% of ischaemic strokes received anti-thrombotics (INASC-85%, p = 0.001). 94% had rehab goals agreed by MDT (22% in INASC p = 0.0000). 55% were treated in stroke unit (2% in INASC, p = 0.0000). MDT input improved with regard to physiotherapy (87% vs 43% in INASC, p = < 0.02) and SALT (74% vs 26%, p = < 0.02). Stroke management has significantly improved from 2008, however some deficiencies remain.

  1. Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Saver, Jeffrey L; Adams, Harold P; Bruno, Askiel; Connors, J J Buddy; Demaerschalk, Bart M; Khatri, Pooja; McMullan, Paul W; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosenfield, Kenneth; Scott, Phillip A; Summers, Debbie R; Wang, David Z; Wintermark, Max; Yonas, Howard

    2013-03-01

    The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators responsible for the care of acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 48 hours from stroke onset. These guidelines supersede the prior 2007 guidelines and 2009 updates. Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Stroke Association Stroke Council's Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was maintained throughout the consensus process. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association Stroke Council's Level of Evidence grading algorithm. The goal of these guidelines is to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. The guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care and detail aspects of stroke care from patient recognition; emergency medical services activation, transport, and triage; through the initial hours in the emergency department and stroke unit. The guideline discusses early stroke evaluation and general medical care, as well as ischemic stroke, specific interventions such as reperfusion strategies, and general physiological optimization for cerebral resuscitation. Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment of acute ischemic stroke remains urgently needed.

  2. Guidelines for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso de Leciñana, M; Egido, J A; Casado, I; Ribó, M; Dávalos, A; Masjuan, J; Caniego, J L; Martínez Vila, E; Díez Tejedor, E; Fuentes, B; Álvarez-Sabin, J; Arenillas, J; Calleja, S; Castellanos, M; Castillo, J; Díaz-Otero, F; López-Fernández, J C; Freijo, M; Gállego, J; García-Pastor, A; Gil-Núñez, A; Gilo, F; Irimia, P; Lago, A; Maestre, J; Martí-Fábregas, J; Martínez-Sánchez, P; Molina, C; Morales, A; Nombela, F; Purroy, F; Rodríguez-Yañez, M; Roquer, J; Rubio, F; Segura, T; Serena, J; Simal, P; Tejada, J; Vivancos, J

    2014-03-01

    Update of Acute Ischaemic Stroke Treatment Guidelines of the Spanish Neurological Society based on a critical review of the literature. Recommendations are made based on levels of evidence from published data and studies. Organized systems of care should be implemented to ensure access to the optimal management of all acute stroke patients in stroke units. Standard of care should include treatment of blood pressure (should only be treated if values are over 185/105 mmHg), treatment of hyperglycaemia over 155 mg/dl, and treatment of body temperature with antipyretic drugs if it rises above 37.5 °C. Neurological and systemic complications must be prevented and promptly treated. Decompressive hemicraniectomy should be considered in cases of malignant cerebral oedema. Intravenous thrombolysis with rtPA should be administered within 4.5 hours from symptom onset, except when there are contraindications. Intra-arterial pharmacological thrombolysis can be considered within 6 hours, and mechanical thrombectomy within 8 hours from onset, for anterior circulation strokes, while a wider window of opportunity up to 12-24 hours is feasible for posterior strokes. There is not enough evidence to recommend routine use of the so called neuroprotective drugs. Anticoagulation should be administered to patients with cerebral vein thrombosis. Rehabilitation should be started as early as possible. Treatment of acute ischaemic stroke includes management of patients in stroke units. Systemic thrombolysis should be considered within 4.5 hours from symptom onset. Intra-arterial approaches with a wider window of opportunity can be an option in certain cases. Protective and restorative therapies are being investigated. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of stroke services in Anglia stroke clinical network to examine the variation in acute services and stroke outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Abraham

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is the third leading cause of death in developed countries and the leading cause of long-term disability worldwide. A series of national stroke audits in the UK highlighted the differences in stroke care between hospitals. The study aims to describe variation in outcomes following stroke and to identify the characteristics of services that are associated with better outcomes, after accounting for case mix differences and individual prognostic factors. Methods/Design We will conduct a cohort study in eight acute NHS trusts within East of England, with at least one year of follow-up after stroke. The study population will be a systematically selected representative sample of patients admitted with stroke during the study period, recruited within each hospital. We will collect individual patient data on prognostic characteristics, health care received, outcomes and costs of care and we will also record relevant characteristics of each provider organisation. The determinants of one year outcome including patient reported outcome will be assessed statistically with proportional hazards regression models. Self (or proxy completed EuroQol (EQ-5D questionnaires will measure quality of life at baseline and follow-up for cost utility analyses. Discussion This study will provide observational data about health service factors associated with variations in patient outcomes and health care costs following hospital admission for acute stroke. This will form the basis for future RCTs by identifying promising health service interventions, assessing the feasibility of recruiting and following up trial patients, and provide evidence about frequency and variances in outcomes, and intra-cluster correlation of outcomes, for sample size calculations. The results will inform clinicians, public, service providers, commissioners and policy makers to drive further improvement in health services which will bring direct benefit to the patients.

  4. An acute stroke evaluation app: a practice improvement project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Mark N; Fugate, Jennifer E; Barrett, Kevin M; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Flemming, Kelly D

    2015-04-01

    A point-of-care workflow checklist in the form of an iOS (iPhone Operating System) app for use by stroke providers was introduced with the objective of standardizing acute stroke evaluation and documentation at 2 affiliated academic medical centers. Providers used the app in unselected, consecutive patients undergoing acute stroke evaluation in an emergency department or hospital setting between August 2012 and January 2013 and August 2013 and February 2014. Satisfaction surveys were prospectively collected pre- and postintervention from residents, staff neurologists, and clinical data specialists. Residents (20 preintervention and 16 postintervention), staff neurologists (6 pre and 5 post), and clinical data specialists (4 pre and 4 post) participated in this study. All 16 (100%) residents had increased satisfaction with their ability to perform an acute stroke evaluation postintervention but only 9 (56%) of 16 felt the app was more help than hindrance. Historical controls aligned with preintervention results. Staff neurologists conveyed increased satisfaction with resident presentations and decision making when compared to preintervention surveys. Stroke clinical data specialists estimated a 50% decrease in data abstraction when the app data were used in the clinical note. Concomitant effect on door-to-needle (DTN) time at 1 site, although not a primary study measure, was also evaluated. At that 1 center, the mean DTN time decreased by 16 minutes when compared to the corresponding months from the year prior. The point-of-care acute stroke workflow checklist app may assist trainees in presenting findings in a standardized manner and reduce data abstraction time. The app may help reduce DTN time, but this requires further study.

  5. Malnutrition in Patients with Acute Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella D. Bouziana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a devastating event that carries a potential for long-term disability. Malnutrition is frequently observed in patients with stroke, and dysphagia contributes to malnutrition risk. During both the acute phase of stroke and rehabilitation, specific nutritional interventions in the context of a multidisciplinary team effort can enhance the recovery of neurocognitive function. Early identification and management of malnutrition with dietary modifications or specific therapeutic strategies to ensure adequate nutritional intake should receive more attention, since poor nutritional status appears to exacerbate brain damage and to contribute to adverse outcome. The main purpose of nutritional intervention should be the prevention or treatment of complications resulting from energy-protein deficit. This paper reviews the evaluation and management of malnutrition and the use of specialized nutrition support in patients with stroke. Emphasis is given to enteral tube and oral feeding and to strategies to wean from tube feeding.

  6. Blood glucose in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj

    2009-01-01

    of infarcts. For a number of years, tight glycemic control has been regarded as beneficial in critically illness, but recent research has been unable to support this notion. The only completed randomized study on glucose-lowering therapy in stroke has failed to demonstrate effect, and concerns relating...

  7. Radiological strategy in acute stroke in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paonessa, Amalia [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy)], E-mail: apaonessa7@hotmail.com; Limbucci, Nicola [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy); Tozzi, Elisabetta [Dept. of Pediatrics, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy); Splendiani, Alessandra; Gallucci, Massimo [Dept. of Neuroradiology, University Hospital ' S. Salvatore' , L' Aquila (Italy)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the study was to estimate the preponderance of patterns of pediatric stroke, ischemic or hemorrhagic, their etiologies and the correct diagnostic protocol for acute management. Forty-one consecutive pediatric patients (age range 5-16 years) with an acute stroke observed in acute phase during a 10-year period, were retrospectively evaluated. Twenty-three patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3 cases were studied by computed tomography (CT) without MRI, and 15 underwent both CT and MRI studies. In 9 cases, intra-arterial digital subtraction angiography (IADSA) was performed after non-invasive preliminary assessment. Seventeen hemorrhagic (41%) and 24 ischemic (59%) strokes were found. Among hemorrhagic forms, 5 cases were due to arteriovenous malformation (AVM), 7 to cavernoma, and 2 to aneurysm. Among ischemic forms, 2 were due to sickle-cell disease, 1 to hyperomocysteinemia, 1 to moyamoya syndrome, 1 to pseudoxantoma elasticum, 3 to prothrombotic state, 1 to Fabry's disease, 1 concomitant with CO intoxication, 5 to venous sinus thrombosis, and 4 to cardio-embolic state. Etiology remains unknown in 8 cases (20.5%). This study shows a moderate prevalence of ischemic over hemorrhagic strokes. Moreover, personal experience suggests that MRI is always more informative than CT and in selected cases should be the first-choice examination in the acute phase.

  8. Synthetic cannabis and acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Leung, Lester Y; Kumar, Sandeep

    2014-01-01

    An association between marijuana use and stroke has been previously reported. However, the health risks of newer synthetic cannabinoid compounds are less well known. We describe 2 cases that introduce a previously unreported association between synthetic cannabis use and ischemic stroke in young adults. A 22-year-old woman presented with dysarthria, left hemiplegia, and left hemianesthesia within hours of first use of synthetic cannabis. She was healthy and without identified stroke risk factors other than oral contraceptive use and a patent foramen ovale without venous thromboses. A 26-year-old woman presented with nonfluent aphasia, left facial droop, and left hemianesthesia approximately 12 hours after first use of synthetic cannabis. Her other stroke risk factors included migraine with aura, oral contraceptive use, smoking, and a family history of superficial thrombophlebitis. Both women were found to have acute, large-territory infarctions of the right middle cerebral artery. Our 2 cases had risk factors for ischemic stroke but were otherwise young and healthy and the onset of their deficits occurred within hours after first-time exposure to synthetic cannabis. Synthetic cannabis use is an important consideration in the investigation of stroke in young adults. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Acute kidney injury and edaravone in acute ischemic stroke: the Fukuoka Stroke Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamouchi, Masahiro; Sakai, Hironori; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Minematsu, Kazuo; Hayashi, Kunihiko; Kitazono, Takanari

    2013-11-01

    A free radical scavenger, edaravone, which has been used for the treatment of ischemic stroke, was reported to cause acute kidney injury (AKI) as a fatal adverse event. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether edaravone is associated with AKI in patients with acute ischemic stroke. From the Fukuoka Stroke Registry database, 5689 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who were hospitalized within 24 hours of the onset of symptoms were included in this study. A logistic regression analysis for the Fukuoka Stroke Registry cohort was done to identify the predictors for AKI. A propensity score-matched nested case-control study was also performed to elucidate any association between AKI and edaravone. Acute kidney injury occurred in 128 of 5689 patients (2.2%) with acute ischemic stroke. A multivariate analysis revealed that the stroke subtype, the basal serum creatinine level, and the presence of infectious complications on admission were each predictors of developing AKI. In contrast, a free radical scavenger, edaravone, reduced the risk of developing AKI (multivariate-adjusted odds ratio [OR] .45, 95% confidence interval [CI] .30-.67). Propensity score-matched case-control study confirmed that edaravone use was negatively associated with AKI (propensity score-adjusted OR .46, 95% CI .29-.74). Although AKI has a significant impact on the clinical outcome of hospital inpatients, edaravone has a protective effect against the development of AKI in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Hyperglycemia in nondiabetic patients during the acute phase of stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Agustin Godoy

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine patterns of hyperglycemic (HG control in acute stroke. METHODS: Anonymous survey through Internet questionnaire. Participants included Latin-American physicians specialized in neurocritical care. RESULTS: The response rate was 74%. HG definition varied widely. Fifty per cent considered it when values were >140 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L. Intravenous (IV regular insulin was the drug of choice for HG correction. One fifth of the respondents expressed adherence to a protocol. Intensive insulin therapy (IIT was used by 23%. Glucose levels were measured in all participants at admission. Routine laboratory test was the preferred method for monitoring. Reactive strips were more frequently used when monitoring was intensive. Most practitioners (56.7% monitored glucose more than two times daily throughout the Intensive Care Unit stay. CONCLUSIONS: There is considerable variability and heterogeneity in the management of elevated blood glucose during acute phase of stroke by the surveyed Latin-American physicians.

  11. Relationship between plasma glutamate levels and post-stroke depression in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱方媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between the plasma glutamate levels during acute ischemic stroke andpost-stroke depression(PSD)initially.Methods Seventy-four ischemic stroke patients admitted to the hospital within the first day of stroke onset were evaluated at a follow-up of 2 weeks.The Beck Depression Inventory(BDI,21-item)and DSM-Ⅳcriteria was used to diagnose post-stroke depression(PSD)at 2 weeks after stroke.

  12. Stroke care: Experiences and clinical research in stroke units in Chennai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobindram Arjundas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: S troke is the second commonest cause of death in India with crude overall prevalence rate of 220 per 100,000. With an increasing aging population at risk, the stroke burden in India can be expected to reach epidemic proportions. Materials and Methods: The first protocol-based prospective studies, funded by private agencies was conducted in Madras Institute of Neurology in 1984-86. The results led to establishment of the first stroke unit in Tamil Nadu state, in the institute. The first all-India hospital-based studies in acute stroke was completed as INDIAN COOPERATIVE ACUTE STROKE STUDIES (ICASS I and ICASS II with WHO STEP ONE by members of the Indian Stroke Association between 2000-2005. This has generated very useful data for our country. Results: Mortality in 1984-86 was 40%. Stroke unit in the institute dropped it to 12%. About 10 years later, ICASS studies showed a further fall of mortality to 8%, which is the current international figure in the west. Morbidity pattern showed about half return to their original activities. But about one third are left totally disabled needing prolonged care, for which fiscal, social and rehab provisions have to be done on a national basis. Conclusions: The progress and success of care of Stroke in the last three decades, from treatment in medical and neurology wards to specialized stroke units is presented. The main risk factors are hypertension, diabetes and ischemic heart disease across the country. Hypertension alone or with the other two diseases was present in 72% of cases. Prevention and treatment of these factors will reduce the stroke burden, mortality and morbidity of strokes. The Stroke-team concept can be extended to the smallest hospitals in our country.

  13. Help seeking behavior and onset-to-alarm time in patients with acute stroke: sub-study of the preventive antibiotics in stroke study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zock, E; Kerkhoff, H; Kleyweg, R P; van Bavel-Ta, T B V; Scott, S; Kruyt, N D; Nederkoorn, P J; van de Beek, D

    2016-11-25

    Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical characteristics, and onset-to-alarm time (OAT). In a sub-study of the Preventive Antibiotics in Stroke Study (PASS), 161 acute stroke patients were prospectively included in 3 Dutch hospitals. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess knowledge, recognition and interpretation of stroke symptoms. With in-depth interviews, response actions and reasons were explored. OAT was recorded and associations with socio-demographic, clinical parameters were assessed. Knowledge about stroke symptoms does not always result in correct recognition of own stroke symptoms, neither into correct interpretation of the situation and subsequent action. In our study population of 161 patients with acute stroke, median OAT was 30 min (interquartile range [IQR] 10-150 min). Recognition of one-sided weakness and/or sensory loss (p = 0.046) and adequate interpretation of the stroke situation (p = 0.003), stroke at daytime (p = 0.002), severe stroke (p = 0.003), calling the emergency telephone number (p = 0.004), and transport by ambulance (p = 0.040) were associated with shorter OAT. Help seeking behavior after acute stroke is a complex process. A shorter OAT after stroke is associated with correct recognition of one-sided weakness and/or sensory loss, adequate interpretation of the stroke situation by the patient and stroke characteristics and logistics of stroke care, but not by knowledge of stroke symptoms.

  14. Hyperglycemia, Acute Ischemic Stroke and Thrombolytic Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Askiel; Fagan, Susan C.; Ergul, Adviye

    2014-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of disability and is considered now the 4th leading cause of death. Many clinical trials have shown that stroke patients with acute elevation in blood glucose at onset of stroke suffer worse functional outcomes, longer in-hospital stay and higher mortality rates. The only therapeutic hope for these patients is the rapid restoration of blood flow to the ischemic tissue through intravenous administration of the only currently proven effective therapy, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). However, even this option is associated with the increased risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Nonetheless, the underlying mechanisms through which hyperglycemia (HG) and tPA worsen the neurovascular injury after stroke are not fully understood. Accordingly, this review summarizes the latest updates and recommendations about the management of HG and co-administration of tPA in a clinical setting while focusing more on the various experimental models studying: 1. the effect of HG on stroke outcomes; 2. the potential mechanisms involved in worsening the neurovasular injury; 3. the different therapeutic strategies employed to ameliorate the injury, and finally; 4. the interaction between HG and tPA. Developing therapeutic strategies to reduce the hemorrhage risk with tPA in hyperglycemic setting is of great clinical importance. This can best be achieved by conducting robust preclinical studies evaluating the interaction between tPA and other therapeutics in order to develop potential therapeutic strategies with high translational impact. PMID:24619488

  15. Treatment of hyperglycaemia in patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castilla-Guerra, L; Fernández-Moreno, M C; Hewitt, J

    2016-03-01

    The proportion of diabetic patients who are hospitalised for stroke has been increasing in recent years, currently reaching almost a third of all cases of stroke. In addition, about half of patients with acute stroke present hyperglycaemia in the first hours of the stroke. Although hyperglycaemia in the acute phase of stroke is associated with a poor prognosis, its treatment is currently a topic of debate. There is no evidence that the adminstration of intravenous insulin to these patients offers benefits in terms of the evolution of the stroke. New studies in development, such as the SHINE study (Stroke Hyperglycemia Insulin Network Effort), may contribute to clarifying the role of intensive control of glycaemia during the acute phase of the stroke. Ultimately, patients who have presented with stroke should be screened for diabetes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  16. Access to expert stroke care with telemedicine: REACH MUSC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Swanson Kazley

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and rtPA can significantly reduce the long-term impact of acute ischemic stroke (AIS if given within 3 hours of symptom onset. South Carolina is located in the stroke belt and has a high rate of stroke and stroke mortality. Many small rural SC hospitals do not maintain the expertise needed to treat AIS patients with rtPA. MUSC is an academic medical center using REACH MUSC telemedicine to deliver stroke care to 15 hospitals in the state, increasing the likelihood of timely treatment with rtPA. The purpose of this study is to determine the increase in access to rtPA through the use of telemedicine for AIS in the general population and in specific segments of the population based on age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality.We used a retrospective cross-sectional design examining Census data from 2000 and Geographic Information Systems (GIS analysis to identify South Carolina residents that live within 30 or 60 minutes of a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC site. We include all South Carolina citizens in our analysis and specifically examine the population’s age, gender, race, ethnicity, education, urban/rural residence, poverty, and stroke mortality. Our sample includes 4,012,012 South Carolinians. The main measure is access to expert stroke care at a Primary Stroke Center (PSC or a REACH MUSC hospital within 30 or 60 minutes. We find that without REACH MUSC, only 38% of the population has potential access to expert stroke care in SC within sixty minutes given that most PSCs will maintain expert stroke coverage. REACH MUSC allows 76% of the population to be within sixty minutes of expert stroke care, and 43% of the population to be within 30 minute drive time of expert stroke care. These increases in access are especially significant for groups that have faced disparities in care and high rates of AIS. The use of telemedicine can

  17. Older patients with acute stroke in Denmark: quality of care and short-term mortality. A nationwide follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palnum, K.D.; Sorensen, H.T.; Ingeman, A.

    2008-01-01

    care across age groups, as measured by admission to a specialised stroke unit, administration of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, examination with CT/MR scan, assessment by a physiotherapist and an occupational therapist, or assessment of nutritional risk. Further, we estimated 30- and 90-day...

  18. Four evolving strategies in the emergent treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurman, R Jason; Jauch, Edward C; Panagos, Peter D; Reynolds, Matthew R; Mocco, J

    2012-07-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States and is the fourth leading cause of death, affecting nearly 800,000 patients each year. The physical, emotional, and financial toll stroke inflicts on patients and their families cannot be overstated. At the forefront of acute stroke care, emergency clinicians are positioned to have a major impact on the quality of care that stroke patients receive. This issue outlines and reviews the literature on 4 evolving strategies reflecting developing advancements in the care of acute ischemic stroke and their potential to impact patients in the emergency department setting: (1) the expanding window for intravenous rt-PA, (2) the use of multimodal computed tomographic scanning in emergent diagnostic imaging, (3) endovascular therapies for stroke, and (4) stroke systems of care. Whether practicing in a tertiary care environment or in a remote emergency department, emergency clinicians will benefit from familiarizing themselves with these advancements and should consider how these new approaches might influence their management of patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  19. Feasibility and effectiveness of circuit training in acute stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Dorian; Paris, Trevor; Crews, Erin; Wu, Samuel S; Sun, Anqi; Behrman, Andrea L; Duncan, Pamela

    2011-02-01

    Task-specificity, repetition and progression are key variables in the acquisition of motor skill however they have not been consistently implemented in post-stroke rehabilitation. To evaluate the effectiveness of a stroke rehabilitation plan of care that incorporated task-specific practice, repetition and progression to facilitate functional gain compared to standard physical therapy for individuals admitted to an inpatient stroke unit. Individuals participated in either a circuit training (CTPT) model (n = 72) or a standard (SPT) model (n = 108) of physical therapy, 5 days/week. Each 60 minute circuit training session, delivered according to severity level, consisted of four functional mobility tasks. Daily exercise logs documented both task repetition and progression. The CTPT model was successfully implemented in an acute rehabilitation setting. The CTPT group showed a significantly greater improved change in gait speed from hospital admission to discharge than the SPT group (0.21 ± 0.25 m/sec vs. 0.13 ± 0.22 m/sec; p = 0.03). The difference between groups occurred primarily among those who were ambulatory upon admission. There were no significant differences between the two cohorts at 90 days post-stroke as measured by the FONE-FIM, SF-36 and living location. Therapy focused on systematically progressed functional tasks can be successfully implemented in an inpatient rehabilitation stroke program. This circuit-training model resulted in greater gains in gait velocity over the course of inpatient rehabilitation compared to the standard model of care. Community-based services following hospital discharge to maintain these gains should be included in the continuum of post-stroke care.

  20. Reconciling Marriage and Care after Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sharon; Keating, Norah; Wilson, Donna

    2017-09-01

    Most research on stroke's impact on couples has focused on the transition to caregiving/receiving. Despite considerable evidence that marriage is the primary source of support in the face of chronic conditions, little is known about what happens to marriage in the context of care after stroke. To address this gap, we undertook a qualitative grounded-theory study of 18 couples in which one partner had experienced a stroke. Findings revealed two interrelated themes of the couple processes: working out care, which involved discovering and addressing disruptions in day-to-day activities; and rethinking marriage, which involved determining the meaning of their relationship within the new context of care and disability. Three distinct types of marriages evolved from these processes: reconfirmed around their pre-stroke marriage; recalibrated around care; and a parallel relationship, "his" and "her" marriage. Our findings highlight the need to consider relationship dynamics in addition to knowledge about stroke and care.

  1. Middle cerebral artery occlusion in Macaca fascicularis: acute and chronic stroke evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arceuil, Helen E; Duggan, Michael; He, Julian; Pryor, Johnny; de Crespigny, Alex

    2006-04-01

    An intravascular stroke model designed for magnetic resonance imaging was developed in Macaca fascicularis (M. fascicularis) to characterize serial stroke lesion evolution. This model produces a range of stroke lesion sizes which closely mimics human stroke evolution. This paper describes the care of animals undergoing this stroke procedure, the range of outcomes we experienced and the cause of mortality in this model. Anesthesia was induced with atropine and ketamine and maintained with isoflurane or propofol. Non-invasive blood pressure, oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate, temperature and end tidal CO2 were monitored continuously. The stroke was created by occluding a distal branch of the middle cerebral artery. During catheter placement animals were heparinized and vasospasm was minimized using verapamil. Anesthetic induction and maintenance were smooth. Animals with small strokes showed very rapid recovery, were able to ambulate and self-feed within 2 hours of recovery. Animals with strokes of >or=4% of the hemispheric volume required lengthy observation during recovery and parenteral nutrition. Large strokes resulted in significant brain edema, herniation and brainstem compression. Intracerebral hemorrhage and or subarachnoid hemorrhage coupled with a stroke of any size was acutely fatal. In the absence of an effective acute stroke therapy, the spectrum of outcomes seen in our primate model is very similar to that observed in human stroke patients.

  2. Telestroke a viable option to improve stroke care in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Padma V; Sudhan, Paulin; Khurana, Dheeraj; Bhatia, Rohit; Kaul, Subash; Sylaja, P N; Moonis, Majaz; Pandian, Jeyaraj Durai

    2014-10-01

    In India, stroke care services are not well developed. There is a need to explore alternative options to tackle the rising burden of stroke. Telemedicine has been used by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) to meet the needs of remote hospitals in India. The telemedicine network implemented by ISRO in 2001 presently stretches to around 100 hospitals all over the country, with 78 remote/rural/district health centers connected to 22 specialty hospitals in major cities, thus providing treatment to more than 25 000 patients, which includes stroke patients. Telemedicine is currently used in India for diagnosing stroke patients, subtyping stroke as ischemic or hemorrhagic, and treating accordingly. However, a dedicated telestroke system for providing acute stroke care is needed. Keeping in mind India's flourishing technology sector and leading communication networks, the hub-and-spoke model could work out really well in the upcoming years. Until then, simpler alternatives like smartphones, online data transfer, and new mobile applications like WhatsApp could be used. Telestroke facilities could increase the pool of patients eligible for thrombolysis. But this primary aim of telestroke can be achieved in India only if thrombolysis and imaging techniques are made available at all levels of health care. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  3. Interprofessional stroke rehabilitation for stroke survivors using home care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markle-Reid, Maureen; Orridge, Camille; Weir, Robin; Browne, Gina; Gafni, Amiram; Lewis, Mary; Walsh, Marian; Levy, Charissa; Daub, Stacey; Brien, Heather; Roberts, Jacqueline; Thabane, Lehana

    2011-03-01

    To compare a specialized interprofessional team approach to community-based stroke rehabilitation with usual home care for stroke survivors using home care services. Randomized controlled trial of 101 community-living stroke survivors (stroke) using home care services. Subjects were randomized to intervention (n=52) or control (n=49) groups. The intervention was a 12-month specialized, evidence-based rehabilitation strategy involving an interprofessional team. The primary outcome was change in health-related quality of life and functioning (SF-36) from baseline to 12 months. Secondary outcomes were number of strokes during the 12-month follow-up, and changes in community reintegration (RNLI), perceived social support (PRQ85-Part 2), anxiety and depressive symptoms (Kessler-10), cognitive function (SPMSQ), and costs of use of health services from baseline to 12 months. A total of 82 subjects completed the 12-month follow-up. Compared with the usual care group, stroke survivors in the intervention group showed clinically important (although not statistically significant) greater improvements from baseline in mean SF-36 physical functioning score (5.87, 95% CI -3.98 to 15.7; p=0.24) and social functioning score (9.03, CI-7.50 to 25.6; p=0.28). The groups did not differ for any of the secondary effectiveness outcomes. There was a higher total per-person costs of use of health services in the intervention group compared to usual home care although the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.76). A 12-month specialized, interprofessional team is a feasible and acceptable approach to community-based stroke rehabilitation that produced greater improvements in quality of life compared to usual home care. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00463229.

  4. Medical dispatchers recognise substantial amount of acute stroke during emergency calls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viereck, Søren; Møller, Thea Palsgaard; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2016-01-01

    without an inappropriate amount of false positive cases. CONCLUSIONS: We report an overall high recognition of stroke by medical dispatchers. A final diagnosis of TIA, compared to ICH, was positively associated with recognition of acute stroke. Emergency medical dispatchers serve as the essential first...... stroke are therefore critical in organising emergency stroke care. We aimed to describe the sensitivity and positive predictive value of medical dispatchers' ability to recognise acute stroke during emergency calls, and to identify factors associated with recognition. METHODS: This was an observational...... study of 2653 consecutive unselected patients with a final diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). All admitted through the Emergency Medical Services Copenhagen, during a 2-year study period (2012-2014). Final diagnoses were matched with dispatch codes from the Emergency Medical...

  5. Change in cognitive performance is associated with functional recovery during post-acute stroke rehabilitation: a multi-centric study from intermediate care geriatric rehabilitation units of Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Laura Mónica; Inzitari, Marco; Roqué, Marta; Duarte, Esther; Vallés, Elisabeth; Rodó, Montserrat; Gallofré, Miquel

    2015-10-01

    Recovery after a stroke is determined by a broad range of neurological, functional and psychosocial factors. Evidence regarding these factors is not well established, in particular influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation. We aimed to investigate whether selective characteristics, including cognitive performance and its change over time, modulate functional recovery with home discharge in stroke survivors admitted to post-acute rehabilitation units. We undertook a multicenter cohort study, including all patients discharged from acute wards to any geriatric rehabilitation unit in Catalonia-Spain during 2008. Patients were assessed for demographics, clinical and functional variables using Conjunt Mínim Bàsic de Dades dels Recursos Sociosanitaris (CMBD-RSS), which adapts the Minimum Data Set tool used in America's nursing homes. Baseline-to-discharge change in cognition was calculated on repeated assessments using the Cognitive Performance Scale (CPS, range 0-6, best-worst cognition). The multivariable effect of these factors was analyzed in relation to the outcome. 879 post-stroke patients were included (mean age 77.48 ± 10.18 years, 52.6% women). A worse initial CPS [OR (95% CI) = 0.851 (0.774-0.935)] and prevalent fecal incontinence [OR (95% CI) = 0.560 (0.454-0.691)] reduced the likelihood of returning home with functional improvement; whereas improvement of CPS, baseline to discharge, [OR (95% CI) = 1.348 (1.144-1.588)], more rehabilitation days within the first 2 weeks [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] and a longer hospital stay [OR (95% CI) = 1.011 (1.006-1.015)] were associated with the outcome. In our sample, different clinical characteristics, including cognitive function and its improvement over time, are associated with functional improvement in stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Our results might provide information to further studies aimed at exploring the influence of cognition changes during rehabilitation.

  6. The relationship between pneumonia and Glasgow coma scale assessment on acute stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritarwan, K.; Batubara, C. A.; Dhanu, R.

    2018-03-01

    Pneumonia is one of the most frequent medical complications of a stroke. Despite the well-documented association of a stroke associated infections with increased mortality and worse long-term outcome, on the other hand, the limited data available on independent predictors of pneumonia in acute stroke patients in an emergency unit. To determine the independentrelationship between pneumonia and Glasgow Coma Scale assessment on acute stroke patients. The cohort retrospective study observed 55 acute stroke patients who stayed in intensive care unit Adam Malik General Hospital from January until August 2017. Pneumonia was more frequent in patients with Ischemic stroke (OR 5.40; 95% CI: 1.28 – 6.40, p=0.003), higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (p=0.014) and lower Glasgow Coma Scale (p=0.0001). Analysis multivariate logistic regression identified NIHSS as an independent of predictors of pneumonia (95% CI : 1.047 – 1.326, p=0.001). Pneumonia was associated with severity and type of stroke and length of hospital stay. The severity of the deficits evaluated by the NIHSS was shown to be the only independent risk factor for pneumonia in acute stroke patients.

  7. Radiologic manifestations of focal cerebral hyperemia in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tom Skyhøj; Skriver, E B; Herning, M

    1991-01-01

    In 16 acute stroke patients with focal cerebral hyperemia angiography and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were studied 1 to 4 days post stroke. CT was performed twice with and without contrast enhancement 3 +/- 1 days and 16 +/- 4 days post stroke. Angiographic evidence of focal cerebral hype...

  8. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F.; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve

  9. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in patients with acute stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Vermeij, Frederique; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Stroke is the main cause of disability in high income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce infections and improve outcome.

  10. Basics of acute stroke treatment; Grundzuege der akuten Schlaganfalltherapie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haass, A. [Neurologische Universitaetsklinik Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2005-05-01

    Acute stroke presents an emergency that requires immediate referral to a specialized hospital, preferably with a stroke unit. Disability and mortality are reduced by 30% in patients treated in stroke units compared to those treated on regular wards, even if a specialized team is present on the ward. Systolic blood pressure may remain high at 200-220 mmHg in the acute phase and should not be lowered too quickly. Further guidelines for basic care include: optimal O{sub 2} delivery, blood sugar levels below 100-150 mg%, and lowering body temperature below 37.5 C using physical means or drugs. Increased intracranial pressure should be treated by raising the upper body of the patient, administration of glycerol, mannitol, and/or sorbitol, artificial respiration, and special monitoring of Tris buffer. Decompressive craniectomy may be considered in cases of ''malignant'' media stroke and expansive cerebellar infarction. Fibrinolysis is the most effective stroke treatment and is twice as effective in the treatment of stroke than myocardial infarction. Fibrinolysis may be initiated within 3 h of a stroke in the anterior circulation. If a penumbra is detectable by ''PWI-DWI mismatch MRI,'' specialized hospitals may perform fibrinolysis up to 6 h after symptom onset. In cases of stroke in the basilar artery, fibrinolysis may be performed even later after symptom onset. Intra-arterial fibrinolysis is performed in these cases using rt-PA or urokinase. Follow-up treatment of stroke patients should not only address post-stroke depression and neuropsychological deficits, but also include patient education about risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, and cardiac arrhythmias. (orig.) [German] Jeder akute Schlaganfall ist ein Notfall und muss sofort in einer spezialisierten Klinik, am besten einer Stroke Unit, behandelt werden. Die Stroke-Unit-Behandlung senkt den Behinderungsgrad und die Letalitaet um 30% staerker als die

  11. Theophylline as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy in acute ischaemic stroke (TEA-Stroke)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modrau, Boris; Hjort, Niels; Østergaard, Leif

    2016-01-01

    the collateral supply in acute ischaemic brain tissue and thus facilitate reperfusion despite proximal vessel occlusion. The primary study objective is to evaluate whether theophylline is safe and efficient in acute ischaemic stroke patients as an add-on to thrombolytic therapy.MethodsThe TEA-Stroke Trial...... models, clinical case series and randomized clinical trials are controversial. A Cochrane analysis from 2004 concluded that there was not enough evidence to assess whether theophylline is safe and improves outcomes in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. The TEA-Stroke Trial will clarify whether...

  12. Development and validation of a score for evaluating comprehensive stroke care capabilities: J-ASPECT Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kada, Akiko; Nishimura, Kunihiro; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Ogasawara, Kuniaki; Ono, Junichi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Aruga, Toru; Miyachi, Shigeru; Nagata, Izumi; Toyoda, Kazunori; Matsuda, Shinya; Suzuki, Akifumi; Kataoka, Hiroharu; Nakamura, Fumiaki; Kamitani, Satoru

    2017-01-01

    Background Although the Brain Attack Coalition recommended establishing centers of comprehensive care for stroke and cerebrovascular disease patients, a scoring system for such centers was lacking. We created and validated a comprehensive stroke center (CSC) score, adapted to Japanese circumstances. Methods Of the selected 1369 certified training institutions in Japan, 749 completed an acute stroke care capabilities survey. Hospital performance was determined using a 25-item score, evaluating...

  13. Early management and outcome of acute stroke in Auckland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.E. [Auckland Hospital, Auckland, (New Zealand); Bonita, R.; Broad, J.B. [University of Auckland, Auckland, (New Zealand). Faculty of Medicine and Health Science

    1997-10-01

    Studies of acute stroke management in stroke units and tertiary referral hospitals may not accurately reflect practice within the population. Reliable information on the management of stroke within a population is sparse. The aims of this study was to compare clinical practice in acute stroke management in Auckland with guidelines for the management and treatment of stroke in other countries; to provide a baseline measure against which future changes in management can be evaluated. All new stroke events in Auckland residents in 12 months were traced through multiple case finding sources. For each patient, a record of investigations and treatment during the first week of hospital admission was kept. One thousand eight hundred and three stroke events (including subarachnoid haemorrhages) occurred in 1761 patients in one year. Twenty-seven per cent of all events were managed outside hospital and 73% of the stroke events were treated in an acute hospital. Of the 1242 stroke events admitted to an acute hospital in the first week, only 6% were managed on the neurology and neurosurgery ward, 83% were managed by a general physician or geriatrician and 42% had computed tomography (CT). Of 376 validated ischaemic strokes, 44% were treated with aspirin and 12% with intravenous heparin. Of the 690 unspecified strokes (no CT or autopsy), 38% received aspirin and 0.5% heparin. The 28 day in-hospital case fatality for all stroke events admitted to an acute hospital during the first week was 25%. It was concluded that in Auckland, management of acute stroke differed from clinical guidelines in the high proportion of patients managed in the community, the low rate of neurological consultation, and the low frequency of CT scanning. Despite these deficiencies in management, the 28 day hospital case fatality in Auckland was similar to other comparable studies which had a high proportion of cases evaluated by a neurologist and CT. (authors). 34 refs., 4 tabs., 2 figs.

  14. Early management and outcome of acute stroke in Auckland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, N.E.; Bonita, R.; Broad, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Studies of acute stroke management in stroke units and tertiary referral hospitals may not accurately reflect practice within the population. Reliable information on the management of stroke within a population is sparse. The aims of this study was to compare clinical practice in acute stroke management in Auckland with guidelines for the management and treatment of stroke in other countries; to provide a baseline measure against which future changes in management can be evaluated. All new stroke events in Auckland residents in 12 months were traced through multiple case finding sources. For each patient, a record of investigations and treatment during the first week of hospital admission was kept. One thousand eight hundred and three stroke events (including subarachnoid haemorrhages) occurred in 1761 patients in one year. Twenty-seven per cent of all events were managed outside hospital and 73% of the stroke events were treated in an acute hospital. Of the 1242 stroke events admitted to an acute hospital in the first week, only 6% were managed on the neurology and neurosurgery ward, 83% were managed by a general physician or geriatrician and 42% had computed tomography (CT). Of 376 validated ischaemic strokes, 44% were treated with aspirin and 12% with intravenous heparin. Of the 690 unspecified strokes (no CT or autopsy), 38% received aspirin and 0.5% heparin. The 28 day in-hospital case fatality for all stroke events admitted to an acute hospital during the first week was 25%. It was concluded that in Auckland, management of acute stroke differed from clinical guidelines in the high proportion of patients managed in the community, the low rate of neurological consultation, and the low frequency of CT scanning. Despite these deficiencies in management, the 28 day hospital case fatality in Auckland was similar to other comparable studies which had a high proportion of cases evaluated by a neurologist and CT. (authors)

  15. An outcomes approach to stroke care: the importance of teamwork and evidence-based nursing care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Sandy

    2012-04-01

    The Quality in Acute Stroke Care (QASC) was a cluster randomised control trial (CRCT) which evaluated the effectiveness of evidence-based clinical treatment protocols for the management of fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing, in conjunction with multidisciplinary team building workshops, and a standardised interactive staff education program (collectively known as the Fever, Sugar, Swallowing (FeSS) intervention) to improve patient outcomes 90-days. We found that patients cared for in stroke units who received our intervention were 15·7% more likely to be alive and independent 90 days following their stroke. They also had significantly: fewer episodes of fever, lower mean temperatures, lower mean blood glucose levels, and better screening for swallowing difficulties. © 2012 The Author. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  16. Post-stroke disposition from a geriatric-rehabilitative stroke care area: an Italian experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masina

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A large number of stroke patients cannot be discharged at home. Studies on post stroke disposition have low validity outside the country in which they are carried out because healthcare systems offer different rehabilitative and long-term facilities. Moreover absolute selection criteria for admission to rehabilitation are not available yet. Few studies on post-stroke disposition from Italian stroke units are available. Authors evaluated data of a 18-month period from a geriatric managed stroke care area where comprehensive multi-professional assessment and discharge planning are routinely carried out. Only patients discharged with diagnosis related to acute stroke were considered. Baseline characteristics, clinical, neurological and functional conditions according to the structured multidimensional assessment were prospectively collected in the stroke unit registry. Univariate and multinomial logistic regression were performed to identify independent variables associated with three discharge settings: home, rehabilitation and skilled long-term ward. Out of 188 patients evaluated, 56.4% were discharged home, 18.6% to rehabilitation and 25.0% to long-term ward. Data showed an efficient disposition to intermediate settings with a shorter length of stay compared to other international studies. Factors associated with post-stroke disposition were age, dysphagia, neurological impairment on admission (NIH-SS≥6, after stroke functional status (mRankin≥3, poor pre-stroke functional level (mRankin≥3 and hemorrhagic stroke. Dysphagia, severe neurological impairment and post-stroke disability were associated with discharge to rehabilitation and long term ward. These two settings differed in age and pre-stroke functional condition. Patients discharged to long-term wards were about 10 years older than those admitted to rehabilitative ward. Only 5% of patients discharged to rehabilitation had a pre-stroke mRankin score ≥3. Disposition to a skilled

  17. Development and Pilot Testing of 24/7 In-Ambulance Telemedicine for Acute Stroke : Prehospital Stroke Study at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel-Project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Espinoza, Alexis Valenzuela; Van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; De Smedt, Ann; Moens, Maarten; Yperzeele, Laetitia; Nieboer, Koenraad; Hubloue, Ives; de Keyser, Jacques; Convents, Andre; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Dupont, Alain; Putman, Koen; Brouns, Raf

    2016-01-01

    Background: In-ambulance telemedicine is a recently developed and a promising approach to improve emergency care. We implemented the first ever 24/7 in-ambulance telemedicine service for acute stroke. We report on our experiences with the development and pilot testing of the Prehospital Stroke Study

  18. Risk of Carotid Stroke after Chiropractic Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassidy, J. David; Boyle, Eleanor; Côté, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background Chiropractic manipulation is a popular treatment for neck pain and headache, but may increase the risk of cervical artery dissection and stroke. Patients with carotid artery dissection can present with neck pain and/or headache before experiencing a stroke. These are common symptoms seen...... by both chiropractors and primary care physicians (PCPs). We aimed to assess the risk of carotid artery stroke after chiropractic care by comparing association between chiropractic and PCP visits and subsequent stroke. Methods A population-based, case-crossover study was undertaken in Ontario, Canada. All...... incident cases of carotid artery stroke admitted to hospitals over a 9-year period were identified. Cases served as their own controls. Exposures to chiropractic and PCP services were determined from health billing records. Results We compared 15,523 cases to 62,092 control periods using exposure windows...

  19. Spontaneous swallow frequency compared with clinical screening in the identification of dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare spontaneous swallow frequency analysis (SFA) with clinical screening protocols for identification of dysphagia in acute stroke. In all, 62 patients with acute stroke were evaluated for spontaneous swallow frequency rates using a validated acoustic analysis technique. Independent of SFA, these same patients received a routine nurse-administered clinical dysphagia screening as part of standard stroke care. Both screening tools were compared against a validated clinical assessment of dysphagia for acute stroke. In addition, psychometric properties of SFA were compared against published, validated clinical screening protocols. Spontaneous SFA differentiates patients with versus without dysphagia after acute stroke. Using a previously identified cut point based on swallows per minute, spontaneous SFA demonstrated superior ability to identify dysphagia cases compared with a nurse-administered clinical screening tool. In addition, spontaneous SFA demonstrated equal or superior psychometric properties to 4 validated, published clinical dysphagia screening tools. Spontaneous SFA has high potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke with psychometric properties equal or superior to clinical screening protocols. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Shan Wang

    Full Text Available Fatigue after stroke is common and has a negative impact on rehabilitation and survival. However, its pathogenesis and contributing factors remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing the occurrence of fatigue after first-ever ischemic stroke in acute phase.We examined 265 consecutive patients with first-ever ischemic stroke during acute phase (within 2 weeks in two tertiary stroke care hospitals in Henan, China. We documented patients' demographic and clinical characteristics through face-to-face interviews using structured questionnaires and reviews of medical records. Post-stroke fatigue was defined as a score of ≥4 using the Fatigue Severity Scale. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine post-stroke fatigue in relation to socio-demographic, lifestyle, clinical characteristics and family function.About 40% first-ever ischemic stroke patients experienced post-stroke fatigue in acute phase. Post-stroke fatigue was associated with lack of exercise before stroke (adjusted odds ratio 4.01, 95% CI 1.95-8.24, family dysfunction (2.63, 1.20-5.80, depression (2.39, 1.02-5.58, the presence of pre-stroke fatigue (4.89, 2.13-11.21, use of sedative medications (4.14, 1.58-10.88, coronary heart disease (3.38, 1.46-7.79 and more severe Modified Rankin Scale (2.55, 1.65-3.95.The causes of post-stroke fatigue are multifaceted. More physical exercise, improving family function, reducing depression and appropriate use of sedative medications may be helpful in preventing post-stroke fatigue.

  1. Acute Stroke Through the Perspective of a County Hospital: Problems and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atay Vural

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stroke is one of the most important public health issues worldwide, and ranks as the second highest cause of mortality in our country. Regular follow-up of stroke statistics and taking necessary precautions upon determining deficits by countries themselves constitute the most important way of improving prognosis and survival after stroke incidents. To achieve this goal, statistical studies should be performed at various levels of healthcare services. Tertiary care hospitals are the most suitable centers to perform these studies. However, the majority of the population receives service at secondary care centers where the actual statistics remain unknown. The objective of this study was to examine all patients with acute stroke who presented to a county hospital over a one-year period and obtain related data, discuss deficits, and provide solutionbased recommendations. Materials and Methods: All patients diagnosed as having acute stroke between July 2013-July 2014 were included in the study. Demographic, clinical, and radiologic data, in addition to the timing of presentation and baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores were recorded retrospectively, and patients were classified by the type of stroke. All patients were followed up for at least one year after the stroke incident and cumulative survival scores were calculated using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results: Hemorrhagic stroke was determined in four out of 49 patients with acute stroke; the 45 patients diagnosed as having ischemic stroke were included in the study. Among these, 44.4% (n=20 of the patients presented within the first three hours of onset of clinical symptoms, 4.4% (n=2 presented at 3.-4.5 hours. Baseline NIHSS was 1-4 (mild stroke in 50% (n=10 of patients who presented in the first three hours, and >5 (moderate or severe stroke in 50% (n=10 of the remaining patients. The etiologic cause was embolic in 37.1% (n=13, large artery atherosclerosis

  2. Relationship between QT Interval Dispersion in acute stroke and stroke prognosis: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Yitzchok S.; Balucani, Clotilde; Lazar, Jason; Steinberg, Leah; Gugger, James; Levine, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    Background QT dispersion (QTd) has been proposed as an indirect ECG measure of heterogeneity of ventricular repolarization. The predictive value of QTd in acute stroke remains controversial. We aimed to clarify the relationship between QTd and acute stroke and stroke prognosis. Methods A systematic review of the literature was performed using pre-specified medical subjects heading (MeSH) terms, Boolean logic and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines. Eligible studies (a) included ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke and (b) provided QTd measurements. Results Two independent reviewers identified 553 publications. Sixteen articles were included in the final analysis. There were a total of 888 stroke patients: 59% ischemic and 41% hemorrhagic. There was considerable heterogeneity in study design, stroke subtypes, ECG assessment-time, control groups and comparison groups. Nine studies reported a significant association between acute stroke and baseline QTd. Two studies reported that QTd increases are specifically related to hemorrhagic strokes, involvement of the insular cortex, right-side lesions, larger strokes, and increases in 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylethylene glycol in hemorrhagic stroke. Three studies reported QTd to be an independent predictor of stroke mortality. One study each reported increases in QTd in stroke patients who developed ventricular arrhythmias and cardiorespiratory compromise. Conclusions There are few well-designed studies and considerable variability in study design in addressing the significance of QTd in acute stroke. Available data suggest that stroke is likely to be associated with increased QTd. While some evidence suggests a possible prognostic role of QTd in stroke, larger and well-designed studies need to confirm these findings. PMID:25282188

  3. Experimental acute thrombotic stroke in baboons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Zoppo, G.J.; Copeland, B.R.; Harker, L.A.; Waltz, T.A.; Zyroff, J.; Hanson, S.R.; Battenberg, E.

    1986-01-01

    To study the effects of antithrombotic therapy in experimental stroke, we have characterized a baboon model of acute cerebrovascular thrombosis. In this model an inflatable silastic balloon cuff has been implanted by transorbital approach around the right middle cerebral artery (MCA), proximal to the take-off of the lenticulostriate arteries (LSA). Inflation of the balloon for 3 hours in six animals produced a stereotypic sustained stroke syndrome characterized by contralateral hemiparesis. An infarction volume of 3.2 +/- 1.5 cm3 in the ipsilateral corpus striatum was documented by computerized tomographic (CT) scanning at 10 days following stroke induction and 3.9 +/- 1.9 cm3 (n = 4) at 14 days by morphometric neuropathologic determinations of brain specimens fixed in situ by pressure-perfusion with 10% buffered formalin. Immediate pressure-perfusion fixation following deflation of the balloon was performed in 16 additional animals given Evans blue dye intravenously prior to the 3 hour MCA balloon occlusion. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy consistently confirmed the presence of thrombotic material occluding microcirculatory branches of the right LSA in the region of Evans blue stain, but not those of the contralateral corpus striatum. When autologous 111In-platelets were infused intravenously in four animals from the above group prior to the transient 3 hour occlusion of the right MCA, gamma scintillation camera imaging of each perfused-fixed whole brain demonstrated the presence of a single residual focus of 111In-platelet activity involving only the Evans blue-stained right corpus striatum. Focal right hemispheric activity was equivalent to 0.55 +/- 0.49 ml of whole blood, and the occlusion score derived from histologic examination of the microcirculation of the Evans blue-stained corpus striatum averaged 34.8 +/- 2.8

  4. Computed tomography in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Baird, Alison E.

    2010-01-01

    Stroke remains the third most important cause of mortality in industrialized countries; this has prompted research for improvements in both diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with signs of acute cerebral ischemia. Over the last decade, there has been a parallel in progress in techniques in both diagnostic and therapeutic options. While previously only used for excluding hemorrhage, imaging now has the possibility to detect ischemia, vascular occlusion, as well as detect tissue at risk in one setting. It should also allow to monitor treatment and predict/exclude therapeutic complications. Parallel to advances in magnetic resonance imaging of stroke, computed tomography has improved immensely over the last decade due to the development of CT scanners that are faster and that allow to acquire studies such as CT perfusion or CT angiography in a reliable way. CT can detect many signs that might help us detect impending signs of massive infarction, but we still lack the experience to use these alone to prevent a patient from benefitting from possible therapy. (orig.)

  5. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, L-H; Sandset, E C; Sandset, P M

    2011-01-01

    Krarup L-H, Sandset EC, Sandset PM, Berge E. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. Acta Neurol Scand: 2011: 124: 40-44. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background -  Patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation are at in......Krarup L-H, Sandset EC, Sandset PM, Berge E. D-dimer levels and stroke progression in patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation. Acta Neurol Scand: 2011: 124: 40-44. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Background -  Patients with acute ischemic stroke and atrial fibrillation.......96), and the combined endpoint of stroke progression, recurrent stroke, and death (D-dimer: 991 ng/ml vs 970 ng/ml, P = 0.91). Multivariable analyses did not alter the results. Conclusion -  D-dimer and other markers of hemostatic activation were not associated with stroke progression, recurrent stroke, or death...

