Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S
The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder
Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse
Rudenga, K J; Sinha, R; Small, D M
Stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to affect amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. A total of 14 overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as they consumed a palatable milkshake during script-driven, autobiographical, guided imagery of stressful and neutral-relaxing scenarios. We report that a network including insula, somatomotor mouth area, ventral striatum and thalamus responds to milkshake receipt, but none of these areas are affected by stress. In contrast, whereas the left amygdala responds to milkshake irrespective of condition, the right amygdala responds to milkshake only under stressful conditions. Moreover, this right amygdala response is positively associated with basal cortisol levels, an objective measure of chronic stress. We also found a positive relationship between BMI and stress-related increased response to milkshake in the orbitofrontal cortex(OFC). These results demonstrate that acute stress potentiates response to food in the right amygdala and OFC as a function of chronic stress and body weight, respectively. This suggests that the influence of acute stress in potentiating amygdala and OFC responses to food is dependent upon individual factors like BMI and chronic stress. We conclude that BMI and chronic stress play a significant role in brain response to food and in stress-related eating.
Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava
Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA.
Logan, Cheryl A; Somero, George N
... proteins of the cellular stress response. Here, using a complementary DNA microarray, we investigated the sequence in which cellular stress response-linked genes are expressed during acute heat stress, to elucidate how severity of stress...
O’Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette
Summary Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure. PMID:22315044
The effects of acute stress due to handling and transportation on the hematology of Tilapia guineensis was investigated. A total of sixty T. guineensis consisting of thirty juvenile fish (mean length 15.68m±322SD; mean weight 90.36g ±4.81SD) and thirty adult fish (mean length 22.74cm ± 4.78; mean weight 412.92g ± 6.23) ...
Viena, Tatiana D; Banks, Jonathan B; Barbu, Isabelle M; Schulman, Allan H; Tartar, Jaime L
While acute stress is adaptive in the short term, chronic stress may interfere with HPA axis functioning and self-regulation that can, in turn, alter the body's immune response. Several studies suggest that acute and chronic stress consistently increase cortisol levels; however, the same cannot be said about S-IgA levels. We tested the effects of a mild chronic stress (an academic exam period), on cortisol and S-IgA responses to an acute stress. Exposure to an acute stressor significantly increases cortisol levels during periods of no-stress, but not during mild chronic stress, while S-IgA levels consistently increase during both sessions. Furthermore, we find that during the period of chronic mild stress, the perception of stress is related to increased cortisol response to an acute stressor. Combined, these findings shed light on the impact of increased background stress on acute stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Coppens, Eline; Kempke, Stefan; Van Wambeke, Peter; Claes, Stephan; Morlion, Bart; Luyten, Patrick; Van Oudenhove, Lukas
Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to measure ECA history. Salivary cortisol levels and subjective stress ratings were measured at multiple time points before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered. Significant main effects of group [F(1,43)=7.04, p=0.011, lower in FM] and ECA [F(1,43)=5.18, p=0.028, higher in participants with ECA] were found for cortisol responses. When excluding controls with ECA (n=5), a significant group-by-time interaction was found [F(6,39)=2.60, p=0.032], driven by a blunted response to the stressor in FM compared with controls (p=0.037). For subjective stress responses, a significant main effect of group [F(1,45)=10.69, p=0.002, higher in FM] and a trend towards a group-by-time interaction effect [F(6,45)=2.05, p=0.078, higher in FM 30 minutes before and 30 and 75 minutes after the TSST, and impaired recovery (difference immediately after - 30 minutes after the TSST) in FM] were found. Blunted cortisol responsivity to the TSST was observed in FM patients compared with controls without ECA. FM patients had higher subjective stress levels compared with controls, particularly at baseline and during recovery from the TSST. In FM patients, ECA history was not associated with cortisol or subjective stress levels, or with responsivity to the TSST. Future research should investigate the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysregulation in FM.
The high level of both chronic and acute stress in daily life can endanger our health. Therefore it is important to develop strategies to cope with the stress one cannot evade. In this thesis we investigate whether acute sport changes the response of healthy individuals to a social stress test. To answer this question 34 healthy individuals were placed in either the placebo or verum group by chance. The verum group had to exercise for 30 minutes on a treadmill. After this treatment both group...
Wyss, Thomas; Boesch, Maria; Roos, Lilian; Tschopp, Céline; Frei, Klaus M; Annen, Hubert; La Marca, Roberto
Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training. Heart rate was measured continuously, and salivary alpha amylase was measured twice, before and after the stress intervention. In the same week, all volunteers participated in a physical fitness test and they responded to questionnaires on lifestyle factors and personal traits. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine ANS responses to acute psychosocial stress from physical fitness test performances, controlling for personal traits, behavioural factors, and socioeconomic data. Multiple linear regression revealed three variables predicting 15 % of the variance in heart rate response (area under the individual heart rate response curve during TSST-G) and four variables predicting 12 % of the variance in salivary alpha amylase response (salivary alpha amylase level immediately after the TSST-G) to acute psychosocial stress. A strong performance at the progressive endurance run (high maximal oxygen consumption) was a significant predictor of ANS response in both models: low area under the heart rate response curve during TSST-G as well as low salivary alpha amylase level after TSST-G. Further, high muscle power, non-smoking, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were predictors of a favourable ANS response in either one of the two dependent variables. Good physical fitness, especially good aerobic endurance capacity, is an important protective factor against health
Rudenga, KJ; Sinha, R.; Small, DM
Objective Stress is associated with increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food, and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to impact amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. Design Fourteen overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as t...
von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H
Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.
Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
This study investigates the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of DHEA and DHEA-S in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Physiological measurements were performed before, directly after the stress test and after 30 mins of recovery. In both men and women, significantly elevated DHEA and DHEA-S levels were observed in response to the stressor. There was a large inter-individual variation in the magnitude of the response, especially for DHEA but no statistical difference between men and women. Magnitude of the change in the levels of DHEA was found to be positively associated with the magnitude of the changes in ACTH, cortisol and heart rate. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that the capacity to secrete DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress declines with age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Caring for an offspring with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with high levels of distress, and health problems. Indeed, ED caregivers have to cope with a range of challenges related to their caring role, which represents a chronic stress situation. This tends to alter body homeostasis and caregivers' health status. This study aimed to analyse the electrodermal reactivity and psychological response to acute stress in ED caregivers compared to non-caregivers. As expected, caregivers showed lower electrodermal (p stress than non-caregivers. The findings suggest the existence of physiological adaptation to chronic stress in family caregivers of people with EDs.
Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A
Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Christensen, J.W.; Beekmans, M; van Dalum, M; van Dierendonck, M.C.
The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min
Jennifer M. Rojas
Conclusions: The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study.
Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.
Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433
Heather M Buechel
Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.
Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen
The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.
Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M
In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated
Tadpoles exposed to diesel, kerosene, petrol and spent engine oil exhibited consistent responses among the three test parameters, however inconsistent responses were observed in tadpoles exposed to unused engine oils. The relevance of the comparisons in biomarker selection and ecotoxicology were discussed.
Loft, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Petrie, Keith J; Booth, Roger J; Miles, Jeremy; Vedhara, Kavita
The present study examined how cardiovascular and salivary cortisol responses varied in response to an acute challenge in medical students under exam stress versus those not under exam stress. One hundred and twenty-nine medical students were randomly assigned to undertake a CO2 inhalation test either prior to an examination period (exam group) or during a regular academic period (non-exam group). Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured for 5 min before and 5 min after the task, and salivary cortisol samples were collected 1 min before and 10 and 30 min after the CO2 inhalation test. Participants also completed a questionnaire measuring self-reported perceived stress. The exam group exhibited significantly higher HR reactivity following the CO2 inhalation test and slower systolic blood pressure (SBP) recovery compared with the non-exam group. The exam group also reported higher perceived stress and higher stress scores were related to higher HR reactivity following CO2 inhalation. Female students across both groups exhibited significantly lower SBP reactivity compared with male students. Salivary cortisol levels were consistently lower in the exam group. These findings indicate that ongoing natural stress alters cortisol secretion and cardiovascular responses in the face of an acute stress challenge.
Saito, Shin; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Choi, Yang-Ho; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro
Melatonin is involved in a variety of biological functions including sleep and stress. Our previous study indicated that neonatal layer chicks were more susceptible to stress than broilers. However, it is not clear whether differences exist in melatonin concentrations between both types of chickens, nor is it known whether melatonin is directly involved in stress in neonatal chickens. In the present study we first compared melatonin concentrations in brain tissues (pineal gland, brain stem, telencephalon, and optic lobe) between neonatal broiler and layer chicks raised under either 12 h light:12 h dark cycle (lights on at 07:00 h) or continuous illumination. Although melatonin concentrations were much higher in broilers than layers at night under the alternative light-dark cycle, these differences disappeared under the 24 h illumination. We thus chose neonatal layers for a test system. We then investigated if intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of melatonin modulated plasma corticosterone concentrations under continuous illumination. Neonatal layer chicks housed in groups were ICV injected (1) with melatonin (0, 0.116 and 1.16 microg) or with nothing as an intact control followed by isolation in an open-field environment for 10 min; and (2) were given one of the followings treatments: nothing (intact control), control (0 microg), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) (0.01 microg), melatonin (1.16 microg), or CRF (0.01 microg) + melatonin (1.16 microg). Ten minutes thereafter blood was collected via heart puncture to determine plasma corticosterone content. Isolation resulted in a significant increase in corticosterone concentration, and both doses of ICV melatonin completely suppressed this increase (P<0.01). CRF injection resulted in a strong increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations (P<0.01). Co-injection with melatonin attenuated the CRF-induced corticosterone elevation in plasma (P<0.01). Our findings provide direct evidence that melatonin modulates
Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) is an anabolic protective hormone. We have previously reported that DHEA-s production capacity is attenuated in stressed individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the DHEA-s response during acute psychosocial stress in patients with clinical burnout. Seventeen patients with clinical burnout were compared to 13 non-chronically stressed healthy controls, aged 31-50 years (mean age 41 years, SD 6 years), as they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). All patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for stress-related exhaustion disorder, which is a criteria-based diagnosis that has been used in Sweden since 2005 to define patients seeking health-care for clinical burnout. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. DHEA-s levels were measured and delta values (peak levels minus baseline levels) plus area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI) were calculated. The patients had 43% smaller AUCI DHEA-s (p=0.041) during the stress test. The delta DHEA-s was 34% lower in the patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.054). The study indicates that DHEA-s production capacity during acute stress may be attenuated in patients with clinical burnout. Reduced DHEA-s production may constitute one of the links between stress, burnout and the associated adverse health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M
Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.
Cai, Wen-Peng; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Shui-Miao; Wei, Cun; Dong, Wei; Deng, Guang-Hui
The current study aimed to explore the association of cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers and to understand the multiple mediation effects of social support and resilience on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. A total of 1477 male soldiers completed mental scales, including the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-Chinese version, the perceived social support scale, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and the military acute stress scale. As hypothesized, physiological responses, psychological responses, and acute stress were associated with negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation, and negatively associated with positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social supports and resilience. Besides, positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience were significantly associated with one another, and negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation was negatively associated with social support. Regression analysis and bootstrap analysis showed that social support and resilience had partly mediating effects on negative strategies and acute stress, and fully mediating effects on positive strategies and acute stress. These results thus indicate that military acute stress is significantly associated with cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience, and that social support and resilience have multiple mediation effects on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning
It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Simon, Brett A; Easley, R Blaine; Grigoryev, Dmitry N; Ma, Shwu-Fan; Ye, Shui Q; Lavoie, Tera; Tuder, Rubin M; Garcia, Joe G N
Human acute lung injury is characterized by heterogeneous tissue involvement, leading to the potential for extremes of mechanical stress and tissue injury when mechanical ventilation, required to support critically ill patients, is employed. Our goal was to establish whether regional cellular responses to these disparate local mechanical conditions could be determined as a novel approach toward understanding the mechanism of development of ventilator-associated lung injury. We utilized cross-species genomic microarrays in a unilateral model of ventilator-associated lung injury in anesthetized dogs to assess regional cellular responses to local mechanical conditions that potentially contribute pathogenic mechanisms of injury. Highly significant regional differences in gene expression were observed between lung apex/base regions as well as between gravitationally dependent/nondependent regions of the base, with 367 and 1,544 genes differentially regulated between these regions, respectively. Major functional groupings of differentially regulated genes included inflammation and immune responses, cell proliferation, adhesion, signaling, and apoptosis. Expression of genes encoding both acute lung injury-associated inflammatory cytokines and protective acute response genes were markedly different in the nondependent compared with the dependent regions of the lung base. We conclude that there are significant differences in the local responses to stress within the lung, and consequently, insights into the cellular responses that contribute to ventilator-associated lung injury development must be sought in the context of the mechanical heterogeneity that characterizes this syndrome.
Marković, Vladimir M; Čupić, Željko; Vukojević, Vladana; Kolar-Anić, Ljiljana
Detailed dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is complex, depending on the individual metabolic load of an organism, its current status (healthy/ill, circadian phase (day/night), ultradian phase) and environmental impact. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the HPA axis activity between different individuals or draw unequivocal conclusions about the overall status of the HPA axis in an individual using single time-point measurements of cortisol levels. The aim of this study is to identify parameters that enable us to compare different dynamic states of the HPA axis and use them to investigate self-regulation mechanisms in the HPA axis under acute and chronic stress. In this regard, a four-dimensional stoichiometric model of the HPA axis was used. Acute stress was modeled by inducing an abrupt change in cortisol level during the course of numerical integration, whereas chronic stress was modeled by changing the mean stationary state concentrations of CRH. Effects of acute stress intensity, duration and time of onset with respect to the ultradian amplitude, ultradian phase and the circadian phase of the perturbed oscillation were studied in detail. Bifurcation analysis was used to predict the response of the HPA axis to chronic stress. Model predictions were compared with experimental findings reported in the literature and relevance for pharmacotherapy with glucocorticoids was discussed.
Gesto, Manuel; Álvarez-Otero, Rosa; Conde-Sieira, Marta
Several compounds have been tested in fish in order to attenuate the effects of different stressors, most often following previous observations in mammals. The hormone melatonin (MEL) and the amino acid L-tryptophan have been tested for this purpose with different degree of success. In Senegalese...... performed in fish farms before an intended manipulative event with the animals. Our results demonstrate that adding MEL to the tanks 30. min before an acute chasing stress is effective in reducing the intensity of the stress response in fish from its beginning, as evidenced by the attenuated and delayed...... cortisol response in MEL-exposed animals. The hypothalamic levels of serotonergic activity and the mRNA levels of corticotropin-releasing factor were also attenuated in MEL-treated fish, suggesting that MEL effects occur through its inhibitory actions on the CNS pathways controlling the stress response...
Bassett, Sarah M.; Lupis, Sarah B.; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M
Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed towards understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body’s capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and sleep quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychos...
Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhong, Wen; An, Haiyan; Fu, Mingyu; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhenggang; Xiao, Zhongju
In recent years, a relationship between depression and basal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels has frequently been suggested, but responses of these adrenal steroids to psychosocial stress have not been examined in individuals with depressive disorders. In this study, we examined salivary DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in individuals with depressive disorders and in healthy controls to discover whether the responses of DHEA and DHEA-S to acute psychosocial stress could be a more sensitive marker of HPA dysfunction in depressive disorders. We compared salivary cortisol, DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA levels to the TSST tests between 38 individuals with depression and 43 healthy controls aged 18.4-25.9 years. Depression severity was assessed by the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Salivary samples were evaluated at four time points: the baseline (-10 time point), before the TSST started (0 time point), the end of the TSST (+20 time point), and the recovery (+50 time points). No significant differences existed in the basal adrenal hormonal levels between subjects with depressive disorders and controls; however, at the end of TSST, attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response was identified in subjects with depressive disorders compared to that found in healthy subjects. The differences in the DHEA and DHEA-S levels at the +20 time point, as well as the differences in the cortisol/DHEA at the +50 time point, exhibited negative correlations with depression severity. Attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress was identified in subjects with depressive disorders. These findings help us to discover the bi-directional relationship between depression and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, hence furthering our understanding of whether altered DHEA and DHEA-S response to psychosocial stress may be a more sensitive method than
Christensen, Janne Winther; Beekmans, M.; van Dalum, M.
The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min...... concentrations directly after LDR compared to LF. In addition, the horses showed more distinctive head movements, including head waving, during LDR. There were no significant treatment effects on HR and HRV. In conclusion, the results indicate that LDR may be more stressful to these horses during riding....
Jiang, Danli; Wu, Yubo; Huang, Di; Ren, Xing; Wang, Yan
Stress has a considerable impact on welfare and productivity of fish, and blood glucose level of fish may be a factor modulating stress response. This study evaluated the effect of blood glucose level and handling on acute stress response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella. Fish were intraperitoneally injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, 0.5, and 1.0 mg g-1 body mass (BM) and then were exposed to handling for 5 min. Glucose injection resulted in increase of plasma glucose level and liver glycogen content and decrease of plasma lactate level. Handling resulted in increase of plasma levels of cortisol, glucose, and lactate and plasma lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and decrease of liver glycogen content. At 1 h post-stress, the plasma cortisol level was lower in the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0.5 mg g-1 BM than the stressed fish injected with glucose at 0, 0.2, and 1.0 mg g-1 BM. No significant differences were found in the activities of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate kinase (PK) in the liver between the stressed and unstressed fish, regardless of the dose of glucose injection. At 1 h post-stress, the liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) activity was higher in the fish without glucose injection than in the fish injected with glucose. This study reveals that blood glucose level can affect stress response of grass carp by modulating cortisol release and glucose homeostasis through glycogen metabolism and gluconeogenesis in the liver.
Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou
Available energy plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of an immune response to a pathogen a process that is further altered by activation of stress system. This study was designed to determine the effect of an acute versus chronic stress model on the metabolic response to vaccinat...
Tahmasebi-Kohyani, Ahmad; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Nematollahi, Amin; Mahmoudi, Nemat; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein
This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary nucleotides (NT) on fish performance and acute stress response on fingerling rainbow trout (23 g ± 0.01, mean weight ± SEM). Five experimental diets according to different levels of supplemented nucleotides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) were assayed on experimental fish for 8 weeks. Growth, hematological parameters (hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil count), serum proteins (globulin, albumin), and plasma enzymatic activity (alkaline phosphatase, ALP; aspartate transaminase, AST; lactate dehydrogenase, LDH; alanine transaminase, ALT) were assayed. At the end of feeding trial, fish fed the control and 0.2% diets were subjected to handling and crowding stress. Modulatory effects of nucleotides on acute stress response (cortisol and glucose) and plasma electrolytes (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), and Ca(2+)) were studied. The percentage of body weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish were better when the fish were fed 0.15-0.2% diets. Fish fed the nucleotide-supplemented diets tended to have lower levels of serum enzymes including ALP, AST, LDH, and ALT. Plasma cortisol levels of fish fed on 0.2% diet under handling and crowding stress were significantly lower than fish fed the control diet at all post-stress time intervals. In our study, fish fed nucleotide-supplemented diet had significantly lower concentrations of glucose compared to those fed the basal diet. The concentrations of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium of fish fed the control diet were significantly lower than in fish fed nucleotide-supplemented diet. Dietary nucleotides administration seems to promote growth and to enhance resistance against handling and crowding stress in fingerling rainbow trout.
Ehlers, Anke; Suendermann, Oliver; Boellinghaus, Inga; Vossbeck-Elsebusch, Anna; Gamer, Matthias; Briddon, Emma; Martin, Melanie Walwyn; Glucksman, Edward
Physiological responses to trauma reminders are one of the core symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Nevertheless, screening measures for PTSD largely rely on symptom self-reports. It has been suggested that psychophysiological assessments may be useful in identifying trauma survivors with PTSD (Orr and Roth, 2000). This study investigated whether heart rate (HR) responses to standardized trauma-related pictures distinguish between trauma survivors with and without acute PTSD. Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N=162) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post-trauma while their ECG was recorded. At 1 and 6 months, structured clinical interviews assessed PTSD diagnoses. Participants completed self-report measures of PTSD severity and depression, peritraumatic responses, coping behaviors and appraisals. Trauma survivors with acute PTSD showed greater HR responses to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, as indicated by a less pronounced mean deceleration, greater peak responses, and a greater proportion showing HR acceleration of greater than 1 beat per minute. There were no group differences in HR responses to generally threatening or neutral pictures. HR responses to trauma-related pictures contributed to the prediction of PTSD diagnosis over and above what could be predicted from self-reports of PTSD and depression. HR responses to trauma-related pictures were related to fear and data-driven processing during the trauma, safety behaviors, suppression of trauma memories, and overgeneralized appraisals of danger. The results suggest that HR responses to standardized trauma-related pictures may help identify a subgroup of patients with acute PTSD who show generalized fear responses to trauma reminders. The early generalization of triggers of reexperiencing symptoms observed in this study is consistent with associative learning and cognitive models of PTSD. 2010
Li, Haiying; Miao, Weiguo; Ma, Jingfen; Xv, Zhen; Bo, Hai; Li, Jianyu; Zhang, Yong; Ji, Li Li
Increasing evidence has indicated that acute strenuous exercise can induce a range of adverse reactions including oxidative stress and tissue inflammation. However, little is currently known regarding the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of the inflammatory response in the myocardium during acute heavy exercise. This study evaluated the mitochondrial function, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins to investigate the regulation and mechanism of mitochondrial stress regarding the inflammatory response of the rat myocardium during acute heavy exercise. The results indicated that the mitochondrial function of the myocardium was adaptively regulated to meet the challenge of stress during acute exercise. The exercise-induced mitochondrial stress also enhanced ROS generation and triggered an inflammatory reaction via the NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Moreover, the mitochondrial autophagy-related proteins including Beclin1, LC3, and Bnip3 were all significantly upregulated during acute exercise, which suggests that mitophagy was stimulated in response to the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in the myocardium. Taken together, our data suggest that, during acute exercise, mitochondrial stress triggers the rat myocardial inflammatory response via NLRP3 inflammasome activation and activates mitophagy to minimize myocardial injury.
Gump, Brooks B.; Stewart, Paul; Reihman, Jacki; Lonky, Ed; Darvill, Tom; Parsons, Patrick J.; Granger, Douglas A.
Background A few recent studies have demonstrated heightened hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity to acute stress in animals exposed to heavy metal contaminants, particularly lead. However, Pb-induced dysregulation of the HPA axis has not yet been studied in humans. Objective In this study, we examined children’s cortisol response to acute stress (the glucocorticoid product of HPA activation) in relation to low-level prenatal and postnatal Pb exposure. Methods Children’s prena...
Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama
Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury ...... be important to consider in the early management of whiplash injury. However, the emotional response did not predict chronicity in individuals....... predicted long-term sequelae. Participants with acute whiplash-associated symptoms after a motor vehicle accident were recruited from emergency units and general practitioners. The predictor variable was the sum score of the impact of event scale (IES) completed within 10 days after the accident. The main...... response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations...
Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela
Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury ...... be important to consider in the early management of whiplash injury. However, the emotional response did not predict chronicity in individuals....... predicted long-term sequelae. Participants with acute whiplash-associated symptoms after a motor vehicle accident were recruited from emergency units and general practitioners. The predictor variable was the sum score of the impact of event scale (IES) completed within 10 days after the accident. The main...... response was obtained by 13% of the participants. This was associated with increased risk of considerable persistent pain (OR=3.3; 1.8-5.9), neck disability (OR=3.2; 1.7-6.0), reduced working ability (OR=2.8; 1.6-4.9), and lowered self-reported general health one year after the accident. These associations...
Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per
Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perry, S F; Reid, S G; Gilmour, K M; Boijink, C L; Lopes, J M; Milsom, W K; Rantin, F T
Experiments were performed to assess the afferent and efferent limbs of the hypoxia-mediated humoral adrenergic stress response in selected hypoxia-tolerant tropical fishes that routinely experience environmental O(2) depletion. Plasma catecholamine (Cat) levels and blood respiratory status were measured during acute aquatic hypoxia [water Po(2) (Pw(O(2))) = 10-60 mmHg] in three teleost species, the obligate water breathers Hoplias malabaricus (traira) and Piaractus mesopotamicus (pacu) and the facultative air breather Hoplerythrinus unitaeniatus (jeju). Traira displayed a significant increase in plasma Cat levels (from 1.3 +/- 0.4 to 23.3 +/- 15.1 nmol/l) at Pw(O(2)) levels below 20 mmHg, whereas circulating Cat levels were unaltered in pacu at all levels of hypoxia. In jeju denied access to air, plasma Cat levels were increased markedly to a maximum mean value of 53.6 +/- 19.1 nmol/l as Pw(O(2)) was lowered below 40 mmHg. In traira and jeju, Cat release into the circulation occurred at abrupt thresholds corresponding to arterial Po(2) (Pa(O(2))) values of approximately 8.5-12.5 mmHg. A comparison of in vivo blood O(2) equilibration curves revealed low and similar P(50) values (i.e., Pa(O(2)) at 50% Hb-O(2) saturation) among the three species (7.7-11.3 mmHg). Thus Cat release in traira and jeju occurred as blood O(2) concentration was reduced to approximately 50-60% of the normoxic value. Intravascular injections of nicotine (600 nmol/kg) elicited pronounced increases in plasma Cat levels in traira and jeju but not in pacu. Thus the lack of Cat release during hypoxia in pacu may reflect an inoperative or absent humoral adrenergic stress response in this species. When allowed access to air, jeju did not release Cats into the circulation at any level of aquatic hypoxia. The likeliest explanation for the absence of Cat release in these fish was that air breathing, initiated by aquatic hypoxia, prevented Pa(O(2)) values from falling to the critical threshold required
Admon, Roee; Treadway, Michael T; Valeri, Linda; Mehta, Malavika; Douglas, Samuel; Pizzagalli, Diego A
The development of robust laboratory procedures for acute stress induction over the last decades has greatly advanced our understanding of stress responses in humans and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms. Nevertheless, attempts to uncover linear relationships among endocrine, neural, and affective responses to stress have generally yielded inconsistent results. Here, 79 healthy females completed a well established laboratory procedure of acute stress induction that was modified to prolong its effect. Endocrinological and subjective affect assessments revealed stress-induced increases in cortisol release and negative affect that persisted 65 and 100 min after stress onset, respectively, confirming a relatively prolonged acute stress induction. Applying latent class linear mixed modeling on individuals' patterns of cortisol responses identified three distinct trajectories of cortisol response: the hyper-response ( n = 10), moderate-response ( n = 21), and mild-response ( n = 48) groups. Notably, whereas all three groups exhibited a significant stress-induced increase in cortisol release and negative affect, the hyper-response and mild-response groups both reported more negative affect relative to the moderate-response group. Structural MRI revealed no group differences in hippocampal and amygdala volumes, yet a continuous measure of cortisol response (area under the curve) showed that high and low levels of stress-induced cortisol release were associated with less hippocampal gray matter volume compared with moderate cortisol release. Together, these results suggest that distinct trajectories of cortisol response to prolonged acute stress among healthy females may not be captured by conventional linear analyses; instead, quadratic relations may better describe links between cortisol response to stress and affective responses, as well as hippocampal structural variability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Despite substantial research, it is unclear whether and how
Ma, S; Mifflin, S W; Cunningham, J T; Morilak, D A
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with several pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation, and other endocrine and metabolic disturbances comprising the "metabolic syndrome." Repeated episodes of hypoxia in OSA may represent a chronic intermittent stress, leading to HPA dysregulation. Alterations in HPA reactivity could then contribute to or exacerbate other pathophysiological processes. We showed previously that another metabolic stressor, chronic intermittent cold stress, enhanced noradrenergic facilitation of acute HPA stress reactivity. In this study, we investigated whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rat model for the arterial hypoxemia that accompanies OSA, similarly sensitizes the HPA response to novel acute stress. Rats were exposed to CIH (alternating cycles of normoxia [3 min at 21% O(2)] and hypoxia [3 min at 10% O(2)], repeated continuously for 8 h/day during the light portion of the cycle for 7 days). On the day after the final CIH exposure, there were no differences in baseline plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but the peak ACTH response to 30 min acute immobilization stress was greater in CIH-stressed rats than in controls. Induction of Fos expression by acute immobilization stress was comparable following CIH in several HPA-modulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala. Fos induction was attenuated in lateral hypothalamus, an HPA-inhibitory region. By contrast, acute Fos induction was enhanced in noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus following CIH exposure. Thus, similar to chronic cold stress, CIH sensitized acute HPA and noradrenergic stress reactivity. Plasticity in the acute stress response is important for long-term adaptation, but may also contribute to pathophysiological conditions associated with states of chronic or repeated stress, such as OSA
Marta L DeDiego
Full Text Available Severe acute respiratory syndrome virus (SARS-CoV that lacks the envelope (E gene (rSARS-CoV-ΔE is attenuated in vivo. To identify factors that contribute to rSARS-CoV-ΔE attenuation, gene expression in cells infected by SARS-CoV with or without E gene was compared. Twenty-five stress response genes were preferentially upregulated during infection in the absence of the E gene. In addition, genes involved in signal transduction, transcription, cell metabolism, immunoregulation, inflammation, apoptosis and cell cycle and differentiation were differentially regulated in cells infected with rSARS-CoV with or without the E gene. Administration of E protein in trans reduced the stress response in cells infected with rSARS-CoV-ΔE or with respiratory syncytial virus, or treated with drugs, such as tunicamycin and thapsigargin that elicit cell stress by different mechanisms. In addition, SARS-CoV E protein down-regulated the signaling pathway inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE-1 of the unfolded protein response, but not the PKR-like ER kinase (PERK or activating transcription factor 6 (ATF-6 pathways, and reduced cell apoptosis. Overall, the activation of the IRE-1 pathway was not able to restore cell homeostasis, and apoptosis was induced probably as a measure to protect the host by limiting virus production and dissemination. The expression of proinflammatory cytokines was reduced in rSARS-CoV-ΔE-infected cells compared to rSARS-CoV-infected cells, suggesting that the increase in stress responses and the reduction of inflammation in the absence of the E gene contributed to the attenuation of rSARS-CoV-ΔE.
Descripció del recurs: el 7 de gener de 2011 This clinical study is composed of two different trials. In the first we investigated and described the perioperative stress response in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy and ovariohysterectomy. In the second trial we evaluated the efficacy of a commercial dog synthetic appeasing pheromone for the control of the perioperative stress response. The aim of this trial is to describe the behavioural, neuroendocrine, immune and acute phase stress r...
Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T
The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.
Tomiyama, AJ; Schamarek, I; Lustig, RH; Kirschbaum, C; Puterman, E; Havel, PJ; Epel, ES
Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating...
Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M.; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Treadway, Michael T.; Brooks, Nancy H.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Greve, Douglas N.; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E.; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A.
Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Results Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r = 0.79, p = 0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r = 0.79) and no-stress (r = −0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC grey matter, but functional findings remained when accounting for structural differences. Limitation Small sample size, which warrants replication. Conclusion Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. PMID:25898329
Full Text Available Protein S-nitrosylation, the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO to protein cysteine residues, is one of the main mechanisms of NO signaling in plant and animal cells. Using a combination of the biotin switch assay and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis, we revealed the S-nitroso-proteome of the woody model plant Populus x canescens. Under normal conditions, constitutively S-nitrosylated proteins in poplar leaves and calli comprise all aspects of primary and secondary metabolism. Acute ozone fumigation was applied to elicit ROS-mediated changes of the S-nitroso-proteome. This treatment changed the total nitrite and nitrosothiol contents of poplar leaves and affected the homeostasis of 32 S-nitrosylated proteins. Multivariate data analysis revealed that ozone exposure negatively affected the S-nitrosylation status of leaf proteins: 23 proteins were de-nitrosylated and 9 proteins had increased S-nitrosylation content compared to the control. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (log2[ozone/control] = -3.6 and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (-3.4, key enzymes catalyzing important steps in the phenylpropanoid and subsequent lignin biosynthetic pathways, respectively, were de-nitrosylated upon ozone stress. Measuring the in vivo and in vitro phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity indicated that the increase of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in response to acute ozone is partly regulated by de-nitrosylation, which might favor a higher metabolic flux through the phenylpropanoid pathway within minutes after ozone exposure.
Vanzo, Elisa; Ghirardo, Andrea; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Lindermayr, Christian; Heller, Werner; Hauck, Stefanie M; Durner, Jörg; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter
Protein S-nitrosylation, the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO) to protein cysteine residues, is one of the main mechanisms of NO signaling in plant and animal cells. Using a combination of the biotin switch assay and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis, we revealed the S-nitroso-proteome of the woody model plant Populus x canescens. Under normal conditions, constitutively S-nitrosylated proteins in poplar leaves and calli comprise all aspects of primary and secondary metabolism. Acute ozone fumigation was applied to elicit ROS-mediated changes of the S-nitroso-proteome. This treatment changed the total nitrite and nitrosothiol contents of poplar leaves and affected the homeostasis of 32 S-nitrosylated proteins. Multivariate data analysis revealed that ozone exposure negatively affected the S-nitrosylation status of leaf proteins: 23 proteins were de-nitrosylated and 9 proteins had increased S-nitrosylation content compared to the control. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (log2[ozone/control] = -3.6) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (-3.4), key enzymes catalyzing important steps in the phenylpropanoid and subsequent lignin biosynthetic pathways, respectively, were de-nitrosylated upon ozone stress. Measuring the in vivo and in vitro phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity indicated that the increase of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in response to acute ozone is partly regulated by de-nitrosylation, which might favor a higher metabolic flux through the phenylpropanoid pathway within minutes after ozone exposure.
van Oort, J; Tendolkar, I; Hermans, E J; Mulders, P C; Beckmann, C F; Schene, A H; Fernández, G; van Eijndhoven, P F
The brain's response to stress is a matter of extensive neurocognitive research in an attempt to unravel the mechanistic underpinnings of neural adaptation. In line with the broadly defined concept of acute stress, a wide variety of induction procedures are used to mimic stress experimentally. We set out to review commonalities and diversities of the stress-related functional activity and connectivity changes of functional brain networks in healthy adults across procedures. The acute stress response is consistently associated with both increased activity and connectivity in the salience network (SN) and surprisingly also with increased activity in the default mode network (DMN), while most studies show no changes in the central executive network. These results confirm earlier findings of an essential, coordinating role of the SN in the acute stress response and indicate a dynamic role of the DMN whose function is less clear. Moreover, paradigm specific brain responses have to be taken into account when investigating the role and the within and between network connectivity of these three networks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ruis, MAW; te Brake, JHA; Engel, B; Buist, WG; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM
The present experiment studied the acute and long-term stress responses of reactive and proactive prepubertal gilts to social isolation. Gilts with either reactive or proactive features were identified according to behavioral resistance in a backtest at a young age (2-4 days), respectively being low (LR) and high resistant (HR) in this test. At 7 weeks of age, 12 gilts of each type were socially isolated. Initially, isolation was stressful for both types of gilts, as shown by increased cortis...
Ruis, M.A.W.; Brake, te J.H.A.; Engel, B.; Buist, W.G.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Koolhaas, J.M.
The present experiment studied the acute and long-term stress responses of reactive and proactive prepubertal gilts to social isolation. Gilts with either reactive or proactive features were identified according to behavioral resistance in a backtest at a young age (2-4 days), respectively being low
Ruis, MAW; te Brake, JHA; Engel, B; Buist, WG; Blokhuis, HJ; Koolhaas, JM
The present experiment studied the acute and long-term stress responses of reactive and proactive prepubertal gilts to social isolation. Gilts with either reactive or proactive features were identified according to behavioral resistance in a backtest at a young age (2-4 days), respectively being low
Erdos, Benedek; Clifton, Rebekah R.; Liu, Meng; Li, Hongwei; McCowan, Michael L.; Sumners, Colin; Scheuer, Deborah A.
Exaggerated activation of the sympathetic nervous system and/or the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis increases cardiovascular disease risk. The present study demonstrates that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) neurons is a novel mechanism mediating attenuation of both the sympathetic and HPA axis responses to acute stress.
Tomiyama, A Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa S
Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more "comfort food" (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to regulate satiety. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tomiyama, A. Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J.; Epel, Elissa S.
Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating behavior. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor in 29 of these women. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. PMID:22579988
Opolot, John O; Theron, Annette J; MacPhail, Patrick; Feldman, Charles; Anderson, Ronald
Chronic inflammation, possibly exacerbated by cigarette smoking, is considered to be the primary cause of pulmonary damage in patients with tuberculosis (TB). However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented. The current study was undertaken to determine possible associations between systemic biomarkers of inflammation (acute phase reactants, stress hormones, leukocyte vitamin C) and smoking status in patients (n=71, 20 smokers) with newly-diagnosed pulmonary TB presenting at a tertiary hospital, Johannesburg, South Africa. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamine and leukocyte vitamin C were measured using a combination of immunonephelometric, radioimmunoassay, immunochromatographic and spectrophotometric procedures. Demographic, clinical and laboratory data was captured and analysed by parametric and non-parametric analyses where appropriate. Smokers were predominantly males (Psignificantly lower body mass index (Psignificance (Pcortisol and norepinephrine were comparable to those of non-smokers, as were radiographic changes and clinical indices of disease activity. Cigarette smoking is associated with an exaggerated systemic inflammatory response in pulmonary TB in the setting of decreased concentrations of leukocyte vitamin C. Although no significant associations with radiographic changes and most clinical indices of disease activity were evident on presentation, these pro-inflammatory interactions may have prognostic significance.
Ren, F; Shi, H; Zhang, L; Zhang, X; Wen, T; Xie, B; Zheng, S; Chen, Y; Li, L; Chen, D; Duan, Z
Although endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is critical in various liver diseases, its role in acute-on-chronic liver failure (AoCLF) caused by acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is still elusive. This study aimed to analyse ER stress responses in the progression of HBV-related AoCLF. Normal liver tissues (n = 10), liver tissues of CHB (n = 12) and HBV-related patients with AoCLF (n = 19) were used. Electron microscopy of the ultrastructure of the ER was carried out on liver specimens. The gene and protein expression levels of ER stress-related genes were measured. We further analysed the correlation between the expression levels of ER stress-related molecules and liver injury. Electron microscopy identified typical features of the ER microstructure in AoCLF subjects. Among the three pathways of unfolded protein responses, the PKR-like ER kinase and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 signalling pathway were activated in CHB subjects and inactivated in AoCLF subjects, while the activating transcription factor 6 signalling pathway was sustained in the activated form during the progression of AoCLF; the expression of glucose-regulated protein (Grp)78 and Grp94 was gradually decreased in AoCLF subjects compared to healthy individuals and CHB subjects, showing a negative correlation with serum ALT, AST and TBIL; moreover, the ER stress-related apoptosis molecules were activated in the progression of acute exacerbation of CHB. The dysregulated ER stress response may play a complicated role in the pathogenesis of AoCLF, and a severe ER stress response may predict the occurrence of AoCLF caused by acute exacerbation of CHB. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Vanzo, Elisa; Ghirardo, Andrea; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Lindermayr, Christian; Heller, Werner; Hauck, Stefanie M.; Durner, Jörg; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter
Protein S-nitrosylation, the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO) to protein cysteine residues, is one of the main mechanisms of NO signaling in plant and animal cells. Using a combination of the biotin switch assay and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis, we revealed the S-nitroso-proteome of the woody model plant Populus x canescens. Under normal conditions, constitutively S-nitrosylated proteins in poplar leaves and calli comprise all aspects of primary and secondary metabolism. Acute ozone fumigation was applied to elicit ROS-mediated changes of the S-nitroso-proteome. This treatment changed the total nitrite and nitrosothiol contents of poplar leaves and affected the homeostasis of 32 S-nitrosylated proteins. Multivariate data analysis revealed that ozone exposure negatively affected the S-nitrosylation status of leaf proteins: 23 proteins were de-nitrosylated and 9 proteins had increased S-nitrosylation content compared to the control. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (log2[ozone/control] = −3.6) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (−3.4), key enzymes catalyzing important steps in the phenylpropanoid and subsequent lignin biosynthetic pathways, respectively, were de-nitrosylated upon ozone stress. Measuring the in vivo and in vitro phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity indicated that the increase of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in response to acute ozone is partly regulated by de-nitrosylation, which might favor a higher metabolic flux through the phenylpropanoid pathway within minutes after ozone exposure. PMID:25192423
Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning
In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.
