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Sample records for acute stress alters

  1. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

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    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  2. Acute stress alters auditory selective attention in humans independent of HPA: a study of evoked potentials.

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    Ludger Elling

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM. However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such "paracorticoidal" stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd and mismatch negativity (MMN were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occurring 4-7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8-11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence

  3. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress

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    Kelly M. Moench

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies.

  4. Acute exposure to pure cylindrospermopsin results in oxidative stress and pathological alterations in tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus).

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    Puerto, María; Jos, Angeles; Pichardo, Silvia; Moyano, Rosario; Blanco, Alfonso; Cameán, Ana M

    2014-04-01

    Cylindrospermopsin (CYN) is increasingly recognized as a potential threat to drinking water safety, due to its ubiquity. This cyanotoxin has been found to cause toxic effects in mammals, and although fish could be in contact with this toxin, acute toxicity studies on fish are nonexistent. This is the first study showing that single doses of CYN pure standard (200 or 400 μg CYN/kg fish bw) by oral route (gavage) generate histopathological effects in fish (Tilapia-Oreochromis niloticus) exposed to the toxin under laboratory condition. Among the morphological changes, disorganized parenchymal architecture in the liver, dilated Bowman's space in the kidney, fibrolysis in the heart, necrotic enteritis in the intestines, and hemorrhages in the gills, were observed. Moreover, some oxidative stress biomarkers in the liver and kidney of tilapias were altered. Thus, CYN exposure induced increased protein oxidation products in both organs, NADPH oxidase activity was significantly increased with the kidney being the most affected organ, and decreased GSH contents were also detected in both organs, at the higher dose assayed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Mitochondrial Alterations and Oxidative Stress in an Acute Transient Mouse Model of Muscle Degeneration

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    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda Srinivas

    2014-01-01

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases. PMID:24220031

  6. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis.

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    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on the brain which altered by noise stress. Abbreviations used: EEG

  7. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

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    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  8. Acute Restraint Stress Alters Wheel-Running Behavior Immediately Following Stress and up to 20 Hours Later in House Mice.

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    Malisch, Jessica L; deWolski, Karen; Meek, Thomas H; Acosta, Wendy; Middleton, Kevin M; Crino, Ondi L; Garland, Theodore

    In vertebrates, acute stressors-although short in duration-can influence physiology and behavior over a longer time course, which might have important ramifications under natural conditions. In laboratory rats, for example, acute stress has been shown to increase anxiogenic behaviors for days after a stressor. In this study, we quantified voluntary wheel-running behavior for 22 h following a restraint stress and glucocorticoid levels 24 h postrestraint. We utilized mice from four replicate lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running activity (HR mice) for 60 generations and their nonselected control (C) lines to examine potential interactions between exercise propensity and sensitivity to stress. Following 6 d of wheel access on a 12L∶12D photo cycle (0700-1900 hours, as during the routine selective breeding protocol), 80 mice were physically restrained for 40 min, beginning at 1400 hours, while another 80 were left undisturbed. Relative to unrestrained mice, wheel running increased for both HR and C mice during the first hour postrestraint (P Wheel running was also examined at four distinct phases of the photoperiod. Running in the period of 1600-1840 hours was unaffected by restraint stress and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. During the period of peak wheel running (1920-0140 hours), restrained mice tended to run fewer revolutions (-11%; two-tailed P = 0.0733), while HR mice ran 473% more than C (P = 0.0008), with no restraint × line type interaction. Wheel running declined for all mice in the latter part of the scotophase (0140-0600 hours), restraint had no statistical effect on wheel running, but HR again ran more than C (+467%; P = 0.0122). Finally, during the start of the photophase (0720-1200 hours), restraint increased running by an average of 53% (P = 0.0443) in both line types, but HR and C mice did not differ statistically. Mice from HR lines had statistically higher plasma corticosterone concentrations

  9. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

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    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  10. Immune function in acute stress.

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    Segal, A B; Bruno, S; Forte, W C N

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate immune function in acute stress in medical students before academic examinations. Twenty-five medical students were selected because they presented intense acute stress, evaluated by the presence of the following classic signs: cold hands, intense sudoresis in the extremities, generalized sudoresis, paleness, tachycardia, confused reasoning, nervous irritability, diarrhea, and sleep disorders in the hours preceding the examination (agitated sleep, insomnia). Immediately before the examination, peripheral blood was collected from the 25 students presenting acute stress to analyze T and B cells, CD4+ and CD8+ cells, immunoglobulins, and C3 and C4 complement components, as well as phagocytic activity in neutrophils and monocytes. These investigations were repeated in the same students in situations free of acute stress. The results of the two samples collected from each student were compared. The means and standard deviations showed no significant differences for any of the parameters analyzed (p> or =0.01). We conclude that acute stress did not cause changes in the lymphocyte subpopulations, phagocytic activity of neutrophils and monocytes, serum immunoglobulins, or C3 and C4 complement components in students participating in the present study. In conditions of basal chronic stress, acute stress may cause alterations in immune function.

  11. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

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    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, a...