  6. Biomarkers of Acute Stroke Etiology (BASE) Study Methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Barreto, Andrew D; Broderick, Joseph P; Char, Doug M; Cucchiara, Brett L; Devlin, Thomas G; Haddock, Alison J; Hicks, William J; Hiestand, Brian C; Jickling, Glen C; June, Jeff; Liebeskind, David S; Lowenkopf, Ted J; Miller, Joseph B; O'Neill, John; Schoonover, Tim L; Sharp, Frank R; Peacock, W Frank

    2017-05-05

    Acute ischemic stroke affects over 800,000 US adults annually, with hundreds of thousands more experiencing a transient ischemic attack. Emergent evaluation, prompt acute treatment, and identification of stroke or TIA (transient ischemic attack) etiology for specific secondary prevention are critical for decreasing further morbidity and mortality of cerebrovascular disease. The Biomarkers of Acute Stroke Etiology (BASE) study is a multicenter observational study to identify serum markers defining the etiology of acute ischemic stroke. Observational trial of patients presenting to the hospital within 24 h of stroke onset. Blood samples are collected at arrival, 24, and 48 h later, and RNA gene expression is utilized to identify stroke etiology marker candidates. The BASE study began January 2014. At the time of writing, there are 22 recruiting sites. Enrollment is ongoing, expected to hit 1000 patients by March 2017. The BASE study could potentially aid in focusing the initial diagnostic evaluation to determine stroke etiology, with more rapidly initiated targeted evaluations and secondary prevention strategies.Clinical Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02014896 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02014896?term=biomarkers+of+acute+stroke+etiology&rank=1.

  7. Acute management of stroke patients taking non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants Addressing Real-world Anticoagulant Management Issues in Stroke (ARAMIS) Registry: Design and rationale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Ying; Hernandez, Adrian F; Harding, Tina; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bhatt, Deepak L; Suter, Robert E; Khan, Yosef; Schwamm, Lee H; Peterson, Eric D

    2016-12-01

    Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs, dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban, and edoxaban) have been increasingly used as alternatives to warfarin for stroke prophylaxis in patients with atrial fibrillation. Yet there is substantial lack of information on how patients on NOACs are currently treated when they have an acute ischemic stroke and the best strategies for treating intracerebral hemorrhage for those on chronic anticoagulation with warfarin or a NOAC. These are critical unmet needs for real world clinical decision making in these emergent patients. The ARAMIS Registry is a multicenter cohort study of acute stroke patients who were taking chronic anticoagulation therapy prior to admission and are admitted with either an acute ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Built upon the existing infrastructure of American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Get With the Guidelines Stroke, the ARAMIS Registry will enroll a total of approximately 10,000 patients (5000 with acute ischemic stroke who are taking a NOAC and 5000 with anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage who are on warfarin or a NOAC). The primary goals of the ARAMIS Registry are to provide a comprehensive picture of current treatment patterns and outcomes of acute ischemic stroke patients on NOACs, as well as anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage in patients on either warfarin or NOACs. Beyond characterizing the index hospitalization, up to 2500 patients (1250 ischemic stroke and 1250 intracerebral hemorrhage) who survive to discharge will be enrolled in an optional follow-up sub-study and interviewed at 3 and 6 months after discharge to assess longitudinal medication use, downstream care, functional status, and patient-reported outcomes. The ARAMIS Registry will document the current state of management of NOAC treated patients with acute ischemic stroke as well as contemporary care and outcome of anticoagulation-related intracerebral hemorrhage. These

  8. Identification of stroke mimics among clinically diagnosed acute strokes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuntiyatorn, Lojana; Saksornchai, Pichaya; Tunlayadechanont, Supoch

    2013-09-01

    Stroke is a clinically syndrome of a sudden onset of neurological deficit in a vascular cause. Stroke mimics is the non-vascular disorders with stroke-like clinical symptoms. It is important to distinguish true stroke from mimics since treatment plan may differ To determine the incidence of the stroke mimics and identify their etiologies. All non-contrast head CT of the patients with clinically diagnosed stroke who immediately received imaging upon arrival at the emergency department of the university hospital were retrospectively reviewed in 12-month period between January 1 and December 31, 2008. Medical records, laboratory results, MRI, and 6-month clinical follow-up records were reviewed for final diagnosis. Seven hundred four patients were included in this study, including 363 (51.5%) men and 341 (48.5%) women with range in age from 24 to 108 years. Amongst those, 417 (59.2%) were ischemic stroke, 80 (11.40%) were hemorrhagic stroke, 186 (26.4%) were stroke-mimics, and 21 (3%) were inconclusive. The etiologies among stroke-mimics were metabolic/intoxication (35, 18.8%), sepsis (28, 15.0%), seizure (21, 11.3%), syncope (20, 10.8%), subdural hemorrhage (14, 7.5%), vertigo (11, 6.0%), brain tumor (10, 5.30%), central nervous system infection (5, 2.7%), others (26, 14.0%), and unspecified (16, 8.6%). Incidence rates and etiologies of the stroke mimics were similar to the western reports. However the frequency of each mimic was not.

  9. The prognostic significance of ABPM in patients with acute stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Trzmielewska; Marta Jurdziak

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is present in about 77% of patients with a first episode of stroke. Unlike the established benefit of lowering blood pressure for the primary and secondary prevention of stroke, the management of hypertension in patients with acute stroke remains controversial. ABPM is a diagnostic tool that has been proposed as a method of obtaining a more reliable assessment of patients’ blood pressure in comparison with OBPM. ABPM provides precise information about the BP values during the dai...

  10. Arterial Stiffness and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. Methods One hundred patients were enrolled with a diagnosi...

  11. An associative Brain-Computer-Interface for acute stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mrachacz-Kersting, Natalie; Stevenson, Andrew James Thomas; Aliakbaryhosseinabadi, Susan

    2016-01-01

    An efficient innovative Brain-Computer-Interface system that empowers chronic stroke patients to control an artificial activation of their lower limb muscle through task specific motor intent has been tested in the past. In the current study it was applied to acute stroke patients. The system...

  12. Hyperglycemia in acute ischemic stroke: pathophysiology and clinical management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruyt, Nyika D.; Biessels, Geert Jan; DeVries, J. Hans; Roos, Yvo B.

    2010-01-01

    Patients with acute ischemic stroke frequently test positive for hyperglycemia, which is associated with a poor clinical outcome. This association between poor glycemic control and an unfavorable prognosis is particularly evident in patients with persistent hyperglycemia, patients without a known

  13. Corticomuscular coherence in the acute and subacute phase after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lisbeth Hoejkjaer; Zibrandtsen, Ivan Chrilles; Wienecke, Troels

    2017-01-01

    –6 weeks after stroke, but no change was observed in CMC or IMC. Conclusions CMC and IMC were reduced in patients in the early phase after stroke. However, changes in coherence do not appear to be an efficient marker for early recovery of hand function following stroke. Significance This is the first study......Objective Stroke is one of the leading causes of physical disability due to damage of the motor cortex or the corticospinal tract. In the present study we set out to investigate the role of adaptations in the corticospinal pathway for motor recovery during the subacute phase after stroke. Methods...... We examined 19 patients with clinically diagnosed stroke and 18 controls. The patients had unilateral mild to moderate weakness of the hand. Each patient attended two sessions at approximately 3 days (acute) and 38 days post stroke (subacute). Task-related changes in the communication between motor...

  14. Quality of stroke care at an Irish Regional General Hospital and Stroke Rehabilitation Unit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, T

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Robust international data support the effectiveness of stroke unit (SU) care. Despite this, most stroke care in Ireland are provided outside of this setting. Limited data currently exist on the quality of care provided. AIM: The aim of this study is to examine the quality of care for patients with stroke in two care settings-Regional General Hospital (RGH) and Stroke Rehabilitation Unit (SRU). METHODS: A retrospective analysis of the stroke records of consecutive patients admitted to the SRU between May-November 2002 and April-November 2004 was performed applying the UK National Sentinel Audit of Stroke (NSAS) tool. RESULTS: The results of the study reveal that while SRU processes of care was 74% compliant with standards; compliance with stroke service organisational standards was only 15 and 43% in the RGH and SRU, respectively. CONCLUSION: The quality of stroke care in our area is deficient. Comprehensive reorganisation of stroke services is imperative.

  15. Pharmaceutical Sponsorship Bias Influences Thrombolytic Literature in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Radecki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The efficacy of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke remains controversial in Emergency Medicine and has not been fully endorsed by either the American College of Emergency Physicians or the American Academy of emergency medicine. A growing recognition exists of the influence of pharmaceutical sponsorship on the reported findings of published clinical trials. Sponsorship bias has been suggested as a potential criticism of the literature and guidelines favoring thrombolytic therapy. Objective: The objective of this study is to review the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke and document the presence or absence of pharmaceutical sponsorship. Methods: A publication-citation analysis was performed to identify the most frequently cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke. Identified articles were reviewed for disclosures of pharmaceutical funding. Results: Of the 20 most-cited articles pertaining to thrombolytic therapy for acute stroke, 17 (85% disclosed pharmaceutical sponsorship. These disclosures range from general sponsorship to direct employment of authors by pharmaceutical companies. Conclusion: An overwhelming predominance of the most influential literature regarding thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke is susceptible to sponsorship bias. This potential bias may provide a basis for physician concern regarding the efficacy and safety of thrombolytic therapy. Further, large, independent, placebo-controlled studies may be required to guide therapy and professional guidelines definitively for acute ischemic stroke. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(4:435–441.

  16. Acute Predictors of Social Integration Following Mild Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Frances M; Harris, Darren W; Olver, John H; Davis, Stephen M; Disler, Peter B

    2018-04-01

    Despite an acknowledged need to accurately predict stroke outcome, there is little empirical evidence regarding acute predictors of participation restriction post stroke. The current study examines prediction of social integration following mild stroke, using combinations of acute poststroke factors. In a prospective, longitudinal study, a cohort of 60 stroke survivors was followed up at 6 months post stroke. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses were employed to evaluate the value of acute poststroke variables in predicting social integration at 6 months post stroke. A combination of age, number of comorbidities, stroke severity, social support factors, and general self-efficacy in the acute poststroke period accounted for 42% of the variance in 6-month social integration. The largest amount of variance (20%) was explained by inclusion of social support factors, including number and types of support. Post hoc analysis was conducted to establish whether marital status was the mediating variable through which early poststroke social support factors exerted influence upon subsequent social integration. The new combination of acute variables accounted for 48% of the variance in 6-month social integration. Results suggested that subjects with partners perceived higher levels of functional social support and lower levels of participation restriction. Stroke survivors with partners may receive greater amounts of companionship and encouragement from their partners, which enhances self-esteem and confidence. Such individuals are possibly more able to participate in and maintain relationships, thus improving social integration. Social support factors, mediated via marital status, are the strongest predictors of subsequent social integration following mild stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Update on acute endovascular and surgical stroke treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, D; Cortsen, M; Eskesen, V

    2013-01-01

    Emergency stroke care has become a natural part of the emerging discipline of neurocritical care and demands close cooperation between the neurologist and neurointerventionists, neurosurgeons, and anesthesiologists. Endovascular treatment (EVT), including intra-arterial thrombolysis, mechanical...

  18. Agreement between routine electronic hospital discharge and Scottish Stroke Care Audit (SSCA) data in identifying stroke in the Scottish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Melanie; Barber, Mark; Dodds, Hazel; Dennis, Martin; Langhorne, Peter; Macleod, Mary-Joan

    2015-12-30

    In Scotland all non-obstetric, non-psychiatric acute inpatient and day case stays are recorded by an administrative hospital discharge database, the Scottish Morbidity Record (SMR01). The Scottish Stroke Care Audit (SSCA) collects data from all hospitals managing acute stroke in Scotland to support and improve quality of stroke care. The aim was to assess whether there were discrepancies between these data sources for admissions from 2010 to 2011. Records were matched when admission dates from the two data sources were within two days of each other and if an International Classification of Diseases (ICD) code of I61, I63, I64, or G45 was in the primary or secondary diagnosis field on SMR01. We also carried out a linkage analysis followed by a case-note review within one hospital in Scotland. There were a total of 22 416 entries on SSCA and 22 200 entries on SMR01. The concordance between SSCA and SMR01 was 16 823. SSCA contained 5593 strokes that were not present in SMR01, whereas SMR01 contained 185 strokes that were not present in SSCA. In the case-note review the concordance was 531, with SSCA containing 157 strokes that were not present in SMR01 and SMR01 containing 32 strokes that were not present in SSCA. When identifying strokes, hospital administrative discharge databases should be used with caution. Our results demonstrate that SSCA most accurately represents the number of strokes occurring in Scotland. This resource is useful for determining the provision of adequate patient care, stroke services and resources, and as a tool for research.

  19. The need for a population-based, dose optimization study for recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in acute ischemic stroke: A study from a tertiary care teaching hospital from South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siju V Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: The guideline recommended dose of intravenous (i.v recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke is 0.9 mg/kg in the European and American populations. In Asiatic population, some studies have shown that a lower dose of i.v rt-PA is equally efficacious. Aims: To assess if there is a need for a dose optimization for i.v rt-PA study among Indians. Setting and Design: A prospective, observational database of acute stroke cases that presented to a tertiary care institute over a period of 1 year was made. Methods: The data procured using a prestructured elaborate pro forma. Based on the dose of rt-PA received, the individuals were divided into three groups; Group 1 (0.6–0.7 mg/kg, Group 2 (0.7–0.8 mg/kg, and Group 3 (0.8–0.9 mg/kg. Improvement was assessed in each group and between the thrombolysed and nonthrombolysed individuals. Statistical Analysis Used: The nonparametric Mann–Whitney U-test (Wilcoxon rank-sum test was applied for assessing improvement of National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score with significance level of α < 0.05 (P < 0.012 and compliance level at 95%. Results: Between the thrombolysed (n = 46 and nonthrombolysed (n = 113 group, there was a statistically significant neurological improvement in the thrombolysed group. Clinical improvement was noted in 75%, 85.7%, and 66.7% of individuals receiving rt-PA in Groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Four out of the five who developed a clinically significant intracranial hemorrhage were thrombolysed at a dose of 0.8–0.9 mg/kg rt-PA (Group 3. Conclusion: There is a need for a properly randomized, dose optimization study of i.v rt-PA in the Indian subcontinent.

  20. Management of acute ischemic stroke. What is the role of tPA and antithrombotic agents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschia, J F

    2000-05-15

    Every patient with acute stroke who presents to a medical center that has appropriate resources should undergo evaluation for intravenous tPA therapy. Such therapy should not be given unless the patient meets strict eligibility criteria based on clinical, radiographic, and laboratory data. Intra-arterial thrombolysis may be a promising alternative to intravenous tPA therapy, but it should still be regarded as experimental. Daily aspirin therapy should be initiated immediately in most patients who do not receive intravenous tPA therapy and after 24 hours in most patients who receive this treatment. Measures should be taken to prevent medical complications, such as aspiration pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, contractures, and pressure sores. Early initiation of rehabilitation can maximize stroke recovery. Whenever feasible, institutions should have stroke teams or units to streamline care and provide expertise for patients with acute stroke.

  1. Establishment of an effective acute stroke telemedicine program for Australia: protocol for the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadilhac, Dominique A; Moloczij, Natasha; Denisenko, Sonia; Dewey, Helen; Disler, Peter; Winzar, Bruce; Mosley, Ian; Donnan, Geoffrey A; Bladin, Christopher

    2014-02-01

    Urgent treatment of acute stroke in rural Australia is problematic partly because of limited access to medical specialists. Utilization of telemedicine could improve delivery of acute stroke treatments in rural communities. The study aims to demonstrate enhanced clinical decision making for use of thrombolysis within 4·5 h of ischemic stroke symptom onset in a rural setting using a telemedicine specialist support model. A formative program evaluation research design was used. The Victorian Stroke Telemedicine program was developed and will be evaluated over five stages to ensure successful implementation. The phases include: (a) preimplementation phase to establish the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine program including the clinical pathway, data collection tools, and technology processes; (b) pilot clinical application phase to test the pathway in up to 10 patients; (c) modification phase to refine the program; (d) full clinical implementation phase where the program is maintained for one-year; and (e) a sustainability phase to assess project outcomes over five-years. Qualitative (clinician interviews) and quantitative data (patient, clinician, costs, and technology processes) are collected in each phase. The primary outcome is to achieve a minimum 10% absolute increase in eligible patients treated with thrombolysis. Secondary outcomes are utilization of the telestroke pathway and improvements in processes of stroke care (e.g., time to brain scan). We will report door to telemedicine consultation time, length of telemedicine consultation, clinical utility and acceptability from the perspective of clinicians, and 90-day patient outcomes. This research will provide evidence for an effective telestroke program for use in regional Australian hospitals. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  2. Interventions for acute stroke management in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard Baatiema

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The past decades have witnessed a rapid evolution of research on evidence-based acute stroke care interventions worldwide. Nonetheless, the evidence-to-practice gap in acute stroke care remains variable with slow and inconsistent uptake in low-middle income countries (LMICs. This review aims to identify and compare evidence-based acute stroke management interventions with alternative care on overall patient mortality and morbidity outcomes, functional independence, and length of hospital stay across Africa. Methods This review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA guideline. An electronic search was conducted in six databases comprising MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL, Web of Science, Academic Search Complete and Cochrane Library for experimental and non-experimental studies. Eligible studies were abstracted into evidence tables and their methodological quality appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist. Data were analysed and presented narratively with reference to observed differences in patient outcomes, reporting p values and confidence intervals for any possible relationship. Results Initially, 1896 articles were identified and 37 fully screened. Four non-experimental studies (three cohort and one case series studies were included in the final review. One study focused on the clinical efficacy of a stroke unit whilst the remaining three reported on thrombolytic therapy. The results demonstrated a reduction in patient deaths attributed to stroke unit care and thrombolytic therapy. Thrombolytic therapy was also associated with reductions in symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage (SICH. However, the limited eligible studies and methodological limitations compromised definitive conclusions on the extent of and level of efficacy of evidence-based acute stroke care interventions across Africa

  3. Thrombolysis with Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator (rt-PA) Predicts Favorable Discharge Disposition in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifejika-Jones, Nneka L.; Harun, Nusrat; Mohammed-Rajput, Nareesa A.; Noser, Elizabeth A.; Grotta, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Purpose Acute ischemic stroke patients receiving IV tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) within 3 hours of symptom onset are 30% more likely to have minimal disability at three months. During hospitalization, short-term disability is subjectively measured by discharge disposition, whether to home, Inpatient Rehabilitation (IR), Skilled Nursing Facility (SNF) or Subacute Care (Sub). There are no studies assessing the role of rt-PA use as a predictor of post-stroke disposition. Methods Retrospective analysis of all ischemic stroke patients admitted to the University of Texas Houston Medical School (UTHMS) Stroke Service between Jan 2004 and Oct 2009. Baseline demographics and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score were collected. Cerebrovascular disease risk factors were used for risk stratification. Results Home vs. IR, SNF, Sub Of 2225 acute ischemic stroke patients, 1019 were discharged home, 1206 to another level of care. Patients who received rt-PA therapy were 1.9 times more likely to be discharged home (P = stroke patients, 719 patients were discharged to acute IR, 371 were discharged to SNF, 116 to Sub. There were no differences in disposition between patients who received rt-PA therapy. Conclusions Stroke patients who receive IV rt-PA for acute ischemic stroke are more 1.9 times more likely to be discharged directly home after hospitalization. This study is limited by its retrospective nature and the undetermined role of psychosocial factors related to discharge. PMID:21293014

  4. Acute post-stroke blood pressure relative to premorbid levels in intracerebral haemorrhage versus major ischaemic stroke: a population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Urs; Cooney, Marie Therese; Bull, Linda M; Silver, Louise E; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Background It is often assumed that blood pressure increases acutely after major stroke, resulting in so-called post-stroke hypertension. In view of evidence that the risks and benefits of blood pressure-lowering treatment in acute stroke might differ between patients with major ischaemic stroke and those with primary intracerebral haemorrhage, we compared acute-phase and premorbid blood pressure levels in these two disorders. Methods In a population-based study in Oxfordshire, UK, we recruited all patients presenting with stroke between April 1, 2002, and March 31, 2012. We compared all acute-phase post-event blood pressure readings with premorbid readings from 10-year primary care records in all patients with acute major ischaemic stroke (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale >3) versus those with acute intracerebral haemorrhage. Findings Of 653 consecutive eligible patients, premorbid and acute-phase blood pressure readings were available for 636 (97%) individuals. Premorbid blood pressure (total readings 13 244) had been measured on a median of 17 separate occasions per patient (IQR 8–31). In patients with ischaemic stroke, the first acute-phase systolic blood pressure was much lower than after intracerebral haemorrhage (158·5 mm Hg [SD 30·1] vs 189·8 mm Hg [38·5], pblood pressure after intracerebral haemorrhage was substantially higher than premorbid levels (mean increase of 40·7 mm Hg, pblood pressure also increased steeply in the days and weeks before intracerebral haemorrhage (regression pblood pressure reading after primary intracerebral haemorrhage was more likely than after ischaemic stroke to be the highest ever recorded (OR 3·4, 95% CI 2·3–5·2, pblood pressure within 3 h of onset was 50 mm Hg higher, on average, than the maximum premorbid level whereas that after ischaemic stroke was 5·2 mm Hg lower (pblood pressure is substantially raised compared with usual premorbid levels after intracerebral haemorrhage, whereas acute

  5. Acute single channel EEG predictors of cognitive function after stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Aminov

    Full Text Available Early and accurate identification of factors that predict post-stroke cognitive outcome is important to set realistic targets for rehabilitation and to guide patients and their families accordingly. However, behavioral measures of cognition are difficult to obtain in the acute phase of recovery due to clinical factors (e.g. fatigue and functional barriers (e.g. language deficits. The aim of the current study was to test whether single channel wireless EEG data obtained acutely following stroke could predict longer-term cognitive function.Resting state Relative Power (RP of delta, theta, alpha, beta, delta/alpha ratio (DAR, and delta/theta ratio (DTR were obtained from a single electrode over FP1 in 24 participants within 72 hours of a first-ever stroke. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA was administered at 90-days post-stroke. Correlation and regression analyses were completed to identify relationships between 90-day cognitive function and electrophysiological data, neurological status, and demographic characteristics at admission.Four acute qEEG indices demonstrated moderate to high correlations with 90-day MoCA scores: DTR (r = -0.57, p = 0.01, RP theta (r = 0.50, p = 0.01, RP delta (r = -0.47, p = 0.02, and DAR (r = -0.45, p = 0.03. Acute DTR (b = -0.36, p < 0.05 and stroke severity on admission (b = -0.63, p < 0.01 were the best linear combination of predictors of MoCA scores 90-days post-stroke, accounting for 75% of variance.Data generated by a single pre-frontal electrode support the prognostic value of acute DAR, and identify DTR as a potential marker of post-stroke cognitive outcome. Use of single channel recording in an acute clinical setting may provide an efficient and valid predictor of cognitive function after stroke.

  6. Improving stroke care for patients at Cavan hospital [poster

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murugasu, G Dr.

    2013-07-01

    Under the Quality and Continuing Care Directorate (QCCD) in stroke care Cavan General Hospital was identified as a hospital that received a large number of stroke and TIA patients. A programme was established to improve services to this population.

  7. High-Value Care in the Evaluation of Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urja, Prakrity; Nippoldt, Eric H; Barak, Virginia; Valenta, Carrie

    2017-08-01

    Value-based care emphasizes achieving the greatest overall health benefit for every dollar spent. We present an interesting case of stroke, which made us consider how frequently health care providers are utilizing value-based care. A 73-year-old Caucasian, who was initially admitted for a hypertensive emergency, was transferred to our facility for worsening slurring of speech and left-sided weakness. The patient had an extensive chronic cerebrovascular disease, including multiple embolic type strokes, mainly in the distribution of the right temporal-occipital cerebral artery and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). The patient had a known history of patent foramen ovale (PFO) and occlusion of the right internal carotid artery. He was complicated by intracranial hemorrhage while on anticoagulation for pulmonary embolism. He was chronically on dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin and clopidogrel) and statin.  Following the transfer, stroke protocol, including the activation of the stroke team, a computed tomography (CT) imaging study, and the rapid stabilization of the patient was initiated. His vitals were stable, and the physical examination was significant for the drooping of the left angle of the mouth, a nonreactive right pupil consistent with the previous stroke, a decreased strength in the left upper and lower extremities, and a faint systolic murmur. His previous stroke was shown to be embolic, involving both the right temporal and occipital regions, which was re-demonstrated in a CT scan. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain showed a new, restricted diffusion in the right pons that was compatible with an acute stroke as well as diffusely atherosclerotic vessels with a focal stenosis of the branch vessels. A transthoracic echocardiogram demonstrated no new thrombus in the heart. A transesophageal echocardiogram (TEE) showed known PFO, and repeat hypercoagulation evaluation was negative, as it was in his previous cerebrovascular accident (CVA

  8. Starting early: integration of self-management support into an acute stroke service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkelä, Petra; Gawned, Sara; Jones, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    Self-management support following stroke is rare, despite emerging evidence for impact on patient outcomes. The promotion of a common approach to self-management support across a stroke pathway requires collaboration between professionals. To date, the feasibility of self-management support in acute stroke settings has not been evaluated. The Bridges stroke self-management package (SMP) is based on self-efficacy principles. It is delivered by professionals and supported by a patient-held workbook. The aim of this project was to introduce the Bridges stroke SMP to the multidisciplinary staff of a London hyperacute and acute stroke unit. The 'Plan Do Study Act' (PDSA) cycle guided iterative stages of project development, with normalisation process theory helping to embed the intervention into existing ways of working. Questionnaires explored attitudes, beliefs and experiences of the staff who were integrating self-management support into ways of working in the acute stroke setting. Self-management support training was delivered to a total of 46 multidisciplinary stroke staff. Of the staff who attended the follow-up training, 66% had implemented Bridges self-management support with patients since initial training, and 100% felt their practice had changed. Questionnaire findings demonstrated that staff attitudes and beliefs had changed following training, particularly regarding ownership and type of rehabilitation goals set, and prioritisation of self-management support within acute stroke care. Staff initiated an audit of washing and dressing practices pre- and post-training. This was designed to evaluate the number of occasions when techniques were used by staff to facilitate patients' independence and self-management. They found that the number of occasions featuring optimum practice went from 54% at baseline to 63% at three months post-training. This project demonstrated the feasibility of integrating self-management support into an acute stroke setting. Further

  9. Is primary care a neglected piece of the jigsaw in ensuring optimal stroke care? Results of a national study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitford, David L

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity with potential for improved care and prevention through general practice. A national survey was undertaken to determine current resources and needs for optimal stroke prevention and care. METHODS: Postal survey of random sample of general practitioners undertaken (N = 204; 46% response). Topics included practice organisation, primary prevention, acute management, secondary prevention, long-term care and rehabilitation. RESULTS: Service organisation for both primary and secondary prevention was poor. Home management of acute stroke patients was used at some stage by 50% of responders, accounting for 7.3% of all stroke patients. Being in a structured cardiovascular management scheme, a training practice, a larger practice, or a practice employing a practice nurse were associated with structures and processes likely to support stroke prevention and care. CONCLUSION: General practices were not fulfilling their potential to provide stroke prevention and long-term management. Systems of structured stroke management in general practice are essential to comprehensive national programmes of stroke care.

  10. Is primary care a neglected piece of the jigsaw in ensuring optimal stroke care? Results of a national study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Sullivan Bernadette

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stroke is a major cause of mortality and morbidity with potential for improved care and prevention through general practice. A national survey was undertaken to determine current resources and needs for optimal stroke prevention and care. Methods Postal survey of random sample of general practitioners undertaken (N = 204; 46% response. Topics included practice organisation, primary prevention, acute management, secondary prevention, long-term care and rehabilitation. Results Service organisation for both primary and secondary prevention was poor. Home management of acute stroke patients was used at some stage by 50% of responders, accounting for 7.3% of all stroke patients. Being in a structured cardiovascular management scheme, a training practice, a larger practice, or a practice employing a practice nurse were associated with structures and processes likely to support stroke prevention and care. Conclusion General practices were not fulfilling their potential to provide stroke prevention and long-term management. Systems of structured stroke management in general practice are essential to comprehensive national programmes of stroke care.

  11. A set of care quality indicators for stroke management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Soler, I M; Ignacio García, E; Masjuan Vallejo, J; Gállego Culleré, J; Mira Solves, J J

    2017-06-22

    This study proposes a set of quality indicators for care outcomes in patients with acute cerebral infarction. These indicators are understandable and relevant from a clinical viewpoint, as well as being acceptable and feasible in terms of time required, ease of data capture, and interpretability. The method consisted of reaching consensus among doctors after having reviewed the literature on quality indicators in stroke. We then designed and conducted a field study to assess the understandability and feasibility of the set of indicators. Consensus yielded 8 structural indicators, 5 process indicators, and 12 result indicators. Additionally, standards of reference were established for each indicator. This set of indicators can be used to monitor the quality care for stroke patients, identify strengths, and potentially to identify areas needing improvement. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Retrospective audit of the acute management of stroke in two district general hospitals in the uk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faluyi, O O; Omodara, J A; Tay, K H; Muhiddin, K

    2008-06-01

    There is some evidence to suggest that the standard of acute medical care provided to patients with cerebrovascular disease is a major determinant of the eventual outcome. Consequently, the Royal College of Physicians (RCP) of London issues periodic guidelines to assist healthcare providers in the management of patients presenting with stroke. An audit of the acute management of stroke in two hospitals belonging to the same health care trust in the UK. Retrospective review of 98 randomly selected case-notes of patients managed for cerebrovascular disease in two acute hospitals in the UK between April and June 2004. The pertinent guidelines of RCP (London) are highlighted while audit targets were set at 70%. 84% of patients presenting with cerebrovascular disease had a stroke rather than a TIA, anterior circulation strokes were commonest. All patients with stroke were admitted while those with TIAs were discharged on the same day but most patients with TIA were not followed up by Stroke specialists. Most CT-imaging of the head was done after 24 hours delaying the commencement of anti-platelets for patients with ischaemic stroke or neurosurgical referral for haemorrhagic stroke. Furthermore, there was a low rate of referral for carotid ultrasound in patients with anterior circulation strokes. Anti-platelets and statins were commenced for most patients with ischaemic stroke while diabetes was well controlled in most of them. However, ACE-inhibitors and diuretics such as indapamide were under-utilized for secondary prevention in such patients. Warfarin anti-coagulation was underutilized in patients with ischaemic stroke who had underlying chronic atrial fibrillation. While there was significant multi-disciplinary team input, dysphagia and physiotherapy assessments were delayed. Similarly, occupational therapy input and psychological assesment were omitted from the care of most patients. Hospital service provision for the management of cerebrovascular disease needs to

  13. Assessing organisational readiness for change: use of diagnostic analysis prior to the implementation of a multidisciplinary assessment for acute stroke care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaren Susan

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Achieving evidence-based practice in health care is integral to the drive for quality improvement in the National Health Service in the UK. Encapsulated within this policy agenda are challenges inherent in leading and managing organisational change. Not least of these is the need to change the behaviours of individuals and groups in order to embed new practices. Such changes are set within a context of organisational culture that can present a number of barriers and facilitators to change. Diagnostic analysis has been recommended as a precursor to the implementation of change to enable such barriers and facilitators to be identified and a targeted implementation strategy developed. Although diagnostic analysis is recommended, there is a paucity of advice on appropriate methods to use. This paper addresses the paucity and builds on previous work by recommending a mixed method approach to diagnostic analysis comprising both quantitative and qualitative data. Methods Twenty staff members with strategic accountability for stroke care were purposively sampled to take part in semi-structured interviews. Six recently discharged patients were also interviewed. Focus groups were conducted with one group of registered ward-based nurses (n = 5 and three specialist registrars (n = 3 purposively selected for their interest in stroke care. All professional staff on the study wards were sent the Team Climate Inventory questionnaire (n = 206. This elicited a response rate of 72% (n = 148. Results A number of facilitators for change were identified, including stakeholder support, organisational commitment to education, strong team climate in some teams, exemplars of past successful organisational change, and positive working environments. A number of barriers were also identified, including: unidisciplinary assessment/recording practices, varying in structure and evidence-base; weak team climate in some teams; negative exemplars of

  14. Assessing organisational readiness for change: use of diagnostic analysis prior to the implementation of a multidisciplinary assessment for acute stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Sharon; McLaren, Susan; Mulhall, Anne

    2007-07-14

    Achieving evidence-based practice in health care is integral to the drive for quality improvement in the National Health Service in the UK. Encapsulated within this policy agenda are challenges inherent in leading and managing organisational change. Not least of these is the need to change the behaviours of individuals and groups in order to embed new practices. Such changes are set within a context of organisational culture that can present a number of barriers and facilitators to change. Diagnostic analysis has been recommended as a precursor to the implementation of change to enable such barriers and facilitators to be identified and a targeted implementation strategy developed. Although diagnostic analysis is recommended, there is a paucity of advice on appropriate methods to use. This paper addresses the paucity and builds on previous work by recommending a mixed method approach to diagnostic analysis comprising both quantitative and qualitative data. Twenty staff members with strategic accountability for stroke care were purposively sampled to take part in semi-structured interviews. Six recently discharged patients were also interviewed. Focus groups were conducted with one group of registered ward-based nurses (n = 5) and three specialist registrars (n = 3) purposively selected for their interest in stroke care. All professional staff on the study wards were sent the Team Climate Inventory questionnaire (n = 206). This elicited a response rate of 72% (n = 148). A number of facilitators for change were identified, including stakeholder support, organisational commitment to education, strong team climate in some teams, exemplars of past successful organisational change, and positive working environments. A number of barriers were also identified, including: unidisciplinary assessment/recording practices, varying in structure and evidence-base; weak team climate in some teams; negative exemplars of organisational change; and uncertainty created by impending

  15. Mechanism of troponin elevations in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper K.; Atar, Dan; Mickley, Hans

    2007-01-01

    the introduction of troponin in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, this marker has been measured in a number of other conditions as well. One of these conditions is acute ischemic stroke, causing diagnostic dilemmas for clinicians. Because various electrocardiographic alterations have also been reported...... in these patients, it has been suggested that elevated troponin levels are somehow neurologically mediated, thus not caused by direct cardiac release. In conclusion, this review examines the available studies that systematically measured troponin in patients with acute ischemic stroke to properly interpret troponin...... elevations in these patients Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Mar-15...

  16. Arterial stiffness and functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yeong-Bae; Park, Joo-Hwan; Kim, Eunja; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Hyeon-Mi

    2014-03-01

    Arterial stiffness is a common change associated with aging and can be evaluated by measuring pulse wave velocity (PWV) between sites in the arterial tree, with the stiffer artery having the higher PWV. Arterial stiffness is associated with the risk of stroke in the general population and of fatal stroke in hypertensive patients. This study is to clarify whether PWV value predicts functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. ONE HUNDRED PATIENTS WERE ENROLLED WITH A DIAGNOSIS OF ACUTE ISCHEMIC STROKE AND CATEGORIZED INTO TWO GROUPS: large-artery atherosclerosis (LAAS) or small vessel disease (SVD) subtype of Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification. Each group was divided into two sub-groups based on the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke, indicated by modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at discharge. Poor functional outcome group was defined as a mRS ≥ 3 at discharge. Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney U-test were used to compare maximal brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) values. Twenty-four patients whose state was inadequate to assess baPWV or mRS were excluded. There were 38 patients with good functional outcome (mRS vs. 1,789.80 ± 421.91, p = 0.022), while there was no significant difference of baPWV among patients with LAAS subtype (2,071.76 ± 618.42 vs. 1,878.00 ± 365.35, p = 0.579). Arterial stiffness indicated by baPWV is associated with the functional outcome of acute ischemic stroke. This finding suggests that measurement of baPWV predicts functional outcome in patients with stroke especially those whose TOAST classification was confirmed as SVD subtype.

  17. Stroke care in Central Eastern Europe: current problems and call for action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenti, Laura; Brainin, Michael; Titianova, Ekaterina; Morovic, Sandra; Demarin, Vida; Kalvach, Pavel; Skoloudik, David; Kobayashi, Adam; Czlonkowska, Anna; Muresanu, Dafin F; Shekhovtsova, Ksenia; Skvortsova, Veronica I; Sternic, Nadezda; Beslac Bumbasirevic, Ljiljana; Svigelj, Viktor; Turcani, Peter; Bereczki, Dániel; Csiba, László

    2013-07-01

    Stroke is a major medical problem and one of the leading causes of mortality and disability all over in Europe. However, there are significant East-West differences in stroke care as well as in stroke mortality and morbidity rates. Central and Eastern European countries that formerly had centralized and socialist health care systems have serious and similar problems in organizing health and stroke care 20 years after the political transition. In Central and Eastern Europe, stroke is more frequent, the mortality rate is higher, and the victims are younger than in Western Europe. High-risk patients live in worse environmental conditions, and the socioeconomic consequences of stroke further weaken the economic development of these countries. To address these issues, a round table conference was organized. The main aim of this conference was to discuss problems to be solved related to acute and chronic stroke care in Central and Eastern European countries, and also, to exchange ideas on possible solutions. In this article, the discussed problems and possible solutions will be summarized, and introduce 'The Budapest Statement of Stroke Experts of Central and Eastern European countries'. © 2012 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2012 World Stroke Organization.

  18. Techniques for improving efficiency in the emergency department for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Holmstedt, Christine; Nolte, Justin

    2012-09-01

    The past 15 years have witnessed significant strides in the management of acute stroke. The most significant advance, reperfusion therapy, has changed relatively little, but the integrated healthcare systems-stroke systems-established to effectively and safely administer stroke treatments have evolved greatly. Driving change is the understanding that "time is brain." Data are compelling that the likelihood of improvement is directly tied to time of reperfusion. Regional stroke systems of care ensure patients arrive at the most appropriate stroke-capable hospital in which intrahospital systems have been created to process the potential stroke patient as quickly as possible. The hospital-based systems are comprised of prehospital care providers, emergency department physicians and nurses, stroke team members, and critical ancillary services such as neuroimaging and laboratory. Given their complexity, these systems of care require maintenance. Through teamwork and ownership of the process, more patients will be saved from potential death and long-term disability. © 2012 New York Academy of Sciences.

  19. Microbubble signal and trial of org in acute stroke treatment (TOAST) classification in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan-Hyuk; Kang, Hyun Goo; Lee, Ji Sung; Ryu, Han Uk; Jeong, Seul-Ki

    2018-07-15

    Right-to-left shunt (RLS) through a patent foramen ovale (PFO) is likely associated with ischemic stroke. Many studies have attempted to demonstrate the association between RLS and ischemic stroke. However, information on the association between the degree of RLS and the subtypes of ischemic stroke categorized by the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification is lacking. This was a retrospective study involving 508 patients with ischemic stroke who underwent a transcranial Doppler (TCD) microbubble test between 2013 and 2015. The degree of RLS was divided into 4 grades according to the microbubble signal (MBS) as follows: no MBS, grade 1; MBS  20, grade 3; curtain sign, grade 4. The degree of RLS and the type of ischemic stroke as classified by TOAST were analyzed and compared with other clinical information and laboratory findings. The higher RLS grade was associated with the cardioembolism (CE) and stroke of undetermined etiology (SUE), and the microbubble signals were inversely related with small vessel disease (SVD). An MBS higher than grade 3 showed a 2.95-fold higher association with SUE than large artery atherosclerosis (LAA), while grade 4 MBS revealed an approximately 8-fold higher association with SUE than LAA. RLS identified by the TCD microbubble test was significantly and independently associated with cryptogenic ischemic stroke (negative evaluation). Subsequent studies are needed to determine the biologic relationship between RLS and ischemic stroke, particularly the cryptogenic subtype of ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Lack of Gender Disparities in Emergency Department Triage of Acute Stroke Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madsen, Tracy E.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Previous literature has shown gender disparities in the care of acute ischemic stroke. Compared to men, women wait longer for brain imaging and are less likely to receive intravenous (IV tissue plasminogen activator (tPA. Emergency department (ED triage is an important step in the rapid assessment of stroke patients and is a possible contributor to disparities. It is unknown whether gender differences exist in ED triage of acute stroke patients. Our primary objective was to determine whether gender disparities exist in the triage of acute stroke patients as defined by Emergency Severity Index (ESI levels and use of ED critical care beds. Methods: This was a retrospective, observational study of both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke patients age ≥18 years presenting to a large, urban, academic ED within six hours of symptom onset between January 2010, and December 2012. Primary outcomes were triage to a non-critical ED bed and Emergency Severity Index (ESI level. Primary outcome data were extracted from electronic medical records by a blinded data manager; secondary outcome data and covariates were abstracted by trained research assistants. We performed bivariate and multivariate analyses. Logistic regression was performed using age, race, insurance status, mode of and time to arrival, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and presence of atypical symptoms as covariates. Results: There were 537 patients included in this study. Women were older (75.6 vs. 69.5, p<0.001, and more women had a history of atrial fibrillation (39.8% vs. 25.3%, p<0.001. Compared to 9.5% of men, 10.3% of women were triaged to a non-critical care ED bed (p=0.77; 92.1% of women were triaged as ESI 1 or 2 vs. 93.6% of men (p=0.53. After adjustment, gender was not associated with triage location or ESI level, though atypical symptoms were associated with higher odds of being triaged to a non-critical care bed (aOR 1.98, 95%CI [1.03 – 3.81] and 3

  1. Routine Troponin Measurements Are Unnecessary to Exclude Asymptomatic Coronary Events in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Farwa; Young, Jimmy; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Flemming, Kelly D; Fugate, Jennifer E

    2016-05-01

    Obtaining serum troponin levels in every patient with acute stroke is recommended in recent stroke guidelines, but there is no evidence that these contribute positively to clinical care. We sought to determine the clinical significance of measuring troponin levels in acute ischemic stroke patients. We reviewed 398 consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke at a large academic institution from 2010 to 2012. Troponin levels were measured as a result of protocol in place during part of the study period. The mean age was 70 years (standard deviation ±16 years) and 197 (49.5%) were men. Chronic kidney disease was present in 78 (19.6%), coronary artery disease in 107 (26.9%), and atrial fibrillation in 107 (26.9%). Serum troponin T was measured in 246 of 398 patients (61.8%). Troponin was elevated (>.01 ng/mL) at any point in 38 of 246 patients (15.5%) and was elevated in 28 patients at all 3 measurements (11.3% of those with troponin measured). Only 4 of 246 patients (1.6%) had a significant uptrend. Two were iatrogenic in the setting of hemodynamic augmentation using vasopressors to maintain cerebral perfusion. One case was attributed to stroke and chronic kidney disease and another case to heart failure from inflammatory fibrocalcific mitral valvular heart disease. Serum troponin elevation in patients with ischemic stroke is not usually caused by clinically significant acute myocardial ischemia unless iatrogenic in the setting of vasopressor administration. Serum troponin levels should be measured judicially, based on clinical context, rather than routinely in all stroke patients. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute ischaemic stroke prediction from physiological time series patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Zhang,

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundStroke is one of the major diseases with human mortality. Recent clinical research has indicated that early changes in common physiological variables represent a potential therapeutic target, thus the manipulation of these variables may eventually yield an effective way to optimise stroke recovery.AimsWe examined correlations between physiological parameters of patients during the first 48 hours after a stroke, and their stroke outcomes after 3 months. We wanted to discover physiological determinants that could be used to improve health outcomes by supporting the medical decisions that need to be made early on a patient’s stroke experience.Method We applied regression-based machine learning techniques to build a prediction algorithm that can forecast 3-month outcomes from initial physiological time series data during the first 48 hours after stroke. In our method, not only did we use statistical characteristics as traditional prediction features, but also we adopted trend patterns of time series data as new key features.ResultsWe tested our prediction method on a real physiological data set of stroke patients. The experiment results revealed an average high precision rate: 90%. We also tested prediction methods only considering statistical characteristics of physiological data, and concluded an average precision rate: 71%.ConclusionWe demonstrated that using trend pattern features in prediction methods improved the accuracy of stroke outcome prediction. Therefore, trend patterns of physiological time series data have an important role in the early treatment of patients with acute ischaemic stroke.

  3. The effects of citicoline on acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    Early reopening of the occluded artery is, thus, important in ischemic stroke, and it has been calculated that 2 million neurons die every minute in an ischemic stroke if no effective therapy is given; therefore, "Time is Brain." In massive hemispheric infarction and edema, surgical decompression...... lowers the risk of death or severe disability defined as a modified Rankin Scale score greater than 4 in selected patients. The majority, around 80%-85% of all ischemic stroke victims, does not fulfill the criteria for revascularization therapy, and also for these patients, there is no effective acute...... therapy. Also there is no established effective acute treatment of spontaneous intracerebral bleeding. Therefore, an effective therapy applicable to all stroke victims is needed. The neuroprotective drug citicoline has been extensively studied in clinical trials with volunteers and more than 11...

  4. Time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival in acute ischemic stroke patients in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jing; Yan, Weihong; Jiang, Guo-Xin; Li, Wei; Cheng, Qi

    2011-02-01

    To observe the time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival (time-to-hospital) in acute ischemic stroke patients and analyze its putatively associated factors. During the period from November 1, 2006 to August 31, 2008, patients with acute ischemic stroke admitted consecutively to the Department of Neurology, Ninth Hospital, Shanghai, were enrolled in the study. Information of the patients was registered including the time-to-hospital, demographic data, history of stroke, season at attack, neurological symptom at onset, etc. Characteristics of the patients were analyzed and logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify factors associated with the time-to-hospital. There were 536 patients in the study, 290 (54.1%) males and 246 (45.9%) females. The median time-to-hospital was 8h (ranged from 0.1 to 300 h) for all patients. Within 3h after the onset of stroke, 162 patients (30.2%) arrived at our hospital; and within 6h, 278 patients (51.9%). Patients with a history of stroke, unconsciousness at onset, or a high NIHSS score at admission had significantly less time-to-hospital. The time interval between stroke onset and hospital arrival was importance of seeking immediate medical help after stroke onset of patients and their relatives could significantly influence their actions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Number of nursing staff and falls: a case-control study on falls by stroke patients in acute-care settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tutuarima, J. A.; de Haan, R. J.; Limburg, M.

    1993-01-01

    Falls occur frequently in patients with a stroke and have serious consequences: discharge delays and hip fractures can result. In order to evaluate the impact of nursing workload on stroke-patient falls, we assessed the patients per nurse ratio in a detailed case-control study carried out in nine

  6. The angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan for treatment of acute stroke (SCAST): a randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Bath, Philip M W; Boysen, Gudrun

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is common in acute stroke, and is associated with an increased risk of poor outcomes. We aimed to examine whether careful blood-pressure lowering treatment with the angiotensin-receptor blocker candesartan is beneficial in patients with acute stroke and raised bl...

  7. Clinical neurological characteristics of ischemic stroke subtypes in acute phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. I. Shkrobot

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The aim of the present study was to clarify clinical neurological characteristics and different ischemic stroke subtypes unfavorable course predictors in acute phase. Material and Methods. 482 patients with different ischemic stroke subtypes were observed. Among them there were 125 (25.9 % with cardioembolic infarct (CEI, 119 (24.7 % with large artery atherosclerosis (LAAS infarct, 122 (25.3 % with lacunar stroke (LAC, 116 (24.1 % with stroke of undetermined etiology (UDE. The comparative analysis of clinical picture was performed. The predictors of unfavorable course of acute phase were established. Results. We have found out that severe neurological deficit, high mortality and the worst functional outcome during the first 14 days were observed in patients with CEI and LAAS. The highest frequency of early neurological deterioration (END was detected at LAC (in 22.7 % of patients. There was a relationship between END and presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA in past medical history, the level of systolic blood pressure (SBP at the beginning of the disease and the degree of carotid arteries stenosis on the side of lesion. The patients with LAC had mild neurological deficit and better prognosis compared with other ischemic stroke subtypes. Among the clinical factors that have impact on the CEI, LAAS and UDE acute phase course were: the size of lesion, the level of consciousness on the 1st day, the baseline SBP, patient’s age. At LAAS, the presence of transient ischemic attack (TIA in past medical history and low SBP in the onset of the disease (less than140 mm Hg has an additional prognostic value for an unfavorable functional outcome. The severity of LAC in acute period depended on its localization and size. Localization of LAC in the internal capsule, thalamus and pons were characterized by the highest severity. Conclusions. Clinical neurological features of ischemic stroke depend on its subtype and have some prognostic value

  8. Development and Pilot Testing of 24/7 In-Ambulance Telemedicine for Acute Stroke: Prehospital Stroke Study at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel-Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela Espinoza, Alexis; Van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; De Smedt, Ann; Moens, Maarten; Yperzeele, Laetitia; Nieboer, Koenraad; Hubloue, Ives; de Keyser, Jacques; Convents, Andre; Fernandez Tellez, Helio; Dupont, Alain; Putman, Koen; Brouns, Raf

    2016-01-01

    In-ambulance telemedicine is a recently developed and a promising approach to improve emergency care. We implemented the first ever 24/7 in-ambulance telemedicine service for acute stroke. We report on our experiences with the development and pilot testing of the Prehospital Stroke Study at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (PreSSUB) to facilitate a wider spread of the knowledge regarding this technique. Successful execution of the project involved the development and validation of a novel stroke scale, design and creation of specific hardware and software solutions, execution of field tests for mobile internet connectivity, design of new care processes and information flows, recurrent training of all professional caregivers involved in acute stroke management, extensive testing on healthy volunteers, organisation of a 24/7 teleconsultation service by trained stroke experts and 24/7 technical support, and resolution of several legal issues. In all, it took 41 months of research and development to confirm the safety, technical feasibility, reliability, and user acceptance of the PreSSUB approach. Stroke-specific key information can be collected safely and reliably before and during ambulance transportation and can adequately be communicated with the inhospital team awaiting the patient. This paper portrays the key steps required and the lessons learned for successful implementation of a 24/7 expert telemedicine service supporting patients with acute stroke during ambulance transportation to the hospital. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Factoring in Factor VIII With Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, James E; Samai, Alyana; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Martin-Schild, Sheryl

    2015-10-01

    There is growing research interest into the etiologies of cryptogenic stroke, in particular as it relates to hypercoagulable states. An elevation in serum levels of the procoagulant factor VIII is recognized as one such culprit of occult cerebral infarctions. It is the objective of the present review to summarize the molecular role of factor VIII in thrombogenesis and its clinical use in the diagnosis and prognosis of acute ischemic stroke. We also discuss the utility of screening for serum factor VIII levels among patients at risk for, or those who have experienced, ischemic stroke. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Intensive treadmill training in the acute phase after ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to (a) assess the feasibility of intensive treadmill training in patients with acute ischemic stroke, (b) test whether physical activity of the legs during training increases with time, and (c) evaluate to what extent training sessions contribute toward the overall physical...... activity of these patients. Twenty hospitalized patients with acute ischemic stroke trained on a treadmill twice daily for 30 min for 5 days and on day 30. Physical activity was measured as activity counts (AC) from accelerometers. A total of 196 of 224 initiated training sessions were completed. Training...... with increasing number of days, with the median AC being 133% higher on day 5 than on day 1. AC in the paretic leg during 60 min of training constituted median 53% of the daytime AC. Early intensive treadmill training in acute ischemic stroke patients is thus feasible and contributes considerably toward...

  11. Early warning score predicts acute mortality in stroke patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liljehult, J; Christensen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study wa...... tool for identifying patients at risk of dying after acute stroke. Readily available physiological parameters are converted to a single score, which can guide both nurses and physicians in clinical decision making and resource allocation.......OBJECTIVES: Clinical deterioration and death among patients with acute stroke are often preceded by detrimental changes in physiological parameters. Systematic and effective tools to identify patients at risk of deterioration early enough to intervene are therefore needed. The aim of the study...

  12. Development and pilot testing of 24/7 in-ambulance telemedicine for acute stroke : prehospital stroke study at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel-project

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Alexis Valenzuela; Van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; De Smedt, Ann; Moens, Maarten; Yperzeele, Laetitia; Nieboer, Koenraad; Hubloue, Ives; de Keyser, Jacques; Convents, Andre; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Dupont, Alain; Putman, Koen; Brouns, Raf

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: In-ambulance telemedicine is a recently developed and a promising approach to improve emergency care. We implemented the first ever 24/7 in-ambulance telemedicine service for acute stroke. We report on our experiences with the development and pilot testing of the Prehospital Stroke Study at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (PreSSUB) to facilitate a wider spread of the knowledge regarding this technique. Methods: Successful execution of the project involved the develop...