Chida, Yoichi; Hamer, Mark
This meta-analysis included 729 studies from 161 articles investigating how acute stress responsivity (including stress reactivity and recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic, and cardiovascular systems) changes with various chronic psychosocial exposures (job stress; general life stress; depression or hopelessness;…
Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Chen, Ke; Ding, Zhili; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Ye, Jinyun
Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species threatened by ambient superfluous nitrite. De novo RNA-Seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism in M. nipponense exposed to the acute nitrite stress (26.05 mg/L nitrite-N) for 24 h and the chronic nitrite stress (1.38 mg/L nitrite-N) for 28 d A total of 175.13 million reads were obtained and assembled into 58,871 unigenes with an average length of 1028.7 bp and N50 of 1294 bp. Under the acute and chronic nitrite stress trials, 2824 and 2610 unigenes were significantly expressed. In GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis, 30 pathways were significantly different between the two treatments while four pathways were in common and the markedly altered pathways were divided into four sections as immunity, metabolism, cell and others. The immunity section revealing the different depth of immunity provoked by nitrite stress contained the most pathways including the important pathways as phagosome, folate biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism under the acute nitrite stress, and lysosome, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism under the chronic nitrite stress. This is the first report of responses of M. nipponense under acute and chronic nitrite stress through de novo transcriptome sequencing on the transcriptome level. The results of transcriptome analysis improve our understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms coping with nitrite stress in crustacean species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Villada, C; Hidalgo, V; Salvador, A
Being unemployed and looking for a job has become a source of stress for many people in several European countries. However, little attention has been paid to the impact of this stressful situation on the individuals' psychophysiological stress responses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of being an unemployed job seeker on cognitive threat appraisal and cardiac responses to a psychosocial stressor. We exposed a group of unemployed job seekers (N = 42) and a matched group of unemployed non-job seekers (N = 40) to a standardized social stressor in form of job interview, the Trier Social Stress Test. Our results showed that unemployed job seekers manifest lower cardiac responses, along with a lower cognitive threat appraisal, compared to non-job seekers. Moreover, we observed a full mediating role of cognitive threat appraisal on the relationship between being an unemployed job seeker and cardiac responses to stress. These findings reveal that being unemployed and looking for a job has an effect on physiological responses to acute stress, as well as the importance of psychological process related to the situation. These responses might lead to negative health and motivational consequences. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Paine, N.J.; Bosch, J.A.; Veldhuijzen Van Zanten, J.J.C.S.
There is evidence that mental stress can trigger myocardial infarction. Even though the underlying mechanisms remain to be determined, both inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress have been implicated as contributing factors. This review explores the effects of inflammation on the
HOFFMAN, JAY R; OSTFELD, ISHAY; KAPLAN, ZEEV; ZOHAR, JOSEPH; COHEN, HAGIT
INTRODUCTIONThis study examined the effects of endurance exercise on the behavioral response to stress and patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and δ-opioid receptor (phospho-DOR...
Marshall, Randall D; Garakani, Amir
The literature to date that examines the biology of the acute stress reactions suggests that relatively lower baseline cortisol is associated with the development of PTSD. This is particularly informative because of the ongoing controversy surrounding baseline cortisol in PTSD. Studies have found low baseline cortisol, normal range, and elevated baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD, and it has been unclear whether this reflects methodologic differences across studies or true heterogeneity within the disorder. Thus, the few studies to date support the finding of low-normal baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD and suggest that it is a pre-existing functional trait. Whether it plays an etiologic role or is an epiphenomenon of some other process is unclear. What does seem clear, however, is that this characteristic is relatively nonspecific to PTSD, given the fact that low cortisol has been observed in multiple subject populations, including normal individuals under chronic stress as well as chronic medical conditions (for review see ). For example, it is possible that reduced baseline cortisol reflects the net result of input to the hypothalamus from cortical and subcortical regions of the brain linked to increased vigilance, sensitization to trauma because of prior traumatic experiences, or genetic factors. For example, primate studies have demonstrated persistent alterations in HPA axis functioning in animals reared by mothers living in moderately stressful conditions . The development of PTSD is associated with sensitization of the startle response. Because the neurobiology of startle is well characterized, this finding implicates a role for specific neurocircuitry in PTSD . Non-habituation of the startle response in PTSD appears related to sensitization specifically to contextual cues (i.e., the environment) that signal the presence of potential threat of danger-related fears . This may be the neurobiological correlate to the over-generalization seen in
López-Patiño, Marcos A; Hernández-Pérez, Juan; Gesto, Manuel; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L
To elucidate the short-term time-course of liver metabolic response in rainbow trout to acute handling stress we subjected rainbow trout to 5min chasing and obtained samples 0 to 480min post-stress. Levels of cortisol, glucose and lactate were measured in plasma, whereas metabolite levels, enzyme activities, mRNA abundance of parameters related to energy metabolism, and glucocorticoid receptors were assessed in liver. Acute stress affected many parameters related to energy metabolism, with most of them turning back to normal levels after 480min. In general, the present results support the existence of two stages in the short-term time-course of metabolic response to handling stress. A first stage occurring few minutes post-stress (15-45min), was characterized by increased mobilization of liver glycogen resulting in increased production of endogenous glucose, reduced use of exogenous glucose and reduced lipogenic potential. A second stage, occurring 60-120min post-stress onwards was characterized by the recovery of liver glycogen levels, the increased capacity of liver for releasing glucose, and the recovery of lipogenic capacity whereas no changes were noted in gluconeogenic potential, which probably needs longer time periods to become enhanced. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Siracusa, Carlo; Manteca, Xavier; Cuenca, Rafaela; del Mar Alcalá, Maria; Alba, Aurora; Lavín, Santiago; Pastor, Josep
To study the effects of a synthetic, dog-appeasing pheromone (sDAP) on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. 46 dogs housed in animal shelters and undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Intensive care unit cages were sprayed with sDAP solution or sham treated with the carrier used in the solution 20 minutes prior to use. Dogs (n = 24 and 22 in the sDAP and sham treatment exposure groups, respectively) were placed in treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. Indicators of stress (ie, alterations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase responses) were evaluated perioperatively. Behavioral response variables, salivary cortisol concentration, WBC count, and serum concentrations of glucose, prolactin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Behavioral response variables and serum prolactin concentration were influenced by sDAP exposure. Dogs exposed to sDAP were more likely to have alertness and visual exploration behaviors after surgery than were dogs exposed to sham treatment. Decreases in serum prolactin concentrations in response to perioperative stress were significantly smaller in dogs exposed to sDAP, compared with findings in dogs exposed to the sham treatment. Variables examined to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses were unaffected by treatment. sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery.
Fanouraki, E; Mylonas, C C; Papandroulakis, N; Pavlidis, M
The aim of the present study was to examine the species-specific stress response for seven Mediterranean fishes in culture. Also, to evaluate the method of measuring free cortisol concentration in the rearing water as a non-invasive and reliable indicator of stress in marine species, of aquaculture importance. Gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata (Sparidae); common dentex, Dentex dentex (Sparidae); common Pandora, Pagellus erythrinus (Sparidae); sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo (Sparidae); dusky grouper, Epinephelus marginatus (Serranidae); meagre, Argyrosomus regius (Sciaenidae) and European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (Moronidae) were subjected to identical acute stress (5-6 min chasing and 1-1.5 min air exposure) under the same environmental conditions and samples were analyzed by the same procedures. Results indicated that there was a clear species-specificity in the magnitude, timing and duration of the stress response in terms of cortisol, glucose and lactate. European sea bass showed a very high response and dusky grouper and meagre a very low response, except plasma glucose concentrations of dusky grouper which was constantly high, while sharpsnout sea bream presented a protracted stress response, up to 8h. The present study confirmed that free cortisol release rate into the water can be used as a reliable stress indicator. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Age-related memory decline has been associated with a faulty regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol increase is related to memory performance when memory is measured in non-stressful conditions. To do so, declarative and working memory performance were measured in 31 men and 35 women between 55 and 77 years of age. On a different day, the magnitude of their cortisol response to acute psychosocial stress was measured. The relationship between the cortisol response and memory performance was U shaped: a low cortisol response to stress was related to poorer declarative and working memory performance, whereas those who did not increase their cortisol levels and those who had the largest cortisol increase had better declarative and working memory capabilities. Sex did not moderate these relationships. These results suggest that a low cortisol response to stress could reflect a defective HPA-axis response to stressors that is accompanied by poorer memory performance. Conversely, a high cortisol response seems to reflect a correct functioning of the HPA-axis and may protect against memory deficits in the later stages of human life.
Viblanc, Vincent A; Gineste, Benoit; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Groscolas, René
Stress responses are suggested to physiologically underlie parental decisions promoting the redirection of behaviour away from offspring care when survival is jeopardized (e.g., when facing a predator). Besides this classical view, the "brood-value hypothesis" suggests that parents' stress responses may be adaptively attenuated to increase fitness, ensuring continued breeding when the relative value of the brood is high. Here, we test the brood-value hypothesis in breeding king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus), long-lived seabirds for which the energy commitment to reproduction is high. We subjected birds at different breeding stages (courtship, incubation and chick brooding) to an acute 30-min capture stress and measured their hormonal (corticosterone, CORT) and metabolic (non-esterified fatty acid, NEFA) responses to stress. We found that CORT responses were markedly attenuated in chick-brooding birds when compared to earlier stages of breeding (courtship and incubation). In addition, NEFA responses appeared to be rapidly attenuated in incubating and brooding birds, but a progressive increase in NEFA plasma levels in courting birds suggested energy mobilization to deal with the threat. Our results support the idea that stress responses may constitute an important life-history mechanism mediating parental reproductive decisions in relation to their expected fitness outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gomes‐de‐Souza, Lucas; Oliveira, Leandro A; Benini, Ricardo; Rodella, Patrícia; Costa‐Ferreira, Willian
Background and Purpose Endocannabinoid signalling has been reported as an important neurochemical mechanism involved in responses to stress. Previous studies provided evidence of endocannabinoid release in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) during aversive stimuli. Nevertheless, a possible involvement of this neurochemical mechanism in stress responses has never been evaluated. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the involvement of BNST endocannabinoid neurotransmission, acting via local CB1 receptors, in the cardiovascular responses to acute restraint stress in rats. Experimental Approach The selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1, 30 and 100 pmol 100 nL−1) and/or the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) enzyme inhibitor URB597 (30 pmol 100 nL−1) or the monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzyme inhibitor JZL184 (30 pmol 100 nL−1) was microinjected into the BNST before the acute restraint stress. Key Results Microinjection of AM251 into the BNST enhanced the tachycardia caused by restraint stress, without affecting the increase in arterial pressure and the sympathetic‐mediated cutaneous vasoconstrictor response. Conversely, the increased endogenous levels of AEA in the BNST evoked by local treatment with the FAAH enzyme inhibitor URB597 decreased restraint‐evoked tachycardia. Inhibition of the hydrolysis of 2‐arachidonoylglycerol (2‐AG) in the BNST by local microinjection of the MAGL enzyme inhibitor JZL184 also decreased the HR response. These effects of URB597 and JZL184 were abolished by BNST pretreatment with AM251. Conclusions and Implications These findings indicate an involvement of BNST endocannabinoid neurotransmission, acting via CB1 receptors, in cardiovascular adjustments during emotional stress, which may be mediated by the local release of either AEA or 2‐AG. PMID:27441413
Full Text Available Obesity and mental stress are potent risk factors for cardiovascular disease but their relationship with each other is unclear. Resilience to stress may differ according to adiposity. Early studies that addressed this are difficult to interpret due to conflicting findings and limited methods. Recent advances in assessment of cardiovascular stress responses and of fat distribution allow accurate assessment of associations between adiposity and stress responsiveness. We measured responses to the Montreal Imaging Stress Task in healthy men (N = 43 and women (N = 45 with a wide range of BMIs. Heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measures were used with novel magnetic resonance measures of stroke volume (SV, cardiac output (CO, total peripheral resistance (TPR and arterial compliance to assess cardiovascular responses. Salivary cortisol and the number and speed of answers to mathematics problems in the task were used to assess neuroendocrine and cognitive responses, respectively. Visceral and subcutaneous fat was measured using T(2 (*-IDEAL. Greater BMI was associated with generalised blunting of cardiovascular (HR:β = -0.50 bpm x unit(-1, P = 0.009; SV:β = -0.33 mL x unit(-1, P = 0.01; CO:β = -61 mL x min(-1 x unit(-1, P = 0.002; systolic BP:β = -0.41 mmHg x unit(-1, P = 0.01; TPR:β = 0.11 WU x unit(-1, P = 0.02, cognitive (correct answers: r = -0.28, P = 0.01; time to answer: r = 0.26, P = 0.02 and endocrine responses (cortisol: r = -0.25, P = 0.04 to stress. These associations were largely determined by visceral adiposity except for those related to cognitive performance, which were determined by both visceral and subcutaneous adiposity. Our findings suggest that adiposity is associated with centrally reduced stress responsiveness. Although this may mitigate some long-term health risks of stress responsiveness, reduced performance under stress may be a more immediate
Sharp, B M; Beyer, H S; Levine, A S; Morley, J E; McAllen, K M
We have previously shown that a single dose of nicotine elevates plasma adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) levels in rats and has a biphasic effect on plasma prolactin (PRL). The stimulatory effect of nicotine on these stress responsive hormones desensitizes after a single injection of nicotine. Continuous exposure to nicotine also induces tolerance to its locomotor depressive and hypothermic effects, which have been associated with an increase of central [3H]nicotine binding. Thus, the acute and chronic administration of nicotine might induce changes in central nicotinic cholinergic circuits that affect the ACTH and PRL responses to stress. In the present study, a single dose of nicotine (0.75-3.0 mg/kg b.wt.) significantly inhibited the elevation of plasma PRL due to restraint stress initiated 60 min afterward. Five injections of nicotine during 1 day produced a similar attenuation of the PRL response to restraint stress but neither of these paradigms affected ACTH. In contrast, intermittent delivery of nicotine for 7 days failed to affect the PRL response to restraint stress; however, after withholding nicotine for 14 hr, high dose nicotine attenuated the PRL response to stress, whereas low dose nicotine remained ineffective. On the other hand, administration of the same schedule of low dose nicotine did significantly diminish the expected release of PRL in response to a final injection of nicotine (0.5-2.0 mg/kg b.wt.) in unstressed animals. In summary, a single dose or 5 doses of nicotine in 1 day attenuated the PRL response to restraint stress, whereas, after chronic administration, this effect was lost.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Khan, Sitara G; Melikian, Narbeh; Shabeeh, Husain; Cabaco, Ana R; Martin, Katherine; Khan, Faisal; O'Gallagher, Kevin; Chowienczyk, Philip J; Shah, Ajay M
Mental stress-induced ischemia approximately doubles the risk of cardiac events in patients with coronary artery disease, yet the mechanisms underlying changes in coronary blood flow in response to mental stress are poorly characterized. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) regulates basal coronary blood flow in healthy humans and mediates mental stress-induced vasodilation in the forearm. However, its possible role in mental stress-induced increases in coronary blood flow is unknown. We studied 11 patients (6 men and 5 women, mean age: 58 ± 14 yr) undergoing elective diagnostic cardiac catheterization and assessed the vasodilator response to mental stress elicited by the Stroop color-word test. Intracoronary substance P (20 pmol/min) and isosorbide dinitrate (1 mg) were used to assess endothelium-dependent and -independent vasodilation, respectively. Coronary blood flow was estimated using intracoronary Doppler recordings and quantitative coronary angiography to measure coronary artery diameter. Mental stress increased coronary flow by 34 ± 7.0% over the preceding baseline during saline infusion (P nitric oxide synthase in the human coronary circulation.Listen to this article's corresponding podcast at http://ajpheart.podbean.com/e/nnos-and-coronary-flow-during-mental-stress/. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.
Douglas, Alison J
Hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress are attenuated perinatally, and may contribute towards conservation of energy stores and/or prevention of overexposure to glucocorticoid and its adverse effects in the developing fetus/neonate. Previous work has shown that reduced central drive to the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis is responsible, since parvocellular paraventricular nucleus neurone responses are reduced. One of the main input pathways to the paraventricular nucleus that is activated by the majority of stressors is the brainstem noradrenergic system. This review outlines key noradrenergic mechanisms that mediate hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to acute stress, and addresses aspects of their adaptation in pregnancy and lactation that can explain the stress hyporesponsiveness at that time. In summary, reduced noradrenaline release and adrenergic receptor expression in the paraventricular nucleus may lead to reduced sensitivity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis to adrenergic antagonists and agonists and its responses to stress. While there are subtle differences in these changes between pregnancy and lactation, it would appear that reduced effectiveness of the noradrenergic input can at least partly account for the reduced hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis responses both pre- and post-natally.
Jensen, Kelly; Hahn, Nina E; Palme, Rupert; Saxton, Katherine; Francis, Darlene D
Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether facility noise generated by a vacuum cleaner induces an acute stress response in a commonly used strain of laboratory mouse under common housing conditions. In each of 2 experiments, 10 young adult, female C57BL/6Cr mice were exposed for 1 h to noise produced by a vacuum cleaner, and 10 control mice were not. In the first experiment, fecal samples were collected to measure concentrations of fecal corticosterone metabolites just before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 14, 24, and 32 h after noise exposure. In the second experiment, stress-sensitive behavioral tests were performed 2 d before, immediately after, and 24 h after noise exposure. Physiologic and behavioral measurements indicated that vacuum cleaner noise did not cause an acute stress response in the noise-exposed mice but may have affected the diurnal variation of their corticosterone levels. These findings could contribute to the development of best practices in noise-control protocols for animal facilities.
Cruz, Fábio C; Engi, Sheila A; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C
Abuse of cocaine and androgenic-anabolic steroids (AASs) has become a serious public health problem. Despite reports of an increase in the incidence of simultaneous abuse of these substances, potential toxic interactions between cocaine and AASs are poorly known. In the present study, we investigated the effects of either single or combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for one or 10 consecutive days on autonomic (arterial pressure, heart rate and tail cutaneous temperature) and neuroendocrine (plasma corticosterone) responses induced by acute restraint stress in rats. Combined administration of testosterone and cocaine for 10 days reduced the increase in heart rate and plasma corticosterone level, as well as the fall in tail skin temperature induced by restraint stress. Furthermore, repeated administration of cocaine inhibited the increase in arterial pressure observed during restraint, and this effect was not affected by coadministration of testosterone. Ten-day combined administration of testosterone and cocaine increased basal values of arterial pressure. Moreover, chronic administration of testosterone induced rest bradycardia and elevated basal level of plasma corticosterone. One-day single or combined administration of the drugs did not affect any parameter investigated. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that combined administration of testosterone and cocaine changed the autonomic and neuroendocrine responses to acute restraint stress. These findings suggest that interaction between AASs and cocaine may affect the ability to cope with stressful events.
Full Text Available This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters' acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work.Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18 or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17 sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30 from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10 were measured.The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed.Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters' IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1β and TNF-α, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters' IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons.
Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally A; Vincent, Grace E; Larsen, Brianna; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana C
This study investigated the effect restricted sleep has on wildland firefighters' acute cytokine levels during 3 days and 2 nights of simulated physical wildfire suppression work. Firefighters completed multiple days of physical firefighting work separated by either an 8-h (Control condition; n = 18) or 4-h (Sleep restriction condition; n = 17) sleep opportunity each night. Blood samples were collected 4 times a day (i.e., 06:15, 11:30, 18:15, 21:30) from which plasma cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-4, IL-10) were measured. The primary findings for cytokine levels revealed a fixed effect for condition that showed higher IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep each night. An interaction effect demonstrated differing increases in IL-6 over successive days of work for the SR and CON conditions. Fixed effects for time indicated that IL-6 and IL-4 levels increased, while IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-8 levels decreased. There were no significant effects for IL-10 observed. Findings demonstrate increased IL-8 levels among firefighters who received an 8-h sleep when compared to those who had a restricted 4-h sleep. Firefighters' IL-6 levels increased in both conditions which may indicate that a 4-h sleep restriction duration and/or period (i.e., 2 nights) was not a significant enough stressor to affect this cytokine. Considering the immunomodulatory properties of IL-6 and IL-4 that inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines, the rise in IL-6 and IL-4, independent of increases in IL-1β and TNF-α, could indicate a non-damaging response to the stress of simulated physical firefighting work. However, given the link between chronically elevated cytokine levels and several diseases, further research is needed to determine if firefighters' IL-8 and IL-6 levels are elevated following repeated firefighting deployments across a fire season and over multiple fire seasons.
América A Scopinho
Full Text Available Recent evidence has suggested that the dorsal (DH and the ventral (VH poles of the hippocampus are structurally, molecularly and functionally different regions. While the DH is preferentially involved in the modulation of spatial learning and memory, the VH modulates defensive behaviors related to anxiety. Acute restraint is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP, intense heart rate (HR increases, skeletal muscle vasodilatation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, which are accompanied by a rapid skin temperature drop followed by body temperature increases. In addition to those autonomic responses, animals submitted to restraint also present behavioral changes, such as reduced exploration of the open arms of an elevated plus-maze (EPM, an anxiogenic-like effect. In the present work, we report a comparison between the effects of pharmacological inhibition of DH and VH neurotransmission on autonomic and behavioral responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the unspeciﬁc synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 1mM into the DH or VH attenuated BP and HR responses, as well as the decrease in the skin temperature, elicited by restraint stress exposure. Moreover, DH or VH inhibition before restraint did not change the delayed increased anxiety behavior observed 24 h later in the EPM. The present results demonstrate for the ﬁrst time that both DH and VH mediate stress-induced autonomic responses to restraint but they are not involved in the modulation of the delayed emotional consequences elicited by such stress.
Monteleone, Palmiero; Tortorella, Alfonso; Scognamiglio, Pasquale; Serino, Ismene; Monteleone, Alessio Maria; Maj, Mario
Stress is a precipitating factor for both binge eating and bulimia nervosa (BN); however, the biological mechanisms through which it may trigger binge eating are poorly understood. There is evidence that the adrenal hormone cortisol and the gastric peptide ghrelin might be involved in stress-induced food ingestion. We hypothesized that symptomatic patients with BN might disclose deranged responses of ghrelin and/or cortisol to stressors and that this could be related to their binge-eating behaviour. Here we investigated salivary cortisol and ghrelin responses to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in 10 women with acute BN and 10 age-matched healthy females. Eating-related psychopathology and behaviours were assessed by self-report measures. No significant differences emerged between bulimic patients and healthy controls in the pre-stress salivary levels of both cortisol and ghrelin. The BN patients displayed normal cortisol but enhanced ghrelin responses to TSST. No significant correlations emerged between stress-induced salivary hormone changes and self-report measures of binge eating. To our knowledge, this is the first study showing deranged salivary ghrelin reactivity to a psychosocial stressor in symptomatic patients with BN. The extent to which this could contribute to the binge-eating behaviour of BN subjects awaits clarification. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Hoffman, Jay R; Ostfeld, Ishay; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit
This study examined the effects of endurance exercise on the behavioral response to stress and patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and δ-opioid receptor (phospho-DOR) expression in the hippocampus. Animals ran on a treadmill at 15 m·min, 5 min·d gradually increasing to 20 min·d, 5 d·wk for 6 wk. After training, one group of animals was exposed to a predator scent stress (PSS) protocol for 10 min. Outcome measurements included behavior in an elevated plus-maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (ASR) 7 d after exposure to stress. Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of the BDNF, NPY, and phospho-DOR in the hippocampus 8 d after exposure. Sedentary animals exposed to PSS were observed to have a greater incidence of extreme behavior responses including higher anxiety, less total activity in the EPM, and greater amplitude in the ASR than unexposed and/or trained animals. Exercise-trained animals exposed to PSS developed a resiliency to the stress, reflected by significantly greater total activity in the EPM, reduced anxiety, and reduced ASR compared to the sedentary, exposed animals. Exercise in the absence of stress significantly elevated the expression of BDNF and phospho-DOR, whereas exposure to PSS resulted in a significant decline in the expression of NPY, BDNF, and phospho-DOR. Trained animals that were exposed maintained expression of BDNF, NPY, and phospho-DOR in most subregions of the hippocampus. Results indicated that endurance training provided a mechanism to promote resilience and/or recovery from stress. In addition, exercise increased expression of BDNF, NPY, and DOR signaling in the hippocampus that was associated with the greater resiliency seen in the trained animals.
Full Text Available The response of autonomic nervous system to mental stress is currently studied as a key role factor in the pathophysiology of stress related diseases. Altered autonomic regulation can result in increased morbidity, potentially affecting (directly or indirectly any of the organs. Cardiovascular system (CVS is one of the most sensitive systems to the effect of autonomic outputs. The predictive value of the laboratory stress tests was proved in several studies with CVS pathology. In this study we aimed to assess the autonomic reactivity to different mental stressors (cognitive and emotional in healthy subjects using electrodermal activity (EDA as a sensitive psychophysiological marker of sympathetic activity. We found significantly increased EDA in response to all the mental tasks with decrease of the values during recovery periods. However, EDA did not return to the baseline values during recovery periods, potentially indicating the sympathetic arousal during complete stress profile protocol. We suggest EDA presents a well applicable marker of the sympathetic activation, offering a different information about central regulation processes regarding the sympathetic activity compared to cardiac autonomic indices.
Ramsay, J.M.; Feist, G.W.; Varga, Z.M.; Westerfield, M.; Kent, M.L.; Schreck, C.B.
Zebrafish, Danio rerio, are frequently handled during husbandry and experimental procedures in the laboratory, yet little is known about the physiological responses to such stressors. We measured the whole-body cortisol levels of adult zebrafish subjected to net stress and air exposure at intervals over a 24 h period; cortisol recovered to near control levels by about 1 h post-net-stress (PNS). We then measured cortisol at frequent intervals over a 1 h period. Cortisol levels were more than 2-fold higher in net stressed fish at 3 min PNS and continued to increase peaking at 15 min PNS, when cortisol levels were 6-fold greater than the control cortisol. Mean cortisol declined from 15 to 60 min PNS, and at 60 min, net-stressed cortisol was similar to control cortisol. Because the age of fish differed between studies, we examined resting cortisol levels of fish of different ages (3, 7, 13, and 19 months). The resting cortisol values among tanks with the same age fish differed significantly but there was no clear effect of age. Our study is the first to report the response and recovery of cortisol after net handling for laboratory-reared zebrafish. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.
Delaney, G; Dawe, K L; Hogan, R; Hunjan, T; Roper, J; Hazell, G; Lolait, S J; Fulford, A J
Central nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ)-expressing neurones are abundantly expressed in the hypothalamus and limbic system and are implicated in the regulation of activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and stress responses. We investigated the role of the endogenous N/OFQ receptor (NOP) system using the nonpeptidic NOP antagonist, JTC-801 [N-(4-amino-2-methylquinolin-6-yl)-2-(4-ethylphenoxy-methyl)benzamide monohydrochloride], during the HPA axis response to acute physical/psychological stress (60 min of restraint). Although i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) had no significant effect on restraint-induced plasma corticosterone release at 30 or 60 min post-injection, i.v. JTC-801 (0.05 mg/kg in 100 μl) in quiescent rats significantly increased basal plasma corticosterone at the 30-min time-point compared to i.v. vehicle (1% dimethysulphoxide in sterile saline). Central injection of JTC-801 i.c.v. was associated with increased Fos expression in the parvocellular paraventricular nucleus 90 min after infusion compared to vehicle control. These findings contrast to the effects of i.c.v. UFP-101, a NOP antagonist that we have previously shown to have no effect on HPA activity in quiescent rats. To determine whether restraint stress was associated with compensatory changes in N/OFQ precursor (ppN/OFQ) or NOP receptor mRNAs, in a separate study, we undertook reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridisation analysis of ppN/OFQ and NOP transcripts in the brains of male Sprague–Dawley rats. In support of an endogenous role for central N/OFQ in psychological stress, we found that acute restraint significantly decreased preproN/OFQ transcript expression in the hippocampus 2 h after stress compared to unstressed controls. PpN/OFQ mRNA was also reduced in the mediodorsal forebrain 4 h after stress. NOP mRNA was reduced in the hypothalamus 2 h after restraint and at 4 h in mediodorsal forebrain and hippocampus. In situ hybridisation
Joy, Susan; Alikunju, Aneesa Painadath; Jose, Jisha; Sudha, Hari Sankar Haridasanpillai; Parambath, Prabhakaran Meethal; Puthiyedathu, Sajeevan Thavarool; Philip, Babu
Fishes are always exposed to various environmental stresses and the chances of succumbing to such stresses are of great physiological concern. Any change in temperature from the ambient condition can induce various metabolic and physiological changes in the body. The present study evaluates the effects of temperature induced stress on the antioxidant profile of Etroplus suratensis such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and lipid peroxidation. Fishes of same size were kept in a thermostatized bath at three different temperature regimes viz 16°C, 27°C (ambient temperature) and 38°C for 72h. These temperatures were selected based on the CT Max (Critical Thermal Maximum) and CT Min (Critical Thermal Minimum) exhibited by E. suratensis. Superoxide dismutase and catalase activity was found maximum in brain and muscle respectively during the 48th hour of exposure in fishes kept at 38°C. At 16°C the antioxidant response of glutathione peroxidase was maximum in muscles, whereas the lipid peroxidation rate was found to be high in gills compared to other tissues. The profound increase in the levels of oxidative stress related biomarkers indicate that the thermal stressors severely affected oxidative state of E. suratensis by the second day of experiment. Such down-regulation of redox state accompanied with the induction of oxidative stress cascade may lead to physiological damage in various tissues in fishes, in vivo. However current data indicate that a transition to low and high temperature environment from ambient condition severely affected the levels and profile of the antioxidant markers overtime in E. suratensis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others
It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN
Full Text Available Background: Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Methods: Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women, underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. Results: In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. There was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol however. Conclusion: This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.
Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Währborg, Peter; Ljung, Thomas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H
Common consequences of long-term psychosocial stress are fatigue and burnout. It has been suggested that burnout could be associated with hypocortisolism, thus, inability to produce sufficient amounts of cortisol. This study aimed to investigate whether patients with clinical burnout exhibit aberrant ACTH and cortisol responses under acute psychosocial stress compared with healthy individuals. Nineteen patients (9 men and 10 women) and 37 healthy subjects (20 men and 17 women), underwent the Trier Social Stress Test. Blood samples and saliva samples were collected before, after, and during the stress test for measurements of plasma ACTH, serum cortisol, and salivary cortisol. Several statistical analyses were conducted to compare the responses between patients and controls. In addition, in order to investigate the possibility that burnout patients with more severe symptoms would respond differently, sub-groups of patients reporting higher and lower burnout scores were compared. In both patients and healthy controls, we observed elevated levels of ACTH and cortisol after exposure to the stressor. There were no differences in responses of ACTH, serum cortisol, or salivary cortisol between patients and controls. Patients reporting higher burnout scores had lower salivary cortisol responses than controls, indicating that patients with more severe burnout symptoms may be suffering from hypocortisolism. In addition, patients with more severe burnout symptoms tended to have smaller ACTH responses than the other patients. However, there was no corresponding difference in serum cortisol. This study indicates that hypocortisolism is not present in a clinical burnout patient group as a whole but may be present in the patients with more severe burnout symptoms.
Aksentijević, Dunja; Zervou, Sevasti; Faller, Kiterie M. E.; McAndrew, Debra J.; Schneider, Jurgen E.; Neubauer, Stefan; Lygate, Craig A.
Background Multiple studies suggest creatine mediates anti-oxidant activity in addition to its established role in cellular energy metabolism. The functional significance for the heart has yet to be established, but antioxidant activity could contribute to the cardioprotective effect of creatine in ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Objectives To determine whether intracellular creatine levels influence responses to acute reactive oxygen species (ROS) exposure in the intact beating heart. We hypothesised that mice with elevated creatine due to over-expression of the creatine transporter (CrT-OE) would be relatively protected, while mice with creatine-deficiency (GAMT KO) would fare worse. Methods and Results CrT-OE mice were pre-selected for creatine levels 20–100% above wild-type using in vivo 1H–MRS. Hearts were perfused in isovolumic Langendorff mode and cardiac function monitored throughout. After 20 min equilibration, hearts were perfused with either H2O2 0.5 µM (30 min), or the anti-neoplastic drug doxorubicin 15 µM (100 min). Protein carbonylation, creatine kinase isoenzyme activities and phospho-PKCδ expression were quantified in perfused hearts as markers of oxidative damage and apoptotic signalling. Wild-type hearts responded to ROS challenge with a profound decline in contractile function that was ameliorated by co-administration of catalase or dexrazoxane as positive controls. In contrast, the functional deterioration in CrT-OE and GAMT KO hearts was indistinguishable from wild-type controls, as was the extent of oxidative damage and apoptosis. Exogenous creatine supplementation also failed to protect hearts from doxorubicin-induced dysfunction. Conclusions Intracellular creatine levels do not influence the response to acute ROS challenge in the intact beating heart, arguing against creatine exerting (patho-)physiologically relevant anti-oxidant activity. PMID:25272153
Usselman, Charlotte W; Gimon, Tamara I; Nielson, Chantelle A; Luchyshyn, Torri A; Coverdale, Nicole S; Van Uum, Stan H M; Shoemaker, J Kevin
This study aimed to examine the effects of sex (males vs. females) and sex hormones (menstrual cycle phases in women) on sympathetic responsiveness to severe chemoreflex activation in young, healthy individuals. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was measured at baseline and during rebreathing followed by a maximal end-inspiratory apnea. In women, baseline MSNA was greater in the midluteal (ML) than early-follicular (EF) phase of the menstrual cycle. Baseline MSNA burst incidence was greater in men than women, while burst frequency and total MSNA were similar between men and women only in the ML phase. Chemoreflex activation evoked graded increases in MSNA burst frequency, amplitude, and total activity in all participants. In women, this sympathoexcitation was greater in the EF than ML phase. The sympathoexcitatory response to chemoreflex stimulation of the EF phase in women was also greater than in men. Nonetheless, changes in total peripheral resistance were similar between sexes and menstrual cycle phases. This indicates that neurovascular transduction was attenuated during the EF phase during chemoreflex activation, thereby offsetting the exaggerated sympathoexcitation. Chemoreflex-induced increases in mean arterial pressure were similar across sexes and menstrual cycle phases. During acute chemoreflex stimulation, reduced neurovascular transduction could provide a mechanism by which apnea-associated morbidity might be attenuated in women relative to men. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.
Yi, Buqing; Matzel, Sandra; Feuerecker, Matthias; Hörl, Marion; Ladinig, Camilla; Abeln, Vera; Choukèr, Alexander; Schneider, Stefan
Collective evidence indicates that previous exposure to stressful condition might be able to induce changes in brain structure, HPA axis activity and related neurotransmission, and accordingly affect physiological responses to subsequent challenges. During long-term spaceflight, space travelers have to live under the condition of isolation and confinement in the spacecraft for a long period. It is still largely unknown if this kind of chronic stress burden can induce any long-lasting changes. To address this question, following 520-d isolation and confinement simulating a flight to Mars, the participants and a matched control group were exposed to an acute stress challenge called parabolic flight. Brain cortical activity, HPA axis activity, and sympathetic adrenal-medullary system response were monitored by EEG signal, cortisol secretion, and catecholamine production, respectively. We observed enhanced EEG signals, elevated cortisol levels and increased adrenaline productions. A group effect on cortisol output was revealed showing higher cortisol peak levels in the Mars520 group as compared to the control group, suggesting that HPA axis was to a certain extent more activated in the subjects who had chronic stress experience. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Caggiula, A R; Epstein, L H; Antelman, S M; Saylor, S; Knopf, S; Perkins, K A; Stiller, R
We have shown that conditioned tolerance develops to some of the behavioral and endocrine effects of nicotine in rats. Other investigators have suggested that tolerance to multiple nicotine injections in mice may be due, in part, to elevated plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, since repeated nicotine injections are associated with elevated CORT, chronically elevated CORT reduces nicotine responsiveness and adrenalectomy disrupts nicotine tolerance. Three experiments tested the feasibility of this hypothesis, as a mechanism for conditioned nicotine tolerance in rats, by determining whether acute administration of CORT or manipulations that increase adrenocortical activity reduce nicotine responsiveness. In experiment 1, male rats were injected IP with CORT (1 mg/kg), vehicle (ETOH + distilled water) or no injection 10 min before nicotine (0.75 mg/kg, SC) and tested for nicotine-induced analgesia every other day for 10 days. A significant reduction in withdrawal latencies was obtained for CORT pretreated rats compared to animals given only nicotine. A similar reduction was produced by the vehicle pretreatment, which itself induced an elevation of endogenous CORT. Experiments 2 and 3 established that similar effects could be produced by doses of CORT as low as 0.125 mg/kg or by exposure to a novel environment which also elevated CORT levels. Results also suggest that a conditioned release of endogenous CORT was triggered by stimuli associated with nicotine delivery. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that a conditioned release of CORT could contribute to the development of tolerance to some of nicotine's effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Renata Roland Teixeira
Full Text Available The present study examined the incidence of chronic stress in business executives (109 subjects: 75 male and 34 female and its relationship with cortisol levels, cognitive performance, and autonomic nervous system (ANS reactivity after an acute mental stressor. Blood samples were collected from the subjects to measure cortisol concentration. After the sample collection, the subjects completed the Lipp Inventory of Stress Symptoms for Adults and the Stroop Color-Word Test to evaluate stress and cognitive performance levels, respectively. Saliva samples were collected prior to, immediately after, and five minutes after the test. The results revealed that 90.1% of the stressed subjects experienced stress phases that are considered chronic stress. At rest, the subjects with chronic stress showed higher cortisol levels, and no gender differences were observed. No differences were found between the stressed and non-stressed subjects regarding salivary amylase activity prior to test. Chronic stress also impaired performance on the Stroop test, which revealed higher rates of error and longer reaction times in the incongruent stimulus task independently of gender. For the congruent stimulus task of the Stroop test, the stressed males presented a higher rate of errors than the non-stressed males and a longer reaction time than the stressed females. After the acute mental stressor, the non-stressed male group showed an increase in salivary alpha-amylase activity, which returned to the initial values five minutes after the test; this ANS reactivity was not observed in the chronically stressed male subjects. The ANS responses of the non-stressed vs stressed female groups were not different prior to or after the Stroop test. This study is the first to demonstrate a blunted reactivity of the ANS when male subjects with chronic psychological stress were subjected to an acute mental stressor, and this change could contribute to impairments in cognitive
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data set is an Excel file pertaining to the study that examined nasal, pulmonary, and systemic effects of acrolein in rats acutely exposed to a range of...
Chelsea D Ricketts
Full Text Available To determine if molybdenum (Mo is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73, hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l(-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout.
Krause-Utz, A; Cackowski, S; Daffner, S; Sobanski, Esther; Plichta, Michael M; Bohus, M; Ende, G; Schmahl, C
Impulsivity is a core feature of borderline personality disorder (BPD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). In BPD, impulsive behavior primarily occurs under acute stress; impulse control deficits under non-stress conditions may be partly related to co-morbid ADHD. We aimed to investigate whether acute experimental stress has an impact on self-reported impulsivity, response inhibition (action withholding, action cancelation) and delay discounting in BPD compared to ADHD. Thirty female BPD patients, 28 female ADHD patients (excluding patients with co-morbid BPD and ADHD), and 30 female healthy controls (HC) completed self-reports and behavioral measures of impulsivity (IMT, assessing action withholding; GoStop, measuring action cancelation, Delay Discounting Task) under baseline conditions and after an experimental stress induction (Mannheim Multicomponent Stress Test). Both patient groups reported higher impulsivity than HC, ADHD reported higher trait impulsivity than BPD. On the IMT, ADHD showed significant action-withholding deficits under both conditions, while BPD performed significantly worse than HC under stress. In BPD but not ADHD and HC, action-withholding deficits (IMT) were significantly increased under stress compared to baseline, while no group/stress effects were found for action cancelation (GoStop). Delay discounting was significantly more pronounced in BPD than in HC (no stress effect was found). In BPD, behavioral deficits in action withholding (but not in action cancelation) appear to be influenced by acute experimental stress. Delay discounting seems to be a general feature of BPD, independent of co-morbid ADHD and acute stress, possibly underlying typical expressions of behavioral impulsivity in the disorder.
Marvin, Rachel K; Saepoo, Muncharie B; Ye, Simiao; White, Donald B; Liu, Rong; Hensley, Kenneth; Rega, Paul; Kazan, Viviane; Giovannucci, David R; Isailovic, Dragan
Quantitative changes of salivary proteins due to acute stress were detected. To explore protein markers of stress in saliva of eight medical residents who performed emergency medicine simulations. Saliva was collected before the simulations, after the simulations, and following morning upon waking. Proteins were separated by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), identified by mass spectrometry (MS), and relatively quantified by densitometry. Salivary alpha-amylase and S-type cystatins significantly increased, while the ∼26 kDa and low-molecular weight (MW) (<10 kDa) SDS-PAGE bands exhibited changes after stress. Alpha-amylase and cystatins are potential salivary markers of acute stress, but further validation should be performed using larger sample populations.