  12. Hypothyroidism minimizes the effects of acute hepatic failure caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and redox environment alterations in rats.

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    Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Martinez-Perez, Yoalli; Lezama-Palacios, Ruth; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a protective effect from hypothyroidism in acute liver failure resulted from reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in four groups: (1) euthyroid (sham surgery), (2) hypothyroid, (3) euthyroid (sham surgery)+thioacetamide and (4) hypothyroid+thioacetamide. Hypothyroidism was confirmed two weeks after thyroidectomy, and thioacetamide (TAA) (400mg/kg, ip) was administrated to the appropriate groups for three days with supportive therapy. Grades of encephalopathy in all animals were determined using behavioral tests. Animals were decapitated and their blood was obtained to assess liver function. The liver was dissected: the left lobe was used for histology and the right lobe was frozen for biochemical assays. Body weight, rectal temperature and T4 concentration were lower in hypothyroid groups. When measurements of oxidative stress markers, redox environment, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined, we observed that hypothyroid animals with TAA compensated better with oxidative damage than euthyroid animals treated with TAA. Furthermore, we measured reduced expressions of GADD34, caspase-12 and GRP78 and subsequently less hypothyroidism-induced cellular damage in hypothyroid animals. We conclude that hypothyroidism protects against hepatic damage caused by TAA because it reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in Oncorhynchus mykiss liver after an acute exposure: assessment of oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histological alterations

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    Ana Cristina Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NP have numerous applications ranging from industry to the household, leading to its wide distribution namely in the aquatic environment. The hereby study aimed to assess the toxic effects of CeO2 NPs in Oncorhynchus mykiss liver following an acute exposure (96h to three different concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 25 mg/L in terms of the genotoxicity (comet assay, oxidative stress response (Catalase CAT; Glutathione S-Transferases GSTs; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances TBARS and histopathology. CeO2 NP exposure resulted in genotoxic damage in all exposure treatments, inhibition of CAT in the highest concentration and histopathological changes in all exposure concentrations with predominance of progressive and circulatory alterations. However TBARS and GSTs showed no significant differences comparatively to the control (unexposed group. The results suggest that CeO2 NP are able to cause genotoxicity, biochemical impairment and histological alterations in the liver of rainbow trout.

  14. Mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress in an acute transient mouse model of muscle degeneration: implications for muscular dystrophy and related muscle pathologies.

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    Ramadasan-Nair, Renjini; Gayathri, Narayanappa; Mishra, Sudha; Sunitha, Balaraju; Mythri, Rajeswara Babu; Nalini, Atchayaram; Subbannayya, Yashwanth; Harsha, Hindalahalli Chandregowda; Kolthur-Seetharam, Ullas; Srinivas Bharath, Muchukunte Mukunda

    2014-01-03

    Muscular dystrophies (MDs) and inflammatory myopathies (IMs) are debilitating skeletal muscle disorders characterized by common pathological events including myodegeneration and inflammation. However, an experimental model representing both muscle pathologies and displaying most of the distinctive markers has not been characterized. We investigated the cardiotoxin (CTX)-mediated transient acute mouse model of muscle degeneration and compared the cardinal features with human MDs and IMs. The CTX model displayed degeneration, apoptosis, inflammation, loss of sarcolemmal complexes, sarcolemmal disruption, and ultrastructural changes characteristic of human MDs and IMs. Cell death caused by CTX involved calcium influx and mitochondrial damage both in murine C2C12 muscle cells and in mice. Mitochondrial proteomic analysis at the initial phase of degeneration in the model detected lowered expression of 80 mitochondrial proteins including subunits of respiratory complexes, ATP machinery, fatty acid metabolism, and Krebs cycle, which further decreased in expression during the peak degenerative phase. The mass spectrometry (MS) data were supported by enzyme assays, Western blot, and histochemistry. The CTX model also displayed markers of oxidative stress and a lowered glutathione reduced/oxidized ratio (GSH/GSSG) similar to MDs, human myopathies, and neurogenic atrophies. MS analysis identified 6 unique oxidized proteins from Duchenne muscular dystrophy samples (n = 6) (versus controls; n = 6), including two mitochondrial proteins. Interestingly, these mitochondrial proteins were down-regulated in the CTX model thereby linking oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. We conclude that mitochondrial alterations and oxidative damage significantly contribute to CTX-mediated muscle pathology with implications for human muscle diseases.

  15. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

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    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  16. [Epigenetic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

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    Navarrete-Meneses, María Del Pilar; Pérez-Vera, Patricia

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. It is well-known that genetic alterations constitute the basis for the etiology of ALL. However, genetic abnormalities are not enough for the complete development of the disease, and additional alterations such as epigenetic modifications are required. Such alterations, like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA regulation have been identified in ALL. DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions is one of the most frequent epigenetic modifications observed in ALL. This modification frequently leads to gene silencing in tumor suppressor genes, and in consequence, contributes to leukemogenesis. Alterations in histone remodeling proteins have also been detected in ALL, such as the overexpression of histone deacetylases enzymes, and alteration of acetyltransferases and methyltransferases. ALL also shows alteration in the expression of miRNAs, and in consequence, the modification in the expression of their target genes. All of these epigenetic modifications are key events in the malignant transformation since they lead to the deregulation of oncogenes as BLK, WNT5B and WISP1, and tumor suppressors such as FHIT, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and TP53, which alter fundamental cellular processes and potentially lead to the development of ALL. Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the development and evolution of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute stress affects prospective memory functions via associative memory processes.