  13. Development and Pilot Testing of 24/7 In-Ambulance Telemedicine for Acute Stroke: Prehospital Stroke Study at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel-Project

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Alexis Valenzuela; Van Hooff, Robbert-Jan; De Smedt, Ann; Moens, Maarten; Yperzeele, Laetitia; Nieboer, Koenraad; Hubloue, Ives; de Keyser, Jacques; Convents, Andre; Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Dupont, Alain; Putman, Koen; Brouns, Raf

    2016-01-01

    Background: In-ambulance telemedicine is a recently developed and a promising approach to improve emergency care. We implemented the first ever 24/7 in-ambulance telemedicine service for acute stroke. We report on our experiences with the development and pilot testing of the Prehospital Stroke Study at the Universitair Ziekenhuis Brussel (PreSSUB) to facilitate a wider spread of the knowledge regarding this technique. Methods: Successful execution of the project involved the development and v...

  14. Oropharyngeal Dysphagia in Acute Stroke Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Faezeh Asadollahpour; Kowsar Baghban; Mojgan Asadi; Ehsan Naderifar; Maryam Dehghani

    2015-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of different kinds of swallowing disorder and it’s severity in patients after stroke. Patients and Methods: In this cross sectional study, 91 consecutive stroke patients were screened by the Northwestern Dysphagia Patient Check Sheet (NDPCS) and the Gugging Swallowing Screen (GUSS). Results: Forty seven percent of those assessed demonstrated signs of oropharyngeal dysphagia. Mild dysphagia was seen in (10.98%) pat...

  15. [Acute surgical treatment of malignant stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilja-Cyron, Alexander; Eskesen, Vagn; Hansen, Klaus; Kondziella, Daniel; Kelsen, Jesper

    2016-10-24

    Malignant stroke is an intracranial herniation syndrome caused by cerebral oedema after a large hemispheric or cerebellar stroke. Malignant middle cerebral artery infarction is a devastating disease with a mortality around 80% despite intensive medical treatment. Decompressive craniectomy reduces mortality and improves functional outcome - especially in younger patients (age ≤ 60 years). Decompression of the posterior fossa is a life-saving procedure in patients with malignant cerebellar infarctions and often leads to good neurological outcome.

  16. Brain perfusion-CT in acute stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, T.; Totsev, N.; Tzvetanov, P.

    2013-01-01

    Since 1979 when Grodfrey Hounsfield and Allan Corman introduced the computed tomography new generations of CT were developed that improved the special resolution and time of acquisition. The role of neuro-imaging in the evaluation of acute stroke has changed dramatically in the past decade. Previously, neuro-imaging was used in this set-ting to provide anatomic imaging that indicated the presence or absence of acute cerebral ischemia and excluded lesions that produce symptoms or signs mimicking those of stroke, such as hemorrhage and neoplasms. More recently, the introduction of thrombolysis has changed the goals of neuro-imaging from providing solely anatomic information to providing physiologic information that could help to determine which patients might benefit from therapy. In particular, significant emphasis has been placed on the delineation of the ischemic penumbra, also called tissue at risk. Modem CT survey, consisting of three indissociable elements; noncontrast CT (NCT) of course, perfusion-CT (PCT) and CT-angiography (CTA), fulfill all the requirements for hyperacute stroke imaging. CTA can define the occlusion site, depict arterial dissection, grade collateral blood flow, and characterize atherosclerotic disease, whereas PCT accurately defines the infarct core and the ischemic penumbra. CT offers a number of practical advantages over other cerebral perfusion imaging methods, including its wide availability. Using PCT and CTA to define new individualized strategies for acute reperfusion will allow more acute stroke patients to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. Key words: Stroke. Penumbra. Computed Tomography. Perfusion-CT. CT Angiography. Outcome

  17. The course of delirium in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John; Pathansali, Rohan; Hassan, Hardi; Ouldred, Emma; Cooper, Derek; Stewart, Robert; Macdonald, Alastair; Jackson, Stephen

    2009-07-01

    several studies have assessed delirium post-stroke but conflicting results have been obtained. Also, the natural history and outcome of delirium post-stroke need to be fully elucidated. eligible stroke patients were assessed for delirium on admission and for four consecutive weeks using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM). Risk factors for delirium were recorded. Our outcome measures were length of stay, inpatient mortality and discharge destination. of 110 eligible patients, 82 were recruited over 7 months. Delirium was detected in 23 patients (28%); 21 of these were delirious on their first assessment. Sixty-nine per cent of patients who had four weekly assessments were delirious at 4 weeks. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed, and two models were identified. With unsafe swallow in the analysis, delirium was associated with an unsafe swallow on admission (OR 28.4, Pstroke (OR 110.8, P = 0.01). With unsafe swallow removed from the analysis, delirium was associated with an admission C-reactive protein (CRP) > 5 mg/l (OR 10.2, P = 0.009), Barthel score stroke (OR 85.2, P = 0.01). Delirious patients had a higher mortality (30.4% vs. 1.7%, Pvs. 28.9 days, Pvs. 5.2%, OR 14, Pstroke. Most cases develop at stroke onset and remain delirious for an appreciable period. Delirium onset is associated with stroke severity (low admission Barthel), unsafe swallow on admission, poor vision pre-stroke and a raised admission CRP. Delirium is a marker of poor prognosis.

  18. Edaravone offers neuroprotection for acute diabetic stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Chen, X

    2016-11-01

    Edaravone, a novel free-radical scavenger, has been shown to alleviate cerebral ischemic injury and protect against vascular endothelial dysfunction. However, the effects of edaravone in acute diabetic stroke patients remain undetermined. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was performed to prospectively evaluate the effects of edaravone on acute diabetic stroke patients admitted to our hospital within 24 h of stroke onset. The edaravone group received edaravone (30 mg twice per day) diluted with 100 ml of saline combined with antiplatelet drug aspirin and atorvastatin for 14 days. The non-edaravone group was treated only with 100 ml of saline twice per day combined with aspirin and atorvastatin. Upon admission, and on days 7, 14 post-stroke onset, neurological deficits and activities of daily living were assessed using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and the Barthel Index (BI), respectively. The occurrence of hemorrhage transformation, pulmonary infection, progressive stroke and epilepsy was also evaluated on day 14 post-treatment. A total of 65 consecutive acute diabetic stroke patients were enrolled, of whom 35 were allocated to the edaravone group and 30 to the non-edaravone group. There was no significant group difference in baseline clinical characteristics, but mean NIHSS scores were lower (60 %), and BI scores were 1.7-fold higher, in edaravone-treated patients vs. controls on day 14. Furthermore, the incidence of hemorrhage transformation, pulmonary infection, progressive stroke and epilepsy was markedly reduced in the edaravone vs. non-edaravone group. Edaravone represents a promising neuroprotectant against cerebral ischemic injury in diabetic patients.

  19. Acute stroke magnetic resonance imaging: current status and future perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloska, Stephan P.; Wintermark, Max; Engelhorn, Tobias; Fiebach, Jochen B.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is one of the most frequent causes of permanent disability or death in the western world and a major burden in healthcare system. The major portion is caused by acute ischemia due to cerebral artery occlusion by a clot. The minority of strokes is related to intracerebral hemorrhage or other sources. To limit the permanent disability in ischemic stroke patients resulting from irreversible infarction of ischemic brain tissue, major efforts were made in the last decade. To extend the time window for thrombolysis, which is the only approved therapy, several imaging parameters in computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been investigated. However, the current guidelines neglect the fact that the portion of potentially salvageable ischemic tissue (penumbra) is not dependent on the time window but the individual collateral blood flow. Within the last years, the differentiation of infarct core and penumbra with MRI using diffusion-weighted images (DWI) and perfusion imaging (PI) with parameter maps was established. Current trials transform these technical advances to a redefined patient selection based on physiological parameters determined by MRI. This review article presents the current status of MRI for acute stroke imaging. A special focus is the ischemic stroke. In dependence on the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, the basic principle and diagnostic value of different MRI sequences are illustrated. MRI techniques for imaging of the main differential diagnoses of ischemic stroke are mentioned. Moreover, perspectives of MRI for imaging-based acute stroke treatment as well as monitoring of restorative stroke therapy from recent trials are discussed. (orig.)

  20. Brain perfusion-CT in acute stroke patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wintermark, M.

    2005-01-01

    The role of neuro-imaging in the evaluation of acute stroke has changed dramatically in the past decade. Previously, neuro-imaging was used in this setting to provide anatomic imaging that indicated the presence or absence of acute cerebral ischemia and excluded lesions that produce symptoms or signs mimicking those of stroke, such as hemorrhage and neoplasms. More recently, the introduction of thrombolysis has changed the goals of neuro-imaging from providing solely anatomic information to providing physiologic information that could help to determine which patients might benefit from therapy. In particular, significant emphasis has been placed on the delineation of the ischemic penumbra, also called tissue at risk. Modern CT survey, consisting of three indissociable elements: noncontrast CT (NCT) of course, perfusion-CT (PCT) and CT-angiography (CTA), fulfill all the requirements for hyper-acute stroke imaging. CTA can define the occlusion site, depict arterial dissection, grade collateral blood flow, and characterize atherosclerotic disease, whereas PCT accurately delineates the infarct core and the ischemic penumbra. CT offers a number of practical advantages over other cerebral perfusion imaging methods, including its wide availability. Using PCT and CTA to define new individualized strategies for acute reperfusion will allow more acute stroke patients to benefit from thrombolytic therapy. (orig.)

  1. Effectiveness of Thrombolytic Therapy in Acute Embolic Stroke due to Infective Endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva P. Sontineni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To identify the role of thrombolytic therapy in acute embolic stroke due to infective endocarditis. Design. Case report. Setting. University hospital. Patient. A 70-year-old male presented with acute onset aphasia and hemiparesis due to infective endocarditis. His head computerized tomographic scan revealed left parietal sulcal effacement. He was given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator with significant resolution of the neurologic deficits without complications. Main Outcome Measures. Physical examination, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, radiologic examination results. Conclusions. Thrombolytic therapy in selected cases of stroke due to infective endocarditis manifesting as major neurologic deficits can be considered as an option after careful consideration of risks and benefits. The basis for such favorable response rests in the presence of fibrin as a major constituent of the vegetation. The risk of precipitating hemorrhage with thrombolytic therapy especially with large infarcts and mycotic aneurysms should be weighed against the benefits of averting a major neurologic deficit.

  2. The organisational context of nursing care in stroke units: a case study approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Christopher R; Fisher, Andrea; Green, Theresa L

    2009-01-01

    Internationally the stroke unit is recognised as the evidence-based model for patient management, although clarity about the effective components of stroke units is lacking. Whilst skilled nursing care has been proposed as one component, the theoretical and empirical basis for stroke nursing is limited. We attempted to explore the organisational context of stroke unit nursing, to determine those features that staff perceived to be important in facilitating high quality care. A case study approach was used, that included interviews with nurses and members of the multidisciplinary teams in two Canadian acute stroke units. A total of 20 interviews were completed, transcribed and analysed thematically using the Framework Approach. Trustworthiness was established through the review of themes and their interpretation by members of the stroke units. Nine themes that comprised an organisational context that supported the delivery of high quality nursing care in acute stroke units were identified, and provide a framework for organisational development. The study highlighted the importance of an overarching service model to guide the organisation of care and the development of specialist and advanced nursing roles. Whilst multidisciplinary working appears to be a key component of stroke unit nursing, various organisational challenges to its successful implementation were highlighted. In particular the consequence of differences in the therapeutic approach of nurses and therapy staff needs to be explored in greater depth. Successful teamwork appears to depend on opportunities for the development of relationships between team members as much as the use of formal communication systems and structures. A co-ordinated approach to education and training, clinical leadership, a commitment to research, and opportunities for role and practice development also appear to be key organisational features of stroke unit nursing. Recommendations for the development of stroke nursing

  3. Thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke: where and when?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Micieli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The therapy of acute ischemic stroke remains an open challenge for the clinicians and is closely connected to the ready acknowledgment of symptoms, to the promptness of the instrumental diagnosis and consequently to the rapidity of the pharmacological intervention. Although several studies have validated the effectiveness and the safety profileof the intravenous fibrinolytic treatment, the number of patients who benefit of such therapeutic opportunity is still too little. This data is partially due to the delay within patients arrive to the hospital and to the doubts of the physicians on the possible collateral effects, but it is also related to logistic and organizational-managerial problematic of the patient with acute stroke.These last ones mainly derive from the deficiency on the national territory of dedicated structures (Stroke Unit, from the absence of operative connections between the 118-service and the Stroke Unit, from the delay of the neurologist calling in the emergency room that does not allow an adapted diagnostic evaluation of the ischemic event. The spread of the intravenous fibrinolysis must therefore necessarily pass through the creation of participation protocols between hospitals with stroke unit and primary aid, and between department of emergency/ urgency and staff of the stroke unit also previewing the creation of professional figures like those of the urgency neurologist that could have the full right of the management and the treatment of cerebral ischemic pathology.

  4. The Multidisciplinary Swallowing Team Approach Decreases Pneumonia Onset in Acute Stroke Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiro Aoki

    Full Text Available Dysphagia occurs in acute stroke patients at high rates, and many of them develop aspiration pneumonia. Team approaches with the cooperation of various professionals have the power to improve the quality of medical care, utilizing the specialized knowledge and skills of each professional. In our hospital, a multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team was organized. The aim of this study was to clarify the influence of a team approach on dysphagia by comparing the rates of pneumonia in acute stroke patients prior to and post team organization. All consecutive acute stroke patients who were admitted to our hospital between April 2009 and March 2014 were registered. We analyzed the difference in the rate of pneumonia onset between the periods before team organization (prior period and after team organization (post period. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox proportional hazards model to determine the predictors of pneumonia. We recruited 132 acute stroke patients from the prior period and 173 patients from the post period. Pneumonia onset was less frequent in the post period compared with the prior period (6.9% vs. 15.9%, respectively; p = 0.01. Based on a multivariate analysis using a Cox proportional hazards model, it was determined that a swallowing team approach was related to pneumonia onset independent from the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score on admission (adjusted hazard ratio 0.41, 95% confidence interval 0.19-0.84, p = 0.02. The multidisciplinary participatory swallowing team effectively decreased the pneumonia onset in acute stroke patients.

  5. A comparison of acute hemorrhagic stroke outcomes in 2 populations: the Crete-Boston study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaganas, Ioannis; Halpin, Amy P; Oleinik, Alexandra; Alegakis, Athanasios; Kotzamani, Dimitra; Zafiris, Spiros; Chlapoutaki, Chryssanthi; Tsimoulis, Dimitris; Giannakoudakis, Emmanouil; Chochlidakis, Nikolaos; Ntailiani, Aikaterini; Valatsou, Christina; Papadaki, Efrosini; Vakis, Antonios; Furie, Karen L; Greenberg, Steven M; Plaitakis, Andreas

    2011-12-01

    Although corticosteroid use in acute hemorrhagic stroke is not widely adopted, management with intravenous dexamethasone has been standard of care at the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete with observed outcomes superior to those reported in the literature. To explore this further, we conducted a retrospective, multivariable-adjusted 2-center study. We studied 391 acute hemorrhagic stroke cases admitted to the University Hospital of Heraklion, Crete between January 1997 and July 2010 and compared them with 510 acute hemorrhagic stroke cases admitted to Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, from January 2003 to September 2009. Of the Cretan cases, 340 received a tapering scheme of intravenous dexamethasone, starting with 16 to 32 mg/day, whereas the Boston patients were managed without steroids. The 2 cohorts had comparable demographics and stroke severity on admission, although anticoagulation was more frequent in Boston. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower on Crete (23.8%, n=340) than in Boston (38.0%, n=510; Pmortality (Crete: 25.4%, n=307; Boston: 39.4%, n=510; Pmortality: Crete 20.8%; n=259; Boston 37.0%; n=359; Phemorrhages. After adjusting for acute hemorrhagic stroke volume/location, Glasgow Coma Scale, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking, coronary artery disease and statin, antiplatelet, and anticoagulant use, intravenous dexamethasone treatment was associated with better functional outcomes and significantly lower risk of death at 30 days (OR, 0.357; 95% CI, 0.174-0.732). This study suggests that intravenous dexamethasone improves outcome in acute hemorrhagic stroke and supports a randomized clinical trial using this approach.

  6. Prognosis and outcome of acute stroke in the University College ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Materials and Methods: A prospectively study of 66 adult patients who presented to the medical emergency unit of University College Hospital (U.C.H), Ibadan, in coma from acute stroke, from August 2004 to March 2005, was undertaken after obtaining ethical clearance and written consent of the patients' relations.

  7. Application of mechanical embolectomy in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Haitao; Li Minghua; Zhao Jungong

    2008-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke is a common disease serevely threatening the public health. The main management involves intravenous thrombolysis, intra-arterial thrombolysis and mechanical embolectomy. Recently, endovascular mechanical embolectomy is attracted more attention because it provides a good outcome for patients either ineligible not responsible for IV thrombolytic therapy. The article reviews the relative aspects with summerization in this field. (authors)

  8. Osteoprotegerin concentrations and prognosis in acute ischaemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Khédri; Ueland, T; Gullestad, L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract. Jensen JK, Ueland T, Atar D, Gullestad L, Mickley H, Aukrust P, Januzzi JL (Odense University Hospital, Denmark; Rikshospitalet, Oslo, Norway; Massachusetts General Hospital, USA). Osteoprotegerin concentrations and prognosis in acute ischaemic stroke. J Intern Med 2009; doi: 10.1111/j...

  9. Factors Delaying Hospital Arrival Aftr Acute Stroke Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasian M

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Optimal time of referral aftr stroke and the use of new therapies, such as r-tPA and blood pressure control, could accelerate symptoms recovery aftr stroke. Th aim of this study was to investigate factors contributing to the delay in referral to hospitals aftr the occurrence of acute stroke. Methods: Ths analytic-descriptive study included 425 patients, who had referred to the Hamadan Farshchian hospital during years 2015 and 2016. Demographic data, time of referring to medical center, the time of occurrence of stroke, risk factors, clinical symptoms of stroke, way of referring, distance from medical center and type of stroke by using a questionnaire and checklist were recorded. Th SPSS (version 16 softare was used for all calculations. Results: Th mean age of patients in this study was 70.12 years old. Overall, 260 patients (61.2% were male and 85.6% had ischemic stroke. Mean time of referral to fist treatment center and Farshchian hospital was 2.06 and 4.77 hours, respectively. A total of 36.2% patients arrived to Farshchian hospital, within less than 2 hours. Factors that prolonged time to presentation were male gender, ischemic stroke, low education, being at a location far from the medical center, referral from other medical centers, being single, having no witness during stroke, and having a stroke at home, and during night. Th most common symptoms in patients who were referred within less than two hours were confusion and loss of consciousness with frequency of 29.2%. Th most common risk factor in 61.4% of patients, who were referred within less than 2 hours, was high blood pressure. Conclusion: Ths study showed mean time of referral for treatment aftr stroke was high. Inflential elements that could possibly delay hospital arrival include, being at a location far from the medical center, no adequate knowledge about stroke symptom, having stroke at night, not referring directly to the medical center, being single, and no

  10. Nursing application of Bobath principles in stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passarella, P M; Lewis, N

    1987-04-01

    The nursing approach in the care of stroke patients has a direct impact on functional outcome. Nursing application of Bobath principles in stroke care offers a nursing focus on involvement of the affected side; facilitation of normal tone, posture, and movement; and development of more normal function. A research study evaluating the functional gains of stroke patients demonstrated a significant level of functional improvement in those treated with Bobath principles over stroke patients treated with the traditional nursing approach. Practical methods for applying Bobath principles in patient care activities are described. These therapeutic methods provide nurses with the means to maximize stroke patients' potential and further influence their functional recovery.

  11. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  12. [Optimized logistics in the prehospital management of acute stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiz, T; Moosmann, A; Koch, C; Behrens, S; Daffertshofer, M; Ellinger, K

    2001-12-01

    Current management of acute stroke is characterised by an aggressive approach including specific therapy i. e. reperfusion therapy. However currently stroke patients often arrive too late in hospitals offering adequate treatment. Therefore optimized logistics play a predominant role in modern stroke management. 1. Does teaching of EMS staff and the public result in reduced prehospital latencies 2. Will EMS personnel be able to effectively screen patients potentially suitable for thrombolysis? During a six week-period all EMS patients presenting with possible signs of an acute stroke were prospectively registered (period 1). Data of interest were age, mode of primary contact, prehospital latencies, mode of transportation, destination and final diagnosis. Next an algorithm was established allowing EMS personnel to transfer patients with an assumed stroke to the best suitable hospital. Teaching comprised clinical signs, indication of CT scanning, pathophysiology, specific therapeutic options (thrombolysis), and criteria to identify patients suitable for thrombolysis. In a second step the public was continuously taught about stroke symptoms and the necessity to instantly seek EMS assistance. After 12 months data were compared to baseline (period 2). (period 2 vs. Period 1): Rate of patients transferred to a stroke center: 60 % vs. 54 %; rate of those transported to hospitals not offering CT scans: 17 % vs. 26 % (p < 0.05). Percentage of patients primarily contacting the EMS system: 33 % vs. 24 %. Median interval between onset of symptoms and emergency call: 54 vs. 263 minutes Median interval between the emergency call and arrival at the emergency department: 44 vs. 58 minutes (p < 0.01). Rate of patients admitted with a diagnosis other than stroke: 18 % vs. 25 % (n. s.). Median interval between onset of symptoms and hospital admission: 140 vs. 368 minutes (p < 0.001). Median age: 69 vs. 75 years (p < 0.01). This study demonstrates the efficacy of educational efforts in

  13. False-negative diffusion-weighted imaging findings in acute stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Tatsuya; Yuasa, Naoki; Otomo, Takashi; Shiramizu, Hideki; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Kitagawa, Yasuhisa; Takagi, Shigeharu

    2006-01-01

    The utility of DWI (diffusion-weighted imaging) has been established in acute ischemic stroke. However, some patients with acute stroke show no abnormal signals on DWI, despite the presence of infarction (false-negative DWI). We analyzed the relationship between false-negative DWI and the clinical manifestations of acute ischemic stroke in 151 DWI-positive (89%) and 19 false-negative DWI (11%) patients. We performed MRI within 24 hours after onset at our hospital. Non-specific clinical manifestations, including vertigo and nausea, were frequently observed in false-negative DWI patients. As regards the vascular territory, false-negative DWI was noted in 15.3% of 59 patients with infarctions within the territory of the vertebrobasilar artery. Concerning the duration from onset to initial imaging, 73.7% of the patients with false-negative DWI findings underwent MRI examination within 6 hours after onset. Of the patients with false-negative DWI, 84.2% had lacunar infarction (χ 2 =16.4, P<0.001). In conclusion, false negative DWI is more frequently observed in lacunar infarction than in atherothrombotic infarction or cardiogenic embolism. It is important to examine carefully the neurological changes occurring in patients who present with acute stroke, but have negative DWI findings. (author)

  14. An individualized coaching program for patients with acute ischemic stroke: Feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, P; Standaert, D; Libbrecht, N; Vansteenkiste, I; Bernard, D; Yperzeele, L; Vanhooren, G

    2017-03-01

    An individualized stroke care program was developed to match patients' education with their needs regarding stroke knowledge, secondary prevention and rehabilitation. Our purpose was to assess feasibility of in-hospital and post-discharge, personalized stroke coaching service. Acute ischemic stroke patients enrolled in ASTRAL-B stroke registry (Sint-Lucashospital, Bruges Belgium) with: (a) hospitalization between 12/2014-12/2015, (b) hospital-to-home discharge, and (c) without cognitive decline, were selected. The stroke coach contacted patients individually twice during hospitalization (2×20min) and post-discharge via phone calls using the standardized WSO Post-Strokechecklist. Risk factor management, review of therapy and clinical evolution were discussed. Participants were contacted at 2 weeks, followed by repeat calls if necessary and ambulatory with the vascular neurologist at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months. Of all 255 patients meeting the inclusion criteria, 152 (59.7%) received individualized education during hospitalization by the stroke coach. Median age of our population was 74 years and median NIHSS 5. Majority of patients had at least two cardiovascular risk factors. Patients were not coached because of palliative care/decease (10%), unfavorable life expectancy (2%), dementia (8.5%) and lack of time due to short hospitalization (22%). A quarter of all patients were contacted at least once by phone, 12% were contacted at least twice after discharge. At three months, low stroke recurrence (5%) and mortality rates (4%) were identified, probably linked to improved adherence. We demonstrated feasibility of an individualized coaching service executed by well-trained stroke nurse. Future research will focus on developing an online portal delivering post-discharge services to patients and caregivers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Management of arterial hypertension in patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeoye, Opeolu; Jauch, Edward C

    2006-11-01

    Management of arterial hypertension in the hyperacute period immediately after stroke ictus remains controversial. Extremes of blood pressure (BP) are associated with poor outcomes in all stroke subtypes. Severely hypertensive patients likely benefit from modest BP reductions, but aggressive BP reduction may worsen outcome. Although little evidence is currently available to definitively establish guideline recommendations for optimal BP goals at stroke presentation, recently published research is shedding some light on how to approach management of BP after stroke. Antihypertensive treatment should probably be deferred in ischemic stroke patients except in cases of severe hypertension or when thrombolytic therapy is warranted and the patient's BP is above acceptable levels. Hypertensive hemorrhagic stroke patients may benefit from modest BP reductions. Relative hypotension causing regional hypoperfusion is an increasingly understood concept immediately following ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, emphasizing the need for careful titration of appropriate medications to minimize fluctuations in BP for treated patients. Ongoing trials will improve our current knowledge regarding BP management after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke.

  16. Eating difficulties among stroke patients in the acute state: a descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medin, Jörgen; Windahl, Jenny; von Arbin, Magnus; Tham, Kerstin; Wredling, Regina

    2011-09-01

    To examine eating difficulties among stroke patients - a comparison between women and men. Gender differences have been reported in studies of stroke, but the findings are inconclusive and few of these studies have specifically focused on gender differences in eating difficulties. This study was a descriptive, cross-sectional, comparative study. Patients with stroke were recruited at a general hospital in Sweden. To detect eating difficulties, individual observations of the patients were made during one meal using a structured observation protocol. Assessment also included measurements of nutritional and oral status, degree of independence, stroke severity, neglect and well-being. One hundred and four patients (53·8% women) were included in the study. The proportion of stroke patients with one or more eating difficulties was 81·7%. The most common eating difficulties were 'managing food on the plate' (66·3%), 'food consumption' (54·8%) and 'sitting position' (45·2%). Women had lower 'food consumption', more severe stroke (p = 0·003), worse functional status (p = 0·001) and lower quality of life (QoL) (p=0·038) than men. More women than men were malnourished and living alone. After adjustment for functional status and motor arm, the odds ratio of having difficulties with food consumption was four times higher among women than men (1·7-9·4, confidence interval 95%). More women than men with stroke suffered from inadequate food consumption. The women had more severe strokes, experienced poorer QoL and showed lower functional status than the men. In the rehabilitation process of women with stroke, these factors should be taken into consideration. Structured observation of meals, including assessment of food consumption, might be necessary in acute stroke care to detect patients, especially women, who might need closer supervision and nutritional intervention. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Frequency and predictors of stroke after acute myocardial infarction: specific aspects of in-hospital and postdischarge events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachet, Olivier; Guenancia, Charles; Stamboul, Karim; Daubail, Benoit; Richard, Carole; Béjot, Yannick; Yameogo, Valentin; Gudjoncik, Aurélie; Cottin, Yves; Giroud, Maurice; Lorgis, Luc

    2014-12-01

    Stroke is a serious complication after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and is closely associated with decreased survival. This study aimed to investigate the frequency, characteristics, and factors associated with in-hospital and postdischarge stroke in patients with AMI. Eight thousand four hundred eighty-five consecutive patients admitted to a cardiology intensive care unit for AMI, between January 2001 and July 2010. Stroke/transient ischemic attack were collected during 1-year follow-up. One hundred twenty-three in-hospital strokes were recorded: 65 (52.8%) occurred on the first day after admission for AMI, and 108 (87%) within the first 5 days. One hundred six patients (86.2%-incidence rate 1.25%) experienced in-hospital ischemic stroke, and 14 patients (11.4%-incidence rate 0.16%) were diagnosed with an in-hospital hemorrhagic stroke. In-hospital ischemic stroke subtypes according to the Trial of Org 10 172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification showed that only 2 types of stroke were identified more frequently. As expected, the leading subtype of in-hospital ischemic stroke was cardioembolic stroke (n=64, 60%), the second was stroke of undetermined pathogenesis (n=38, 36%). After multivariable backward regression analysis, female sex, previous transient ischemic attack (TIA)/stroke, new-onset atrial fibrillation, left ventricular ejection fraction (odds ratio per point of left ventricular ejection fraction), and C-reactive protein were independently associated with in-hospital ischemic stroke. When antiplatelet and anticoagulation therapy within the first 48 hours was introduced into the multivariable model, we found that implementing these treatments (≥1) was an independent protective factor of in-hospital stroke. In-hospital hemorrhagic stroke was dramatically increased (5-fold) when thrombolysis was prescribed as the reperfusion treatment. However, the different parenteral anticoagulants were not predictors of risk in univariable analysis

  18. Continuous Hemodynamic Monitoring in Acute Stroke: An Exploratory Analysis

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    Ayan Sen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Non-invasive, continuous hemodynamic monitoring is entering the clinical arena. The primary objective of this study was to test the feasibility of such monitoring in a pilot sample of Emergency Department (ED stroke patients. Secondary objectives included analysis of hemodynamic variability and correlation of continuous blood pressure measurements with standard measurements. Methods: This study was a secondary analysis of 7 stroke patients from a prospectively collected data set of patients that received 2 hours of hemodynamic monitoring in the ED. Stroke patients were included if hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke was confirmed by neuroimaging, and symptom onset was within 24 hours. They were excluded for the presence of a stroke mimic or transient ischemic attack. Monitoring was performed using the Nexfin device (Edwards Lifesciences, Irvine CA. Results: The mean age of the cohort was 71 ± 17 years, 43% were male, and the mean National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS was 6.9 ± 5.5. Two patients had hemorrhagic stroke. We obtained 42,456 hemodynamic data points, including beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements with variability of 18 mmHg and cardiac indices ranging from 1.8 to 3.6 l/min/m2. The correlation coefficient between continuous blood pressure measurements with the Nexfin device and standard ED readings was 0.83. Conclusion: This exploratory investigation revealed that continuous, noninvasive monitoring in the ED is feasible in acute stroke. Further research is currently underway to determine how such monitoring may impact outcomes in stroke or replace the need for invasive monitoring. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(4:–0.

  19. Acute MRI changes in progressive ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalowska, E.; Rostrup, E.; Rosenbaum, S.

    2008-01-01

    as a permanent decrease of >or=3 Scandinavian Stroke Scale (SSS) points for speech or >or=2 SSS points for consciousness or >or=2 SSS points for limb strength, when assessed at baseline compared to the day after admission and daily during the following week. Patients were followed up on day 90 and assessed using...... the modified Rankin Scale, Barthel Index and SSS score. Patients with and without SIP were compared using both clinical and MRI data obtained on admission, on day 7 and after 3 months. RESULTS: Fifteen patients (37%) developed SIP. Increased DWI lesion volume on day 7 in all strokes was associated with SIP...... (chi(2), p = 0.005). All lacunar infarcts with a DWI volume >1.5 cm(3) at baseline (4 patients) developed SIP (p SSS scores with severer symptoms than non-SIP patients (p Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  20. Costs of stroke and stroke services: Determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.A. van Exel (Job); M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer (Wilma)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients. This paper discusses

  1. Costs of stroke and stroke services: Determinants of patient costs and a comparison of costs of regular care and care organised in stroke services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Koopmanschap (Marc); W.J.M. Scholte op Reimer (Wilma); J.D.H. van Wijngaarden (Jeroen); N.J.A. van Exel (Job)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractBACKGROUND: Stroke is a major cause of death and long-term disability in Western societies and constitutes a major claim on health care budgets. Organising stroke care in a stroke service has recently been demonstrated to result in better health effects for patients.

  2. Teleneurology to improve stroke care in rural areas: The Telemedicine in Stroke in Swabia (TESS) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiborg, Andreas; Widder, Bernhard

    2003-12-01

    Assessing both stroke patients and their CT scans by using a conventional videoconference system offers an interesting opportunity to improve stroke care in rural areas. However, until now there have been no studies to suggest whether this method is feasible in routine stroke management. Seven rural hospitals in the southern part of Germany in Swabia were connected to the stroke unit of Günzburg with the use of a videoconference link (Telemedicine in Stroke in Swabia [TESS] Project). The local physicians are free to present every admitted stroke patient to the Günzburg stroke expert, who can assess the clinical status and CT images, thereafter giving therapeutic recommendations. All teleconsultations are rated concerning transmission quality and relevance of telemedicine for stroke management. A total of 153 stroke patients were examined by teleconsultation. Mean age was 67.5 years. Eighty-seven patients had suffered an ischemic stroke, 9 had an intracerebral hemorrhage, and 17 suffered a transient ischemic attack. Forty patients were revealed to have a diagnosis other than stroke. Duration of teleconsultation was 15 minutes on average. User satisfaction was good concerning imaging and audio quality, and patient satisfaction was very good or good in all cases. Relevant contributions could be made in >75% of the cases concerning diagnostic workup, CT assessment, and therapeutic recommendations. Teleconsultation using a videoconference system seems to be a feasible and promising method to improve stroke care in rural areas where management in a stroke unit is hindered by long transportation distances.

  3. Predicting Discharge to Institutional Long-Term Care After Stroke: A Systematic Review and Metaanalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Jennifer K; Ferguson, Eilidh E C; Barugh, Amanda J; Walesby, Katherine E; MacLullich, Alasdair M J; Shenkin, Susan D; Quinn, Terry J

    2018-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide, and a significant proportion of stroke survivors require long-term institutional care. Understanding who cannot be discharged home is important for health and social care planning. Our aim was to establish predictive factors for discharge to institutional care after hospitalization for stroke. We registered and conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO: CRD42015023497) of observational studies. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL Plus to February 2017. Quantitative synthesis was performed where data allowed. Acute and rehabilitation hospitals. Adults hospitalized for stroke who were newly admitted directly to long-term institutional care at the time of hospital discharge. Factors associated with new institutionalization. From 10,420 records, we included 18 studies (n = 32,139 participants). The studies were heterogeneous and conducted in Europe, North America, and East Asia. Eight studies were at high risk of selection bias. The proportion of those surviving to discharge who were newly discharged to long-term care varied from 7% to 39% (median 17%, interquartile range 12%), and the model of care received in the long-term care setting was not defined. Older age and greater stroke severity had a consistently positive association with the need for long-term care admission. Individuals who had a severe stroke were 26 times as likely to be admitted to long-term care than those who had a minor stroke. Individuals aged 65 and older had a risk of stroke that was three times as great as that of younger individuals. Potentially modifiable factors were rarely examined. Age and stroke severity are important predictors of institutional long-term care admission directly from the hospital after an acute stroke. Potentially modifiable factors should be the target of future research. Stroke outcome studies should report discharge destination, defining the model of care provided in the long-term care setting.

  4. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo eDi Lazzaro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization.We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH and unaffected hemisphere (UH by measuring resting and active motor threshold and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI, to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. Active motor threshold differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p=0.004, not in females (p>0.200, and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p=0.033 and p=0.042. LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery.

  5. Human Motor Cortex Functional Changes in Acute Stroke: Gender Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Pellegrino, Giovanni; Di Pino, Giovanni; Ranieri, Federico; Lotti, Fiorenza; Florio, Lucia; Capone, Fioravante

    2016-01-01

    The acute phase of stroke is accompanied by functional changes in the activity and interplay of both hemispheres. In healthy subjects, gender is known to impact the functional brain organization. We investigated whether gender influences also acute stroke functional changes. In thirty-five ischemic stroke patients, we evaluated the excitability of the affected (AH) and unaffected hemisphere (UH) by measuring resting and active motor threshold (AMT) and motor-evoked potential amplitude under baseline conditions and after intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) of AH. We also computed an index of the excitability balance between the hemispheres, laterality indexes (LI), to evidence hemispheric asymmetry. AMT differed significantly between AH and UH only in the male group (p = 0.004), not in females (p > 0.200), and both LIAMT and LIRMT were significantly higher in males than in females (respectively p = 0.033 and p = 0.042). LTP-like activity induced by iTBS in AH was more frequent in females. Gender influences the functional excitability changes that take place after human stroke and the level of LTP that can be induced by repetitive stimulation. This knowledge is of high value in the attempt of individualizing to different genders any non-invasive stimulation strategy designed to foster stroke recovery. PMID:26858590

  6. EFFICACY OF MELDONIUM IN ACUTE PERIOD OF ISCHEMIC STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Kotov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: As long as systemic thrombolysis is indicated to not more than 10% of patients with ischemic stroke, the search for medical agents for basic treatment of stroke is an important problem of today’s neurology.Aim: To evaluate efficacy of meldonium in patients with acute ischemic stroke.Materials and methods: One hundred and fourteen patients were assessed in the acute period of strokes in the internal carotid artery system. The main group included 70 patients who were given meldonium (Mildronate in addition to their basic treatment regimen. The drug was administered intravenously in daily drop infusions at dose of 10 ml of 10% solution for 10 days, thereafter they were switched to oral treatment at 250 mg daily for 2 to 3 weeks. The control group consisted of 40 patients who received only basic treatment regimen. Both groups were compatible for their age, gender distribution, severity of stroke and degree of neurologic dysfunction.Results: In the patients who were given meldonium in addition to basic treatment of ischemic stroke, neurological deficiency, assessed by NIHSS, scored significantly better than in those from the control group (3.1 ± 0.1 vs. 2.6 ± 0.17, p < 0.05. Also, they had significantly less disability on modified Rankin scale (1.3 ± 0.03 vs. 1.07 ± 0.07, p < 0.01 and more improvement in mobility as per Rivermead mobility index (3.6 ± 0.17 vs. 2.9 ± 0.25, p < 0.05.Conclusion: The addition of meldonium to the set of medical treatment in ischemic stroke patients gives positive results reflecting a decreased neurological deficiency, increased levels of mobility and daily activities.

  7. Age-related differences in the rate and diagnosis of 30-day readmission after hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Atsushi; Goto, Tadahiro; Faridi, Mohammad K; Camargo, Carlos A; Hasegawa, Kohei

    2018-01-01

    Background Little is known about the association between age and readmission within 30 days after hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke. Aim To examine the age-related differences in rate and principal reason of 30-day readmissions in patients hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke. Methods In this retrospective, population-based cohort study using State Inpatient Databases from eight US states, we identified all adults hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke. We grouped the patients into four age categories: readmission within 30 days of discharge from the index hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke and the principal diagnosis of 30-day readmission. Results We identified 620,788 hospitalizations for acute ischemic stroke. The overall 30-day readmission rate was 16.6% with an increase with advanced age. Compared to patients aged readmission rate was significantly higher in age 65-74 years (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.16-1.21), in age 75-84 years (OR 1.29; 95% CI 1.27-1.31), and in ≥ 85 years (OR 1.24; 95% CI 1.22-1.27; all Preadmission rate association between men and women (P interaction  readmissions were assigned stroke-related conditions or rehabilitation care. Compared to younger adults, older adults were more likely to present with non-stroke-related conditions (46.1% in readmission rate after acute ischemic stroke. Compared with younger adults, older adults were more likely to be readmitted for non-stroke-related conditions.

  8. Risk score to predict gastrointestinal bleeding after acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Ruijun; Shen, Haipeng; Pan, Yuesong; Wang, Penglian; Liu, Gaifen; Wang, Yilong; Li, Hao; Singhal, Aneesh B; Wang, Yongjun

    2014-07-25

    Gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) is a common and often serious complication after stroke. Although several risk factors for post-stroke GIB have been identified, no reliable or validated scoring system is currently available to predict GIB after acute stroke in routine clinical practice or clinical trials. In the present study, we aimed to develop and validate a risk model (acute ischemic stroke associated gastrointestinal bleeding score, the AIS-GIB score) to predict in-hospital GIB after acute ischemic stroke. The AIS-GIB score was developed from data in the China National Stroke Registry (CNSR). Eligible patients in the CNSR were randomly divided into derivation (60%) and internal validation (40%) cohorts. External validation was performed using data from the prospective Chinese Intracranial Atherosclerosis Study (CICAS). Independent predictors of in-hospital GIB were obtained using multivariable logistic regression in the derivation cohort, and β-coefficients were used to generate point scoring system for the AIS-GIB. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test were used to assess model discrimination and calibration, respectively. A total of 8,820, 5,882, and 2,938 patients were enrolled in the derivation, internal validation and external validation cohorts. The overall in-hospital GIB after AIS was 2.6%, 2.3%, and 1.5% in the derivation, internal, and external validation cohort, respectively. An 18-point AIS-GIB score was developed from the set of independent predictors of GIB including age, gender, history of hypertension, hepatic cirrhosis, peptic ulcer or previous GIB, pre-stroke dependence, admission National Institutes of Health stroke scale score, Glasgow Coma Scale score and stroke subtype (Oxfordshire). The AIS-GIB score showed good discrimination in the derivation (0.79; 95% CI, 0.764-0.825), internal (0.78; 95% CI, 0.74-0.82) and external (0.76; 95% CI, 0.71-0.82) validation cohorts

  9. Advance care planning in stroke: influence of time on engagement in the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Theresa Green1, Shreyas Gandhi2, Tessa Kleissen1, Jessica Simon1,3, Shelley Raffin-Bouchal1, Karla Ryckborst41Faculty of Nursing, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 2Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; 3Department of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada; 4Calgary Stroke Program, Alberta Health Services, Calgary, AB, CanadaPurpose: Individuals who experience stroke have a higher likelihood of subsequent stroke events, making it imperative to plan for future medical care. In the event of a further serious health event, engaging in the process of advanced care planning (ACP can help family members and health care professionals (HCPs make medical decisions for individuals who have lost the capacity to do so. Few studies have explored the views and experiences of patients with stroke about discussing their wishes and preferences for future medical events, and the extent to which stroke HCPs engage in conversations around planning for such events. In this study, we sought to understand how the process of ACP unfolded between HCPs and patients post-stroke.Patients and methods: Using grounded theory (GT methodology, we engaged in direct observation of HCP and patient interactions on an acute stroke unit and two stroke rehabilitation units. Using semi-structured interviews, 14 patients and four HCPs were interviewed directly about the ACP process.Results: We found that open and continual ACP conversations were not taking place, patients experienced an apparent lack of urgency to engage in ACP, and HCPs were uncomfortable initiating ACP conversations due to the sensitive nature of the topic.Conclusion: In this study, we identified lack of engagement in ACP post-stroke, attributable to patient and HCP factors. This encourages us to look further into the process of ACP in order to develop open communication between the patient with stroke, their families, and stroke HCPs.Keywords: qualitative, engagement

  10. Comparison of the Chinese ischemic stroke subclassification and Trial of Org 10172 in acute stroke treatment systems in minor stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sha; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yanqiang; Lin, Yinyao; Cai, Wei; Shan, Yilong; Qiu, Wei; Hu, Xueqiang; Lu, Zhengqi

    2016-09-06

    The underlying causes of minor stroke are difficult to assess. Here, we evaluate the reliability of the Chinese Ischemic Stroke Subclassification (CISS) system in patients with minor stroke, and compare it to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) system. A total of 320 patients with minor stroke were retrospectively registered and categorized into different subgroups of the CISS and TOAST by two neurologists. Inter- and intra-rater agreement with the two systems were assessed with kappa statistics. The percentage of undetermined etiology (UE) cases in the CISS system was 77.3 % less than that in the TOAST system, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). The percentage of large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) in the CISS system was 79.7 % more than that in the TOAST system, which was also statistically significant (P < 0.001). The kappa values for inter-examiner agreement were 0.898 (P = 0.031) and 0.732 (P = 0.022) for the CISS and TOAST systems, respectively. The intra-observer reliability indexes were moderate (0.569 for neurologist A, and 0.487 for neurologist B). The CISS and TOAST systems are both reliable in classifying patients with minor stroke. CISS classified more patients into known etiologic categories without sacrificing reliability.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Kouichi [Mito Red Cross Hospital (Japan)

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes current MRI technology used in the diagnosis of acute cerebral infarction and discusses tasks for further improvement of MRI technology. First, the principles and methods of MRI imaging are described in terms of 1) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and ADC maps, 2) perfusion imaging, 3) the fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) method, and 4) MR angiography (MRA). Then, the actual use of MRI in the early phase of ischemic cerebrovascular disorders is discussed focusing on general MRI procedures, cases in which an ischemic lesion dose not yield a high signal with DWI in the acute phase, and chronological changes in DWI signal strength and ADC. Third, chronological changes in acute cerebrovascular disorder in an animal model of local cerebral ischemia are summarized in terms of expansion of reduced ADC areas and ischemic penumbras in the acute phase of cerebral ischemia. Finally, chronological changes in acute ischemic disorders in patients with cerebrovascular disorders are assessed by reviewing the development of reduced ADC and expansion of DWI lesions. Whether MRI can identify cerebral tissues that can be rescued by the reperfusion method by examining the mismatchs between perfusion images and DWI, relative CBV, and ADC is also discussed. (K.H.)

  12. What is next after transfer of care from hospital to home for stroke patients? Evaluation of a community stroke care service based in a primary care clinic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Aznida Firzah Abdul; Aziz, Noor Azah Abd; Nordin, Nor Azlin Mohd; Ali, Mohd Fairuz; Sulong, Saperi; Aljunid, Syed Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Context: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community. Aims: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility. Subjects and Methods: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s) control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9), and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI). Statistical Analysis Used: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD) 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5). The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0) months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007), while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06). Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2−100) to 90.5 (range: 27−100) (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01). Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0−22) to 3.0 (range: 0−19) though the change was not significant (Z= −0.744, P = 0.457). Conclusions: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level. PMID:24347948

  13. What is next after transfer of care from hospital to home for stroke patients? Evaluation of a community stroke care service based in a primary care clinic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aznida Firzah Abdul Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Poststroke care in developing countries is inundated with poor concordance and scarce specialist stroke care providers. A primary care-driven health service is an option to ensure optimal care to poststroke patients residing at home in the community. Aims: We assessed outcomes of a pilot long-term stroke care clinic which combined secondary prevention and rehabilitation at community level. Settings and Design: A prospective observational study of stroke patients treated between 2008 and 2010 at a primary care teaching facility. Subjects and Methods: Analysis of patients was done at initial contact and at 1-year post treatment. Clinical outcomes included stroke risk factor(s control, depression according to Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9, and level of independence using Barthel Index (BI. Statistical Analysis Used: Differences in means between baseline and post treatment were compared using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon-signed rank test. Significance level was set at 0.05. Results: Ninety-one patients were analyzed. Their mean age was 62.9 [standard deviation (SD 10.9] years, mean stroke episodes were 1.30 (SD 0.5. The median interval between acute stroke and first contact with the clinic 4.0 (interquartile range 9.0 months. Mean systolic blood pressure decreased by 9.7 mmHg (t = 2.79, P = 0.007, while mean diastolic blood pressure remained unchanged at 80mmHg (z = 1.87, P = 0.06. Neurorehabilitation treatment was given to 84.6% of the patients. Median BI increased from 81 (range: 2−100 to 90.5 (range: 27−100 (Z = 2.34, P = 0.01. Median PHQ9 scores decreased from 4.0 (range: 0−22 to 3.0 (range: 0−19 though the change was not significant (Z= −0.744, P = 0.457. Conclusions: Primary care-driven long-term stroke care services yield favorable outcomes for blood pressure control and functional level.

  14. Periodontal Disease, Regular Dental Care Use, and Incident Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Souvik; Giamberardino, Lauren D; Moss, Kevin; Morelli, Thiago; Rosamond, Wayne D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Beck, James; Offenbacher, Steven

    2018-02-01

    Periodontal disease is independently associated with cardiovascular disease. Identification of periodontal disease as a risk factor for incident ischemic stroke raises the possibility that regular dental care utilization may reduce the stroke risk. In the ARIC (Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities) study, pattern of dental visits were classified as regular or episodic dental care users. In the ancillary dental ARIC study, selected subjects from ARIC underwent fullmouth periodontal measurements collected at 6 sites per tooth and classified into 7 periodontal profile classes (PPCs). In the ARIC study 10 362 stroke-free participants, 584 participants had incident ischemic strokes over a 15-year period. In the dental ARIC study, 6736 dentate subjects were assessed for periodontal disease status using PPC with a total of 299 incident ischemic strokes over the 15-year period. The 7 levels of PPC showed a trend toward an increased stroke risk (χ 2 trend P periodontal disease). Periodontal disease was significantly associated with cardioembolic (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-5.6) and thrombotic (hazard ratio, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.8) stroke subtypes. Regular dental care utilization was associated with lower adjusted stroke risk (hazard ratio, 0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.63-0.94). We confirm an independent association between periodontal disease and incident stroke risk, particularly cardioembolic and thrombotic stroke subtype. Further, we report that regular dental care utilization may lower this risk for stroke. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  15. Efficacy of New Measures Saving Time in Acute Stroke Management: A Quantified Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Mohedano, Ana María; García Pastor, Andrés; Díaz Otero, Fernando; Vázquez Alen, Pilar; Vales Montero, Marta; Luque Buzo, Elisa; Redondo Ráfales, Nuria; Chavarria Cano, Beatriz; Fernández Bullido, Yolanda; Villanueva Osorio, Jose Antonio; Gil Núñez, Antonio

    2017-08-01

    Time to treatment remains the most important factor in acute ischemic stroke prognosis. We quantified the effect of new interventions reducing in-hospital delays in acute stroke management and assessed its repercussion on door-to-imaging (DTI), imaging-to-needle (ITN), and door-to-needle (DTN) times. Prospective registry of consecutive stroke patients who were candidates for reperfusion therapy attended in a tertiary care hospital from February 1 to December 31, 2014. A series of measures aimed at reducing in-hospital delays were implemented. We compared DTI, ITN, and DTN times between patients who underwent the interventions and those who did not. 231 patients. DTI time was lower when personal history was reviewed and tests were ordered before patient arrival (2.5 minutes saved, P = .016) and when electrocardiogram was not made (5.4 minutes saved, P time significantly (14 and 12 minutes saved, respectively, P time. Completing all steps resulted in the lowest DTI and ITN times (13 and 19 minutes, respectively). Every measure is an important part of a chain focused on saving time in acute stroke: the lowest DTI and ITN times were obtained when all steps were completed. Measures shortening ITN time produced a greater impact on DTN time reduction; therefore, ITN interventions should be considered a critical part of new protocols and guidelines. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians position statement on acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Devin; Hall, Christopher; Lobay, Kevin; McRae, Andrew; Monroe, Tanya; Perry, Jeffrey J; Shearing, Anthony; Wollam, Gabe; Goddard, Tom; Lang, Eddy

    2015-03-01

    The CAEP Stroke Practice Committee was convened in the spring of 2013 to revisit the 2001 policy statement on the use of thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke. The terms of reference of the panel were developed to include national representation from urban academic centres as well as community and rural centres from all regions of the country. Membership was determined by attracting recognized stroke leaders from across the country who agreed to volunteer their time towards the development of revised guidance on the topic. The guideline panel elected to adopt the GRADE language to communicate guidance after review of existing systematic reviews and international clinical practice guidelines. Stroke neurologists from across Canada were engaged to work alongside panel members to develop guidance as a dyad-based consensus when possible. There was no unique systematic review performed to support this guidance, rather existing efficacy data was relied upon. After a series of teleconferences and face to face meetings, a draft guideline was developed and presented to the CAEP board in June of 2014. The panel noted the development of significant new evidence to inform a number of clinical questions related to acute stroke management. In general terms the recommendations issued by the CAEP Stroke Practice Committee are supportive of the use of thrombolytic therapy when treatment can be administered within 3 hours of symptom onset. The committee is also supportive of system-level changes including pre-hospital interventions, the transport of patients to dedicated stroke centers when possible and tele-health measures to support thrombolytic therapy in a timely window. Of note, after careful deliberation, the panel elected to issue a conditional recommendation against the use of thrombolytic therapy in the 3–4.5 hour window. The view of the committee was that as a result of a narrow risk benefit balance, one that is considerably narrower than the same considerations

  17. Clinical Variables Associated with Hydration Status in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients with Dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Shabbir, Yasmeen; Miller, Leslie; Silliman, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Acute stroke patients with dysphagia are at increased risk for poor hydration. Dysphagia management practices may directly impact hydration status. This study examined clinical factors that might impact hydration status in acute ischemic stroke patients with dysphagia. A retrospective chart review was completed on 67 ischemic stroke patients who participated in a prior study of nutrition and hydration status during acute care. Prior results indicated that patients with dysphagia demonstrated elevated BUN/Cr compared to non-dysphagia cases during acute care and that BUN/Cr increased selectively in dysphagic patients. This chart review evaluated clinical variables potentially impacting hydration status: diuretics, parenteral fluids, tube feeding, oral diet, and nonoral (NPO) status. Exposure to any variable and number of days of exposure to each variable were examined. Dysphagia cases demonstrated significantly more NPO days, tube fed days, and parenteral fluid days, but not oral fed days, or days on diuretics. BUN/Cr values at discharge were not associated with NPO days, parenteral fluid days, oral fed days, or days on diuretics. Patients on modified solid diets had significantly higher mean BUN/Cr values at discharge (27.12 vs. 17.23) as did tube fed patients (28.94 vs. 18.66). No difference was noted between these subgroups at baseline (regular diet vs. modified solids diets). Any modification of solid diets (31.11 vs. 17.23) or thickened liquids (28.50 vs. 17.81) resulted in significantly elevated BUN/Cr values at discharge. Liquid or diet modifications prescribed for acute stroke patients with dysphagia may impair hydration status in these patients.