Szabo, Yvette Z.; Chang, Andrew; Chancellor-Freeland, Cheryl
Previous studies have found that an individual's perception of control in a situation (Locus of Control; LOC) can serve as a protective factor that has physiological and psychological benefits. The present study examines LOC in an acute stress paradigm to examine the relationship between LOC and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning as…
Paris, Jason J; Franco, Christine; Sodano, Ruthlyn; Freidenberg, Brian; Gordis, Elana; Anderson, Drew A; Forsyth, John P; Wulfert, Edelgard; Frye, Cheryl A
Sex differences in incidence and severity of some stress-related, neuropsychiatric disorders are often reported to favor men, suggesting that women may be more vulnerable to aberrant hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to stress. In this review, we discuss several investigations that we, and others, have conducted assessing salivary cortisol as a measure of HPA function. We have examined basal cortisol among healthy men and women and also following acute exposure to stressors. Among healthy participants, men had higher basal cortisol levels than did women. In response to acute stressors, such as carbon dioxide or noise, respectively, cortisol levels were comparable between men and women or higher among women. We have also examined cortisol levels among those with problem eating, gambling, or posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women with restrained eating habits have higher basal cortisol levels than do women without restrained eating habits. Pathological gamblers have more aberrant stress response to gambling stimuli than do recreational gamblers, and these effects are more prominent among men than women. Men who have motor vehicle accident related PTSD, demonstrate more aberrant cortisol function, than do their female counterparts. Although these sex differences in cortisol seem to vary with type of stress exposure and/or pathophysiological status of the individual, other hormones may influence cortisol response. To address this, cortisol levels among boys and girls with different stress-related experiences, will be the subject of future investigation. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pehlivanoglu, Bilge; Bayrak, Sibel; Gurel, Esin Ileri; Balkanci, Zeynep Dicle
We aimed to explore the immunological outcomes of short-term mental stress in apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes and variations by gender and hormonal status of the individuals together with possible mediators of this interaction. Acute mental stress (computerized Stroop color-word interference and cold pressor tests) was applied to men (n = 17) and women (n = 16, in both follicular and luteal phases). Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored throughout the test and after the test until baseline values were recorded. Blood samples were drawn for measuring cortisol and nitric oxide (NO) levels and flow-cytometric cell counting before and after the test. Activation of the stress system was ascertained by increased heart rate, blood pressure and serum cortisol levels after the test. Relative to baseline values, acute mental stress altered the distribution of T and natural killer cells. There was a significant decrease in T helper/T cytotoxic-suppressor cell ratio and an increase in apoptotic T helper cell percentage irrespective of gender or menstrual cycle phase. An increased number of natural killer cells was detected in women, whereas it was decreased in men. After stress induction, serum NO levels remained the same in women and increased in men. Although a correlation was not found between immune system changes and NO levels, glucocorticoids seem to have a role in the observed differences. Acute mental stress triggers apoptotic T helper cell loss which was associated with stress system activation, and sex steroids affect the pattern of stress-related immune cell distribution. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Ehlers, M R; Todd, R M
Addiction is increasingly discussed asa disorder of associative learning processes, with both operant and classical conditioning contributing to the development of maladaptive habits. Stress has long been known to promote drug taking and relapse and has further been shown to shift behavior from goal-directed actions towards more habitual ones. However, it remains to be investigated how acute stress may influence simple associative learning processes that occur before a habit can be established. In the present study, healthy young adults were exposed to either acute stress or a control condition half an hour before performing simple classical and operant conditioning tasks. Psychophysiological measures confirmed successful stress induction. Results of the operant conditioning task revealed reduced instrumental responding under delayed acute stress that resembled behavioral responses to lower levels of reward. The classical conditioning experiment revealed successful conditioning in both experimental groups; however, explicit knowledge of conditioning as indicated by stimulus ratings differentiated the stress and control groups. These findings suggest that operant and classical conditioning are differentially influenced by the delayed effects of acute stress with important implications for the understanding of how new habitual behaviors are initially established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zhao, ZhengLin; Kim, Sang Chan; Liu, HongFeng; Zhang, Jie; Wang, YuHua; Cho, Il Je; Lee, Bong Hyo; Song, Chang Hyun; Lee, Chul Won; Yang, Chae Ha; Zhao, RongJie; Wu, YiYan
Acupuncture improves ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats in an acupoint-dependent manner. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of acupuncture on acute restraint stress- (ARS-) induced anxiety. Male rats were exposed to ARS for 3 h followed by acupuncture at either PC6 (Neiguan), HT7 (Shenmen), or a nonacupoint (tail) once a day for three consecutive days. Five minutes after the third acupuncture treatment, anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in an elevated plus maze (EPM). Additionally, plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and the concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Acupuncture at PC6, but not HT7 or a nonacupoint, attenuated anxiety-like behavior, but this attenuation was abolished by a postacupunctural intra-CeA infusion of NE. Acupuncture at PC6 also reduced the oversecretion of plasma CORT and inhibited increases in amygdaloid NE and MHPG induced by ARS. Further, Western blot analyses and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that acupuncture at PC6 prevented ARS-induced enhancements in the protein and mRNA expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase in the CeA. These results suggest that acupuncture performed specifically at acupoint PC6 reduces ARS-induced anxiety-like behavior by dampening amygdaloid noradrenergic responses.
Full Text Available Acupuncture improves ethanol withdrawal-induced anxiety in rats in an acupoint-dependent manner. Thus, the present study investigated the effects of acupuncture on acute restraint stress- (ARS- induced anxiety. Male rats were exposed to ARS for 3 h followed by acupuncture at either PC6 (Neiguan, HT7 (Shenmen, or a nonacupoint (tail once a day for three consecutive days. Five minutes after the third acupuncture treatment, anxiety-like behavior was evaluated in an elevated plus maze (EPM. Additionally, plasma corticosterone (CORT levels were measured by radioimmunoassay and the concentrations of norepinephrine (NE and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Acupuncture at PC6, but not HT7 or a nonacupoint, attenuated anxiety-like behavior, but this attenuation was abolished by a postacupunctural intra-CeA infusion of NE. Acupuncture at PC6 also reduced the oversecretion of plasma CORT and inhibited increases in amygdaloid NE and MHPG induced by ARS. Further, Western blot analyses and real-time polymerase chain reaction assays revealed that acupuncture at PC6 prevented ARS-induced enhancements in the protein and mRNA expressions of tyrosine hydroxylase in the CeA. These results suggest that acupuncture performed specifically at acupoint PC6 reduces ARS-induced anxiety-like behavior by dampening amygdaloid noradrenergic responses.
Teixeira, V H; Valente, H F; Casal, S I; Marques, F P; Moreira, P A
This study aimed to investigate the response of blood antioxidants and biomarkers of lipid peroxidation, muscle damage and inflammation to a 1000m kayak trial in elite male kayakers. Enzymatic (superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione reductase [Gr] and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities) and non-enzymatic (total antioxidant status [TAS], uric acid, α-tocopherol, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein and zeaxanthin) antioxidants, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), creatine kinase (CK), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and cortisol were determined in 15 elite male kayakers before and 15 min after a 1000-m kayak simulated race. Both enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants were unaffected by exercise, with the exception of α-carotene which decreased (P=0.013). Uric acid levels were incremented following exercise (P=0.016). The acute exercise resulted in a significant decrease in TAS (P=0.001) and in an increase in CK (P=0.023), TBARS (Pkayak simulated race induces oxidative stress and damage in highly-trained kayakers.
Hammerfald, K; Eberle, C; Grau, M; Kinsperger, A; Zimmermann, A; Ehlert, U; Gaab, J
Psychosocial stress leads to a release of cortisol. While this psychoneuroendocrine response helps to maintain physiological as well as psychological equilibrium under stress, exaggerated secretion of cortisol has been shown to have negative effects on somatic health and cognitive functioning. The study set out to examine the long-term effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management training on cortisol stress responses in healthy men and women. Eighty-three healthy subjects were randomly assigned to cognitive-behavioral stress management (CBSM) training or a control condition. Four months after the CBSM, 76 subjects underwent a standardized psychosocial stress test. Salivary cortisol responses were assessed repeatedly before and after the stress test. Subjects in the CBSM group showed significantly reduced cortisol stress responses. With regard to gender, this effect was observed in both men and women. However, the magnitude of the CBSM effect on cortisol responses was smaller in women than in men. Use of oral contraceptives in women influenced the cortisol response, but did not have an impact on the CBSM effect on cortisol. The results show that the previously reported attenuation of cortisol stress responses through CBSM persists and are observable in both men and women. Since stress-induced alterations of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis functioning are discussed to be involved in the onset and maintenance of both somatic and psychiatric conditions, similar interventions could be used for prevention and therapy of these detrimental stress effects.
Full Text Available Objective. To assess the influence of different physical training status on exercise-induced oxidative stress and changes in cellular redox state. Methods. Thirty male subjects participated in this study and were assigned as well-trained (WT, moderately trained (MT, and untrained (UT groups. The levels of cortisol, creatine kinase, plasma reduced glutathione to oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG, cysteine/cystine (Cys/CySS, and GSH/GSSG ratio in red blood cells (RBCs were measured immediately and 10 and 30 min after exercise. Results. Following the exercise, plasma GSH/GSSG (p=0.001 and Cys/CySS (p=0.005 were significantly reduced in all groups. Reduction in plasma GSH/GSSG ratio in all groups induced a transient shift in redox balance towards a more oxidizing environment without difference between groups (p=0.860, while RBCs GSH/GSSG showed significant reduction (p=0.003 and elevation (p=0.007 in UT and MT groups, respectively. The highest level of RBCs GSH/GSSG ratio was recorded in MT group, and the lowest one was recorded in the WT group. Conclusion. Long term regular exercise training with moderate intensity shifts redox balance towards more reducing environment, versus intensive exercise training leads to more oxidizing environment and consequently development of related diseases.
Germanou, Evangelia I; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Malliou, Paraskevi; Beneka, Anastasia; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Bikos, Christos; Tsoukas, Dimitrios; Theodorou, Apostolos; Katrabasas, Ioannis; Margonis, Konstantinos; Douroudos, Ioannis; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fatouros, Ioannis G
Obesity is associated with osteoarthritis and it is accompanied by chronic inflammation and elevated oxidative stress. Strengthening-type exercise is used in knee osteoarthritis (KOA) rehabilitation. This study determined how acute isokinetic exercise influences inflammatory responses of obese middle-aged women with KOA. Ten obese women with KOA and 10 age/weight-matched controls performed an isokinetic exercise protocol. Assessment of performance (knee extensor/flexor torque), muscle soreness (DOMS), knee flexibility (KJRM), and pain, and blood collection were performed pre-exercise, post-exercise, and at 24h post-exercise. Blood was analyzed for creatine kinase activity (CK), lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH), CRP, leukocytes, uric acid, IL-6, TBARS, lipid hydroperoxides (LPX), protein carbonyls (PC), oxidized (GSH) and reduced glutathione (GSSG), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), catalase activity, and glutathione peroxidase activity (GPX). Physical function remained unaltered by exercise (only torque at 90°/s decreased at 24h). Exercise increased DOMS throughout recovery but KJRM and pain remained unchanged. CK, LDH, and uric acid increased similarly in both groups. CRP remained unaffected by exercise while IL-6 increased only post-exercise. TBARS, PC, LPH, GSSG, and TAC increased only post-exercise in both groups. GSH and GSH/GSSG declined post-exercise and normalized thereafter. Catalase and GPX increased only in patients post-exercise. Isokinetic exercise induces only a mild inflammatory response of very short duration (exercise may be safe for this patient cohort. These results indicate that KOA patients may be able to receive another exercise stimulus after only 48h. Isokinetic exercise produces minimal inflammation and pain in knee osteoarthritis patients, could be performed every 48h during rehabilitation, and up-regulates patients' antioxidant system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Castrogiovanni, Daniel; Gaillard, Rolf C; Giovambattista, Andrés; Spinedi, Eduardo
In rats, neonatal treatment with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) induces several metabolic and neuroendocrine abnormalities, which result in hyperadiposity. No data exist, however, regarding neuroendocrine, immune and metabolic responses to acute endotoxemia in the MSG-damaged rat. We studied the consequences of MSG treatment during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress. Neonatal male rats were treated with MSG or vehicle (controls, CTR) and studied at age 90 days. Pituitary, adrenal, adipo-insular axis, immune, metabolic and gonadal functions were explored before and up to 5 h after single sub-lethal i.p. injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 150 microg/kg). Our results showed that, during the acute phase response of inflammatory stress in MSG rats: (1) the corticotrope-adrenal, leptin, insulin and triglyceride responses were higher than in CTR rats, (2) pro-inflammatory (TNFalpha) cytokine response was impaired and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokine response was normal, and (3) changes in peripheral estradiol and testosterone levels after LPS varied as in CTR rats. These data indicate that metabolic and neroendocrine-immune functions are altered in MSG-damaged rats. Our study also suggests that the enhanced corticotrope-corticoadrenal activity in MSG animals could be responsible, at least in part, for the immune and metabolic derangements characterizing hypothalamic obesity. 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Domi, Esi; Uhrig, Stefanie; Soverchia, Laura; Spanagel, Rainer; Hansson, Anita C; Barbier, Estelle; Heilig, Markus; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo
PPARγ is one of the three isoforms of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs). PPARγ is activated by thiazolidinediones such as pioglitazone and is targeted to treat insulin resistance. PPARγ is densely expressed in brain areas involved in regulation of motivational and emotional processes. Here, we investigated the role of PPARγ in the brain and explored its role in anxiety and stress responses in mice. The results show that stimulation of PPARγ by pioglitazone did not affect basal anxiety, but fully prevented the anxiogenic effect of acute stress. Using mice with genetic ablation of neuronal PPARγ (PPARγNestinCre), we demonstrated that a lack of receptors, specifically in neurons, exacerbated basal anxiety and enhanced stress sensitivity. The administration of GW9662, a selective PPARγ antagonist, elicited a marked anxiogenic response in PPARγ wild-type (WT), but not in PPARγNestinCre knock-out (KO) mice. Using c-Fos immunohistochemistry, we observed that acute stress exposure resulted in a different pattern of neuronal activation in the amygdala (AMY) and the hippocampus (HIPP) of PPARγNestinCre KO mice compared with WT mice. No differences were found between WT and KO mice in hypothalamic regions responsible for hormonal response to stress or in blood corticosterone levels. Microinjection of pioglitazone into the AMY, but not into the HIPP, abolished the anxiogenic response elicited by acute stress. Results also showed that, in both regions, PPARγ colocalizes with GABAergic cells. These findings demonstrate that neuronal PPARγ is involved the regulation of the stress response and that the AMY is a key substrate for the anxiolytic effect of PPARγ. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) is a classical target for antidiabetic therapies with thiazolidinedione compounds. PPARγ agonists such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are in clinical use for the treatment of insulin resistance. PPARγ has recently attracted
Alves, Fernando H. F.; Crestani, Carlos C.; Resstel, Leonardo B. M.; Corrêa, Fernando M. A.
The insular cortex (IC) is a limbic structure involved in cardiovascular responses observed during aversive threats. However, the specific neurotransmitter mediating IC control of cardiovascular adjustments to stress is yet unknown. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the role of local IC adrenoceptors in the cardiovascular responses elicited by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of different doses (0.3, 5, 10 and 15 nmol/100 nl) of the selective α1-adrenoceptor antagonist WB4101 into the IC reduced both the arterial pressure and heart rate increases elicited by restraint stress. However, local IC treatment with different doses (0.3, 5, 10 and 15 nmol/100 nl) of the selective α2-adrenoceptor antagonist RX821002 reduced restraint-evoked tachycardia without affecting the pressor response. The present findings are the first direct evidence showing the involvement of IC adrenoceptors in cardiovascular adjustments observed during aversive threats. Our findings indicate that IC noradrenergic neurotransmission acting through activation of both α1- and α2-adrenoceptors has a facilitatory influence on pressor response to acute restraint stress. Moreover, IC α1-adrenoceptors also play a facilitatory role on restraint-evoked tachycardiac response. PMID:24404141
Ronaldson, Amy; Gazali, Ahmad M; Zalli, Argita; Kaiser, Frank; Thompson, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian; Steptoe, Andrew; Carvalho, Livia
The percentage of regulatory T cells (TRegs)-a subtype of T lymphocyte that suppresses the immune response-appears to be reduced in a number of stress-related diseases. The role of the TReg in stress-disease pathways has not yet been investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the association between biological responsivity to acute psychosocial stress and the percentage of TRegs in healthy older adults. The secondary purpose was to measure the associations between TReg percentage and psychological and physical well-being in the participants. Salivary cortisol and plasma interleukin (IL)-6 samples were obtained from 121 healthy older men and women from the Whitehall II cohort following acute psychophysiological stress testing. Three years later at a follow-up visit, we measured TReg percentages and psychological and physical well-being were recorded using the Short Form 36 Health Survey and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. Blunted cortisol responses (p = 0.004) and elevated IL-6 responses (p = 0.027) to acute psychophysiological stress were associated with greater TReg percentage independently of age, sex, BMI, smoking status, employment grade, time of testing, and baseline measures of cortisol and IL-6, respectively. Percentage of TRegs was associated cross-sectionally with lower physical (p = 0.043) and mental health status (p = 0.008), and higher levels of depressive symptoms (p = 0.002), independently of covariates. Increased levels of TRegs may act as a defence against increased inflammation and may be a pre-indication for chronically stressed individuals on the cusp of clinical illness.
Tarín, Juan J; Hamatani, Toshio; Cano, Antonio
This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1) estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration; and 2) women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating) the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1 estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH administration; and 2 women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.
Brasil, Taíz F S; Fassini, Aline; Corrêa, Fernando M
The prelimbic cortex (PL) is an important structure in the neural pathway integrating stress responses. Brain angiotensin is involved in cardiovascular control and modulation of stress responses. Blockade of angiotensin receptors has been reported to reduce stress responses. Acute restraint stress (ARS) is a stress model, which evokes sustained blood pressure increase, tachycardia, and reduction in tail temperature. We therefore hypothesized that PL locally generated angiotensin and angiotensin receptors modulate stress autonomic responses. To test this hypothesis, we microinjected an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or angiotensin antagonists into the PL, prior to ARS. Male Wistar rats were used; guide cannulas were bilaterally implanted in the PL for microinjection of vehicle or drugs. A polyethylene catheter was introduced into the femoral artery to record cardiovascular parameters. Tail temperature was measured using a thermal camera. ARS was started 10 min after PL treatment with drugs. Pretreatment with ACE inhibitor lisinopril (0.5 nmol/100 nL) reduced the pressor response, but did not affect ARS-evoked tachycardia. At a dose of 1 nmol/100 nL, it reduced both ARS pressor and tachycardic responses. Pretreatment with candesartan, AT1 receptor antagonist reduced ARS-evoked pressor response, but not tachycardia. Pretreatment with PD123177, AT2 receptor antagonist, reduced tachycardia, but did not affect ARS pressor response. No treatment affected ARS fall in tail temperature. Results suggest involvement of PL angiotensin in the mediation of ARS cardiovascular responses, with participation of both AT1 and AT2 receptors. In conclusion, results indicate that PL AT1-receptors modulate the ARS-evoked pressor response, while AT2-receptors modulate the tachycardic component of the autonomic response.
Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J
Chronic exposure to stressors increases HPA axis activity and concomitantly reduces HPG axis activity. This antagonistic relationship between both these axes has been proposed to underlie the inhibition of reproductive function due to stress. Sexual behavior in males may be the most vulnerable aspect of male reproduction to acute and chronic stress and it has been suggested that alterations in sexual behavior during stress are due to the antagonistic relationship between testosterone and corticosteroids. However, only in a few studies has a correlation between the levels of testosterone and corticosterone, and sexual behavior been made. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different stressors, applied both acute and chronically, on masculine sexual behavior and whether or not these effects on sexual behavior are accompanied by changes in plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of testosterone treatment on the effects of stress on sexual behavior. Sexually experienced male rats were exposed to one of the following stressors: immobilization (IMB), electric foot shocks (EFS) or immersion in cold water (ICW). Sexual behavior and plasma levels of testosterone and corticosterone were assessed on days 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 of stress. In a second experiment, males were castrated, treated with 3 different doses of testosterone propionate (TP) and exposed to ICW for 20 consecutive days. Sexual behavior was assessed on days 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 and steroids were evaluated on day 20. Parameters of masculine sexual behavior were modified depending on the characteristics of each stressor. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies increased significantly, the number of mounts increased, and ejaculations decreased significantly in males exposed to EFS and to ICW but not in males exposed to IMB. Associated with these effects, testosterone decreased in the EFS and ICW groups on days 1, 15, and 20. However, corticosterone
Tu, Wei-Lin; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Wang, Shih-Han; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Chen, Shuen-Ei; Huang, San-Yuan
Acute heat stress severely impacts poultry production. The hypothalamus acts as a crucial center to regulate body temperature, detect temperature changes, and modulate the autonomic nervous system and endocrine loop for heat retention and dissipation. The purpose of this study was to investigate global gene expression in the hypothalamus of broiler-type B strain Taiwan country chickens after acute heat stress. Twelve 30-week-old hens were allocated to four groups. Three heat-stressed groups were subjected to acute heat stress at 38 °C for 2 hours without recovery (H2R0), with 2 hours of recovery (H2R2), and with 6 hours of recovery (H2R6). The control hens were maintained at 25 °C. At the end, hypothalamus samples were collected for gene expression analysis. The results showed that 24, 11, and 25 genes were upregulated and 41, 15, and 42 genes were downregulated in H2R0, H2R2, and H2R6 treatments, respectively. The expressions of gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GNRH1), heat shock 27-kDa protein 1 (HSPB1), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and heat shock protein 25 (HSP25) were upregulated at all recovery times after heat exposure. Conversely, the expression of TPH2 was downregulated at all recovery times. A gene ontology analysis showed that most of the differentially expressed genes were involved in biological processes including cellular processes, metabolic processes, localization, multicellular organismal processes, developmental processes, and biological regulation. A functional annotation analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were related to the gene networks of responses to stress and reproductive functions. These differentially expressed genes might be essential and unique key factors in the heat stress response of the hypothalamus in chickens. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fukui, Hiroko; Endoh, Shigehisa; Shichiri, Mototada; Ishida, Noriko; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Yoshida, Yasukazu; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Horie, Masanori
Crystalline silica (SiO2) is an important material for industry but is considered potentially carcinogenic. Inhalation of a crystalline SiO2 aerosol may contribute to serious lung diseases. Crystalline SiO2 particles are commonly used as a positive control in toxicity assays of particulate materials (e.g. nanoparticles). Crystalline SiO2 induces oxidative stress resulting in lipid peroxidation, but the acute oxidative stress response in the lung is not well understood. Lipid peroxidation during the acute stage of oxidative stress after instillation of crystalline SiO2 into rats was examined by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) analysis. The levels of 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α and hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODE) in the BALF were measured using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole mass spectrometry. The concentration of the antioxidant protein heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the BALF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Intratracheal instillation of crystalline SiO2 increased the level of HODE and HO-1 in BALF at 24 h after administration. The levels of HODE and HO-1 returned to baseline at 72 h after instillation. Lactate dehydrogenase leakage was observed only after 1 h instillation. These results suggest that the contribution of oxidative stress to the pulmonary toxicity of crystalline SiO2 is minimal in the early acute stage after exposure. © The Author(s) 2014.
Zoladz, Phillip R; Cadle, Chelsea E; Dailey, Alison M; Fiely, Miranda K; Peters, David M; Nagle, Hannah E; Mosley, Brianne E; Scharf, Amanda R; Brown, Callie M; Duffy, Tessa J; Earley, McKenna B; Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Payment, Kristie E
Research examining the effects of stress on false memory formation has been equivocal, partly because of the complex nature of stress-memory interactions. A major factor influencing stress effects on learning is the timing of stress relative to encoding. Previous work has shown that brief stressors administered immediately before learning enhance long-term memory. Thus, we predicted that brief stress immediately before learning would decrease participants' susceptibility to subsequent misinformation and reduce false memory formation. Eighty-four male and female participants submerged their hand in ice cold (stress) or warm (no stress) water for 3min. Immediately afterwards, they viewed an 8-min excerpt from the Disney movie Looking for Miracles. The next day, participants were interviewed and asked several questions about the video, some of which forced them to confabulate responses. Three days and three weeks later, respectively, participants completed a recognition test in the lab and a free recall test via email. Our results revealed a robust misinformation effect, overall, as participants falsely recognized a significant amount of information that they had confabulated during the interview as having occurred in the original video. Stress, overall, did not significantly influence this misinformation effect. However, the misinformation effect was completely absent in stressed participants who exhibited a blunted cortisol response to the stress, for both recognition and recall tests. The complete absence of a misinformation effect in non-responders may lend insight into the interactive roles of autonomic arousal and corticosteroid levels in false memory development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs. Immediately after acute immobilization stress (AIS or one-day after chronic immobilization stress (CIS, the brains of adult female and male rats were perfusion-fixed with aldehydes. The CA3b region and the dentate hilus of the dorsal hippocampus were quantitatively analyzed by light microscopy using DOR immunoperoxidase or dual label electron microscopy for DOR using silver intensified immunogold particles (SIG and GABA using immunoperoxidase. At baseline, females compared to males had more DORs near the plasmalemma of pyramidal cell dendrites and about 3 times more DOR-labeled CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers. In AIS females, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in GABAergic hilar dendrites. However, in AIS males, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in CA3 pyramidal cell and hilar GABAergic dendrites and the percentage of CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers increased to about half that seen in unstressed females. Conversely, after CIS, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in hilar GABA-labeled dendrites of females whereas in males plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in CA3 pyramidal cell dendrites and near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased hilar GABA-labeled dendrites. As CIS in females, but not males, redistributed DOR-SIGs near the plasmalemmal of hilar GABAergic dendrites, a subsequent experiment examined the acute affect of oxycodone on the redistribution of DOR-SIGs in a separate cohort of CIS females. Plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs were significantly elevated on hilar
Ledochowski, Larissa; Ruedl, Gerhard; Taylor, Adrian H; Kopp, Martin
.... This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue...
Larissa Ledochowski; Gerhard Ruedl; Adrian H Taylor; Martin Kopp
.... This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue...
Stephens, Mary Ann C; Mahon, Pamela B; McCaul, Mary E; Wand, Gary S
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis influences the risk for developing stress-related disorders. Sex-dependent differences in the HPA axis stress response are believed to contribute to the different prevalence rates of stress-related disorders found in men and women. However, studies examining the HPA axis stress response have shown mixed support for sex differences, and the role of endogenous sex hormones on HPA axis response has not been adequately examined in humans. This study utilized the largest sample size to date to analyze the effects of biological sex and sex hormones on HPA axis social stress responses. Healthy, 18- to 30- year-old community volunteers (N=282) completed the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), a widely used and well-validated stress-induction laboratory procedure. All women (n=135) were tested during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle (when progesterone levels are most similar to men). Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol measures were collected at multiple points throughout pre- and post-TSST. Testosterone and progesterone (in men) and progesterone and estradiol (in women) were determined pre-TSST. Following the TSST, men had greater ACTH and cortisol levels than women. Men had steeper baseline-to-peak and peak-to-end ACTH and cortisol response slopes than women; there was a trend for more cortisol responders among men than women. Testosterone negatively correlated with salivary cortisol response in men, while progesterone negatively correlated with ACTH and cortisol responses in women. These data confirm that men show more robust activation of the HPA axis response to the TSST than do women in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Testosterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in men. Progesterone results suggest an inhibitory effect on HPA axis reactivity in women. Future work is needed to explain why men mount a greater ACTH and cortisol response to the
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH is a key enzyme for the synthesis and catabolism of glutamic acid, proline and alanine, which are important osmolytes in aquatic animals. However, the response of GDH gene expression to salinity alterations has not yet been determined in macro-crustacean species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: GDH cDNA was isolated from Eriocheir sinensis. Then, GDH gene expression was analyzed in different tissues from normal crabs and the muscle of crabs following transfer from freshwater (control directly to water with salinities of 16‰ and 30‰, respectively. Full-length GDH cDNA is 2,349 bp, consisting of a 76 bp 5'- untranslated region, a 1,695 bp open reading frame encoding 564 amino acids and a 578 bp 3'- untranslated region. E. sinensis GDH showed 64-90% identity with protein sequences of mammalian and crustacean species. Muscle was the dominant expression source among all tissues tested. Compared with the control, GDH expression significantly increased at 6 h in crabs transferred to 16‰ and 30‰ salinity, and GDH expression peaked at 48 h and 12 h, respectively, with levels approximately 7.9 and 8.5 fold higher than the control. The free amino acid (FAA changes in muscle, under acute salinity stress (16‰ and 30‰ salinities, correlated with GDH expression levels. Total FAA content in the muscle, which was based on specific changes in arginine, proline, glycine, alanine, taurine, serine and glutamic acid, tended to increase in crabs following transfer to salt water. Among these, arginine, proline and alanine increased significantly during salinity acclimation and accounted for the highest proportion of total FAA. CONCLUSIONS: E. sinensis GDH is a conserved protein that serves important functions in controlling osmoregulation. We observed that higher GDH expression after ambient salinity increase led to higher FAA metabolism, especially the synthesis of glutamic acid, which increased the synthesis of
Scheiber, IBR; Kralj, S; Kotrschal, K; Bauchinger, U; Goymann, W
Measuring hormone metabolites from excreta is a powerful method to study hormone-behavior relationships. Currently, fecal corticosterone metabolite concentrations are used to estimate individual short-term stress responses. From the free-roaming, semitame flock of greylag geese (Anser anser), as
Zhou, Qian; Wu, Changgong; Dong, Bo; Li, Fuhua; Liu, Fengqi; Xiang, Jianhai
Proteomics was used to reveal the differential protein expression profiles of acute responses to copper sulfate exposure in larvae of Artemia sinica. Fourteen differentially displayed protein spots were detected and seven of them were identified. Three spots were up-expressed and identified: actin, heat shock protein 70, and chaperone subunit 1; three down-regulated proteins were identified: arginine kinase, elongation factor-2, and glycine-rich protein; and a newly expressed protein was identified as peroxiredoxin. The study indicates the involvement of all the differentially expressed proteins in the early responses of protein expression, and in the survival of A. sinica in the presence of copper and other heavy metals; the findings improve understanding of the organism’s adaptive responses and resistance.
Fornari, Mauro; Carnevali, Luca; Sgoifo, Andrea
The efficacy of osteopathic manipulative therapy (OMTh; manipulative care provided by foreign-trained osteopaths) is supported by observational data and patient feedback, but there is still a need for objective, quantitative biomarkers that allow measurement of the underlying mechanisms. No study exploring the protective potential of OMTh for mental stress has been published, to the authors' knowledge. To explore the modulating effect of OMTh on autonomic neural regulation of the heart and verifiy its ability to influence the activity of the hypothalmic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis. Healthy young adult men who had never received OMTh were exposed to either a brief protocol using craniosacral techniques or sham therapy (control) involving the same anatomical areas. A laboratory stress episode consisting of a 5-minute arithmetic task participants were required to perform in front of a committee preceded the therapy sessions. Continuous electrocardiograph recordings were done before, during, and after the stress episode. Heart rate and frequency-domain parameters of heart rate variability (specifically, high-frequency component power in normalized units and the ratio of low-frequency to high-frequency power) were measured to quantify the activity of the parasympathetic nervous system and the state of sympathovagal balance at the level of the heart, respectively. Saliva samples were also collected at points throughout the study to determine cortisol levels. Osteopathic manipulative therapy reduced the overall chronotropic effect of the stressor (t=-2.9, Pcontrol participants. Moreover, OMTh participants had a much lower overall cortisol level during the mental stressor compared with control participants (t=-2.3, Pcontrol counterparts after the stress episode (control: t=2.7, Psession to healthy participants induced a faster recovery of heart rate and sympathovagal balance after an acute mental stressor by substantially dampening parasympathetic withdrawal and
Goldstein, David S.
Based on concepts proposed by Langley, Cannon, and Selye, adrenal responses to stress occur in a syndrome that reflects activation of the sympathoadrenal system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenocortical (HPA) axis; and a “stress syndrome” maintains homeostasis in emergencies such as “fight or flight” situations, but if the stress response is excessive or prolonged then any of a variety of clinical disorders can arise. The idea of a unitary sympathoadrenal system does not account for evidence ...
Pase, C S; Roversi, Kr; Trevizol, F; Roversi, K; Kuhn, F T; Schuster, A J; Vey, L T; Dias, V T; Barcelos, R C S; Piccolo, J; Emanuelli, T; Bürger, M E
Because consumption of processed foods has increased in the last decades and so far its potential influence on emotionality and susceptibility to stress is unknown, we studied the influence of different fatty acids (FA) on behavioral and biochemical parameters after acute restrain stress (AS) exposure. Two sequential generations of female rats were supplemented with soybean oil (control group; C-SO), fish oil (FO) and hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF) from pregnancy and during lactation. At 41days of age, half the animals of each supplemented group were exposed to AS and observed in open field and elevated plus maze task, followed by euthanasia for biochemical assessments. The HVF-supplemented group showed higher anxiety-like symptoms per se, while the C-SO and FO groups did not show these behaviors. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF showed locomotor restlessness in the open field, while both C-SO and HVF groups showed anxiety-like symptoms in the elevated plus maze, but this was not observed in the FO group. Biochemical evaluations showed higher lipoperoxidation levels and lower cell viability in cortex in the HVF group. In addition, HVF-treated rats showed reduced catalase activity in striatum and hippocampus, as well as increased generation of reactive species in striatum, while FO was associated with increased cell viability in the hippocampus. Among groups exposed to AS, HVF increased reactive species generation in the brain, decreased cell viability in the cortex and striatum, and decreased catalase activity in the striatum and hippocampus. Taken together, our findings show that the type of FA provided during development and growth over two generations is able to modify the brain oxidative status, which was particularly adversely affected by trans fat. In addition, the harmful influence of chronic consumption of trans fats as observed in this study can enhance emotionality and anxiety parameters resulting from stressful situations of everyday life, which can
Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Koryga, Izabela; Mnich, Katarzyna; Ljujic, Mila; Samali, Afshin; Gorman, Adrienne M
In response to diverse stress stimuli, eukaryotic cells activate a common adaptive pathway, termed the integrated stress response (ISR), to restore cellular homeostasis. The core event in this pathway is the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) by one of four members of the eIF2α kinase family, which leads to a decrease in global protein synthesis and the induction of selected genes, including the transcription factor ATF4, that together promote cellular recovery. The gene expression program activated by the ISR optimizes the cellular response to stress and is dependent on the cellular context, as well as on the nature and intensity of the stress stimuli. Although the ISR is primarily a pro-survival, homeostatic program, exposure to severe stress can drive signaling toward cell death. Here, we review current understanding of the ISR signaling and how it regulates cell fate under diverse types of stress. © 2016 The Authors.
Llonch, Pol; Somarriba, Miguel; Duthie, Carol-Anne; Haskell, Marie J; Rooke, John A; Troy, Shane; Roehe, Rainer; Turner, Simon P
The aim of this study was to assess individual differences in temperament and stress response and quantify their impact on feed efficiency, performance, and methane (CH4) emissions in beef cattle. Eighty-four steers (castrated males) (Charolais or Luing) were used. Temperament was assessed using two standardized tests: restlessness when restrained [crush score (CS)] and flight speed (FS) on release from restraint. Over a 56-day period individual animal dry matter intake (DMI) and weekly body weight was measured. Ultrasound fat depth was measured at the end of 56 days. Average daily gain (ADG), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and residual feed intake (RFI) were calculated. After the 56-day test period, animals were transported in groups of six/week to respiration chamber facilities. Blood samples were taken before and 0, 3, 6, and 9 h after transport. Plasma cortisol, creatine kinase (CK), glucose, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined to assess physiological stress response. Subsequently, CH4 emissions were measured over a 3-day period in individual respiration chambers. CS (1.7 ± 0.09) and FS (1.6 ± 0.60 m/s) were repeatable (0.63 and 0.51, respectively) and correlated (r = 0.36, P feed efficiency (lower FCR and RFI) (P feed intake that may both increase the efficiency of consumed feed and the ratio of CH4 emissions/unit of feed. Therefore, temperament and stress response should be considered when designing strategies to improve efficiency and mitigate CH4 emissions in beef cattle.
Anthony John Porcelli
Full Text Available People often make decisions under aversive conditions such as acute stress. Yet, less is known about the process in which acute stress can influence decision-making. A growing body of research has established that reward-related information associated with the outcomes of decisions exerts a powerful influence over the choices people make and that an extensive network of brain regions, prominently featuring the striatum, is involved in the processing of this reward-related information. Thus, an important step in research on the nature of acute stress’ influence over decision-making is to examine how it may modulate responses to rewards and punishments within reward-processing neural circuitry. In the current experiment, we employed a simple reward processing paradigm – where participants received monetary rewards and punishments – known to evoke robust striatal responses. Immediately prior to performing each of two task runs, participants were exposed to acute stress (i.e., cold pressor or a no stress control procedure in a between-subjects fashion. No stress group participants exhibited a pattern of activity within the dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex consistent with past research on outcome processing – specifically, differential responses for monetary rewards over punishments. In contrast, acute stress group participants’ dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex demonstrated decreased sensitivity to monetary outcomes and a lack of differential activity. These findings provide insight into how neural circuits may process rewards and punishments associated with simple decisions under acutely stressful conditions.
Szőllősi, Ágnes; Pajkossy, Péter; Demeter, Gyula; Kéri, Szabolcs; Racsmány, Mihály
Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions. According to our results, acute stress had no impact on ongoing task performance, time-based PM, and verbal fluency, whereas it enhanced event-based PM as measured by response speed for the prospective cues. Our findings indicate that, here, acute stress did not affect executive control processes. We suggest that stress affected event-based PM via associative memory processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Resstel, Leonardo BM; Tavares, Rodrigo F; Lisboa, Sabrina FS; Joca, Sâmia RL; Corrêa, Fernando MA; Guimarães, Francisco S
Background and purpose Cannabidiol (CBD) is a non-psychotomimetic compound from Cannabis sativa which induces anxiolytic- and antipsychotic-like effects in rodents. These effects could be mediated by facilitation of the endocannabinoid system or by the activation of 5-HT1A receptors. As either of these mechanisms could promote adaptation to inescapable stress, the aim of the present work was to test the hypothesis that CBD would attenuate the autonomic and behavioural consequences of restraint stress (RS). We also investigated if the responses to CBD depended on activation of 5-HT1A receptors. Experimental approach Male Wistar rats received i.p. injections of vehicle or CBD (1, 10 or 20 mg kg−1) and 30 min later were submitted to 60 min of restraint where their cardiovascular responses were recorded. The protocol of the second experiment was similar to the first one except that animals received i.p. injections of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 (0.1 mg kg−1) before CBD treatment and exposure to restraint. 24 h later they were also tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), an animal model of anxiety. Key results Exposure to RS increased blood pressure and heart rate and induced an anxiogenic response in the EPM 24 h later. These effects were attenuated by CBD. WAY100635 by itself did not change the cardiovascular and anxiogenic response to RS, but blocked the effects of CBD. Conclusion and implications The results suggest that CBD can attenuate acute autonomic responses to stress and its delayed emotional consequences by facilitating 5-HT1A receptor-mediated neurotransmission. PMID:19133999
Kleiber, Morgan L; Laufer, Benjamin I; Stringer, Randa L; Singh, Shiva M
The developing brain is remarkably sensitive to alcohol exposure, resulting in the wide range of cognitive and neurobehavioral characteristics categorized under the term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The brain is particularly susceptible to alcohol during synaptogenesis, a process that occurs heavily during the third trimester and is characterized by the establishment and pruning of neural circuitry; however, the molecular response of the brain to ethanol during synaptogenesis has not been documented. To model a binge-like exposure during the third-trimester neurodevelopmental equivalent, neonate mice were given a high (5 g/kg over 2 h) dose of ethanol at postnatal day 7. Acute transcript changes within the brain were assessed using expression arrays and analyzed for associations with gene ontology functional categories, canonical pathways, and gene network interactions. The short-term effect of ethanol was characterized by an acute stress response and a downregulation of energetically costly cellular processes. Further, alterations to a number of genes with roles in synaptic transmission and hormonal signaling, particularly those associated with the neuroendocrine development and function, were evident. Ethanol exposure during synaptogenesis was also associated with altered histone deacetylase and microRNA transcript levels, suggesting that abnormal epigenetic patterning may maintain some of the persistent molecular consequences of developmental ethanol exposure. The results shed insight into the sensitivity of the brain to ethanol during the third-trimester equivalent and outline how ethanol-induced alterations to genes associated with neural connectivity may contribute to FASD phenotypes. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Panzini, Chris M; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Alchahin, Adele M; Guo, Yueping; Commons, Kathryn G
In humans a chromosomal hemideletion of the 16p11.2 region results in variable neurodevelopmental deficits including developmental delay, intellectual disability, and features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Serotonin is implicated in ASD but its role remains enigmatic. In this study we sought to determine if and how abnormalities in serotonin neurotransmission could contribute to the behavioral phenotype of the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome in a mouse model (Del mouse). As ASD is frequently associated with altered response to acute stress and stress may exacerbate repetitive behavior in ASD, we studied the Del mouse behavior in the context of an acute stress using the forced swim test, a paradigm well characterized with respect to serotonin. Del mice perseverated with active coping (swimming) in the forced swim test and failed to adopt passive coping strategies with time as did their wild-type littermates. Analysis of monoamine content by HPLC provided evidence for altered endogenous serotonin neurotransmission in Del mice while there was no effect of genotype on any other monoamine. Moreover, we found that Del mice were highly sensitive to the 5-HT2A antagonists M100907, which at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg normalized their level of active coping and restored the gradual shift to passive coping in the forced swim test. Supporting evidence for altered endogenous serotonin signaling was provided by observations of additional ligand effects including altered forebrain Fos expression. Taken together, these observations indicate notable changes in endogenous serotonin signaling in 16p11.2 deletion mice and support the therapeutic utility of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.