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    Szőllősi, Ágnes; Pajkossy, Péter; Demeter, Gyula; Kéri, Szabolcs; Racsmány, Mihály

    2018-01-01

    Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions. According to our results, acute stress had no impact on ongoing task performance, time-based PM, and verbal fluency, whereas it enhanced event-based PM as measured by response speed for the prospective cues. Our findings indicate that, here, acute stress did not affect executive control processes. We suggest that stress affected event-based PM via associative memory processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the ...

  19. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

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    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  20. Acute stress does not affect risky monetary decision-making

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    Peter Sokol-Hessner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.

  1. Chronic social stress leads to altered sleep homeostasis in mice.

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    Olini, Nadja; Rothfuchs, Iru; Azzinnari, Damiano; Pryce, Christopher R; Kurth, Salome; Huber, Reto

    2017-06-01

    Disturbed sleep and altered sleep homeostasis are core features of many psychiatric disorders such as depression. Chronic uncontrollable stress is considered an important factor in the development of depression, but little is known on how chronic stress affects sleep regulation and sleep homeostasis. We therefore examined the effects of chronic social stress (CSS) on sleep regulation in mice. Adult male C57BL/6 mice were implanted for electrocortical recordings (ECoG) and underwent either a 10-day CSS protocol or control handling (CON). Subsequently, ECoG was assessed across a 24-h post-stress baseline, followed by a 4-h sleep deprivation, and then a 20-h recovery period. After sleep deprivation, CSS mice showed a blunted increase in sleep pressure compared to CON mice, as measured using slow wave activity (SWA, electroencephalographic power between 1-4Hz) during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Vigilance states did not differ between CSS and CON mice during post-stress baseline, sleep deprivation or recovery, with the exception of CSS mice exhibiting increased REM sleep during recovery sleep. Behavior during sleep deprivation was not affected by CSS. Our data provide evidence that CSS alters the homeostatic regulation of sleep SWA in mice. In contrast to acute social stress, which results in a faster SWA build-up, CSS decelerates the homeostatic build up. These findings are discussed in relation to the causal contribution of stress-induced sleep disturbance to depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Aging induced ER stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis

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    Brown, Marishka K.; Chan, May T.; Zimmerman, John E.; Pack, Allan I.; Jackson, Nicholas E.; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). The effectiveness of the adaptive UPR is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of x-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α (p-eIF2α), in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged/sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep/ sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  3. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

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    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The Degree of Radiation-Induced DNA Strand Breaks Is Altered by Acute Sleep Deprivation and Psychological Stress and Is Associated with Cognitive Performance in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; von Scheven, Gudrun; Feiveson, Alan; Bürkle, Alexander; Wu, Honglu; Goel, Namni

    2018-03-27

    Sleep deprivation is associated with impaired immune responses, cancer, and morbidity and mortality, and can degrade cognitive performance, although individual differences exist in such responses. Sleep deprivation induces DNA strand breaks and DNA base oxidation in animals, and psychological stress is associated with increased DNA damage in humans. It remains unknown whether sleep deprivation or psychological stress in humans affects DNA damage response from environmental stressors, and whether these responses predict cognitive performance during sleep deprivation. Sixteen healthy adults (ages 29-52;mean age±SD, 36.4±7.1 years;7 women) participated in a 5-day experiment involving two 8 hour time-in-bed [TIB] baseline nights, followed by 39 hours total sleep deprivation (TSD), and two 8-10 hour TIB recovery nights. A modified Trier Social Stress Test was conducted on the day after TSD. Psychomotor Vigilance Tests measured behavioral attention. DNA damage was assessed in blood cells collected at 5 time points, and blood cells were irradiated ex-vivo. TSD, alone or in combination with psychological stress, did not induce significant increases in DNA damage. By contrast, radiation-induced DNA damage decreased significantly in response to TSD, but increased back to baseline when combined with psychological stress. Cognitively-vulnerable individuals had more radiation-induced DNA strand breaks before TSD, indicating their greater sensitivity to DNA damage from environmental stressors. Our results provide novel insights into the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, psychological stress, and performance vulnerability. They are important for situations involving sleep loss, radiation exposure and cognitive deficits, including cancer therapy, environmental toxicology, and space medicine.

  5. Ex-vivo diffusion MRI reveals microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions: A chronic mild stress recovery study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Hansen, Brian; Wiborg, Ove

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and causes significant microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions. However, the potential recovery of these microstructural alterations has not previously been investigated, which we, therefore, set out to do using diffusion...... MRI (d-MRI) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model of depression. This study reveals significant microstructural alterations after 8 weeks of recovery, in the opposite direction to change induced by stress in the acute phase of the experiment. Such findings may be useful in the prognosis...... of depression or for monitoring treatment response....