  18. Urinary tract infection after acute stroke: Impact of indwelling urinary catheterization and assessment of catheter-use practices in French stroke centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Net, P; Karnycheff, F; Vasse, M; Bourdain, F; Bonan, B; Lapergue, B

    2018-03-01

    Urinary catheterization and acute urinary retention increase the risk of urinary tract infection (UTI). Our study aimed to investigate the incidence of UTI following acute stroke at our stroke center (SC) and to assess urinary catheter-care practices among French SCs. Stroke patients hospitalized within 24h of stroke onset were prospectively enrolled between May and September 2013. Neurological deficit level was assessed on admission using the US National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS). Patients were followed-up until discharge. Indwelling urinary catheterization (IUC) was the only technique authorized during the study. An electronic survey was also conducted among French SCs to assess their practices regarding urinary catheterization in acute stroke patients. A total of 212 patients were included, with 45 (21.2%) receiving indwelling urinary catheters. The overall estimated incidence of UTI was 14.2%, and 18% among patients receiving IUC. On univariate analysis, IUC was significantly associated with older age, longer hospital stays and higher NIHSS scores. Of the 30 SCs that responded to our survey, 19 (63.3%) declared using IUC when urinary catheterization was needed. The main argument given to justify its use was that it was departmental policy to adopt this technique. Also, 27 participants (90%) stated that conducting a study to assess the impact of urinary catheterization techniques on UTI rates in acute stroke patients would be relevant. Our results are in accord with previously reported data and confirm the high burden of UTI among acute stroke subjects. However, no association was found between IUC and UTI on univariate analysis due to a lack of statistical power. Also, our survey showed high heterogeneity in catheter-use practices among French SCs, but offered no data to help determine the best urinary catheterization technique. Urinary catheterization is common after acute stroke and a well-known risk factor of UTI. However, as high

  19. Admission body temperature predicts long-term mortality after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Rungby, Jørgen

    2002-01-01

    Body temperature is considered crucial in the management of acute stroke patients. Recently hypothermia applied as a therapy for stroke has been demonstrated to be feasible and safe in acute stroke patients. In the present study, we investigated the predictive role of admission body temperature...

  20. Associations between the organisation of stroke services, process of care, and mortality in England: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Benjamin D; Ayis, Salma; Campbell, James; Hoffman, Alex; Roughton, Michael; Tyrrell, Pippa J; Wolfe, Charles D A; Rudd, Anthony G

    2013-05-10

    To estimate the relations between the organisation of stroke services, process measures of care quality, and 30 day mortality in patients admitted with acute ischaemic stroke. Prospective cohort study. Hospitals (n=106) admitting patients with acute stroke in England and participating in the Stroke Improvement National Audit Programme and 2010 Sentinel Stroke Audit. 36,197 adults admitted with acute ischaemic stroke to a participating hospital from 1 April 2010 to 30 November 2011. Associations between process of care (the assessments, interventions, and treatments that patients receive) and 30 day all cause mortality, adjusting for patient level characteristics. Process of care was measured using six individual measures of stroke care and summarised into an overall quality score. Of 36,197 patients admitted with acute ischaemic stroke, 25,904 (71.6%) were eligible to receive all six care processes. Patients admitted to stroke services with high organisational scores were more likely to receive most (5 or 6) of the six care processes. Three of the individual processes were associated with reduced mortality, including two care bundles: review by a stroke consultant within 24 hours of admission (adjusted odds ratio 0.86, 95%confidence interval 0.78 to 0.96), nutrition screening and formal swallow assessment within 72 hours (0.83, 0.72 to 0.96), and antiplatelet therapy and adequate fluid and nutrition for first the 72 hours (0.55, 0.49 to 0.61). Receipt of five or six care processes was associated with lower mortality compared with receipt of 0-4 in both multilevel (0.74, 0.66 to 0.83) and instrumental variable analyses (0.62, 0.46 to 0.83). Patients admitted to stroke services with higher levels of organisation are more likely to receive high quality care as measured by audited process measures of acute stroke care. Those patients receiving high quality care have a reduced risk of death in the 30 days after stroke, adjusting for patient characteristics and

  1. Risk of ischemic stroke after an acute myocardial infarction in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Stina; Bergström, Lisa; Björklund, Fredrik; Jernberg, Tomas; Söderström, Lars; Mooe, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Incidence, any trend over time, and predictors of ischemic stroke after an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in diabetic patients are unknown. Data for 173,233 unselected patients with an AMI, including 33,503 patients with diabetes mellitus, were taken from the Swedish Register of Information and Knowledge about Swedish Heart Intensive Care Admissions (RIKS-HIA) during 1998 to 2008. Ischemic stroke events were recorded during 1 year of follow-up. Patients with diabetes mellitus more often had a history of cardiovascular disease, received less reperfusion therapy, and were treated with acetylsalicylic acid, P2Y12 inhibitors, and statins to a lesser extent compared with patients without diabetes mellitus. However, the use of evidence-based therapies increased markedly in both groups during the study period. The incidence of ischemic stroke during the first year after AMI decreased from 7.1% to 4.7% in patients with diabetes mellitus and from 4.2% to 3.7% in patients without diabetes mellitus. Risk reduction was significantly larger in the diabetic subgroup. Reperfusion therapy, acetylsalicylic acid, P2Y12 inhibitors, and statins were independently associated with the reduced stroke risk. Ischemic stroke is a fairly common complication after an AMI in patients with diabetes mellitus, but the risk of stroke has decreased during recent years. The increased use of evidence-based therapies contributes importantly to this risk reduction, but there is still room for improvement.

  2. B-type natriuretic peptide as a marker for heart failure in patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Matthew A; Puttgen, H Adrian; Prabhakaran, Vivek; Reich, Daniel; Stevens, Robert D

    2007-09-01

    To determine whether serum N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (N-BNP), a biomarker of myocardial wall stress, is specific to acute heart failure (HF) in patients hospitalized with stroke. Case-control study. Tertiary hospital, Neurosciences Critical Care Unit and Stroke Unit. Consecutive patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke who were evaluated for HF. None. Cases and controls were classified, respectively, as patients with or without HF, defined according to modified Framingham criteria. Seventy-two patients were evaluated, 39 with ischemic stroke, 22 with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and 11 with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Thirty-four patients (47%) met criteria for HF, and 47 patients (65%) had systolic or diastolic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction on echocardiogram. Serum N-BNP was measured a median of 48 h following the onset of stroke and was increased (> 900 pg/ml) in 56 patients (78%), with higher levels in non-survivors (11898 +/- 12741 vs 4073 +/-5691; p = 0.001). In a multiple regression model, N-BNP elevation was not independently associated with HF (OR 5.4, 95% CI 0.8-36.0, p = 0.084). At a cut-off of 900 pg/ml, the sensitivity of N-BNP for HF was 94%, specificity 37%, positive predictive value (PPV) 57%, and negative predictive value (NPV) 88%. For systolic or diastolic LV dysfunction, the sensitivity of N-BNP was 89%, specificity 44%, PPV 75%, and NPV 69%. These results demonstrate that N-BNP elevation is not specific to HF or LV dysfunction in patients with acute ischemic stroke, SAH, and ICH.

  3. Current status of intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vijay K; Ng, Kay W P; Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy; Saqqur, Maher; Teoh, Hock L; Kaul, Subash; Srivastava, Padma M V; Sergentanis, Theodoris; Suwanwela, Nijasri; Nguyen, Thang H; Lawrence Wong, K S; Chan, Bernard P L

    2011-12-01

    Data regarding thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke in Asia are scarce and only a small percentage of patients are thrombolysed. The dose of intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) in Asia remains controversial. Case-controlled observation studies in Asia included only Japanese patients and suggested the clinical efficacy and safety of low-dose IV-tPA (0.6 mg/kg body weight; max 60 mg) comparable to standard dose (0.9 mg/kg body weight; max. 90 mg). Reduced treatment cost, lower symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage risk and comparable efficacy encouraged many Asian centers to adopt low-dose or even variable-dose IV-tPA regimens. We evaluated various Asian thrombolysis studies and compared with SITS-MOST registry and NINDS trial. We included the published studies on acute ischemic stroke thrombolysis in Asia. Unadjusted relative risks and 95% Confidence intervals were calculated for each study. Pooled estimates from random effects models were used because the tests for heterogeneity were significant. We found only 18 publications regarding acute ischemic stroke thrombolysis in Asia that included total of 9300 patients. Owing to ethnic differences, stroke severity, small number of cases in individual reports, outcome measures and tPA dose regimes, it is difficult to compare these studies. Functional outcomes were almost similar (to Japanese studies) when lower-dose IV-tPA was used in non-Japanese populations across Asia. Interestingly, with standard dose IV-tPA, considerably better functional outcomes were observed, without increasing symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage rates. Variable dose regimens of IV-tPA are used across Asia without any reliable or established evidence. Establishing a uniform IV-tPA regimen is essential since the rapid improvements in health-care facilities and public awareness are expected to increase the rates of thrombolysis in Asia. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2011 World Stroke Organization.

  4. Manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke, frequency and influence on functional outcome: The Copenhagen Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P; Nakayama, H; Raaschou, H O; Olsen, T S

    2001-09-01

    To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome. Seven hundred seventy six unselected, acute stroke patients who were admitted within seven days of stroke onset with unimpaired consciousness were included. If possible, the patients were assessed for manual and oral apraxia on acute admission. Neurologic stroke severity including aphasia was assessed with the Scandinavian Stroke Scale, and activities of daily living function was assessed with the Barthel Index. All patients completed their rehabilitation in the same large stroke unit. Six hundred eighteen patients could cooperate with the apraxia assessments. Manual apraxia was found in 7% of subjects (10% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; chi2 = 9.0; P = 0.003). Oral apraxia was found in 6% (9% in left and 4% in right hemispheric stroke; chi2 = 5.4; P = 0.02). Both manual and oral apraxia were related to increasing stroke severity, and manual, but not oral, apraxia was associated with increasing age. There was no gender difference in frequency of apraxia. Patients with either type of apraxia had temporal lobe involvement more often than patients without. When analyzed with multiple linear and logistic regression analyses, neither manual nor oral apraxia had any independent influence on functional outcome. Apraxia is significantly less frequent in unselected patients with acute stroke than has previously been assumed and has no independent negative influence on functional outcome.

  5. Management of hypertension in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitsch, Laura; Jauch, Edward C

    2007-12-01

    The optimal management of blood pressure in the first 24 hours of ischemic stroke remains a controversial topic. Most patients are hypertensive at presentation and subsequently experience a spontaneous decline in blood pressure. Decreasing penumbral blood flow and exacerbating vasogenic edema are significant concerns in whether to treat blood pressure elevations. Although an initially elevated blood pressure has been associated with poor outcome, attempts to acutely lower blood pressure are also associated with worsened outcomes. Thus, the current approach in acute ischemic stroke is permissive hypertension, in which antihypertensive treatment is warranted in patients with systolic blood pressure greater than 220 mm Hg, receiving thrombolytic therapy, or with concomitant medical issues. The use of predictable and titratable medications that judiciously reduce (approximately 10% to 15%) the initial presenting mean arterial pressure is recommended in these situations. Future study must define optimal blood pressure goals, likely on an individual basis.

  6. Organization of prehospital medical care for patients with cerebral stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolai Anatolyevich Shamalov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main tasks of prehospital medical care are to make a correct diagnosis of stroke and to minimize patient transportation delays. Stroke is a medical emergency so all patients with suspected stroke must be admitted by a first arrived ambulance team to a specialized neurology unit for stroke patients. Most rapidly transporting the patient to hospital, as well as reducing the time of examination to verify the pattern of stroke are a guarantee of successful thrombolytic therapy that is the most effective treatment for ischemic stroke. Substantially reducing the time of in-hospital transfers (the so-called door-to-needle time allows stroke patients to be directly admitted to the around the clock computed tomography room, without being sent to the admission unit. Prehospital stroke treatment policy (basic therapy is to correct the body’s vital functions and to maintain respiration, hemodynamics, and water-electrolyte balance and it can be performed without neuroimaging verification of the pattern of stroke. The application of current organizational, methodical, and educational approaches is useful in improving the quality of medical care for stroke patients, in enhancing the continuity between prehospital and hospital cares, and in promoting new effective technologies in stroke therapy.

  7. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute cerebral stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Suga, Sadao; Kawase, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Masakazu; Sadanaga, Humiko; Okamura, Miyuki; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Mihara, Ban [Mihara Memorial Hospital, Isezaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI has been demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of cerebral stroke. Recent advance in MR systems of hardware with larger maximum gradient amplitude and faster imaging strategies, such as EPI, has made it possible to acquire whole brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in less that one minute. The purposes of this study are to evaluate clinical usefulness of DWI and to clarify pitfalls in the diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke. Seventeen patients with 18 ischemic lesions were studied. DWI were taken with 1.5 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) using EPI sequence. Fifteen lesions out of them (3 in cerebral cortex, 9 in basal ganglia/deep white matter and 3 in cerebellum) were studied serially at various times up to 147 days. Acute cerebral infarction was seen clearly as an area of hyperintensity with DWI and as hypointensity in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps which are indicative of decreased diffusion. DWI detected areas of hyperintense acute infarcts, as early as 2.5 hours after onset, which were not visualized on T{sub 2}-weighted image (T2WI). The lesion of cerebral infarction became isointense in ADC maps at 14-28 days after onset, whereas with DWI it became isointense at about 2 months. Because ADC changed earlier than DWI, ADC maps were useful for differentiate acute from nonacute lesion in cases of recurrent stroke within a short period. In a patient with transient global amnesia for 7 hours, DWI did not show any lesion at 8 hours. In terms of cerebral hemorrhage, lesions were seen as area of hyperintensity in DWI at 3 days and were not distinguishable from that of infarct. Despite limitations in the diagnosis of transient ischemia and cerebral hemorrhage, DWI is a useful technique for early detection of cerebral infarction, especially within the first 6 hours after stroke onset. (author)

  8. Diffusion-weighted MRI in acute cerebral stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Hideichi; Kobayashi, Masahito; Suga, Sadao; Kawase, Takeshi; Nagasawa, Masakazu; Sadanaga, Humiko; Okamura, Miyuki; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Mihara, Ban

    1999-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MRI has been demonstrated to be valuable in the assessment of cerebral stroke. Recent advance in MR systems of hardware with larger maximum gradient amplitude and faster imaging strategies, such as EPI, has made it possible to acquire whole brain diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in less that one minute. The purposes of this study are to evaluate clinical usefulness of DWI and to clarify pitfalls in the diagnosis of acute cerebral stroke. Seventeen patients with 18 ischemic lesions were studied. DWI were taken with 1.5 Tesla MRI (Magnetom Vision, Siemens, Germany) using EPI sequence. Fifteen lesions out of them (3 in cerebral cortex, 9 in basal ganglia/deep white matter and 3 in cerebellum) were studied serially at various times up to 147 days. Acute cerebral infarction was seen clearly as an area of hyperintensity with DWI and as hypointensity in apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps which are indicative of decreased diffusion. DWI detected areas of hyperintense acute infarcts, as early as 2.5 hours after onset, which were not visualized on T 2 -weighted image (T2WI). The lesion of cerebral infarction became isointense in ADC maps at 14-28 days after onset, whereas with DWI it became isointense at about 2 months. Because ADC changed earlier than DWI, ADC maps were useful for differentiate acute from nonacute lesion in cases of recurrent stroke within a short period. In a patient with transient global amnesia for 7 hours, DWI did not show any lesion at 8 hours. In terms of cerebral hemorrhage, lesions were seen as area of hyperintensity in DWI at 3 days and were not distinguishable from that of infarct. Despite limitations in the diagnosis of transient ischemia and cerebral hemorrhage, DWI is a useful technique for early detection of cerebral infarction, especially within the first 6 hours after stroke onset. (author)

  9. Help seeking behavior and onset-to-alarm time in patients with acute stroke: sub-study of the preventive antibiotics in stroke study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zock, E.; Kerkhoff, H.; Kleyweg, R. P.; van Bavel-Ta, T. B. V.; Scott, S.; Kruyt, N. D.; Nederkoorn, P. J.; van de Beek, D.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with acute stroke often do not seek immediate medical help, which is assumed to be driven by lack of knowledge of stroke symptoms. We explored the process of help seeking behavior in patients with acute stroke, evaluating knowledge about stroke symptoms, socio-demographic and clinical

  10. The prospects of thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Takahiro; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2009-01-01

    The United States (US) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the use of intravenous (IV) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) in 1996, on the basis of the results of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) rt-PA Stroke Study. IV rt-PA therapy at a dose of 0.9 mg/kg has been approved internationally for the treatment of hyperacute ischemic stroke. After a dose comparison study using duteplase and a multicenter study using a single dose of alteplase (Japan Alteplase Clinical Trial: J-ACT), the administration of IV rt-PA therapy at a dose of 0.6 mg/kg was approved in Japan in 2005. Immediately after the approval, the Japan Stroke Society published the Japanese guidelines for this low-dose therapy. Two years after the approval in Japan, the outcome of IV rt-PA therapy in Japan was observed to be comparable to that of NINDS rt-PA therapy and to those published in studies based in Western nations. Several trials have reported predictors of unfavorable outcome for IV rt-PA therapy. Patients with severe strokes (higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score, coma), higher age at disease onset, aortic arch dissection, higher blood pressure, higher blood sugar, occlusion of the internal carotid artery (ICA) or tandem lesion of the left ICA and right middle cerebral artery (MCA), or the presence of major early ischemic changes as observed upon computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), showed a greater probability for unfavorable response to treatment. The results of the randomised 2008 trial conducted by the third European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS III) suggested that treatment with IV rt-PA administered 3-4.5 hours after symptom onset can still induce significant improvement in clinical outcomes after an acute ischemic stroke as opposed to a placebo. MRI-based thrombolysis might be safer than standard CT-based thrombolysis. A combination of reperfusion therapies, IV rt-PA and

  11. National Trends in the Utilization of Emergency Medical Services for Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Tataris

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The emergency medical services (EMS system plays a crucial role in the chain of survival for acute myocardial infarction (AMI and stroke. While regional studies have shown underutilization of the 911 system for these time-sensitive conditions, national trends have not been studied. Our objective was to describe the national prevalence of EMS use for AMI and stroke, examine trends over a six-year period, and identify patient factors that may contribute to utilization. Methods: Using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey-ED (NHAMCS dataset from 2003-2009, we looked at patients with a discharge diagnosis of AMI or stroke who arrived to the emergency department (ED by ambulance. We used a survey-weighted χ2 test for trend and logistic regression analysis. Results: In the study, there were 442 actual AMI patients and 220 (49.8% presented via EMS. There were 1,324 actual stroke patients and 666 (50.3% presented via EMS. There was no significant change in EMS usage for AMI or stroke over the six-year period. Factors independently associated with EMS use for AMI and stroke included age (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.12-1.31, Non-Hispanic black race (OR 1.72; 95% CI 1.16-2.29, and nursing home residence (OR 11.50; 95% CI 6.19-21.36. Conclusion: In a nationally representative sample of ED visits from 20003-2009, there were no trends of increasing EMS use for AMI and stroke. Efforts to improve access to care could focus on patient groups that underutilize the EMS system for such conditions. [West J Emerg Med. 2014;15(7:–0.

  12. Serum cardiac troponin I in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol and TNF-alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Krarup; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Christensen, Anders Fogh

    2004-01-01

    Serum cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is a specific marker of myocardial injury related to in-patient fatality and cardiac injury in acute stroke. We investigated whether cTnI in acute stroke is related to serum cortisol, acute inflammatory response, and insular damage. We also investigated whether c...

  13. Eligibility and Predictors for Acute Revascularization Procedures in a Stroke Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Peter; Lambrou, Dimitris; Eskandari, Ashraf; Mosimann, Pascal J; Maghraoui, Ali; Michel, Patrik

    2016-07-01

    Endovascular treatment (EVT) is a new standard of care for selected, large vessel occlusive strokes. We aimed to determine frequency of potentially eligible patients for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and EVT in comprehensive stroke centers. In addition, predictors of EVT eligibility were derived. Patients from a stroke center-based registry (2003-2014), admitted within 24 hours of last proof of usual health, were selected if they had all data to determine IVT and EVT eligibility according to American Heart Association/American Stroke Association (AHA/ASA) guidelines (class I-IIa recommendations). Moreover, less restrictive criteria adapted from randomized controlled trials and clinical practice were tested. Maximum onset-to-door time windows for IVT eligibility were 3.5 hours (allowing door-to-needle delay of ≤60 minutes) and 4.5 hours for EVT eligibility (door-to-groin delay ≤90 minutes). Demographic and clinical information were used in logistic regression analysis to derive variables associated with EVT eligibility. A total of 2704 patients with acute ischemic stroke were included, of which 26.8% were transfers. Of all patients with stroke arriving at our comprehensive stroke center, a total proportion of 12.4% patients was eligible for IVT. Frequency of EVT eligibility differed between AHA/ASA guidelines and less restrictive approach: 2.9% versus 4.9%, respectively, of all patients with acute ischemic stroke and 10.5% versus 17.7%, respectively, of all patients arriving within <6 hours. Predictors for AHA-EVT eligibility were younger, shorter onset-to-admission delays, higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), decreased vigilance, hemineglect, absent cerebellar signs, atrial fibrillation, smoking, and decreasing glucose levels (area under the curve=0.86). Of patients arriving within 6 hours at a comprehensive stroke center, 10.5% are EVT eligible according to AHA/ASA criteria, 17.7% according to criteria resembling randomized controlled

  14. Blood pressure and collateral circulation in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wufuer, A; Mijiti, P; Abudusalamu, R; Dengfeng, H; Jian, C; Jianhua, M; Xiaoning, Z

    2018-03-20

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different blood pressure (BP) parameters on the collateral circulation in a retrospective cohort of patients with acute ischemic stroke and ipsilateral internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusion. The degree of intracranial collaterals was graded according to the American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology/Society of Interventional Radiology (ASITN/SIR) Collateral Flow Grading System. At 12-72 h after stroke onset, six BP measurements were obtained in 124 patients with ICA occlusion. Baseline clinical and imaging characteristics were collected. Group comparisons were performed, and the collateral score (CS) was assessed and entered into a logistic regression analysis. In all, 80 (64.5%) patients displayed good collateral filling (CS ≥ 2). Good intracranial collaterals were more frequently associated with the development of collaterals in the anterior communicating artery, posterior communicating artery, and leptomeningeal artery. The systolic blood pressure (SBP; p = 0.018), diastolic blood pressure (DBP; p = 0.013), and mean arterial pressure (MAP; p = 0.016) were significantly associated with good CS. Median CS was highest when SBP was 120-130 mm Hg (p = 0.034). Logistic regression analysis showed that hypertension (p = 0.026, OR: 0.380, 95% CI: 0.163-0.890) was a significant predictor of poor CS. The development of collateral circulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke with ICA occlusion may be influenced by BP. A moderately decreased SBP is associated with good integrity of the collateral circulation in patients with acute ischemic stroke with occlusion of the ICA.

  15. Hospital-based stroke care in Ireland: results from one regional register.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, C W

    2000-01-01

    Most patients with acute stroke are admitted to hospital. If stroke services in this country are to be improved, we need accurate and reliable information about the types of stroke patients being admitted, their present management and outcome.

  16. Determining level of care appropriateness in the patient journey from acute care to rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The selection of patients for rehabilitation, and the timing of transfer from acute care, are important clinical decisions that impact on care quality and patient flow. This paper reports utilization review data on inpatients in acute care with stroke, hip fracture or elective joint replacement, and other inpatients referred for rehabilitation. It examines reasons why acute level of care criteria are not met and explores differences in decision making between acute care and rehabilitation teams around patient appropriateness and readiness for transfer. Methods Cohort study of patients in a large acute referral hospital in Australia followed with the InterQual utilization review tool, modified to also include reasons why utilization criteria are not met. Additional data on team decision making about appropriateness for rehabilitation, and readiness for transfer, were collected on a subset of patients. Results There were 696 episodes of care (7189 bed days). Days meeting acute level of care criteria were 56% (stroke, hip fracture and joint replacement patients) and 33% (other patients, from the time of referral). Most inappropriate days in acute care were due to delays in processes/scheduling (45%) or being more appropriate for rehabilitation or lower level of care (30%). On the subset of patients, the acute care team and the utilization review tool deemed patients ready for rehabilitation transfer earlier than the rehabilitation team (means of 1.4, 1.3 and 4.0 days from the date of referral, respectively). From when deemed medically stable for transfer by the acute care team, 28% of patients became unstable. From when deemed stable by the rehabilitation team or utilization review, 9% and 11%, respectively, became unstable. Conclusions A high proportion of patient days did not meet acute level of care criteria, due predominantly to inefficiencies in care processes, or to patients being more appropriate for an alternative level of care, including

  17. Determining level of care appropriateness in the patient journey from acute care to rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashford Guy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The selection of patients for rehabilitation, and the timing of transfer from acute care, are important clinical decisions that impact on care quality and patient flow. This paper reports utilization review data on inpatients in acute care with stroke, hip fracture or elective joint replacement, and other inpatients referred for rehabilitation. It examines reasons why acute level of care criteria are not met and explores differences in decision making between acute care and rehabilitation teams around patient appropriateness and readiness for transfer. Methods Cohort study of patients in a large acute referral hospital in Australia followed with the InterQual utilization review tool, modified to also include reasons why utilization criteria are not met. Additional data on team decision making about appropriateness for rehabilitation, and readiness for transfer, were collected on a subset of patients. Results There were 696 episodes of care (7189 bed days. Days meeting acute level of care criteria were 56% (stroke, hip fracture and joint replacement patients and 33% (other patients, from the time of referral. Most inappropriate days in acute care were due to delays in processes/scheduling (45% or being more appropriate for rehabilitation or lower level of care (30%. On the subset of patients, the acute care team and the utilization review tool deemed patients ready for rehabilitation transfer earlier than the rehabilitation team (means of 1.4, 1.3 and 4.0 days from the date of referral, respectively. From when deemed medically stable for transfer by the acute care team, 28% of patients became unstable. From when deemed stable by the rehabilitation team or utilization review, 9% and 11%, respectively, became unstable. Conclusions A high proportion of patient days did not meet acute level of care criteria, due predominantly to inefficiencies in care processes, or to patients being more appropriate for an alternative level of

  18. Feasibility, safety and cost of outpatient management of acute minor ischaemic stroke: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Nicola L M; Koton, Silvia; Simoni, Michela; Geraghty, Olivia C; Luengo-Fernandez, Ramon; Rothwell, Peter M

    2013-03-01

    Outpatient management safely and effectively prevents early recurrent stroke after transient ischaemic attack (TIA), but this approach may not be safe in patients with acute minor stroke. To study outcomes of clinic and hospital-referred patients with TIA or minor stroke (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale score ≤3) in a prospective, population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study). Of 845 patients with TIA/stroke, 587 (69%) were referred directly to outpatient clinics and 258 (31%) directly to inpatient services. Of the 250 clinic-referred minor strokes (mean age 72.7 years), 237 (95%) were investigated, treated and discharged on the same day, of whom 16 (6.8%) were subsequently admitted to hospital within 30 days for recurrent stroke (n=6), sepsis (n=3), falls (n=3), bleeding (n=2), angina (n=1) and nursing care (n=1). The 150 patients (mean age 74.8 years) with minor stroke referred directly to hospital (median length-of-stay 9 days) had a similar 30-day readmission rate (9/150; 6.3%; p=0.83) after initial discharge and a similar 30-day risk of recurrent stroke (9/237 in clinic patients vs 8/150, OR=0.70, 0.27-1.80, p=0.61). Rates of prescription of secondary prevention medication after initial clinic/hospital discharge were higher in clinic-referred than in hospital-referred patients for antiplatelets/anticoagulants (phospital-referred minor stroke versus £743 (1794) for clinic-referred cases. Outpatient management of clinic-referred minor stroke is feasible and may be as safe as inpatient care. Rates of early hospital admission and recurrent stroke were low and uptake and maintenance of secondary prevention was high.

  19. Early Prediction and Outcome of Septic Encephalopathy in Acute Stroke Patients With Nosocomial Coma

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui

    2015-01-01

    Background Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with...

  20. Impact of Insurance Status on Outcomes and Use of Rehabilitation Services in Acute Ischemic Stroke: Findings From Get With The Guidelines-Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medford-Davis, Laura N; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bhatt, Deepak L; Xu, Haolin; Smith, Eric E; Suter, Robert; Peterson, Eric D; Xian, Ying; Matsouaka, Roland A; Schwamm, Lee H

    2016-11-14

    Insurance status affects access to care, which may affect health outcomes. The objective was to determine whether patients without insurance or with government-sponsored insurance had worse quality of care or in-hospital outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. Multivariable logistic regressions with generalized estimating equations stratified by age under or at least 65 years were adjusted for patient demographics and comorbidities, presenting factors, and hospital characteristics to determine differences in in-hospital mortality and postdischarge destination. We included 589 320 ischemic stroke patients treated at 1604 US hospitals participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Stroke program between 2012 and 2015. Uninsured patients with hypertension, high cholesterol, or diabetes mellitus were less likely to be taking appropriate control medications prior to stroke, to use an ambulance to arrive to the ED, or to arrive early after symptom onset. Even after adjustment, the uninsured were more likely than the privately insured to die in the hospital (rehab (stroke, time to presentation for acute treatment, access to rehabilitation, and in-hospital mortality differ by patient insurance status. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  1. Social Network Types and Acute Stroke Preparedness Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette Boden-Albala

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Presence of informal social networks has been associated with favorable health and behaviors, but whether different types of social networks impact on different health outcomes remains largely unknown. We examined the associations of different social network types (marital dyad, household, friendship, and informal community networks with acute stroke preparedness behavior. We hypothesized that marital dyad best matched the required tasks and is the most effective network type for this behavior. Methods: We collected in-person interview and medical record data for 1,077 adults diagnosed with stroke and transient ischemic attack. We used logistic regression analyses to examine the association of each social network with arrival at the emergency department (ED within 3 h of stroke symptoms. Results: Adjusting for age, race-ethnicity, education, gender, transportation type to ED and vascular diagnosis, being married or living with a partner was significantly associated with early arrival at the ED (odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval: 1.2–3.1, but no significant univariate or multivariate associations were observed for household, friendship, and community networks. Conclusions: The marital/partnership dyad is the most influential type of social network for stroke preparedness behavior.

  2. Stroke management: Informal caregivers' burdens and strians of caring for stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbiri, Caleb Ademola; Olawale, Olajide Ayinla; Isaac, Sarah Oghenekewe

    2015-04-01

    Stroke survivors live with varied degrees of disabilities and cares are provided largely by the informal caregivers. This study investigated informal caregivers' burden and strains of caring for stroke patients. This study involved 157 (81 males and 76 females) informal caregivers of stroke survivors receiving care in all secondary and tertiary health institutions with physiotherapy services in Lagos State, Nigeria. Information was collected through self-administered questionnaire during clinic-hours. Data was analyzed using Spearman's Rank Correlation Coefficient. The patients' age ranged between 20 and 79 (mean=59.6 ± 14.6 years). Sixty-one had haemorrhagic stroke while 96 had ischaemic stroke. The informal caregivers' age was 39.2 ± 12.8 years (range: 17-36 years). More (60.8%) participants reported moderate objective while 79.2% had mild subjective burdens. The following factors significantly increased (Pfinancial well-beings of the informal caregivers. Caring for stroke survivors put social, emotional, health and financial burdens and strains on the informal caregivers. These burdens and strains increase with duration of stroke, intimacy, smaller number of caregivers and length of daily caregiving. Therefore, informal caregivers should be involved in the rehabilitation plan for stroke patients and their well-being should also be given adequate attention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting functional outcomes of posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke in first 36 h of stroke onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Sheng-Feng; Chen, Chin-I; Hu, Han-Hwa; Bai, Chyi-Huey

    2018-04-01

    Posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke constitutes one-fourth of all ischemic strokes and can be efficiently quantified using the posterior circulation Alberta stroke program early computed tomography score (PC-ASPECTS) through diffusion-weighted imaging. We investigated whether the PC-ASPECTS and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) facilitate functional outcome prediction among Chinese patients with posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. Participants were selected from our prospective stroke registry from January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2016. The baseline NIHSS score was assessed on the first day of admission, and brain magnetic resonance imaging was performed within 36 h after stroke onset. Simple and multiple logistic regressions were conducted to determine stroke risk factors and the PC-ASPECTS. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was performed to compare the NIHSS and PC-ASPECTS. Of 549 patients from our prospective stroke admission registry database, 125 (22.8%) had a diagnosis of posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke. The optimal cutoff for the PC-ASPECTS in predicting outcomes was 7. The odds ratios of the PC-ASPECTS (≤ 7 vs > 7) in predicting outcomes were 6.33 (p = 0.0002) and 8.49 (p = 0.0060) in the univariate and multivariate models, respectively, and 7.52 (p = 0.0041) in the aging group. On ROC curve analysis, the PC-ASPECTS demonstrated more reliability than the baseline NIHSS for predicting functional outcomes of minor posterior circulation stroke. In conclusion, both the PC-ASPECTS and NIHSS help clinicians predict functional outcomes. PC-ASPECTS > 7 is a helpful discriminator for achieving favorable functional outcome prediction in posterior circulation acute ischemic stroke.

  5. Develop a wearable ankle robot for in-bed acute stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yupeng; Xu, Tao; Wang, Liang; Yang, Chung Yong; Guo, Xin; Harvey, Richard L; Zhang, Li-Qun

    2011-01-01

    Movement training is important in motor recovery post stroke and early intervention is critical to stroke rehabilitation. However, acute stroke survivors are actively trained with activities helpful for recovery of mobility in only 13% of the time in the acute phase. Considering the first few months post stroke is critical in stroke recovery (neuroplasticity), there is a strong need for movement therapy and manipulate/mobilize the joints. There is a lack of in-bed robotic rehabilitation in acute stroke. This study seeks to meet the clinic need and deliver intensive passive and active movement therapy using a wearable robot to enhance motor function in acute stroke. Passively, the wearable robot stretches the joint to its extreme positions safely and forcefully. Actively, movement training is conducted and game playing is used to guide and motivate the patient in movement training.

  6. Hyperintense acute reperfusion marker is associated with higher contrast agent dosage in acute ischaemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostwaldt, Ann-Christin; Schaefer, Tabea; Villringer, Kersten; Fiebach, Jochen B. [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Academic Neuroradiology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin (Germany); Rozanski, Michal; Ebinger, Martin [Charite Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Academic Neuroradiology, Center for Stroke Research Berlin (CSB), Berlin (Germany); Charite Universitaetsmedizin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Jungehuelsing, Gerhard J. [Stiftung des Buergerlichen Rechts, Juedisches Krankenhaus Berlin, Berlin (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    The hyperintense acute reperfusion marker (HARM) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability changes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of contrast agent dosage on HARM incidence in acute ischaemic stroke patients. We prospectively included 529 acute ischaemic stroke patients (204 females, median age 71 years). Patients underwent a first stroke-MRI within 24 hours from symptom onset and had a follow-up on day 2. The contrast agent Gadobutrol was administered to the patients for perfusion imaging or MR angiography. The total dosage was calculated as ml/kg body weight and ranged between 0.04 and 0.31 mmol/kg on the first examination. The incidence of HARM was evaluated on day 2 FLAIR images. HARM was detected in 97 patients (18.3 %). HARM incidence increased significantly with increasing dosages of Gadobutrol. Also, HARM positive patients were significantly older. HARM was not an independent predictor of worse clinical outcome, and we did not find an association with increase risk of haemorrhagic transformation. A higher dosage of Gadobutrol in acute stroke patients on initial MRI is associated with increased HARM incidence on follow-up. MRI studies on BBB should therefore standardize contrast agent dosages. (orig.)

  7. Embedding an enriched environment in an acute stroke unit increases activity in people with stroke: a controlled before-after pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosbergen, Ingrid Cm; Grimley, Rohan S; Hayward, Kathryn S; Walker, Katrina C; Rowley, Donna; Campbell, Alana M; McGufficke, Suzanne; Robertson, Samantha T; Trinder, Janelle; Janssen, Heidi; Brauer, Sandra G

    2017-11-01

    To determine whether an enriched environment embedded in an acute stroke unit could increase activity levels in acute stroke patients and reduce adverse events. Controlled before-after pilot study. An acute stroke unit in a regional Australian hospital. Acute stroke patients admitted during (a) initial usual care control period, (b) an enriched environment period and (c) a sustainability period. Usual care participants received usual one-on-one allied health intervention and nursing care. The enriched environment participants were provided stimulating resources, communal areas for eating and socializing and daily group activities. Change management strategies were used to implement an enriched environment within existing staffing levels. Behavioural mapping was used to estimate patient activity levels across groups. Participants were observed every 10 minutes between 7.30 am and 7.30 pm within the first 10 days after stroke. Adverse and serious adverse events were recorded using a clinical registry. The enriched environment group ( n = 30, mean age 76.7 ± 12.1) spent a significantly higher proportion of their day engaged in 'any' activity (71% vs. 58%, P = 0.005) compared to the usual care group ( n = 30, mean age 76.0 ± 12.8). They were more active in physical (33% vs. 22%, P social (40% vs. 29%, P = 0.007) and cognitive domains (59% vs. 45%, P = 0.002) and changes were sustained six months post implementation. The enriched group experienced significantly fewer adverse events (0.4 ± 0.7 vs.1.3 ± 1.6, P = 0.001), with no differences found in serious adverse events (0.5 ± 1.6 vs.1.0 ± 2.0, P = 0.309). Embedding an enriched environment in an acute stroke unit increased activity in stroke patients.

  8. Risk Factors of Nicardipine-Related Phlebitis in Acute Stroke Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Kei; Ohta, Tsuyoshi; Tanaka, Koudai; Kadoguchi, Naoto; Yamamoto, Souichi; Morimoto, Masanori

    2016-10-01

    Intravenous nicardipine is generally used to treat hypertension in acute stroke patients but is associated with frequent phlebitis. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of phlebitis in such patients. The incidence and risk factors of phlebitis were investigated in 358 acute stroke patients from July 2014 to June 2015. In total, 138 patients received intravenous nicardipine. Of 45 (12.6%) phlebitis patients in 358 acute stroke patients, 42 (93.3%) were administered nicardipine, which was significantly associated with phlebitis occurrence (P phlebitis of acute stroke patients in univariate analysis were intracerebral hemorrhage (P phlebitis is frequently observed in acute stroke patients and is significantly associated with administration of a maximum concentration of nicardipine greater than 130 µg/mL. Copyright © 2016 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety of a "drip and ship" intravenous thrombolysis protocol for patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Simin; Zand, Ramin; Al-Wafai, Ameer; Wahba, Mervat N; Giraldo, Elias A

    2013-10-01

    The "drip and ship" approach for intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is becoming the standard of care for patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in communities without direct access to a stroke specialist. We aimed to demonstrate the safety of our "drip and ship" IVT protocol. This was a retrospective study of patients with AIS treated with IVT between January 2003 and January 2011. Information on patients' baseline characteristics, neuroimaging, symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH), and mortality was obtained from our stroke registry. A group of patients were treated with IVT by an emergency physician in phone consultation with a board-certified vascular neurologist (BCVN) at 1 of our 3 stroke network-affiliated hospitals (SNAHs). These patients were subsequently transferred to our Joint Commission-certified primary stroke center (CPSC) after completion of IVT ("drip and ship" protocol). The other patients were treated directly by a BCVN at the CPSC. We studied 201 patients treated with IVT. Of them, 14% received IVT at a SNAH ("drip and ship" protocol) and 86% were treated at the CPSC. There were no significant differences between the 2 groups with regard to age, National Institutes of Health Stoke Scale score, stroke symptom onset-to-needle time, sICH, or in-hospital mortality. Our "drip and ship" protocol for IVT is safe. The protocol was not associated with an excess of sICH or in-hospital mortality compared with patients who received IVT at the CPSC. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Dysphagia in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: Early Dysphagia Screening May Reduce Stroke-Related Pneumonia and Improve Stroke Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaled, Mohamed; Matthis, Christine; Binder, Andreas; Mudter, Jonas; Schattschneider, Joern; Pulkowski, Ulrich; Strohmaier, Tim; Niehoff, Torsten; Zybur, Roland; Eggers, Juergen; Valdueza, Jose M; Royl, Georg

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is associated with poor outcome in stroke patients. Studies investigating the association of dysphagia and early dysphagia screening (EDS) with outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are rare. The aims of our study are to investigate the association of dysphagia and EDS within 24 h with stroke-related pneumonia and outcomes. Over a 4.5-year period (starting November 2007), all consecutive AIS patients from 15 hospitals in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, were prospectively evaluated. The primary outcomes were stroke-related pneumonia during hospitalization, mortality, and disability measured on the modified Rankin Scale ≥2-5, in which 2 indicates an independence/slight disability to 5 severe disability. Of 12,276 patients (mean age 73 ± 13; 49% women), 9,164 patients (74%) underwent dysphagia screening; of these patients, 55, 39, 4.7, and 1.5% of patients had been screened for dysphagia within 3, 3 to 72 h following admission. Patients who underwent dysphagia screening were likely to be older, more affected on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and to have higher rates of neurological symptoms and risk factors than patients who were not screened. A total of 3,083 patients (25.1%; 95% CI 24.4-25.8) had dysphagia. The frequency of dysphagia was higher in patients who had undergone dysphagia screening than in those who had not (30 vs. 11.1%; p dysphagia had a higher rate of pneumonia than those without dysphagia (29.7 vs. 3.7%; p dysphagia was associated with increased risk of stroke-related pneumonia (OR 3.4; 95% CI 2.8-4.2; p dysphagia was independently correlated with an increase in mortality (OR 3.2; 95% CI 2.4-4.2; p Dysphagia exposes stroke patients to a higher risk of pneumonia, disability, and death, whereas an EDS seems to be associated with reduced risk of stroke-related pneumonia and disability. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Patterns of Reading Performance in Acute Stroke: A Descriptive Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren L. Cloutman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the main sources of information regarding the underlying processes involved in both normal and impaired reading has been the study of reading deficits that occur as a result of brain damage. However, patterns of reading deficits found acutely after brain injury have been little explored. The observed patterns of performance in chronic stroke patients might reflect reorganization of the cognitive processes underlying reading or development of compensatory strategies that are not normally used to read. Method: 112 acute left hemisphere stroke patients were administered a task of oral reading of words and pseudowords within 1–2 days of hospital admission; performance was examined for error rate and type, and compared to that on tasks involving visual lexical decision, visual/auditory comprehension, and naming. Results: Several distinct patterns of performance were identified. Although similarities were found between the patterns of reading performance observed acutely and the classical acquired dyslexias generally identified more chronically, some notable differences were observed. Of interest was the finding that no patient produced any pure semantic errors in reading, despite finding such errors in comprehension and naming.

  12. Actual diagnostic approach to the acute stroke patient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loevblad, Karl-Olof; Baird, Alison E.

    2006-01-01

    Since acute stroke is now considered a potentially treatable medical emergency, a rapid and correct diagnosis must be made. The first step is to exclude hemorrhage, then to visualize any early ischemic changes, demonstrate the presence of hypoperfusion and locate the presence of a vascular underlying pathology as well as elucidate the presence of a potential penumbra (tissue at risk). Thanks to improvements and advances in both MR and CT technology, this can now be done in a number of ways. At the moment, CT is the most widely available and fast method for obtaining imaging of the brain and neck vessels of patients presenting with acute stroke. MRI can provide more precise information, although it remains slightly more time-consuming, but is, however, the method of choice for follow-up imaging. The main point is to take the one-stop-shopping approach where imaging of the vessels and brain is done from the aortic arch to the circle of Willis in one single session in order to have all the necessary information in the acute phase. (orig.)

  13. Processes of early stroke care and hospital costs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Marie Louise; Ehlers, Lars H; Hundborg, Heidi H

    2014-01-01

    Background: The relationship between processes of early stroke care and hospital costs remains unclear. Aims: We therefore examined the association in a population-based cohort study. Methods: We identified 5909 stroke patients who were admitted to stroke units in a Danish county between 2005...... of hospitalization were $23352 (standard deviation 27827). The relationship between receiving more relevant processes of early stroke care and lower hospital costs followed a dose-response relationship. The adjusted costs were $24566 (95% confidence interval 19364-29769) lower for patients who received 75......-100% of the relevant processes of care compared with patients receiving 0-24%. All processes of care were associated with potential cost savings, except for early catheterization and early thromboembolism prophylaxis. Conclusions: Early care in agreement with key guidelines recommendations for the management...

  14. Acute stroke: automatic perfusion lesion outlining using level sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouridsen, Kim; Nagenthiraja, Kartheeban; Jónsdóttir, Kristjana Ýr; Ribe, Lars R; Neumann, Anders B; Hjort, Niels; Østergaard, Leif

    2013-11-01

    To develop a user-independent algorithm for the delineation of hypoperfused tissue on perfusion-weighted images and evaluate its performance relative to a standard threshold method in simulated data, as well as in acute stroke patients. The study was approved by the local ethics committee, and patients gave written informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study. The algorithm identifies hypoperfused tissue in mean transit time maps by simultaneously minimizing the mean square error between individual and mean perfusion values inside and outside a smooth boundary. In 14 acute stroke patients, volumetric agreement between automated outlines and manual outlines determined in consensus among four neuroradiologists was assessed with Bland-Altman analysis, while spatial agreement was quantified by using lesion overlap relative to mean lesion volume (Dice coefficient). Performance improvement relative to a standard threshold approach was tested with the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The mean difference in lesion volume between automated outlines and manual outlines was -9.0 mL ± 44.5 (standard deviation). The lowest mean volume difference for the threshold approach was -25.8 mL ± 88.2. A significantly higher Dice coefficient was observed with the algorithm (0.71; interquartile range [IQR], 0.42-0.75) compared with the threshold approach (0.50; IQR, 0.27- 0.57; P , .001). The corresponding agreement among experts was 0.79 (IQR, 0.69-0.83). The perfusion lesions outlined by the automated algorithm agreed well with those defined manually in consensus by four experts and were superior to those obtained by using the standard threshold approach. This user-independent algorithm may improve the assessment of perfusion images as part of acute stroke treatment. http://radiology.rsna.org/lookup/suppl/doi:10.1148/radiol.13121622/-/DC1. RSNA, 2013

  15. Quality of life after ischemic stroke varies in western countries: data from the tinzaparin in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Trial (TAIST).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprigg, Nikola; Gray, Laura J; Bath, Philip M W; Christensen, Hanne; De Deyn, Peter Paul; Leys, Didier; O'Neill, Desmond; Ringelstein, E Bernd

    2012-10-01

    Functional outcome after stroke varies significantly between countries. However, whether health-related quality of life (QoL) after stroke also differs between countries is unknown. TAIST was a randomised controlled trial assessing the safety and efficacy of tinzaparin versus aspirin in 1484 patients with acute ischaemic stroke across 11 countries. Countries were grouped into 5 geographic regions: British Isles (Ireland and UK), Franco (Belgium and France), North America (Canada), northwest Europe (Germany and The Netherlands), and Scandinavia (Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden). QoL was measured at 6 months using the Short-Form 36 (SF-36) health survey. The relationship between region and QoL was assessed relative to the British Isles using linear regression adjusted for case mix, service quality variables, and treatment assignment. A total of 1220 survivors were included in this analysis. Significant differences in QoL were identified between countries and regions; northwest Europe rated their QoL highest in terms of physical functioning (20.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 10.8-29.8), bodily pain (12.3; 95% CI, 2.7-22.0), and vitality (9.0; 95% CI, 1.1-16.9). Franco countries reported the lowest QoL for emotional role (-17.9; 95% CI, -32.6 to -3.3) and mental health (-11.2; 95% CI, -18.2 to -4.3). The British Isles rated QoL lowest for physical and social functioning. Our data indicate that QoL varies considerably among countries and regions, even when adjusted for prognostic case mix and care quality variables. How different case mixes and healthcare systems might contribute to these findings merits further investigation. Copyright © 2012 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Quality of in-hospital stroke care according to evidence-based performance measures: results from the first audit of stroke, Catalonia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abilleira, Sònia; Gallofré, Miquel; Ribera, Aida; Sánchez, Emília; Tresserras, Ricard

    2009-04-01

    Evidence-based standards are used worldwide to determine quality of care. We assessed quality of in-hospital stroke care in all acute-care hospitals in Catalonia by determining adherence to 13 evidence-based performance measures (PMs) of process of care. Data on PMs were collected by retrospective review of medical records of consecutive stroke admissions (January to June, 2005). Compliance with PMs was calculated according to 3 hospital levels determined by their annual stroke case-load (level 1, 350). We defined sampling weights that represented each patient's inverse probability of inclusion in the study sample. Sampling weights were applied to produce estimates of compliance. Factors that predicted good/bad compliance were determined by multivariate weighted logistic regression models. An external monitoring of 10% of cases recruited at each hospital was undertaken, after random selection, to assess quality of data. We analyzed data from 1791 stroke cases (17% of all stroke admissions). Global interobserver agreement was 0.7. Eight PMs achieved compliances >or=75%, 4 of which were more than 90%, and the remaining showed adherences Catalonia was heterogeneous across hospital levels. Rehabilitation-related measures showed poor compliances compared to acute care-related ones, which achieved more satisfactory adherences.