Full Text Available Stress research has progressively become more integrative in nature, seeking to unfold crucial relations between the different phenotypic levels of stress manifestations. This study sought to unravel stress-induced variations in expression of human microRNAs sampled in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and further assess their relationship with neuronal and psychological indices. We obtained blood samples from 49 healthy male participants before and three hours after performing a social stress task, while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. A seed-based functional connectivity (FC analysis was conducted for the ventro-medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC, a key area of stress regulation. Out of hundreds of microRNAs, a specific increase was identified in microRNA-29c (miR-29c expression, corresponding with both the experience of sustained stress via self-reports, and alterations in vmPFC functional connectivity. Explicitly, miR-29c expression levels corresponded with both increased connectivity of the vmPFC with the anterior insula (aIns, and decreased connectivity of the vmPFC with the left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC. Our findings further revealed that miR-29c mediates an indirect path linking enhanced vmPFC-aIns connectivity during stress with subsequent experiences of sustained stress. The correlative patterns of miR-29c expression and vmPFC FC, along with the mediating effects on subjective stress sustainment and the presumed localization of miR-29c in astrocytes, together point to an intriguing assumption; miR-29c may serve as a biomarker in the blood for stress-induced functional neural alterations reflecting regulatory processes. Such a multi-level model may hold the key for future personalized intervention in stress psychopathology.
Full Text Available The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.
Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Raio, Candace M; Gottesman, Sarah P; Lackovic, Sandra F; Phelps, Elizabeth A
The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.
Ashor, Ammar W; Chowdhury, Shakir; Oggioni, Clio; Qadir, Othman; Brandt, Kirsten; Ishaq, Abbas; Mathers, John C; Saretzki, Gabriele; Siervo, Mario
Aging and obesity are associated with raised oxidative stress and a reduction of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, with subsequent decline in insulin sensitivity and endothelial function. Inorganic nitrate is converted into NO via a 2-step reduction process and may be an effective nutritional intervention to modify vascular and metabolic functions. This study tested whether inorganic nitrate supplementation improved glucose disposal and attenuated the acute effects of hyperglycemia on oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular function in young and old obese participants. Ten young (aged 18-44 y) and 10 old (aged 55-70 y) obese participants consumed 75 g glucose followed by either potassium nitrate (7 mg/kg body weight) or potassium chloride (placebo) in a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Resting blood pressure (BP), endothelial function, and blood biomarkers were measured for 3 h postintervention. Biomarkers included plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx), glucose, insulin, cyclic GMP, interleukin 6, 3-nitrotyrosine, E- and P-selectins, intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3), and thrombomodulin, as well as superoxide in freshly isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Inorganic nitrate supplementation did not affect plasma glucose (P = 0.18) or insulin (P = 0.26) responses. The increase in plasma NOx concentrations 3 h after the administration of inorganic nitrate was significantly higher in young than in old participants (234% increase compared with 149% increase, respectively, P inorganic nitrate supplementation compared with placebo (3 h postdose, 46% decrease compared with 27% increase, respectively, P = 0.04), and a similar nonsignificant trend was observed for superoxide concentrations (3 h postdose, 16% decrease compared with 23% increase, respectively, P = 0.06). Plasma cyclic GMP, ICAM-3, and thrombomodulin concentrations differed between young and old participants (P Inorganic nitrate supplementation did not improve BP or endothelial
Geva, Nirit; Defrin, Ruth
The effect of acute stress on pain threshold and intolerance threshold are reported as producing either hypoalgesia or hyperalgesia. Yet, the contribution of individual stress reactivity in this respect has not been established. The aim was to test 2 pain modulation paradigms under acute stress manipulation, to our knowledge, for the first time, to study whether stress differentially affects pain modulation, and whether the effect is related to individual stress response. Participants were 31 healthy subjects. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) and pain adaptation were measured before and after inducing an acute stress response using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task. Subjects' stress response was evaluated according to salivary cortisol, autonomic function, and perceived stress and anxiety. The Montreal Imaging Stress Task induced a validated stress response. On a group level, stress induced reduction in CPM magnitude and increase in pain adaptation compared with baseline. These responses correlated with stress reactivity. When the group was subdivided according to stress reactivity, only high stress responders exhibited reduced CPM whereas only low stress responders exhibited increased pain adaptation. The results suggest that acute stress may induce opposite effects on pain modulation, depending on individual stress reactivity magnitude, with an advantage to low stress responders. This study evaluated the effect of acute stress on pain modulation. Pain modulation under stress is affected by individual stress responsiveness; decreased CPM occurs in high stress responders whereas increased pain adaptation occurs in low stress responders. Identification of high stress responders may promote better pain management. Copyright © 2017 The American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Karolina M. Lempert
Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.
Almela, M.; Hidalgo, V.; van der Meij, L.; Villada, C.; Pulopulos, M. M.; Salvador, A.
Age-related memory decline has been associated with a faulty regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis). The aim of this study was to investigate whether the magnitude of the stress-induced cortisol increase is related to memory performance when memory is measured in
Farideh Zafari Zangeneh
Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.
Espin, Laura; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia; Gomez-Amor, Jesus
This study explores the influence of pre-learning stress on performance on declarative memory tasks in healthy young adults in relation to sex and menstrual cycle phase. The sample was composed of 119 students (32 men and 87 women) from 18 to 25 years of age. The women were tested in different hormonal stages (30 in follicular phase, 34 in luteal phase, and 23 using oral contraceptives). The participants were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or a control condition. Afterwards, their memory performance was measured using a standardized memory test (Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test). In the control condition, all groups of women recalled more words than men, but these differences disappeared in the group exposed to TSST because men's performance on the memory test improved, but only to the level of women. In addition, our data suggest that in women the relationship between cortisol and memory can be modulated by sex hormone levels, since in luteal women a negative relationship was found between memory performance and peak cortisol level. These results confirm that sex differences need to be considered in the relationship between pre-learning stress and memory performance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, Christian; Arentzen, Tina S.
in locomotor activity, depressive- and anxiety-like behavior as well as sleep architecture. Some animals were analyzed for CNS microstructural changes based on diffusion MRI. Subsets of PS and control rats were exposed to an acute stressor prior to the behavioral tests. Rearing/climbing activity in a familiar...... environment (housing cage) increased at the end of the light and beginning of the dark phases in PS offspring compared to controls. PS per se did not appear to change anxiety-like behavior in either sex.However, exposure to an acute stressor increased exploratory behavior in control animals and, interestingly......, PS blunted this effect. Relative and absolute numbers of rapid eye movement sleep bouts were higher in PS offspring. Moreover, exposure to an acute stressor induced a REM rebound effect in control animals but this compensatory mechanism was blunted in PS animals. Finally, depression-like behavioral...
David C. Randall
Full Text Available We recorded via telemetry the arterial blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR response to classical conditioning following the spontaneous onset of autoimmune diabetes in BBDP/Wor rats versus age-matched, diabetes resistant control (BBDR/Wor rats. Our purpose was to evaluate the autonomic regulatory responses to an acute stress in a diabetic state of up to 12 months duration. The stress was a 15 sec. pulsed tone (CS+ followed by a 0.5 sec. tail shock. The initial, transient increase in BP (i.e., the ‘first component’, or C1, known to be derived from an orienting response and produced by a sympathetic increase in peripheral resistance, was similar in diabetic and control rats through ~9 months of diabetes; it was smaller in diabetic rats 10 months after diabetes onset. Weakening of the C1 BP increase in rats that were diabetic for > 10 months is consistent with the effects of sympathetic neuropathy. A longer-latency, smaller, but sustained ‘second component’ (C2 conditional increase in BP, that is acquired as a rat learns the association between CS+ and the shock, and which results from an increase in cardiac output, was smaller in the diabetic vs. control rats starting from the first month of diabetes. A concomitant HR slowing was also smaller in diabetic rats. The difference in the C2 BP increase, as observed already during the first month of diabetes, is probably secondary to the effects of hyperglycemia upon myocardial metabolism and contractile function, but it may also result from effects on cognition. The small HR slowing concomitant with the C2 pressor event is probably secondary to differences in baroreflex activation or function, though parasympathetic dysfunction may contribute later in the duration of diabetes. The nearly immediate deficit after disease onset in the C2 response indicates that diabetes alters BP and HR responses to external challenges prior to the development of structural changes in the vasculature or autonomic
Nakka, Venkata Prasuja; Prakash-babu, Phanithi; Vemuganti, Raghu
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces a variety of neuronal cell death pathways that play a critical role in the pathophysiology of Stroke. ER stress occurs when unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulate and the folding capacity of ER chaperones exceeds the capacity of ER lumen to facilitate their disposal. As a consequence, a complex set of signaling pathways will be induced that transmit from ER to cytosol and nucleus to compensate damage and to restore the normal cellular homeostasis, collectively known as unfolded protein response (UPR). However, failure of UPR due to severe or prolonged stress leads to cell death. Following acute CNS injuries, chronic disturbances in protein folding and oxidative stress prolong ER stress leading to sustained ER dysfunction and neuronal cell death. While ER stress responses have been well studied after stroke, there is an emerging need to study the association of ER stress with other cell pathways that exacerbate neuronal death after an injury. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the role for ER stress in acute brain injuries, highlighting the diverse molecular mechanisms associated with ER stress and its relation to oxidative stress and autophagy. We also discussed the existing and developing therapeutic options aimed to reduce ER stress to protect the CNS after acute injuries. PMID:25482050
However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented. Objectives: The current study was undertaken to determine possible associations between systemic biomarkers of inflammation (acute phase reactants, stress hormones, leukocyte vitamin C) and smoking ...
Everaerd, D.S.; Klumpers, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Tendolkar, I.
Background: Healthy aging has been associated with stable emotional wellbeing and attenuated brain responses to negative stimuli. At the same time, depressive symptoms are common in older adults. The neural mechanisms behind this paradox remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that acute stress
Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia
Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.
Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G
The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Speaker, Kristin J.; Cox, Stewart S.; Paton, Madeline M.; Serebrakian, Arman; Maslanik, Thomas; Greenwood, Benjamin N.; Fleshner, Monika
To prime local tissues for dealing with potential infection or injury, exposure to an acute, intense stressor evokes increases in circulating and local tissue inflammatory proteins. Regular physical activity facilitates stress-evoked innate reactivity and modulates the expression of inflammatory proteins in immuno-metabolic tissues such as white adipose tissue (WAT). The impact of regular physical activity on stress-evoked inflammatory protein expression in WAT, however, remains unclear. To investigate this question, lean male F344 rats (150–175 g) were allowed voluntary access to a running wheel for 6 weeks followed by exposure to an acute stressor (100, 1.5 mA-5 s inescapable tail shocks). Using ELISAs, corticosterone, heat shock protein 72 (Hsp72), macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-10 concentrations were measured in plasma and subcutaneous, intraperitoneal (epididymal and retroperitoneal WAT depots) and visceral (omental and mesenteric WAT depots) WAT compartments. Acute stress increased plasma concentrations of all proteins except TNF-α and, depending upon the compartment examined, WAT concentrations of MCP-1, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10. Exercise ubiquitously increased IL-1β within WAT, potentiated stress-evoked Hsp72 in plasma and WAT, and differentially increased stress-evoked MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 within WAT. These data suggest: (a) inflammatory proteins in non-obese WAT may serve compartment-specific immune and metabolic roles important to the acute stress response and; (b) voluntary habitual exercise may optimize stress-induced augmentation of innate immune function through increases in stress-evoked Hsp72, MCP-1, IL-6, and IL-10 and decreases in IL-1β/IL10 and TNF-α/IL10 ratios within white adipose tissue. PMID:24246250
Veld, D.M.J. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de
We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; M-age = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM
Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.
Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016
Carter, Jason R; Kupiers, Nathan T; Ray, Chester A
The effects of mental stress (MS) on muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and limb blood flows have been studied independently in the arm and leg, but they have not been studied collectively. Furthermore, the cardiovascular implications of postmental stress responses have not been thoroughly addressed. The purpose of the current investigation was to comprehensively examine concurrent neural and vascular responses during and after mental stress in both limbs. In Study 1, MSNA, blood flow (plethysmography), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were measured in both the arm and leg in 12 healthy subjects during and after MS (5 min of mental arithmetic). MS significantly increased MAP (Δ15 ± 3 mmHg; P < 0.01) and HR (Δ19 ± 3 beats min−1; P < 0.01), but did not change MSNA in the arm (14 ± 3 to 16 ± 3 bursts min−1; n= 6) or leg (14 ± 2 to 15 ± 2 bursts min−1; n= 8). MS decreased forearm vascular resistance (FVR) by −27 ± 7% (P < 0.01; n= 8), while calf vascular resistance (CVR) did not change (−6 ± 5%; n= 11). FVR returned to baseline during recovery, whereas MSNA significantly increased in the arm (21 ± 3 bursts min−1; P < 0.01) and leg (19 ± 3 bursts min−1; P < 0.03). In Study 2, forearm and calf blood flows were measured in an additional 10 subjects using Doppler ultrasound. MS decreased FVR (−27 ± 10%; P < 0.02), but did not change CVR (5 ± 14%) as in Study 1. These findings demonstrate differential vascular control of the arm and leg during MS that is not associated with muscle sympathetic outflow. Additionally, the robust increase in MSNA during recovery may have acute and chronic cardiovascular implications. PMID:15705649
Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske
Facebook remains the most widely used social media platform. Research suggests that Facebook may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being, and that it may impair physiological stress recovery. However, little is known about its influence on stress reactivity. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined how Facebook influences reactivity to an acute social stressor. Facebook users (n=104, 53 males, mean age 19.50, SD=1.73) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook account or sit quietly with the option of reading electronic magazines before experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers in response to the stressor. However, participants who used Facebook experienced lower levels of psychosocial stress, physiological stress, and rated the stressor as less threatening (p'sFacebook use may buffer stress-in particular psychosocial stress-if used before experiencing an acute social stressor. This study is among the first to incorporate both objective and subjective measures in investigating the complex relationship between Facebook use and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.
To be able to predict which persons are capable to perform under acute stress is important for the selection and training of professionals in the military, police, and fire- fighting domain. The present study examines how individual differences in coping (style, efficacy, and behavior) explain
Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.
We examined the impact of acute noise stress on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and whether this effect depended on stressor predictability. Participants performed a gambling task in a silence and a noise condition with either predictable or unpredictable noise. FRN amplitude was measured in
Ledochowski, Larissa; Ruedl, Gerhard; Taylor, Adrian H; Kopp, Martin
Research has shown that acute exercise reduces urges for chocolate in normal weight people. This study aimed to examine the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to consume sugary snacks, affect as well as 'psychological and physiological responses' to stress and a 'sugary snack cue', in overweight individuals. Following 3 days of chocolate-abstinence, 47 overweight, sugary snack consumers were assessed, in 2 randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: 15-min brisk walk or passive control. Following each, participants completed 2 tasks: Stroop color-word interference task, and handling sugary snacks. Urges for sugary snacks, affective activation and valence were assessed. ANOVAs revealed significant condition x time interaction effects for: urges to consume sugary snacks, affective valence and activation. Obtained data show that exercise reduces urges for sugary snacks and attenuates urges in response to the stress situation and the cue in overweight people.
Zafir Mohd Makhbul; Fazilah Mohamad Hasun
Gender differences have been highlighted by the researchers in discussing the stress outcomes. Stress studies consistently show that females report significantly higher levels of psychological and physical stress than their male counterparts. The literature has shown that rarely have there been any studies conducted which are able to look at the gender responses to stress outcomes among supporting staff. The main objective of this paper is to compare the stress outcomes experienced by male an...
Full Text Available Cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity limits its use in many cancer patients. The expression of enzymes involved in polyamine catabolism, spermidine/spermine N1-acetyltransferase (SSAT and spermine oxidase (SMOX increase in the kidneys of mice treated with cisplatin. We hypothesized that enhanced polyamine catabolism contributes to tissue damage in cisplatin acute kidney injury (AKI. Using gene knockout and chemical inhibitors, the role of polyamine catabolism in cisplatin AKI was examined. Deficiency of SSAT, SMOX or neutralization of the toxic products of polyamine degradation, H2O2 and aminopropanal, significantly diminished the severity of cisplatin AKI. In vitro studies demonstrated that the induction of SSAT and elevated polyamine catabolism in cells increases the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α and enhances the expression of binding immunoglobulin protein BiP/GRP78 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP/GADD153. The increased expression of these endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR markers was accompanied by the activation of caspase-3. These results suggest that enhanced polyamine degradation in cisplatin AKI may lead to tubular damage through the induction of ERSR and the consequent onset of apoptosis. In support of the above, we show that the ablation of the SSAT or SMOX gene, as well as the neutralization of polyamine catabolism products modulate the onset of ERSR (e.g. lower BiP and CHOP and apoptosis (e.g. reduced activated caspase-3. These studies indicate that enhanced polyamine catabolism and its toxic products are important mediators of ERSR and critical to the pathogenesis of cisplatin AKI.
LeBlanc, Sacha; Höglund, Erik; Gilmour, Kathleen M.
shock response, we capitalized on two lines of rainbow trout specifically bred for their high (HR) and low (LR) cortisol response to stress. We predicted that LR fish, with a low cortisol but high catecholamine response to stress, would induce higher levels of HSPs after acute heat stress than HR trout......Acute temperature stress in animals results in increases in heat shock proteins (HSPs) and stress hormones. There is evidence that stress hormones influence the magnitude of the heat shock response; however, their role is equivocal. To determine whether and how stress hormones may affect the heat....... We found that HR fish have significantly higher increases in both catecholamines and cortisol compared with LR fish, and LR fish had no appreciable stress hormone response to heat shock. This unexpected finding prevented further interpretation of the hormonal modulation of the heat shock response...
Nizam, M; Norzila, M Z
A child's admission into intensive care is a major cause of stress for parents. However among Malaysian parents, data concerning the perception of stress are virtually absent. Therefore we conducted a study to measure the reliability of the Malay version of Parental Stressor Scale: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PSS: PICU) in identifying sources of stress and to study factors that might influence their stress response. Over a six-month period, one hundred and twelve parents were requested to answer the questionnaires twice either in Malay or English, a week apart. Spearman's correlation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess the repeatability and internal consistency of the questionnaires. Ninety-four (83.9%) and seventy-one (75.3%) parents responded to the first and second administration of questionnaire respectively. All answered in the Malay language except for three. The correlation ranged from 0.50 to 0.71 with a total score of 0.76. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.75 to 0.93, with total a score of 0.95. Alteration in parental roles was the most stressful source of stress. Fathers, parents of children with higher PRISM score and parents with no previous admission into intensive care unit scored significantly higher in staffs communication. The Malay version of PSS: PICU is reliable in identifying sources of stress. Alteration in parental roles was the most stressful source of stress. Parents' gender, previous experience and severity of the child illness may influence their stress responses.
Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F
Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.
de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven
Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress.
Kagias, Konstantinos; Nehammer, Camilla; Pocock, Roger David John
damage during aging that results in decline and eventual death. Studies have shown that the nervous system plays a pivotal role in responding to stress. Neurons not only receive and process information from the environment but also actively respond to various stresses to promote survival. These responses...... include changes in the expression of molecules such as transcription factors and microRNAs that regulate stress resistance and adaptation. Moreover, both intrinsic and extrinsic stresses have a tremendous impact on neuronal development and maintenance with implications in many diseases. Here, we review...... the responses of neurons to various physiological stressors at the molecular and cellular level....
de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina
We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.
Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between parents of people with (n = 30) and without (n = 34) ASD (caregivers and non-caregivers, respectively). Caregivers showed lower EDA in response to acute stress than non-caregivers. They also presented higher trait anxiety, anger, depression, and somatic symptoms than non-caregivers. Higher EDA was related to a worse mood and more severe somatic symptoms only in caregivers. These results could reflect an adaptive habituation to stress and establish that high EDA in response to acute stress depends on caregivers' health.
Morales-Alamo, David; Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-García, Lorena; Santana, Alfredo; Cusso, Maria Roser; Guerrero, Mario; Guerra, Borja; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A L
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major mediator of the exercise response and a molecular target to improve insulin sensitivity. To determine if the anaerobic component of the exercise response, which is exaggerated when sprint is performed in severe acute hypoxia, influences sprint exercise-elicited Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, 10 volunteers performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test) in normoxia and in severe acute hypoxia (inspired Po(2): 75 mmHg). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after 30 and 120 min postsprint. Mean power output and O(2) consumption were 6% and 37%, respectively, lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. O(2) deficit and muscle lactate accumulation were greater in hypoxia than in normoxia. Carbonylated skeletal muscle and plasma proteins were increased after the sprint in hypoxia. Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation was increased by 3.1-fold 30 min after the sprint in normoxia. This effect was prevented by hypoxia. The NAD(+)-to-NADH.H(+) ratio was reduced (by 24-fold) after the sprints, with a greater reduction in hypoxia than in normoxia (P exercise in human skeletal muscle is altered in severe acute hypoxia, which abrogated Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, likely due to lower LKB1 activation by SIRT1.
Ella A Naumova
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine
Wolkow, Alexander; Ferguson, Sally; Aisbett, Brad; Main, Luana
Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel) that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextualize the significance of such responses to assist emergency service agencies monitor the health of their personnel. The available literature suggests that sleep restriction across multiple work days can disrupt cytokine and cortisol levels, deteriorate mood and elicit simultaneous physiological and psychological responses. However, research concerning the interaction between such responses is limited and inconclusive. Therefore, it is unknown if a psycho-physiological relationship exists and as a result, it is currently not feasible for agencies to monitor sleep restriction related stress based on psycho- physiological interactions. Sleep restriction does however, appear to be a major stressor contributing to physiological and psychological responses and thus, warrants further investigation. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.
Full Text Available Emergency work can expose personnel to sleep restriction. Inadequate amounts of sleep can negatively affect physiological and psychological stress responses. This review critiqued the emergency service literature (e.g., firefighting, police/law enforcement, defense forces, ambulance/paramedic personnel that has investigated the effect of sleep restriction on hormonal, inflammatory and psychological responses. Furthermore, it investigated if a psycho-physiological approach can help contextualize the significance of such responses to assist emergency service agencies monitor the health of their personnel. The available literature suggests that sleep restriction across multiple work days can disrupt cytokine and cortisol levels, deteriorate mood and elicit simultaneous physiological and psychological responses. However, research concerning the interaction between such responses is limited and inconclusive. Therefore, it is unknown if a psycho-physiological relationship exists and as a result, it is currently not feasible for agencies to monitor sleep restriction related stress based on psycho- physiological interactions. Sleep restriction does however, appear to be a major stressor contributing to physiological and psychological responses and thus, warrants further investigation.
Morris, J P; Thatje, S; Ravaux, J; Shillito, B; Fernando, D; Hauton, C
Little is known about the ecological and physiological processes governing depth distribution limits in species. Temperature and hydrostatic pressure are considered to be two dominant factors. Research has shown that some marine ectotherms are shifting their bathymetric distributions in response to rapid anthropogenic ocean surface warming. Shallow-water species unable to undergo latitudinal range shifts may depend on bathymetric range shifts to seek refuge from warming surface waters. As a first step in constraining the molecular basis of pressure tolerance in shallow water crustaceans, we examined differential gene expression in response to acute pressure and temperature exposures in juveniles of the shallow-water shrimp Palaemonetes varians. Significant increases in the transcription of genes coding for an NMDA receptor-regulated protein, an ADP ribosylation factor, β-actin, two heat shock protein 70 kDa isoforms (HSP70), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were found in response to elevated pressure. NMDA receptors have been implicated in pathways of excitotoxic damage to neurons and the onset of high pressure neurological syndrome (HPNS) in mammals. These data indicate that the sub-lethal effects of acute barotrauma are associated with transcriptional disturbances within the nervous tissue of crustaceans, and cellular macromolecular damage. Such transcriptional changes lead to the onset of symptoms similar to that described as HPNS in mammals, and may act as a limit to shallow water organisms' prolonged survival at depth. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Rimmele, Ulrike; Reichwald, Ursula; Hautzinger, Martin
Some studies suggest that stress-induced effects of cortisol on memory are modulated by the valence of the stimuli to be learned and retrieved. The present study investigated the effect of acute stress-induced cortisol secretion on acquisition and retrieval of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral words. Sixty healthy men were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups. Participants were either exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) before learning a wordlist, or before retrieval, or were not stressed. Free recall and recognition were tested 24 h later. Free recall was not affected by stress exposure. For recognition, there was no main effect of the stressor, but a main effect of valence and a valence by group interaction emerged: recognition for positive words was significantly impaired when subjects were stressed before retrieval. In addition, a positive correlation between the cortisol response and errors of commission was found. The results suggest that acute stress impairs memory for positive stimuli and that stress-induced cortisol secretion interferes with accuracy of memory retrieval, i.e. the ability to discriminate true memories from false ones.
Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu
The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis
Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…
Breineková, K; Svoboda, M; Smutná, M; Vorlová, L
This study explores the biological validation of markers of acute stress in pigs subjected to transportation for slaughter. The stress markers selected for monitoring were neopterin and cortisol. Their levels in pig serum were measured for two porcine stress syndrome genotypes, NN and Nn, after a 30-min transport to a slaughterhouse. Blood samples were withdrawn before transport (control group) and immediately after the animals' arrival (experimental group). The values of neopterin and cortisol measured before the transport were 5.60+/-1.65 nmol/l and 273.54+/-66.17 nmol/l respectively. After the transfer, the concentration of cortisol rose significantly compared to the control (355.69+/-85.13 nmol/l, p<0.01). Neopterin concentrations in the serum (8.25+/-1.60 nmol/l) were also significantly higher (p<0.01) after transportation. The elevated concentrations of both analytes were found to be independent of the genotype. These results document the stimulation of the endocrine system and the immune system that develops in animals undergoing transportation for slaughter.
Naser, Victoria; Shani, Eilon
The phytohormone auxin (indole-3-acetic acid, IAA) is a small organic molecule that coordinates many of the key processes in plant development and adaptive growth. Plants regulate the auxin response pathways at multiple levels including biosynthesis, metabolism, transport and perception. One of the most striking aspects of plant plasticity is the modulation of development in response to changing growth environments. In this review, we explore recent findings correlating auxin response-dependent growth and development with osmotic stresses. Studies of water deficit, dehydration, salt, and other osmotic stresses point towards direct and indirect molecular perturbations in the auxin pathway. Osmotic stress stimuli modulate auxin responses by affecting auxin biosynthesis (YUC, TAA1), transport (PIN), perception (TIR/AFB, Aux/IAA), and inactivation/conjugation (GH3, miR167, IAR3) to coordinate growth and patterning. In turn, stress-modulated auxin gradients drive physiological and developmental mechanisms such as stomata aperture, aquaporin and lateral root positioning. We conclude by arguing that auxin-mediated growth inhibition under abiotic stress conditions is one of the developmental and physiological strategies to acclimate to the changing environment.
Danscher, A. M.; Thoefner, M. B.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
acids. In humans, inflammation has been linked to metabolic diseases. In cattle, studies into the possible links between acid-base changes, inflammation/innate immunity and metabolic disease are warranted as this might improve our understanding of the production disease complexes occurring in particular......The aim of the study was to describe the acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy heifers during acute, oligofructose-induced ruminal acidosis. The study included 2 trials involving oral oligofructose overload (17g/kg BW) to nonpregnant Danish Holstein heifers. Trial 1 included 12...... than control heifers at 18 and 24h after overload (max. 13.7±4.3 billions/L). Feeding had no effect on plasma fibrinogen concentrations or WBC in Trial 1.Acute ruminal and systemic acidosis caused by oligofructose overload resulted in distinct acute phase protein and leukocyte responses in dairy...
Kanehisa, Masayuki; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Okamoto, Kana; Oshita, Harumi; Masuda, Koji; Takita, Fuku; Izumi, Toshihiko; Inoue, Ayako; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Higuma, Haruka; Ninomiya, Taiga; Akiyoshi, Jotaro
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) has a pervasive pattern of preoccupation with orderliness, perfection, and mental and interpersonal control at the expense of flexibility, openness, and efficiency. The aims of the present study were to explore the relationship between OCPD and psychological stress and psychological tests. We evaluated 63 OCPD patients and 107 healthy controls (HCs). We collected saliva samples from patients and controls before and after a social stress procedure, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), to measure the concentrations of salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and salivary cortisol. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Profile of Mood State (POMS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Social Adaptation Self-Evaluation Scale (SASS), and Depression and Anxiety Cognition Scale (DACS) were administered to patients and HCs. Following TSST exposure, the salivary amylase and cortisol levels were significantly decreased in male patients compared with controls. Additionally, OCPD patients had higher CTQ, POMS, STAI, and BDI scores than HCs and exhibited significantly higher anxiety and depressive states. OCPD patients scored higher on future denial and threat prediction as per the DACS tool. According to a stepwise regression analysis, STAI, POMS, and salivary cortisol responses were independent predictors of OCPD. Our results suggested that attenuated sympathetic and parasympathetic reactivity in male OCPD patients occurs along with attenuated salivary amylase and cortisol responses to the TSST. In addition, there was a significant difference between OCPD patients and HCs in child trauma, mood, anxiety, and cognition. The finding support the modeling role of cortisol (20min) on the relationships between STAI trait and depression among OCPD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...
Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert
Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…
Brown, Eoin G; Gallagher, Stephen; Creaven, Ann-Marie
Physiological reactivity to acute stress has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism by which loneliness may lead to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. This review was conducted to investigate the association between loneliness and physiological responses to acute stress. A series of electronic databases were systematically searched (PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct) for relevant studies, published up to October 2016. Eleven studies were included in the review. Overall, the majority of studies reported positive associations between loneliness and acute stress responses, such that higher levels of loneliness were predictive of exaggerated physiological reactions. However, in a few studies, loneliness was also linked with decreased stress responses for particular physiological outcomes, indicating the possible existence of blunted relationships. There was no clear pattern suggesting any sex- or stressor-based differences in these associations. The available evidence supports a link between loneliness and atypical physiological reactivity to acute stress. A key finding of this review was that greater levels of loneliness are associated with exaggerated blood pressure and inflammatory reactivity to acute stress. However, there was some indication that loneliness may also be related to blunted cardiac, cortisol, and immune responses. Overall, this suggests that stress reactivity could be one of the biological mechanisms through which loneliness impacts upon health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
The integration of the "acute stress" factor in the problems of Human Management entails revisiting contributions and theories of Management Sciences, reexamining and shedding new light on fundamental concepts of Management. Thus, it appears that the performance and the capacity of restitution of skills acquired by individuals, depends directly on their level of stress. In fact, depending on the imbalance between the perception that a person has of the constraints imposed by his environment a...
Lupis, Sarah B; Sabik, Natalie J; Wolf, Jutta M
Studies assessing the role of shame in HPA axis reactivity report mixed findings. Discrepancies may be due to methodological difficulties and inter-individual differences in the propensity to experience shame in a stressful situation. Hence, the current study combined self-report of shame and facial coding of shame expressions and assessed the role of body esteem as a moderator of the shame-stress link. For this, 44 healthy students (24F, age 20.5 ± 2.1 years) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test: TSST). Salivary cortisol levels were measured throughout the protocol. Trait shame was measured before the stress test, and state shame immediately afterwards. Video recordings of the TSST were coded to determine emotion expressions. State shame was neither associated with cortisol stress responses nor with body esteem (self-report: all ps ≥ .24; expression: all ps ≥ .31). In contrast, higher trait shame was associated with both negative body esteem (p = .049) and stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .013). Lastly, having lower body esteem predicted stronger cortisol stress responses (p = .022); however, it did not significantly moderate the association between shame indices and cortisol stress responses (all ps ≥ .94). These findings suggest that body esteem and trait shame independently contribute to strength of cortisol stress responses. Thus, in addition to trait shame, body esteem emerged as an important predictor of cortisol stress responses and as such, a potential contributor to stress-related negative health outcomes.
Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li
Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.
Gefen, E; Talal, S; Brendzel, O; Dror, A; Fishman, A
Scorpions exhibit some of the lowest recorded water loss rates among terrestrial arthropods. Evaporative water loss to the surrounding environment occurs mainly through the integument, and thus its resistance to water loss has paramount significance for the ability of scorpions to tolerate extremely dry habitats. Cuticular hydrocarbons (HCs) deposited on the outer epicuticle play an important role in determining cuticular waterproofing, and seasonal variation in both cuticular HC quantity and composition has been shown to correlate with water loss rates. Precursor incorporation rates into cuticle HCs have been observed to be extremely low in scorpions compared with insects. We therefore used adult male Buthus occitanus (Buthidae) in order to test HC profile plasticity during acute exposure to 14 d and 28 d of experimental desiccation. Cuticular HC profile of hydrated scorpions was similar to that reported for several other scorpion species, consisting of similar fractions of n-alkanes and branched alkanes, with no evidence for unsaturation. Most abundant of the n-alkanes were n-heptacosane (C27; 19±2% of total HCs), n-nonacosane (C29; 16±1%) and n-hentriacontane (C31; 11±1%). Exposure to desiccation stress resulted in a significant increase in the total amount of extracted HCs, and in the relative abundance of branched alkanes at the expense of n-alkanes. Together with an increase in HC chain lengths, these changes mimic previously-reported seasonal variation among freshly-collected specimens. This indicates that scorpions respond to water shortage by regulating the properties of their passive integumental barrier to water loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lu FANG Xiao-Lei Moorea Anthony M Dart Le-Min WANG
Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response...
Milagros Lisset León Regal; Ania Alvarado Borges; José Omar de Armas García; Luciano Miranda Alvarado; Javier Antonio Varens Cedeño; José Ángel Cuesta del Sol
.... The present work aimed at argumenting on the mechanisms that explain the vascular changes, and the establishment of the signs of the acute inflammatory response with an in-depth molecular level...
Wemm, Stephanie E; Wulfert, Edelgard
The study examined the effects of a social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) on 24 male and 32 female college students' affective and physiological reactivity and their subsequent performance on a decision-making task (Iowa Gambling Task). The 56 participants were randomly assigned to a social stressor or a control condition. Compared to controls, participants in the stress condition responded with higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, reported more negative affect, and on the decision-making task made less advantageous choices. An exploratory regression analysis revealed that among men higher levels of heart rate were positively correlated with riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, whereas for women this relationship was curvilinear. Exploratory correlational analyses showed that lower levels of skin conductance within the stress condition were associated with greater levels of substance use and gambling. The results suggest that the presence of a stressor may generally result in failure to attend to the full range of possible consequences of a decision. The relationship pattern between the degree of stress responding and successful decision making may be different for men and women.
Wu, J.; Sun, X.; Wang, L.; Zhang, L.; Fernandez, G.; Yao, Z.
There are substantial individual differences in the response towards acute stressor. The aim of the current study was to examine how the neural activity after an error response during a non-stressful state, prospectively predicts the magnitude of physiological stress response (e.g., cortisol
Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza
Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders.
Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto
Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.
Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D
Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.
Nater, Urs M; Whistler, Toni; Lonergan, William; Mletzko, Tanja; Vernon, Suzanne D; Heim, Christine
We investigated peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression responses to acute psychosocial stress to identify molecular pathways relevant to the stress response. Blood samples were obtained from 10 healthy male subjects before, during and after (at 0, 30, and 60 min) a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted and gene expression measured by hybridization to a 20,000-gene microarray. Gene Set Expression Comparisons (GSEC) using defined pathways were used for the analysis. Forty-nine pathways were significantly changed from baseline to immediately after the stressor (p<0.05), implicating cell cycle, cell signaling, adhesion and immune responses. The comparison between stress and recovery (measured 30 min later) identified 36 pathways, several involving stress-responsive signaling cascades and cellular defense mechanisms. These results have relevance for understanding molecular mechanisms of the physiological stress response, and might be used to further study adverse health outcomes of psychosocial stress.
Full Text Available Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method: Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34 to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST. Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results: Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions: The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area.
Zupancic, Melanie L
Acute psychological stress causes a number of physiologic responses that can trigger acute coronary syndromes in individuals with silent coronary artery disease. The mechanisms behind this phenomena have been the subject of much speculation. The following is a case report and brief review of the literature. A PubMed search was undertaken using the key words stress and myocardial infarction, stress and ischemia, mental stress and coronary artery disease, psychological stress and acute coronary syndrome, and mental stress and plaque destabilization. Articles were restricted to the English language and those dating through December 2007. Acute coronary syndrome is thought to be the end result of a complex mechanism involving platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Several studies have shown that acute mental stress leads to enhanced platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanism behind this involves both the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine response. Acute psychological stress may lead to acute coronary syndromes in patients with previously silent disease. Physicians should inquire about cardiac symptoms in patients with cardiac risk factors who are experiencing psychological distress. Further research will hopefully lead to an improved understanding of the mechanism behind this process to improve therapeutic interventions.
Plessow, Franziska; Kiesel, Andrea; Kirschbaum, Clemens
Goals are often at the basis of human actions. As an essential mechanism of behavioural adaptation, individuals need to be able to flexibly implement new task goals so as to alter their actions (switch tasks) in response to contextual changes. The present study investigated the effect of acute psychosocial stress on cognitive control processes of flexible task-goal implementation with temporal focus on the occurrence interval of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response. For this, forty-eight healthy volunteers were either challenged with a standardised stress-induction protocol (the Trier Social Stress Test) or underwent a standardised control situation. Subsequently, they were exposed to a task-switching procedure with two tasks alternating in random order. Participants of the stress group displayed increased salivary α-amylase activity immediately after stress exposure as well as elevations of salivary cortisol from 10 min after stress cessation, reflecting the typical stress-related activity increases in the sympathetic nervous system and the HPA axis, respectively. At the time interval of elevated cortisol levels, stressed individuals persistently showed larger performance differences between task switches and task repetitions (switch costs) than controls. This effect was reliably evident when tested 5-20 min as well as 25-40 min following treatment cessation. These results indicate that acute psychosocial stress impairs cognitive control processes of flexible task-goal implementation essential for voluntary goal-directed behaviour.
This presentation will provide the evidence that ozone exposure in animal models induce neuroendocrine stress response and this stress response modulates lung injury and inflammation through adrenergic and glucocorticoid receptors.
Tomiyama, A Janet; Dallman, Mary F; Epel, Elissa S
Chronically stressed rodents who are allowed to eat calorie-dense "comfort" food develop greater mesenteric fat, which in turn dampens hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We tested whether similar relations exist in humans, at least cross-sectionally. Fifty-nine healthy premenopausal women were exposed to a standard laboratory stressor to examine HPA response to acute stress and underwent diurnal saliva sampling for basal cortisol and response to dexamethasone administration. Based on perceived stress scores, women were divided into extreme quartiles of low versus high stress categories. We found as hypothesized that the high stress group had significantly greater BMI and sagittal diameter, and reported greater emotional eating. In response to acute lab stressor, the high stress group showed a blunted cortisol response, lower diurnal cortisol levels, and greater suppression in response to dexamethasone. These cross-sectional findings support the animal model, which suggests that long-term adaptation to chronic stress in the face of dense calories result in greater visceral fat accumulation (via ingestion of calorie-dense food), which in turn modulates HPA axis response, resulting in lower cortisol levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shen, Shu; Fang, Ferric C.
The foodborne gram-negative pathogen Salmonella must adapt to varied environmental conditions encountered within foods, the host gastrointestinal tract and the phagosomes of host macrophages. Adaptation is achieved through the coordinate regulation of gene expression in response to environmental signals such as temperature, pH, osmolarity, redox state, antimicrobial peptides, and nutrient deprivation. This review will examine mechanisms by which the integration of regulatory responses to a broad array of environmental signals can be achieved. First, in the most straightforward case, tandem promoters allow gene expression to respond to multiple signals. Second, versatile sensor proteins may respond to more than one environmental signal. Third, transcriptional silencing and counter-silencing as demonstrated by the H-NS paradigm provides a general mechanism for the convergence of multiple regulatory inputs. Fourth, signaling cascades allow gene activation by independent sensory elements. These mechanisms allow Salmonella to utilize common adaptive stress pathways in response to a diverse range of environmental conditions. PMID:21570144
Ramola, Kabir; Chakraborty, Bulbul
We develop a framework for stress response in two dimensional granular media, with and without friction, that respects vector force balance at the microscopic level. We introduce local gauge degrees of freedom that determine the response of contact forces between constituent grains on a given, disordered, contact network, to external perturbations. By mapping this response to the spectral properties of the graph Laplacian corresponding to the underlying contact network, we show that this naturally leads to spatial localization of forces. We present numerical evidence for localization using exact diagonalization studies of network Laplacians of soft disk packings. Finally, we discuss the role of other constraints, such as torque balance, in determining the stability of a granular packing to external perturbations.
Full Text Available The general stress and innate immune responses are closely linked and overlap at many levels. The outcomes of these responses serve to reprogram host expression patterns to prevent viral invasions. In turn, viruses counter attack these cell responses to ensure their replication. The mechanisms by which viruses attempt to control host cell responses are as varied as the number of different virus families. One of the most recurrent strategies used by viruses to control the antiviral response of the cell is to hijack the translation machinery of the host, such that viral proteins are preferentially synthesized, while the expression of the stress and antiviral responses of the cell are blocked at the translation level. Here, we will review how rotaviruses, an important agent of acute severe gastroenteritis in children, overcome the stress responses of the cell to establish a productive infectious cycle.