  6. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction alters collagen metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Hansen, S S; Jensen, L T

    1994-01-01

    infarction and receiving thrombolytic therapy. Regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction was confirmed or not, S-PIIINP increased (94-120%) 4 h after streptokinase therapy (p ....02). With confirmed acute myocardial infarction, S-PIIINP increased from 24 h towards a plateau reached at day 2-3 (p acute myocardial infarction had S-PICP above baseline at 1, 2, and 6 months (p ....05). A less pronounced S-PIIINP increase was noted with tissue-plasminogen activator than with streptokinase. Thrombolytic therapy induces collagen breakdown regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction is confirmed or not. With confirmed acute myocardial infarction collagen metabolism is altered...

  7. Acute psychophysiological stress impairs human associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, M R; Todd, R M

    2017-11-01

    Addiction is increasingly discussed asa disorder of associative learning processes, with both operant and classical conditioning contributing to the development of maladaptive habits. Stress has long been known to promote drug taking and relapse and has further been shown to shift behavior from goal-directed actions towards more habitual ones. However, it remains to be investigated how acute stress may influence simple associative learning processes that occur before a habit can be established. In the present study, healthy young adults were exposed to either acute stress or a control condition half an hour before performing simple classical and operant conditioning tasks. Psychophysiological measures confirmed successful stress induction. Results of the operant conditioning task revealed reduced instrumental responding under delayed acute stress that resembled behavioral responses to lower levels of reward. The classical conditioning experiment revealed successful conditioning in both experimental groups; however, explicit knowledge of conditioning as indicated by stimulus ratings differentiated the stress and control groups. These findings suggest that operant and classical conditioning are differentially influenced by the delayed effects of acute stress with important implications for the understanding of how new habitual behaviors are initially established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential effects of mild chronic stress on cortisol and S-IgA responses to an acute stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viena, Tatiana D; Banks, Jonathan B; Barbu, Isabelle M; Schulman, Allan H; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-10-01

    While acute stress is adaptive in the short term, chronic stress may interfere with HPA axis functioning and self-regulation that can, in turn, alter the body's immune response. Several studies suggest that acute and chronic stress consistently increase cortisol levels; however, the same cannot be said about S-IgA levels. We tested the effects of a mild chronic stress (an academic exam period), on cortisol and S-IgA responses to an acute stress. Exposure to an acute stressor significantly increases cortisol levels during periods of no-stress, but not during mild chronic stress, while S-IgA levels consistently increase during both sessions. Furthermore, we find that during the period of chronic mild stress, the perception of stress is related to increased cortisol response to an acute stressor. Combined, these findings shed light on the impact of increased background stress on acute stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Neonatal handling alters maternal emotional response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Adolfo R; Jacobs, Silvana; Menegotto, Pâmela R; Silveira, Patrícia P; Lucion, Aldo B

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to analyze the effects of environmental interventions during early postpartum days (PPD). Long-lasting effects of repeated stress exposure in the neonatal period on the maternal side are poorly studied in this model. The aim of this study was to verify if handling the pups induces enduring effects on damśstress responses, increasing their risk for depression. Dams were divided into two groups (NH-Non-handled and H-Handled) based on the handling procedure (pups were handled for 1 min/per day from PPD1-PPD10) and then subdivided into four groups (NH, NH + S, H, and H + S) based on the exposure or not to restraint stress after weaning (1 hr/per day for 7 days, PPD22-PPD28). We analyzed damśbehavior in the forced swimming test (FST PPD29-PPD30), plasma basal corticosterone and BDNF levels, as well as adrenal weight (PPD31). The results show that handling alters the stress response of dams to acute and chronic stress, as evidenced by dams of the H group having increased immobility in the first day of FST (p sensibility of the maternal organism to the chronic stress applied after weaning (p < .05). We show that handling may induce a long-lasting effect on maternal stress response; these changes in the damśemotional reactivity increase their susceptibility for the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 614-622, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  11. Stress during Adolescence Alters Palatable Food Consumption in a Context-Dependent Manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Handy

    Full Text Available Food consumption and preferences may be shaped by exposure to stressful environments during sensitive periods in development, and even small changes in consumption can have important effects on long term health. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a sensitive period, in which adverse experiences can alter development, but the specific programming effects that may occur during adolescence remain incompletely understood. The current study seeks to explore the effects of stress during late adolescence on consumption of a palatable, high-fat, high-sugar food in adulthood-under basal conditions, as well following acute stress. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to a regimen of variable stress for seven days in late adolescence (PND 45-51. During the stress regimen, stressed animals gained significantly less weight than control animals, but weight in adulthood was unaffected by adolescent stress. Palatable food consumption differed between experimental groups, and the direction of effect depended on context; stressed rats ate significantly more palatable food than controls upon first exposure, but ate less following an acute stressor. Leptin levels and exploratory behaviors did not differ between stressed and non-stressed groups, suggesting that other factors regulate preference for a palatable food. Altered food consumption following adolescent stress suggests that rats remain sensitive to stress during late adolescence, and that adult feeding behavior may be affected by previous adverse experiences. Such programming effects highlight adolescence as a period of plasticity, with the potential to shape long term food consumption patterns and preferences.