  17. Effects of melatonin in experimental stroke models in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Wen Lin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Hsiao-Wen Lin, E-Jian LeeNeurophysiology Laboratory, Neurosurgical Service, Department of Surgery, National Cheng Kung University Medical Center and Medical School, Tainan, TaiwanAbstract: Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine, a naturally occurring indole produced mainly by the pineal gland, is a well known antioxidant. Stroke (cerebral ischemia is the second leading cause of death worldwide. To date, however, effective and safe treatment for stroke remains unavailable. Melatonin is both lipid- and water-soluble and readily crosses the blood–brain barrier (BBB. Increasing evidence has shown that, in animal stroke models, administering melatonin significantly reduces infarct volume, edema, and oxidative damage and improves electrophysiological and behavioral performance. Here, we reviewed studies that assess effects of melatonin on cerebral ischemia in acute, sub-acute, and chronic stages. In addition to its potent antioxidant properties, melatonin exerts antiapoptotic, antiexcitotoxic, anti-inflammatory effects and promotes mitochondrial functions in animals with cerebral ischemia. Given that melatonin shows almost no toxicity to humans and possesses multifaceted protective capacity against cerebral ischemia, it is valuable to consider using melatonin in clinical trials on patients suffering from stroke.Keywords: cerebral ischemia, melatonin, stroke, neuroprotection

  18. Acute childhood leukemia: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A

    1997-01-01

    Modern therapy for childhood acute leukemia has provided a dramatically improved prognosis over that of just 30 years ago. In the early 1960's survival rates for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were 4% and 3%, respectively. By the 1980's survival rates had risen to 72% for all and 25% to 40% for AML. Today, a diagnosis of all carries an 80% survival rate and as high as a 90% survival rate for some low-risk subtypes. Such high cure rates depend on intense and complex, multimodal therapeutic protocols. Therefore, nursing care of the child with acute leukemia must meet the demands of complicated medical therapies and balance those with the needs of a sick child and their concerned family. An understanding of disease process and principles of medical management guide appropriate and effective nursing interventions. Leukemia is a malignant disorder of the blood and blood- forming organs (bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen). Most believe that acute leukemia results from a malignant transformation of a single early haematopoietic stem cell that is capable of indefinite self-renewal. These immature cells of blasts do not respond to normal physiologic stimuli for differentiation and gradually become the predominant cell in the bone marrow

  19. Fever, hyperglycaemia and swallowing dysfunction management in acute stroke: A cluster randomised controlled trial of knowledge transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quinn Clare

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hyperglycaemia, fever, and swallowing dysfunction are poorly managed in the admission phase of acute stroke, and patient outcomes are compromised. Use of evidence-based guidelines could improve care but have not been effectively implemented. Our study aims to develop and trial an intervention based on multidisciplinary team-building to improve management of fever, hyperglycaemia, and swallowing dysfunction in patients following acute stroke. Methods and design Metropolitan acute stroke units (ASUs located in New South Wales, Australia will be stratified by service category (A or B and, within strata, by baseline patient recruitment numbers (high or low in this prospective, multicentre, single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial (CRCT. ASUs then will be randomised independently to either intervention or control groups. ASUs allocated to the intervention group will receive: unit-based workshops to identify local barriers and enablers; a standardised core education program; evidence-based clinical treatment protocols; and ongoing engagement of local staff. Control group ASUs will receive only an abridged version of the National Clinical Guidelines for Acute Stroke Management. The following outcome measures will be collected at 90 days post-hospital admission: patient death, disability (modified Rankin Score; dependency (Barthel Index and Health Status (SF-36. Additional measures include: performance of swallowing screening within 24 hours of admission; glycaemic control and temperature control. Discussion This is a unique study of research transfer in acute stroke. Providing optimal inpatient care during the admission phase is essential if we are to combat the rising incidence of debilitating stroke. Our CRCT will also allow us to test interventions focussed on multidisciplinary ASU teams rather than individual disciplines, an imperative of modern hospital services. Trial Registration Australia New Zealand Clinical Trial

  20. Inter-rater reliability of data elements from a prototype of the Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehner Susan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Paul Coverdell National Acute Stroke Registry (PCNASR is a U.S. based national registry designed to monitor and improve the quality of acute stroke care delivered by hospitals. The registry monitors care through specific performance measures, the accuracy of which depends in part on the reliability of the individual data elements used to construct them. This study describes the inter-rater reliability of data elements collected in Michigan's state-based prototype of the PCNASR. Methods Over a 6-month period, 15 hospitals participating in the Michigan PCNASR prototype submitted data on 2566 acute stroke admissions. Trained hospital staff prospectively identified acute stroke admissions, abstracted chart information, and submitted data to the registry. At each hospital 8 randomly selected cases were re-abstracted by an experienced research nurse. Inter-rater reliability was estimated by the kappa statistic for nominal variables, and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC for ordinal and continuous variables. Factors that can negatively impact the kappa statistic (i.e., trait prevalence and rater bias were also evaluated. Results A total of 104 charts were available for re-abstraction. Excellent reliability (kappa or ICC > 0.75 was observed for many registry variables including age, gender, black race, hemorrhagic stroke, discharge medications, and modified Rankin Score. Agreement was at least moderate (i.e., 0.75 > kappa ≥; 0.40 for ischemic stroke, TIA, white race, non-ambulance arrival, hospital transfer and direct admit. However, several variables had poor reliability (kappa Conclusion The excellent reliability of many of the data elements supports the use of the PCNASR to monitor and improve care. However, the poor reliability for several variables, particularly time-related events in the emergency department, indicates the need for concerted efforts to improve the quality of data collection. Specific recommendations

  1. Prophylactic antibiotics after acute stroke for reducing pneumonia in patients with dysphagia (STROKE-INF): a prospective, cluster-randomised, open-label, masked endpoint, controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Lalit; Irshad, Saddif; Hodsoll, John; Simpson, Matthew; Gulliford, Martin; Smithard, David; Patel, Anita; Rebollo-Mesa, Irene

    2015-11-07

    Post-stroke pneumonia is associated with increased mortality and poor functional outcomes. This study assessed the effectiveness of antibiotic prophylaxis for reducing pneumonia in patients with dysphagia after acute stroke. We did a prospective, multicentre, cluster-randomised, open-label controlled trial with masked endpoint assessment of patients older than 18 years with dysphagia after new stroke recruited from 48 stroke units in the UK, accredited and included in the UK National Stroke Audit. We excluded patients with contraindications to antibiotics, pre-existing dysphagia, or known infections, or who were not expected to survive beyond 14 days. We randomly assigned the units (1:1) by computer to give either prophylactic antibiotics for 7 days plus standard stroke unit care or standard stroke unit care only to patients clustered in the units within 48 h of stroke onset. We did the randomisation with minimisation to stratify for number of admissions and access to specialist care. Patient and staff who did the assessments and analyses were masked to stroke unit allocation. The primary outcome was post-stroke pneumonia in the first 14 days, assessed with both a criteria-based, hierarchical algorithm and by physician diagnosis in the intention-to-treat population. Safety was also analysed by intention to treat. This trial is closed to new participants and is registered with isrctn.com, number ISRCTN37118456. Between April 21, 2008, and May 17, 2014, we randomly assigned 48 stroke units (and 1224 patients clustered within the units) to the two treatment groups: 24 to antibiotics and 24 to standard care alone (control). 11 units and seven patients withdrew after randomisation before 14 days, leaving 1217 patients in 37 units for the intention-to-treat analysis (615 patients in the antibiotics group, 602 in control). Prophylactic antibiotics did not affect the incidence of algorithm-defined post-stroke pneumonia (71 [13%] of 564 patients in antibiotics group vs 52

  2. Characteristic adverse events and their incidence among patients participating in acute ischemic stroke trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Kerrick; Fulton, Rachael L; Abdul-Rahim, Azmil H; Lees, Kennedy R

    2014-09-01

    Adverse events (AE) in trial populations present a major burden to researchers and patients, yet most events are unrelated to investigational treatment. We aimed to develop a coherent list of expected AEs, whose incidence can be predicted by patient characteristics that will inform future trials and perhaps general poststroke care. We analyzed raw AE data from patients participating in acute ischemic stroke trials. We identified events that occurred with a lower 99% confidence bound greater than nil. Among these, we applied receiver operating characteristic principles to select the fewest types of events that together represented the greatest number of reports. Using ordinal logistic regression, we modeled the incidence of these events as a function of patient age, sex, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, and multimorbidity status, defining Ppatients, reporting 21 217 AEs. Among 756 types of AEs, 132 accounted for 82.7%, of which 80% began within 10 days after stroke. Right hemisphere (odds ratio [OR], 1.67), increasing baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (OR, 1.11), multimorbidity status (OR, 1.09 per disease), patient age (OR, 1.01 per year), height (OR, 1.01 per centimeter), diastolic blood pressure (OR, 0.99 per mm Hg), and smoking (OR, 0.82) were independently associated with developing more AEs but together explained only 13% of the variation. A list of 132 expected AEs after acute ischemic stroke may be used to simplify interpretation and reporting of complications. AEs can be modestly predicted by patient characteristics, facilitating stratification of patients by risk for poststroke complications. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Cluster-Randomized, Crossover Trial of Head Positioning in Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Craig S; Arima, Hisatomi; Lavados, Pablo; Billot, Laurent; Hackett, Maree L; Olavarría, Verónica V; Muñoz Venturelli, Paula; Brunser, Alejandro; Peng, Bin; Cui, Liying; Song, Lily; Rogers, Kris; Middleton, Sandy; Lim, Joyce Y; Forshaw, Denise; Lightbody, C Elizabeth; Woodward, Mark; Pontes-Neto, Octavio; De Silva, H Asita; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Lee, Tsong-Hai; Pandian, Jeyaraj D; Mead, Gillian E; Robinson, Thompson; Watkins, Caroline

    2017-06-22

    The role of supine positioning after acute stroke in improving cerebral blood flow and the countervailing risk of aspiration pneumonia have led to variation in head positioning in clinical practice. We wanted to determine whether outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke could be improved by positioning the patient to be lying flat (i.e., fully supine with the back horizontal and the face upwards) during treatment to increase cerebral perfusion. In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, crossover trial conducted in nine countries, we assigned 11,093 patients with acute stroke (85% of the strokes were ischemic) to receive care in either a lying-flat position or a sitting-up position with the head elevated to at least 30 degrees, according to the randomization assignment of the hospital to which they were admitted; the designated position was initiated soon after hospital admission and was maintained for 24 hours. The primary outcome was degree of disability at 90 days, as assessed with the use of the modified Rankin scale (scores range from 0 to 6, with higher scores indicating greater disability and a score of 6 indicating death). The median interval between the onset of stroke symptoms and the initiation of the assigned position was 14 hours (interquartile range, 5 to 35). Patients in the lying-flat group were less likely than patients in the sitting-up group to maintain the position for 24 hours (87% vs. 95%, P<0.001). In a proportional-odds model, there was no significant shift in the distribution of 90-day disability outcomes on the global modified Rankin scale between patients in the lying-flat group and patients in the sitting-up group (unadjusted odds ratio for a difference in the distribution of scores on the modified Rankin scale in the lying-flat group, 1.01; 95% confidence interval, 0.92 to 1.10; P=0.84). Mortality within 90 days was 7.3% among the patients in the lying-flat group and 7.4% among the patients in the sitting-up group (P=0.83). There were

  4. Antibiotic therapy for preventing infections in people with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J

    2018-01-22

    Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve outcome. In the previous version of this Cochrane Review, published in 2012, we found that antibiotics did reduce the risk of infection but did not reduce the number of dependent or deceased patients. However, included studies were small and heterogeneous. In 2015, two large clinical trials were published, warranting an update of this Review. To assess the effectiveness and safety of preventive antibiotic therapy in people with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. We wished to determine whether preventive antibiotic therapy in people with acute stroke:• reduces the risk of a poor functional outcome (dependency and/or death) at follow-up;• reduces the occurrence of infections in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces the occurrence of elevated body temperature (temperature ≥ 38° C) in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces length of hospital stay; or• leads to an increased rate of serious adverse events, such as anaphylactic shock, skin rash, or colonisation with antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (25 June 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5; 25 June 2017) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid (1950 to 11 May 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 11 May 2017). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we searched trials and research registers, scanned reference lists, and contacted trial authors, colleagues, and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive antibiotic therapy versus control (placebo or open control) in people with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Two review authors independently selected

  5. Brain perfusion CT in acute stroke: current status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, Matthias E-mail: matthias.koenig@ruhr-uni-bochum.de

    2003-03-01

    Dynamic perfusion CT has become a widely accepted imaging modality for the diagnostic workup of acute stroke patients. Although compared with standard spiral CT the use of multislice CT has broadened the range from which perfusion data may be derived in a single scan run. The advent of multidetector row technology has not really overcome the limited 3D capability of this technique. Multidetector CT angiography (CTA) of the cerebral arteries may in part compensate for this by providing additional information about the cerebrovascular status. This article describes the basics of cerebral contrast bolus scanning with a special focus on optimization of contrast/noise in order to ensure high quality perfusion maps. Dedicated scan protocols including low tube voltage (80 kV) as well as the use of highly concentrated contrast media are amongst the requirements to achieve optimum contrast signal from the short bolus passage through the brain. Advanced pre and postprocessing algorithms may help reduce the noise level, which may become critical in unconscious stroke victims. Two theoretical concepts have been described for the calculation of tissue perfusion from contrast bolus studies, both of which can be equally employed for brain perfusion imaging. For each perfusion model there are some profound limitations regarding the validity of perfusion values derived from ischemic brain areas. This makes the use of absolute quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) values for the discrimination of the infarct core from periinfarct ischemia questionable. Multiparameter imaging using maps of CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and a time parameter of the local bolus transit enables analyzing of the cerebral perfusion status in detail. Perfusion CT exceeds plain CT in depicting cerebral hypoperfusion at its earliest stage yielding a sensitivity of about 90% for the detection of embolic and hemodynamic lesions within cerebral hemispheres. Qualitative assessment of brain perfusion can be

  6. Neuroprotection as initial therapy in acute stroke - Third report of an Ad Hoc Consensus Group Meeting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogousslavsky, J; De Keyser, J; Diener, HC; Fieschi, C; Hacke, W; Kaste, M; Orgogozo, JM; Pulsinelli, W; Wahlgren, NG

    1998-01-01

    Although a considerable body of scientific data is now available on neuroprotection in acute ischaemic stroke, this field is not yet established in clinical practice. At its third meeting, the European Ad Hoc Consensus Group considered the potential for neuroprotection in acute stroke and the

  7. Manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke, frequency and influence on functional outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, P M; Jørgensen, H S; Kammersgaard, L P

    2001-01-01

    To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome.......To determine the frequency of manual and oral apraxia in acute stroke and to examine the influence of these symptoms on functional outcome....

  8. Hyperperfusion on Perfusion Computed Tomography Following Revascularization for Acute Stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, T.B.; Lum, C.; Eastwood, J.D.; Stys, P.K.; Hogan, M.; Goyal, M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the findings of hyperperfusion on perfusion computed tomography (CT) in four patients following revascularization for acute stroke. Material and Methods: In 2002-2003, among a series of 6 patients presenting with an acute stroke and treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis, we observed the presence of hyperperfusion in 3 patients on the follow-up CT perfusion. We included an additional patient who was treated with intravenous thrombolysis and who had hyperperfusion on the follow-up CT perfusion. We retrospectively analyzed their CT perfusion maps. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) maps were compared between the affected territory and the normal contralateral hemisphere. Results: In the four patients, the mean CBV and CBF were 3.6±2.0 ml/100 g and 39±25 ml/100 g/min in the affected territory compared to the normal side (mean CBV 2.7±2.1 ml/100 g, mean CBF = 27±23 ml/100 g/min). There was no intracranial hemorrhage in the hyperperfused territories. At follow-up CT, some hyperperfused brain areas progressed to infarction, while others retained normal white to gray matter differentiation. Conclusion: CT perfusion can demonstrate hyperperfusion, which can be seen in an ischemic brain territory following recanalization

  9. Intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy in the acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncyljusz, W.; Walecka, A.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of local intra-arterial thrombolysis with rt-Pa in patients suffering from MCA acute brain infarction within 6 hours of the onset of symptoms. Forty one patients with acute ischemic stroke of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were qualified to the treatment (up to 6 hours after the beginning of the symptoms). Patient qualification was based on clinical examination, computed tomography (CT) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). CT follow-up was performed after 24 hours and between 7-10 days. Continuous infusion of rt-Pa with a final dose of 40 mg was administered. The patients were evaluated before, at discharge and 90 days after the procedure on the basis of modified Rankin and NIHSS scores. At the primary outcome, 22 (53%) of the patients achieved modified Rankin scores of 2 or less after 90 days. The secondary clinical outcome at 90 day follow-up: (NIHSS score L1) - 9 (22%) of the patients, (NIHSS score L 50% decrease) - 24 (59%). A rate of recanalization was achieved in 76% of patients. Symptomatic hemorrhages occurred in 4 (10%). There were no deaths in the treated group after thrombolysis up to the time of discharge; however, the mortality during the 90-day follow-up period was 7%. Intra-arterial thrombolysis with the use of rt-Pa, in the treatment of ischemic brain stroke within 6 hours after the onset considerably improved the clinical condition of patients after 90 days. (authors)

  10. Processes of early stroke care and hospital costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Marie Louise; Ehlers, Lars H; Hundborg, Heidi H; Ingeman, Annette; Johnsen, Søren P

    2014-08-01

    The relationship between processes of early stroke care and hospital costs remains unclear. We therefore examined the association in a population based cohort study. We identified 5909 stroke patients who were admitted to stroke units in a Danish county between 2005 and 2010.The examined recommended processes of care included early admission to a stroke unit, early initiation of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy, early computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI) scan, early physiotherapy and occupational therapy, early assessment of nutritional risk, constipation risk and of swallowing function, early mobilization,early catheterization, and early thromboembolism prophylaxis.Hospital costs were assessed for each patient based on the number of days spent in different in-hospital facilities using local hospital charges. The mean costs of hospitalization were $23 352 (standard deviation 27 827). The relationship between receiving more relevant processes of early stroke care and lower hospital costs followed a dose–response relationship. The adjusted costs were $24 566 (95% confidence interval 19 364–29 769) lower for patients who received 75–100% of the relevant processes of care compared with patients receiving 0–24%. All processes of care were associated with potential cost savings, except for early catheterization and early thromboembolism prophylaxis. Early care in agreement with key guidelines recommendations for the management of patients with stroke may be associated with hospital savings.

  11. Statins in Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Keun-Sik; Lee, Ji Sung

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Statins have pleiotropic effects of potential neuroprotection. However, because of lack of large randomized clinical trials, current guidelines do not provide specific recommendations on statin initiation in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The current study aims to systematically review the statin effect in AIS. Methods From literature review, we identified articles exploring prestroke and immediate post-stroke statin effect on imaging surrogate markers, initial stroke severity, functional outcome, and short-term mortality in human AIS. We summarized descriptive overview. In addition, for subjects with available data from publications, we conducted meta-analysis to provide pooled estimates. Results In total, we identified 70 relevant articles including 6 meta-analyses. Surrogate imaging marker studies suggested that statin might enhance collaterals and reperfusion. Our updated meta-analysis indicated that prestroke statin use was associated with milder initial stroke severity (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval], 1.24 [1.05-1.48]; P=0.013), good functional outcome (1.50 [1.29-1.75]; Pmortality (0.42 [0.21-0.82]; P=0.0108). In-hospital statin use was associated with good functional outcome (1.31 [1.12-1.53]; P=0.001), and lower mortality (0.41 [0.29-0.58]; Phemorrhagic transformation (1.63 [1.04-2.56]; P=0.035). Conclusions The current study findings support the use of statin in AIS. However, the findings were mostly driven by observational studies at risk of bias, and thereby large randomized clinical trials would provide confirmatory evidence. PMID:26437994

  12. Specific features of acute stroke in the Russian Federation and in the People’s Republic of China (according to the data of some big stroke units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on comparison and analysis of the work of big stroke units in the Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China specialized in the medical care for patients with acute stroke. 522 patients were surveyed in Russia’s and China’s regional stroke units. In the Russian Federation, patients being treated in the «City Hospital No.26» (SaintPetersburg took part in the study. In China patients of the First Affiliated Hospital of the Chongqing Medical University, Central Hospital Jiang jin, Regional People’s Hospital Yubei district, Regional People’s Hospital Bishan (Chongqing Province. The analysis of differences was performed by the following parameters: personality traits, age, gender, level of education, income, health insurance category, profession, employment, professional activities over the last year, place of residence of the patient, features of the stroke, time during the first symptoms of stroke to hospitalization, kinds of medical services, the main risk factors and value of prevention before stroke.

  13. Telemedicine in the acute health setting: A disruptive innovation for specialists (an example from stroke).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, Kathleen L; Cadilhac, Dominique A; Vu, Michelle; Moss, Karen; Bladin, Christopher F

    2015-12-01

    Telemedicine is a disruptive innovation within health care settings as consultations take place via audio-visual technology rather than traditional face-to-face. Specialist perceptions and experiences of providing audio-visual consultations in emergency situations, however, are not well understood. The aim of this exploratory study was to describe the experience of medical specialists providing acute stroke decision-making support via telemedicine. Data from the Victorian Stroke Telemedicine (VST) programme were used. The experiences of specialists providing an acute clinical telemedicine service to rural emergency departments were explored, drawing on disruptive innovation theory. Document analysis of programme consultation records, meeting minutes and in-depth individual interviews with three neurologists were analysed using triangulation. Since February 2014, 269 stroke telemedicine consultations with 12 neurologists have occurred. Retention on the roster has varied between 1 and >4 years. Overall, neurologists reported benefits of participation, as they were addressing health equity gaps for rural patients. Negative effects were the unpredictability of consultations impacting on their personal life, the mixed level of experience of colleagues initiating the consult and not knowing patient outcomes since follow-up communication was not routine. Insights into workforce experience and satisfaction were identified to inform strategies to support specialists to adapt to the disruptive innovation of telemedicine. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. Tissue is more important than time: insights into acute ischemic stroke from modern brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bivard, Andrew; Parsons, Mark

    2018-02-01

    The clinical practice of acute ischemic stroke treatment has undergone a major change over the last 5 years, as multimodal imaging becomes more accessible, and evidence mounts that individualized treatment is possible. Multimodal imaging performed before treatment provides invaluable information to treating clinicians, which includes confirmation of the diagnosis, and provides guidance on the appropriateness and the likely outcome of intravenous or endovascular treatment for individual patients (and their families). However, often health systems struggle to keep pace with science; thus, a one-size fits all protocol-driven basic imaging approach is still the norm in many stroke centers. Comprehensive multimodal computed tomography (CT) (incorporating noncontrast CT, CT angiography, and perfusion CT) provides rapid, reliable information about stroke pathophysiology that cannot be provided by more limited imaging prior to treatment. Multimodal CT identifies treatment responders for both intravenous thrombolysis and endovascular therapy. Now we are in the era of thrombectomy, the use of multimodal imaging routinely to guide treatment can no longer be avoided. In light of the ground breaking thrombectomy trial results and previous studies validating the use of multimodal imaging, there is now a strong rationale for performing comprehensive multimodal CT assessments before treatment as a standard of care for all stroke patients.

  15. Does HIPE data capture the complexity of stroke patients in an acute hospital setting?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Clarke, B

    2010-01-01

    The Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE) system is currently used as a principle source of national data on discharges from acute hospitals. The Casemix Programme is used to calculate funding for patient care (HIPE activity and Specialty Costs Returns). Th coding is usually undertaken by clerical personnel. We were concerned that the medical complexity of our stroke patients was not captured by the process. The aims of this study were to compare activity coded by HIPE coding staff and medical staff in consecutive stroke patients discharged from the hospital. One hundred consecutive discharged patients with stroke as primary diagnosis were coded by clerical staff [usual practice] and by medical staff. We compared the coding and any differences. We calculated the financial comparison of subsequent differences in Diagnostic Related Groups (DRGs) and Relative Values (RVs). Clinician coded DRGs resulted in a higher assigned RV in 45 cases. The total RV value for HIPE using clerical coding was 595,268.94 euros and using medical coding was 725,252.16 euros. We conclude that medical input is useful in detailing the complications arising in stroke patients. We suggest that physicians should assist in the HIPE coding process in order to capture clinical complexity, so that funding can be appropriately assigned to manage these complex patients.

  16. Study design for the fostering eating after stroke with transcranial direct current stimulation trial: a randomized controlled intervention for improving Dysphagia after acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchina, Sarah; Schlaug, Gottfried; Kumar, Sandeep

    2015-03-01

    Dysphagia is a major stroke complication but lacks effective therapy that can promote recovery. Noninvasive brain stimulation with and without peripheral sensorimotor activities may be an attractive treatment option for swallowing recovery but has not been systematically investigated in the stroke population. This article describes the study design of the first prospective, single-center, double-blinded trial of anodal versus sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) used in combination with swallowing exercises in patients with dysphagia from an acute ischemic stroke. The aim of this study is to gather safety data on cumulative sessions of tDCS in acute-subacute phases of stroke, obtain information about effects of this intervention on important physiologic and clinically relevant swallowing parameters, and examine possible dose effects. Ninety-nine consecutive patients with dysphagia from an acute unilateral hemispheric infarction with a Penetration and Aspiration Scale (PAS) score of 4 or more and without other confounding reasons for dysphagia will be enrolled at a single tertiary care center. Subjects will be randomized to either a high or low dose tDCS or a sham group and will undergo 10 sessions over 5 consecutive days concomitantly with effortful swallowing maneuvers. The main efficacy measures are a change in the PAS score before and after treatment; the main safety measures are mortality, seizures, neurologic, motor, and swallowing deterioration. The knowledge gained from this study will help plan a larger confirmatory trial for treating stroke-related dysphagia and advance our understanding of important covariates influencing swallowing recovery and response to the proposed intervention. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Angiotensin receptor blockade in acute stroke. The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial: rationale, methods and design of a multicentre, randomised- and placebo-controlled clinical trial (NCT00120003)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Murray, Gordon; Boysen, Gudrun Margrethe

    2010-01-01

    AND DESIGN: The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial is an international randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of candesartan in acute stroke. We plan to recruit 2500 patients presenting within 30 h of stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) and with systolic blood pressure =140 mm......Hg. The recruited patients are randomly assigned to candesartan or placebo for 7-days (doses increasing from 4 to 16 mg once daily). Randomisation is performed centrally via a secure web interface. The follow-up period is 6-months. Patients are included from the following nine North-European countries: Norway...

  18. The Dysphagia in Stroke Protocol Reduces Aspiration Pneumonia in Patients with Dysphagia Following Acute Stroke: a Clinical Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Sarah E; Miles, Anna; Fink, John N; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee

    2018-03-30

    Cough reflex testing has been evaluated as a component of the clinical swallowing assessment as a means of identifying patients at risk of aspiration during swallowing. A previous study by our research group found good sensitivity and specificity of the cough reflex test for identifying patients at risk of aspiration post-stroke, yet its use did not decrease pneumonia rates, contrary to previous reports. The aim of this study was to expand on our earlier work by implementing a clinical management protocol incorporating cough reflex testing within the same healthcare setting and compare patient outcomes to those from the original study and to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients with acute stroke who were managed using the Dysphagia in Stroke Protocol (DiSP). Secondarily, to compare those outcomes to historical data prior to implementation of the DiSP. This clinical audit measured outcomes from 284 patients with acute stroke managed per the DiSP, which guides use of videofluoroscopic swallowing study and patient management based on clinical exam with cough reflex testing. Data from our previous trial were included for comparison of pre- and post-DiSP patient outcomes. Data collection took place between November 2012 and April 2016 at four urban hospitals within New Zealand. Following implementation of the DiSP, the rate of aspiration pneumonia (10%) was substantially lower than the pre-DiSP rate (28%), with no pneumonia readmissions within 3 months. Pneumonia-related mortality was unchanged. By 3 months, 81% of the patients were on a normal diet and 67% had returned home, compared to pre-DiSP outcomes of 55% and 55% respectively. Previous work has suggested that simply implementing cough reflex testing in dysphagia management may not be sufficient to improve patient outcomes. The present study adds to this picture by suggesting that the true variable of influence may be the way in which the results of the test are applied to patient care. There is a strong case

  19. Acute-Phase Blood Pressure Levels Correlate With a High Risk of Recurrent Strokes in Young-Onset Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustanoja, Satu; Putaala, Jukka; Gordin, Daniel; Tulkki, Lauri; Aarnio, Karoliina; Pirinen, Jani; Surakka, Ida; Sinisalo, Juha; Lehto, Mika; Tatlisumak, Turgut

    2016-06-01

    High blood pressure (BP) in acute stroke has been associated with a poor outcome; however, this has not been evaluated in young adults. The relationship between BP and long-term outcome was assessed in 1004 consecutive young, first-ever ischemic stroke patients aged 15 to 49 years enrolled in the Helsinki Young Stroke Registry. BP parameters included systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure at admission and 24 hours. The primary outcome measure was recurrent stroke in the long-term follow-up. Adjusted for demographics and preexisting comorbidities, Cox regression models were used to assess independent BP parameters associated with outcome. Of our patients (63% male), 393 patients (39%) had prestroke hypertension and 358 (36%) used antihypertensive treatment. The median follow-up period was 8.9 years (interquartile range 5.7-13.2). Patients with a recurrent stroke (n=142, 14%) had significantly higher admission SBP, diastolic BP, pulse pressure, and mean arterial pressure (Pstroke. Patients with SBP ≥160 mm Hg compared with those with SBP strokes (hazard ratio 3.3 [95% confidence interval, 2.05-4.55]; Pstroke, while the 24-hour BP levels were not. In young ischemic stroke patients, high acute phase BP levels are independently associated with a high risk of recurrent strokes. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  20. Acute Liver Impairment in a Young, Healthy Athlete: Hypoxic Hepatitis and Rhabdomyolysis following Heat Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neville Azzopardi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Any process that substantially diminishes arterial blood flow or arterial oxygen content to the liver can result in hypoxic (ischaemic hepatitis. 90% of hypoxic hepatitis occurs in unstable patients in intensive care units with haemodynamic failure secondary to heart failure, respiratory failure and toxic shock. The rate of in-hospital mortality in hypoxic hepatitis is very high with studies recording mortalities of 61.5%. It tends to be very uncommon in healthy, young patients with no underlying medical problems. We report here the case of a young healthy athlete who developed heat stroke associated with rhabdomyolysis and hypoxic hepatitis while he was running the final stages of a marathon. The patient required intensive care admission and inotropic support for a few hours after he was admitted with heat stroke. He underwent a rapid recovery after he was resuscitated with fluids. N-acetyl cysteine was also given during the acute stage of the hepatitis. This case highlights an uncommon case of hypoxic hepatitis in a young, healthy patient secondary to hypotension and heat stroke. Inotropic support might have precipitated the hypoxic hepatitis in this young patient.

  1. Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring in patients with acute ischaemic stroke (Find-AFRANDOMISED): an open-label randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachter, Rolf; Gröschel, Klaus; Gelbrich, Götz; Hamann, Gerhard F; Kermer, Pawel; Liman, Jan; Seegers, Joachim; Wasser, Katrin; Schulte, Anna; Jürries, Falko; Messerschmid, Anna; Behnke, Nico; Gröschel, Sonja; Uphaus, Timo; Grings, Anne; Ibis, Tugba; Klimpe, Sven; Wagner-Heck, Michaela; Arnold, Magdalena; Protsenko, Evgeny; Heuschmann, Peter U; Conen, David; Weber-Krüger, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for recurrent ischaemic stroke, but often remains undiagnosed in patients who have had an acute ischaemic stroke. Enhanced and prolonged Holter-electrocardiogram-monitoring might increase detection of atrial fibrillation. We therefore investigated whether enhanced and prolonged rhythm monitoring was better for detection of atrial fibrillation than standard care procedures in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Find-AF randomised is an open-label randomised study done at four centres in Germany. We recruited patients with acute ischaemic stroke (symptoms for 7 days or less) aged 60 years or older presenting with sinus rhythm and without history of atrial fibrillation. Patients were included irrespective of the suspected cause of stroke, unless they had a severe ipsilateral carotid or intracranial artery stenosis, which were the exclusion criteria. We used a computer-generated allocation sequence to randomly assign patients in a 1:1 ratio with permuted block sizes of 2, 4, 6, and 8, stratified by centre, to enhanced and prolonged monitoring (ie, 10-day Holter-electrocardiogram [ECG]-monitoring at baseline, and at 3 months and 6 months of follow-up) or standard care procedures (ie, at least 24 h of rhythm monitoring). Participants and study physicians were not masked to group assignment, but the expert committees that adjudicated endpoints were. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (30 sec or longer) within 6 months after randomisation and before stroke recurrence. Because Holter ECG is a widely used procedure and not known to harm patients, we chose not to assess safety in detail. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01855035. Between May 8, 2013, and Aug 31, 2014, we recruited 398 patients. 200 patients were randomly assigned to the enhanced and prolonged monitoring group and 198 to the standard care group. After 6

  2. Discriminative capacity of biomarkers for acute stroke in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glickman, Seth W; Phillips, Samantha; Anstrom, Kevin J; Laskowitz, Daniel T; Cairns, Charles B

    2011-09-01

    Acute ischemic stroke remains largely a clinical diagnosis. To assess the potential of several biomarkers to distinguish acute ischemic stroke from mimics in the emergency department (ED). In this prospective study, 63 patients with suspected acute stroke were enrolled. Blood samples were collected at ED presentation and assayed for B-type natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein (CRP), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), D-dimer, and protein S100B. Final diagnosis of stroke was rendered by blinded independent stroke experts after review of all clinical, imaging, and conventional laboratory data during admission. Logistic regression and bootstrapping models were used to evaluate the association between biomarker values and acute stroke. Thirty-four patients had a final diagnosis of stroke and 29 with mimics. The initial ED values of CRP, MMP-9, and S100B (C-indices of 0.808, 0.811, and 0.719, respectively) and the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (C-index 0.887) predicted acute cerebral ischemia. CRP levels added discriminative value over clinical variables alone in the diagnosis of stroke. When the levels of CRP were added to the NIHSS, the combination was highly predictive of stroke (bootstrap mean C-index 0.951, 90% Confidence Interval 0.903-0.991, likelihood test p = 0.004). Biomarker testing with CRP and potentially MMP-9 and S100B, may add valuable and time-sensitive diagnostic information in the early evaluation of patients with suspected stroke in the ED. Future prospective evaluations are necessary to validate the diagnostic capability of these biomarkers for acute ischemic stroke in the ED before they should be considered for use in clinical practice. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Relationship Between Baseline Blood Pressure and Computed Tomography Findings in Acute Stroke Data From the Tinzaparin in Acute Ischaemic Stroke Trial (TAIST)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sare, G.M.; Bath, P.M.W.; Gray, L.J.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose-High blood pressure (BP) is present in approximate to 80% of patients with acute ischemic stroke and is independently associated with poor outcome. There are few data examining the relationship between admission BP and acute CT findings. Methods-TAIST was a randomized contr...

  4. Computed Tomography Perfusion Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score Is Associated with Hemorrhagic Transformation after Acute Cardioembolic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Liu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography (CT score (ASPECTS has been applied to CT perfusion (CTP with good interrater agreement to predict early ischemic stroke, and it can be useful in decision making in acute ischemic stroke. The aim of the present study was to assess the predictive value of CTP ASPECTS of hemorrhagic transformation (HT in acute cardioembolic stroke. This is a single-enter, retrospective study. All patients hospitalized with acute cardioembolic stroke from January 2008 to September 2013 were included. ASPECTS of baseline non-contrast CT, CTP maps of cerebral blood volume (CBV, cerebral blood flow, and mean transit time were collected from 52 consecutive patients with less than 12-h anterior circulation ischemic stroke. MRI scan was performed within 72 h of symptom onset after index stroke including T2*-weighted gradient echo to identify HT. For bleeding risk assessment, CTP and diffusion-weighted imaging ASPECTS were categorized into 0–7 or 8–10. Baseline characteristics, ASPCETS scores and HT were compared. Eighteen (34.6% patients had HT and four (7.7% developed symptomatic HT. On univariate analysis, the proportion of patients with CBV-ASPECTS 0–7 was significantly higher in HT patients as compared to patients without HT (44 versus 9%, P = 0.005. CBV ASPECTS 0–7 remained independent prognostic factors for HT after adjustment for clinical baseline variables. CBV ASPECTS could be of value to predict HT risk after acute cardioembolic stroke and may be a quick risk assessment approach before reperfusion therapy.

  5. Prediction of Large Vessel Occlusions in Acute Stroke: National Institute of Health Stroke Scale Is Hard to Beat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Peter; Heldner, Mirjam R; Amiguet, Michael; Faouzi, Mohamed; Cras, Patrick; Ntaios, George; Arnold, Marcel; Mattle, Heinrich P; Gralla, Jan; Fischer, Urs; Michel, Patrik

    2016-06-01

    Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke with a large vessel occlusion was recently shown to be effective. We aimed to develop a score capable of predicting large vessel occlusion eligible for endovascular treatment in the early hospital management. Retrospective, cohort study. Two tertiary, Swiss stroke centers. Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (1,645 patients; Acute STroke Registry and Analysis of Lausanne registry), who had CT angiography within 6 and 12 hours of symptom onset, were categorized according to the occlusion site. Demographic and clinical information was used in logistic regression analysis to derive predictors of large vessel occlusion (defined as intracranial carotid, basilar, and M1 segment of middle cerebral artery occlusions). Based on logistic regression coefficients, an integer score was created and validated internally and externally (848 patients; Bernese Stroke Registry). None. Large vessel occlusions were present in 316 patients (21%) in the derivation and 566 (28%) in the external validation cohort. Five predictors added significantly to the score: National Institute of Health Stroke Scale at admission, hemineglect, female sex, atrial fibrillation, and no history of stroke and prestroke handicap (modified Rankin Scale score, < 2). Diagnostic accuracy in internal and external validation cohorts was excellent (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.84 both). The score performed slightly better than National Institute of Health Stroke Scale alone regarding prediction error (Wilcoxon signed rank test, p < 0.001) and regarding discriminatory power in derivation and pooled cohorts (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, 0.81 vs 0.80; DeLong test, p = 0.02). Our score accurately predicts the presence of emergent large vessel occlusions, which are eligible for endovascular treatment. However, incorporation of additional demographic and historical information available on hospital arrival

  6. Regulation of Neurological Devices and Neurointerventional Endovascular Approaches for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Loftus

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH is charged with ensuring patients in the US have timely access to high-quality, safe, and effective medical devices of public health importance. Within CDRH, the Division of Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices reviews medical technologies that interface with the central and peripheral nervous system (neurotechnologies, including neurointerventional medical devices that are used in the treatment of stroke. Endovascular treatments have demonstrated recent advances in reaching the marketplace and providing more options for patients with acute ischemic stroke and intracranial aneurysms specifically. Depending upon the pathway chosen for regulatory approval, and the evidentiary standard for different regulatory pathways, neurotechnologies can have well-established safety and effectiveness profiles, varying degrees of scientific and clinical uncertainty regarding safety and effectiveness, or when a humanitarian use exists, need only demonstrate a probable benefit and safety to the patient so potentially life-saving treatments can reach the marketplace. Reperfusion therapies have had specific advances in the treatment of stroke patients that originally had limited or no treatment options and for preventative treatments in providing care to patients with intracranial aneurysms to avoid potentially more catastrophic outcomes. Collaboration in multiple forums and environments will be important to continue to foster the neurointerventional technology sector and positively impact clinical medicine, from diagnosing and treating a neurological disorder, to potentially altering the progression of disease, and in many ways, contemporary approved devices have brought a new sense of hope and optimism that serious and otherwise disabling neurological diseases can be treated and in many cases cured with modern therapy. We present here the scope of FDA

  7. Limitations in thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocak, S.; Kokcam, M.; Girisgin, A.S.; Dogan, E.; Bodur, S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The eligibility for thrombolytic therapy for patients who present to the emergency department with Acute Ischaemic Stroke (AIS) has been researched in this study. Methodology: Patients who had presented to the emergency department of our hospital between March 2008-2009 and diagnosed as AIS clinically and radiologically were included in the study prospectively. Results: One hundred and twelve patients were included in the study. Forty nine (43.8 %) were female and the mean age was 68.7+- 12.2 (median 71.5). The mean time from the onset of symptom to hospital admission was 12.2 +- 12.9 hours (median 6 hours). Two (1.8%) patients did not have any contraindication for thrombolytic therapy. Arrival time at the hospital of three hours and higher was the single contraindication in 40 (35.7%) patients. The most common four contraindications were delayed admission, multilobar infarct or hypo density of more than 1/3 of the hemisphere, hypertension and mild neurological symptoms respectively. Conclusions: Our data suggest that the primary barrier to the delivery of thrombolytic therapy for AIS is delayed arrival of the patient to a hospital, and up to 1/3 of our patients, the percentage arriving within 4 hours of the onset of stroke symptoms, might be eligible for attempted re-perfusion. (author)

  8. Urgent intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy for acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Zhengyu; Zhang Qing; Huang Yining; Cui Liying; Yang Ning; Liu Wei; Pan Jie; Gao Shan; Ye Jian; Xu Weihai; Liu Fangjian; Wang Leying; Chen Jun; Dai Jianping

    2002-01-01

    Objective: The authors report the results of urgent intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) in patients within 6 h of acute ischemic stroke onset. The purpose of the study was to observe the safety and efficacy of IAT and to analysis the predictive factors related to the outcome. Methods: 25 patients were treated by IAT using urokinase (UK) or recombinant Streptokinase (r-SK) in Union hospital. Primary neuroradiological assessment was performed with CT in all patients. Mechanical disruption of clot remnants was attempted after UK or r-SK was infused. Angiographic recanalization was classified according to Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) grades. Clinical outcome was classified as good for Modified Rankin Scale (MRS) scores of 0 to 3 and poor for MRS scores of 4 to 6. Results: There are 18(72%) of patients TIMI 0-1 and 7(28%) patients TIMI 2 before thrombolysis was performed. The rates of complete/partial recanalization just after infusion were 72%, minimal or no recanalization were 28%. 18(72%) of the 25 patients had good outcome, 7(28%) had poor outcome. Cerebral hemorrhage occurred in 4 of the 25 patients, all with poor outcome. Conclusion: Intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) is feasible and safe in the setting of acute stroke. Collateral circulation, recanalization and improvement by 4 or more points on NIHSSS within 24 hours were significantly associated with good outcome, there was significantly association between no recanalization and cerebral hemorrhage and death. The key to improve the effect of IAT was successful recanalization

  9. Relation between reperfusion and hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsch, Alexander D. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Rijnstate Hospital, Department of Radiology, Arnhem (Netherlands); Dankbaar, Jan Willem; Niesten, Joris M.; Seeters, Tom van; Schaaf, Irene C. van der; Velthuis, Birgitta K. [University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Radiology, Utrecht (Netherlands); Graaf, Yolanda van der [Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, Utrecht (Netherlands); Kappelle, L.J. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Utrecht Stroke Center, Utrecht (Netherlands); Collaboration: DUST investigators

    2015-12-15

    Intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (IV-rtPA) is given in acute ischemic stroke patients to achieve reperfusion. Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a serious complication of IV-rtPA treatment and related to blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury. It is unclear whether HT occurs secondary to reperfusion in combination with ischemic BBB injury or is caused by the negative effect of IV-rtPA on BBB integrity. The aim of this study was to establish the association between reperfusion and the occurrence of HT. From the DUST study, patients were selected with admission and follow-up non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CT perfusion (CTP) imaging, and a perfusion deficit in the middle cerebral artery territory on admission. Reperfusion was categorized qualitatively as reperfusion or no-reperfusion by visual comparison of admission and follow-up CTP. Occurrence of HT was assessed on follow-up NCCT. The association between reperfusion and occurrence of HT on follow-up was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) with additional stratification for IV-rtPA treatment. Inclusion criteria were met in 299 patients. There was no significant association between reperfusion and HT (OR 1.2 95%CI 0.5-3.1). In patients treated with IV-rtPA (n = 203), the OR was 1.3 (95%CI 0.4-4.0), and in patients not treated with IV-rtPA (n = 96), the OR was 0.8 (95%CI 0.1-4.5). HT occurred in 14 % of the IV-rtPA patients and in 7 % of patients without IV-rtPA (95%CI of difference -1 to 14 %). Our results suggest that the increased risk of HT after acute ischemic stroke treatment is not dependent on the reperfusion status. (orig.)

  10. Management of fever, hyperglycemia, and swallowing dysfunction following hospital admission for acute stroke in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Peta; Levi, Christopher; McInnes, Elizabeth; Hardy, Jennifer; Ward, Jeanette; Grimshaw, Jeremy M; D' Este, Catherine; Dale, Simeon; McElduff, Patrick; Cheung, N Wah; Quinn, Clare; Griffiths, Rhonda; Evans, Malcolm; Cadilhac, Dominique; Middleton, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    Fever, hyperglycemia, and swallow dysfunction poststroke are associated with significantly worse outcomes. We report treatment and monitoring practices for these three items from a cohort of acute stroke patients prior to randomization in the Quality in Acute Stroke Care trial. Retrospective medical record audits were undertaken for prospective patients from 19 stroke units. For the first three-days following stroke, we recorded all temperature readings and administration of paracetamol for fever (≥37·5°C) and all glucose readings and administration of insulin for hyperglycemia (>11 mmol/L). We also recorded swallow screening and assessment during the first 24 h of admission. Data for 718 (98%) patients were available; 138 (19%) had four hourly or more temperature readings and 204 patients (29%) had a fever, with 44 (22%) receiving paracetamol. A quarter of patients (n = 102/412, 25%) had six hourly or more glucose readings and 23% (95/412) had hyperglycemia, with 31% (29/95) of these treated with insulin. The majority of patients received a swallow assessment (n = 562, 78%) by a speech pathologist in the first instance rather than a swallow screen by a nonspeech pathologist (n = 156, 22%). Of those who passed a screen (n = 108 of 156, 69%), 68% (n = 73) were reassessed by a speech pathologist and 97% (n = 71) were reconfirmed to be able to swallow safely. Our results showed that acute stroke patients were: undermonitored and undertreated for fever and hyperglycemia; and underscreened for swallowing dysfunction and unnecessarily reassessed by a speech pathologist, indicating the need for urgent behavior change. © 2013 The Authors. International Journal of Stroke © 2013 World Stroke Organization.

  11. Patient Selection for Drip and Ship Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Michael J; Albright, Karen C; Boehme, Amelia K; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Donnelly, John P; Houston, James T; Rawal, Pawan V; Kapoor, Niren; Alvi, Muhammad; Sisson, April; Alexandrov, Anne W; Alexandrov, Andrei V

    2015-07-01

    The drip and ship model is a method used to deliver thrombolysis to acute stroke patients in facilities lacking onsite neurology coverage. We sought to determine whether our drip and ship population differs from patients treated directly at our stroke center (direct presenters). We retrospectively reviewed consecutive patients who received thrombolysis at an outside facility with subsequent transfer to our center between 2009 and 2011. Patients received thrombolysis after telephone consultation with a stroke specialist. We examined demographics, vascular risk factors, laboratory values, and stroke severity in drip and ship patients compared with direct presenters. Ninety-six patients were identified who received thrombolysis by drip and ship compared with 212 direct presenters. The two groups did not differ with respect to sex, ethnicity, vascular risk factors, or admission glucose. The odds ratio (OR) of arriving at our hospital as a drip and ship for someone 80 years or older was 0.31 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.15-0.61, P < 0.001). Only 21% of drip and ship patients were black versus 38% of direct presenters (OR 0.434, 95% CI 0.25-0.76, P = 0.004). Even after stratifying by age (<80 vs ≥80), a smaller proportion of drip and ship patients were black (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.24-0.81, P = 0.008). Furthermore, we found that fewer black patients with severe strokes arrived by drip and ship (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.11-0.98, P = 0.0028). Our study showed that a smaller proportion of blacks and older adults arrived at our center by the drip and ship model. This may reflect differences in how patients are selected for thrombolysis and transfer to a higher level of care.

  12. Factors associated with discharge to home versus discharge to institutional care after inpatient stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu Q C; PrvuBettger, Janet; Guerrier, Tami; Hirsch, Mark A; Thomas, J George; Pugh, Terrence M; Rhoads, Charles F

    2015-07-01

    To examine sociodemographic and clinical characteristics independently associated with discharge home compared with discharge to a skilled nursing facility (SNF) after acute inpatient rehabilitation. Retrospective cohort study. Three tertiary accredited acute care rehabilitation facilities. Adult patients with stroke (N=2085). Not applicable. Not applicable. Of 2085 patients with stroke treated at 3 centers over a 4-year period, 78.2% (n=1631) were discharged home and 21.8% (n=454) discharged to an SNF. Findings from a multivariable logistic regression analysis indicated that patients were less likely to be discharged home if they were older (odds ratio [OR], .98; 95% confidence interval [CI], .96-.99), separated or divorced (compared with married; OR, .61; 95% CI, .48-.79), or with Medicare health insurance (compared with private insurance; OR, .69; 95% CI, .55-.88), or had dysphagia (OR, .83; 95% CI, .71-.98) or cognitive deficits (OR, .79; 95% CI, .77-.81). The odds of being discharged home were higher for those admitted with a higher motor FIM score (OR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09-1.11). The following were not associated with discharge disposition: sex, race, prestroke vocational status, availability of secondary health insurance, number of days from stroke onset to rehabilitation facility admission, stroke type, impairment group, cognitive FIM on admission, other stroke deficits (aphasia, ataxia, neglect, or speech disturbance), stroke complications of hyponatremia or urinary tract infection, or comorbid conditions. One in 5 patients with stroke were discharged to an SNF after inpatient rehabilitation. On admission, several sociodemographic and clinical characteristics were identified that could be considered as important factors in early discussions for discharge planning. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Latent Growth Modeling of nursing care dependency of acute neurological inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piredda, M; Ghezzi, V; De Marinis, M G; Palese, A

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal three-time point study, addressing how neurological adult patient care dependency varies from the admission time to the 3rd day of acute hospitalization. Nursing care dependency was measured with the Care Dependency Scale (CDS) and a Latent Growth Modeling approach was used to analyse the CDS trend in 124 neurosurgical and stroke inpatients. Care dependence followed a decreasing linear trend. Results can help nurse-managers planning an appropriate amount of nursing care for acute neurological patients during their initial stage of hospitalization. Further studies are needed aimed at investigating the determinants of nursing care dependence during the entire in-hospital stay.

  14. Etiologic Subtypes, Risk Factors, and Outcomes of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Young Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İnci Şule Özer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Stroke in people aged less than 45 years is less frequent than in older patients, but has major impacts on both the individual and society. The aim of this study was to determine the etiologic subtypes of acute ischemic stroke in the young. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the hospital records of 619 patients who were admitted with acute ischemic stroke between January 2011 and November 2014. Acute ischemic stroke in the young was defined as patients aged 45 years and under. Demographic data, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores at admission and detailed investigations aimed at determining etiologic cause were recorded. Etiologic stroke subtypes were determined using the automated Causative Classification System. Modified Rankin Scale (mRS scores were recorded in the follow-up. Results: There were 32 (5.2% young patients with acute ischemic stroke. The rates of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and coronary artery disease were significantly lower in young patients compared with patients aged more than 45 years (p<0.05. The mean NIHSS score at admission and hospital mortality was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p=0.006, p=0.043. Cardioaortic embolism was the most common etiologic stroke subtype in both groups. Other causes were significantly more frequent in the young acute ischemic stroke group compared with the older patients. The median follow-up mRS was significantly lower in patients aged 45 years and under compared with those older than 45 years (p<0.001. Conclusion: Young patients with ischemic stroke have different risk factors, stroke etiology, stroke severity and prognosis compared with patients older than 45 years with the same condition

  15. Endovascular Intervention for Acute Ischemic Stroke in Light of Recent Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenan Alkhalili

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three recently published trials, MR RESCUE, IMS III, and SYNTHESIS Expansion, evaluating the efficacy and safety of endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke have generated concerns about the future of endovascular approach. However, the tremendous evolution that imaging and endovascular treatment modalities have undergone over the past several years has raised doubts about the validity of these trials. In this paper, we review the role of endovascular treatment strategies in acute ischemic stroke and discuss the limitations and shortcomings that prevent generalization of the findings of recent trials. We also provide our experience in endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

  16. An interdisciplinary visual team in an acute and sub-acute stroke unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norup, Anne; Guldberg, Anne-Mette; Friis, Claus Radmer

    2016-01-01

    . METHODS: For a period of three months, all stroke patients with visual or visuo-attentional deficits were registered, and data concerning etiology, severity and localization of the stroke and initial visual symptoms were registered. One month after discharge patients were contacted for follow-up. RESULTS......: Of 349 acute stroke admissions, 84 (24.1%) had visual or visuo-attentional deficits initially. Of these 84 patients, informed consent was obtained from 22 patients with a mean age of 67.7 years(SD 10.1), and the majority was female (59.1%). Based on the initial neurological examination, 45.4% had some...... kind of visual field defect, 27.2% had some kind of oculomotor nerve palsy, and about 31.8% had some kind of inattention or visual neglect. The patients were contacted for a phone-based follow-up one month after discharge, where 85.7% reported changes in their vision since their stroke. CONCLUSION...