This thesis aims to describe acute myocardial infarction as a psychosomatic disease. Represents acute myocardial infarction as a result of stress and type A behavior. Research part reveals number of respondents, affected by stresss at the time of myocardial infarction and respondents with type A behavior.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND and AIMS: Mental stress is considered to be a precipitating factor in acute coronary events. We aimed to assess the association of subjective or 'perceived' mental stress with the occurrence of acute coronary events. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control survey was carried out in a referral teaching hospital. subjects & METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST elevation on electrocardiogram who were admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of a referral teaching hospital were enrolled in the study as cases. Controls were unmatched and were enrolled from amongst patients with coronary artery disease who did not have recent acute coronary events. Subjective Stress Functional Classification (SS-FC for the preceding 2-4 weeks was assessed and assigned four grades from I to IV as follows: I - baseline, II - more than usual but not affecting daily routine, III - significantly high stress affecting daily routine and IV - worst stress in life. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions of different characteristics were compared using chi-square test with Yates continuity correction. Student's unpaired t test was applied for mean age. 'p' value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SS-FC could be reliably (99% and easily assessed. Eighty (53% of the total 150 patients with acute MI reported 'high' levels of stress (stress class III and IV. This is in contrast to only 30 (20% of 150 healthy controls reporting high stress for the same period (p value < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute myocardial infarction report a higher subjective mental stress during 2 to 4 weeks preceding the acute coronary event.
Chiappelli, Joshua; Shi, Qiaoyun; Kodi, Priyadurga; Savransky, Anya; Kochunov, Peter; Rowland, Laura M; Nugent, Katie L; Hong, L Elliot
Glucocorticoid and immune pathways typically interact dynamically to optimize adaptation to stressful environmental challenges. We tested the hypothesis that a dysfunctional glucocorticoid-immune relationship contributes to abnormal stress response in schizophrenia. Saliva samples from 34 individuals with schizophrenia (20 male, 14 female) and 40 healthy controls (20 male, 20 female) were collected prior to and at 3 time points following completion of a computerized psychological challenge meant to be frustrating. Salivary concentrations of cortisol and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and their response to the challenge were examined. Both cortisol and IL-6 significantly increased in response to stress in the combined sample (both pschizophrenia patients (r=.379, p=.027). The trends were significantly different (Z=3.7, p=.0002). This stress paradigm induces a rise in both cortisol and IL-6. In healthy controls, a more robust acute cortisol response was associated with a steeper decline of IL-6 levels following stress, corresponding to the expected anti-inflammatory effects of cortisol. Patients exhibited the opposite relationship, suggesting an inability to down-regulate inflammatory responses to psychological stress in schizophrenia; or even a paradoxical increase of IL-6 response. This finding may partially underlie abnormalities in inflammatory and stress pathways previously found in the illness, implicating dysregulated stress response in the chronic inflammatory state in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mattenberger, Florian; Sabater-Muñoz, Beatriz; Hallsworth, John E; Fares, Mario A
Glycerol synthesis is key to central metabolism and stress biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, yet the cellular adjustments needed to respond and adapt to glycerol stress are little understood. Here, we determined impacts of acute and chronic exposures to glycerol stress in S. cerevisiae. Glycerol stress can result from an increase of glycerol concentration in the medium due to the S. cerevisiae fermenting activity or other metabolic activities. Acute glycerol-stress led to a 50% decline in growth rate and altered transcription of more than 40% of genes. The increased genetic diversity in S. cerevisiae population, which had evolved in the standard nutrient medium for hundreds of generations, led to an increase in growth rate and altered transcriptome when such population was transferred to stressful media containing a high concentration of glycerol; 0.41 M (0.990 water activity). Evolution of S. cerevisiae populations during a 10-day period in the glycerol-containing medium led to transcriptome changes and readjustments to improve control of glycerol flux across the membrane, regulation of cell cycle, and more robust stress response; and a remarkable increase of growth rate under glycerol stress. Most of the observed regulatory changes arose in duplicated genes. These findings elucidate the physiological mechanisms, which underlie glycerol-stress response, and longer-term adaptations, in S. cerevisiae; they also have implications for enigmatic aspects of the ecology of this otherwise well-characterized yeast. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Obasi, Ezemenari M; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cavanagh, Lucia; Ratliff, Kristen L; Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J
Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST. As predicted, cortisol levels increased in response to a controlled laboratory inducement of acute stress. Moreover, diminished levels of family resources were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity to acute stress. Of note, higher levels of perceived stress over the past month and being male were independently associated with lower levels of cortisol at baseline. Lack of family resources had a blunting relationship on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. These findings provide biomarker support for the relationship between family resources-an indicator associated with social determinants of health-and stress physiology within a controlled laboratory experiment. Identifying mechanisms that work toward explanation of within-group differences in African American health disparities is both needed and informative for culturally informed prevention and intervention efforts.
Jiang, Caihong; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick
Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the time course of 39 healthy novice drivers during a blocked working memory task (numerical N-back) under acute social stress or control conditions, which were induced by the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) or control procedure. Subjective measures were used to assess stress manipulation throughout the experiment. An elevated negative effect in response to a stress condition indicated a successful stress induction. The behavioral results showed that the stress group had a longer response time and larger differences in accuracy than the control group. On a neural level, the control group had larger P3 amplitude in the 1-back condition than in the 2-back condition; this load effect, however, disappeared in the stress group. These results revealed that acute social stress had a disruptive effect on both working memory behavioral performance and cognitive neural process. These findings provide us with a basis to understand the correlation between acute stress and cognitive processes of working memory at a cognitive neural level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Uwaya, Akemi; Lee, Hyunjin; Park, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hosung; Muto, Junko; Nakajima, Sanae; Ohta, Shigeo; Mikami, Toshio
Histone acetylation is regulated in response to stress and plays an important role in learning and memory. Chronic stress is known to deteriorate cognition, whereas acute stress facilitates memory formation. However, whether acute stress facilitates memory formation when it is applied after fear stimulation is not yet known. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress applied after fear training on memory formation, mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression, and corticosterone level in mice in vivo. Mice were subjected to acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 or 90 min after contextual fear conditioning training, and acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 14 (H3K14) and level of corticosterone were measured using western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. A freezing behavior test was performed 24 h after training, and mRNA expression of BDNF was measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Different groups of mice were used for each test. Freezing behavior significantly decreased with the down-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression caused by acute immobilization stress at 60 min after fear conditioning training owing to the reduction of H3K14 acetylation. However, BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation were not reduced in animals subjected to immobilization stress at 90 min after the training. Further, the corticosterone level was significantly high in mice subjected to immobilization stress at 60 min after the training. Acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 min after fear conditioning training impaired memory formation and reduced BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation in the hippocampus of mice owing to the high level of corticosterone.
Full Text Available Performing music in public is widely recognised as a potentially stress-inducing activity. However, despite the interest in music performance as an acute psychosocial stressor, there has been relatively little research on the effects of public performance on the endocrine system. This study examined the impact of singing in a low-stress performance situation and a high-stress live concert on levels of glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone in 15 professional singers. The results showed a significant decrease in both cortisol and cortisone across the low-stress condition, suggesting that singing in itself is a stress-reducing (and possibly health-promoting activity, but significant increases across the high-stress condition. This is the first study to demonstrate that singing affects glucocorticoid responses and that these responses are modulated by the conditions of performance.
Hemmink, G. J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Smout, A. J. P. M.
Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients often report an increase in their reflux symptoms during stressful situations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of acute psychological stress on oesophageal acid perception. In 15 healthy volunteers and 10 GORD patients with a
Hemmink, G. J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Smout, A. J. P. M.
P>Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients often report an increase in their reflux symptoms during stressful situations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of acute psychological stress on oesophageal acid perception. In 15 healthy volunteers and 10 GORD patients with a
Suhr, C L; Schmidt, J B; Treese, S T; Satterlee, D G
Stress-induced glucocorticoids can dampen learning and spatial memory via neuronal damage to the hippocampus. Cognition losses can be transient (associated with acute stress episodes) or permanent as in aged individuals who show chronic glucocorticoid-induced accelerated brain aging and neurodegeneration (dementia). Thus, chronic versus acute stress effects on spatial memory responses of quail selected for reduced (low stress, LS) or exaggerated (high stress, HS) plasma corticosterone (B) response to brief restraint were assessed. Aged food-motivated male LS and HS quail were tested for 10 min in a feed-baited 8-arm radial arm maze (RAM) 1) at 255 d of age (quail who had experienced lifelong management stressors but who were otherwise never intentionally stressed; that is, chronically stressed birds), 2) on the next day post-acute stressor treatment (5 min of restraint), and 3) on the next day without treatment (acute stress recovery). The RAM tests used the win-shift procedure in which visited arms were not rebaited. Radial arm maze performance was measured by determination of the total number of arm choices made, the number of correct entries made into baited arms out of the first 8 choices, the time required to make a choice, and the number of pellets eaten. Line effects (P LS), and number of pellets eaten (HS memory in aged male HS compared with LS quail, the observed spatial memory impairments (HS > LS) could not be further altered by acute stressor treatment. Line differences in cognition may reflect lifelong management-induced stress episodes that periodically produce higher plasma B responses in HS than LS quail, which underlie HS quail memory deficits, or other etiologies, or both.
Vermeulen, Corneel J.; Loeschcke, Volker
briefly review the state of the art of research on ageing and longevity in the model organism Drosophila, with focus on the role of the general stress response. We will conclude by contemplating some of the implications of the findings in this research and will suggest several directions for future...... research. Keywords: Ageing; Stress response; Hsp; Drosophila; Stress......The concept that lifespan is a function of the capacity to withstand extrinsic stress is very old. In concordance with this, long-lived individuals often have increased resistance against a variety of stresses throughout life. Genes underlying the stress response may therefore have the ability...
Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.
BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress
Metz, J.R.; Huising, M.O.; Leon, K.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.
In fish, the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI-axis), the equivalent of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) in mammals, is activated during stress and leads to production and release of cortisol by the interregnal cells in the head kidney. In mammals, the cytokine
Metz, J.R.; Huising, M.O.; Leon, K.M.; Verburg-van Kemenade, B.M.L.; Flik, G.
In fish, the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI-axis), the equivalent of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) in mammals, is activated during stress and leads to production and release of cortisol by the interregnal cells in the head kidney. In mammals, the cytokine
Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Hermans, E.J.; Pu, Z.; Joels, M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.
Stressful, aversive events are extremely well remembered. Such a declarative memory enhancement is evidently beneficial for survival, but the same mechanism may become maladaptive and culminate in mental diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress hormones are known to enhance
Nyklicek, I.; Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; van Beugen, S.; Ramakers, C.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.
Objective: The aim was to examine the effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on cardiovascular and cortisol activity during acute stress. Method: Eighty-eight healthy community-dwelling individuals reporting elevated stress levels were randomly assigned to the MBSR
Nyklicek, I.; Mommersteeg, P.M.; Beugen, S. van; Ramakers, C.; Boxtel, G.J.M. van
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on cardiovascular and cortisol activity during acute stress. METHOD: Eighty-eight healthy community-dwelling individuals reporting elevated stress levels were randomly assigned to the MBSR
Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O
Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.
Sabiniano Roman Regueros
Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate in vivo the acute host response to an alternative implant designed for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI and pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Methods. A biodegradable scaffold was produced from poly-L-lactic acid (PLA using the electrospinning technique. Human and rat adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs were isolated and characterized by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and differentiation assays. PLA scaffolds were seeded and cultured for 2 weeks with human or rat ADSCs. Scaffolds with and without human or rat ADSCs were implanted subcutaneously on the abdominal wall of rats. After 3 and 7 days, 6 animals from each group were sacrificed. Sections from each sample were analyzed by Haematoxylin and Eosin staining, Sirius red staining, and immunohistochemistry for CD68, PECAM-1, and collagen I and III. Results. Animals responded to the scaffolds with an acute macrophage response. After 7 days of implantation, there was extensive host cell penetration, new blood vessel formation, and new collagen deposition throughout the full thickness of the samples without obvious differences between cell-containing and cell-free scaffolds. Conclusions. The acute in vivo response to an alternative implant (both with and without cells for the treatment of SUI and POP showed good acute integration into the host tissues.
Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan
The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (pbroiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration. PMID:25932638
Papadakis, Manos A; Workman, Christopher T
Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a popular model eukaryotic organism to study diverse aspects of mammalian biology, including responses to cellular stress triggered by redox imbalances within its compartments. The review considers the current knowledge on the signaling pathways that govern the transcriptional response of fission yeast cells to elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide. Particular attention is paid to the mechanisms that yeast cells employ to promote cell survival in conditions of intermediate and acute oxidative stress. The role of the Sty1/Spc1/Phh1 mitogen-activated protein kinase in regulating gene expression at multiple levels is discussed in detail.
Wetherell, Mark; Carter, Kirsty
A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework ...
Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen
We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.
Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen
We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161
van der Steen, J.B.
The soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis responds to fluctuating conditions in its environment with a wide variety of stress responses. Apart from a series of specific responses and a series of large-scale developmental changes, B. subtilis also has a general stress response (GSR). The GSR is activated
Candace M. Raio
Full Text Available Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation, and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology.
Windsor, A; Kanwar, S; Li, A; Barnes, E; Guthrie, J; Spark, J; Welsh, F; Guillou, P; Reynolds, J
Background—In patients with major trauma and burns, total enteral nutrition (TEN) significantly decreases the acute phase response and incidence of septic complications when compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Poor outcome in acute pancreatitis is associated with a high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Aims—To determine whether TEN can attenuate the acute phase response and improve clinical disease severity in patients with acute pancreatitis. Methods—Glasgow score, Apache II, computed tomography (CT) scan score, C reactive protein (CRP), serum IgM antiendotoxin antibodies (EndoCAb), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined on admission in 34 patients with acute pancreatitis. Patients were stratified according to disease severity and randomised to receive either TPN or TEN for seven days and then re-evaluated. Results—SIRS, sepsis, organ failure, and ITU stay, were globally improved in the enterally fed patients. The acute phase response and disease severity scores were significantly improved following enteral nutrition (CRP: 156 (117-222) to 84 (50-141), pAPACHE II scores 8 (6-10) to 6 (4-8), p<0.0001) without change in the CT scan scores. In parenterally fed patients these parameters did not change but there was an increase in EndoCAb antibody levels and a fall in TAC. Enterally fed patients showed no change in the level of EndoCAb antibodies and an increase in TAC. Conclusion—TEN moderates the acute phase response, and improves disease severity and clinical outcome despite unchanged pancreatic injury on CT scan. Reduced systemic exposure to endotoxin and reduced oxidant stress also occurred in the TEN group. Enteral feeding modulates the inflammatory and sepsis response in acute pancreatitis and is clinically beneficial. Keywords: acute pancreatitis; enteral nutrition; bacterial translocation; oxidative stress PMID:9577354
s) that contribute to differences in multiple behavioral response phenotypes between the F344 and WKY rat strains. To test this hypothesis, first we...Eva E. Redei1* 5 6 1Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern 7 University, Chicago, IL, USA 8...with sequence variation(s) that contribute to differences in multiple behavioral 27 response phenotypes between the F344 and WKY rat strains. To
Bach, Ermina; Møller, Andreas Buch; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde
OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) generates acute and chronic inflammatory and metabolic responses during acute illness and in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but it is unclear whether these responses depend on intact pituitary release...... of stress hormones. We compared the metabolic effects of LPS in hypopituitary patients (HP) (in the absence of pituitary stress hormone responses) and healthy control subjects (CTR) (with normal pituitary stress hormone responses). DESIGN: Single blind randomized. METHODS: We compared effects of LPS...
Lisa H Berghorst
Full Text Available Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task enabling comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go and punishment-driven (NoGo learning under either ‘no stress’ or ‘stress’ (threat-of-shock conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under ‘stress’ who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the ‘no stress’ condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward but not punishment under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture.
Berghorst, Lisa H.; Bogdan, Ryan; Frank, Michael J.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.
Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task (PSST) that enabled comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go) and punishment-driven (NoGo) learning under either “no stress” or “stress” (threat-of-shock) conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under “stress” who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the “no stress” condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward, but not punishment, under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture. PMID:23596406
Full Text Available Improved crop varieties are needed to sustain the food supply, to fight climate changes, water scarcity, temperature increase and a high variability of rainfalls. Variability of drought and increase in soil salinity have negative effects on plant growth and abiotic stresses seriously threaten sustainable agricultural production. To overcome the influence of abiotic stresses, new tolerant plant varieties and breeding techniques using assisted selection are sought. A deep understanding of the mechanisms that respond to stress and sustain stress resistance is required. Here is presented an overview of several mechanisms that interact in the stress response. Localised synthesis of plant hormones, second messengers and local effectors of abiotic stress response and survival, the signaling pathways regulated by plant hormones are today better understood. Metabolic networks in drought stress responses, long distance signaling, cross-talk between plant organs finalised to tissue-specific expression of abiotic stress relieving genes have been at the centre of most recent studies.
Igosheva, N; Klimova, O; Anishchenko, T; Glover, V
Environmental factors in early life are clearly established risk factors for cardiovascular disease in later life. Most studies have focused on nutritional programming and analysed basal cardiovascular parameters rather than responses. In the present study we have investigated whether prenatal stress has long-term effects on cardiovascular responses in adult offspring. Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to stress three times daily from day 15 to day 21 of gestation. Litters from stressed and control females were cross-fostered at birth to control for mothering effects. When the offspring were 6 months old, blood pressure was measured in the conscious rats through implanted catheters at rest, during restraint stress and during recovery. Basal haemodynamic parameters were similar in the different groups but the pattern of cardiovascular responses during stress and recovery differed markedly between prenatally stressed (PS) and control animals. PS rats had higher and longer-lasting systolic arterial pressure elevations to restraint stress than control animals. They also showed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure values during the recovery phase. PS rats demonstrated a greater increase in blood pressure variability compared with control animals during exposure to restraint stress, and showed more prolonged heart rate responses to acute stress and delayed recovery than controls. There was no effect of prenatal stress on baroreflex regulation of heart rate. PS females showed a greater increase in systolic arterial pressure and blood pressure variability and delayed heart rate recovery following return to the home cage then did PS males. These findings demonstrate for the first time that prenatal stress can induce long-term, sex-related changes in the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to subsequent stress. PMID:15034122
Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald
Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.
Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J
Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia
Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fragkaki, Iro; Stins, John; Roelofs, Karin; Jongedijk, Ruud A.; Hagenaars, M.A.
Background: Tonic immobility (TI) is a state of physical immobility associated with extreme stress and the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether TI is associated with a distinct actual stress response, i.e., objective immobility measured by a
Full Text Available To establish the effect of low (11 mM and high (55 mM glucose concentrations (G11, G55 on Jurkat cells exposed to rotenone (ROT, a class 5 mitocan. We demonstrated that ROT induces apoptosis in Jurkat cells cultured in G11 by oxidative stress (OS mechanism involving the generation of anion superoxide radical (O2∙-, 68%/hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 54%, activation of NF-κB (32%, p53 (25%, c-Jun (17% transcription factors, and caspase-3 (28%, apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF, 36% nuclei translocation, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK activation, and loss of mitochondria transmembrane potential (ΔΨm, 62% leading to nuclei fragmentation (~10% and ~40% stage I-II fragmented nuclei, resp.. ROT induces massive cytoplasmic aggregates of DJ-1 (93%, and upregulation of Parkin compared to untreated cells, but no effect on PINK-1 protein was observed. Cell death marker detection and DJ-1 and Parkin expression were significantly reduced when cells were cultured in G55 plus ROT. Remarkably, metformin sensitized Jurkat cells against ROT in G55. Our results indicate that a high-glucose milieu promotes resistance against ROT/H2O2-induced apoptosis in Jurkat cells. Our data suggest that combined therapy by using mitochondria-targeted damaging compounds and regulation of glucose (e.g., metformin can efficiently terminate leukemia cells via apoptosis in hyperglycemic conditions.
Grzelak, Agata K; Davis, Daniel J; Caraker, Susan M; Crim, Marcus J; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wiedmeyer, Charles E
The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model for experimental studies of stress has increased rapidly over the years. Although many physiologic and behavioral characteristics associated with stress have been defined in zebrafish, the effects of stress on hematologic parameters have not been described. The purpose of our study was to induce a rise in endogenous cortisol through various acute and chronic stressors and compare the effects of these stressors on peripheral WBC populations. Acutely stressed fish underwent dorsal or full-body exposure to air for 3 min, repeated every 30 min over the course of 90 min. Chronically stressed fish underwent exposure to stressors twice daily over a period of 5 d. After the last stressful event, fish were euthanized, and whole blood and plasma were obtained. A drop of whole blood was used to create a blood smear, which was subsequently stained with a modified Wright-Giemsa stain and a 50-WBC differential count determined. Plasma cortisol levels were determined by using a commercially available ELISA. Endogenous cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in both stressed groups as compared with control fish. Acutely stressed fish demonstrated significant lymphopenia, monocytosis, and neutrophilia, compared with unstressed, control fish. Chronic stress induced lymphopenia and monocytosis but no significant changes in relative neutrophil populations in zebrafish. The changes in both stressed groups most likely are due to increases in endogenous cortisol concentrations and represent the first description of a stress leukogram in zebrafish.
The effects of theaflavin-enriched black tea extract on muscle soreness, oxidative stress, inflammation, and endocrine responses to acute anaerobic interval training: a randomized, double-blind, crossover study
Golem Devon L
oxidative stress and DOMS responses to acute anaerobic intervals. An improved rate of recovery can benefit all individuals engaging in high intensity, anaerobic exercise as it facilitates increased frequency of exercise.
Benjamin N Greenwood
Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.
Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Duchesne, Annie; Vogel, Susanne; Corbo, Vincent; Pruessner, Jens C
Most psychosocial stress studies assess the overall cortisol response without further identifying the temporal dynamics within hormone levels. It has been shown, however, that the amplitude of anticipatory cortisol stress levels has a unique predictive value for psychological health. So far, no "best practice" in how to investigate the anticipatory cortisol stress response has emerged. The goal of the current research was to develop a protocol that would allow for a sensitive and easy-to-implement laboratory-based investigation into anticipatory cortisol stress levels. We initially tested 26 healthy men in either an anticipation- or stress-only condition of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) to map the distinct timelines of anticipatory and reactive cortisol release profiles (study 1). Subsequently, we administered the TSST to 50 healthy men such that the cortisol responses to anticipatory and reactive stress components could be dissociated (study 2). In both studies we sampled saliva cortisol at high frequency (at baseline, during 10min of anticipation and during and after 10min of acute stress) and the current mood state pre- and post-stress. We found anticipatory responder rates of 20% and 40%, with peak anticipatory cortisol levels between 14 and 20min after onset of anticipation. Visible changes in reactive cortisol levels occurred only after the termination of the acute stressor. We conclude that the best practice to detect a maximum number of anticipatory responders in the TSST would be to extend the anticipation phase to 15min. In doing so, the anticipatory cortisol peak could be captured at a time-point of the actual stressor that is uninfluenced by reactive cortisol levels. Overall, we could reveal several features of anticipatory responders. Most importantly, there was a positive correlation between anticipatory and reactive stress responses. There was no association between anticipatory cortisol and alpha-amylase as well as subjective
Luis Eduardo Soares Netto
Full Text Available Oxidative stress response in plants is still poorly understood in comparison with the correspondent phenomenon in bacteria, yeast and mammals. For instance, nitric oxide is assumed to play various roles in plants although no nitric oxide synthase gene has yet been isolated. This research reports the results of a search of the sugarcane expressed sequence tag (SUCEST database for homologous sequences involved in the oxidative stress response. I have not found any gene similar to nitric oxide synthase in the SUCEST database although an alternative pathway for nitric oxide synthesis was proposed. I have also found several genes involved in antioxidant defense, e.g. metal chelators, low molecular weight compounds, antioxidant enzymes and repair systems. Ascorbate (vitamin C is a key antioxidant in plants because it reaches high concentrations in cells and is a substrate for ascorbate peroxidase, an enzyme that I found in different isoforms in the SUCEST database. I also found many enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of low molecular weight antioxidants, which may be potential targets for genetic manipulation. The engineering of plants for increased vitamin C and E production may lead to improvements in the nutritional value and stress tolerance of sugarcane. The components of the antioxidant defense system interact and their synthesis is probably closely regulated. Transcription factors involved in regulation of the oxidative stress response in bacteria, yeast and mammals differ considerably among themselves and when I used them to search the SUCEST database only genes with weak similarities were found, suggesting that these transcription regulators are not very conserved. The involvement of reactive oxygen species and antioxidants in plant defense against pathogens is also discussed.A resposta ao estresse oxidativo não é bem conhecida em plantas como em bactérias, leveduras e humanos. Por exemplo, assume-se que óxido nítrico tem várias fun
Davies, Scott; Rodriguez, Natalie S; Sweazea, Karen L; Deviche, Pierre
In response to stressful stimuli, animals activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, which can result in transition to the "emergency life history stage." A key adaptive characteristic of this life history stage is the mobilization of energy stores. However, few data are available on the metabolic response to acute stress in wild-caught, free-ranging birds. We quantified the effect of acute capture and restraint stress on plasma glucose, free fatty acid, and uric acid in free-ranging Abert's towhees Melozone aberti. Furthermore, birds were caught from urban and desert localities of Phoenix, Arizona, to investigate potential effects of urban versus desert habitats on the corticosterone (CORT) and metabolic response to acute stress. Complementing work on free-ranging birds, captive towhees received CORT-filled Silastic capsules to investigate the response of urban and desert conspecifics to long-term CORT administration. We quantified the effect of CORT administration on baseline plasma glucose and uric acid, liver and pectoralis muscle glycogen stores, kidney phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-C, a key gluconeogenic enzyme), and body mass. Acute stress increased plasma CORT and glucose and decreased plasma uric acid but had no effect on plasma free fatty acid. There was no difference between urban and desert localities in body mass, fat scores, and the response to acute stress. CORT administration decreased body mass but had no effect on glucose and uric acid, pectoral muscle glycogen, or kidney PEPCK-C. However, liver glycogen of CORT-treated urban birds increased compared with corresponding controls, whereas glycogen decreased in CORT-treated desert birds. This study suggests that Abert's towhees principally mobilize glucose during acute stress but urban and desert towhees do not differ in their CORT and metabolic response to acute stress or long-term CORT administration.
Carlos R. Dostal
Full Text Available Stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and immune system eliciting changes in cognitive function, mood and anxiety. An important link between stress and altered behavior is stimulation of the Kynurenine Pathway which generates neuroactive and immunomodulatory kynurenines. Tryptophan entry into this pathway is controlled by rate-limiting indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (DOs: Ido1, Ido2, Tdo2. Although implicated as mediating changes in behavior, detecting stress-induced DO expression has proven inconsistent. Thus, C57BL/6J mice were used to characterize DO expression in brain-regions, astrocytes and microglia to characterize restraint-stress-induced DO expression. Stress increased kynurenine in brain and plasma, demonstrating increased DO activity. Of three Ido1 transcripts, only Ido1-v1 expression was increased by stress and within astrocytes, not microglia, indicating transcript- and glial-specificity. Stress increased Ido1-v1 only in frontal cortex and hypothalamus, indicating brain-region specificity. Of eight Ido2 transcripts, Ido2-v3 expression was increased by stress, again only within astrocytes. Likewise, stress increased Tdo2-FL expression in astrocytes, not microglia. Interestingly, Ido2 and Tdo2 transcripts were not correspondingly induced in Ido1-knockout (Ido1KO mice, suggesting that Ido1 is necessary for the central DO response to acute stress. Unlike acute inflammatory models resulting in DO induction within microglia, only astrocyte DO expression was increased by acute restraint-stress, defining their unique role during stress-dependent activation of the Kynurenine Pathway. Keywords: Stress, Ido, Tdo, Kynurenine, Astrocyte, Liver
Davies, S; Noor, S; Carpentier, E; Deviche, P
When faced with a stressor, vertebrates can rapidly increase the secretion of glucocorticoids, which is thought to improve the chances of survival. Concurrent changes in other physiological systems, such as the reproductive endocrine or innate immune systems, have received less attention, particularly in wild vertebrates. It is often thought that glucocorticoids directly modulate immune performance during a stress response, but, in many species, androgens also rapidly respond to stress. However, to our knowledge, no study has simultaneously examined the interactions between the glucocorticoid, androgen, and innate immune responses to stress in a wild vertebrate. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that the change in plasma corticosterone (CORT) in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma testosterone (T) and innate immune performance (estimated by the capacity of plasma to agglutinate and lyse foreign cells) in the Abert's Towhee (Melozone aberti). Furthermore, to broaden the generality of the findings, we compared male and female towhees, as well as males from urban and non-urban populations. Acute stress increased plasma CORT, decreased plasma T in males, and decreased innate immune performance, but the increase in CORT during stress was not correlated with the corresponding decreases in either plasma T or innate immunity. By contrast, the plasma T stress response was positively correlated with the innate immune stress response. Collectively, our results challenge the proposition that the glucocorticoid stress response is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma T, a key reproductive hormone, and innate immunity, as estimated by agglutination and lysis.
Hansen, M.; Elklit, A.
Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studie...
Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.
Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.
This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping
Kumar, Poornima; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Goer, Franziska; Greve, Douglas; Pizzagalli, Diego A.
Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression and has been linked to blunted responses to rewarding stimuli in striatal regions. Stress, a key vulnerability factor for depression, has been shown to induce anhedonic behavior, including reduced reward responsiveness in both animals and humans, but the brain processes associated with these effects remain largely unknown in humans. Emerging evidence suggests that stress has dissociable effects on distinct components of reward processing, as it has been found to potentiate motivation/‘wanting’ during the anticipatory phase but reduce reward responsiveness/‘liking’ during the consummatory phase. To examine the impact of stress on reward processing, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task and an acute stress manipulation (negative performance feedback) in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy participants performed the MID task under no-stress and stress conditions. We hypothesized that stress would have dissociable effects on the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward-related brain regions. Specifically, we expected reduced striatal responsiveness during reward consumption (mirroring patterns previously observed in clinical depression) and increased striatal activation during reward anticipation consistent with non-human findings. Supporting our hypotheses, significant Phase (Anticipation/Consumption) x Stress (Stress/No-stress) interactions emerged in the putamen, nucleus accumbens, caudate and amygdala. Post-hoc tests revealed that stress increased striatal and amygdalar activation during anticipation but decreased striatal activation during consumption. Importantly, stress-induced striatal blunting was similar to the profile observed in clinical depression under baseline (no-stress) conditions in prior studies. Given that stress is a pivotal vulnerability factor for depression, these results offer insight to better understand the etiology of this
Kumar, P; Berghorst, L H; Nickerson, L D; Dutra, S J; Goer, F K; Greve, D N; Pizzagalli, D A
Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression and has been linked to blunted responses to rewarding stimuli in striatal regions. Stress, a key vulnerability factor for depression, has been shown to induce anhedonic behavior, including reduced reward responsiveness in both animals and humans, but the brain processes associated with these effects remain largely unknown in humans. Emerging evidence suggests that stress has dissociable effects on distinct components of reward processing, as it has been found to potentiate motivation/'wanting' during the anticipatory phase but reduce reward responsiveness/'liking' during the consummatory phase. To examine the impact of stress on reward processing, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task and an acute stress manipulation (negative performance feedback) in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy participants performed the MID task under no-stress and stress conditions. We hypothesized that stress would have dissociable effects on the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward-related brain regions. Specifically, we expected reduced striatal responsiveness during reward consumption (mirroring patterns previously observed in clinical depression) and increased striatal activation during reward anticipation consistent with non-human findings. Supporting our hypotheses, significant Phase (Anticipation/Consumption)×Stress (Stress/No-stress) interactions emerged in the putamen, nucleus accumbens, caudate and amygdala. Post hoc tests revealed that stress increased striatal and amygdalar activation during anticipation but decreased striatal activation during consumption. Importantly, stress-induced striatal blunting was similar to the profile observed in clinical depression under baseline (no-stress) conditions in prior studies. Given that stress is a pivotal vulnerability factor for depression, these results offer insight to better understand the etiology of this prevalent
Full Text Available The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine, neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone. Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop. We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress.
Even, Naïla; Devaud, Jean-Marc; Barron, Andrew B.
The biological concept of stress originated in mammals, where a “General Adaptation Syndrome” describes a set of common integrated physiological responses to diverse noxious agents. Physiological mechanisms of stress in mammals have been extensively investigated through diverse behavioral and physiological studies. One of the main elements of the stress response pathway is the endocrine hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, which underlies the “fight-or-flight” response via a hormonal cascade of catecholamines and corticoid hormones. Physiological responses to stress have been studied more recently in insects: they involve biogenic amines (octopamine, dopamine), neuropeptides (allatostatin, corazonin) and metabolic hormones (adipokinetic hormone, diuretic hormone). Here, we review elements of the physiological stress response that are or may be specific to honey bees, given the economical and ecological impact of this species. This review proposes a hypothetical integrated honey bee stress pathway somewhat analogous to the mammalian HPA, involving the brain and, particularly, the neurohemal organ corpora cardiaca and peripheral targets, including energy storage organs (fat body and crop). We discuss how this system can organize rapid coordinated changes in metabolic activity and arousal, in response to adverse environmental stimuli. We highlight physiological elements of the general stress responses that are specific to honey bees, and the areas in which we lack information to stimulate more research into how this fascinating and vital insect responds to stress. PMID:26466739
Following acute restraint stress, the experimental animals (n = 6 were randomly assigned into four groups, i.e., non-stressed control, stress control and treatment groups (cinnamon decoction 10%, 3 and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days. Anti-stress effect of cinnamon was studied by estimation of blood glucose level, liver marker enzymes; aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase, liver reduced glutathione (GSH and liver antioxidant enzymes; super oxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR. Acute restraint stress was evidenced by reduction of blood glucose level and liver GSH and elevation of liver marker enzymes in serum. In addition, antioxidant enzymes were drastically inhibited in liver homogenate of stress control rats. Pre-treatment with cinnamon decoction 10%, (3 ml/kg and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days avoided the changes observed in stress control rats. This study substantiates that cinnamon is effective in minimizing stress responses thereby beneficial in stress therapy.
Kasimay Çakir, Özgür; Özbeyli, Dilek; Şenel, Ebru; Contuk, Gazi; Velioğlu Öğünç, Ayliz; Çetinel, Şule; Yeğen, Berrak Ç
There are contradictory results about stress response in hypothyroidism and in exercising with variant intensities. We aimed to investigate the potential anxiolytic and protective effects of different intensities of exercise on acute psychological stress in hypothyroidism. Rats (N.=48) were divided as sedentary, moderate intensity (MIE) and high intensity exercise (HIE) groups. Rats were administered intraperitoneally with 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU, 10 mg/kg) for 15 days to induce hypothyroidism. Starting by the 3rd week, treadmill exercise was performed moderately (30 min/day) or at high intensity (60 min/day) for 6 weeks, 5 days/week. At the end of the 8th week, exposure to water avoidance stress was used for induction of acute stress. Anxiety-like behavior was determined by holeboard test before and after stress inductions. Serum IL-1β and IL-6 assays, and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) measurements, and histological analysis of heart, liver, stomach and small intestine were made. All groups showed increased anxiety-like behavior following acute stress induction. After acute stress induction, increased MPO and MDA levels in heart and elevated MPO activity in liver were inhibited in PTU-treated HIE group. In MIE rats, increased MPO and declined GSH levels of the gastric tissue and small intestine, and elevated MDA levels of gastric tissue were reversed in PTU-treated MIE group. Major histological changes that occurred by both intensities of exercise under stress condition were improved by PTU. Our results indicate that hypothyroid state may be protective against stress- and exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative damage.
Chan, Christina; Elliott, John; Troughton, Richard; Frampton, Christopher; Smyth, David; Crozier, Ian; Bridgman, Paul
Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36 am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations. Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others. There was a significant increase in overall admissions (pearthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6-6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44-2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (pearthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events.
Jager, Corinne E; Symons, Gregory M; Ross, John J; Reid, James B
Brassinosteroids (BRs) have been suggested to increase the resistance of plants to a variety of stresses, including water stress. This is based on application studies, where exogenously applied bioactive BRs have been shown to improve various aspects of plant growth under water stress conditions. However, it is not known whether changes in endogenous BR levels are normally involved in mediating the plant's response to stress. We have utilized BR mutants in pea (Pisum sativum L.) to determine whether changes in endogenous BR levels are part of the plant's response to water stress and whether low endogenous BR levels alter the plant's ability to cope with water stress. In wild-type (WT) plants, we show that while water stress causes a significant increase in ABA levels, it does not result in altered BR levels in either apical, internode or leaf tissue. Furthermore, the plant's ability to increase ABA levels in response to water stress is not affected by BR deficiency, as there was no significant difference in ABA levels between WT, lkb (a BR-deficient mutant) and lka (a BR-perception mutant) plants before or 14 days after the cessation of watering. In addition, the effect of water stress on traits such as height, leaf size and water potential in lkb and lka was similar to that observed in WT plants. Therefore, it appears that, at least in pea, changes in endogenous BR levels are not normally part of the plant's response to water stress.
Campisi, Jay; Bravo, Yesika; Cole, Jennifer; Gobeil, Kyle
Undergraduate students routinely experience acute psychosocial stress when interviewing for post-collegiate employment. While numerous studies have demonstrated that acute stress can increase release of immune-relevant molecules in blood, fewer studies have examined if acute stress also increases immune-relevant molecules into saliva. Saliva, and the biomolecules found in saliva often serve important immune defense roles and can be used to non-invasively screen for many systemic diseases. Therefore, the current study examined saliva concentrations of endocrine and immune molecules following exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (mock job interview) in undergraduates. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA), and salivary C-reactive protein (S-CRP) were compared in healthy college undergraduates (n=15) before and after completion of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The TSST induced significant increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and salivary cortisol. Additional analyses revealed a non-significant (p=0.1) increase in the level of S-IgA following the TSST. A significant decrease in S-IgA was observed during the recovery period. No change in S-CRP was observed following the TSST. These results suggest that acute stress experienced by undergraduates when interviewing for a job activates the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and that cortisol levels increase in saliva. Stress-induced elevations in cortisol might be responsible for the decreased S-IgA observed following the recovery period. Collectively, these data provide further insight into the interaction between psychosocial stress, endocrine, and immune functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.
Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301
Hazen, Terry C.; Stahl, David A.
Environmental contamination with a variety of pollutants hasprompted the development of effective bioremediation strategies. But howcan these processes be best monitored and controlled? One avenue underinvestigation is the development of stress response systems as tools foreffective and general process control. Although the microbial stressresponse has been the subject of intensive laboratory investigation, theenvironmental reflection of the laboratory response to specific stresseshas been little explored. However, it is only within an environmentalcontext, in which microorganisms are constantly exposed to multiplechanging environmental stresses, that there will be full understanding ofmicrobial adaptive resiliency. Knowledge of the stress response in theenvironment will facilitate the control of bioremediation and otherprocesses mediated by complex microbial communities.
Fuchs, Annette Maria; Bang, Lia E; Holmvang, Lene
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is an acute cardiac syndrome, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction often following a stressful event in post-menopausal women. Symptoms are indistinguishable from myocardial infarction. However, TTC patients do not have a culprit lesion on acute...... angiography, and regional akinesia is not limited to a single vascular territory. As opposed to other cardiomyopathies TTC is completely reversible, albeit with a 5% mortality rate as well as a 10% re-occurrence rate. This article summarizes the current knowledge about aetiology, diagnostics and treatment....
Childs, Emma; Bershad, Anya K; de Wit, Harriet
Psychostimulant drugs alter the salience of stimuli in both laboratory animals and humans. In animals, stimulants increase rates of responding to conditioned incentive stimuli, and in humans, amphetamine increases positive ratings of emotional images. However, the effects of stimulants on real-life emotional events have not been studied in humans. In this study, we examined the effect of d-amphetamine on responses to acute psychosocial stress using a public speaking task. Healthy volunteers (N=56) participated in two experimental sessions, one with a psychosocial stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) and one with a non-stressful control task. They were randomly assigned to receive d-amphetamine (5 mg n=18, 10 mg n=20) or placebo (n=18) on both sessions under double blind conditions. Salivary cortisol, subjective mood, and vital signs were measured at regular intervals during the session. Subjects also provided cognitive appraisals of the tasks before and after their performances. Amphetamine produced its expected mood and physiological effects, and the Trier Social Stress Test produced its expected effects on cortisol and mood. Although neither dose of amphetamine altered cardiovascular or hormonal responses to stress, amphetamine (10 mg) increased participants' pre-task appraisals of how challenging the task would be, and it increased post-task ratings of self-efficacy. Paradoxically, it also increased ratings of how stressful the task was, and prolonged aversive emotional responses. These findings suggest that amphetamine differentially affects stress response components: it may increase participants' appraisals of self-efficacy without dampening the direct emotional or physiological responses to the stress. © The Author(s) 2016.
Strand, D J; McDonald, J F
Adult Drosophila subjected to a variety of environmental stresses that induce classic Drosophila heat shock response simultaneously exhibit a rapid and significant rise in copia homologous transcripts. Levels of Drosophila Adh (alcohol dehydrogenase gene) and 18s ribosomal RNA were unaffected by environmental stress. Copia's ability to be induced by stress is correlated with the presence of sequences homologous to the heat shock promoter consensus sequence which appear to be appropriately pos...
Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate the subjective stress, salivary cortisol, and electrophysiological responses to psychological stress induced by a modified version of a mental arithmetic task. Fifteen participants were asked to estimate whether the multiplication product of two-decimal numbers was above 10 or not either with a time limit (the stress condition or without a time limit (the control condition. The results showed that participants reported higher levels of stress, anxiety, and negative affect in the stress condition than they did in the control condition. Moreover, the salivary cortisol level continued to increase after the stress condition but exhibited a sharp decrease after the control condition. In addition, the electrophysiological data showed that the amplitude of the frontal-central N1 component was larger for the stress condition than it was for the control condition, while the amplitude of the frontal-central P2 component was larger for the control condition than it was for the stress condition. Our study suggests that the psychological stress characteristics of time pressure and social-evaluative threat caused dissociable effects on perception and on the subsequent attentional resource allocation of visual information.
Sulmon, Cecile; Van Baaren, Joan; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco
review how organisms respond and adapt to chemical- and temperature-induced stresses from molecular to population level. Using field-realistic studies, our integrative analysis aims to compare i) how molecular and physiological mechanisms related to protection, repair and energy allocation can impact...
Zhuravel, Daniil; Fraser, Dawn; St-Pierre, Simon; Tepliakova, Lioudmila; Pang, Wyming L; Hasty, Jeff; Kærn, Mads
Recent studies indicate that intrinsic promoter-mediated gene expression noise can confer a selective advantage under acute environmental stress by providing beneficial phenotypic diversity within cell populations. To investigate how extrinsic gene expression noise impacts the fitness of cell populations under stress, we engineered two nearly isogenic budding yeast strains; one carrying a two-step regulatory cascade that allows for precise control of the noise transmitted from a transcriptional regulator to a downstream stress-inducing gene, and one carrying a network with low constant upstream noise. The fitness and gene expression of these strains were compared under acute and prolonged stress exposure. Using a phenomenological modeling approach, we predicted that increased noise should confer a fitness advantage under high stress conditions, but reciprocally reduce the resistance of the population to low stress. The model also predicted that extrinsic noise might serve as a basis for phenotypic plasticity whereby gene expression distributions are modulated in response to prolonged stress. Experimentally, we confirmed the predicted differential fitness advantage of extrinsic noise under acute stress, as well as the predicted modulation of gene expression under prolonged stress. However, contrary to model predictions, strains with low and high extrinsic noise showed very similar adaptive responses to prolonged stress. This suggests that while phenotypic heterogeneity generated by noise in regulatory signals can confer increased robustness to acute stress, it is not a requirement for the observed long-term phenotypic plasticity.
Windsor, A C; Kanwar, S; Li, A G; Barnes, E; Guthrie, J A; Spark, J I; Welsh, F; Guillou, P J; Reynolds, J V
In patients with major trauma and burns, total enteral nutrition (TEN) significantly decreases the acute phase response and incidence of septic complications when compared with total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Poor outcome in acute pancreatitis is associated with a high incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. To determine whether TEN can attenuate the acute phase response and improve clinical disease severity in patients with acute pancreatitis. Glasgow score, Apache II, computed tomography (CT) scan score, C reactive protein (CRP), serum IgM antiendotoxin antibodies (EndoCAb), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined on admission in 34 patients with acute pancreatitis. Patients were stratified according to disease severity and randomised to receive either TPN or TEN for seven days and then re-evaluated. SIRS, sepsis, organ failure, and ITU stay, were globally improved in the enterally fed patients. The acute phase response and disease severity scores were significantly improved following enteral nutrition (CRP: 156 (117-222) to 84 (50-141), p APACHE II scores 8 (6-10) to 6 (4-8), p < 0.0001) without change in the CT scan scores. In parenterally fed patients these parameters did not change but there was an increase in EndoCAb antibody levels and a fall in TAC. Enterally fed patients showed no change in the level of EndoCAb antibodies and an increase in TAC. TEN moderates the acute phase response, and improves disease severity and clinical outcome despite unchanged pancreatic injury on CT scan. Reduced systemic exposure to endotoxin and reduced oxidant stress also occurred in the TEN group. Enteral feeding modulates the inflammatory and sepsis response in acute pancreatitis and is clinically beneficial.
Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G
Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kalkan, Göknur; Seçkin, Havva Yıldız; Duygu, Fazilet; Akbaş, Ali; Ozyurt, Hüseyin; Sahin, Mehmet
The conflicting information related to oxidative stress status in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria has been reported in several studies. However, the association between acute urticaria (AU) and oxidative stress has not been investigated exhaustively. To evaluate the role of the oxidative stress in the patients with AU by determining the oxidant/antioxidant activity in AU and to establish its clinical significance. About 50 patients with AU, (10 males, 40 females) and 30 unrelated healthy controls (4 males, 26 females) were enrolled into the study. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum NO and protein carbonyls levels in the plasma were measured spectrophotometrically at samples. A statistically significant increase was observed in serum Cu-ZnSOD activities of the patients when compared with that of the controls (p stress may play a role in pathogenesis of the disease.
Magrys, S A; Olmstead, M C
The primary aim of this study was to assess whether an acute stressor directly increases alcohol intake among undergraduates. A secondary aim was to examine whether individual differences in state anxiety predict alcohol intake. Following random assignment, undergraduate students (n = 75; 47% males; mean age = 20.1 ± 2.8) completed the Trier Social Stress Test or no-stress protocol, and then engaged in a 30-min free-drinking session (alcohol, placebo, or non-alcoholic beverage). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was completed upon arrival, post-stressor, and after drinking. Planned comparisons demonstrated that psychosocial stress increased voluntary intake of alcohol, but not placebo or non-alcoholic beverages. In linear regression analyses, individual differences in anxiety did not predict voluntary alcohol consumption. A proximal relationship exists between acute stress and single-session alcohol intake in undergraduates, which may explain the relationship between life stressors and increased drinking in this group. These findings demonstrate that stress management is an important target for reducing heavy episodic drinking on university campuses. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.
Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty
A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vergel, Juliana; Tamayo-Orozco, Sebastián; Vallejo-Gómez, Andrés Felipe; Posada, María Teresa; Restrepo, Diana
Stress has been associated with an acute heart failure syndrome of important morbidity and mortality. Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman with a history of an untreated generalized anxiety disorder, whom after the violent death of her son presented with oppressive chest pain irradiated to neck and left superior extremity, lasting for more than 30minutes, initial clinical suspect suggests acute coronary syndrome. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by a reversible left ventricular dysfunction and wall movement abnormalities, without any compromise of the coronary arteries, associated to high plasma levels of catecholamines which in most cases correlates with an acute stress of emotional or physical type. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy has to be considered by physicians among the differential diagnosis when facing a patient with suspected acute coronary syndrome, especially in post-menopausal women with a history of psychiatric comorbidities such as a generalized anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.
Miura, Yuri; Endo, Tamao
Oxidative stress is recognized as an important environmental factor in aging; however, because reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related free radicals are normally produced both intra- and extracellularly, air-living organisms cannot avoid the risk of oxidative stress. Consequently, these organisms have evolved various anti-oxidant systems to prevent ROS, scavenge free radicals, repair damaged components and adaptive responses. This review will focus on the repair and adaptive response to oxidative stress, and summarize the changes of these systems as a result aging and their relationship to premature aging.
Lempert, Karolina M; McGuire, Joseph T; Hazeltine, Danielle B; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Kable, Joseph W
People frequently fail to wait for delayed rewards after choosing them. These preference reversals are sometimes thought to reflect self-control failure. Other times, however, continuing to wait for a delayed reward may be counterproductive (e.g., when reward timing uncertainty is high). Research has demonstrated that people can calibrate how long to wait for rewards in a given environment. Thus, the role of self-control might be to integrate information about the environment to flexibly adapt behavior, not merely to promote waiting. Here we tested effects of acute stress, which has been shown to tax control processes, on persistence, and the calibration of persistence, in young adult human participants. Half the participants (n = 60) performed a task in which persistence was optimal, and the other half (n = 60) performed a task in which it was optimal to quit waiting for reward soon after each trial began. Each participant completed the task either after cold pressor stress or no stress. Stress did not influence persistence or optimal calibration of persistence. Nevertheless, an exploratory analysis revealed an "inverted-U" relationship between cortisol increase and performance in the stress groups, suggesting that choosing the adaptive waiting policy may be facilitated with some stress and impaired with severe stress.
Bright, Rachel; Steinberg, Gary K.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria
Maintaining cerebrovascular function is a priority for reducing damage following acute ischemic events such as stroke, and under chronic stress in diseases such as hypertension. Ischemic episodes lead to endothelial cell damage, deleterious inflammatory responses, and altered neuronal and astrocyte regulation of vascular function. These, in turn, can lead to impaired cerebral blood flow and compromised blood–brain barrier function, promoting microvascular collapse, edema, hemorrhagic transfor...
Changes in the environment continuously challenge living organisms during their lifetime. A cell’s survival depends on its ability to coordinate a rapid and successful stress response when exposed to acute doses of damaging agents. Oxidative stress caused by an excess of reactive oxygen species, ...
Cook, Emily C.; Chaplin, Tara M.; Sinha, Rajita; Tebes, Jacob K.; Mayes, Linda C.
Experience with and management of stress has implications for adolescents' behavioral and socioemotional development. This study examined the relationship between adolescents' physiological response to an acute laboratory stressor (i.e., Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and anger regulation and interpersonal competence in a sample of 175 low-income…
Wang, Yongfu; Wu, Jing; Zhu, Bi; Li, Chaocui; Cai, Jing-Xia
It is established that stress impairs spatial learning and memory via the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis response. Dopamine D1 receptors were also shown to be responsible for a stress-induced deficit of working memory. However, whether stress affects the subsequent emotional learning and memory is not elucidated yet. Here, we employed the well-established one-trial step-through task to study the effect of an acute psychological stress (induced by tail hanging for 5, 10, or 20 min) on emotional learning and memory, and the possible mechanisms as well. We demonstrated that tail hanging induced an obvious stress response. Either an acute tail-hanging stress or a single dose of intraperitoneally injected dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH23390) significantly decreased the step-through latency in the one-trial step-through task. However, SCH23390 prevented the acute tail-hanging stress-induced decrease in the step-through latency. In addition, the effects of tail-hanging stress and/or SCH23390 on the changes in step-through latency were not through non-memory factors such as nociceptive perception and motor function. Our data indicate that the hyperactivation of dopamine D1 receptors mediated the stress-induced deficit of emotional learning and memory. This study may have clinical significance given that psychological stress is considered to play a role in susceptibility to some mental diseases such as depression and post-traumatic stress disorder.
Lürzel, Stephanie; Kaiser, Sylvia; Sachser, Norbert
Adolescence is the transition from infancy to adulthood and encompasses major changes in the brain, the endocrine systems, and behavior. During late adolescence, male guinea pigs living in mixed-sex colonies exhibit a lower cortisol (C) response to novelty compared with animals in other ages and housing conditions. It was hypothesized that this reduction in stress responsiveness is induced by a high amount of social interactions in the colonies. In a previous study (Lürzel et al., 2010), late adolescent colony-housed males (CM) were compared with similarly aged males that were housed in heterosexual pairs (PM) as well as with males that were also housed in pairs, but regularly received additional social stimulation by allowing them ten times to interact with unfamiliar adult animals of both sexes for 10 min (SM). CM had a significantly lower stress response than PM, with SM being intermediate and not significantly different from either of the other groups. We assumed that the amount of social stimulation in SM was insufficient in order to achieve a significant reduction of stress responsiveness compared with PM. For the present study, we hypothesized that with a higher amount of social stimulation, a significant difference in stress responsiveness between PM and SM becomes apparent during late adolescence. Thus, PM were again compared with SM that, this time, had received twice as much social stimulation as in the previous study. As a result, stress responsiveness was indeed significantly lower in SM than in PM during late adolescence. Thus, a high amount of social interactions during the course of adolescence leads to a decreased stress responsiveness. Furthermore, SM showed an increase in testosterone (T) levels caused by social stimulation. We hypothesize that the reduction in stress responsiveness is brought about by high T levels that organize central neural structures over the course of adolescence. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Stress and sleep are related to each other in a bidirectional way. If on one hand poor or inadequate sleep exacerbates emotional, behavioral and stress-related responses, on the other hand acute stress induces sleep rebound, most likely as a form to cope with the adverse stimuli. Chronic stress, conversely, has been claimed to be one of the triggering factors of emotional-related sleep disorders, such as insomnia, depressive- and anxiety-disorders. These outcomes are dependent on individual psychobiological characteristics, which confer more complexity to the stress-sleep relationship. Its neurobiology has only recently begun to be explored, through animal models, which are also valuable for the development of potential therapeutic agents and preventive actions. This review seeks to present data on the effects of stress on sleep and the different approaches used to study this relationship as well as possible neurobiological underpinnings and mechanisms involved. The results of numerous studies in humans and animals indicate that increased sleep, especially the REM phase, following a stressful situation is an important adaptive behavior for recovery. However, this endogenous advantage appears to be impaired in human beings and rodent strains that exhibit high levels of anxiety and anxiety-like behavior.
Stolyar, S.; He, Q.; He, Z.; Yang, Z.; Borglin, S.E.; Joyner, D.; Huang, K.; Alm, E.; Hazen, T.C.; Zhou, J.; Wall, J.D.; Arkin, A.P.; Stahl, D.A.
The response of exponentially growing Desulfovibrio vulgarisHildenborough to pH 10 stress was studied using oligonucleotidemicroarrays and a study set of mutants with genes suggested by microarraydata to be involved in the alkaline stress response deleted. The datashowed that the response of D. vulgaris to increased pH is generallysimilar to that of Escherichia coli but is apparently controlled byunique regulatory circuits since the alternative sigma factors (sigma Sand sigma E) contributing to this stress response in E. coli appear to beabsent in D. vulgaris. Genes previously reported to be up-regulated in E.coli were up-regulated in D. vulgaris; these genes included three ATPasegenes and a tryptophan synthase gene. Transcription of chaperone andprotease genes (encoding ATP-dependent Clp and La proteases and DnaK) wasalso elevated in D. vulgaris. As in E. coli, genes involved in flagellumsynthesis were down-regulated. The transcriptional data also identifiedregulators, distinct from sigma S and sigma E, that are likely part of aD. vulgaris Hildenborough-specific stress response system.Characterization of a study set of mutants with genes implicated inalkaline stress response deleted confirmed that there was protectiveinvolvement of the sodium/proton antiporter NhaC-2, tryptophanase A, andtwo putative regulators/histidine kinases (DVU0331 andDVU2580).
Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich
Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress.
Shields, Grant S; Sazma, Matthew A; McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P
A growing body of research has indicated that acute stress can critically impact memory. However, there are a number of inconsistencies in the literature, and important questions remain regarding the conditions under which stress effects emerge as well as basic questions about how stress impacts different phases of memory. In this meta-analysis, we examined 113 independent studies in humans with 6,216 participants that explored effects of stress on encoding, postencoding, retrieval, or postreactivation phases of episodic memory. The results indicated that when stress occurred prior to or during encoding it impaired memory, unless both the delay between the stressor and encoding was very short and the study materials were directly related to the stressor, in which case stress improved encoding. In contrast, postencoding stress improved memory unless the stressor occurred in a different physical context than the study materials. When stress occurred just prior to or during retrieval, memory was impaired, and these effects were larger for emotionally valenced materials than neutral materials. Although stress consistently increased cortisol, the magnitude of the cortisol response was not related to the effects of stress on memory. Nonetheless, the effects of stress on memory were generally reduced in magnitude for women taking hormonal contraceptives. These analyses indicate that stress disrupts some episodic memory processes while enhancing others, and that the effects of stress are modulated by a number of critical factors. These results provide important constraints on current theories of stress and memory, and point to new questions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross
Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese
Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Lucas, Ayscha; Holtmann, Gerald; Haag, Sebastian; Gerken, Guido; Riemenschneider, Natalie; Langhorst, Jost; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Heijnen, Cobi J; Schedlowski, Manfred
Augmented neuroendocrine stress responses and altered immune functions may play a role in the manifestation of functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. We tested the hypothesis that IBS patients would demonstrate enhanced psychological and endocrine responses, as well as altered stress-induced redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocytes, in response to an acute psychosocial stressor when compared with healthy controls. Responses to public speaking stress were analyzed in N = 17 IBS patients without concurrent psychiatric conditions and N = 12 healthy controls. At baseline, immediately following public speaking, and after a recovery period, state anxiety, acute GI symptoms, cardiovascular responses, serum cortisol and plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) were measured, and numbers of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations were analyzed by flow cytometry. Public speaking led to significant cardiovascular activation, a significant increase in ACTH, and a redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations, including significant increases in natural killer cells and cytotoxic/suppressor T cells. IBS patients demonstrated significantly greater state anxiety both at baseline and following public speaking. However, cardiovascular and endocrine responses, as well as the redistribution of circulating leukocytes and lymphocyte subpopulations after public speaking stress, did not differ for IBS patients compared with controls. In IBS patients without psychiatric comorbidity, the endocrine response as well as the circulation pattern of leukocyte subpopulations to acute psychosocial stress do not differ from healthy controls in spite of enhanced emotional responses. Future studies should discern the role of psychopathology in psychological and biological stress responses in IBS.
Full Text Available Stress-induced acute activation of the cerebral catecholaminergic systems has often been found in rodents. However, little is known regarding the consequences of this activation on higher cognitive functions in humans. Theoretical inferences would suggest increased distractibility in the sense of increased exogenous attention and emotional attention. The present study investigated the influence of acute stress responses on magnetoencephalographic (MEG correlates of visual attention. Healthy male subjects were presented emotional and neutral pictures in three subsequent MEG recording sessions after being exposed to a TSST-like social stressor, intended to trigger a HPA-response. The subjects anticipation of another follow-up stressor was designed to sustain the short-lived central catecholaminergic stress reactions throughout the ongoing MEG recordings. The heart rate indicates a stable level of anticipatory stress during this time span, subsequent cortisol concentrations and self-report measures of stress were increased. With regard to the MEG correlates of attentional functions, we found that the N1m amplitude remained constantly elevated during stressor anticipation. The magnetic early posterior negativity (EPNm was present but, surprisingly, was not at all modulated during stressor anticipation. This suggests that a general increase of the influence of exogenous attention but no specific effect regarding emotional attention in this time interval. Regarding the time course of the effects, an influence of the HPA on these MEG correlates of attention seems less likely. An influence of cerebral catecholaminergic systems is plausible, but not definite.
Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie
Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2(-/-) mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2(-/-) mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2(-/-) mice behavioral rigidity.
J. Olakunle Onaolapo
Conclusion: Repeated caffeine consumption and/or acute sleep-deprivation led to significant changes in pattern of open-field behaviour and stress/antioxidant response in mice. Responses seen in the study are probably due to modulatory effects of caffeine on the total body response to stressful stimuli.
Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T
This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.
Fokos, S; Pavlidis, M; Yiotis, T; Tsalafouta, A; Papandroulakis, N; Dermon, C R
Early life adversity may be critical for the brain structural plasticity that in turn would influence juvenile behaviour. To address this, we questioned whether early life environment has an impact on stress responses latter in life, using European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, as a model organism. Unpredictable chronic low intensity stress (UCLIS), using a variety of moderate intensity stressors, was applied during two early ontogenetic stages, flexion or formation all fins. At juvenile stage, fish were exposed to acute stress and plasma cortisol, brain mRNA expression of corticosteroid receptors' genes (gr1, gr2, mr) and brain cell proliferation (using BrdU immunohistochemistry) were determined in experimental and matched controls. UCLIS treatment specifically decreased brain gr1 expression in juveniles, but had no effect on the juvenile brain cell proliferation pattern within the major neurogenic zones studied of dorsal (Dm, Dld) and ventral (Vv) telencephalic, preoptic (NPO) areas, periventricular tectum gray zone (PGZ) and valvula cerebellum (VCe). In contrast, exposure to acute stress induced significant plasma cortisol rise, decreases of cerebral cell proliferation in juveniles, not previously exposed to UCLIS, but no effect detected on the expression levels of gr1, gr2 and mr in all groups of different early life history. Interestingly, juveniles with UCLIS history showed modified responses to acute stress, attenuating acute stress-induced cell proliferation decreases, indicating a long-lasting effect of early life treatment. Taken together, early life mild stress experience influences an acute stress plasticity end-point, cerebral cell proliferation, independently of the stress-axis activation, possibly leading to more effective coping styles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Muhseen, Ziyad Tariq; Xiong, Qian; Chen, Zhuo; Ge, Feng
Diatoms are a highly diverse group of eukaryotic phytoplankton that are distributed throughout marine and freshwater environments and are believed to be responsible for approximately 40% of the total marine primary productivity. The ecological success of diatoms suggests that they have developed a range of strategies to cope with various biotic and abiotic stress factors. It is of great interest to understand the adaptive responses of diatoms to different stresses in the marine environment. Proteomic technologies have been applied to the adaptive responses of marine diatoms under different growth conditions in recent years such as nitrogen starvation, iron limitation and phosphorus deficiency. These studies have provided clues to elucidate the sophisticated sensing mechanisms that control their adaptive responses. Although only a very limited number of proteomic studies were conducted in diatoms, the obtained data have led to a better understanding of the biochemical processes that contribute to their ecological success. This review presents the current status of proteomic studies of diatom stress responses and discusses the novel developments and applications for the analysis of protein post-translational modification in diatoms. The potential future application of proteomics could contribute to a better understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying diatom acclimation to a given stress and the acquisition of an enhanced diatom stress tolerance. Future challenges and research opportunities in the proteomics studies of diatoms are also discussed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Thompson, Cynthia A.; Tatro, Dana L.; Ludwig, David A.; Convertino, Victor A.
To test the hypothesis that acute changes in plasma volume affect the stimulus-response relations of high- and low- pressure baroreflexes, eight men (27-44 yr old) underwent measurements for carotid-cardiac and cardiopulmonary baro-reflex responses under the following three volemic conditions: hypovolemic, normovolemic, and hypervolemic. The stimulus- response relation of the carotid-cardiac response curve was generated using a neck cuff device, which delivered pressure changes between +40 and -65 mmHg in continuous steps of 15 mmHg. The stimulus-response relationship, of the cardio-pulmonary baroreflex were studied by measurements of Forearm Vascular Resistance (FVR) and Peripheral Venous Pressure (PVP) during low levels of lower body negative pressure (O to -20 mmHg). The results indicate greater demand for vasoconstriction for equal reductions in venous pressure during progressive hypovolemia; this condition may compromise the capacity to provide adequate peripheral resistance during severe orthostatic stress. Fluid loading before reentry after spaceflight may act to restore vasoconstrictive capacity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex but may not be an effective countermeasure against potential post- flight impairment of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex.
Bakker, A.; Van Loey, N.E.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073087998; Van Son, M.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068440340
Objective This multicenter study examines acute stress reactions in couples following a burn event to their preschool child. Methods Participants were 182 mothers and 154 fathers, including 143 couples, of 193 children (0–4 years) with acute burns. Parents’ self-reported acute stress reactions and
Sannino, Giuseppina; Pasqualini, Lorenza; Ricciardelli, Eugenia; Montilla, Patricia; Soverchia, Laura; Ruggeri, Barbara; Falcinelli, Silvia; Renzi, Alessandra; Ludka, Colleen; Kirchner, Thomas; Grünewald, Thomas G P; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Ubaldi, Massimo; Hardiman, Gary
Stress arises from an external demand placed on an organism that triggers physiological, cognitive and behavioural responses in order to cope with that request. It is thus an adaptive response useful for the survival of an organism. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize global changes in gene expression in the hippocampus in response to acute stress stimuli, by employing a mouse model of short-term restraint stress. In our experimental design mice were subjected to a one time exposure of restraint stress and the regulation of gene expression in the hippocampus was examined 3, 12 and 24 hours thereafter. Microarray analysis revealed that mice which had undergone acute restraint stress differed from non-stressed controls in global hippocampal transcriptional responses. An up-regulation of transcripts contributing directly or indirectly to neurogenesis and neuronal protection including, Ttr, Rab6, Gh, Prl, Ndufb9 and Ndufa6, was observed. Systems level analyses revealed a significant enrichment for neurogenesis, neuron morphogenesis- and cognitive functions-related biological process terms and pathways. This work further supports the hypothesis that acute stress mediates a positive action on the hippocampus favouring the formation and the preservation of neurons, which will be discussed in the context of current data from the literature.
Lupis, Sarah B; Lerman, Michelle; Wolf, Jutta M
While previous research has suggested that anger and fear responses to stress are linked to distinct sympathetic nervous system (SNS) stress responses, little is known about how these emotions predict hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity. Further, earlier research primarily relied on retrospective self-report of emotion. The current study aimed at addressing both issues in male and female individuals by assessing the role of anger and fear in predicting heart rate and cortisol stress responses using both self-report and facial coding analysis to assess emotion responses. We exposed 32 healthy students (18 female; 19.6±1.7 yr) to an acute psychosocial stress paradigm (TSST) and measured heart rate and salivary cortisol levels throughout the protocol. Anger and fear before and after stress exposure was assessed by self-report, and video recordings of the TSST were assessed by a certified facial coder to determine emotion expression (FACS). Self-reported emotions and emotion expressions did not correlate (all p>.23). Increases in self-reported fear predicted blunted cortisol responses in men (β=0.41, p=.04). Also for men, longer durations of anger expression predicted exaggerated cortisol responses (β=0.67 p=.004), and more anger incidences predicted exaggerated cortisol and heart rate responses (β=0.51, p=.033; β=0.46, p=.066, resp.). Anger and fear did not predict SNS or HPA activity for females (all p>.23). The current differential self-report and facial coding findings support the use of multiple modes of emotion assessment. Particularly, FACS but not self-report revealed a robust anger-stress association that could have important downstream health effects for men. For women, future research may clarify the role of other emotions, such as self-conscious expressions of shame, for physiological stress responses. A better understanding of the emotion-stress link may contribute to behavioral interventions targeting health-promoting ways of
Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H C; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom
In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or the use of very short (1-2 hours) retention intervals in eyewitness research, while neurobiology studies insert at least 24 hours. Other differences refer to the extent to which stress-responsive systems (i.e., the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis) are stimulated effectively under laboratory conditions. The aim of the current study was to conduct an experiment that accounts for the contemporary state of knowledge in both fields. In all, 123 participants witnessed a live staged theft while being exposed to a laboratory stressor that reliably elicits autonomic and glucocorticoid stress responses or while performing a control task. Salivary cortisol levels were measured to control for the effectiveness of the stress induction. One week later, participants attempted to identify the thief from target-present and target-absent line-ups. According to regression and receiver operating characteristic analyses, stress did not have robust detrimental effects on identification performance. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 The Authors Behavioral Sciences & the Law Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Acute lung injury is a severe disease with a high rate of mortality. Digitoflavone (DG) was suggested to possess bioactivities to reduce oxidative stress, inflammation and to regulate apoptosis. In our study, the normal saline, a low dose of DG (12.5mg/kg), a medium dose of DG (25mg/kg) and a high dose of DG (50mg/kg) were administered to male C57BL/6 mice by gavage. And then, the mice were intratracheally injected with either normal saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We found that DG ameliorated LPS-induced lung injury and platelets activation, accompanied with reduced CD41 expression and neutrophil platelet aggregates (NPAs). Further, pulmonary myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and neutrophil infiltration in the lung tissues induced by LPS were abolished by DG dose-dependently. Additionally, LPS-triggered oxidative stress and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines were reduced by DG administration through suppressing thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathways, and their down-streaming and up-streaming signals, including xanthine oxidase (XO), NLR family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), ASC, Caspase-1, as well as IκB kinase-α (IKK-α), and IκBα. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway was also inactivated by DG in LPS-induced mice. The in vitro study further confirmed that DG ameliorated LPS-induced inflammation and oxidative stress, which was associated with reduction of ROS. In conclusion, our data suggested that DG treatment could be considered as a promising therapy for treating acute lung injury. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana
With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after
Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae
To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available : 3 consecutive days propranolol hydrochloride administration (5 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous injections under acute and chronic stress conditions causes changes of peripheral erythrocyte distribution in rats. The effects of acute stress and its combination with ȕ-adrenergic receptor blockade on erythrocyte dynamic were more pregnant beside the effects of chronic stress and its combination with ȕ-adrenergic receptor blockade, respectively. ȕ-adrenergic mechanisms were shown to be involved in regulation of erythrocyte dynamic in acute and chronic stress response.
Harris, R B; Zhou, J; Shi, M; Redmann, S; Mynatt, R L; Ryan, D H
Ectopic overexpression of agouti protein, an endogenous antagonist of melanocortin receptors' linked to the beta-actin promoter (BAPa) in mice, produces a phenotype of yellow coat color, Type II diabetes, obesity and increased somatic growth. Spontaneous overexpression of agouti increases stress-induced weight loss. In these experiments, other aspects of stress responsiveness were tested in 12-week-old male wild-type mice and BAPa mice. Two hours of restraint on three consecutive days produced greater increases in corticosterone and post-stress weight loss in BAPa than wild-type mice. In Experiment 2, anxiety-type behavior was measured immediately after 12 min of restraint. This mild stress did not produce many changes indicative of anxiety, but BAPa mice spent more time in the dark side of a light-dark box and less time in the open arms of an elevated plus maze than restrained wild-type mice. In a defensive withdrawal test, grooming was increased by restraint in all mice, but the duration of each event was substantially shorter in BAPa mice, possibly due to direct antagonism of the MC4-R by agouti protein. Thus, BAPa mice showed exaggerated endocrine and energetic responses to restraint stress with small differences in anxiety-type behavior compared with wild-type mice. These results are consistent with observations in other transgenic mice in which the melanocortin system is disrupted, but contrast with reports that acute blockade of central melanocortin receptors inhibits stress-induced hypophagia. Thus, the increased stress responsiveness in BAPa mice may be a developmental compensation for chronic inhibition of melanocortin receptors.
... and biological responses to stress. Specifically, stress-hardy individuals retain mental focus and clarity of memory under stress, commit fewer errors during stress, experience less burnout, demonstrate better navigational skills...
Silbert, Benjamin I; Ho, Kwok M; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Corcoran, Tomas B; Morgan, David J; Pavey, Warren; Mas, Emilie; Barden, Anne E; Mori, Trevor A
Furosemide, a loop diuretic, is used to increase urine output in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). It remains uncertain whether the benefits of furosemide in AKI outweigh its potential harms. We investigated if furosemide influenced oxidative stress in 30 critically ill patients with AKI by measuring changes in F 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs), markers of in vivo oxidative stress, in plasma and urine following intravenous furosemide. Urine F 2 -IsoPs were higher in sepsis (p = 0.001) and increased in proportion to urine furosemide (p = 0.001). The furosemide-induced increase in urine F 2 -IsoPs differed depending on AKI severity (p Furosemide had no effect on plasma F 2 -IsoPs. We demonstrate for the first time that furosemide increases renal oxidative stress in AKI and find that patients with the most severe AKI-to whom the largest doses are likely to be administered-showed the greatest increase in oxidative stress. These findings lead to the hypothesis that the common practice of administering high-dose furosemide to convert oliguric to nonoliguric AKI may induce harmful oxidative stress in the kidneys, and an adequately powered, randomized controlled trial is required to determine if clinical benefits of this dosing strategy justify its potential harms. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 221-226.
Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz
Summary Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic—pituitary— adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over development. Indeed, the literature indicates that sex differences emerge during adolescence and persist into adulthood for all three physiological response systems. However, the directionality of the differences varies by system. The emerging corti-colimbic reactivity literature suggests greater female reactivity, particularly in limbic regions densely innervated by gonadal hormone receptors. In contrast, males generally show higher levels of HPAA and ANS reactivity. We argue that the contrasting directionality of corticolimbic and peripheral physiological responses may reflect specific effects of gonadal hormones on distinct systems and also sex differences in evolved behavioral responses that demand different levels of peripheral physiological activation. Studies that examine both subjective reports of negative affect and physiological responses indicate that beginning in adolescence, females respond to acute stressors with more intense negative affect than males despite their comparatively lower peripheral physiological responses. This dissociation is not clearly explained by sex differences in the strength of the relationship between physiological and subjective responses. We suggest that females' greater subjective responsivity may instead arise from a greater activity in brain regions that translate stress responses to subjective awareness in adolescence. Future research directions include investigations of the role of pubertal hormones in physiological reactivity
Nordin, Trevor C; Done, Aaron J; Traustadóttir, Tinna
A single bout of acute exercise increases oxidative stress and stimulates a transient increase in antioxidant enzymes. We asked whether this response would induce protection from a subsequent oxidative challenge, different from that of exercise, and whether the effects were affected by aging. We compared young (20 ± 1 years, n = 8) and older (58 ± 6 years, n = 9) healthy men and women. Resistance to oxidative stress was measured by the F2-isoprostane response to forearm ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) trial. Each participant underwent the I/R trial twice, in random order; once after performing 45 min of cycling on the preceding day (IRX) and a control trial without any physical activity (IRC). Baseline F2-isoprostane levels were significantly lower at IRX compared to IRC (P different between groups. F2-isoprostane response to IRX was significantly lower compared to IRC in young (P different in the older group. Superoxide dismutase activity in response to acute exercise was significantly higher in young compared to older adults (P exercise may be impaired with aging. Repeated bouts of transient reactive oxygen species production as seen with regular exercise may be needed to increase resistance to oxidative stress in older individuals.
Cemek, Mustafa; Dede, Semiha; BAYIROĞLU, Fahri; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Cemek, Fatma; MERT, Nihat
AIM: To investigate in children with acute hepatitis A. According to our knowledge, there are no data about the blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of oxidative stress) and nonenzymic antioxidants in children with acute hepatitis A.
Martins, C.I.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.
Despite the importance of feed efficiency and stress response in fish production, the number of studies focusing on the relationship of their individual differences has never been investigated. This study tests whether individual differences in glucose and cortisol responsiveness after an acute
Full Text Available Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata, a perennial C4 grass native to the North American prairie, has several distinctive characteristics that potentially make it a model crop for production in stressful environments. However, little is known about the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass despite its unique freezing stress tolerance. Therefore, the purpose of this work was to explore the transcriptome dynamics of prairie cordgrass in response to freezing stress at -5°C for 5 min and 30 min. We used a RNA-sequencing method to assemble the S. pectinata leaf transcriptome and performed gene-expression profiling of the transcripts under freezing treatment. Six differentially expressed gene (DEG groups were categorized from the profiling. In addition, two major consecutive orders of gene expression were observed in response to freezing; the first being the acute up-regulation of genes involved in plasma membrane modification, calcium-mediated signaling, proteasome-related proteins, and transcription regulators (e.g., MYB and WRKY. The follow-up and second response was of genes involved in encoding the putative anti-freezing protein and the previously known DNA and cell-damage-repair proteins. Moreover, we identified the genes involved in epigenetic regulation and circadian-clock expression. Our results indicate that freezing response in S. pectinata reflects dynamic changes in rapid-time duration, as well as in metabolic, transcriptional, post-translational, and epigenetic regulation.
Full Text Available The nucleolus is the most prominent nuclear domain, where the core processes of ribosome biogenesis occur vigorously. All these processes are finely orchestrated by many nucleolar factors to build precisely ribosome particles. In animal cells, perturbations of ribosome biogenesis, mostly accompanied by structural disorders of the nucleolus, cause a kind of cellular stress to induce cell cycle arrest, senescence, or apoptosis, which is called nucleolar stress response. The best-characterized pathway of this stress response involves p53 and MDM2 as key players. p53 is a crucial transcription factor that functions in response to not only nucleolar stress but also other cellular stresses such as DNA damage stress. These cellular stresses release p53 from the inhibition by MDM2, an E3 ubiquitin ligase targeting p53, in various ways, which leads to p53-dependent activation of a set of genes. In plants, genetic impairments of ribosome biogenesis factors or ribosome components have been shown to cause characteristic phenotypes, including a narrow and pointed leaf shape, implying a common signaling pathway connecting ribosomal perturbations and certain aspects of growth and development. Unlike animals, however, plants have neither p53 nor MDM2 family proteins. Then the question arises whether plant cells have a nucleolar stress response pathway. In recent years, it has been reported that several members of the plant-specific transcription factor family NAC play critical roles in the pathways responsive to various cellular stresses. In this mini review, we outline the plant cellular stress response pathways involving NAC transcription factors with reference to the p53-MDM2-dependent pathways of animal cells, and discuss the possible involvement of a plant-unique, NAC-mediated pathway in the nucleolar stress response in plants.
Andrea H Lewis
Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence brain regions involved in associative learning such as the ventral striatum.
Singer, Nina; Sommer, Monika; Döhnel, Katrin; Zänkert, Sandra; Wüst, Stefan; Kudielka, Brigitte M
In everyday life, moral decisions must frequently be made under acute stress. Although there is increasing evidence that both stress and cortisol affect moral judgment and behavior as well as decision-making in various domains unrelated to morality, surprisingly few attempts have been made to explore the effects of stress on everyday moral decision-making. Therefore, in the present study, we exposed 50 young healthy men to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) or its non-stressful placebo version (PTSST). We investigated the impact of acute stress exposure and stress-related cortisol levels on decision-making, decision certainty, and emotions in 28 everyday moral conflict situations with altruistic versus egoistic response alternatives. Results showed that the TSST-exposed group made more altruistic decisions than the non-stress control group, while groups did not differ in decision certainty and emotion ratings. Moreover, in correlational as well as regression analyses, additionally controlling for confounding variables, we observed significant positive associations between cortisol levels and altruistic decision-making. Further analyses revealed that altruistic decisions came along with significantly higher decision certainty and significantly more positive emotion ratings than egoistic decisions. Notably, our data also raise the idea that the personality trait agreeableness plays an important role in everyday moral decision-making. In sum, our findings provide initial evidence that both acute stress exposure and cortisol levels have prosocial effects on everyday moral decision-making in young healthy men. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Saxena, Bhagawati; Singh, Sanjay
Stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) is highly prevalent in intensive care patients leading to increasing treatment cost and mortality. SRMD is a disease elusive of ideal treatment. Evaluation of drugs is very pertinent for the efficient and safe treatment of SRMD. It relies mainly on in vivo screening models. There are various stress models, and till date, none of them is validated for simulating the SRMD pathophysiology. The present study aims to choose the best model, which reproduce pathophysiology of SRMD, among previously established stress models. This study evaluates ulcer index, hexosamine content, microvascular permeability, and gastric content in three acute stress models (cold-restraint, restraint, and water immersion restraint). Macroscopic pictures of the ulcerogenic stomach explain that in contrast to other models, cold-restraint stress (CRS) exposure produced marked ulcers on the fundic area of the stomach. Results of the present study depicted that each stress model significantly increased ulcer index, microvascular permeability and decreased hexosamine level, however, the maximum in the case of CRS-exposed rats. Total acidity and pH of the gastric content remains unchanged in all the stress models. On the contrary, the gastric volume significantly decreased only in case of CRS, while unchanged in other stress models. The overall results revealed that the CRS resembles the pathophysiology of SRMD closely. It is the best and feasible model among all the models to evaluate drugs for the treatment of SRMD.
Full Text Available Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release.Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability.Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes. This novel effect of antidepressants on the response to stress
Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G
Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.
Full Text Available Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999: Attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40 were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20, or to a rest condition (N = 20. Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group. The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.
Sachin J Shah
Full Text Available Little is known about the association between financial stress and health care outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between self-reported financial stress during initial hospitalization and long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI.We used prospective registry evaluating myocardial infarction: Event and Recovery (PREMIER data, an observational, multicenter US study of AMI patients discharged between January 2003 and June 2004. Primary outcomes were disease-specific and generic health status outcomes at 1 year (symptoms, function, and quality of life (QoL, assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] and Short Form [SF]-12. Secondary outcomes included 1-year rehospitalization and 4-year mortality. Hierarchical regression models accounted for patient socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of care characteristics, and access and barriers to care.Among 2344 AMI patients, 1241 (52.9% reported no financial stress, 735 (31.4% reported low financial stress, and 368 (15.7% reported high financial stress. When comparing individuals reporting low financial stress to no financial stress, there were no significant differences in post-AMI outcomes. In contrast, individuals reporting high financial stress were more likely to have worse physical health (SF-12 PCS mean difference -3.24, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.82, -1.66, mental health (SF-12 MCS mean difference: -2.44, 95% CI: -3.83, -1.05, disease-specific QoL (SAQ QoL mean difference: -6.99, 95% CI: -9.59, -4.40, and be experiencing angina (SAQ Angina Relative Risk = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.32 at 1 year post-AMI. While 1-year readmission rates were increased (Hazard Ratio = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86, 4-year mortality was no different.High financial stress is common and an important risk factor for worse long-term outcomes post-AMI, independent of access and barriers to care.
Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Pullano, Salvatore A; Carè, Ilaria; Fiorillo, Antonino S; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Foti, Daniela P; Brunetti, Antonio; Gulletta, Elio
Circulating oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory markers change after regular physical exercise; however, how a short session of acute physical activity affects the inflammatory status and redox balance in sedentary individuals is still unclear. Aim of this study is to assess antioxidant and inflammatory parameters, both at rest and after acute exercise, in sedentary young men with or without obesity. Thirty sedentary male volunteers, aged 20-45 (mean age 32 ± 7 years), were recruited, divided into 3 groups (normal weight: BMI group comparisons demonstrated significantly higher Glutathione Reductase activity in severely obese subjects in the post-exercise period (P = 0.036), and higher EGF levels in normal weight individuals, either before (P = 0.003) and after exercise (P = 0.05). Intra-group comparisons showed that the acute exercise stress induced a significant increase in Glutathione Reductase activity in severely obese subjects only (P = 0.007), a significant decrease in MCP-1 in the normal weight group (P = 0.02), and a decrease in EGF levels in all groups (normal weight: P = 0.025, overweight/moderate obesity: P = 0.04, severe obesity: P = 0.018). Altogether, these findings suggest that in sedentary individuals with different ranges of BMI, Glutathione Reductase and distinct cytokines are differentially involved into the adaptive metabolic changes and redox responses induced by physical exercise. Therefore, these biomarkers may have the potential to identify individuals at higher risk for developing diseases pathophysiologically linked to oxidative stress.
Adrian M Stankiewicz
Full Text Available Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1, injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20. The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4, Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples.
Grimm, Simone; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek
.... Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown...
Full Text Available Evolution depends on the manner in which genetic variation is translated into new phenotypes. There has been much debate about whether organisms might have specific mechanisms for "evolvability," which would generate heritable phenotypic variation with adaptive value and could act to enhance the rate of evolution. Capacitor systems, which allow the accumulation of cryptic genetic variation and release it under stressful conditions, might provide such a mechanism. In yeast, the prion [PSI(+] exposes a large array of previously hidden genetic variation, and the phenotypes it thereby produces are advantageous roughly 25% of the time. The notion that [PSI(+] is a mechanism for evolvability would be strengthened if the frequency of its appearance increased with stress. That is, a system that mediates even the haphazard appearance of new phenotypes, which have a reasonable chance of adaptive value would be beneficial if it were deployed at times when the organism is not well adapted to its environment. In an unbiased, high-throughput, genome-wide screen for factors that modify the frequency of [PSI(+] induction, signal transducers and stress response genes were particularly prominent. Furthermore, prion induction increased by as much as 60-fold when cells were exposed to various stressful conditions, such as oxidative stress (H2O2 or high salt concentrations. The severity of stress and the frequency of [PSI(+] induction were highly correlated. These findings support the hypothesis that [PSI(+] is a mechanism to increase survival in fluctuating environments and might function as a capacitor to promote evolvability.
Schipper, Pieter; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Lopresto, Dora; Kozicz, Tamas; Homberg, Judith R
Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT-/-) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT-/- rats and wildtype controls. Surprisingly, IS experience improved fear extinction recall in 5-HTT-/- rats to the level of wildtype animals, while wildtypes were unaffected by this IS. Thus, whereas 5-HTT-/- rats evidently were more responsive to the stressor, the behavioral consequences presented themselves as adaptive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Holly, Elizabeth N.; Miczek, Klaus A.
Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are strongly activated by reward and reward-predictive cues while inhibited by aversive stimuli. How can these divergent processes both be mediated by VTA dopamine neurons? The answer may lie within the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of the VTA. We focus on VTA heterogeneity in anatomy, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and afferent/efferent connectivity. Second, recent evidence for a critical role of VTA dopamine neurons in response to both acute and repeated stress will be discussed. Understanding which dopamine neurons are activated by stress, the neural mechanisms driving the activation, and where these neurons project will provide valuable insight into how stress can promote psychiatric disorders associated with the dopamine system, such as addiction and depression. PMID:26676983
Pizzimenti, Christie L; Navis, Tom M; Lattal, K Matthew
Even following long periods of abstinence, individuals with anxiety disorders have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse. Although many current models of relapse demonstrate effects of acute stress on drug-seeking, most of these studies examine stressful experiences that occur in close temporal and physical proximity to the reinstatement test. Here, we assess the effects of a stressful experience in one context on fear and drug-seeking in a different context. We adapt the stress-enhanced fear learning procedure to examine impacts on drug-seeking long after the stressful experience occurred. We find massive footshock in a distinct environment produced an acute increase in corticosterone, long-term hyper-responsivity to a single shock in different contexts with extensive histories of drug-seeking behaviors, enhancements in cocaine-induced conditioned place preference in mice, and persistent enhancements in cue-induced reinstatement of methamphetamine-seeking behavior in rats. Together, these experiments demonstrate that an acute trauma causes persistent changes in responsivity to mild stressors and drug-seeking behavior in other contexts, which mirrors aspects of the comorbidity between post-traumatic stress disorder and substance use disorders. These behavioral approaches provide novel procedures for investigating basic mechanisms underlying this comorbidity and they provide powerful tools for testing preclinical pharmacological and behavioral interventions. © 2017 Pizzimenti et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.
Miller, Diane B; O'Callaghan, James P
Disruptions in homeostasis (ie, stress) place demands on the body that are met by the activation of 2 systems, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). Stressor-induced activation of the HPA axis and the SNS results in a series of neural and endocrine adaptations known as the "stress response" or "stress cascade." The stress cascade is responsible for allowing the body to make the necessary physiological and metabolic changes required to cope with the demands of a homeostatic challenge. Here we discuss the key elements of the HPA axis and the neuroendocrine response to stress. A challenge to homeostasis (a stressor) initiates the release of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus, which in turn results in release of adrenocortiotropin hormone (ACTH) into general circulation. ACTH then acts on the adrenal cortex resulting in release of a species-specific glucocorticoid into blood. Glucocorticoids act in a negative feedback fashion to terminate the release of CRH. The body strives to maintain glucocorticoid levels within certain boundaries and interference at any level of the axis will influence the other components via feedback loops. Over- or underproduction of cortisol can result in the devastating diseases of Cushing's and Addison's, respectively, but less severe dysregulation of the HPA axis can still have adverse health consequences. These include the deposition of visceral fat as well as cardiovascular disease (eg, atherosclerosis). Thus, chronic stress with its physical and psychological ramifications remains a persistent clinical problem for which new pharmacological treatment strategies are aggressively sought. To date, treatments have been based on the existing knowledge concerning the brain areas and neurobiological substrates that subserve the stress response. Thus, the CRH blocker, antalarmin, is being investigated as a treatment for chronic stress because it prevents CRH from having its
Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki
Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.
Hernaus, Dennis; Quaedflieg, Conny W E M; Offermann, Jan Stefan; Casales Santa, Marta M; van Amelsvoort, Thérèse
It is generally thought that the effect of acute stress on higher-order functions such as working memory is, for an important part, mediated by central catecholamine activity. However, little is known about the association between neuroendocrine stress responses and catecholamine-dependent working memory-related brain function in the absence of stress. Here, we investigate for the first time in healthy humans (n = 18) how neuroendocrine responses to stress (cortisol and alpha-amylase) relate to fronto-parietal working memory activity changes in response to atomoxetine, a noradrenaline transporter inhibitor that selectively increases extracellular cortical dopamine and noradrenaline. We observed positive correlations between stress-induced cortisol (Pearson's r = 0.75, P working memory-related activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Stress-induced cortisol increases furthermore correlated with supramarginal gyrus working memory-related activity (r = 0.79, P working memory activity on placebo and greater working memory activity increases following atomoxetine in high stress responders. These results further corroborate the notion that neuroendocrine responses to stress are an informative proxy of catecholamine function relevant to higher order functions and provide novel hints on the complex relationship between acute stress, catecholamine function and working memory. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James
Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. © Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.
Full Text Available For the selection of relevant information out of a continuous stream of information, which is a common definition of attention, two core mechanisms are assumed: a competition-based comparison of the neuronal activity in sensory areas and the top-down modulation of this competition by frontal executive control functions. Those control functions are thought to bias the processing of information towards the intended goals. Acute stress is thought to impair these frontal functions through the release of cortisol.In the present study, subjects had to detect a luminance change of a stimulus and ignore more salient but task irrelevant orientation changes. Before the execution of this task, subjects underwent a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT or a non-stressful control situation. The SECPT revealed reliable stress response with a significant increase of cortisol and alpha-amylase. Stressed subjects showed higher error rates than controls, particularly in conditions which require top-down control processing to bias the less salient target feature against the more salient and spatially separated distracter.By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection.
Munro, J C; Schenkel, F S; Physick-Sheard, P W; Fontoura, A B P; Miller, S P; Tennessen, T; Montanholi, Y R
Proxies have the potential to accelerate feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI); kg dry matter/day) improvement, assisting with the reduction of beef cattle feed costs and environmental impact. Heart rate (HR) (beats per minute (BPM)) is associated with feed efficiency and influenced by autonomic activity and peripheral metabolism, suggesting HR could be used as a proxy for feed efficiency. Objectives were to assess associations between overnight HR, lying patterns and RFI, and between acute stress HR and RFI. Heifer calves (n=107; 408±28 days of age, 341±42.2 kg) and yearling heifers (n=36; 604±92 days of age, 539±52.2 kg) were exposed to a performance test to determine productive performance. Overnight HR (electrode based) and lying patterns (accelerometer based) were monitored on a subgroup of heifer calves (n=40; 20 lowest RFI; 20 highest RFI). In the 10-min acute stress assessment, all heifers were individually exposed to the opening and closing of an umbrella and HR before (HRBEF), in response to (HRMAX), after (HRAFT) and change (HRCHG; HRAFT-HRBEF) as a result of exposure were determined. Using polynomial regression, rate of HR decrease pre-exposure (β 1) and rates of HR increase (β 2) and decrease (β 3, β 4) post-exposure were determined. Heifer calves in the overnight assessment were classified into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and HR means were treated as repeated measures and compared using multiple regression. In the acute stress assessment, heifers were classified within cattle category into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and means and polynomial regression parameters were compared using multiple regression. Low-RFI heifer calves had a lower overnight HR (69.2 v. 72.6 BPM), similar HR change from lying to standing intervals (8.9 v. 9.2 BPM) and similar time lying (61.1% v. 64.5%) compared with high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI heifer calves had a higher absolute HRMAX (162.9 v. 145.7 BPM) and β 2 (-0.34 v. -0.20) than high
Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R
Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Psychological stress delays wound healing but the precise underlying mechanisms are unclear. Macrophages play an important role in wound healing, in particular by killing microbes. We hypothesized that (a acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of human monocyte-derived macrophages (HMDM, and (b that these reductions are modulated by stress hormone release. METHODS: Fourty-one healthy men (mean age 35 ± 13 years were randomly assigned to either a stress or stress-control group. While the stress group underwent a standardized short-term psychological stress task after catheter-induced wound infliction, stress-controls did not. Catheter insertion was controlled. Assessing the microbicidal potential, we investigated PMA-activated superoxide anion production by HMDM immediately before and 1, 10 and 60 min after stress/rest. Moreover, plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine and salivary cortisol were repeatedly measured. In subsequent in vitro studies, whole blood was incubated with norepinephrine in the presence or absence of phentolamine (norepinephrine blocker before assessing HMDM microbicidal potential. RESULTS: Compared with stress-controls, HMDM of the stressed subjects displayed decreased superoxide anion-responses after stress (p's <.05. Higher plasma norepinephrine levels statistically mediated lower amounts of superoxide anion-responses (indirect effect 95% CI: 4.14-44.72. Norepinephrine-treated HMDM showed reduced superoxide anion-production (p<.001. This effect was blocked by prior incubation with phentolamine. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that acute psychological stress reduces wound-induced activation of microbicidal potential of HMDM and that this reduction is mediated by norepinephrine. This might have implications for stress-induced impairment in wound healing.
Smyth, Joshua M; Sliwinski, Martin J; Zawadzki, Matthew J; Scott, Stacey B; Conroy, David E; Lanza, Stephanie T; Marcusson-Clavertz, David; Kim, Jinhyuk; Stawski, Robert S; Stoney, Catherine M; Buxton, Orfeu M; Sciamanna, Christopher N; Green, Paige M; Almeida, David M
Stress is an established risk factor for negative health outcomes, and responses to everyday stress can interfere with health behaviors such as exercise and sleep. In accordance with the Science of Behavior Change (SOBC) program, we apply an experimental medicine approach to identifying stress response targets, developing stress response assays, intervening upon these targets, and testing intervention effectiveness. We evaluate an ecologically valid, within-person approach to measuring the deleterious effects of everyday stress on physical activity and sleep patterns, examining multiple stress response components (i.e., stress reactivity, stress recovery, and stress pile-up) as indexed by two key response indicators (negative affect and perseverative cognition). Our everyday stress response assay thus measures multiple malleable stress response targets that putatively shape daily health behaviors (physical activity and sleep). We hypothesize that larger reactivity, incomplete recovery, and more frequent stress responses (pile-up) will negatively impact health behavior enactment in daily life. We will identify stress-related reactivity, recovery, and response in the indicators using coordinated analyses across multiple naturalistic studies. These results are the basis for developing a new stress assay and replicating the initial findings in a new sample. This approach will advance our understanding of how specific aspects of everyday stress responses influence health behaviors, and can be used to develop and test an innovative ambulatory intervention for stress reduction in daily life to enhance health behaviors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kher, Ajay; Wang, Meijing; Tsai, Ben M; Pitcher, Jeffrey M; Greenbaum, Evan S; Nagy, Ryan D; Patel, Ketan M; Wairiuko, G Mathenge; Markel, Troy A; Meldrum, Daniel R
.... These insults lead to an inflammatory cascade, which plays an important role in this process. Gender has been shown to influence the inflammatory response, as well as outcomes after acute injury...
Winklewski, Pawel J; Radkowski, Marek; Wszedybyl-Winklewska, Magdalena; Demkow, Urszula
Locus coeruleus is a critical component of the brain noradrenergic system. The brain noradrenergic system provides the neural substrate for the architecture supporting the interaction with, and navigation through, an external world complexity. Changes in locus coeruleus tonic and phasic activity and the interplay between norepinephrine and α1- and α2-adrenoceptors in the prefrontal cortex are the key elements of this sophisticated architecture. In this narrative review we discuss how the brain noradrenergic system is affected by increased exposure to corticotropin-releasing hormone triggered by stress response. In particular, we present the mechanisms responsible for thinking inflexibility often observed under highly stressful conditions. Finally, the main directions for future research are highlighted.
Thoma, Myriam V; La Marca, Roberto; Brönnimann, Rebecca; Finkel, Linda; Ehlert, Ulrike; Nater, Urs M
... domains of the human stress response. Sixty healthy female volunteers (mean age = 25 years) were exposed to a standardized psychosocial stress test after having been randomly assigned to one of three different conditions prior to the stress test...
Czaja, Angela S; Moss, Marc; Mealer, Meredith
In their work, pediatric acute care nurses may encounter traumatic events and be at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This survey-based study examines the potential diagnosis of PTSD among nurses at a tertiary children's hospital with a Level 1 trauma center. Twenty-one percent of respondents had strong PTSD symptoms without significant difference between units. Nurses with potential PTSD had more comorbid symptoms of anxiety, depression, and burnout and were more often considering a career change. Furthermore, symptoms affected not only their work but also their personal lives. Future research should focus upon identifying pediatric nurses with PTSD to provide therapeutic interventions and reducing high-risk events and their potential impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.
Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…
Elling, Ludger; Steinberg, Christian; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Dobel, Christan; Bölte, Jens; Junghofer, Markus
Background Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM). However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such “paracorticoidal” stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. Methodology/Principal Findings The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd) and mismatch negativity (MMN) were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occuring 4–7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8–11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP) occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. Conclusions/Significance Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence on cognition
Full Text Available Stress effects from acute noise exposure were monitored in a group of ROSS 308 broiler chickens (n = 80, aged 42 days. The experiment simulated slaughterhouse sounds to which the broilers were exposed for 10 min in the test enclosure. Effects of acute noise exposure at two different levels (80 dB and 100 dB were evaluated on the basis of examinations of selected biochemical plasma indicators and tonic immobility tests. Noise stimuli of both 80 dB and 100 dB intensities for 10 min induced a significant elevation in plasma corticosterone levels. Broilers that were exposed to noise stimuli of 100 dB also exhibited a significant increase in the cholesterol level and total protein level. Exposure to noise stimuli did not influence the glucose level and triglyceride concentrations. The duration of tonic immobility was not affected by noise stimuli in our experiment. However, noise exposure at a 100 dB level decreased the number of attempts to induce tonic immobility in broilers.
Short communication: Camel milk ameliorates inflammatory responses and oxidative stress and downregulates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats.
Zhu, Wei-Wei; Kong, Gui-Qing; Ma, Ming-Ming; Li, Yan; Huang, Xiao; Wang, Li-Peng; Peng, Zhen-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Zhi
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex syndrome disorder with high mortality rate. Camel milk (CM) contains antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties and protects against numerous diseases. This study aimed to demonstrate the function of CM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS in rats. Camel milk reduced the lung wet:dry weight ratio and significantly reduced LPS-induced increases in neutrophil infiltration, interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, thickness of the alveolar wall, and lung injury scores of lung tissues. It also had antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects on LPS-induced ARDS. After LPS stimulation, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, and IL-1β) in serum and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and total antioxidant capacity) in lung tissue were notably attenuated by CM. Camel milk also downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Given these results, CM is a potential complementary food for ARDS treatment. Copyright © 2016 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bright, Rachel; Steinberg, Gary K; Mochly-Rosen, Daria
Maintaining cerebrovascular function is a priority for reducing damage following acute ischemic events such as stroke, and under chronic stress in diseases such as hypertension. Ischemic episodes lead to endothelial cell damage, deleterious inflammatory responses, and altered neuronal and astrocyte regulation of vascular function. These, in turn, can lead to impaired cerebral blood flow and compromised blood-brain barrier function, promoting microvascular collapse, edema, hemorrhagic transformation, and worsened neurological recovery. Multiple studies demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC), a widely expressed serine/threonine kinase, is involved in mediating arterial tone and microvascular function. However, there is no clear understanding about the role of individual PKC isozymes. We show that intraperitoneal injection of deltaV1-1-TAT(47-57) (0.2 mg/kg in 1 mL), an isozyme-specific peptide inhibitor of deltaPKC, improved microvascular pathology, increased the number of patent microvessels by 92% compared to control-treated animals, and increased cerebral blood flow by 26% following acute focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in normotensive rats. In addition, acute delivery of deltaV1-1-TAT(47-57) in hypertensive Dahl rats increased cerebral blood flow by 12%, and sustained delivery deltaV1-1-TAT(47-57) (5 uL/h, 1 mM), reduced infarct size by 25% following an acute stroke induced by MCA occlusion for 90 min. Together, these findings demonstrate that deltaPKC is an important therapeutic target for protection of microvascular structure and function under both acute and chronic conditions of cerebrovascular stress.
Bright, Rachel; Steinberg, Gary K.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria
Maintaining cerebrovascular function is a priority for reducing damage following acute ischemic events such as stroke, and under chronic stress in diseases such as hypertension. Ischemic episodes lead to endothelial cell damage, deleterious inflammatory responses, and altered neuronal and astrocyte regulation of vascular function. These, in turn, can lead to impaired cerebral blood flow and compromised blood–brain barrier function, promoting microvascular collapse, edema, hemorrhagic transformation, and worsened neurological recovery. Multiple studies demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC), a widely expressed serine/threonine kinase, is involved in mediating arterial tone and microvascular function. However, there is no clear understanding about the role of individual PKC isozymes. We show that intraperitoneal injection of δV1-1–TAT47–57 (0.2 mg/kg in 1 mL), an isozymespecific peptide inhibitor of δPKC, improved microvascular pathology, increased the number of patent microvessels by 92% compared to control-treated animals, and increased cerebral blood flow by 26% following acute focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in normotensive rats. In addition, acute delivery of δV1-1–TAT47–57 in hypertensive Dahl rats increased cerebral blood flow by 12%, and sustained delivery δV1-1–TAT47–57 (5 uL/h, 1 mM), reduced infarct size by 25% following an acute stroke induced by MCA occlusion for 90 min. Together, these findings demonstrate that δPKC is an important therapeutic target for protection of microvascular structure and function under both acute and chronic conditions of cerebrovascular stress. PMID:17350602
Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh
The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.
Schlink, Bryan R; Peterson, Steven M; Hairston, W D; König, Peter; Kerick, Scott E; Ferris, Daniel P
Mobile electroencephalography (EEG) is a very useful tool to investigate the physiological basis of cognition under real-world conditions. However, as we move experimentation into less-constrained environments, the influence of state changes increases. The influence of stress on cortical activity and cognition is an important example. Monitoring of modulation of cortical activity by EEG measurements is a promising tool for assessing acute stress. In this study, we test this hypothesis and combine EEG with independent component analysis and source localization to identify cortical differences between a control condition and a stressful condition. Subjects performed a stationary shooting task using an airsoft rifle with and without the threat of an experimenter firing a different airsoft rifle in their direction. We observed significantly higher skin conductance responses and salivary cortisol levels (p stressful conditions, indicating that we had successfully induced an adequate level of acute stress. We located independent components in five regions throughout the cortex, most notably in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region previously shown to be affected by increased levels of stress. This area showed a significant decrease in spectral power in the theta and alpha bands less than a second after the subjects pulled the trigger. Overall, our results suggest that EEG with independent component analysis and source localization has the potential of monitoring acute stress in real-world environments.
Zhang, Lu; Xu, Bin; Wu, Tao; Wen, Mu-Xuan; Fan, Lian-Xue; Feng, Zhao-Zhong; Paoletti, Elena
Ground-level ozone (O3) is one of the major air pollutants, which cause oxidative injury to plants. The physiological and biochemical mechanisms underlying the responses of plants to O3 stress have been well investigated. However, there are limited reports about the molecular basis of plant responses to O3. In this study, a comparative transcriptomic analysis of Pak Choi (Brassica campestris ssp. chinensis) exposed to different O3 concentrations was conducted for the first time. Seedlings of Pak Choi with five leaves were exposed to non-filtered air (NF, 31 ppb) or elevated O3 (E-O3, 252 ppb) for 2 days (8 h per day, from 9:00-17:00). Compared with plants in the NF, a total of 675 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in plants under E-O3, including 219 DEGs with decreased expressions and 456 DEGs with increased expressions. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses revealed that O3 stress invoked multiple cellular defense pathways to mitigate the impaired cellular integrity and metabolism, including 'glutathione metabolism', 'phenylpropanoid biosynthesis', 'sulfur metabolism', 'glucosinolate biosynthesis', 'cutin, suberine and wax biosynthesis' and others. Transcription factors potentially involved in this cellular regulation were also found, such as AP2-ERF, WRKY, JAZ, MYB etc. Based on the RNA-Seq data and previous studies, a working model was proposed integrating O3 caused reactive oxygen burst, oxidation-reduction regulation, jasmonic acid and downstream functional genes for the regulation of cellular homeostasis after acute O3 stress. The present results provide a valuable insight into the molecular responses of Pak Choi to acute O3 stress and the specific DEGs revealed in this study could be used for further functional identification of key allelic genes determining the O3 sensitivity of Pak Choi.
Full Text Available Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF is the hallmark brain peptide triggering the response to stress and mediates—in addition to the stimulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis—other hormonal, behavioral, autonomic and visceral components. Earlier reports indicate that somatostatin-28 injected intracerebroventricularly counteracts the acute stress-induced ACTH and catecholamine release. Mounting evidence now supports that activation of brain somatostatin signaling exerts a broader anti-stress effect by blunting the endocrine, autonomic, behavioral (with a focus on food intake and visceral gastrointestinal motor responses through the involvement of distinct somatostatin receptor subtypes.
Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Identifying the potentially novel transcripts responsible for salt stress tolerance in roselle will increase knowledge of the molecular mechanism underlying salt stress responses. In this study, differential display reverse ...
Lisa Y. Maeng
Full Text Available Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. 24h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similar to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful
Maeng, Lisa Y; Shors, Tracey J
Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. About 24 h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similarly to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful life
Roatta, Silvestro; Mohammed, Mazher; Passatore, Magda
In the complex neurovascular control of the orofacial area, the only vasoconstrictor action is mediated by the sympathetic nervous system; however, its functional role is still unclear as little evidence exists of vasoconstrictor responses to physiological stimuli in both animal and human models. Aim of the present study was to investigate, orofacial vascular responses to acute stress in conscious rabbits. Twenty rabbits, implanted with chronic perivascular flow probes on the facial artery and with a telemetric probe for arterial blood pressure, were subjected to different alerting/stress stimuli, i.e., noise, taps on the rabbit's box, air jet, noxious cutaneous stimuli. Smaller groups of animal also underwent electromyographic (EMG) activity recording from the masseter muscle, unilateral section of the cervical sympathetic nerve (n=8), and alpha-adrenergic blockade with phentolamine (n=6). On average, all stressors evoked a pressor response accompanied by variable changes in heart rate and induced a marked, short-latency reduction in facial artery blood flow, corresponding to a decrease of 37-50% in vascular conductance of the facial artery. Local sympathetic denervation abolished the short-latency (15s) phase of the long-lasting response to the air jet. All vasoconstrictor effects were blocked by phentolamine. Increases in blood flow were observed only in concomitance with masseter EMG activity either during masticatory activity or in the form of brief occasional spontaneous contractions. This study provides evidence of an effective vasoconstrictor control by the sympathetic system in the orofacial area under stress conditions.
Solomon, M B; Jones, K; Packard, B A; Herman, J P
Stress pathologies such as depression and eating disorders (i.e. anorexia nervosa) are associated with amygdalar dysfunction, which are linked with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) axis hyperactivity. The medial amygdaloid nucleus (MeA), a key output nucleus of the amygdaloid complex, promotes HPA axis activation to acute psychogenic stress and is in a prime position to mediate the deleterious effects of chronic stress on physiology and behaviour. The present study tests the hypothesis that the MeA is necessary for the development of maladaptive physiological changes caused by prolonged stress exposure. Male rats received bilateral ibotenate or sham lesions targeting the MeA and one half underwent 2 weeks of chronic variable stress (CVS) or served as home cage controls. Sixteen hours post CVS, all animals were exposed to an acute restraint challenge. CVS induced thymic involution, adrenal hypertrophy, and attenuated body weight gain and up-regulation of hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone mRNA expression. Consistent with previous literature, lesions of the MeA dampened stress-induced increases in corticosterone after 30 min of exposure to acute restraint stress. However, this effect was independent of CVS exposure, suggesting that the MeA may not be critical for modulating neuroendocrine responses after chronic HPA axis drive. Interestingly, lesion of the MeA modestly exaggerated the stress-induced attenuation of weight gain. Overall, the data obtained suggest that the MeA modulates the neuroendocrine responses to acute but not chronic stress. In addition, the data suggest that the MeA may be an important neural component for the control of body weight in the face of chronic stress.
Banis, Stella; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Banis, Hendrika
Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters
Jennifer Q. Kwong
Full Text Available In the heart, augmented Ca2+ fluxing drives contractility and ATP generation through mitochondrial Ca2+ loading. Pathologic mitochondrial Ca2+ overload with ischemic injury triggers mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is primarily mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU. Here, we generated mice with adult and cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Mcu, which produced mitochondria refractory to acute Ca2+ uptake, with impaired ATP production, and inhibited MPTP opening upon acute Ca2+ challenge. Mice lacking Mcu in the adult heart were also protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, resting/basal mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were normal in hearts of Mcu-deleted mice, and mitochondria lacking MCU eventually loaded with Ca2+ after stress stimulation. Indeed, Mcu-deleted mice were unable to immediately sprint on a treadmill unless warmed up for 30 min. Hence, MCU is a dedicated regulator of short-term mitochondrial Ca2+ loading underlying a “fight-or-flight” response that acutely matches cardiac workload with ATP production.
Andrews, Clare; Nettle, Daniel; Larriva, Maria; Gillespie, Robert; Reichert, Sophie; Brilot, Ben O; Bedford, Thomas; Monaghan, Pat; Spencer, Karen A; Bateson, Melissa
The acute stress response functions to prioritize behavioural and physiological processes that maximize survival in the face of immediate threat. There is variation between individuals in the strength of the adult stress response that is of interest in both evolutionary biology and medicine. Age is an established source of this variation-stress responsiveness diminishes with increasing age in a range of species-but unexplained variation remains. Since individuals of the same chronological age may differ markedly in their pace of biological ageing, we asked whether biological age-measured here via erythrocyte telomere length-predicts variation in stress responsiveness in adult animals of the same chronological age. We studied two cohorts of European starlings in which we had previously manipulated the rate of biological ageing by experimentally altering the competition experienced by chicks in the fortnight following hatching. We predicted that individuals with greater developmental telomere attrition, and hence greater biological age, would show an attenuated corticosterone (CORT) response to an acute stressor when tested as adults. In both cohorts, we found that birds with greater developmental telomere attrition had lower peak CORT levels and a more negative change in CORT levels between 15 and 30 min following stress exposure. Our results, therefore, provide strong evidence that a measure of biological age explains individual variation in stress responsiveness: birds that were biologically older were less stress responsive. Our results provide a novel explanation for the phenomenon of developmental programming of the stress response: observed changes in stress physiology as a result of exposure to early-life adversity may reflect changes in ageing.
Lendvai, Adám Z; Chastel, Olivier
The central life-history trade-off between current and future reproductive effort seems to be mediated by corticosterone in birds. However, still little is known about how naturally occurring corticosterone levels during an acute stress may influence subsequent parental behavior. In this study we observed the parental behavior of free-living male house sparrows (Passer domesticus) both before and after they were subjected to a standard capture-handling stress. We investigated the relationships between corticosterone levels, pre- and post-stress parental behavior, while we statistically controlled for a number of other variables using a multivariate regression method, the path analysis. We found that males' baseline feeding rate predicted the body mass of the nestlings, indicating that male parental care is directly linked to fitness. Corticosterone levels were not explained by baseline feeding rate, but both baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels had a negative influence on the males' post-stress feeding behavior. Moreover, males with large bib size had a stronger stress response and lower post-stress feeding rate than small bibbed males. These results indicate that naturally occurring variation in baseline and stress-induced corticosterone levels may influence subsequent parental decisions: individuals mounting a robust stress response are likely to reduce their parental commitment. Parental effort may be regulated in a complex manner, with corticosterone mediating the life-history trade-off between current reproduction and survival. However, different resolutions of this trade-off were apparent only following the stress, therefore the ability to modulate the stress response and maintain parental care in stressful situations may be important in life-history evolution. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jan Christopher Cwik
Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.
Bergsma, Alexis L.; Senchuk, Megan M.; Van Raamsdonk, Jeremy M.
In this work, we examine the relationship between stress resistance and aging. We find that resistance to multiple types of stress peaks during early adulthood and then declines with age. To dissect the underlying mechanisms, we use C. elegans transcriptional reporter strains that measure the activation of different stress responses including: the heat shock response, mitochondrial unfolded protein response, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, hypoxia response, SKN-1-mediated oxidative stress response, and the DAF-16-mediated stress response. We find that the decline in stress resistance with age is at least partially due to a decreased ability to activate protective mechanisms in response to stress. In contrast, we find that any baseline increase in stress caused by the advancing age is too mild to detectably upregulate any of the stress response pathways. Further exploration of how worms respond to stress with increasing age revealed that the ability to mount a hormetic response to heat stress is also lost with increasing age. Overall, this work demonstrates that resistance to all types of stress declines with age. Based on our data, we speculate that the decrease in stress resistance with advancing age results from a genetically-programmed inactivation of stress response pathways, not accumulation of damage. PMID:27053445
Slattery, Marcia J; Grieve, Adam J; Ames, Michelle E; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J
Stress and associated alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function have deleterious influence on the development of multiple mental and physical health problems. Prior research has aimed to identify individuals most at risk for the development of these stress-related maladies by examining factors that may contribute to inter-individual differences in HPA responses to acute stress. The objectives of this study were to investigate, in adolescents, (1) whether differences in neurocognitive abilities influenced cortisol reactivity to an acute stressor, (2) whether internalizing psychiatric disorders influenced this relationship, and (3) whether acute cognitive stress-appraisal mechanisms mediated an association between neurocognitive function and cortisol reactivity. Subjects were 70 adolescents from a community sample who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments of IQ, achievement, and declarative memory measures at mean age 14 and whose physiological and behavioral responses to a standardized psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) were assessed at mean age 18. Results showed that, among all adolescents, lower nonverbal memory performance predicted lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, internalizing disorders interacted with verbal memory such that the association with cortisol reactivity was strongest for adolescents with internalizing disorders. Finally, lower secondary cognitive appraisal of coping in anticipation of the TSST independently predicted lower cortisol reactivity but did not mediate the neurocognitive-cortisol relationship. Findings suggest that declarative memory may contribute to inter-individual differences in acute cortisol reactivity in adolescents, internalizing disorders may influence this relationship, and cognitive stress appraisal also predicts cortisol reactivity. Developmental, research, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Traumatic injury/hemorrhagic shock (T/HS) elicits an acute inflammatory response that may result in death. Inflammation describes a coordinated series of molecular, cellular, tissue, organ, and systemic responses that drive the pathology of various diseases including T/HS and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Inflammation is a ...
Sensing Signal AI-2 Affects the Antibiotic-Treated Gut Microbiota " 11:30 am - 11:40 am Discussion 11:40 am - 12:05 pm Patricia Casino (University of...feedback collected from the meeting was extremely positive. Evaluations included numerous positive remarks regarding the diversity of speakers, the...00 pm Dinner 7:30 pm - 9:30 pm A Diversity in Bacterial Stress Responses Discussion Leader: Joan Slonczewski (Kenyon College, USA) 7:30 pm - 7:55
Angelier, Frédéric; Parenteau, Charline; Ruault, Stéphanie; Angelier, Nicole
In the context of global change, the physiological and hormonal stress responses have received much attention because of their implications in terms of allostasis. However, most studies have focused on glucocorticoids only as the "common" response to stressors while neglecting other endocrine axes and hormones (e.g. prolactin, thyroid hormones) that play a crucial role in metabolic adjustments. Interestingly, the responsiveness of all these endocrine axes to stress may depend on the energetic context and this context-dependent stress response has been overlooked so far. In the wild, temperature can vary to a large extent within a short time window and ambient temperature may affect these metabolic-related endocrine axes, and potentially, their responsiveness to an acute stressor. Here, we explicitly tested this hypothesis by examining the effect of a standardized stress protocol on multiple hormonal responses in the rock pigeon (Columbia livia). We tested the effect of an acute restraint stress on (1) corticosterone levels, (2) prolactin levels, and (3) thyroid hormone levels (triiodothyronine, thyroxine) in pigeons that were held either at cool temperature (experimental birds) or at room temperature (control birds) during the stress protocol. Although we found a significant influence of restraint stress on most hormone levels (corticosterone, prolactin, and thyroxine), triiodothyronine levels were not affected by the restraint stress. This demonstrates that stressors can have significant impact on multiple endocrine mechanisms. Importantly, all of these hormonal responses to stress were not affected by temperature, demonstrating that the exposure to cold temperature does not affect the way these hormone levels change in response to handling stress. This suggests that some endocrine responses to temperature decreases may be overridden by the endocrine responses to an acute restraint stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Edward J Narayan
Full Text Available Climatic warming is a global problem and acute thermal stressor in particular could be considered as a major stressor for wildlife. Cane toads (Rhinella marina have expanded their range into warmer regions of Australia and they provide a suitable model species to study the sub-lethal impacts of thermal stressor on the endocrine physiology of amphibians. Presently, there is no information to show that exposure to an acute thermal stressor could initiate a physiological stress (glucocorticoid response and secondly, the possible effects on reproductive hormones and performance. Answering these questions is important for understanding the impacts of extreme temperature on amphibians. In this study, we experimented on cane toads from Queensland, Australia by acclimating them to mildly warm temperature (25°C and then exposing to acute temperature treatments of 30°, 35° or 40°C (hypothetical acute thermal stressors. We measured acute changes in the stress hormone corticosterone and the reproductive hormone testosterone using standard capture and handling protocol and quantified the metabolites of both hormones non-invasively using urinary enzyme-immunoassays. Furthermore, we measured performance trait (i.e. righting response score in the control acclimated and the three treatment groups. Corticosterone stress responses increased in all toads during exposure to an acute thermal stressor. Furthermore, exposure to a thermal stressor also decreased testosterone levels in all toads. The duration of the righting response (seconds was longer for toads that were exposed to 40°C than to 30°, 35° or 25°C. The increased corticosterone stress response with increased intensity of the acute thermal stressor suggests that the toads perceived this treatment as a stressor. Furthermore, the results also highlight a potential trade-off with performance and reproductive hormones. Ultimately, exposure acute thermal stressors due to climatic variability could impact
The association between perceived emotional support, maternal mood, salivary cortisol, salivary cortisone, and the ratio between the two compounds in response to acute stress in second trimester pregnant women.
La Marca-Ghaemmaghami, Pearl; La Marca, Roberto; Dainese, Sara M; Haller, Marina; Zimmermann, Roland; Ehlert, Ulrike
Little is known about the effect of social support on the reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis during pregnancy. Moreover, when investigating the HPA axis most studies do not consider the activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 (11β-HSD2), an enzyme within the salivary glands that inactivates cortisol to cortisone. This study explores the association between perceived emotional support and the maternal psychobiological stress response to a standardized naturalistic stressor by assessing maternal mood and the reactivity of salivary cortisol (SalF), salivary cortisone (SalE), and the SalE/(E+F) ratio as a marker of 11β-HSD2 activity. Repeated saliva samples and measures of maternal mood were obtained from 34 healthy second trimester pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis which served as a psychological stressor. The pregnant women additionally responded to a questionnaire of perceived emotional support and provided sociodemographic (e.g., maternal educational degree) and pregnancy-specific data (e.g., planned versus unplanned pregnancy). Perceived emotional support neither showed a significant effect on mood nor on the SalF or SalE response to stress. However, a moderately strong positive association was found between perceived emotional support and SalE/(E+F) (r=.49). Additionally, the final regression analysis revealed a significant negative relationship between educational degree, planned/unplanned pregnancy and SalE/(E+F). Findings suggest a higher metabolization of cortisol to cortisone in pregnant women with higher emotional support. In contrast, higher maternal education and unplanned pregnancy appear to be associated with decreased salivary 11β-HSD2 activity. The current study emphasizes the importance of taking the activity of 11β-HSD2 into account when examining SalF. © 2013.
Jenny K. Ngo
Full Text Available The elimination of oxidatively modified proteins is a crucial process in maintaining cellular homeostasis, especially during stress. Mitochondria are protein-dense, high traffic compartments, whose polypeptides are constantly exposed to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive species, generated by ‘electron leakage’ from the respiratory chain. The level of oxidative stress to mitochondrial proteins is not constant, but instead varies greatly with numerous metabolic and environmental factors. Oxidized mitochondrial proteins must be removed rapidly (by proteolytic degradation or they will aggregate, cross-link, and cause toxicity. The Lon Protease is a key enzyme in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondrial matrix. Under conditions of acute stress Lon is highly inducible, possibly with the oxidant acting as the signal inducer, thereby providing increased protection. It seems that under chronic stress conditions, however, Lon levels actually decline. Lon levels also decline with age and with senescence, and senescent cells even lose the ability to induce Lon during acute stress. We propose that the regulation of Lon is biphasic, in that it is up-regulated during transient stress and down-regulated during chronic stress and aging, and we suggest that the loss of Lon responsiveness may be a significant factor in aging, and in age-related diseases.
Ngo, Jenny K; Pomatto, Laura C D; Davies, Kelvin J A
The elimination of oxidatively modified proteins is a crucial process in maintaining cellular homeostasis, especially during stress. Mitochondria are protein-dense, high traffic compartments, whose polypeptides are constantly exposed to superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and other reactive species, generated by 'electron leakage' from the respiratory chain. The level of oxidative stress to mitochondrial proteins is not constant, but instead varies greatly with numerous metabolic and environmental factors. Oxidized mitochondrial proteins must be removed rapidly (by proteolytic degradation) or they will aggregate, cross-link, and cause toxicity. The Lon Protease is a key enzyme in the degradation of oxidized proteins within the mitochondrial matrix. Under conditions of acute stress Lon is highly inducible, possibly with the oxidant acting as the signal inducer, thereby providing increased protection. It seems that under chronic stress conditions, however, Lon levels actually decline. Lon levels also decline with age and with senescence, and senescent cells even lose the ability to induce Lon during acute stress. We propose that the regulation of Lon is biphasic, in that it is up-regulated during transient stress and down-regulated during chronic stress and aging, and we suggest that the loss of Lon responsiveness may be a significant factor in aging, and in age-related diseases.
Wallengren, Joanna; Isaksson, Anders
Studies report that urticarial dermographism is exacerbated by "life events" and emotions. The aim of this study was to determine what aspects of life quality are affected by symptomatic dermographism and whether acute stress is a potential triggering factor. A total of 21 adult patients with urticarial dermographism completed a questionnaire on symptoms and quality of life. Twelve patients agreed to enrol in the study, which involved provocation by prick test and dermographism before and after a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test). Seventeen age-matched controls underwent corresponding tests. Of the patients answering the questionnaire, 43% reported that their disease had an impact on their quality of life and 33% that psychosocial stress precipitated the symptoms. However, the dermographic reaction in patients with urticaria factitia was not significantly intensified after the stress test. We conclude that the acute psychosocial stress test does not alter the magnitude of the dermographic reactions.
Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A
Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Collins, Brittany; Breithaupt, Lauren; McDowell, Jennifer E; Miller, L Stephen; Thompson, James; Fischer, Sarah
The impact of acute stress on the neural processing of food cues in bulimia nervosa (BN) is unknown, despite theory that acute stress decreases cognitive control over food and hence increases vulnerability to environmental triggers for binge eating. Thus, the goals of this manuscript were to explore the impact of acute stress on the neural processing of food cues in BN. In Study 1, 10 women with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association, 2013) BN and 10 healthy controls participated in an fMRI paradigm examining the neural correlates of visual food cue processing pre and post an acute stress induction. Whole brain analysis indicated that women with BN exhibited significant decreases in activation in the precuneus, associated with self-referential processing, the paracingulate gyrus, and the anterior vermis of the cerebellum. Healthy controls exhibited increased activation in these regions in response to food cues poststress. In Study 2, 17 women with DSM-5 BN or otherwise specified feeding and eating disorder with BN symptoms participated in the same paradigm. A region of interest analysis replicated findings from Study 1. Replication of imaging findings in 2 different samples suggests the potential importance of these regions in relation to BN. Decreased activation in the precuneus, specifically, is consistent with models of BN that posit that binge eating serves as a concrete distraction from aversive internal stimuli. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Panin, Francesca; Lintas, Alessandra; Diana, Marco
Stress is well known to affect responsiveness to drugs of abuse and influencing approaching and drug-taking behaviour in both animals and humans. Consistently, in nicotine addicted subjects both negative events and perceived stress levels are reported to increase drug use and facilitate relapse to smoke even after long periods of abstinence. It has been suggested that stressful stimuli may influence the rewarding properties of abused drugs by acting on the dopaminergic mesolimbic system. In line with this hypothesis, a recent microdialysis study in rats has shown that acute restraint stress exposure prevents the nicotine-induced mesolimbic dopaminergic activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAC) shell via a corticosterone-mediated mechanism. In the present study we sought to evaluate the impact of acute restraint stress on nicotine-induced activation of the mesoaccumbal dopaminergic system by extracellular single unit recordings of antidromically-identified NAC shell projecting dopaminergic neurons within the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Nicotine intravenous administration dose-dependently (0.05-0.4mg/kg) stimulated the spontaneous firing and bursting of mesoaccumbal dopaminergic neurons in unstressed rats, as previously reported. By contrast, nicotine failed to increase mesoaccumbal dopaminergic neuron activity in rats previously exposed to 1-h immobilisation stress. Our observations show that acute restraint stress inhibits the response of the mesoaccumbal dopaminergic system to the stimulating properties of nicotine. These findings corroborate the notion that stress reduces the sensitivity to nicotine and suggest that the decreased dopaminergic release in the NAC shell is due to a reduced firing and bursting activity in the VTA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.
Griesbach, Grace S; Tio, Delia L; Nair, Shyama; Hovda, David A
We have recently shown that there is a heightened stress response after a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) during the first 2 post-injury weeks. This corresponds to the same post-injury period when exercise does not increase brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and autonomic dysfunction becomes evident with exercise. Here we determined stress and autonomic responses to voluntary and forced exercise at a post-injury time window when exercise has been found to elicit beneficial effects. Rats underwent a mild fluid percussion injury and were exercised at post-injury days 28-32 and 35-39. Cardiac and temperature autonomic function were evaluated. Hippocampal tissue was obtained immediately after exercise for analysis of BDNF. In contrast to the sub-acute period, corticosterone and adrenocorticotropic hormone responses to exercise were normalized in the TBI group. Irrespective of injury, forced exercise markedly stimulated the corticotrophic axis and did not increase BDNF. BDNF levels were increased with voluntary exercise in all animals. Rats exposed to forced exercise had lower activity levels during periods of non-exercise. This effect was more pronounced in the TBI rats. Cardiac and temperature autonomic responses to delayed exercise also recuperated. Rats with TBI that underwent forced exercise, however, had higher core body temperatures during experimental manipulations, thus suggesting that exposure to a potent stressor facilitates responsiveness to environmental stimulations.
Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C. John; Blessing, L. Daniel; Oliver, D. Gretchen; Esco, R. Michael; Taylor, J. Kyle
CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%, Treadmill=−8%) and 2-HP (CF=−16%, TM=−1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™=−10%, Treadmill=−12%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=−12%, Treadmill=−6%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=−7%, Treadmill=−11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID:26557192
Full Text Available CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE, immediately-post-exercise (IPE, 1 hr-post (1-HP and 2 hr-post (2-HP, to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%,Treadmill=+115% and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%,Treadmill+167%. Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%, while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%,Treadmill=−8% and 2-HP (CF=−16%,TM=−1% compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%,Treadmill=+17%, 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%,Treadmill=+4.8%, 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%,Treadmill=+12%. Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™= −10%,Treadmill=−12%, 1-HP (CrossFit™= −12%,Treadmill=−6%, 2-HP (CrossFit™= −7%,Treadmill=−11%. No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.
Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C John; Blessing, L Daniel; Oliver, D Gretchen; Esco, R Michael; Taylor, J Kyle
CrossFit(™), a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit(™) bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit(™) experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit(™) and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-16%, Treadmill=-8%) and 2-HP (CF=-16%, TM=-1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit(™) and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit(™)=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit(™)=-10%, Treadmill=-12%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-12%, Treadmill=-6%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=-7%, Treadmill=-11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit(™) bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.
Mar 29, 2007 ... Stress can be broadly defined as any unfavourable condition. A given condition may or may not be stressful to an organism hence the stress response elicited by a given condition is dependent on the organism as well as the stressor. The stresses in general can be categorized into different groups.
Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Poulin, Michael; Andersen, Judith; Gil-Rivas, Virginia; McIntosh, Daniel N
The terrorist attacks of 9/11 (September 11, 2001) present an unusual opportunity to examine prospectively the physical health impact of extreme stress in a national sample. To examine the degree to which acute stress reactions to the 9/11 terrorist attacks predict cardiovascular outcomes in a national probability sample over the subsequent 3 years. A national probability sample of 2729 adults (78.1% participation rate), 95.0% of whom had completed a health survey before 9/11 (final health sample, 2592), completed a Web-based assessment of acute stress responses approximately 9 to 14 days after the terrorist attacks. Follow-up health surveys reassessed physician-diagnosed cardiovascular ailments 1 (n = 1923, 84.3% participation rate), 2 (n = 1576, 74.2% participation rate), and 3 (n = 1950, 78.9% participation rate) years following the attacks. Reports of physician-diagnosed cardiovascular ailments over the 3 years following the attacks. Acute stress responses to the 9/11 attacks were associated with a 53% increased incidence of cardiovascular ailments over the 3 subsequent years, even after adjusting for pre-9/11 cardiovascular and mental health status, degree of exposure to the attacks, cardiovascular risk factors (ie, smoking, body mass index, and number of endocrine ailments), total number of physical health ailments, somatization, and demographics. Individuals reporting high levels of acute stress immediately following the attacks reported an increased incidence of physician-diagnosed hypertension (rate ratios, 2.15 at 1 year and 1.75 at 2 years) and heart problems (rate ratios, 2.98 at 1 year and 3.12 at 2 years) over 2 years. Among individuals reporting ongoing worry about terrorism post-9/11, high 9/11-related acute stress symptoms predicted increased risk of physician-diagnosed heart problems 2 to 3 years following the attacks (rate ratios, 4.67 at 2 years and 3.22 at 3 years). Using health data collected before 9/11 as a baseline, acute stress response to
Markowitz, John C; Choo, Tse-Hwei; Neria, Yuval
The Psychotherapies for Chronic PTSD randomised trial found that three 14-week psychotherapies acutely benefitted patients with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research has reported sustained follow-up benefits for prolonged exposure (PE) and relaxation therapy (RT), but few comparable data exist for interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). We describe 3-month follow-up for acute responders to all 3 treatments. Acute responders, defined a priori as ≥30% improved from baseline, were reevaluated after 3-month no-treatment follow-up by independent evaluators using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Fifty of 110 initial study entrants met acute responder status at week 14. Forty-three (86%) responders entered follow-up: 23 remitters (CAPS ≤20) and 20 responders. At week 26, 27 had achieved remission status, 10 remained responders, and 6 had relapsed. Of week 14 remitters, 8 of 9 PE, all 8 IPT, and 4 of 6 RT patients remained remitted. Relapse rates were 7% (1/9) for PE, 10% (2/20) for IPT, and 33% (3/9) for RT. At week 26, PE showed greater improvement on CAPS than RT ( P = 0.048) and a trend for superiority over IPT ( P = 0.098), with no significant difference between IPT and RT. Depressive symptoms remained low during follow-up. These are the first systematic data on follow-up responder status and persistence of acute treatment benefits in patients receiving individual IPT for chronic PTSD. Patients generally maintained gains across treatments, fluctuating most in RT. Study limitations include small sample size and brief follow-up interval. PTSD research should employ response and remission criteria.
Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P
Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Belda, Xavier; Nadal, Roser; Armario, Antonio
Stress-induced sensitization represents a process whereby prior exposure to severe stressors leaves animals or humans in a hyper-responsive state to further stressors. Indeed, this phenomenon is assumed to be the basis of certain stress-associated pathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder and psychosis. One biological system particularly prone to sensitization is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the prototypic stress system. It is well established that under certain conditions, prior exposure of animals to acute and chronic (triggering) stressors enhances HPA responses to novel (heterotypic) stressors on subsequent days (e.g. raised plasma ACTH and corticosterone levels). However, such changes remain somewhat controversial and thus, the present study aimed to identify the critical characteristics of the triggering and challenging stressors that affect acute stress-induced HPA cross-sensitization in adult rats. We found that HPA cross-sensitization is markedly influenced by the intensity of the triggering stressor, whereas the length of exposure mainly affects its persistence. Importantly, HPA sensitization is more evident with mild than strong challenging stressors, and it may remain unnoticed if exposure to the challenging stressor is prolonged beyond 15 min. We speculate that heterotypic HPA sensitization might have developed to optimize biologically adaptive responses to further brief stressors. PMID:27511270
Alam, Catharina M; Silvander, Jonas S G; Daniel, Ebot N; Tao, Guo-Zhong; Kvarnström, Sofie M; Alam, Parvez; Omary, M Bishr; Hänninen, Arno; Toivola, Diana M
Keratin intermediate filament (IF) proteins are epithelial cell cytoskeletal components that provide structural stability and protection from cell stress, among other cellular and tissue-specific functions. Numerous human diseases are associated with IF gene mutations, but the function of keratins in the endocrine pancreas and their potential significance for glycaemic control are unknown. The impact of keratins on β-cell organisation and systemic glucose control was assessed using keratin 8 (K8) wild-type (K8(+/+)) and K8 knockout (K8(-/-)) mice. Islet β-cell keratins were characterised under basal conditions, in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. STZ-induced diabetes incidence and islet damage was assessed in K8(+/+) and K8(-/-) mice. K8 and K18 were the predominant keratins in islet β-cells and K8(-/-) mice expressed only remnant K18 and K7. K8 deletion resulted in lower fasting glucose levels, increased glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity, reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and decreased pancreatic insulin content. GLUT2 localisation and insulin vesicle morphology were disrupted in K8(-/-) β-cells. The increased levels of cytoplasmic GLUT2 correlated with resistance to high-dose STZ-induced injury in K8(-/-) mice. However, K8 deletion conferred no long-term protection from STZ-induced diabetes and prolonged STZ-induced stress caused increased exocrine damage in K8(-/-) mice. β-cell keratin upregulation occurred 2 weeks after treatments with low-dose STZ in K8(+/+) mice and in diabetic NOD mice, suggesting a role for keratins, particularly in non-acute islet stress responses. These results demonstrate previously unrecognised functions for keratins in β-cell intracellular organisation, as well as for systemic blood glucose control under basal conditions and in diabetes-induced stress.
Luo, Q B; Song, X Y; Ji, C L; Zhang, X Q; Zhang, D X
The process of heat regulation is complex and its exact molecular mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, to investigate the global gene regulation response to acute heat exposure, gene microarrays were exploited to analyze the effects of heat stress on three tissues (brain, liver, leg muscle) of the yellow broiler chicken (Gallus gallus). We detected 166 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the brain, 219 in the leg muscle and 317 in the liver. Six of these genes were differentially expressed in all three tissues and were validated by qRT-PCR, and included heat shock protein genes (HSPH1, HSP25), apoptosis-related genes (RB1CC1, BAG3), a cell proliferation and differentiation-related gene (ID1) and the hunger and energy metabolism related gene (PDK). All these genes might be important factors in chickens suffering from heat stress. We constructed gene co-expression networks using the DEGs of the brain, leg muscle and liver and two, four and two gene co-expression modules were identified in these tissues, respectively. Functional enrichment of these gene modules revealed that various functional clusters were related to the effects of heat stress, including those for cytoskeleton, extracellular space, ion binding and energy metabolism. We concluded that these genes and functional clusters might be important factors in chickens under acute heat stress. Further in-depth research on the newly discovered heat-related genes and functional clusters is required to fully understand their molecular functions in thermoregulation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina
), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts......, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may...... have been caused by exercise-induced hemolysis, which indicates that horses might experience a condition similar to athlete’s anemia in humans. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of the hematological and blood-biochemical changes elicited by acute exercise in Standardbred trotters...
Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul
Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.
Anger management style moderates effects of attention strategy during acute pain induction on physiological responses to subsequent mental stress and recovery: a comparison of chronic pain patients and healthy nonpatients.
Burns, John W; Quartana, Phillip J; Bruehl, Stephen
To examine whether high trait anger-out chronic low back (CLBP) patients would show exceptionally large symptom-specific lower paraspinal (LP) responses, compared with healthy nonpatients, during pain induction, a subsequent mental stressor, and recovery when they were urged to suppress awareness of pain and suffering. CLBP patients (n = 93) and nonpatients (n = 105) were assigned randomly to one of four attention strategy conditions for use during pain induction: sensory-focus, distraction, suppression, or control. All participants underwent a cold pressor, and then performed mental arithmetic. They completed the anger-out (AOS) and anger-in (AIS) subscales of the Anger Expression Inventory. General Linear Model procedures were used to test Attention Strategy Condition x Patient/Nonpatient Status x AOS (or AIS) x Period interactions for physiological indices. Significant interactions were found such that: a) high trait anger-out patients in the Suppression condition seemed to show the greatest LP reactivity during the mental arithmetic followed by the slowest recovery compared with other conditions; b) high trait anger-out patients and nonpatients in the Suppression condition seemed to show the slowest systolic blood pressure recoveries compared with other conditions. Results extend previous work by suggesting that an anger-out style moderates effects of how attention is allocated during pain on responses to and recovery from a subsequent mental stressor. Results provide further evidence that trait anger-out and trait anger-in among CLBP patients are associated with increased LP muscle tension during and after pain and mental stress.
Zimecki, Michał; Artym, Jolanta
Linkage between the central nervous system and the immune system is obvious and is accomplished through the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenal medullary (SAM) axes. This review focuses on the effects of psychic stress in animals and humans on immune system function. The effects of stress depend on its duration, type, and intensity. Generally, mild stress enhances the immune response. The effects of stress also depend on the animal's behavioral profile, genetic background and preexposure to stressful conditions. Prenatal stress modifies the immune response of the offspring. Stress also modifies autoimmune reactions in animals and humans. Knowledge of the mediators and their receptors involved in the functioning of the HPA and SAM axes allows pharmacological intervention to alleviate the harmful effects of stress on the immune system. Our studies revealed a benefit of oral lactoferrin application in reversing stress-induced changes in the humoral and cellular immune response in mice.
Sauerland, Melanie; Raymaekers, Linsey H.C.; Otgaar, Henry; Memon, Amina; Waltjen, Thijs T.; Nivo, Maud; Slegers, Chiel; Broers, Nick J; Smeets, Tom
Abstract In the eyewitness identification literature, stress and arousal at the time of encoding are considered to adversely influence identification performance. This assumption is in contrast with findings from the neurobiology field of learning and memory, showing that stress and stress hormones are critically involved in forming enduring memories. This discrepancy may be related to methodological differences between the two fields of research, such as the tendency for immediate testing or...
Herlihy, Anna E.; de Bruin, Robertus A.M.
During DNA replication many factors can result in DNA replication stress. The DNA replication stress checkpoint prevents the accumulation of replication stress-induced DNA damage and the potential ensuing genome instability. A critical role for post-translational modifications, such as phosphorylation, in the replication stress checkpoint response has been well established. However, recent work has revealed an important role for transcription in the cellular response to DNA replication stress. In this review, we will provide an overview of current knowledge of the cellular response to DNA replication stress with a specific focus on the DNA replication stress checkpoint transcriptional response and its role in the prevention of replication stress-induced DNA damage. PMID:28257104
Full Text Available Androgenic anabolic steroid, physical exercise and stress induce cardiovascular adaptations including increased endothelial function. The present study investigated the effects of these conditions alone and in combination on the vascular responses of male Wistar rats. Exercise was started at 8 weeks of life (60-min swimming sessions 5 days per week for 8 weeks, while carrying a 5% body-weight load. One group received nandrolone (5 mg/kg, twice per week for 8 weeks, im. Acute immobilization stress (2 h was induced immediately before the experimental protocol. Curves for noradrenaline were obtained for thoracic aorta, with and without endothelium from sedentary and trained rats, submitted or not to stress, treated or not with nandrolone. None of the procedures altered the vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in denuded aorta. In intact aorta, stress and exercise produced vascular adaptive responses characterized by endothelium-dependent hyporeactivity to noradrenaline. These conditions in combination did not potentiate the vascular adaptive response. Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone. In contrast, the aortal reactivity to noradrenaline of sedentary rats and the vascular adaptive response to stress of sedentary and trained rats were not affected by nandrolone. Maximum response for 7-10 rats/group (g: sedentary 3.8 ± 0.2 vs trained 3.0 ± 0.2*; sedentary/stress 2.7 ± 0.2 vs trained/stress 3.1 ± 0.1*; sedentary/nandrolone 3.6 ± 0.1 vs trained/nandrolone 3.8 ± 0.1; sedentary/stress/nandrolone 3.2 ± 0.1 vs trained/stress/nandrolone 2.5 ± 0.1*; *P < 0.05 compared to its respective control. Stress and physical exercise determine similar vascular adaptive response involving distinct mechanisms as indicated by the observation that only the physical exercise-induced adaptive response was abolished by nandrolone.
Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A
Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bacou, Elodie; Haurogné, Karine; Mignot, Grégoire; Allard, Marie; De Beaurepaire, Laurence; Marchand, Jordan; Terenina, Elena; Billon, Yvon; Jacques, Julien; Bach, Jean-Marie; Mormède, Pierre; Hervé, Julie; Lieubeau, Blandine
Pig husbandry is known as an intensive breeding system, piglets being submitted to multiple stressful events such as early weaning, successive mixing, crowding and shipping. These stressors are thought to impair immune defences and might contribute, at least partly, to the prophylactic use of antibiotics. Robustness was recently defined as the ability of an individual to express a high-production potential in a wide variety of environmental conditions. Increasing robustness thus appears as a valuable option to improve resilience to stressors and could be obtained by selecting piglets upon their adrenocortical activity. In this study, we aimed at depicting the consequences of an acute social stress on the immune capacity of piglets genetically selected upon divergent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. For this purpose, we monitored neuroendocrine and immune parameters, in high- (HPAhi) and low- (HPAlo) responders to ACTH, just before and immediately after a one-hour mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. As expected, stressed piglets displayed higher levels of circulating cortisol and norepinephrine. Blood cell count analysis combined to flow cytometry revealed a stress-induced leukocyte mobilization in the bloodstream with a specific recruitment of CD8α+ lymphocytes. Besides, one-hour mixing decreased LPS-induced IL-8 and TNFα secretions in whole-blood assays (WBA) and reduced mononuclear cell phagocytosis. Altogether, our data demonstrate that acute social stress alters immune competence of piglets from both groups, and bring new insights in favour of good farming practices. While for most parameters high- and low-responders to ACTH behaved similarly, HPAhi piglets displayed higher number of CD4+ CD8α- T cells, as well as increased cytokine production in WBA (LPS-induced TNFα and PIL-induced IL-8), which could confer them increased resistance to pathogens. Finally, a principal component analysis including all parameters highlighted that
Full Text Available Exposure to chronic stress is a leading pre-disposing factor for several neuropsychiatric disorders as it often leads to maladaptive responses. The response to stressful events is heterogeneous, underpinning a wide spectrum of distinct changes amongst stress-exposed individuals'. Several factors can underlie a different perception to stressors and the setting of distinct coping strategies that will lead to individual differences on the susceptibility/resistance to stress. Beyond the factors related to the stressor itself, such as intensity, duration or predictability, there are factors intrinsic to the individuals that are relevant to shape the stress response, such as age, sex and genetics. In this review, we examine the contribution of such intrinsic factors to the modulation of the stress response based on experimental rodent models of response to stress and discuss to what extent that knowledge can be potentially translated to humans.
Brouwer, S.J.M. de; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Sweep, F.C.; Donders, A.R.T.; Eijsbouts, A.; Koulil, S. van; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.
BACKGROUND: Stress management interventions may prove useful in preventing the detrimental effects of stress on health. This study assessed the effects of a stress management intervention on the psychophysiological response to stress in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Seventy-four
van der Vaart, H; Postma, DS; Timens, W; Ten Hacken, NHT
Compared with the effects of chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are few data on the acute effects of smoking. A review of the literature identified 123 studies investigating the acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation and oxidative stress in human,
Sijbrandij, Marit; Olff, Miranda; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; de Vries, Mirjam H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of brief cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from various types of psychological trauma. METHOD: The authors randomly assigned 143 patients with acute PTSD (irrespective
DYNAMICS OF GERMS RESPONSIBLE FOR ACUTE BACTERIAL MENINGITIS IN. BURKINA FASO IN THE LAST TEN YEARS (2005-2014). Absatou Ky-Ba1,*, Mahamoudou Sanou2,Juliette -Diallo Tranchot3, Paul A. Christiasen4, Abdoul Salam Ouedraogo3,. Mamadou Tamboura2, Dinanibé Kambiré2, Kalifa Ouattara5, ...
Ven, M.T.P. van de; Colier, W.N.J.M.; Kersten, B.T.P.; Oeseburg, B.; Folgering, H.T.M.
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of the cerebrovascular response (delta CBV/delta PaCO2) during baseline metabolic conditions and acute metabolic acidosis. METHODS: 15 healthy subjects, 5 m, 10 f, 56 +/- 10 yrs were investigated. For acidification, NH4Cl was given orally. CBV was measured using Near Infrared
Sep 3, 2017 ... valve(s) replacement were enrolled, from a single center hospital, after informed consent was obtained. ... Cite as: Gojo MKE, Prakaschandra R. Acute systemic inflammatory response after cardiac surgery in patients infected with human im- ... on the HIV disease profile in correlation with alterations.
Kalyani, Manu; Callahan, Phyllis; Janik, James M.; Shi, Haifei
There is a complex collection of neuroendocrine function during the postpartum period. Prolactin (PRL) released by suckling stimulus and its PRL receptors (PRL-R) in the central nervous system (CNS) are involved in hyporesponsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in lactating mammals including rodents and humans. It is not clear how long it takes to reestablish the attenuated HPA axis activity of lactating rats to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. We first tested the hypothesis that HPA axis activity in response to an acute stress in postpartum rats would return to a pre-pregnancy state after pup separation. Restraint stress for 30 min was performed at the end of pup separation as an acute stressor. Plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) were measured following restraint stress or no-stress (control) in virgin rats and postpartum rats housed with their pups or with pup removal for different periods of time of one hour, 24 h, or eight days. We then tested the hypothesis that circulating PRL level and CNS PRL-R gene expression were involved in mediating the acute stress response in postpartum rats. Plasma levels of PRL and PRL-R mRNA levels in the choroid plexus of the CNS were determined in both no-stress and stress, virgin rats, and postpartum rats housed with their pups or with pup removal for various periods, and their correlation with plasma CORT levels was assessed. The results demonstrated that PRL levels declined to virgin state in all postpartum rats separated from their pups, including the dams with one-hour pup separation. Stress-induced HPA activity dampened in lactating rats housed with pups, and returned to the pre-pregnancy state after 24 h of pup separation when both circulating PRL level and CNS PRL-R expression were restored to a pre-pregnancy state. Additionally, basal plasma CORT and CNS PRL-R expression were significantly correlated in rats with various pup status. This study suggested that stress-induced HPA
This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...
Leah R Brooks
Full Text Available Functionally heterogeneous populations of serotonergic neurons, located within the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, play a role in stress-related behaviors and neuropsychiatric illnesses such as anxiety and depression. Abnormal development of these neurons may permanently alter their structure and connections, making the organism more susceptible to anxiety-related disorders. A factor that critically regulates the development of serotonergic neurons is fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8. In this study, we used acute restraint stress followed by behavioral testing to examine whether Fgf8 signaling during development is important for establishing functional stress- and anxiety-related DR neurocircuits in adulthood. Wild-type and heterozygous male mice globally hypomorphic for Fgf8 were exposed to acute restraint stress and then tested for anxiety-like behavior on the elevated plus-maze. Further, we measured c-Fos immunostaining as a marker of serotonergic neuronal activation and tissue 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid concentrations as a marker of serotonin functional output. Results showed that Fgf8 hypomorphs exhibited 1 an exaggerated response of DR anxiety-promoting circuits and 2 a blunted response of a DR panic-inhibiting circuit to stress, effects that together were associated with increased baseline anxiety-like behavior. Overall, our results provide a neural substrate upon which Fgf8 deficiency could affect stress response and support the hypothesis that developmental disruptions of serotonergic neurons affect their postnatal functional integrity.
Brace, Lear E; Vose, Sarah C; Stanya, Kristopher; Gathungu, Rose M; Marur, Vasant R; Longchamp, Alban; Treviño-Villarreal, Humberto; Mejia, Pedro; Vargas, Dorathy; Inouye, Karen; Bronson, Roderick T; Lee, Chih-Hao; Neilan, Edward; Kristal, Bruce S; Mitchell, James R
Accumulation of DNA damage is intricately linked to aging, aging-related diseases and progeroid syndromes such as Cockayne syndrome (CS). Free radicals from endogenous oxidative energy metabolism can damage DNA, however the potential of acute or chronic DNA damage to modulate cellular and/or organismal energy metabolism remains largely unexplored. We modeled chronic endogenous genotoxic stress using a DNA repair-deficient Csa -/- |Xpa -/- mouse model of CS. Exogenous genotoxic stress was modeled in mice in vivo and primary cells in vitro treated with different genotoxins giving rise to diverse spectrums of lesions, including ultraviolet radiation, intrastrand crosslinking agents and ionizing radiation. Both chronic endogenous and acute exogenous genotoxic stress increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) on the organismal level, manifested by increased oxygen consumption, reduced respiratory exchange ratio, progressive adipose loss and increased FAO in tissues ex vivo . In multiple primary cell types, the metabolic response to different genotoxins manifested as a cell-autonomous increase in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) subsequent to a transient decline in steady-state NAD+ and ATP levels, and required the DNA damage sensor PARP-1 and energy-sensing kinase AMPK. We conclude that increased FAO/OXPHOS is a general, beneficial, adaptive response to DNA damage on cellular and organismal levels, illustrating a fundamental link between genotoxic stress and energy metabolism driven by the energetic cost of DNA damage. Our study points to therapeutic opportunities to mitigate detrimental effects of DNA damage on primary cells in the context of radio/chemotherapy or progeroid syndromes.
Giurgescu, Carmen; Kavanaugh, Karen; Norr, Kathleen F.; Dancy, Barbara L.; Twigg, Naomi; McFarlin, Barbara L.; Engeland, Christopher G.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; White-Traut, Rosemary C.
This research aimed to develop an initial understanding of the stressors, stress responses, and personal resources that impact African American women during pregnancy, potentially leading to preterm birth. Guided by the ecological model, a prospective, mixed-methods, complementarity design was used with 11 pregnant women and 8 of their significant others. Our integrated analysis of quantitative and qualitative data revealed 2 types of stress responses: high stress responses (7 women) and low stress responses (4 women). Patterns of stress responses were seen in psychological stress and cervical remodeling (attenuation or cervical length). All women in the high stress responses group had high depression and/or low psychological well-being and abnormal cervical remodeling at one or both data collection times. All but 1 woman had at least 3 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network). In contrast, 3 of the 4 women in the low stress responses group had only 2 sources of stress (racial, neighborhood, financial, or network) and 1 had none; these women also reported higher perceived support. The findings demonstrate the importance of periodically assessing stress in African American women during pregnancy, particularly related to their support network as well as the positive supports they receive. PMID:23360946
This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharamyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 ± 0.2 kg BW) were obtained and transported to an environment...
DeRidder, Benjamin P; Crafts-Brandner, Steven J
Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to postemergent 13-day-old cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. Coker 100A-glandless) seedlings. Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. For some chilled plants, the soil temperature was maintained at control level. Plant growth, water relations and net photosynthesis (P(n)) were analyzed after one or three chilling cycles and after 3 days of recovery. Three chilling cycles led to lower relative growth rate (RGR) compared with controls during the recovery period, especially for plants with chilled shoots and roots. Treatment differences in RGR were associated with net assimilation rate rather than specific leaf area. Both chilling treatments led to loss of leaf turgor during the night-to-day transition; this effect was greater for plants with chilled compared with warm roots. Chilling-induced water stress was associated with accumulation of the osmolyte glycine betaine to the same extent for both chilling treatments. Inhibition of P(n) during chilling was related to both stomatal and non-stomatal effects. P(n) fully recovered after seedlings were returned to control conditions for 3 days. We conclude that leaf expansion during the night-to-day transition was a significant factor determining the magnitude of the chilling response of postemergent cotton seedlings.
Full Text Available Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses.
Banis, Stella; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.
Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses. PMID:24755943
Verschoor, Ellen; Markus, C Rob
Enhanced stress vulnerability has been implicated in the pathogenesis of affective disorders. Although both genetic (5-HTTLPR) and cognitive (neuroticism) factors are known to increase stress vulnerability, no experimental study has investigated the interaction between these two factors on psychobiological reactivity following acute stress exposure. This study used a balanced experimental design to examine the interaction between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and trait neuroticism in neuroendocrine and affective stress responses. From a large group of 771 students, 48 carriers of the short/short (S/S) allele and 48 carriers of the long/long (L/L) allele with the lowest and the highest neuroticism scores (77 females, 19 males; mean age ± SD: 20.6 ± 2 years) were selected and exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor. Mood was assessed before and after the stressor, and salivary cortisol concentrations were measured before and at 20, 30, and 60 min after stressor onset. Acute stress increased salivary cortisol concentration regardless of either 5-HTTLPR genotype or neuroticism, but it caused a less profound negative mood change in L/L compared to S/S-allele carriers with the lowest neuroticism scores. The 5-HTTLPR genotype influences affective reactivity to acute stress conditional upon neuroticism, improving resilience to acute stress in L/L-allele carriers if they do not already possess high cognitive-affective (neuroticism) vulnerability.
Debusschere, Elisabeth; Hostens, Kris; Adriaens, Dominique; Ampe, Bart; Botteldooren, Dick; De Boeck, Gudrun; De Muynck, Amelie; Sinha, Amit Kumar; Vandendriessche, Sofie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Vincx, Magda; Degraer, Steven
Underwater sound generated by pile driving during construction of offshore wind farms is a major concern in many countries. This paper reports on the acoustic stress responses in young European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax (68 and 115 days old), based on four in situ experiments as close as 45 m from a pile driving activity. As a primary stress response, whole-body cortisol seemed to be too sensitive to 'handling' bias. On the other hand, measured secondary stress responses to pile driving showed significant reductions in oxygen consumption rate and low whole-body lactate concentrations. Furthermore, repeated exposure to impulsive sound significantly affected both primary and secondary stress responses. Under laboratory conditions, no tertiary stress responses (no changes in specific growth rate or Fulton's condition factor) were noted in young sea bass 30 days after the treatment. Still, the demonstrated acute stress responses and potentially repeated exposure to impulsive sound in the field will inevitably lead to less fit fish in the wild. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hougaard, Anders; Tfelt-Hansen, Peer
INTRODUCTION: Dose-response curves for efficacy and tolerability are the important determinants for the choice of doses of acute migraine drugs. Areas covered: Dose-response curves for the efficacy of seven triptans (5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists), a 5-HT1F receptor agonist (lasmiditan) and four or......, there are many unmet needs. Although upcoming drugs may not be superior to triptans, migraine patients will potentially benefit greatly from these, especially patients who are triptan non-responders and patients with cardiovascular disease.......INTRODUCTION: Dose-response curves for efficacy and tolerability are the important determinants for the choice of doses of acute migraine drugs. Areas covered: Dose-response curves for the efficacy of seven triptans (5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists), a 5-HT1F receptor agonist (lasmiditan) and four oral......, whereas AEs often increase with increasing doses. The two other groups of drugs also have flat dose-response curves for efficacy. Overall, the triptans still have the most favorable efficacy-tolerability profile. Current acute antimigraine drugs do not fulfill the expectations of the patients, and thus...
Carlisle, McKenzie; Uchino, Bert N; Sanbonmatsu, David M; Smith, Timothy W; Cribbet, Matthew R; Birmingham, Wendy; Light, Kathleen C; Vaughn, Allison A
The quality of one's personal relationships has been reliably linked to important physical health outcomes, perhaps through the mechanism of physiological stress responses. Most studies of this mechanism have focused on whether more conscious interpersonal transactions influence cardiovascular reactivity. However, whether such relationships can be automatically activated in memory to influence physiological processes has not been determined. The primary aims of this study were to examine whether subliminal activation of relationships could influence health-relevant physiological processes and to examine this question in the context of a more general relationship model that incorporates both positive and negative dimensions. We randomly assigned participants to be subliminally primed with existing relationships that varied in their underlying positivity and negativity (i.e., indifferent, supportive, aversive, ambivalent). They then performed acute psychological stressors while cardiovascular and self-report measures were assessed. Priming negative relationships was associated with greater threat, lower feelings of control, and higher diastolic blood pressure reactivity during stress. Moreover, priming relationships high in positivity and negativity (ambivalent ties) was associated with the highest heart rate reactivity and greatest respiratory sinus arrhythmia decreases during stress. Exploratory analyses during the priming task itself suggested that the effects of negative primes on biological measures were prevalent across tasks, whereas the links to ambivalent ties was specific to the subsequent stressor task. These data highlight novel mechanisms by which social ties may impact cardiovascular health, and further suggest the importance of incorporating both positivity and negativity in the study of relationships and physical health.
Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R
A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The
Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.
We investigated the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing, employing a monetary incentive delay task in combination with EEG. Females participated during late follicular and late luteal phases, performing in both control and stress conditions. We
J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); F. Verhage; J. Passchier (Jan)
textabstractWe evaluated whether the emotional reactions of women at 2–6 weeks after the prenatal diagnosis of a lethal anomaly and at 3 months after perinatal loss might be predicted by previous stress and acute psychological defence reactions to the diagnosis. Previous stress was defined
Visser, E.; Gosens, T.; den Oudsten, B.L.; de Vries, J.
Background: Trauma patients suffer from acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unknown how these disorders develop over time and when treatment is effective. Our aim was to systematically review (1) the course and predictors of ASD and PTSD after trauma and
Sehitoglu, H.; Gall, K. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States)
It has been determined that the transformation stress-strain behavior of CuZnAl and NiTi shape memory alloys is dependent on the applied stress state. The uniaxial compressive stress necessary to macroscopically trigger the transformation is approximately 34% (CuZnAl) and 26% (NiTi) larger than the required uniaxial tensile stress. For three dimensional stress states, the response of either alloy system is dependent on the directions of the dominant principal stresses along with the hydrostatic stress component of the stress state. The stress state effects are dominated by the favored growth and nucleation of more martensite plates in tension versus compression. The effect of different hydrostatic pressure levels between stress states on martensite plates volume change is considered small.
Rodrigues, S., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Correia, A.T. [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Fernando Pessoa (FCS-UFP), Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, 4200–150, Porto (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal)
Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by
Barber, Beth A; Kohl, Krista L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I
A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N = 479) between the ages of 8-17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and 1 month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery.
McKinnon, A; Brewer, N; Meiser-Stedman, R; Nixon, R D V
The present study addresses gaps in knowledge regarding the association between trauma memory processes and posttraumatic stress responses in youth. Our primary goal was to explore the relative contribution of perceptions of trauma memory quality versus narrative trauma memory characteristics to explain overall adjustment. Children (N = 67) were interviewed within four weeks (T1) of an injury leading to hospital treatment and then again eight weeks later (T2). In each interview, the child told a trauma narrative (which were later coded), and answered the Trauma Memory Quality Questionnaire (Meiser-Stedman, Smith, Yule, & Dalgleish, 2007a), a self-report measure indexing the sensory, fragmented, and disorganised characteristics of trauma memory. They then completed measures of Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T1 and measures of Posttraumatic Stress (PTS) symptoms and associated psychopathology at T2. Self-reported trauma memory characteristics predicted ASD symptoms cross-sectionally at T1 and PTS symptoms prospectively over time. At both time points, self-reported trauma memory characteristics accounted for all of the unique variance in symptoms initially explained by narrative characteristics. A reduction in self-report ratings, but not the hypothesised narrative features (e.g., disorganised or lexical elements of the narrative), significantly predicted a reduction in PTS symptoms over time. The small sample size and the absence of a within-subjects narrative control were the main limitations of the study. These findings underscore the importance of self-reported trauma memory characteristics to the aetiology of PTSD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Beesley, Sarah J; Hopkins, Ramona O; Holt-Lunstad, Julianne; Wilson, Emily L; Butler, Jorie; Kuttler, Kathryn G; Orme, James; Brown, Samuel M; Hirshberg, Eliotte L
The ICU is a complex and stressful environment and is associated with significant psychologic morbidity for patients and their families. We sought to determine whether salivary cortisol, a physiologic measure of acute stress, was associated with subsequent psychologic distress among family members of ICU patients. This is a prospective, observational study of family members of adult ICU patients. Adult medical and surgical ICU in a tertiary care center. Family members of ICU patients. Participants provided five salivary cortisol samples over 24 hours at the time of the patient ICU admission. The primary measure of cortisol was the area under the curve from ground; the secondary measure was the cortisol awakening response. Outcomes were obtained during a 3-month follow-up telephone call. The primary outcome was anxiety, measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety. Secondary outcomes included depression and posttraumatic stress disorder. Among 100 participants, 92 completed follow-up. Twenty-nine participants (32%) reported symptoms of anxiety at 3 months, 15 participants (16%) reported depression symptoms, and 14 participants (15%) reported posttraumatic stress symptoms. In our primary analysis, cortisol level as measured by area under the curve from ground was not significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 0.94; p = 0.70). In our secondary analysis, however, cortisol awakening response was significantly associated with anxiety (odds ratio, 1.08; p = 0.02). Roughly one third of family members experience anxiety after an ICU admission for their loved one, and many family members also experience depression and posttraumatic stress. Cortisol awakening response is associated with anxiety in family members of ICU patients 3 months following the ICU admission. Physiologic measurements of stress among ICU family members may help identify individuals at particular risk of adverse psychologic outcomes.This is an open-access article distributed under
Cold stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting the productivity and the geographical distribution of many important crops. To gain a better understanding of cold stress responses in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), we carried out a comparative proteomic analysis. Five-week-old tobacco seedlings were treated at 4°C ...
Full Text Available We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ.
Höglund, Erik; Øverli, Øyvind; Andersson, Madelene Å; Silva, Patricia; Laursen, Danielle Caroline; Moltesen, Maria M; Krogdahl, Åshild; Schjolden, Joachim; Winberg, Svante; Vindas, Marco A; Mayer, Ian; Hillestad, Marie
Comparative models suggest that effects of dietary tryptophan (Trp) on brain serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) neurochemistry and stress responsiveness are present throughout the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, hypothalamic 5-HT seems to play a central role in control of the neuroendocrine stress axis in all vertebrates. Still, recent fish studies suggest long-term effects of dietary Trp on stress responsiveness, which are independent of hypothalamic 5-HT. Here, we investigated if dietary Trp treatment may result in long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness, including changes in plasma cortisol levels and 5-HT neurochemistry in the telencephalon and hypothalamus of Atlantic salmon. Fish were fed diets containing one, two or three times the Trp content in normal feed for 1 week. Subsequently, fish were reintroduced to control feed and were exposed to acute crowding stress for 1 h, 8 and 21 d post Trp treatment. Generally, acute crowding resulted in lower plasma cortisol levels in fish treated with 3×Trp compared with 1×Trp- and 2×Trp-treated fish. The same general pattern was reflected in telencephalic 5-HTergic turnover, for which 3×Trp-treated fish showed decreased values compared with 2×Trp-treated fish. These long-term effects on post-stress plasma cortisol levels and concomitant 5-HT turnover in the telencephalon lends further support to the fact that the extrahypothalamic control of the neuroendocrine stress response is conserved within the vertebrate lineage. Moreover, they indicate that trophic/structural effects in the brain underlie the effects of dietary Trp treatment on stress reactivity.