  12. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  13. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  15. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  16. Individual differences in performance under acute stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to predict which persons are capable to perform under acute stress is important for the selection and training of professionals in the military, police, and fire- fighting domain. The present study examines how individual differences in coping (style, efficacy, and behavior) explain

  17. Acute noise stress impairs feedback processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of acute noise stress on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and whether this effect depended on stressor predictability. Participants performed a gambling task in a silence and a noise condition with either predictable or unpredictable noise. FRN amplitude was measured in

  18. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1 estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH administration; and 2 women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.

  19. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  20. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients......The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress...... classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological...

  1. Acute noise stress impairs feedback processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M

    2012-10-01

    We examined the impact of acute noise stress on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and whether this effect depended on stressor predictability. Participants performed a gambling task in a silence and a noise condition with either predictable or unpredictable noise. FRN amplitude was measured in three ways, either neglecting (mean amplitude) or correcting for overlap with other components (base-to-peak; mean amplitude minus average mean amplitude of surrounding peaks). Notably, results differed between measures. Valence and magnitude both affected the FRN. These effects were additive on the mean amplitude and base-to-peak measures, but interactive on the mean amplitude corrected for both peaks measure. Acute noise stress specifically modulated valence and magnitude effects on the FRN, although evidence differed between measures as to whether valence and/or magnitude were processed differently. These findings indicate that acute stress impairs cognitive control by the anterior cingulate cortex. Stressor predictability added little to the explanation of effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower electrodermal activity to acute stress in caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorder: an adaptive habituation to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between parents of people with (n = 30) and without (n = 34) ASD (caregivers and non-caregivers, respectively). Caregivers showed lower EDA in response to acute stress than non-caregivers. They also presented higher trait anxiety, anger, depression, and somatic symptoms than non-caregivers. Higher EDA was related to a worse mood and more severe somatic symptoms only in caregivers. These results could reflect an adaptive habituation to stress and establish that high EDA in response to acute stress depends on caregivers' health.

  3. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  4. Effect of Hemin on Brain Alterations and Neuroglobin Expression in Water Immersion Restraint Stressed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merhan Ragy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, the heme oxygenase (HO system has been reported to be very active and its modulation seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Hemin as HO-1 inducer has been shown to attenuate neuronal injury so the goal of this study was to assess the effect of hemin therapy on the acute stress and how it would modulate neurological outcome. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group and stressed group with six-hour water immersion restraint stress (WIRS and stressed group, treated with hemin, in which each rat received a single intraperitoneal injection of hemin at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight at 12 hours before exposure to WIRS. Stress hormones, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and expressions of neuroglobin and S100B mRNA in brain tissue were assayed. Our results revealed that hemin significantly affects brain alterations induced by acute stress and this may be through increased expression of neuroglobin and through antioxidant effect. Hemin decreased blood-brain barrier damage as it significantly decreased the expression of S100B. These results suggest that hemin may be an effective therapy for being neuroprotective against acute stress.

  5. Cortisol stress response and histopathological alteration index in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood samples of C. gariepinus were collected every seven days and evaluated for stress by measuring cortisol concentration. The gills and liver were studied and scored for Gill Alteration Index (GAI) and Hepatic Alteration Index (HAI), respectively. There was an increase in cortisol level up to the 7th and 14th day among ...

  6. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  7. Dynamic changes in DNA methylation of stress-associated genes (OXTR, BDNF ) after acute psychosocial stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unternaehrer, E; Luers, P; Mill, J; Dempster, E; Meyer, A H; Staehli, S; Lieb, R; Hellhammer, D H; Meinlschmidt, G

    2012-01-01

    Environmentally induced epigenetic alterations are related to mental health. We investigated quantitative DNA methylation status before and after an acute psychosocial stressor in two stress-related genes: oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF ). The cross sectional study took place at the Division of Theoretical and Clinical Psychobiology, University of Trier, Germany and was conducted from February to August 2009. We included 83 participants aged 61–67 years. Thereof, 76 participants completed the full study procedure consisting of blood sampling before (pre-stress), 10 min after (post-stress) and 90 min after (follow-up) the Trier social stress test. We assessed quantitative DNA methylation of whole-blood cells using Sequenom EpiTYPER. Methylation status differed between sampling times in one target sequence of OXTR (P<0.001): methylation increased from pre- to post-stress (P=0.009) and decreased from post-stress to follow-up (P<0.001). This decrease was also found in a second target sequence of OXTR (P=0.034), where it lost statistical significance when blood cell count was statistically controlled. We did not detect any time-associated differences in methylation status of the examined BDNF region. The results suggest a dynamic regulation of DNA methylation in OXTR—which may in part reflect changes in blood cell composition—but not BDNF after acute psychosocial stress. This may enhance the understanding of how psychosocial events alter DNA methylation and could provide new insights into the etiology of mental disorders. PMID:22892716

  8. Acute restraint stress induces hyperalgesia via non-adrenergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesia or hyperalgesia has been reported to occur in animals under different stress conditions. This study examined the effect of acute restraint stress on nociception in rats. Acute restraint stress produced a time-dependant decrease in pain threshold; this hyperalgesia was not affected by prior administration of ...