  17. Role of Acute Lesion Topography in Initial Ischemic Stroke Severity and Long-Term Functional Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ona; Cloonan, Lisa; Mocking, Steven J T; Bouts, Mark J R J; Copen, William A; Cougo-Pinto, Pedro T; Fitzpatrick, Kaitlin; Kanakis, Allison; Schaefer, Pamela W; Rosand, Jonathan; Furie, Karen L; Rost, Natalia S

    2015-09-01

    Acute infarct volume, often proposed as a biomarker for evaluating novel interventions for acute ischemic stroke, correlates only moderately with traditional clinical end points, such as the modified Rankin Scale. We hypothesized that the topography of acute stroke lesions on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging may provide further information with regard to presenting stroke severity and long-term functional outcomes. Data from a prospective stroke repository were limited to acute ischemic stroke subjects with magnetic resonance imaging completed within 48 hours from last known well, admission NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), and 3-to-6 months modified Rankin Scale scores. Using voxel-based lesion symptom mapping techniques, including age, sex, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging lesion volume as covariates, statistical maps were calculated to determine the significance of lesion location for clinical outcome and admission stroke severity. Four hundred ninety subjects were analyzed. Acute stroke lesions in the left hemisphere were associated with more severe NIHSS at admission and poor modified Rankin Scale at 3 to 6 months. Specifically, injury to white matter (corona radiata, internal and external capsules, superior longitudinal fasciculus, and uncinate fasciculus), postcentral gyrus, putamen, and operculum were implicated in poor modified Rankin Scale. More severe NIHSS involved these regions, as well as the amygdala, caudate, pallidum, inferior frontal gyrus, insula, and precentral gyrus. Acute lesion topography provides important insights into anatomic correlates of admission stroke severity and poststroke outcomes. Future models that account for infarct location in addition to diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging volume may improve stroke outcome prediction and identify patients likely to benefit from aggressive acute intervention and personalized rehabilitation strategies. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. GPs' adherence to guidelines for structured assessments of stroke survivors in the community and care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves-Bradley, Daniela C; Boylan, Anne-Marie; Koshiaris, Constantinos; Vazquez Montes, Maria; Ford, Gary A; Lasserson, Daniel S

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice guidelines recommend that stroke survivors' needs be assessed at regular intervals after stroke. The extent to which GPs comply with national guidance particularly for patients in care homes who have greatest clinical complexity is unknown. This study aimed to establish the current clinical practice in the UK of needs assessment by GPs for stroke survivors after hospital discharge for acute stroke. Cross-sectional online survey of current practice of GPs, using the national doctors.net network. The survey was completed by 300 GPs who had on average been working for 14 years. The structured assessment of stroke survivors' needs was not offered by 31% of GPs, with no significant difference for level of provision in community or care home settings. The outputs of reviews were added to patients' notes by 89% of GPs and used to change management by 57%. Only half the GPs reported integrating the information obtained into care plans and only a quarter of GPs had a protocol for follow-up of identified needs. Analysis of free-text comments indicated that patients in some care homes may receive more regular and structured reviews. This survey suggests that at least one-third of GPs provide no formal review of the needs of stroke patients and that in only a minority are identified needs addressed in a structured way. Standardization is required for what is included in reviews and how needs are being identified and met. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Atrophy of Swallowing Muscles Is Associated With Severity of Dysphagia and Age in Patients With Acute Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Peter B; Muhle, Paul; Hanning, Uta; Suntrup-Krueger, Sonja; Schwindt, Wolfram; Eversmann, Julian; Warnecke, Tobias; Wirth, Rainer; Zimmer, Sebastian; Dziewas, Rainer

    2017-07-01

    Sarcopenia has been identified as an independent risk factor for dysphagia. Dysphagia is one of the most important and prognostically relevant complications of acute stroke. The role of muscle atrophy as a contributing factor for the occurrence of poststroke dysphagia is yet unclear. To assess whether there is a correlation between age and muscle volume and whether muscle volume is related to dysphagia in acute stroke patients. This retrospective, single-center study included 73 patients with acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke who underwent computed tomography angiography on admission and an objective dysphagia assessment by Fiberoptic Endoscopic Evaluation of Swallowing within 72 hours from admission. With the help of semiautomated muscle segmentation and 3-dimensional reconstruction volumetry of the digastric, temporal, and geniohyoid muscles was performed. For further analysis, participants were first divided into 4 groups according to their age (dysphagia severity using the Fiberoptic Endoscopic Dysphagia Severity Scale (FEDSS) (FEDSS 1 and 2, n = 25; FEDSS 3 and 4, n = 32; FEDSS 5 and 6, n = 16). Correlation of muscle volumes with age and dysphagia severity. Muscle volumes of single muscles (except for geniohyoid and the right digastric muscles) as well as the sum muscle volume were significantly and inversely related to dysphagia severity. We found a significant decline of muscle volume with advancing age for most muscle groups and, in particular, for the total muscle volume. Apart from features being determined by the acute stroke itself (eg, site and size of stroke), also premorbid conditions, in particular age-related muscle atrophy, have an impact on the complex pathophysiology of swallowing disorders poststroke. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  1. Evaluation of patients with stroke monitored by home care programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Railka de Souza Oliveira

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the patient with a stroke in home treatment, investigating physical capacity, mental status and anthropometric analysis. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in Fortaleza/CE, from January to April of 2010. Sixty-one individuals monitored by a home care program of three tertiary hospitals were investigated, through interviews and the application of scales. The majority of individuals encountered were female (59%, elderly, bedridden, with a low educational level, a history of other stroke, a high degree of dependence for basic (73.8% and instrumental (80.3 % activities of daily living, and a low cognitive level (95.1%. Individuals also presented with tracheostomy, gastric feeding and urinary catheter, difficulty hearing, speaking, chewing, swallowing, and those making daily use of various medications. It was concluded that home care by nurses is an alternative for care of those individuals with a stroke.

  2. Stenting in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke: literature review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A Samaniego

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Recanalization of acute large artery occlusions is a strong predictor of good outcome. The development of thrombectomy devices resulted in a significant improvement in recanalization rates compared to thrombolytics alone. However, clinical trials and registries with these thrombectomy devices in acute ischemic stroke (AIS have shown recanalization rates in the range of 40-81%. The last decade has seen the development of nickel titanium self-expandable stents (SES. These stents, in contrast to balloon-mounted stents, allow better navigability and deployment in tortuous vessels and therefore are optimal for the cerebral circulation. SES were initially used for stent-assisted coil embolization of intracranial aneurysms and for treatment of intracranial stenosis. However, a few authors have recently reported feasibility of deployment of SES in AIS. The use of these devices yielded higher recanalization rates compared to traditional thrombectomy devices. Encouraged by these results, retrievable SES systems have been recently used in AIS. These devices offer the advantage of resheathing and retrieving of the stent even after full deployment. Some of these stents can also be detached in case permanent stent placement is needed. Retrievable SES are being used in Europe and currently tested in clinical trials in the United States. We review the recent literature in the use of stents for the treatment of AIS secondary to large vessel occlusion.

  3. Risk of falling in a stroke unit after acute stroke: The Fall Study of Gothenburg (FallsGOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persson, Carina U; Kjellberg, Sigvar; Lernfelt, Bodil; Westerlind, Ellen; Cruce, Malin; Hansson, Per-Olof

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate incidence of falls and different baseline variables and their association with falling during hospitalization in a stroke unit among patients with acute stroke. Prospective observational study. A stroke unit at a university hospital. A consecutive sample of stroke patients, out of which 504 were included, while 101 declined participation. The patients were assessed a mean of 1.7 days after admission and 3.8 days after stroke onset. The primary end-point was any fall, from admission to the stroke unit to discharge. Factors associated with falling were analysed using univariable and multivariable Cox hazard regression analyses. Independent variables were related to function, activity and participation, as well as personal and environmental factors. In total, 65 patients (13%) fell at least once. Factors statistically significantly associated with falling in the multivariable analysis were male sex (hazard ratio (HR): 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-3.14, P = 0.015), use of a walking aid (HR: 2.11, 95% CI: 1.24-3.60, P = 0.006) and postural control as assessed with the modified version of the Postural Assessment Scale for Stroke Patients (SwePASS). No association was found with age, cognition or stroke severity, the HR for low SwePASS scores (⩽24) was 9.33 (95% CI: 2.19-39.78, P = 0.003) and for medium SwePASS scores (25-30) was 6.34 (95% CI: 1.46-27.51, P = 0.014), compared with high SwePASS scores (⩾31). Postural control, male sex and use of a walking aid are associated with falling during hospitalization after acute stroke.

  4. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    OpenAIRE

    Fonville, Susanne; Hertog, Heleen; Zandbergen, Adrienne; Koudstaal, Peter Jan; Lingsma, Hester

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing undiagnosed impaired glucose metabolism possibly requiring treatment. We aimed to assess the occurrence of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after a stroke or TIA and to develop a prediction model to...

  5. Relation between change in blood pressure in acute stroke and risk of early adverse events and poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandset, Else C; Murray, Gordon D; Bath, Philip M W

    2012-01-01

    The Scandinavian Candesartan Acute Stroke Trial (SCAST) found no benefits of candesartan in acute stroke. In the present analysis we aim to investigate the effect of change in blood pressure during the first 2 days of stroke on the risk of early adverse events and poor outcome....

  6. Methods guiding stakeholder engagement in planning a pragmatic study on changing stroke systems of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Sabina B; Klein, Karen Potvin; Halladay, Jacqueline; Bettger, Janet Prvu; Freburger, Janet; Cummings, Doyle M; Lutz, Barbara J; Coleman, Sylvia; Bushnell, Cheryl; Rosamond, Wayne; Duncan, Pamela W

    2017-04-01

    The Comprehensive Post-Acute Stroke Services (COMPASS) Study is one of the first large pragmatic randomized-controlled clinical trials using comparative effectiveness research methods, funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute. In the COMPASS Study, we compare the effectiveness of a patient-centered, transitional care intervention versus usual care for stroke patients discharged home from acute care. Outcomes include stroke patient post-discharge functional status and caregiver strain 90 days after discharge, and hospital readmissions. A central tenet of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute-funded research is stakeholder engagement throughout the research process. However, evidence on how to successfully implement a pragmatic trial that changes systems of care in combination with robust stakeholder engagement is limited. This combination is not without challenges. We present our approach for broad-based stakeholder engagement in the context of a pragmatic trial with the participation of patients, caregivers, community stakeholders, including the North Carolina Stroke Care Collaborative hospital network, and policy makers. To maximize stakeholder engagement throughout the COMPASS Study, we employed a conceptual model with the following components: (1) Patient and Other Stakeholder Identification and Selection; (2) Patient and Other Stakeholder Involvement Across the Spectrum of Research Activities; (3) Dedicated Resources for Patient and Other Stakeholder Involvement; (4) Support for Patient and Other Stakeholder Engagement Through Organizational Processes; (5) Communication with Patients and Other Stakeholders; (6) Transparent Involvement Processes; (7) Tracking of Engagement; and (8) Evaluation of Engagement. In this paper, we describe how each component of the model is being implemented and how this approach addresses existing gaps in the literature on strategies for engaging stakeholders in meaningful and useful ways when conducting

  7. Predictive value of upper-limb accelerometry in acute stroke with hemiparesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gebruers, Nick; Truijen, Steven; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter P.

    2013-01-01

    Few studies have investigated how well early activity measurements by accelerometers predict recovery after stroke. First, we assessed the predictive value of accelerometer-based measurements of upper-limb activity in patients with acute stroke with a hemiplegic arm. Second, we established the

  8. Electrical somatosensory stimulation followed by motor training of the paretic upper limb in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaziani, Emma; Couppé, Christian; Henkel, Cecilie

    2017-01-01

    functioning is most pronounced during the first 4 weeks post stroke, there are few studies investigating the effect of rehabilitation during this critical time window. The purpose of this trial is to determine the effect of electrical somatosensory stimulation (ESS) initiated in the acute stroke phase...

  9. Spontaneous swallowing frequency has potential to identify dysphagia in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crary, Michael A; Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael F

    2013-12-01

    Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases, swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute [SPM]) were compared with stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with versus without clinically significant dysphagia. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM, which was compared with a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was used to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis yielded a threshold of SPM≤0.40 that identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5- to 10-minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel.

  10. Spontaneous Swallowing Frequency [Has Potential to] Identify Dysphagia in Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnaby, Giselle D; Sia, Isaac; Khanna, Anna; Waters, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Spontaneous swallowing frequency has been described as an index of dysphagia in various health conditions. This study evaluated the potential of spontaneous swallow frequency analysis as a screening protocol for dysphagia in acute stroke. Methods In a cohort of 63 acute stroke cases swallow frequency rates (swallows per minute: SPM) were compared to stroke and swallow severity indices, age, time from stroke to assessment, and consciousness level. Mean differences in SPM were compared between patients with vs. without clinically significant dysphagia. ROC analysis was used to identify the optimal threshold in SPM which was compared to a validated clinical dysphagia examination for identification of dysphagia cases. Time series analysis was employed to identify the minimally adequate time period to complete spontaneous swallow frequency analysis. Results SPM correlated significantly with stroke and swallow severity indices but not with age, time from stroke onset, or consciousness level. Patients with dysphagia demonstrated significantly lower SPM rates. SPM differed by dysphagia severity. ROC analysis yielded a threshold of SPM ≤ 0.40 which identified dysphagia (per the criterion referent) with 0.96 sensitivity, 0.68 specificity, and 0.96 negative predictive value. Time series analysis indicated that a 5 to 10 minute sampling window was sufficient to calculate spontaneous swallow frequency to identify dysphagia cases in acute stroke. Conclusions Spontaneous swallowing frequency presents high potential to screen for dysphagia in acute stroke without the need for trained, available personnel. PMID:24149008

  11. Cerebral blood flow velocity changes during upright positioning in bed after acute stroke : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aries, Marcel J; Elting, Jan Willem; Stewart, Roy; De Keyser, Jacques; Kremer, Berry; Vroomen, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: National guidelines recommend mobilisation in bed as early as possible after acute stroke. Little is known about the influence of upright positioning on real-time cerebral flow variables in patients with stroke. We aimed to assess whether cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) changes

  12. Acute hospital, community, and indirect costs of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation: population-based study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hannon, Niamh

    2014-10-30

    No economic data from population-based studies exist on acute or late hospital, community, and indirect costs of stroke associated with atrial fibrillation (AF-stroke). Such data are essential for policy development, service planning, and cost-effectiveness analysis of new therapeutic agents.

  13. ACUTE BEHAVORIAL EFFECTS FROM EXPOSURE TO TWO-STROKE ENGINE EXHAUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benefits of changing from two-stroke to four-stroke engines (and other remedial requirements) can be evaluated (monetized) from the standpoint of acute behavioral effects of human exposure to exhaust from these engines. The monetization process depends upon estimates of the magn...

  14. Feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia in awake patients with acute stroke through surface cooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Rasmussen, B H; Jørgensen, Henrik Stig

    2000-01-01

    Hypothermia reduces neuronal damage in animal stroke models. Whether hypothermia is neuroprotective in patients with acute stroke remains to be clarified. In this case-control study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of inducing modest hypothermia by a surface cooling method in awake patients...

  15. Occurrence and predictors of persistent impaired glucose tolerance after acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Fonville (Susanne); H.M. den Hertog (Heleen); A.A.M. Zandbergen (Adrienne); P.J. Koudstaal (Peter Jan); H.F. Lingsma (Hester)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground Impaired glucose tolerance is often present in patients with a transient ischemic attack (TIA) or ischemic stroke and doubles the risk of recurrent stroke. This impaired glucose tolerance can be transient, reflecting an acute stress response, or persistent, representing

  16. Incidence of upper limb oedema in patients with acute hemiparetic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebruers, Nick; Truijen, Steven; Engelborghs, Sebastiaan; De Deyn, Peter Paul

    2011-01-01

     Assessment of the incidence of upper limb oedema in an acute care setting by means of clinical and volumetric evaluation.  Patients with acute hemiparetic stroke were recruited from 2006 until 2009 (n = 125). Baseline measurements consisted of the National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, Fugl-Meyer Assessment Arm Section and demographic characteristics. Oedema assessment was performed at 7 days after inclusion and at 1 month and 3 months follow-up. A standardised water displacement method (objective measurement) was used to define oedema and was compared to data from visual inspection and palpation (subjective measurement).  In literature, the incidence of upper limb oedema ranges from 16-83%, defined by a variety of definitions. Oedema incidence in this study was defined by strict criteria using water displacement and ranged from 9-13.9%, while the incidence of oedema defined by visual inspection and palpation ranged from 6-18.5% during the different stages of follow-up. The agreement (Kappa) between both measurements ranged from 0.23-0.38, which is not more than 'moderate' but comparable to the agreement of 0.34 found in literature.  An objective and subjective assessment of oedema was used; the agreement between both methods was only moderate. The incidence of oedema found in this study is lower than the incidences found in literature.

  17. Mechanical thrombectomy with snare in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Alejandro; Mayol, Antonio; Martinez, Eva; Gonzalez-Marcos, Jose R.; Gil-Peralta, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of thrombus extraction using a microsnare in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). This was a prospective, observational, cohort study in which consecutive patients with AIS (<6 hours of ischemia for anterior circulation and <24 hours for posterior circulation) who had been previously excluded from intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) thrombolysis were included and followed-up for 3 months. Mechanical embolectomy with a microsnare of 2-4 mm was undertaken as the first treatment. Low-dose intraarterial thrombolysis or angioplasty was used if needed. TIMI grade and modified Rankin stroke scale (mRSS) score were used to evaluate vessel recanalization and clinical efficacy, respectively. Nine patients (mean age 55 years, range 17-69 years) were included. Their basal mean NIHSS score was 16 (range 12-24). In seven out of the nine patients (77.8%) the clot was removed, giving a TIMI grade of 3 in four patients and TIMI grade 2 in three patients. Occlusion sites were: middle cerebral artery (four), basilar artery (two) and anterior cerebral artery plus middle cerebral artery (one). The mean time for recanalization from the start of the procedure was 50 min (range 50-75 min). At 3 months, the mRSS score was 0 in two patients and 3-4 in three patients (two patients died). According to our results, the microsnare is a safe procedure for mechanical thrombectomy with a good recanalization rate. Further studies are required to determine the role of the microsnare in the treatment of AIS. (orig.)

  18. Intra-arterial thrombolysis in acute embolic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Mingchao; Fang Shaokuan; Li Dong; Zhu Hui; Pang Meng; Wu Jiang; Wang Shouchun

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intra-arterial thrombolysis in acute embolic stroke (AES). Methods: 21 patients with AES were undertaken urokinase or recombinated tissue plasminogen activator through percutaneous femoral intraarterial thrombolysis (IAT) as the treated group, and another 42 patients without thrombolytic treatment were assigned as the control group, which were matched to the baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) scores with selected gender and age. 24 h NIHSS scores, 90 d modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores, incidences of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) and mortalities of the two groups were compared after the treatment. Results: (1) The results of cerebral angiography showed that the total re-perfusion rate was 61.90%. The middle cerebral artery (MCA), the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the basilar artery (BA) re-perfusion rates were 83.33%, 28.57% and 50.00%, respectively. (2) The NIHSS scores after 24 h were lower in the treated (IAT) group than those in the control group (12.05±5.61 vs, 14.83±4.05, P<0.05). A favorable outcome (mRS of 0-2) was more frequently observed in the 1AT group (66.67%) than that in the control group (35.71%, P<0.05). (3) There was no significant difference between the rates of HT (28.57% vs. 16.77%) and also the similar mortality rates (19.05% vs. 16.67%) not significant between the two groups. No patient died of HT in both two groups. Conclusion: IAT may be an effective treatment for AES with comparative safety. (authors)

  19. Neighborhood Influences on Emergency Medical Services Use for Acute Stroke: A Population-Based Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meurer, William J; Levine, Deborah A; Kerber, Kevin A; Zahuranec, Darin B; Burke, James; Baek, Jonggyu; Sánchez, Brisa; Smith, Melinda A; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Lisabeth, Lynda D

    2016-03-01

    Delay to hospital arrival limits acute stroke treatment. Use of emergency medical services (EMS) is key in ensuring timely stroke care. We aim to identify neighborhoods with low EMS use and to evaluate whether neighborhood-level factors are associated with EMS use. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Brain Attack Surveillance in Corpus Christi project, a population-based stroke surveillance study of ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage cases presenting to emergency departments in Nueces County, TX. The primary outcome was arrival by EMS. The primary exposures were neighborhood resident age, poverty, and violent crime. We estimated the association of neighborhood-level factors with EMS use, using hierarchic logistic regression, controlling for individual factors (stroke severity, ethnicity, and age). During 2000 to 2009 there were 4,004 identified strokes, with EMS use data available for 3,474. Nearly half (49%) of stroke cases arrived by EMS. Adjusted stroke EMS use was lower in neighborhoods with higher family income (odds ratio [OR] 0.86; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.75 to 0.97) and a larger percentage of older adults (OR 0.70; 95% CI 0.56 to 0.89). Individual factors associated with stroke EMS use included white race (OR 1.41; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.76) and older age (OR 1.36 per 10-year age increment; 95% CI 1.27 to 1.46). The proportion of neighborhood stroke cases arriving by EMS ranged from 17% to 71%. The fully adjusted model explained only 0.3% (95% CI 0% to 1.1%) of neighborhood EMS stroke use variance, indicating that individual factors are more strongly associated with stroke EMS use than neighborhood factors. Although some neighborhood-level factors were associated with EMS use, patient-level factors explained nearly all variability in stroke EMS use. In this community, strategies to increase EMS use should target individuals rather than specific neighborhoods. Copyright © 2015 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by

  20. Dehydration is an independent predictor of discharge outcome and admission cost in acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C-H; Lin, S-C; Lin, J-R; Yang, J-T; Chang, Y-J; Chang, C-H; Chang, T-Y; Huang, K-L; Ryu, S-J; Lee, T-H

    2014-09-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of admission dehydration on the discharge outcome in acute ischaemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Between January 2009 and December 2011, 4311 ischaemic and 1371 hemorrhagic stroke patients from the stroke registry of Chang Gung healthcare system were analyzed. The eligible patients were identified according to inclusion/exclusion criteria. In total, 2570 acute ischaemic and 573 acute hemorrhagic stroke patients were finally recruited. According to the blood urea nitrogen (BUN) to creatinine (Cr) ratio (BUN/Cr), these patients were divided into dehydrated (BUN/Cr ≥ 15) and non-dehydrated (BUN/Cr dehydration had higher infection rates (P = 0.006), worse discharge BI (62.8 ± 37.4 vs. 73.4 ± 32.4, P dehydration. However, acute hemorrhagic stroke with or without admission dehydration showd no difference in admission costs (P = 0.618) and discharge outcomes (BI, P = 0.058; mRS, P = 0.058). Admission dehydration is associated with worse discharge outcomes and higher admission costs in acute ischaemic stroke but not in hemorrhagic stroke. © 2014 The Author(s) European Journal of Neurology © 2014 EAN.

  1. Design of the Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial [ISRCTN19943732

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, Andrew; Lees, Kennedy

    2000-01-01

    Abstract The Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial is a multicentre,randomised, placebo-controlled trial of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) funded by the UK Medical Research Council. When complete, it will be the largest single neuroprotective study undertaken to date. Conscious patients presenting within 12 h of acute stroke with limb weakness are eligible. The primary outcome measure is combined death and disability as measured using the Barthel Index at 90-day follow up....

  2. Design of the Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bradford, A.; Lees, K.

    2000-01-01

    The Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial is a multicentre,randomised, placebo-controlled trial of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) funded by the UK Medical Research Council. When complete, it will be the largest single neuroprotective study undertaken to date. Conscious patients presenting within 12 h of acute stroke with limb weakness are eligible. The primary outcome measure is combined death and disability as measured using the Barthel Index at 90-day follow up. By rando...

  3. Diagnostic accuracy of guys Hospital stroke score (allen score) in acute supratentorial thrombotic/haemorrhagic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zulfiqar, A.; Toori, K. U.; Khan, S. S.; Hamza, M. I. M.; Zaman, S. U.

    2006-01-01

    A consecutive series of 103 patients, 58% male with mean age of 62 year (range 40-75 years), admitted with supratentorial stroke in our teaching hospital were studied. All patients had Computer Tomography scan brain done after clinical evaluation and application of Allen stroke score. Computer Tomography Scan confirmed thrombotic stroke in 55 (53%) patients and haemorrhagic stroke in 48 (47%) patients. Out of the 55 patients with definitive thrombotic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested infarction in 67%, haemorrhage in 6% and remained inconclusive in 27% of cases. In 48 patients with definitive haemorrhagic stroke on Computer Tomography Scan, Allen stroke score suggested haemorrhage in 60%, infarction in 11% and remained inconclusive in 29% of cases. The overall accuracy of Allen stroke score was 66%. (author)

  4. Interprofessional teamwork in stroke care: Is it visible or important to patients and carers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Gillian; Sims, Sarah; Greenwood, Nan; Jones, Fiona; Ross, Fiona; Harris, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional teamwork is seen in healthcare policy and practice as a key strategy for providing safe, efficient and holistic healthcare and is an accepted part of evidence-based stroke care. The impact of interprofessional teamwork on patient and carer experience(s) of care is unknown, although some research suggests a relationship might exist. This study aimed to explore patient and carer perceptions of good and poor teamwork and its impact on experiences of care. Critical incident interviews were conducted with 50 patients and 33 carers in acute, inpatient rehabilitation and community phases of care within two UK stroke care pathways. An analytical framework, derived from a realist synthesis of 13 'mechanisms' (processes) of interprofessional teamwork, was used to identify positive and negative 'indicators' of teamwork. Participants identified several mechanisms of teamwork, but it was not a subject most talked about readily. This suggests that interprofessional teamwork is not a concept that is particularly important to stroke patients and carers; they do not readily perceive any impacts of teamwork on their experiences. These findings are a salient reminder that what might be expected by healthcare professionals to be important influences on experience may not be perceived to be so by patients and carers.

  5. The Neuropsychology of Acute Stroke : Characterisation and Prognostic Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nys, G.M.S.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, a longitudinal study was performed in a large cohort of patients with a first symptomatic stroke who had no neurological, psychiatric, and/or cognitive history prior to the stroke. The patient cohort was examined in a very early phase (mean interval eight days post-stroke) with a

  6. Dysphagia and Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Acute, First-Ever, Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losurdo, Anna; Brunetti, Valerio; Broccolini, Aldobrando; Caliandro, Pietro; Frisullo, Giovanni; Morosetti, Roberta; Pilato, Fabio; Profice, Paolo; Giannantoni, Nadia Mariagrazia; Sacchetti, Maria Luisa; Testani, Elisa; Vollono, Catello; Della Marca, Giacomo

    2018-03-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and dysphagia are common in acute stroke and are both associated with increased risk of complications and worse prognosis. The aims of the present study were (1) to evaluate the prevalence of OSA and dysphagia in patients with acute, first-ever, ischemic stroke; (2) to investigate their clinical correlates; and (3) to verify if these conditions are associated in acute ischemic stroke. We enrolled a cohort of 140 consecutive patients with acute-onset (<48 hours), first-ever ischemic stroke. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging scans confirmed the diagnosis. Neurological deficit was measured using the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) by examiners trained and certified in the use of this scale. Patients underwent a clinical evaluation of dysphagia (Gugging Swallowing Screen) and a cardiorespiratory sleep study to evaluate the presence of OSA. There are 72 patients (51.4%) with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA+), and there are 81 patients (57.8%) with dysphagia (Dys+). OSA+ patients were significantly older (P = .046) and had greater body mass index (BMI) (P = .002), neck circumference (P = .001), presence of diabetes (P = .013), and hypertension (P < .001). Dys+ patients had greater NIHSS (P < .001), lower Alberta Stroke Programme Early CT Score (P < .001), with greater BMI (P = .030). The association of OSA and dysphagia was greater than that expected based on the prevalence of each condition in acute stroke (P < .001). OSA and dysphagia are associated in first-ever, acute ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Red cell distribution width and neurological scoring systems in acute stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara H

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Hasan Kara,1 Selim Degirmenci,1 Aysegul Bayir,1 Ahmet Ak,1 Murat Akinci,1 Ali Dogru,1 Fikret Akyurek,2 Seyit Ali Kayis3 1Department of Emergency Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; 2Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey; 3Department of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Karabuk University, Karabuk, Turkey Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the association between the red blood cell distribution width (RDW and the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS, Canadian Neurological Scale (CNS, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS scores in patients who had acute ischemic stroke. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study included 88 patients who have had acute ischemic stroke and a control group of 40 patients who were evaluated in the Emergency Department for disorders other than acute ischemic stroke. All subjects had RDW determined, and stroke patients had scoring with the GCS, CNS, and NIHSS scores. The GCS, CNS, and NIHSS scores of the patients were rated as mild, moderate, or severe and compared with RDW. Results: Stroke patients had significantly higher median RDW than control subjects. The median RDW values were significantly elevated in patients who had more severe rather than milder strokes rated with all three scoring systems (GCS, CNS, and NIHSS. The median RDW values were significantly elevated for patients who had moderate rather than mild strokes rated by GCS and CNS and for patients who had severe rather than mild strokes rated by NIHSS. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.760 (95% confidence interval, 0.676–0.844. Separation of stroke patients and control groups was optimal with RDW 14% (sensitivity, 71.6%; specificity, 67.5%; accuracy, 70.3%. Conclusion: In stroke patients who have symptoms <24 hours, the RDW may be useful in predicting the severity and functional outcomes of the stroke

  8. Fire Engine Support and On-scene Time in Prehospital Stroke Care - A Prospective Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puolakka, Tuukka; Väyrynen, Taneli; Erkkilä, Elja-Pekka; Kuisma, Markku

    2016-06-01

    Introduction On-scene time (OST) previously has been shown to be a significant component of Emergency Medical Services' (EMS') operational delay in acute stroke. Since stroke patients are managed routinely by two-person ambulance crews, increasing the number of personnel available on the scene is a possible method to improve their performance. Hypothesis Using fire engine crews to support ambulances on the scene in acute stroke is hypothesized to be associated with a shorter OST. All patients transported to hospital as thrombolysis candidates during a one-year study period were registered by the ambulance crews using a case report form that included patient characteristics and operational EMS data. Seventy-seven patients (41 [53%] male; mean age of 68.9 years [SD=15]; mean Glasgow Coma Score [GCS] of 15 points [IQR=14-15]) were eligible for the study. Forty-five cases were managed by ambulance and fire engine crews together and 32 by the ambulance crews alone. The median ambulance response time was seven minutes (IQR=5-10) and the fire engine response time was six minutes (IQR=5-8). The number of EMS personnel on the scene was six (IQR=5-7) and two (IQR=2-2), and the OST was 21 minutes (IQR=18-26) and 24 minutes (IQR=20-32; P =.073) for the groups, respectively. In a following regression analysis, using stroke as the dispatch code was the only variable associated with short (engine crews to support ambulances in acute stroke care was not associated with a shorter on-scene stay when compared to standard management by two-person ambulance crews alone. Using stroke as the dispatch code was the only variable that was associated independently with a short OST. Puolakka T , Väyrynen T , Erkkilä E-P , Kuisma M . Fire engine support and on-scene time in prehospital stroke care - a prospective observational study. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):278-281.

  9. Reliability and validity of the de Morton Mobility Index in individuals with sub-acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Tobias; Marks, Detlef; Thiel, Christian; Grüneberg, Christian

    2018-02-04

    To establish the validity and reliability of the de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) in patients with sub-acute stroke. This cross-sectional study was performed in a neurological rehabilitation hospital. We assessed unidimensionality, construct validity, internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, minimal detectable change and possible floor and ceiling effects of the DEMMI in adult patients with sub-acute stroke. The study included a total sample of 121 patients with sub-acute stroke. We analysed validity (n = 109) and reliability (n = 51) in two sub-samples. Rasch analysis indicated unidimensionality with an overall fit to the model (chi-square = 12.37, p = 0.577). All hypotheses on construct validity were confirmed. Internal consistency reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.94) and inter-rater reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.95; 95% confidence interval: 0.92-0.97) were excellent. The minimal detectable change with 90% confidence was 13 points. No floor or ceiling effects were evident. These results indicate unidimensionality, sufficient internal consistency reliability, inter-rater reliability, and construct validity of the DEMMI in patients with a sub-acute stroke. Advantages of the DEMMI in clinical application are the short administration time, no need for special equipment and interval level data. The de Morton Mobility Index, therefore, may be a useful performance-based bedside test to measure mobility in individuals with a sub-acute stroke across the whole mobility spectrum. Implications for Rehabilitation The de Morton Mobility Index (DEMMI) is an unidimensional measurement instrument of mobility in individuals with sub-acute stroke. The DEMMI has excellent internal consistency and inter-rater reliability, and sufficient construct validity. The minimal detectable change of the DEMMI with 90% confidence in stroke rehabilitation is 13 points. The lack of any floor or ceiling effects on hospital admission indicates

  10. Protocol for a prospective collaborative systematic review and meta-analysis of individual patient data from randomized controlled trials of vasoactive drugs in acute stroke: The Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration, stage-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandset, Else Charlotte; Sanossian, Nerses; Woodhouse, Lisa J; Anderson, Craig; Berge, Eivind; Lees, Kennedy R; Potter, John F; Robinson, Thompson G; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna M; Bath, Philip M

    2018-01-01

    Rationale Despite several large clinical trials assessing blood pressure lowering in acute stroke, equipoise remains particularly for ischemic stroke. The "Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration" commenced in the mid-1990s focussing on systematic reviews and meta-analysis of blood pressure lowering in acute stroke. From the start, Blood pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration planned to assess safety and efficacy of blood pressure lowering in acute stroke using individual patient data. Aims To determine the optimal management of blood pressure in patients with acute stroke, including both intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. Secondary aims are to assess which clinical and therapeutic factors may alter the optimal management of high blood pressure in patients with acute stroke and to assess the effect of vasoactive treatments on hemodynamic variables. Methods and design Individual patient data from randomized controlled trials of blood pressure management in participants with ischemic stroke and/or intracerebral hemorrhage enrolled during the ultra-acute (pre-hospital), hyper-acute (<6 h), acute (<48 h), and sub-acute (<168 h) phases of stroke. Study outcomes The primary effect variable will be functional outcome defined by the ordinal distribution of the modified Rankin Scale; analyses will also be carried out in pre-specified subgroups to assess the modifying effects of stroke-related and pre-stroke patient characteristics. Key secondary variables will include clinical, hemodynamic and neuroradiological variables; safety variables will comprise death and serious adverse events. Discussion Study questions will be addressed in stages, according to the protocol, before integrating these into a final overreaching analysis. We invite eligible trials to join the collaboration.

  11. Comprehensive stroke units: a review of comparative evidence and experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Daniel K Y; Cordato, Dennis; O'Rourke, Fintan; Chan, Daniel L; Pollack, Michael; Middleton, Sandy; Levi, Chris

    2013-06-01

    Stroke unit care offers significant benefits in survival and dependency when compared to general medical ward. Most stroke units are either acute or rehabilitation, but comprehensive (combined acute and rehabilitation) model (comprehensive stroke unit) is less common. To examine different levels of evidence of comprehensive stroke unit compared to other organized inpatient stroke care and share local experience of comprehensive stroke units. Cochrane Library and Medline (1980 to December 2010) review of English language articles comparing stroke units to alternative forms of stroke care delivery, different types of stroke unit models, and differences in processes of care within different stroke unit models. Different levels of comparative evidence of comprehensive stroke units to other models of stroke units are collected. There are no randomized controlled trials directly comparing comprehensive stroke units to other stroke unit models (either acute or rehabilitation). Comprehensive stroke units are associated with reduced length of stay and greatest reduction in combined death and dependency in a meta-analysis study when compared to other stroke unit models. Comprehensive stroke units also have better length of stay and functional outcome when compared to acute or rehabilitation stroke unit models in a cross-sectional study, and better length of stay in a 'before-and-after' comparative study. Components of stroke unit care that improve outcome are multifactorial and most probably include early mobilization. A comprehensive stroke unit model has been successfully implemented in metropolitan and rural hospital settings. Comprehensive stroke units are associated with reductions in length of stay and combined death and dependency and improved functional outcomes compared to other stroke unit models. A comprehensive stroke unit model is worth considering as the preferred model of stroke unit care in the planning and delivery of metropolitan and rural stroke services

  12. Low dose CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, Amanda; Symons, Sean; Jakubovic, Raphael; Zhang, Liying; Aviv, Richard I.; So, Aaron; Lee, Ting-Yim

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if CT perfusion (CTP) measurements at low doses (LD = 20 or 50 mAs) are similar to those obtained at regular doses (RD = 100 mAs), with and without the addition of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). A single-center, prospective study was performed in patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 37; 54 % male; age = 74 ± 15 years). Two CTP scans were performed on each subject: one at 100 mAs (RD) and one at either 50 or 20 mAs (LD). CTP parameters were compared between the RD and LD scans in regions of ischemia, infarction, and normal tissue. Differences were determined using a within-subjects ANOVA (p 0.05). CTP-derived CBF and CBV are not different at 50 mAs compared to 100 mAs, even without the addition of ASIR. Current CTP protocols can be modified to reduce the effective dose by 50 % without altering CTP measurements. (orig.)

  13. Low dose CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Amanda; So, Aaron; Lee, Ting-Yim; Symons, Sean; Jakubovic, Raphael; Zhang, Liying; Aviv, Richard I

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if CT perfusion (CTP) measurements at low doses (LD = 20 or 50 mAs) are similar to those obtained at regular doses (RD = 100 mAs), with and without the addition of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). A single-center, prospective study was performed in patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 37; 54% male; age = 74 ± 15 years). Two CTP scans were performed on each subject: one at 100 mAs (RD) and one at either 50 or 20 mAs (LD). CTP parameters were compared between the RD and LD scans in regions of ischemia, infarction, and normal tissue. Differences were determined using a within-subjects ANOVA (p test post hoc analysis (p 50 mAs, there was no significant difference between cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), or time to maximum enhancement (Tmax) values for the RD and LD scans in the ischemic, infarcted, or normal contralateral regions (p LD scans for all parameters in the ischemic and normal tissue regions (p > 0.05). CTP-derived CBF and CBV are not different at 50 mAs compared to 100 mAs, even without the addition of ASIR. Current CTP protocols can be modified to reduce the effective dose by 50 % without altering CTP measurements.

  14. Current Canadian And American Experiences In The Treatment Of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Dolati

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke remains one of the main public health issues worldwide. It is the third leading cause of death in the United States, with more than 200,000 people dying from strokes each year. Approximately 80% of all acute ischemic strokes are due to intracranial artery occlusion, most commonly thromboembolic clot occlusion. Revascularization of occluded territories is the cornerstone of acute ischemic stroke and Thrombolysis for ischemic stroke has been systematically studied in large randomized trials only since the 1990s. To date, thrombolytic therapy for ischemic stroke has been investigated in 21 randomized controlled clinical trials enrolling more than 7,000 patients. The advent of modern imaging and endovascular tools and technology has revolutionized treatment of stroke. In this talk, I will review current clinical trials published in The NEJM (ESCAPE, MR Clean, EXTENDED IA, …. regarding superiority of the endovascular treatments, especially, the stent retrievers, over Iv tPA. I will also go over all endovascular techniques used in the endovascular treatment of acute stroke using my Canadian and American experiences.

  15. Selected acute phase CSF factors in ischemic stroke: findings and prognostic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intskirveli Nino

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Study aimed at investigation of pathogenic role and prognostic value of several selected cerebrospinal fluid acute phase factors that can reflect the severity of ischemic brain damage. Methods Ninety five acute ischemic stroke patients were investigated. Ischemic region visualized at the twenty fourth hour by conventional Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Stroke severity evaluated by National Institute Health Stroke Scale. One month outcome of disease was assessed by Barthel Index. Cerebrospinal fluid was taken at the sixth hour of stroke onset. CSF pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were studied by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Nitric Oxide and Lipoperoxide radical were measured by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance. CSF Nitrate levels were detected using the Griess reagent. Statistics performed by SPSS-11.0. Results At the sixth hour of stroke onset, cerebrospinal fluid cytokine levels were elevated in patients against controls. Severe stroke patients had increased interleukin-6 content compared to less severe strokes (P Conclusion According to present study the cerebrospinal fluid contents of interleukin-6 and nitrates seem to be the most reliable prognostic factors in acute phase of ischemic stroke.

  16. Early prediction and outcome of septic encephalopathy in acute stroke patients with nosocomial coma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Dao-Ming; Zhou, Ye-Ting; Wang, Guang-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Yang, Tong-Hui

    2015-07-01

    Septic encephalopathy (SE) is the most common acute encephalopathy in ICU; however, little attention has been focused on risk of SE in the course of acute stroke. Our aim is to investigate the early prediction and outcome of SE in stroke patients with nosocomial coma (NC). A retrospective cohort study was conducted in an ICU of the tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2006 to December 2009. Ninety-four acute stroke patients with NC were grouped according to with or without SE. Risk factors for patients with SE were compared with those without SE by univariate and multivariate analysis. Of 94 stroke patients with NC, 46 (49%) had NC with SE and 48 (51%) had NC without SE. The onset-to-NC time was significant later in stroke patients with SE than those without SE (P stroke patients with SE was higher than those without SE (76.1% vs. 45.8%, P = 0.003). High fever and severe SIRS are two early predictors of stroke patients with SE, and survival rates were worse in stroke patients with SE than those without SE.

  17. Vascular Pathology in the Extracranial Vertebral Arteries in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, L; Nygård, A; Ovesen, C

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Vascular pathology in the extracranial vertebral arteries remains among the possible causes in cryptogenic stroke. However, the diagnosis is challenged by the great variety in the anatomy of the vertebral arteries, clinical symptoms and difficulties in the radiological assessments....... The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of CT angiography (CTA)-detected pathological findings in the extracranial vertebral arteries in an acute stroke population and secondly to determine the frequency of posterior pathology as probable cause in patients with otherwise cryptogenic stroke....... METHOD: The analysis was based on 657 consecutive patients with symptoms of acute stroke and a final diagnosis of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. On admission, a noncontrast CT cerebrum and CTA were performed. A senior consultant neuroradiologist, blinded to clinical data, reviewed all CTA...

  18. Use of acupuncture therapy as a supplement to conventional medical treatments for acute ischaemic stroke patients in an academic medical centre in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyejung; Kwon, Young Dae; Yoon, Sung Sang

    2011-10-01

    Acupuncture has served as a major complementary and alternative therapy that supplements conventional medicine and is the subject of growing public interest. This study was conducted to estimate the usage rate of acupuncture as a supplemental treatment in acute ischaemic stroke patients and to identify factors associated with the choice to use this therapy. Using the registry of stroke patients admitted to an academic medical centre in Korea, the use of acupuncture therapy was recorded and analysed, along with the patients' socio-demographic characteristics, hospital access variables, risk factors for ischaemic stroke and clinical characteristics. The data were analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analyses. Of 2167 patients, 18% received acupuncture therapy. The choice of acupuncture therapy was significantly associated with stroke severity as well as gender, age, geographical residence and previous history of stroke. After controlling for other significant factors, there was an approximately 3.4-fold greater usage in patients with moderately severe strokes (95% confidence interval (CI)=2.5-4.6) and 4.1-fold greater usage in patients with severe strokes (95% CI=2.7-6.4). The findings provide a better understanding of patients' utilization of acupuncture therapy as a supplement to conventional medical treatments and of factors associated with the utilization of acupuncture in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Strategic implications of acupuncture therapy are suggested for both health-care providers and policy makers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. CORRELATION OF INPATIENT AND OUTPATIENT MEASURES OF STROKE CARE QUALITY WITHIN VETERANS HEALTH ADMINISTRATION HOSPITALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Joseph S.; Arling, Greg; Ofner, Susan; Roumie, Christianne L.; Keyhani, Salomeh; Williams, Linda S.; Ordin, Diana L.; Bravata, Dawn M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Quality of care delivered in the inpatient and ambulatory settings may be correlated within an integrated health system such as the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). We examined the correlation between stroke care quality at hospital discharge and within 6 months post-discharge. Methods Cross-sectional hospital-level correlation analyses of chart-abstracted data for 3467 veterans discharged alive after an acute ischemic stroke from 108 VHA medical centers and 2380 veterans with post-discharge follow-up within 6 months, in fiscal year 2007. Four risk-standardized processes of care represented discharge care quality: prescription of anti-thrombotic and anti-lipidemic therapy, anti-coagulation for atrial fibrillation, and tobacco cessation counseling, along with a composite measure of defect-free care. Five risk-standardized intermediate outcomes represented post-discharge care quality: achievement of blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), international normalized ratio (INR), and glycosylated hemoglobin target levels, and delivery of appropriate treatment for post-stroke depression, along with a composite measure of achieved outcomes. Results Median risk-standardized composite rate of defect-free care at discharge was 79%. Median risk-standardized post-discharge rates of achieving goal were 56% for blood pressure, 36% for LDL, 41% for INR, 40% for glycosylated hemoglobin, and 39% for depression management and the median risk-standardized composite six-month outcome rate was 44%. The hospital composite rate of defect-free care at discharge was correlated with meeting the LDL goal (r=0.31; p=0.007) and depression management (r=0.27; p=0.03) goal, but was not correlated with blood pressure, INR, or glycosylated hemoglobin goals, nor with the composite measure of achieved post-discharge outcomes (p-values >0.15). Conclusions Hospital discharge care quality was not consistently correlated with ambulatory care quality. PMID:21719771

  20. An interdisciplinary visual team in an acute and sub-acute stroke unit: Providing assessment and early rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norup, Anne; Guldberg, Anne-Mette; Friis, Claus Radmer; Deurell, Eva Maria; Forchhammer, Hysse Birgitte

    2016-07-15

    To describe the work of an interdisciplinary visual team in a stroke unit providing early identification and assessment of patients with visual symptoms, and secondly to investigate frequency, type of visual deficits after stroke and self-evaluated impact on everyday life after stroke. For a period of three months, all stroke patients with visual or visuo-attentional deficits were registered, and data concerning etiology, severity and localization of the stroke and initial visual symptoms were registered. One month after discharge patients were contacted for follow-up. Of 349 acute stroke admissions, 84 (24.1%) had visual or visuo-attentional deficits initially. Of these 84 patients, informed consent was obtained from 22 patients with a mean age of 67.7 years(SD 10.1), and the majority was female (59.1%). Based on the initial neurological examination, 45.4% had some kind of visual field defect, 27.2% had some kind of oculomotor nerve palsy, and about 31.8% had some kind of inattention or visual neglect. The patients were contacted for a phone-based follow-up one month after discharge, where 85.7% reported changes in their vision since their stroke. In this consecutive sample, a quarter of all stroke patients had visual or visuo-attentional deficits initially. This emphasizes how professionals should have increased awareness of the existence of such deficits after stroke in order to provide the necessary interdisciplinary assessment and rehabilitation.

  1. Acute Psychosis Associated with Subcortical Stroke: Comparison between Basal Ganglia and Mid-Brain Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron McMurtray

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute onset of psychosis in an older or elderly individual without history of previous psychiatric disorders should prompt a thorough workup for neurologic causes of psychiatric symptoms. This report compares and contrasts clinical features of new onset of psychotic symptoms between two patients, one with an acute basal ganglia hemorrhagic stroke and another with an acute mid-brain ischemic stroke. Delusions and hallucinations due to basal ganglia lesions are theorized to develop as a result of frontal lobe dysfunction causing impairment of reality checking pathways in the brain, while visual hallucinations due to mid-brain lesions are theorized to develop due to dysregulation of inhibitory control of the ponto-geniculate-occipital system. Psychotic symptoms occurring due to stroke demonstrate varied clinical characteristics that depend on the location of the stroke within the brain. Treatment with antipsychotic medications may provide symptomatic relief.

  2. Diffusion and Perfusion MR Imaging in Acute Stroke: Clinical Utility and Potential Limitations for Treatment Selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bateman, Mathew; Slater, Lee-Anne; Leslie-Mazwi, Thabele M

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI) offer unique insight into acute ischemic stroke pathophysiology. These techniques may offer the ability to apply pathophysiology to accurately individualize acute stroke reperfusion treatment, including ...... to be investigated in ongoing randomized controlled trials, and continued research into these techniques will help achieve the goal of tissue-based decision making and individualized acute stroke treatment....... extending the opportunity of reperfusion treatment to well beyond the current time-based treatment windows. This review examines the use of DWI and PWI in the major stroke trials, their current clinical utility, and potential limitations for reperfusion treatment selection. DWI and PWI continue...

  3. The Influence of Acute Hyperglycemia in an Animal Model of Lacunar Stroke That Is Induced by Artificial Particle Embolization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Ming-Jun; Lin, Ming-Wei; Huang, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Yu-Min; Tsai, Yi-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Animal and clinical studies have revealed that hyperglycemia during ischemic stroke increases the stroke's severity and the infarct size in clinical and animal studies. However, no conclusive evidence demonstrates that acute hyperglycemia worsens post-stroke outcomes and increases infarct size in lacunar stroke. In this study, we developed a rat model of lacunar stroke that was induced via the injection of artificial embolic particles during full consciousness. We then used this model to compare the acute influence of hyperglycemia in lacunar stroke and diffuse infarction, by evaluating neurologic behavior and the rate, size, and location of the infarction. The time course of the neurologic deficits was clearly recorded from immediately after induction to 24 h post-stroke in both types of stroke. We found that acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic deficit in diffuse infarction at 24 h after stroke, and also aggravated the cerebral infarct. Furthermore, the infarct volumes of the basal ganglion, thalamus, hippocampus, and cerebellum but not the cortex were positively correlated with serum glucose levels. In contrast, acute hyperglycemia reduced the infarct volume and neurologic symptoms in lacunar stroke within 4 min after stroke induction, and this effect persisted for up to 24 h post-stroke. In conclusion, acute hyperglycemia aggravated the neurologic outcomes in diffuse infarction, although it significantly reduced the size of the cerebral infarct and improved the neurologic deficits in lacunar stroke. PMID:27226775

  4. [The association between plasma neurotransmitters levels and depression in acute hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Huai-wu; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Chun-xue; Shi, Yu-zhi; Qi, Dong; Luo, Ben-yan; Wang, Yong-jun

    2013-08-01

    To explore the relation between plasma neurotransmitters (Glutamic acid, GAA; γ-aminobutyric acid, GABA; 5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT; and noradrenaline, NE) and depression in acute hemorrhagic stroke. Objectives were screened from consecutive hospitalized patients with acute stroke. Fasting blood samples were taken on the day next to hospital admission, and neurotransmitters were examined by the liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). The fourth edition of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) was used to diagnose depression at two weeks after onset of stroke. The modified Ranking Scale (mRS) was followed up at 1 year. Pearson test was used to analyse the correlation between serum concentration of neurotransmitters and the Hamilton Depression scale-17-items (HAMD-17) score. Logistic regression was used to analyse the relation of serum concentration of neurotransmitters and depression and outcome of stroke. One hundred and eighty-one patients were included in this study. GABA significantly decreased [6.1(5.0-8.2) µg/L vs 8.1(6.3-14.7) µg/L, P depression in hemorrhagic stroke, and there was no significant difference in GAA, 5-HT, or NE. GABA concentration was negatively correlated with HAMD-17 score (r = -0.131, P depression in acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke was reduced by 5.6% (OR 0.944, 95%CI 0.893-0.997). While concentration of serum GAA rose by 1 µg/L, risk of worse outcome at 1 year was raised by 0.1%, although a statistic level was on marginal status (OR 1.001, 95%CI 1.000-1.002). In patients with depression in the acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke, there was a significant reduction in plasma GABA concentration. GABA may have a protective effect on depression in acute phase of hemorrhagic stroke. Increased concentrations of serum GAA may increase the risk of worse outcomes at 1 year after stroke.