  9. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  10. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [ 3 H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  11. Critical disease windows shaped by stress exposure alter allocation trade-offs between development and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Crespi, Erica J; Warne, Robin W

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitous environmental stressors are often thought to alter animal susceptibility to pathogens and contribute to disease emergence. However, duration of exposure to a stressor is likely critical, because while chronic stress is often immunosuppressive, acute stress can temporarily enhance immune function. Furthermore, host susceptibility to stress and disease often varies with ontogeny; increasing during critical developmental windows. How the duration and timing of exposure to stressors interact to shape critical windows and influence disease processes is not well tested. We used ranavirus and larval amphibians as a model system to investigate how physiological stress and pathogenic infection shape development and disease dynamics in vertebrates. Based on a resource allocation model, we designed experiments to test how exposure to stressors may induce resource trade-offs that shape critical windows and disease processes because the neuroendocrine stress axis coordinates developmental remodelling, immune function and energy allocation in larval amphibians. We used wood frog larvae (Lithobates sylvaticus) to investigate how chronic and acute exposure to corticosterone, the dominant amphibian glucocorticoid hormone, mediates development and immune function via splenocyte immunohistochemistry analysis in association with ranavirus infection. Corticosterone treatments affected immune function, as both chronic and acute exposure suppressed splenocyte proliferation, although viral replication rate increased only in the chronic corticosterone treatment. Time to metamorphosis and survival depended on both corticosterone treatment and infection status. In the control and chronic corticosterone treatments, ranavirus infection decreased survival and delayed metamorphosis, although chronic corticosterone exposure accelerated rate of metamorphosis in uninfected larvae. Acute corticosterone exposure accelerated metamorphosis increased survival in infected larvae. Interactions

  12. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and cardiovascular disease is well-evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Conversely, chronic stress is arrythmogenic and incr...

  13. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  14. Alterations in reproductive hormones during heat stress in dairy cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Different factors contribute to this situation; the most important are a consequence of increased temperature and humidity that result in a decreased expression of ... Plasma progesterone levels can be increased or decreased depending on whether the heat stress is acute or chronic, and on the metabolic state of the animal.

  15. Acute stress does not affect the impairing effect of chronic stress on memory retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbaki, Jamile; Goudarzi, Iran; Salmani, Mahmoud Elahdadi; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Due to the prevalence and pervasiveness of stress in modern life and exposure to both chronic and acute stresses, it is not clear whether prior exposure to chronic stress can influence the impairing effects of acute stress on memory retrieval. This issue was tested in this study. Materials and Methods: Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: control, acute, chronic, and chronic + acute stress groups. The rats were trained with six trials per day for 6 consecutive days in the water maze. Following training, the rats were either kept in control conditions or exposed to chronic stress in a restrainer 6 hr/day for 21 days. On day 22, a probe test was done to measure memory retention. Time spent in target and opposite areas, platform location latency, and proximity were used as indices of memory retention. To induce acute stress, 30 min before the probe test, animals received a mild footshock. Results: Stressed animals spent significantly less time in the target quadrant and more time in the opposite quadrant than control animals. Moreover, the stressed animals showed significantly increased platform location latency and proximity as compared with control animals. No significant differences were found in these measures among stress exposure groups. Finally, both chronic and acute stress significantly increased corticosterone levels. Conclusion: Our results indicate that both chronic and acute stress impair memory retrieval similarly. Additionally, the impairing effects of chronic stress on memory retrieval were not influenced by acute stress. PMID:27635201

  16. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  17. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace M. Raio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation, and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology.

  18. Dynamic alteration in splenic function during acute falciparum malaria

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    Looareesuwan, S.; Ho, M.; Wattanagoon, Y.; White, N.J.; Warrell, D.A.; Bunnag, D.; Harinasuta, T.; Wyler, D.J.

    1987-09-10

    Plasmodium-infected erythrocytes lose their normal deformability and become susceptible to splenic filtration. In animal models, this is one mechanism of antimalarial defense. To assess the effect of acute falciparum malaria on splenic filtration, we measured the clearance of heated /sup 51/Cr-labeled autologous erythrocytes in 25 patients with acute falciparum malaria and in 10 uninfected controls. Two groups of patients could be distinguished. Sixteen patients had splenomegaly, markedly accelerated clearance of the labeled erythrocytes (clearance half-time, 8.4 +/- 4.4 minutes (mean +/- SD) vs. 62.5 +/- 36.5 minutes in controls; P less than 0.001), and a lower mean hematocrit than did the patients without splenomegaly (P less than 0.001). In the nine patients without splenomegaly, clearance was normal. After institution of antimalarial chemotherapy, however, the clearance in this group accelerated to supernormal rates similar to those in the patients with splenomegaly, but without the development of detectable splenomegaly. Clearance was not significantly altered by treatment in the group with splenomegaly. Six weeks later, normal clearance rates were reestablished in most patients in both groups. We conclude that splenic clearance of labeled erythrocytes is enhanced in patients with malaria if splenomegaly is present and is enhanced only after treatment if splenomegaly is absent. Whether this enhanced splenic function applies to parasite-infected erythrocytes in patients with malaria and has any clinical benefit will require further studies.

  19. Perceived life stress exposure modulates reward-related medial prefrontal cortex responses to acute stress in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Perceived Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Reward-Related Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses to Acute Stress in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M.; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Treadway, Michael T.; Brooks, Nancy H.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Greve, Douglas N.; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E.; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Results Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r = 0.79, p = 0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r = 0.79) and no-stress (r = −0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC grey matter, but functional findings remained when accounting for structural differences. Limitation Small sample size, which warrants replication. Conclusion Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. PMID:25898329

  1. Young Children's Acute Stress After a Burn Injury: Disentangling the Role of Injury Severity and Parental Acute Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Landolt, Markus A

    2017-09-01

    Although injury severity and parental stress are strong predictors of posttraumatic adjustment in young children after burns, little is known about the interplay of these variables. This study aimed at clarifying mediation processes between injury severity and mother's, father's, and young child's acute stress. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the relationships between injury severity and parental and child acute stress. Parents of 138 burn-injured children (ages 1-4 years) completed standardized questionnaires on average 19 days postinjury. Sixteen children (11.7%) met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition, preschool criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder (excluding time criterion). The model revealed a significant mediation of maternal acute stress, with the effect of injury severity on a child's acute stress mediated by maternal acute stress. Paternal acute stress failed to serve as a mediating variable. Our findings confirm mothers' crucial role in the posttraumatic adjustment of young children. Clinically, mothers' acute stress should be monitored. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  2. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description.

  3. Fear extinction deficits following acute stress associate with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Maroun, Mouna; Ioannides, Pericles J.; Bergman, Krista L.; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Holmes, Andrew; Wellman, Cara L.

    2013-01-01

    Stress-sensitive psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are characterized by deficits in fear extinction and dysfunction of corticolimbic circuits mediating extinction. Chronic stress facilitates fear conditioning, impairs extinction, and produces dendritic proliferation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a critical site of plasticity for extinction. Acute stress impairs extinction, alters plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex-to-BLA circuit, and causes dendritic retrac...

  4. Prenatal stress induces up-regulation of glucocorticoid receptors on lymphoid cells modifying the T-cell response after acute stress exposure in the adult life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascuan, Cecilia Gabriela; Rubinstein, Mara Roxana; Palumbo, María Laura; Genaro, Ana María

    2014-04-10

    It has been demonstrated that a short-duration stress (acute stress) may result in immunopreparatory or immunoenhancing physiological conditions. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether exposure to prenatal restraint stress (PRS) influences the impact of acute stress on the T-cell response in the adult life. We found that female mice exposed to PRS (PS mice) did not exhibit changes in the T-cell-dependent IgG antibody production with respect to prenatally non-stressed mice (no-PS mice). However, no-PS mice exposed to acute stress showed an increase of antibody production after antigen stimulation. In contrast, PS mice exhibited a decreased response after an acute situation. Spleen catecholamines and plasma corticosterone levels were increased in acute stress in both PS and no-PS mice. Nevertheless, lymphocyte response to hormones was altered in PS mice. Particularly, inhibitory effect of corticosterone was higher on lymphocytes from PS mice. In addition, an increase in protein levels and mRNA expression of glucocorticoid receptor was found in lymphoid cells from PS mice. These results show that prenatal stress alters the immune intrinsic regulatory mechanism that in turn induces an increased vulnerability to any stressful situation able to modify immune homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Repeated restraint stress alters sensitivity to the social consequences of ethanol differentially in early and late adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Truxell, Eric M; Spear, Linda P

    2013-11-15

    In rats, considerable differences in the social consequences of acute ethanol are seen across ontogeny, with adolescents being more sensitive to low dose ethanol-induced social facilitation and less sensitive to the social inhibition evident at higher ethanol doses relative to adults. Stressor exposure induces social anxiety-like behavior, indexed via decreases in social preference, and alters responsiveness to the social consequences of acute ethanol by enhancing ethanol-associated social facilitation and anxiolysis regardless of age. Given that substantial ontogenetic differences in the social consequences of ethanol are evident even within the adolescent period, the present study was designed to investigate whether similar stress-associated alterations in social behavior and ethanol responsiveness are evident in early and late adolescents. Juvenile-early adolescent [postnatal days (P) 24-28] and mid-late adolescent (P38-42) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were repeatedly restrained (90 min/day) for 5 days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Responsiveness to restraint stress in terms of both stress-induced behavioral alterations and stress-associated changes in sensitivity to the social consequences of acute ethanol challenge differed drastically at the two ages. Repeated restraint increased anxiety-like behavior in a social context in older adolescents, whereas previously stressed young adolescent males showed substantial increases in play fighting - an effect of stress not evident in P28 females or P42 adolescents of either sex. Unexpectedly, repeated restraint eliminated sensitivity to ethanol-induced social facilitation in P28 adolescent males and made their female counterparts less sensitive to this effect. In contrast, previously stressed late adolescents became sensitive to the socially facilitating and anxiolytic effects of acute ethanol. © 2013.