  5. Drivers of costs associated with reperfusion therapy in acute stroke: the Interventional Management of Stroke III Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Kit N; Simpson, Annie N; Mauldin, Patrick D; Hill, Michael D; Yeatts, Sharon D; Spilker, Judith A; Foster, Lydia D; Khatri, Pooja; Martin, Renee; Jauch, Edward C; Kleindorfer, Dawn; Palesch, Yuko Y; Broderick, Joseph P

    2014-06-01

    The Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) III study tested the effect of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) alone when compared with intravenous tPA followed by endovascular therapy and collected cost data to assess the economic implications of the 2 therapies. This report describes the factors affecting the costs of the initial hospitalization for acute stroke subjects from the United States. Prospective cost analysis of the US subjects was treated with intravenous tPA alone or with intravenous tPA followed by endovascular therapy in the IMS III trial. Results were compared with expected Medicare payments. The adjusted cost of a stroke admission in the study was $35 130 for subjects treated with endovascular therapy after intravenous tPA treatment and $25 630 for subjects treated with intravenous tPA alone (P<0.0001). Significant factors related to costs included treatment group, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, time from stroke onset to intravenous tPA, age, stroke location, and comorbid diabetes mellitus. The mean cost for subjects who had routine use of general anesthesia as part of endovascular therapy was $46 444 when compared with $30 350 for those who did not have general anesthesia. The costs of embolectomy for IMS III subjects and patients from the National Inpatient Sample cohort exceeded the Medicare diagnosis-related group payment in ≥75% of patients. Minimizing the time to start of intravenous tPA and decreasing the use of routine general anesthesia may improve the cost-effectiveness of medical and endovascular therapy for acute stroke. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00359424. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Evaluation of neurogenic dysphagia in Iraqi patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Zeki N; Al-Shimmery, Ehsan K; Taha, Mufeed A

    2010-04-01

    To clinically assess neurogenic dysphagia, and to correlate its presence with demographic features, different stroke risk factors, anatomical arterial territorial stroke types, and pathological stroke types. Seventy-two stroke inpatients were studied between July 2007 and February 2008, at the Departments of Medicine and Neurology at Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, and Rizgary Teaching Hospital, Erbil, Iraq. All patients were assessed using the Mann Assessment of Swallowing Ability score (MASA), Modified Rankin Scale, and the Stroke Risk Scorecard. All patients were reassessed after one month. There were 40 males and 32 females. Sixty-eight patients had ischemic stroke, and 4 had primary intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). According to the MASA score, 55% of anterior circulation stroke (ACS) cases were associated with dysphasia, and 91% of lateral medullary syndrome cases were associated with dysphagia. Fifty-six percent of ACS dysphagic cases improved within the first month. Forty percent of dysphagic patients died in the one month follow up period, and in most, death was caused by aspiration pneumonia. We observed no significant differences regarding demographic features of dysphagia. Dysphagia can be an indicator of the severity of stroke causing higher mortality and morbidity in affected patients. It was not related to the stroke risk factors and the type of stroke. It is essential from a prognostic point of view to assess swallowing, and to treat its complications early.

  7. The impact of stroke unit care on outcome in a Scottish stroke population, taking into account case mix and selection bias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Melanie; Barber, Mark; Dodds, Hazel; Dennis, Martin; Langhorne, Peter; Macleod, Mary Joan

    2015-03-01

    Randomised trials indicate that stroke unit care reduces morbidity and mortality after stroke. Similar results have been seen in observational studies but many have not corrected for selection bias or independent predictors of outcome. We evaluated the effect of stroke unit compared with general ward care on outcomes after stroke in Scotland, adjusting for case mix by incorporating the six simple variables (SSV) model, also taking into account selection bias and stroke subtype. We used routine data from National Scottish datasets for acute stroke patients admitted between 2005 and 2011. Patients who died within 3 days of admission were excluded from analysis. The main outcome measures were survival and discharge home. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate the OR for survival, and adjustment was made for the effect of the SSV model and for early mortality. Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard of death within 365 days. There were 41 692 index stroke events; 79% were admitted to a stroke unit at some point during their hospital stay and 21% were cared for in a general ward. Using the SSV model, we obtained a receiver operated curve of 0.82 (SE 0.002) for mortality at 6 months. The adjusted OR for survival at 7 days was 3.11 (95% CI 2.71 to 3.56) and at 1 year 1.43 (95% CI 1.34 to 1.54) while the adjusted OR for being discharged home was 1.19 (95% CI 1.11 to 1.28) for stroke unit care. In routine practice, stroke unit admission is associated with a greater likelihood of discharge home and with lower mortality up to 1 year, after correcting for known independent predictors of outcome, and excluding early non-modifiable mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Stenting of the cervical internal carotid artery in acute stroke management: The Karolinska experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpotsaris, Anastasios; Kabbasch, Christoph; Borggrefe, Jan; Gontu, Vamsi; Soderman, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Background Emergency stent placement in the extracranial internal carotid artery in combination with anterior circulation thrombectomy is a routine procedure. Yet, precise indications and clinical safety in this setting remains controversial. Present data for mechanical thrombectomy include few studies with acute stenting of tandem occlusions. We evaluated the feasibility, safety and clinical outcome of this endovascular treatment in a retrospective analysis of all consecutive cases at a comprehensive stroke centre. Methods This was a retrospective analysis of all consecutive patients with acute extracranial carotid artery occlusion including acute dissection or high-grade stenosis and concomitant intracranial large-vessel occlusion treated with emergency carotid stenting and intracranial mechanical thrombectomy between November 2007 and May 2015. Results A total of 63 patients with a median age of 67 years (range 33-84 years) were treated. Of these, 33 (52%) patients had concomitant intravenous thrombolysis with recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator initially. Median admission National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale was 14 (range 1-29). Median time from stroke onset to recanalization was 408 minutes (range 165-1846 minutes). Procedure time was significantly shorter after intravenous thrombolysis (110 minutes [range 15-202 minutes] vs. 130 minutes [range 60-280 minutes]; p = 0.02). Three (5%) patients experienced post-procedural symptomatic intracerebral haemorrhage. In 55/63 (87%) patients, a score of ≥2b on the Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction scale could be achieved. Eight (13%) patients died, five (8%) during the acute phase. A total of 29/63 (46%) patients showed a favourable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score of 0-2) after three months. Conclusions Our single-centre retrospective analysis of emergency stent placement in the extracranial internal carotid artery in combination with anterior circulation thrombectomy demonstrated high

  9. Quantitative Measurement of Physical Activity in Acute Ischemic Stroke and Transient Ischemic Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strømmen, Anna Maria; Christensen, Thomas; Jensen, Kai

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure and describe the amount and pattern of physical activity in patients within the first week after acute ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack using accelerometers. METHODS: A total of 100 patients with acute is...

  10. Stroke rehabilitation in ontario: an opportunity for health care transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Matthew J; Meyer, John P; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine; McClure, J Andrew; Teasell, Robert

    2011-11-01

    In this article, Ontario's stroke rehabilitation system is used to exemplify the challenges faced by rehabilitation and healthcare systems across Canada who are attempting to provide quality care to patients in the face of increasing demands. Currently, Ontario's rehabilitation system struggles in its efforts to provide accessible and comprehensive care to patients recovering from stroke. We begin our exploration by identifying both the primary stakeholders and the underlying factors that have contributed to the current challenges. The framework put forward in the Canadian Medical Association's recommendations for transformation is then used to suggest a vision for a more patient-focused system incorporating three key principles: a broader perspective, a patient-first approach, and greater unity. The use of health information technology, proper incentives, and greater accountability are discussed as mechanisms to improve the quality and efficiency of care.

  11. Noninvasive Ventilatory Correction as an Adjunct to an Experimental Systemic Reperfusion Therapy in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristian Barlinn

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in patients with acute ischemic stroke and associated with early clinical deterioration and poor functional outcome. However, noninvasive ventilatory correction is hardly considered as a complementary treatment option during the treatment phase of acute ischemic stroke. Summary of Case. A 55-year-old woman with an acute middle cerebral artery (MCA occlusion received intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA and enrolled into a thrombolytic research study. During tPA infusion, she became drowsy, developed apnea episodes, desaturated and neurologically deteriorated without recanalization, re-occlusion or intracerebral hemorrhage. Urgent noninvasive ventilatory correction with biphasic positive airway pressure (BiPAP reversed neurological fluctuation. Her MCA completely recanalized 24 hours later. Conclusions. Noninvasive ventilatory correction should be considered more aggressively as a complementary treatment option in selected acute stroke patients. Early initiation of BiPAP can stabilize cerebral hemodynamics and may unmask the true potential of other therapies.

  12. Identifying palliative care issues in inpatients dying following stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntlholang, O; Walsh, S; Bradley, D; Harbison, J

    2016-08-01

    Stroke leads to high mortality and morbidity but often there is a conflict between need for palliative care and avoidance of 'therapeutic nihilism'. We aimed to elicit the palliative care needs of stroke patients at the end of their lives in our unit with a low overall mortality rate (1 month: 8.8 %, inpatient: 12.9 %). We identified consecutive stroke patients who died over 2 years. Their clinical records were used for data collection. Of 54 deaths, 33 (61.1 %) were females, mean (SD) age at death was 79.3 ± 12.9 years. 41 (75.9 %) died after first stroke, 9 (16.7 %) were inpatient strokes, 7 (13.0 %) thrombolysed and 7 (13.0 %) had strokes as treatment complication. There were clear statements recorded in 26 (48.1 %) that patients were dying and death was thought to be due primarily to extent of brain injury in 24 (44.4 %). Palliative needs identified included dyspnoea 21 (38.9 %), pain 17 (31.5 %), respiratory secretions 17 (31.5 %), agitation 14 (25.9 %) and psychological distress 1 (1.9 %). Symptoms were due to premorbid diseases in 6 (11.1 %). Palliative care expertise were sought in 13 (24.1 %) and continuous subcutaneous infusion was used in 18 (33.3 %) to control symptoms. 4 (7.4 %) subjects underwent cardiac arrest calls and 9 (16.7 %) deaths occurred in ICU/HDU. The median Stroke-Death interval was 20 days (range 0-389). Do Not Attempt Resuscitation (DNAR) orders were in place in 86.8 % of patients. The median DNAR-Death interval was 7 days (range 0-311) with 7-day DNAR-Death rate of 53.2 % and 30-day of 78.7 % of the total deaths. Dyspnoea, pain and respiratory secretions were identified as the main palliative care needs.

  13. Association between Oxidative Stress and Outcome in Different Subtypes of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wen Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and free thiol levels in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS and evaluated their association with clinical outcomes. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 100 AIS patients, including 75 with small-vessel and 25 with large-vessel diseases. Serum oxidative stress (TBARS and antioxidant (thiol were determined within 48 hours and days 7 and 30 after stroke. For comparison, 80 age- and sex-matched participants were evaluated as controls. Results. Serum TBARS was significantly higher and free thiol was lower in stroke patients than in the controls on days 1 and 7 after AIS. The level of free thiol was significantly lower in the large-vessel disease than in the small-vessel disease on day 7 after stroke. Using the stepwise logistic regression model for potential variables, only stroke subtype, NIHSS score, and serum TBARS level were independently associated with three-month outcome. Higher TBARS and lower thiol levels in the acute phase of stroke were associated with poor outcome. Conclusions. Patients with large-vessel disease have higher oxidative stress but lower antioxidant defense compared to those with small-vessel disease after AIS. Serum TBARS level at the acute phase of stroke is a potential predictor for three-month outcome.

  14. Changes in the management of acute ischemic stroke after publication of Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke (2004). A multicenter cooperative study in Toyama prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takashima, Shutaro; Toyoda, Shigeo; Tanaka, Kortaro

    2009-01-01

    It is unclear whether the management of stroke has been improved since the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke (2004) was published. The aim of the present study was to clarify changes in the management for acute ischemic stroke after publication of the Japanese Guidelines. We investigated the management of patients with acute ischemic stroke in nine hospitals belonging to the committee of Toyama Acute Ischemic Stroke Study, before and after publication of the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke (2004). Two-hundred and ninety-three acute ischemic stroke patients were registered in 2003 and 237 in 2006, respectively. The percentage of lacunar stroke was 39%, 37%, atherothrombotic infarction; 28%, 30%, cardioembolic stroke (CE); 21%, 22%, and others; 12%, 11%, respectively. The ratio of CE patients who were admitted within 3 hours of onset was significantly increased from 34% in 2003 to 57% in 2006. Although 74 patients (31%) with any clinical type were admitted within 3 hours of onset, thrombolytic therapy with tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) was administered to only 5 patients (2.1%) in 2006. Diffusion weighted images became available in all hospitals, and were more frequently used for diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke in 92% of patients in 2006 as compared to 59% in 2003. Ischemic lesions were more frequently detected before the start of treatment in 52% of patients in 2006 as compared to 43% in 2003. After the Japanese Guidelines for the Management of Stroke (2004) was published, the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients appeared to follow this guideline in many patients. Thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA, however, was performed in very few patients. (author)

  15. 'Living a life in shades of grey': experiencing depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouwenhoven, Siren E; Kirkevold, Marit; Engedal, Knut; Kim, Hesook S

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the lived experience of stroke survivors suffering from depressive symptoms in the acute phase; addressing the following questions: (a) what is the nature of depression as experienced by post-stroke patients in the acute phase? (b) what is it like to live with depression within the first weeks following stroke? Post-stroke depression occurs in at least one quarter of stroke survivors and is linked to poorer outcomes. This qualitative study is methodologically grounded in hermeneutic phenomenology, influenced by van Manen and Ricoeur. A descriptive, qualitative design was used applying in-depth interviews as the method of data collection with nine participants. The data collection took place in 2008. The material revealed two main themes that generate the feeling and description of 'living a life in shades of grey': (a) being trapped and (b) losing oneself. 'Shades of grey' could be understood as being confined in a new life-world and losing oneself as the person one knew. The participants confirmed suffering from depressive symptoms, but depression was not seen as meaningful on its own. They related their experiences of post-stroke depression in the acute phase to the losses they experienced. Nurses ought to take into account the depth of the life changes that stroke survivors may experience. There is a need for continued empirical research on how nurses may help and support stroke survivors dealing with depressive symptoms in the acute phase after stroke and how depressive symptoms develop over time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Levels of acute phase proteins remain stable after ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paik Myunghee C

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammation and inflammatory biomarkers play an important role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Little information is available, however, on time course of serum markers of inflammation after stroke. Methods First ischemic stroke patients ≥40 years old had levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, and fibrinogen measured in plasma samples drawn at 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days after stroke. Levels were log-transformed as needed, and parametric and non-parametric statistical tests were used to test for evidence of a trend in levels over time. Levels of hsCRP and SAA were also compared with levels in a comparable population of stroke-free participants. Results Mean age of participants with repeated measures (n = 21 was 65.6 ± 11.6 years, and 13 (61.9% were men, and 15 (71.4% were Hispanic. Approximately 75% of patients (n = 15 had mild strokes (NIH Stroke Scale score 0–5. There was no evidence of a time trend in levels of hsCRP, SAA, or fibrinogen for any of the markers during the 28 days of follow-up. Mean log(hsCRP was 1.67 ± 1.07 mg/L (median hsCRP 6.48 mg/L among stroke participants and 1.00 ± 1.18 mg/L (median 2.82 mg/L in a group of 1176 randomly selected stroke-free participants from the same community (p = 0.0252. Conclusion Levels of hsCRP are higher in stroke patients than in stroke-free subjects. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis, including hsCRP, appear to be stable for at least 28 days after first ischemic stroke.

  17. Increasing atrial fibrillation prevalence in acute ischemic stroke and TIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otite, Fadar Oliver; Khandelwal, Priyank; Chaturvedi, Seemant; Romano, Jose G; Sacco, Ralph L; Malik, Amer M

    2016-11-08

    To evaluate trends in atrial fibrillation (AF) prevalence in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) and TIA in the United States. We used the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to retrospectively compute weighted prevalence of AF in AIS (n = 4,355,140) and TIA (n = 1,816,459) patients admitted to US hospitals from 2004 to 2013. Multivariate-adjusted models were used to evaluate the association of AF with clinical factors, mortality, length of stay, and cost. From 2004 to 2013, AF prevalence increased by 22% in AIS (20%-24%) and by 38% in TIA (12%-17%). AF prevalence varied by age (AIS: 6% in 50-59 vs 37% in ≥80 years; TIA: 4% in 50-59 vs 24% in ≥80 years), sex (AIS: male 19% vs female 25%; TIA: male 15% vs female 14%), race (AIS: white 26% vs black 12%), and region (AIS: Northeast 25% vs South 20%). Advancing age, female sex, white race, high income, and large hospital size were associated with increased odds of AF in AIS. AF in AIS was a risk factor for in-hospital death (odds ratio 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.89-1.98) but mortality in AIS with AF decreased from 11.6% to 8.3% (p TIA has continued to increase. Disparity in AF prevalence in AIS and TIA exists by patient and hospital factors. AF is associated with increased mortality in AIS. Innovative AIS preventive strategies are needed in patients with AF, especially in the elderly. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  18. Low dose CT perfusion in acute ischemic stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Amanda; Symons, Sean; Jakubovic, Raphael; Zhang, Liying; Aviv, Richard I. [Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, Toronto, ON (Canada); So, Aaron; Lee, Ting-Yim [Robarts Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-12-15

    The purpose of this investigation is to determine if CT perfusion (CTP) measurements at low doses (LD = 20 or 50 mAs) are similar to those obtained at regular doses (RD = 100 mAs), with and without the addition of adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR). A single-center, prospective study was performed in patients with acute ischemic stroke (n = 37; 54 % male; age = 74 ± 15 years). Two CTP scans were performed on each subject: one at 100 mAs (RD) and one at either 50 or 20 mAs (LD). CTP parameters were compared between the RD and LD scans in regions of ischemia, infarction, and normal tissue. Differences were determined using a within-subjects ANOVA (p < 0.05) followed by a paired t test post hoc analysis (p < 0.01). At 50 mAs, there was no significant difference between cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), or time to maximum enhancement (Tmax) values for the RD and LD scans in the ischemic, infarcted, or normal contralateral regions (p < 0.05). At 20 mAs, there were significant differences between the RD and LD scans for all parameters in the ischemic and normal tissue regions (p > 0.05). CTP-derived CBF and CBV are not different at 50 mAs compared to 100 mAs, even without the addition of ASIR. Current CTP protocols can be modified to reduce the effective dose by 50 % without altering CTP measurements. (orig.)

  19. Manual Aspiration Thrombectomy in Patients with Acute Stroke-Related Calcified Cerebral Emboli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Esther; Kwak, Hyo Sung; Chung, Gyung-Ho

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of mechanical aspiration thrombectomy (MAT) in patients with acute ischemic stroke from calcified cerebral emboli. Procedural results were reviewed for acute stroke patients with clinically neurological deficits who underwent recanalization from October 2012 through September 2015. Initial imaging studies and cerebral angiography were analyzed. Of the total number of patients with acute stroke, 5 patients were confirmed to have acute ischemic stroke by calcified cerebral emboli. On initial brain computed tomographic imaging, all patients showed small, dense single calcifications in the middle cerebral artery with no definitive ischemic low-density lesions (M1: 3, M2: 2, mean size: 4.8 mm). All patients had angiographic findings of filling defects from calcified emboli. Four patients had good collateral flow and two had continuous distal flow. All patients underwent MAT using a Penumbra catheter (Penumbra Inc., Alameda, CA). MAT did not remove calcified emboli in all patients. Two patients with good collateral flow had favorable functional outcomes (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2). Four patients had diffuse calcification in the aortic arch, carotid artery, and aortic valve. Cerebral angiography supports a diagnosis of stroke when calcified cerebral emboli have contrast-filling defects and a degree of vascular occlusion. However, in this study, MAT was not an effective treatment for patients with calcified cerebral emboli because of hardness of the calcified plaque and packing into the arterial lumen. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CT Angiography and Presentation NIH stroke Scale in Predicting TIA in Patients Presenting with Acute Stroke Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaman, Bedriye; Selph, James; Burdine, Joselyn; Graham, Cole Blease; Sen, Souvik

    2013-11-08

    Patient candidacy for acute stroke intervention, is currently assessed using brain computed tomography angiography (CTA) evidence of significant stenosis/occlusion (SSO) with a high National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (>6). This study examined the association between CTA without significant stenosis/occlusion (NSSO) and lower NIHSS (≤ 6) with transient ischemic attack (TIA) and other good clinical outcomes at discharge. Patients presenting TIA, modified Rankin Score [mRS] ≤ 1, and home as the discharge disposition. Eighty-five patients received both an NIHSS at presentation and a CTA at 4.2 ± 2.2 hours from stroke symptom onset. Patients with NSSO on CTA as well as those with NIHSS≤6 had better outcomes at discharge (pTIA (pTIA. Addition of NIHSS ≤ 6 to NSSO on CTA proved to be a stronger independent predictor of TIA (Adjusted OR 18.7 95% CI: 3.5-98.9, p=0.001).

  1. The Association of Lesion Location and Sleep Related Breathing Disorder in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisse, Anna Lena; Kemmling, André; Teuber, Anja; Wersching, Heike; Young, Peter; Dittrich, Ralf; Ritter, Martin; Dziewas, Rainer; Minnerup, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Sleep related breathing disorders (SRBD) are common in patients with ischemic stroke and are associated with poor outcome. SRBD after stroke were assumed to be a direct consequence of injury of specific central nervous system structures. However, whether specific locations of ischemic infarcts cause SRBD is yet unknown. We therefore investigated the association of ischemic lesion location with SRBD. Patients with acute ischemic stroke treated on our stroke unit were included in a prospective observational study. All patients underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and polygraphy in the acute phase after stroke. SRBD was defined by an apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) ≥10. MRI were evaluated using standardized maps to depict voxel-wise probability distribution of infarction for patients with and without SRBD. Groups were compared using logistic regression analysis. Of 142 patients included, 86 (59%) had a SRBD. Age, body mass index and prevalence of arterial hypertension were significantly higher in patients with SRBD. There was no statistically significant association between any lesion location and SRBD. We found no association of lesion location and SRBD in stroke patients, whereas established risk factors for SRBD, known from general population, were significantly associated with SRBD. Given the high prevalence of SRBD in stroke patients, these findings suggest that cerebral ischemia facilitates the occurrence of SRBD in patients with pre-existing risk factors rather than causing it by damaging specific central nervous system structures. Our findings can be used to identify stroke patients who might benefit from polygraphy screening.

  2. Stroke types, risk factors, quality of care and outcomes at a Referral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The prevalence of stroke is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa due to increases in size of aging population and stroke risk factors.We assessed risk factors, quality of care and outcomes of stroke to identify modifiable risk factors and areas of care that need improvement for better outcomes. Objectives: To ...

  3. RAAS and stress markers in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, C.; Thiesen, K L; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from a jugular and cubital vein was collected within 48 h of stroke onset, after 24 and 48 h, and renin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol were measured. Post-stroke cubital vein samples were collected after 8 (4.7-10) months...

  4. Pathophysiology and Biomarkers in Acute Ischemic Stroke – A Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pathophysiology of ischemic stroke is complex, and majorly involves excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, apoptosis, etc. Several of the biomarkers are related to these pathophysiologic mechanisms and they may have applications in stroke prediction, diagnosis, assessment, ...

  5. Patterns of regional cerebral blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Skriver, E B

    1981-01-01

    In a consecutive group of 56 stroke patients the regional cerebral blood flow was measured within 84 hours after stroke. A 254 multidetector scintillation camera and the intracarotid Xenon-133 injection method was used to study rCBF. Typical rCBF-patterns are described and compared to the findings...

  6. Spontaneous Low Frequency Oscillations in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    2014-01-01

    Background and purpose: Continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive bed-side optical method to detect changes in oxygenated (oxyHb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) in the outermost layers of the cerebral cortex. Cortical oxyHb low frequency oscillations (LFOs) in the 0.......09-0.11 Hz range are affected by changes in cerebral autoregulation (CA), which is altered following stroke. We examined oxyHb LFOs at bed-side as a marker of CA in the subacute phase in stroke patients with or without recombinant tissue plasminogen activator thrombolytic therapy. Methods: We recruited 29...... patients admitted to the stroke unit with symptoms of ischemic stroke. 11/29 patients received thrombolytic therapy. NIRS examination was conducted 2 days (median time) from stroke onset. NIRS optodes were placed on each side of the head with a 3 cm source-detector distance. Using transfer function...

  7. Predictors of early arrival at the emergency department in acute ischaemic stroke.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Curran, C

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: A requirement of an effective acute stroke service is the early arrival of patients to the hospital emergency department (ED). This will allow the possible use of thrombolytic therapy or other acute interventions within a limited time window. AIMS: We investigated the predictors of early arrival in a single hospital serving a mixed urban and rural catchment area. METHODS: A retrospective review of all case notes for 1 year was performed. RESULTS: Of 105 acute strokes, 91 were cerebral infarcts and a total of 71 cases presenting initially to the ED had timing available for analysis. 39.4% presented within 3 h, and 12.7% were potentially suitable for thrombolysis. Those living closer to the hospital were not more likely to arrive within 3 h (Z = -0.411, p = 0.68). Presenting directly to the hospital by emergency services (or private transport) was significantly associated with early arrival in a univariate comparison (p < 0.001), and in a multivariate model. CONCLUSION: The only independent predictor of early arrival to the ED is direct presentation. Improved public education of the importance of recognition of stroke symptoms and rapid contact with the emergency services will improve the early attendance following acute stroke, allowing increased use of acute stroke treatments.

  8. Effect of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Junjie; Chen, Chensong; Cheng, Hongsen; Wang, Ren; Ma, Linhao

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform were searched electronically. Relevant journals and references of studies included were hand-searched for randomized controlled trials (RCT) and controlled clinical trials (CCT) regarding the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on body temperature in acute stroke. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction and quality assessment. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software by the Cochrane Collaboration. Five studies were included. To compare the efficacy of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in acute stroke, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature reduction at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.3 (95% CI: -0.52 to -0.08), with statistical significance (P=0.007). Consistently, the pooled RR (Risk Ratio) and its 95% CI of body temperature at 24h from the start of treatment were -0.22 (-0.29, -0.15), with statistical significance (PParacetamol (acetaminophen) is one of the most commonly used antipyretic drugs and has some capability to reduce body temperature through acting on central nervous system. Acetaminophen showed some capability to decrease body temperature for acute stroke. Acetaminophen could not improve functional outcome and reduce adverse events of patients with acute stroke. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care: the American experience: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Flores, Salvador; Rabinstein, Alejandro; Biller, Jose; Elkind, Mitchell S V; Griffith, Patrick; Gorelick, Philip B; Howard, George; Leira, Enrique C; Morgenstern, Lewis B; Ovbiagele, Bruce; Peterson, Eric; Rosamond, Wayne; Trimble, Brian; Valderrama, Amy L

    2011-07-01

    , mistrust of the healthcare system, the relatively limited number of providers who are members of minority groups, and system limitations may contribute to disparities in access to or quality of care, which in turn might result in different rates of stroke morbidity and mortality. Cultural and language barriers probably also contribute to some of these disparities. Minorities use emergency medical services systems less, are often delayed in arriving at the emergency department, have longer waiting times in the emergency department, and are less likely to receive thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. Although unmeasured factors may play a role in these delays, the presence of bias in the delivery of care cannot be excluded. Minorities have equal access to rehabilitation services, although they experience longer stays and have poorer functional status than whites. Minorities are inadequately treated with both primary and secondary stroke prevention strategies compared with whites. Sparse data exist on racial-ethnic disparities in access to surgical care after intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage. Participation of minorities in clinical research is limited. Barriers to participation in clinical research include beliefs, lack of trust, and limited awareness. Race is a contentious topic in biomedical research because race is not proven to be a surrogate for genetic constitution. There are limitations in the current definitions of race and ethnicity. Nevertheless, racial and ethnic disparities in stroke exist and include differences in the biological determinants of disease and disparities throughout the continuum of care, including access to and quality of care. Access to and participation in research is also limited among minority groups. Acknowledging the presence of disparities and understanding the factors that contribute to them are necessary first steps. More research is required to understand these differences and find solutions.

  10. INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN ACUTE ISCHAEMIC STROKE IN RELATION TO CLINICAL SEVERITY AND EARLY OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Biochemical markers of inflammation could be useful to predict severity of stroke in acute phase. Stroke is the third cause of mortality and the first cause of disability. Recent literature have demonstrated that inflammation contributes to all phases of atherosclerosis. The results of researchers suggest that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease. The aim of the study is to assess the1. Level of peripheral inflammatory markers in acute ischaemic stroke and their relation to severity of acute stroke. 2. Value of inflammatory markers in predicting the short-term outcome and disability at the end of six months. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective case control study for 6 months done from September 2014 to August 2016 in 100 patients of acute ischaemic stroke within first 5 days of symptom onset in comparison >18 years of age with 50 age and sex matched controls. Blood samples for all cases and controls were sent for erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR, hs-C-reactive protein, mean platelet volume, serum ferritin, serum albumin and S. gamma-glutamyl transferase at admission. RESULTS The mean values of ESR, NLR, hs-CRP in all the cases are higher when compared to the controls and are statistically significant, whereas the mean values of MPV, S. ferritin, S. albumin and GGT in cases are lower when compared to controls, but are within normal range and difference is statistically significant except ferritin. ESR, hs-CRP has significant correlation with severity of acute ischaemic stroke. The mean values of these markers increased with increase in severity. Serum albumin has significant correlation with severity of acute ischaemic stroke with mean values of these markers decreasing with increase in severity of stroke. There is no significant correlation of the inflammatory markers in present study with the short-term outcome. CONCLUSION Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of non

  11. Randomized Controlled Trial of Early Versus Delayed Statin Therapy in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: ASSORT Trial (Administration of Statin on Acute Ischemic Stroke Patient).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Shinichi; Uchida, Kazutaka; Daimon, Takashi; Takashima, Ryuzo; Kimura, Kazuhiro; Morimoto, Takeshi

    2017-11-01

    Several studies suggested that statins during hospitalization were associated with better disability outcomes in patients with acute ischemic stroke, but only 1 small randomized trial is available. We conducted a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial in patients with acute ischemic strokes in 11 hospitals in Japan. Patients with acute ischemic stroke and dyslipidemia randomly received statins within 24 hours after admission in the early group or on the seventh day in the delayed group, in a 1:1 ratio. Statins were administered for 12 weeks. The primary outcome was patient disability assessed by modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. A total of 257 patients were randomized and analyzed (early 131, delayed 126). At 90 days, modified Rankin Scale score distribution did not differ between groups ( P =0.68), and the adjusted common odds ratio of the early statin group was 0.84 (95% confidence interval, 0.53-1.3; P =0.46) compared with the delayed statin group. There were 3 deaths at 90 days (2 in the early group, 1 in the delayed group) because of malignancy. Ischemic stroke recurred in 9 patients (6.9%) in the early group and 5 patients (4.0%) in the delayed group. The safety profile was similar between groups. Our randomized trial involving patients with acute ischemic stroke and dyslipidemia did not show any superiority of early statin therapy within 24 hours of admission compared with delayed statin therapy 7 days after admission to alleviate the degree of disability at 90 days after onset. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02549846. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Emergency Medical Services Capacity for Prehospital Stroke Care

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-09-05

    In this audio podcast, lead author and Preventing Chronic Disease’s 2013 Student Research Contest Winner, Mehul D. Patel, talks about his article on stroke care and emergency medical services.  Created: 9/5/2013 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 9/5/2013.

  13. Validity of the stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement scale in acute rehabilitation: a comparison with the functional independence measure and stroke impact scale-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Irene; Pivko, Susan; Brooks, Gary; Parkin, Kate

    2011-11-01

    To demonstrate sensitivity to change of the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) as well as the concurrent and predictive validity of the STREAM in an acute rehabilitation setting. Prospective cohort study. Acute, in-patient rehabilitation department within a tertiary-care teaching hospital in the United States. Thirty adults with a newly diagnosed, first ischemic stroke. Clinical assessments were conducted on admission and then again on discharge from the rehabilitation hospital with the STREAM (total STREAM and upper extremity, lower extremity, and mobility subscales), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Stroke Impact Scale-16 (SIS-16). Sensitivity to change was determined with the Wilcoxon signed rank test and by the calculation of standardized response means. Spearman correlations were used to assess concurrent validity of the total STREAM and STREAM subscales with the FIM and SIS-16 on admission and discharge. We determined predictive validity for all instruments by correlating admission scores with actual and predicted length of stay and by testing associations between admission scores and discharge destination (home vs subacute facility). Not applicable. For all instruments, there was statistically significant improvement from admission to discharge. The standardized response means for the total STREAM and STREAM subscales were large. Spearman correlations between the total STREAM and STREAM subscales and the FIM and SIS-16 were moderate to excellent, both on admission and discharge. Among change scores, only the SIS-16 correlated with the total STREAM. All 3 instruments were significantly associated with discharge destination; however, the associations were strongest for the total STREAM and STREAM subscales. All instruments showed moderate-to-excellent correlations with predicted and actual length of stay. The STREAM is sensitive to change and demonstrates good concurrent and predictive validity as compared with the FIM and SIS-16

  14. A prospective cohort study of stroke characteristics, care, and mortality in a hospital stroke registry in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirschwell David L

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As low and middle-income countries such as Vietnam experience the health transition from infectious to chronic diseases, the morbidity and mortality from stroke will rise. In line with the recommendation of the Institute of Medicine’s report on “Promoting Cardiovascular Health in the Developing World” to “improve local data”, we sought to investigate patient characteristics and clinical predictors of mortality among stroke inpatients at Da Nang Hospital in Vietnam. Methods A stroke registry was developed and implemented at Da Nang Hospital utilizing the World Health Organization’s Stroke STEPS instrument for data collection. Results 754 patients were hospitalized for stroke from March 2010 through February 2011 and admitted to either the intensive care unit or cardiology ward. Mean age was 65 years, and 39% were female. Nearly 50% of strokes were hemorrhagic. At 28-day follow-up, 51.0% of patients with hemorrhagic stroke died whereas 20.3% of patients with ischemic stroke died. A number of factors were independently associated with 28-day mortality; the two strongest independent predictors were depressed level of consciousness on presentation and hemorrhagic stroke type. While virtually all patients completed a CT during the admission, evidence-based processes of care such as anti-thrombotic therapy and carotid ultrasound for ischemic stroke patients were underutilized. Conclusions This cohort study highlights the high mortality due in part to the large proportion of hemorrhagic strokes in Vietnam. Lack of hypertension awareness and standards of care exacerbated clinical outcomes. Numerous opportunities for simple, inexpensive interventions to improve outcomes or reduce recurrent stroke have been identified.

  15. Intravenous Thrombolysis in Acute Ischemic Stroke with Active Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki-Woong Nam

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke patients with active cancer are known to have poor clinical outcomes. However, the efficacy and safety of intravenous alteplase (IV t-PA in this group are still unclear. In this study, we aimed to evaluate whether stroke patients with cancer had poor clinical outcomes after use of IV t-PA. We reviewed ischemic stroke patients with active cancer treated with isolated IV t-PA between April 2010 and March 2015 at three national university hospitals from the registry for ischemic stroke in Korea. The clinical outcomes of early neurological deterioration (END, hemorrhagic transformation, in-hospital mortality, 3-month modified Rankin scale (mRS, the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS discharge score, and duration of hospitalization were compared. We enrolled a total of 12 patients, and the cohort showed poor outcomes including 4 (33% END events, 7 (58% hemorrhagic transformations, 3 (25% in-hospital mortality cases, and 7 (58% poor mRS (3–6 scores. Additionally, the cryptogenic stroke group (n = 6 more frequently had high mRS scores (P = 0.043 as well as tendencies for frequent END events, hemorrhagic transformations, in-hospital mortality cases, and higher discharge NIHSS scores without statistical significance. In conclusion, ischemic stroke patients with active cancer, especially those with a cryptogenic mechanism, showed poor clinical outcomes after use of IV t-PA.

  16. Association of Geographical Factors With Administration of Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Acute Ischemic Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisawa, Susumu; Morishima, Toshitaka; Ukawa, Naoto; Ikai, Hiroshi; Otsubo, Tetsuya; Ishikawa, Koichi B.; Yokota, Chiaki; Minematsu, Kazuo; Fushimi, Kiyohide; Imanaka, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is an effective treatment for acute ischemic stroke if administered within a few hours of stroke onset. Because of this time restriction, tPA administration remains infrequent. Ambulance use is an effective strategy for increasing tPA administration but may be influenced by geographical factors. The objectives of this study are to investigate the relationship between tPA administration and ambulance use and to examine how patient trave...

  17. Acute ischemic stroke imaging: a practical approach for diagnosis and triage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph Yeen; Schaefer, Pamela Whitney

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic stroke is a prevalent disease with significant associated morbidity and healthcare costs. There are currently effective intravenous and endovascular therapies that have the potential to improve functional outcome when used in the appropriate patient population. The utilization of various imaging modalities has been shown to be crucial in identifying which patients may benefit from these therapies. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the role that imaging plays in guiding therapeutic decisions in acute ischemic stroke patients is important.

  18. Validation of the FOUR Score (Spanish Version) in acute stroke: an interobserver variability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idrovo, Luis; Fuentes, Blanca; Medina, Josmarlin; Gabaldón, Laura; Ruiz-Ares, Gerardo; Abenza, María José; Aguilar-Amat, María José; Martínez-Sánchez, Patricia; Rodríguez, Luis; Cazorla, Rubén; Martínez, Marta; Tafur, Alfonso; Wijdicks, Eelco F M; Diez-Tejedor, Exuperio

    2010-01-01

    Methods to assess impaired consciousness in acute stroke typically include the Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), but the verbal component has limitations in aphasic or intubated patients. The FOUR (Full Outline of UnResponsiveness) score, a new coma scale, evaluates 4 components: eye and motor responses, brainstem reflexes and respiration. We aimed to study the interobserver variability of the FOUR score in acute stroke patients. We prospectively enrolled consecutive patients with acute stroke admitted from February to July 2008 to the stroke unit of our Neurology Department. Patients were evaluated by neurology residents and nurses using the FOUR score and the GCS. For both scales, we obtained paired and total weighted kappa values (Kw) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC). NIH stroke scale was also recorded on admission. We obtained a total of 75 paired evaluations in 60 patients (41 cerebral infarctions, 15 cerebral hemorrhages and 4 transient ischemic attacks). Thirty-three (55%) patients were alert, 17 (28.3%) drowsy and 10 (16.7%) stuporous or comatose. The overall rater agreement was excellent in the FOUR score (Kw 0.93; 95% CI 0.89-0.97) with an ICC of 0.94 (95% CI 0.91-0.96) and in the GCS (Kw 0.96; 95% CI 0.94-0.98) with an ICC of 0.96 (95% CI 0.93-0.97). A good correlation was found between the FOUR score and the GCS (rho 0.83; p FOUR score and the NIH stroke scale (rho -0.78; p FOUR score is a reliable scale for evaluating the level of consciousness in acute stroke patients, showing a good correlation with the GCS and the NIH stroke scale. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate: Can be a prognostic marker in acute ischemic stroke?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Selçuk Çomoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR values and the severity of neurological findings on admission, short- term prognosis, risk factors and etiology of the patients with acute ischemic stroke. MATERIAL and METHODS: One hundred and fifty-eight consecutive patients who admitted to the hospital within 24 hours of stroke onset were retrospectively analyzed. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS and modified Rankin Scale (mRS scores on admission and mRS scores at discharge, brain imaging findings, stroke etiology and risk factors of the patients were recorded. Patients were classified into three groups according to ESR values on admission and compared in terms of severity of clinical symptoms on admission, short-term prognosis, risk factors and etiology of stroke. RESULTS: A total 158 patients with acute ischemic stroke including 89 women and 69 men were enrolled in the study. Patients with ESR≤10 mm/h were included in group 1 (n=49, ESR levels between 11-25 mm/h were included in group 2 (n=69 and ESR≥26 mm/h were included in group 3 (n=40. No significant difference was determined between the groups in terms of NIHSS and mRS scores on admission and mRS scores at discharge and etiology of stroke. While coronary artery disease was found more frequently in group 1 and 2 than group 3 (p=0.018, valvular heart disease was more frequently in group 2 than group 1 (p=0.037. CONCLUSION: The results of our study revealed that ESR levels on admission do not reflect the severity of stroke and can not be accepted as a useful predictor of short-term prognosis in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

  20. Discrimination of acute ischemic stroke from nonischemic vertigo in patients presenting with only imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shoji; Inatomi, Yuichiro; Yonehara, Toshiro; Hashimoto, Yoichiro; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ando, Yukio; Uchino, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Some patients who present with an acute feeling of imbalance are experiencing an ischemic stroke that is not evident on computed tomography (CT) scans. The aim of this study was to compare ischemic stroke and nonischemic vertigo patient groups and to investigate independent factors associated with ischemic stroke. We examined 332 consecutive patients with an acute feeling of imbalance who showed no neurologic findings or responsible lesions on CT scan at the hyperacute phase. We examined their clinical backgrounds, physical findings, and laboratory examinations, with ischemic stroke diagnosed by later CT and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We identified 41 (12.3%) ischemic stroke patients. Atrial fibrillation (odds ratio 4.1; 95% confidence interval 1.4-11.5), white blood cell count (10(3)/μL, 1.4; 1.2-1.6), head and/or neck pain (4.6; 2.1-10.3), first attack of imbalance feeling (3.3; 1.1-12.2), and dizziness (3.7; 1.7-8.3) were significant and independent factors associated with ischemic stroke among patients with an acute feeling of imbalance. We used these factors to calculate an "imbalance score"; 1 point was given for the presence of each factor and a score of 3-5 points was independently associated with ischemic stroke. An awareness of these factors may indicate that further examinations including MRI are necessary to rule out ischemic stroke. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Developing complex interventions: lessons learned from a pilot study examining strategy training in acute stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Elizabeth R; Dawson, Deirdre R; Whyte, Ellen M; Butters, Meryl A; Dew, Mary Amanda; Grattan, Emily S; Becker, James T; Holm, Margo B

    2014-04-01

    To examine the feasibility of a strategy training clinical trial in a small group of adults with stroke-related cognitive impairments in inpatient rehabilitation, and to explore the impact of strategy training on disability. Non-randomized two-group intervention pilot study. Two inpatient rehabilitation units within an academic health centre. Individuals with a primary diagnosis of acute stroke, who were admitted to inpatient rehabilitation and demonstrated cognitive impairments were included. Individuals with severe aphasia; dementia; major depressive disorder, bipolar, or psychotic disorder; recent drug or alcohol abuse; and anticipated length of stay less than five days were excluded. Participants received strategy training or an attention control session in addition to usual rehabilitation care. Sessions in both groups were 30-40 minutes daily, five days per week, for the duration of inpatient rehabilitation. We assessed feasibility through participants' recruitment and retention; research intervention session number and duration; participants' comprehension and engagement; intervention fidelity; and participants' satisfaction. We assessed disability at study admission, inpatient rehabilitation discharge, 3 and 6 months using the Functional Independence Measure. Participants in both groups (5 per group) received the assigned intervention (>92% planned sessions; >94% fidelity) and completed follow-up testing. Strategy training participants in this small sample demonstrated significantly less disability at six months (M (SE) = 117 (3)) than attention control participants (M(SE) = 96 (14); t 8 = 7.87, P = 0.02). It is feasible and acceptable to administer both intervention protocols as an adjunct to acute inpatient rehabilitation, and strategy training shows promise for reducing disability.

  2. Multi-professional audit supports clinical governance in projecting and implementing a new stroke care area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Masina

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients with acute stroke have better outcomes in terms of survival or regaining independence if they receive organized inpatient care in a specific setting (Stroke Unit, SU where a coordinated multidisciplinary team can ensure the best level of care. The clinical governance of an SU requires a systematic monitoring of diagnostic, clinical and therapeutic processes through a structured audit. The entire project and set up of a new SU in Bentivoglio, Italy, were based on a model that focused on multidisciplinary teamwork and clinical governance. An audit based on the Benjamin audit cycle followed every step of the set up of the new SU. Markers from national and international guidelines and from the Italian Regional Audit, together with a specific database were used. The audit showed a high level of care and a significant improvement in the majority of clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic parameters. Only a few markers (i.e. waiting times for ultrasound tomography and prescription of oral anticoagulation therapy required specific projects in order to improve the results. Our experience confirmed that a structured audit can support clinical governance of an SU by monitoring clinical processes and quality of care. Such an audit involves the whole professional team and shows the effects of any single actions. It also helps integration and co-operation among staff. Furthermore, a structured audit is a useful instrument for professional accountability for both qualitative and quantitative aspects of care.

  3. Minocycline treatment in acute stroke: an open-label, evaluator-blinded study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampl, Y; Boaz, M; Gilad, R; Lorberboym, M; Dabby, R; Rapoport, A; Anca-Hershkowitz, M; Sadeh, M

    2007-10-02

    Ischemic animal model studies have shown a neuroprotective effect of minocycline. To analyze the effect of minocycline treatment in human acute ischemic stroke. We performed an open-label, evaluator-blinded study. Minocycline at a dosage of 200 mg was administered orally for 5 days. The therapeutic window of time was 6 to 24 hours after onset of stroke. Data from NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS), modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and Barthel Index (BI) were evaluated. The primary objective was to compare changes from baseline to day 90 in NIHSS in the minocycline group vs placebo. One hundred fifty-two patients were included in the study. Seventy-four patients received minocycline treatment, and 77 received placebo. NIHSS and mRS were significantly lower and BI scores were significantly higher in minocycline-treated patients. This pattern was already apparent on day 7 and day 30 of follow-up. Deaths, myocardial infarctions, recurrent strokes, and hemorrhagic transformations during follow-up did not differ by treatment group. Patients with acute stroke had significantly better outcome with minocycline treatment compared with placebo. The findings suggest a potential benefit of minocycline in acute ischemic stroke.

  4. Mechanical thrombectomy in acute embolic stroke: preliminary results with the revive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Stefan; Haehnel, Stefan; Herweh, Christian; Pham, Mirko; Stampfl, Sibylle; Ringleb, Peter A; Bendszus, Martin

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety and technical feasibility of a new thrombectomy device (Revive; Micrus Endovascular) in the endovascular treatment of acute ischemic stroke. Ten patients with acute large vessel occlusions were treated with the Revive device between October 2010 and December 2010. Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale on admission was 19.0; mean duration of symptoms was 172 minutes. Recanalization was assessed using the Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction score. Clinical outcome (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale) after thrombectomy was determined on Day 1, at discharge, and at Day 30. Vessel recanalization (Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction 2b or 3) was successful in all patients without device-related complications. Mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 24 hours after the intervention, at discharge, and at Day 30 was 14.0, 11.5, and 5.1, respectively. At Day 30, 6 patients had a clinical improvement of >8 points or an National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale of 0 to 1, 1 patient showed minor improvement, and 3 patients had died. Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage occurred in 2 patients, of which 1 was fatal. Thrombectomy with the Revive device in patients with stroke with acute large vessel occlusions demonstrated to be technically safe and highly effective. Clinical safety and efficacy have to be established in larger clinical trials.

  5. Cerebral collateral therapeutics in acute ischemic stroke: A randomized preclinical trial of four modulation strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beretta, Simone; Versace, Alessandro; Carone, Davide; Riva, Matteo; Dell'Era, Valentina; Cuccione, Elisa; Cai, Ruiyao; Monza, Laura; Pirovano, Silvia; Padovano, Giada; Stiro, Fabio; Presotto, Luca; Paternò, Giovanni; Rossi, Emanuela; Giussani, Carlo; Sganzerla, Erik P; Ferrarese, Carlo

    2017-10-01

    Cerebral collaterals are dynamically recruited after arterial occlusion and highly affect tissue outcome in acute ischemic stroke. We investigated the efficacy and safety of four pathophysiologically distinct strategies for acute modulation of collateral flow (collateral therapeutics) in the rat stroke model of transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. A composed randomization design was used to assign rats (n = 118) to receive phenylephrine (induced hypertension), polygeline (intravascular volume load), acetazolamide (cerebral arteriolar vasodilation), head down tilt (HDT) 15° (cerebral blood flow diversion), or no treatment, starting 30 min after MCA occlusion. Compared to untreated animals, treatment with collateral therapeutics was associated with lower infarct volumes (62% relative mean difference; 51.57 mm 3 absolute mean difference; p Collateral therapeutics acutely increased cerebral perfusion in the medial (+40.8%; p collaterals is feasible and provides a tissue-saving effect in the hyperacute phase of ischemic stroke prior to recanalization therapy.

  6. Economic impact of enoxaparin after acute ischemic stroke based on PREVAIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineo, Graham; Lin, Jay; Stern, Lee; Subrahmanian, Tarun; Annemans, Lieven

    2011-04-01

    The efficacy and safety of low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) versus unfractionated heparin (UFH) has been demonstrated for the prevention of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after acute ischemic stroke. Few data exist regarding the economic impact of LMWHs versus UFH in this population. A decision-analytic model was constructed using clinical information from the Prevention of VTE after Acute Ischemic stroke with LMWH Enoxaparin (PREVAIL) study, and drug costs and mean Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services event costs. When considering the total cost of events and drugs, enoxaparin was associated with cost-savings of $895 per patient compared with UFH ($2018 vs $2913). Findings were retained within the univariate and multivariate analyses. From a payer perspective, enoxaparin was cost-effective compared with UFH in patients with acute ischemic stroke. The difference was driven by the lower clinical event rates with enoxaparin. Use of enoxaparin may help to reduce the clinical and economic burden of VTE.

  7. Association of serial biochemical markers with acute ischemic stroke: the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauch, Edward C; Lindsell, Christopher; Broderick, Joseph; Fagan, Susan C; Tilley, Barbara C; Levine, Steven R

    2006-10-01

    Biochemical markers of acute neuronal injury may aid in the diagnosis and management of acute ischemic stroke. Serum samples from the National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) recombinant tissue plasminogen activator Stroke Study were analyzed for the presence of 4 biochemical markers of neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell injury. These biochemical markers, myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100beta, and soluble thrombomodulin, were studied for an association with initial stroke severity, infarct volume, and functional outcome. In the original NINDS study, serum samples were drawn from all patients on presentation to the Emergency Department and at approximately 2 and 24 hours after initiation of study therapy. In this analysis, stored serum samples were available for 359 patients; 107 patients had samples for all 3 time points. Serum marker concentrations were measured by ELISA techniques. We examined the relation between serum concentrations of each marker and the degree of baseline neurological deficit, functional outcome, and infarct size on computed tomography at 24 hours and the effect of fibrinolytic therapy. Higher 24-hour peak concentrations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta were associated with higher National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale baseline scores (r=0.186, P<0.0001; r=0.117, P=0.032; and r=0.263, P<0.0001, respectively). Higher peak concentrations of MBP and S100beta (r=0.209, P<0.0001; r=0.239, P<0.0001) were associated with larger computed tomography lesion volumes. Patients with favorable outcomes had smaller changes in MBP and S100beta (P<0.05) concentrations in the first 24 hours. Soluble thrombomodulin was not associated with any severity or outcome measure. This study corroborates previous work demonstrating correlations of MBP, NSE, and S100beta with clinical and radiographic features in acute stroke. Despite significantly better outcomes in the tissue plasminogen activator-treated group, we

  8. The role of the speech language pathologist in acute stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilworth Cindy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Dysphagia and communication impairment are common consequences of stroke. Stroke survivors with either or both of these impairments are likely to have poorer long-term outcomes than those who do not have them. Speech-language pathologists (SLP play a significant role in the screening, formal assessment, management, and rehabilitation of stroke survivors who present with dysphagia and/or communication impairment. Early diagnosis and referral is critical, as is intensive intervention as soon as the patient is able to participate. The SLP is also responsible for educating carers and staff in strategies that can support the patient and for making appropriate environmental modifications (e.g. altering diet consistencies or providing information in an aphasia-friendly format to optimize the stroke survivor′s participation, initially, in the rehabilitation program and, subsequently, within the community.

  9. Risk factors for medical complications of acute hemorrhagic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jangala Mohan Sidhartha

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: Our study has assessed that hypertension followed by diabetes mellitus are the major risk factors for medical complications of hemorrhagic stroke. Female mortality rate was more when compared to males.

  10. Process improvement methodologies uncover unexpected gaps in stroke care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuner, Anthony D; Schemmel, Andrew J; Pooler, B Dustin; Yu, John-Paul J

    2018-01-01

    Background The diagnosis and treatment of acute stroke requires timed and coordinated effort across multiple clinical teams. Purpose To analyze the frequency and temporal distribution of emergent stroke evaluations (ESEs) to identify potential contributory workflow factors that may delay the initiation and subsequent evaluation of emergency department stroke patients. Material and Methods A total of 719 sentinel ESEs with concurrent neuroimaging were identified over a 22-month retrospective time period. Frequency data were tabulated and odds ratios calculated. Results Of all ESEs, 5% occur between 01:00 and 07:00. ESEs were most frequent during the late morning and early afternoon hours (10:00-14:00). Unexpectedly, there was a statistically significant decline in the frequency of ESEs that occur at the 14:00 time point. Conclusion Temporal analysis of ESEs in the emergency department allowed us to identify an unexpected decrease in ESEs and through process improvement methodologies (Lean and Six Sigma) and identify potential workflow elements contributing to this observation.

  11. Incidence and predictors of new-onset constipation during acute hospitalisation after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, S-F; Ong, S Y; Tan, Y L; Ng, Y S; Chan, Y H; Childs, C

    2015-04-01

    We investigated new-onset constipation in patients with stroke compared with orthopaedic conditions and explored the predictors associated with constipation during acute hospitalisation. This was a prospective matched cohort study of 110 patients comparing stroke patients (n = 55) with orthopaedic patients (n = 55) admitted to a large tertiary acute hospital. Both cohorts were matched by age and sex. The incidence of new-onset constipation which occurred during a patient's acute hospitalisation was determined. Demographics, comorbidity, clinical factors, laboratory parameters and medications were evaluated as possible predictors of constipation. The incidence of new-onset constipation was high for both stroke (33%) and orthopaedic patients (27%; p = 0.66). Seven stroke patients (39%) and four orthopaedic patients (27%) developed their first onset of constipation on day 2 of admission. Mobility gains (RR 0.741, p constipation. Bedpan use (RR 2.058, p constipation. New-onset constipation is common among patients admitted for stroke and orthopaedic conditions during acute hospitalisation. The early occurrence, on day 2 of admission, calls for prompt preventive intervention for constipation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Quality of health information on acute myocardial infarction and stroke in the world wide web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Ana; Paiva, Dagmara; Azevedo, Ana

    2014-01-01

    The quality of health information in the Internet may be low. This is a concerning issue in cardiovascular diseases which warrant patient self-management. We aimed to assess the quality of Portuguese websites as a source of health information on acute myocardial infarction and stroke. We used the search terms 'enfarte miocardio' and 'acidente vascular cerebral' (Portuguese terms for myocardial infarction and stroke) on Google(®), on April 5th and 7th 2011, respectively, using Internet Explorer(®). The first 200 URL retrieved in each search were independently visited and Portuguese websites in Portuguese language were selected. We analysed and classified 121 websites for structural characteristics, information coverage and accuracy of the web pages with items defined a priori, trustworthiness in general according to the Health on the Net Foundation and regarding treatments using the DISCERN instrument (48 websites). Websites were most frequently commercial (49.5%), not exclusively dedicated to acute myocardial infarction/ stroke (94.2%), and with information on medical facts (59.5%), using images, video or animation (60.3%). Websites' trustworthiness was low. None of the websites displayed the Health on the Net Foundation seal. Acute myocardial infarction/ stroke websites differed in information coverage but the accuracy of the information was acceptable, although often incomplete. The quality of information on acute myocardial infarction/ stroke in Portuguese websites was acceptable. Trustworthiness was low, impairing users' capability of identifying potentially more reliable content.

  13. Migraine and risk of stroke and acute coronary syndrome in two case-control studies in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osler, Merete; Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Jørgensen, Martin Balslev

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Migraine has consistently been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, while the evidence for a relation with other types of stroke or coronary outcomes is limited. We examined the association between migraine and stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes and the ......INTRODUCTION: Migraine has consistently been associated with increased risk of ischemic stroke, while the evidence for a relation with other types of stroke or coronary outcomes is limited. We examined the association between migraine and stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) subtypes...... medication had increased ORs of all stroke subtypes (ischemic, hemorrhagic stroke and transient ischemic attacks). The diagnosis of migraine was also associated with both angina and myocardial infarction (ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction [STEMI], non-STEMI and unspecified) with the highest OR for angina...

  14. Feasibility and utility of an integrated medical imaging and informatics smartphone system for management of acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkirkova, Kristina; Akam, Eftitan Y; Huang, Josephine; Sheth, Sunil A; Nour, May; Liang, Conrad W; McManus, Michael; Trinh, Van; Duckwiler, Gary; Tarpley, Jason; Vinuela, Fernando; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-12-01

    Background Rapid dissemination and coordination of clinical and imaging data among multidisciplinary team members are essential for optimal acute stroke care. Aim To characterize the feasibility and utility of the Synapse Emergency Room mobile (Synapse ERm) informatics system. Methods We implemented the Synapse ERm system for integration of clinical data, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance, and catheter angiographic imaging, and real-time stroke team communications, in consecutive acute neurovascular patients at a Comprehensive Stroke Center. Results From May 2014 to October 2014, the Synapse ERm application was used by 33 stroke team members in 84 Code Stroke alerts. Patient age was 69.6 (±17.1), with 41.5% female. Final diagnosis was: ischemic stroke 64.6%, transient ischemic attack 7.3%, intracerebral hemorrhage 6.1%, and cerebrovascular-mimic 22.0%. Each patient Synapse ERm record was viewed by a median of 10 (interquartile range 6-18) times by a median of 3 (interquartile range 2-4) team members. The most used feature was computerized tomography, magnetic resonance, and catheter angiography image display. In-app tweet team, communications were sent by median 1 (interquartile range 0-1, range 0-13) users per case and viewed by median 1 (interquartile range 0-3, range 0-44) team members. Use of the system was associated with rapid treatment times, faster than national guidelines, including median door-to-needle 51.0 min (interquartile range 40.5-69.5) and median door-to-groin 94.5 min (interquartile range 85.5-121.3). In user surveys, the mobile information platform was judged easy to employ in 91% (95% confidence interval 65%-99%) of uses and of added help in stroke management in 50% (95% confidence interval 22%-78%). Conclusion The Synapse ERm mobile platform for stroke team distribution and integration of clinical and imaging data was feasible to implement, showed high ease of use, and moderate perceived added utility in therapeutic management.

  15. Improving post-stroke recovery: the role of the multidisciplinary health care team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, David J; Forster, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of serious, long-term disability, the effects of which may be prolonged with physical, emotional, social, and financial consequences not only for those affected but also for their family and friends. Evidence for the effectiveness of stroke unit care and the benefits of thrombolysis have transformed treatment for people after stroke. Previously viewed nihilistically, stroke is now seen as a medical emergency with clear evidence-based care pathways from hospital admission to discharge. However, stroke remains a complex clinical condition that requires health professionals to work together to bring to bear their collective knowledge and specialist skills for the benefit of stroke survivors. Multidisciplinary team working is regarded as fundamental to delivering effective care across the stroke pathway. This paper discusses the contribution of team working in improving recovery at key points in the post-stroke pathway.

  16. Observer reliability of CT angiography in the assessment of acute ischaemic stroke: data from the Third International Stroke Trial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mair, Grant; Farrall, Andrew J.; Sellar, Robin J.; Mollison, Daisy; Sakka, Eleni; Palmer, Jeb; Wardlaw, Joanna M. [University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Division of Neuroimaging Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Kummer, Ruediger von [Dresden University Stroke Centre, University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Dresden (Germany); Adami, Alessandro [Sacro Cuore-Don Calabria Hospital, Stroke Center, Department of Neurology, Negrar (Italy); White, Philip M. [Stroke Research Group, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom); Adams, Matthew E. [National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, Department of Neuroradiology, London (United Kingdom); Yan, Bernard [Royal Melbourne Hospital, Neurovascular Research Group, Parkville (Australia); Demchuk, Andrew M. [Calgary Stroke Program, Department of Clinical Neurosciences, Calgary (Canada); Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Samji, Karim; Baird, Andrew J. [Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh, Department of Radiology, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Boyd, Elena V. [Northwick Park Hospital, Department of Radiology, Harrow (United Kingdom); Cohen, Geoff; Perry, David; Sandercock, Peter A.G. [University of Edinburgh, Western General Hospital, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Lindley, Richard [University of Sydney, Westmead Hospital Clinical School and The George Institute for Global Health, Sydney (Australia); Collaboration: The IST-3 Collaborative Group

    2014-10-07

    CT angiography (CTA) is often used for assessing patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Only limited observer reliability data exist. We tested inter- and intra-observer reliability for the assessment of CTA in acute ischaemic stroke. We selected 15 cases from the Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3, ISRCTN25765518) with various degrees of arterial obstruction in different intracranial locations on CTA. To assess inter-observer reliability, seven members of the IST-3 expert image reading panel (>5 years experience reading CTA) and seven radiology trainees (<2 years experience) rated all 15 scans independently and blind to clinical data for: presence (versus absence) of any intracranial arterial abnormality (stenosis or occlusion), severity of arterial abnormality using relevant scales (IST-3 angiography score, Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score, Clot Burden Score), collateral supply and visibility of a perfusion defect on CTA source images (CTA-SI). Intra-observer reliability was assessed using independently repeated expert panel scan ratings. We assessed observer agreement with Krippendorff's-alpha (K-alpha). Among experienced observers, inter-observer agreement was substantial for the identification of any angiographic abnormality (K-alpha = 0.70) and with an angiography assessment scale (K-alpha = 0.60-0.66). There was less agreement for grades of collateral supply (K-alpha = 0.56) or for identification of a perfusion defect on CTA-SI (K-alpha = 0.32). Radiology trainees performed as well as expert readers when additional training was undertaken (neuroradiology specialist trainees). Intra-observer agreement among experts provided similar results (K-alpha = 0.33-0.72). For most imaging characteristics assessed, CTA has moderate to substantial observer agreement in acute ischaemic stroke. Experienced readers and those with specialist training perform best. (orig.)

  17. Observer reliability of CT angiography in the assessment of acute ischaemic stroke: data from the Third International Stroke Trial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mair, Grant; Farrall, Andrew J.; Sellar, Robin J.; Mollison, Daisy; Sakka, Eleni; Palmer, Jeb; Wardlaw, Joanna M.; Kummer, Ruediger von; Adami, Alessandro; White, Philip M.; Adams, Matthew E.; Yan, Bernard; Demchuk, Andrew M.; Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Rodrigues, Mark A.; Samji, Karim; Baird, Andrew J.; Boyd, Elena V.; Cohen, Geoff; Perry, David; Sandercock, Peter A.G.; Lindley, Richard

    2015-01-01

    CT angiography (CTA) is often used for assessing patients with acute ischaemic stroke. Only limited observer reliability data exist. We tested inter- and intra-observer reliability for the assessment of CTA in acute ischaemic stroke. We selected 15 cases from the Third International Stroke Trial (IST-3, ISRCTN25765518) with various degrees of arterial obstruction in different intracranial locations on CTA. To assess inter-observer reliability, seven members of the IST-3 expert image reading panel (>5 years experience reading CTA) and seven radiology trainees (<2 years experience) rated all 15 scans independently and blind to clinical data for: presence (versus absence) of any intracranial arterial abnormality (stenosis or occlusion), severity of arterial abnormality using relevant scales (IST-3 angiography score, Thrombolysis in Cerebral Infarction (TICI) score, Clot Burden Score), collateral supply and visibility of a perfusion defect on CTA source images (CTA-SI). Intra-observer reliability was assessed using independently repeated expert panel scan ratings. We assessed observer agreement with Krippendorff's-alpha (K-alpha). Among experienced observers, inter-observer agreement was substantial for the identification of any angiographic abnormality (K-alpha = 0.70) and with an angiography assessment scale (K-alpha = 0.60-0.66). There was less agreement for grades of collateral supply (K-alpha = 0.56) or for identification of a perfusion defect on CTA-SI (K-alpha = 0.32). Radiology trainees performed as well as expert readers when additional training was undertaken (neuroradiology specialist trainees). Intra-observer agreement among experts provided similar results (K-alpha = 0.33-0.72). For most imaging characteristics assessed, CTA has moderate to substantial observer agreement in acute ischaemic stroke. Experienced readers and those with specialist training perform best. (orig.)

  18. Treatment with intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke is associated with reduced bed day use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Terkelsen, Thorkild; Schmitz, Marie Louise; Simonsen, Claus Z.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) on neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke. It is uncertain whether the improved neurological outcome also translates into less morbidity and lower need for hospi......Introduction: Several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of intravenous tissue-type plasminogen activator (IV-tPA) on neurological outcome in acute ischemic stroke. It is uncertain whether the improved neurological outcome also translates into less morbidity and lower need...

  19. Advanced imaging in acute stroke management-Part I: Computed tomographic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Monica; Butcher, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging is fundamental to stroke diagnosis and management. Non-contrast computed tomography (NCCT) has been the primary imaging modality utilized for this purpose for almost four decades. Although NCCT does permit identification of intracranial hemorrhage and parenchymal ischemic changes, insights into blood vessel patency and cerebral perfusion are limited. Advances in reperfusion strategies have made identification of potentially salvageable brain tissue a more practical concern. Advances in CT technology now permit identification of acute and chronic arterial lesions, as well as cerebral blood flow deficits. This review outlines principles of advanced CT image acquisition and its utility in acute stroke management.

  20. 'It was like he was in the room with us': patients' and carers' perspectives of telemedicine in acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Josephine; Lightbody, Elizabeth; McLoughlin, Alison; McAdam, Joanna; Gibson, Alison; Day, Elaine; Fitzgerald, Jane; May, Carl; Price, Chris; Emsley, Hedley; Ford, Gary A; Watkins, Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Telemedicine can facilitate delivery of thrombolysis in acute stroke. The aim of this qualitative study was to explore patients' and carers' views of their experiences of using a stroke telemedicine system in order to contribute to the development of reliable and acceptable telemedicine systems and training for health-care staff. We recruited patients who had, and carers who were present at, recent telemedicine consultations for acute stroke in three hospitals in NW England. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide based on normalization process theory (NPT). Thematic analysis was undertaken. We conducted 24 interviews with 29 participants (16 patients; 13 carers). Eleven interviews pertained to 'live' telemedicine assessments (at the time of admission); nine had mock-up telemedicine assessments (within 48 h of admission); four had both assessments. Using the NPT domains as a framework for analysis, factors relating to coherence (sense making) included people's knowledge and understanding of telemedicine. Cognitive participation (relational work) included interaction between staff and with patients and carers. Issues relating to collective action (operational work) included information exchange and support, and technical matters. Findings relating to reflexive monitoring (appraisal) included positive and negative impressions of the telemedicine process, and emotional reactions. Although telemedicine was well accepted by many participants, its use added an additional layer of complexity to the acute stroke consultation. The 'remote' nature of the consultation posed challenges for some patients. These issues may be ameliorated by clear information for patients and carers, staff interpersonal skills, and teamworking. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Continuing or Temporarily Stopping Prestroke Antihypertensive Medication in Acute Stroke:An Individual Patient Data Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Woodhouse, Lisa J.; Manning, Lisa; Potter, John F.; Berge, Eivind; Sprigg, Nikola; Wardlaw, Joanna; Lees, Kennedy R.; Bath, Philip M.; Robinson, Thompson G.; , Blood Pressure in Acute Stroke Collaboration (BASC)

    2017-01-01

    Over 50% of patients are already taking blood pressure-lowering therapy on hospital admission for acute stroke. An individual patient data meta-analysis from randomized controlled trials was undertaken to determine the effect of continuation versus temporarily stopping pre-existing antihypertensive medication in acute stroke. Key databases were searched for trials against the following inclusion criteria: randomized design; stroke onset ≤48 hours; investigating the effect of continuation vers...

  2. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2014-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  3. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/ critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  4. The use of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lancellotti, Patrizio; Price, Susanna; Edvardsen, Thor

    2015-01-01

    Echocardiography is one of the most powerful diagnostic and monitoring tools available to the modern emergency/critical care practitioner. Currently, there is a lack of specific European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging/Acute Cardiovascular Care Association recommendations for the use...... of echocardiography in acute cardiovascular care. In this document, we describe the practical applications of echocardiography in patients with acute cardiac conditions, in particular with acute chest pain, acute heart failure, suspected cardiac tamponade, complications of myocardial infarction, acute valvular heart...

  5. Delirium in the acute phase after stroke: comparison between methods of detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, Maria Teresa; Pardini, Matteo; Balestrino, Maurizio; Finocchi, Cinzia; Malfatto, Laura; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Mancardi, Giovanni Luigi; Gandolfo, Carlo; Serrati, Carlo

    2017-06-01

    Delirium is an acute neuropsychiatric syndrome, very common in hospitalized people with medical and neurological conditions. The identification of delirium after stroke is not an easy task and validated psychometric instruments are needed to correctly identify it. We decided to verify if (1) formal training in DSM-V criteria is needed to correctly identify post-stroke delirium, (2) if the use of a brief psychometric instrument such as 4AT improves its identification, (3) the applicability of these scales in the stroke setting. In the first phase of this study we retrospectively studied 102 acute stroke patients in Stroke Units of San Martino Hospital (Genova, Italy) to evaluate delirium with clinical criteria, first by a neurologist without a formal training in DSM-V criteria and after training. Then, we enrolled 100 new acute stroke patients who underwent screening for delirium using 4AT scale and DSM-V criteria. In the first phase, DSM-V criteria training significantly increased the ability to capture delirium (5 vs. 15%). In the second phase, the 4AT was used for delirium screening revealing a 52% of cases of delirium, the same observed by the consensus diagnosis of two senior neurologists (that was 50%). In the second phase, the use of 4AT scale allowed to capture post-stroke delirium as well as the consensus diagnosis by two neurologists. The identification of post-stroke delirium is not an easy task and requires both formal training in DSM-V criteria as well as the application of brief scales, such as the 4AT.

  6. SOS score: an optimized score to screen acute stroke patients for obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilo, Millene R; Sander, Heidi H; Eckeli, Alan L; Fernandes, Regina M F; Dos Santos-Pontelli, Taiza E G; Leite, Joao P; Pontes-Neto, Octavio M

    2014-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is frequent in acute stroke patients, and has been associated with higher mortality and worse prognosis. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard diagnostic method for OSA, but it is impracticable as a routine for all acute stroke patients. We evaluated the accuracy of two OSA screening tools, the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ), and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) when administered to relatives of acute stroke patients; we also compared these tools against a combined screening score (SOS score). Ischemic stroke patients were submitted to a full PSG at the first night after onset of symptoms. OSA severity was measured by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). BQ and ESS were administered to relatives of stroke patients before the PSG and compared to SOS score for accuracy and C-statistics. We prospectively studied 39 patients. OSA (AHI ≥10/h) was present in 76.9%. The SOS score [area under the curve (AUC): 0.812; P = 0.005] and ESS (AUC: 0.789; P = 0.009) had good predictive value for OSA. The SOS score was the only tool with significant predictive value (AUC: 0.686; P = 0.048) for severe OSA (AHI ≥30/h), when compared to ESS (P = 0.119) and BQ (P = 0.191). The threshold of SOS ≤10 showed high sensitivity (90%) and negative predictive value (96.2%) for OSA; SOS ≥20 showed high specificity (100%) and positive predictive value (92.5%) for severe OSA. The SOS score administered to relatives of stroke patients is a useful tool to screen for OSA and may decrease the need for PSG in acute stroke setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Insulin resistance is associated with a poor response to intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, Ana I; García-Bermejo, Pablo; Cortijo, Elisa; Bustamante, Rosa; Rojo Martínez, Esther; González Sarmiento, Enrique; Fernández-Herranz, Rosa; Arenillas, Juan F

    2011-11-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) may not only increase stroke risk, but could also contribute to aggravate stroke prognosis. Mainly through a derangement in endogenous fibrinolysis, IR could affect the response to intravenous thrombolysis, currently the only therapy proved to be efficacious for acute ischemic stroke. We hypothesized that high IR is associated with more persistent arterial occlusions and poorer long-term outcome after stroke thrombolysis. We performed a prospective, observational, longitudinal study in consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients presenting with middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion who received intravenous thrombolysis. Patients with acute hyperglycemia (≥155 mg/dL) receiving insulin were excluded. IR was determined during admission by the homeostatic model assessment index (HOMA-IR). Poor long-term outcome, as defined by a day 90 modified Rankin scale score ≥ 3, was considered the primary outcome variable. Transcranial Duplex-assessed resistance to MCA recanalization and symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation were considered secondary end points. A total of 109 thrombolysed MCA ischemic stroke patients were included (43.1% women, mean age 71 years). The HOMA-IR was higher in the group of patients with poor outcome (P = 0.02). The probability of good outcome decreased gradually with increasing HOMA-IR tertiles (80.6%, 1st tertile; 71.4%, 2nd tertile; and 55.3%, upper tertile). A HOMA-IR in the upper tertile was independently associated with poor outcome when compared with the lower tertile (odds ratio [OR] 8.54 [95% CI 1.67-43.55]; P = 0.01) and was associated with more persistent MCA occlusions (OR 8.2 [1.23-54.44]; P = 0.029). High IR may be associated with more persistent arterial occlusions and worse long-term outcome after acute ischemic stroke thrombolysis.

  8. Audit report and systematic review of orolingual angioedema in post-acute stroke thrombolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekoubou, Alain; Philippeau, Frédéric; Derex, Laurent; Olaru, Angel; Gouttard, Michel; Vieillart, Anne; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2014-07-01

    Post-intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (r-tPA) orolingual angioedema (PIROLA), including the life-threatening form, is an underappreciated complication of ischaemic stroke treatment. We present an audit report and a systematic review of published observational studies on PIROLA occurrence in acute ischaemic stroke patients. Clinical files of patients treated in the stroke unit of Bourg-en-Bresse General Hospital (France) from January 2010 to December 2012 were reviewed, and MEDLINE (inception to May 2013) were searched and bibliographies/citations of retrieved articles examined for evidence of PIROLA. Of the 129 acute ischaemic stroke patients treated at Bourg-en-Bresse between 2010 and 2012, four patients, all receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI), developed a PIROLA (cumulative incidence rate: 32‰). The complication started within an hour of receiving r-tPA and integrally resolved within 3-24 hours, with antihistamines/steroid treatment in two patients. The systematic review identified 27 studies, totalising with ours, over 9050 acute ischaemic stroke patients from 12 countries, among whom 100 (cumulative incidence rate: 17‰; 95% confidence intervals: 8-26), developed a PIROLA within 6-240 minutes of receiving r-tPA, 0-100% of them occurring among patients on ACEI. The complication was contralateral to the stroke location in 47% cases, ipsilateral in 14%, and bilateral in 39%; and resolved within 24 hours with treatment in 90%. No related death was recorded. About 17‰ acute ischaemic stroke patients receiving r-tPA develop PIROLA, occurring essentially among those on concomitant ACEI. PIROLA occurrence should be actively monitored, particularly within the first few hours as some may require urgent lifesaving procedures.

  9. Socioeconomic disparities in first stroke incidence, quality of care, and survival: a nationwide registry-based cohort study of 44 million adults in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin D Bray, MD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: We aimed to estimate socioeconomic disparities in the incidence of hospitalisation for first-ever stroke, quality of care, and post-stroke survival for the adult population of England. Methods: In this cohort study, we obtained data collected by a nationwide register on patients aged 18 years or older hospitalised for first-ever acute ischaemic stroke or primary intracerebral haemorrhage in England from July 1, 2013, to March 31, 2016. We classified socioeconomic status at the level of Lower Super Output Areas using the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a neighbourhood measure of deprivation. Multivariable models were fitted to estimate the incidence of hospitalisation for first stroke (negative binomial, quality of care using 12 quality metrics (multilevel logistic, and all-cause 1 year case fatality (Cox proportional hazards. Findings: Of the 43·8 million adults in England, 145 324 were admitted to hospital with their first-ever stroke: 126 640 (87% with ischaemic stroke, 17 233 (12% with intracerebral haemorrhage, and 1451 (1% with undetermined stroke type. We observed a socioeconomic gradient in the incidence of hospitalisation for ischaemic stroke (adjusted incidence rate ratio 2·0, 95% CI 1·7–2·3 for the most vs least deprived deciles and intracerebral haemorrhage (1·6, 1·3–1·9. Patients from the lowest socioeconomic groups had first stroke a median of 7 years earlier than those from the highest (p<0·0001, and had a higher prevalence of pre-stroke disability and diabetes. Patients from lower socioeconomic groups were less likely to receive five of 12 care processes but were more likely to receive early supported discharge (adjusted odds ratio 1·14, 95% CI 1·07–1·22. Low socioeconomic status was associated with a 26% higher adjusted risk of 1-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1·26, 95% CI 1·20–1·33, for highest vs lowest deprivation decile, but this gradient was largely attenuated after

  10. Higher levels of serum fibrin-monomer reflect hypercoagulable state and thrombus formation in the left atrial appendage in patients with acute ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuyama, Hidenobu; Hirono, Osamu; Liu, Ling; Takeishi, Yasuchika; Kayama, Takamasa; Kubota, Isao

    2006-08-01

    It is sometimes difficult to make a diagnosis of cardioembolic stroke in the stroke care unit, because of the splashing and vanishing of the intracardiac source of the emboli on transesophageal echocardiography. Serum fibrin-monomer (FM) is a new marker for coagulation activity that is useful for identifying older individuals at increased risk of ischemic stroke. Two hundred and four patients with acute ischemic stroke were examined for serum coagulation and fibrinolytic activity on admission, and underwent transesophageal echocardiography within 7 days of onset. Serum levels of FM was significantly higher in patients with left atrial appendage (LAA) thrombus formation (n=24) than in those with no thrombus (88+/-52 vs 14+/-9 microg/ml, pvs 8+/-5 microg/ml, pstroke.

  11. Thrombolysis outcomes in acute ischemic stroke patients with prior stroke and diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, N K; Ahmed, N; Davalos, A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with concomitant diabetes mellitus (DM) and prior stroke (PS) were excluded from European approval of alteplase in stroke. We examined the influence of DM and PS on the outcomes of patients who received thrombolytic therapy (T; data from Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis......,986), or concomitant DM and PS (OR 1.23 [0.996-1.52], p = 0.05, n = 1,136), all CMH p treatment (tissue...

  12. Computed Tomography Perfusion Improves Diagnostic Accuracy in Acute Posterior Circulation Stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Peter; Schmidt, Rene; Minnerup, Jens; Dziewas, Rainer; Kemmling, André; Dittrich, Ralf; Zoubi, Tarek; Heermann, Philipp; Cnyrim, Christian; Schwindt, Wolfram; Heindel, Walter; Niederstadt, Thomas; Hanning, Uta

    2016-01-01

    Computed tomography perfusion (CTP) has a high diagnostic value in the detection of acute ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation. However, the diagnostic value in suspected posterior circulation (PC) stroke is uncertain, and whole brain volume perfusion is not yet in widespread use. We therefore studied the additional value of whole brain volume perfusion to non-contrast CT (NCCT) and CT angiography source images (CTA-SI) for infarct detection in patients with suspected acute ischemic PC stroke. This is a retrospective review of patients with suspected stroke in the PC in a database of our stroke center (n = 3,011) who underwent NCCT, CTA and CTP within 9 h after stroke onset and CT or MRI on follow-up. Images were evaluated for signs and pc-ASPECTS locations of ischemia. Three imaging models - A (NCCT), B (NCCT + CTA-SI) and C (NCCT + CTA-SI + CTP) - were compared with regard to the misclassification rate relative to gold standard (infarction in follow-up imaging) using the McNemar's test. Of 3,011 stroke patients, 267 patients had a suspected stroke in the PC and 188 patients (70.4%) evidenced a PC infarct on follow-up imaging. The sensitivity of Model C (76.6%) was higher compared with that of Model A (21.3%) and Model B (43.6%). CTP detected significantly more ischemic lesions, especially in the cerebellum, posterior cerebral artery territory and thalami. Our findings in a large cohort of consecutive patients show that CTP detects significantly more ischemic strokes in the PC than CTA and NCCT alone. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of stroke units in France compared with conventional care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launois, R; Giroud, M; Mégnigbêto, A C; Le Lay, K; Présenté, G; Mahagne, M H; Durand, I; Gaudin, A F

    2004-03-01

    The incidence of stroke in France is estimated at between 120 000 and 150 000 cases per year. This modeling study assessed the clinical and economic benefits of establishing specialized stroke units compared with conventional care. Data from the Dijon stroke registry were used to determine healthcare trajectories according to the degree of autonomy and organization of patient care. The relative risks of death or institutionalization or death or dependence after passage through a stroke unit were compared with conventional care. These risks were then inserted with the costing data into a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of stroke units. Patients cared for in a stroke unit survive more trimesters without sequelae in the 5 years after hospitalization than those cared for conventionally (11.6 versus 8.28 trimesters). The mean cost per patient at 5 years was estimated at 30 983 for conventional care and 34 638 in a stroke unit. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for stroke units of 1359 per year of life gained without disability was estimated. The cost-effectiveness ratio for stroke units is much lower than the threshold (53 400 ) of acceptability recognized by the international scientific community. This finding justifies organizational changes in the management of stroke patients and the establishment of stroke units in France.

  14. Effects of payment changes on trends in post-acute care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntin, Melinda Beeuwkes; Colla, Carrie Hoverman; Escarce, José J

    2009-08-01

    To test how the implementation of new Medicare post-acute payment systems affected the use of inpatient rehabilitation facilities (IRFs), skilled nursing facilities (SNFs), and home health agencies. Medicare acute hospital, IRF, and SNF claims; provider of services file; enrollment file; and Area Resource File data. We used multinomial logit models to measure realized access to post-acute care and to predict how access to alternative sites of care changed in response to prospective payment systems. A file was constructed linking data for elderly Medicare patients discharged from acute care facilities between 1996 and 2003 with a diagnosis of hip fracture, stroke, or lower extremity joint replacement. Although the effects of the payment systems on the use of post-acute care varied, most reduced the use of the site of care they directly affected and boosted the use of alternative sites of care. Payment system changes do not appear to have differentially affected the severely ill. Payment system incentives play a significant role in determining where Medicare beneficiaries receive their post-acute care. Changing these incentives results in shifting of patients between post-acute sites.

  15. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tefera Gezmu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. METHODS: Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. RESULTS: South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. DISCUSSION: Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  16. Risk factors for acute stroke among South Asians compared to other racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezmu, Tefera; Schneider, Dona; Demissie, Kitaw; Lin, Yong; Gizzi, Martin S

    2014-01-01

    Studies of racial/ethnic variations in stroke rarely consider the South Asian population, one of the fastest growing sub-groups in the United States. This study compared risk factors for stroke among South Asians with those for whites, African-Americans, and Hispanics. Data on 3290 stroke patients were analyzed to examine risk differences among the four racial/ethnic groups. Data on 3290 patients admitted to a regional stroke center were analyzed to examine risk differences for ischemic stroke (including subtypes of small and large vessel disease) among South Asians, whites, African Americans and Hispanics. South Asians were younger and had higher rates of diabetes mellitus, blood pressure, and fasting blood glucose levels than other race/ethnicities. Prevalence of diabetic and antiplatelet medication use, as well as the incidence of small-artery occlusion ischemic stroke was also higher among South Asians. South Asians were almost a decade younger and had comparable socioeconomic levels as whites; however, their stroke risk factors were comparable to that of African Americans and Hispanics. Observed differences in stroke may be explained by dietary and life style choices of South Asian-Americans, risk factors that are potentially modifiable. Future population and epidemiologic studies should consider growing ethnic minority groups in the examination of the nature, outcome, and medical care profiles of stroke.

  17. MR-visible brain water content in human acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Rosenbaum, S; Sperling, B

    1999-01-01

    CBF) SPECT-scanning using 99mTc-HMPAO as flow tracer was performed in the patients. Mean water content (SD) in the infarct area was 37.7 (5.1); 41.8 (4.8); 35.2 (5.4); and 39.3 (5.1) mol x [kg wet weight](-1) at 0-3; 4-7; 8-21; and >180 days after stroke, respectively. Water content increased between Day 0......CBF from Day 0-3 to Day 4-7 (p = 0.050) and from Day 0-3 to Day 8-21 (p = 0.028). No correlation between rCBF and water content was found. Water content in ischemic brain tissue increased significantly between Day 4-7 after stroke. This should be considered when performing quantitative 1H-MRS using water...... as an internal standard in stroke patients....

  18. Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belagaje, Samir R

    2017-02-01

    Rehabilitation is an important aspect of the continuum of care in stroke. With advances in the acute treatment of stroke, more patients will survive stroke with varying degrees of disability. Research in the past decade has expanded our understanding of the mechanisms underlying stroke recovery and has led to the development of new treatment modalities. This article reviews and summarizes the key concepts related to poststroke recovery. Good data now exist by which one can predict recovery, especially motor recovery, very soon after stroke onset. Recent trials have not demonstrated a clear benefit associated with very early initiation of rehabilitative therapy after stroke in terms of improvement in poststroke outcomes. However, growing evidence suggests that shorter and more frequent sessions of therapy can be safely started in the first 24 to 48 hours after a stroke. The optimal amount or dose of therapy for stroke remains undetermined, as more intensive treatments have not been associated with better outcomes compared to standard intensities of therapy. Poststroke depression adversely affects recovery across a variety of measures and is an important target for therapy. Additionally, the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) appears to benefit motor recovery through pleiotropic mechanisms beyond their antidepressant effect. Other pharmacologic approaches also appear to have a benefit in stroke rehabilitation. A comprehensive rehabilitation program is essential to optimize poststroke outcomes. Rehabilitation is a process that uses three major principles of recovery: adaptation, restitution, and neuroplasticity. Based on these principles, multiple different approaches, both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic, exist to enhance rehabilitation. In addition to neurologists, a variety of health care professionals are involved in stroke rehabilitation. Successful rehabilitation involves understanding the natural history of stroke recovery and a

  19. Multi-Disciplinary Stroke Care in Developing Countries – Lessons from the Wessex-Ghana Stroke Partnership

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Johnson

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Stroke disease in Ghana has been of increasing concern since the mid to late 20th century, in association with the increasing westernisation of diet and lifestyle [1]. Two thirds of world-wide mortality cases from stroke occur in sub-Saharan Africa [2], and in the Ghanaian capital city region of Accra, stroke is now attributed as the second largest cause of death [1]. The burden of stroke in sub-Saharan Africa is significant [3]. Experts recommend a three-prong approach to dealing with the burden of non-communicable disease (NCD: epidemiological surveillance; primary prevention (preventing disease in healthy populations; and secondary prevention (preventing complications and improving quality of life in affected communities [4]. This paper outlines the development of a specialist stroke service in Accra, Ghana. This work therefore broadly relates to the secondary prevention aspect, achieved through the development of a dedicated and specialised stroke service. Whilst this project took place in Ghana, the learning could be applied to the development of a stroke service in any resource poor setting, such as South Sudan. Indeed, because the focus is on establishing the fundamentals of organised stroke care, the principles are also entirely relevant to more developed health care systems.

  20. Early initiation of new oral anticoagulants in acute stroke and TIA patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibazaki, Kensaku; Kimura, Kazumi; Aoki, Junya; Saji, Naoki; Sakai, Kenichiro

    2013-08-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether early initiation of new oral anticoagulants (NOAC) for acute stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) are safe. Between March 2011 and September 2012, stroke or TIA patients with NVAF who started NOAC within 2 weeks were enrolled retrospectively. Symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation (HT) on T2*-weighted MRI, recurrence of stroke or TIA, systemic embolism and any bleeding complications after initiation of NOAC were evaluated. 41 patients (25 males; mean age 76.2 years) started NOAC; of which, 39 (95%) patients had stroke, and 2 (5%) had TIA. The median (interquartile range) interval from onset to treatment with NOAC was 2 (1-6) days. Symptomatic ICH was not observed. HT on initial T2* and new HT on follow-up T2* were 5 (12%) and 11 (31%), but it was asymptomatic. Of 5 patients who had HT on the initial T2*, enlargement of hemorrhage on follow-up T2* (hemorrhagic infarction (HI) Type 1→HI Type 2) was observed in 1 patient, but it was asymptomatic. None of the patients had recurrent stroke or TIA, systemic embolism, and any bleeding complications. The NOAC may be safe in acute stroke or TIA patients with NVAF. A large, prospective study is needed to confirm this. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictors of pneumonia in acute stroke in patients in an emergency unit

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    Sara R. M. Almeida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective To evaluate the risk factors and comorbid conditions associated with the development of pneumonia in patients with acute stroke. To determine the independent predictors of pneumonia. Method Retrospective study from July to December 2011. We reviewed all medical charts with diagnosis of stroke. Results 159 patients (18-90 years were admitted. Prevalence of pneumonia was 32%. Pneumonia was more frequent in patients with hemorrhagic stroke (OR: 4.36; 95%CI: 1.9-10.01, p < 0.001, higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS (p = 0.047 and, lower Glasgow Coma Score (GCS (p < 0.0001. Patients with pneumonia had longer hospitalization (p < 0.0001. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified NIHSS as an independent predictor of pneumonia (95%CI: 1.049-1.246, p = 0.002. Conclusion Pneumonia was associated with severity and type of stroke and length of hospital stay. The severity of the deficit as evaluated by the NIHSS was shown to be the only independent risk factor for pneumonia in acute stroke patients.

  2. Changes in plasma homocyst(e)ine in the acute phase after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Virginia J; Sides, Elizabeth G; Newman, George C; Cohen, Stanley N; Howard, George; Malinow, M Rene; Toole, James F

    2002-02-01

    Elevated plasma homocyst(e)ine [H(e)] concentration has been associated with an increased risk of stroke. Although the literature suggests that H(e) increases from the acute to the convalescent phase after a stroke, it is not known whether H(e) changes within the acute period. A prospective, multicenter study was conducted to examine changes in H(e) during the 2 weeks after an incident stroke. Blood samples were collected at days 1, 3, 5, 7, and between 10 and 14 days after the stroke. Seventy-six participants (51 men) were enrolled from 9 sites from February 1997 through June 1998. Mean age was 65.6 years, and subjects had at least two H(e) measurements. The estimated mean H(e) level at baseline was 11.3+/-0.5 micromol/L, which increased consistently to a mean of 12.0+/-0.05, 12.4+/-0.5, 13.3+/-0.5, and 13.7+/-0.7 micromol/L at days 3, 5, 7, and 10 to 14, respectively. The magnitude of the change in H(e) was not affected by age, sex, smoking status, alcohol use, history of hypertension or diabetes, or Rankin Scale Score. ; These data suggest that the clinical interpretation of H(e) after stroke and the eligibility for clinical trials assessing treatment for elevated H(e) levels require an adjustment in time since stroke to properly interpret the observed H(e) levels.

  3. Topography of acute stroke in a sample of 439 right brain damaged patients.

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    Sperber, Christoph; Karnath, Hans-Otto

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the typical lesion topography and volumetry is important for clinical stroke diagnosis as well as for anatomo-behavioral lesion mapping analyses. Here we used modern lesion analysis techniques to examine the naturally occurring lesion patterns caused by ischemic and by hemorrhagic infarcts in a large, representative acute stroke patient sample. Acute MR and CT imaging of 439 consecutively admitted right-hemispheric stroke patients from a well-defined catchment area suffering from ischemia (n = 367) or hemorrhage (n = 72) were normalized and mapped in reference to stereotaxic anatomical atlases. For ischemic infarcts, highest frequencies of stroke were observed in the insula, putamen, operculum and superior temporal cortex, as well as the inferior and superior occipito-frontal fascicles, superior longitudinal fascicle, uncinate fascicle, and the acoustic radiation. The maximum overlay of hemorrhages was located more posteriorly and more medially, involving posterior areas of the insula, Heschl's gyrus, and putamen. Lesion size was largest in frontal and anterior areas and lowest in subcortical and posterior areas. The large and unbiased sample of stroke patients used in the present study accumulated the different sub-patterns to identify the global topographic and volumetric pattern of right hemisphere stroke in humans.

  4. Thrombolytic therapy for the treatment of acute ischaemic stroke in adults with homozygous sickle cell disease.

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    Majhadi, Loubna; Calvet, David; Rosso, Charlotte; Bartolucci, Pablo

    2017-07-28

    Stroke is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD). A specific large-vessel vasculopathy is often responsible for both haemorrhagic and ischaemic strokes in patients with SCD. Although intravenous thrombolysis has been considered as a therapeutic option for acute ischaemic strokes in SCD, its use remains debated because of an increased risk of spontaneous intracranial haemorrhage reported in this disease. This risk of haemorrhage is mainly supported by the presence of a Moyamoya syndrome often associated with the specific vasculopathy in patients with homozygous SCD. We report two cases of patients with homozygous SCD treated with intravenous thrombolysis for an acute ischaemic stroke without haemorrhagic transformation. Our cases suggest that reperfusion strategy in acute ischaemic stroke in patients with homozygous SCD can be considered once associated Moyamoya syndrome has been ruled out. An international registry would be of interest as these situations are rare. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Artificial neural network prediction of ischemic tissue fate in acute stroke imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shiliang; Shen, Qiang; Duong, Timothy Q

    2010-01-01

    Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging of acute stroke provides predictive value that can be used to guide stroke therapy. A flexible artificial neural network (ANN) algorithm was developed and applied to predict ischemic tissue fate on three stroke groups: 30-, 60-minute, and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. Cerebral blood flow (CBF), apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), and spin–spin relaxation time constant (T2) were acquired during the acute phase up to 3 hours and again at 24 hours followed by histology. Infarct was predicted on a pixel-by-pixel basis using only acute (30-minute) stroke data. In addition, neighboring pixel information and infarction incidence were also incorporated into the ANN model to improve prediction accuracy. Receiver-operating characteristic analysis was used to quantify prediction accuracy. The major findings were the following: (1) CBF alone poorly predicted the final infarct across three experimental groups; (2) ADC alone adequately predicted the infarct; (3) CBF+ADC improved the prediction accuracy; (4) inclusion of neighboring pixel information and infarction incidence further improved the prediction accuracy; and (5) prediction was more accurate for permanent occlusion, followed by 60- and 30-minute occlusion. The ANN predictive model could thus provide a flexible and objective framework for clinicians to evaluate stroke treatment options on an individual patient basis. PMID:20424631

  6. Thrombolytic treatment for acute ischemic cerebral stroke: intraarterial urokinase infusion vs. intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, Gi Young; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Jae Hong; Kim, Jun Hyoung; Choi, Choong Gon; Lee, Ho Kyu; Lee, Myoung Chong

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and limitation of intra-arterial urokinase (IAUK) infusion for treatment of acute cerebral stroke. Twenty-seven acute cerebral stroke patients treated with IAUK infusion within six hours of stroke onset were reviewed. All patients showed normal initial brain findings on CT. In 21 patients, urokinase(5-15 x 10 5 IU) was administered through a microcatheter placed into or proximal to occluded segment. Mechanical disruption of thrombus by guidewire was performed in 17 patients. Angiographic and clinical responses and complications after IAUK infusion, were evaluated and the results were compared with those of intravenous heparin(N=19) and urokinase infusion(N=19). Complete or partial angiographic recanalization of occluded segment was found in 18 patients (67%), and neurologic improvement was followed in 14 patients(52%). The degree of improvement on the stroke scale score after IAUK infusion was statistically more significant(p<0.05) than that shown after intravenous heparin and urokinase infusion. Complications after IAUK infusion were large(15%) and small amount intracerebral hemorrhage(15%), contrast leakage into brain parenchyma(11%), and gastrointestinal bleeding(4%). Between the IAVK and the intravenous urokinase infusion group, differences in extent and types of complications were statistically insignificant, but were significantly higher in those two groups than in the intravenous heparin infusion group. IAUK infusion may be effective for the treatment of acute cerebral stroke

  7. [in-hospital mortality in patient with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadamasa, Nobutake; Yoshida, Kazumichi; Narumi, Osamu; Chin, Masaki; Yamagata, Sen

    2011-09-01

    There is a lack of evidence to compare in-hospital mortality with different types of stroke. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the in-hospital mortality after acute ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke and compare the factors associated with the mortality among stroke subtypes. All patients admitted to Kurashiki Central Hospital in Japan between January 2009 and December 2009, and diagnosed with acute ischemic/hemorrhagic stroke were included in this study. Demographics and clinical data pertaining to the patients were obtained from their medical records. Out of 738 patients who had an acute stroke, 53 (7.2%) died in the hospital. The in-hospital mortality was significantly lower in the cerebral infarction group than in the intracerebral hemorrhage and subarachnoid hemorrhage group (3.5%, 15.1%, and 17.9%, respectively; Phemorrhage group than in the other 2 groups. With regard to past history, diabetes mellitus was significantly found to be a complication in mortality cases of intracranial hemorrhage. Further investigation is needed to clarify the effect of diabetes on mortality after intracranial hemorrhage.

  8. Monitoring the implementation of the State-Regional Council agreement 03/02/2005 as to the management of acute stroke events: a comparison of the Italian regional legislations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidetti, Donata; Spallazzi, Marco; Rota, Eugenia; Morelli, Nicola; Immovilli, Paolo; Toni, Danilo; Baldereschi, Marzia; Di Carlo, Antonio; Polizzi, Bianca M; Ferro, Salvatore; Inzitari, Domenico

    2013-09-01

    Access to effective acute stroke services is a crucial factor to reduce stroke-related death and disability, but is limited in different parts of Italy. Our study addresses this inequality across the Italian regions by examining the regional legislations issued to adopt and implement the State-Regional Council agreement 03/02/2005 as to the acute stroke management. All decrees and resolutions as to acute stroke were collected from each region and examined by the means of a check list including quantitative and qualitative characteristics, selected in accordance with the recommendations from the State-Regional Council document. Each completed check list was then sent to each regional reference person, who filled in the section on the implementation of the indications and compliance, with the collaboration of stroke specialists if necessary. The study was carried out from November 2009 to September 2010. The documents and information were collected from 19 regions. Our survey revealed disparities both in terms of number of decrees and resolutions and of topics covered by the regional legislations about stroke care. Most legislations lacked practical and economical details. This feedback from national and regional stroke regulations revealed a need of more concrete indications. Involvement of various stakeholders (legislators, consumers, providers) might possibly ensure that policies are actually adopted, implemented and maintained. Although considerable challenges are present to the development of standard and optimal stroke care more widely across Italian regions, the potential gains from such developments are substantial.

  9. Head Position in Stroke Trial (HeadPoST)--sitting-up vs lying-flat positioning of patients with acute stroke: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Venturelli, Paula; Arima, Hisatomi; Lavados, Pablo; Brunser, Alejandro; Peng, Bin; Cui, Liying; Song, Lily; Billot, Laurent; Boaden, Elizabeth; Hackett, Maree L; Heritier, Stephane; Jan, Stephen; Middleton, Sandy; Olavarría, Verónica V; Lim, Joyce Y; Lindley, Richard I; Heeley, Emma; Robinson, Thompson; Pontes-Neto, Octavio; Natsagdorj, Lkhamtsoo; Lin, Ruey-Tay; Watkins, Caroline; Anderson, Craig S

    2015-06-05

    Positioning a patient lying-flat in the acute phase of ischaemic stroke may improve recovery and reduce disability, but such a possibility has not been formally tested in a randomised trial. We therefore initiated the Head Position in Stroke Trial (HeadPoST) to determine the effects of lying-flat (0°) compared with sitting-up (≥ 30°) head positioning in the first 24 hours of hospital admission for patients with acute stroke. We plan to conduct an international, cluster randomised, crossover, open, blinded outcome-assessed clinical trial involving 140 study hospitals (clusters) with established acute stroke care programs. Each hospital will be randomly assigned to sequential policies of lying-flat (0°) or sitting-up (≥ 30°) head position as a 'business as usual' stroke care policy during the first 24 hours of admittance. Each hospital is required to recruit 60 consecutive patients with acute ischaemic stroke (AIS), and all patients with acute intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) (an estimated average of 10), in the first randomised head position policy before crossing over to the second head position policy with a similar recruitment target. After collection of in-hospital clinical and management data and 7-day outcomes, central trained blinded assessors will conduct a telephone disability assessment with the modified Rankin Scale at 90 days. The primary outcome for analysis is a shift (defined as improvement) in death or disability on this scale. For a cluster size of 60 patients with AIS per intervention and with various assumptions including an intracluster correlation coefficient of 0.03, a sample size of 16,800 patients at 140 centres will provide 90 % power (α 0.05) to detect at least a 16 % relative improvement (shift) in an ordinal logistic regression analysis of the primary outcome. The treatment effect will also be assessed in all patients with ICH who are recruited during each treatment study period. HeadPoST is a large international clinical trial in

  10. Regional variation in post-stroke multidisciplinary rehabilitation care among veteran residents in community nursing homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia H

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Huanguang Jia,1 Qinglin Pei,1 Charles T Sullivan,1 Diane C Cowper Ripley,1 Samuel S Wu,1 W Bruce Vogel,1 Xinping Wang,1 Douglas E Bidelspach,2 Jennifer L Hale-Gallardo,1 Barbara E Bates3 1Center of Innovation on Disability and Rehabilitation Research, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL, 2Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, 3Aleda E. Lutz VA Medical Center, Saginaw, MI, USA Introduction: Effective post-acute multidisciplinary rehabilitation therapy improves stroke survivors’ functional recovery and daily living activities. The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA places veterans needing post-acute institutional care in private community nursing homes (CNHs. These placements are made under the same rules and regulations across the VA health care system and through individual per diem contracts between local VA facilities and CNHs. However, there is limited information about utilization of these veterans’ health services as well as the geographic variation of the service utilization. Aim: The aims of this study were to determine rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care utilization by veterans with stroke in VA-contracted CNHs and to assess risk-adjusted regional variations in the utilization of rehabilitation therapy and restorative nursing care. Methods: This retrospective study included all veterans diagnosed with stroke residing in VA-contracted CNHs between 2006 and 2009. Minimum Dataset (a health status assessment tool for CNH residents for the study CNHs was linked with veterans’ inpatient and outpatient data within the VA health care system. CNHs were grouped into five VA-defined geographic regions: the North Atlantic, Southeast, Midwest, Continental, and Pacific regions. A two-part model was applied estimating risk-adjusted utilization probability and average weekly utilization days. Two dependent variables were rehabilitation

  11. Targets of vascular protection in acute ischemic stroke differ in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly-Cobbs, Aisha I.; Prakash, Roshini; Li, Weiguo; Pillai, Bindu; Hafez, Sherif; Coucha, Maha; Johnson, Maribeth H.; Ogbi, Safia N.; Fagan, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic transformation is an important complication of acute ischemic stroke, particularly in diabetic patients receiving thrombolytic treatment with tissue plasminogen activator, the only approved drug for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of acute manipulation of potential targets for vascular protection [i.e., NF-κB, peroxynitrite, and matrix me