  6. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.

  7. Acute Stress Influences Neural Circuits of Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John Porcelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available People often make decisions under aversive conditions such as acute stress. Yet, less is known about the process in which acute stress can influence decision-making. A growing body of research has established that reward-related information associated with the outcomes of decisions exerts a powerful influence over the choices people make and that an extensive network of brain regions, prominently featuring the striatum, is involved in the processing of this reward-related information. Thus, an important step in research on the nature of acute stress’ influence over decision-making is to examine how it may modulate responses to rewards and punishments within reward-processing neural circuitry. In the current experiment, we employed a simple reward processing paradigm – where participants received monetary rewards and punishments – known to evoke robust striatal responses. Immediately prior to performing each of two task runs, participants were exposed to acute stress (i.e., cold pressor or a no stress control procedure in a between-subjects fashion. No stress group participants exhibited a pattern of activity within the dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex consistent with past research on outcome processing – specifically, differential responses for monetary rewards over punishments. In contrast, acute stress group participants’ dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex demonstrated decreased sensitivity to monetary outcomes and a lack of differential activity. These findings provide insight into how neural circuits may process rewards and punishments associated with simple decisions under acutely stressful conditions.

  8. The effects of acute and chronic stress on motor and sensory performance in male Lewis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz, G A; Schwab, M E; Welzl, H

    2001-01-01

    Any behavioral testing induces stress to some degree. A meaningful interpretation of behavioral results can be difficult if stress, caused by handling or the testing situation, modifies the experimental outcome. Especially for neurological animal models, it is important to know how stress affects motor and sensory performance. Therefore, we investigated the effects of varying degrees of stress on several motor and sensory tasks that are frequently used to assess functional recovery after lesion-induced impairments in adult rats. Acute, subchronic, and chronic stress impaired ladder walking and prolonged the duration of grasping a bar. Stress also altered walking patterns by increasing the base of support and foot rotation and reducing stride length. Furthermore, chronic stress induced hypersensitivity to painful stimuli, but did not significantly influence the latency to remove sticky papers from the hindpaws (sticky paper test). In the light--dark (L/D) test, stress reduced the latency to enter the dark compartment and enhanced the number of transitions supporting that cold swim stress modifies the animal's level of anxiety. These data point towards a critical influence of acute or chronic stress on motor control and sensory performance of rats, suggesting that stress might be a critical intervening variable of the outcome of behavioral tests.

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi Disrupts Thymic Homeostasis by Altering Intrathymic and Systemic Stress-Related Endocrine Circuitries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepletier, Ailin; de Carvalho, Vinicius Frias; e Silva, Patricia Machado Rodrigues; Villar, Silvina; Pérez, Ana Rosa; Savino, Wilson; Morrot, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that experimental infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Increased glucocorticoid (GC) levels are believed to be protective against the effects of acute stress during infection but result in depletion of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes by apoptosis, driving to thymic atrophy. However, very few data are available concerning prolactin (PRL), another stress-related hormone, which seems to be decreased during T. cruzi infection. Considering the immunomodulatory role of PRL upon the effects caused by GC, we investigated if intrathymic cross-talk between GC and PRL receptors (GR and PRLR, respectively) might influence T. cruzi-induced thymic atrophy. Using an acute experimental model, we observed changes in GR/PRLR cross-activation related with the survival of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes during infection. These alterations were closely related with systemic changes, characterized by a stress hormone imbalance, with progressive GC augmentation simultaneously to PRL reduction. The intrathymic hormone circuitry exhibited an inverse modulation that seemed to counteract the GC-related systemic deleterious effects. During infection, adrenalectomy protected the thymus from the increase in apoptosis ratio without changing PRL levels, whereas an additional inhibition of circulating PRL accelerated the thymic atrophy and led to an increase in corticosterone systemic levels. These results demonstrate that the PRL impairment during infection is not caused by the increase of corticosterone levels, but the opposite seems to occur. Accordingly, metoclopramide (MET)-induced enhancement of PRL secretion protected thymic atrophy in acutely infected animals as well as the abnormal export of immature and potentially autoreactive CD4+CD8+ thymocytes to the periphery. In conclusion, our findings clearly show that Trypanosoma cruzi subverts mouse thymus homeostasis by altering intrathymic and systemic stress

  10. Acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers performing various military tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Tengxiao; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    To examine Chinese soldiers' acute stress responses, we did this study. The soldiers completed the Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS) when engaged in major tasks, such as earthquake rescue in Wenchuan, Sichuan, and maintaining social stability in Urumchi, Xinjiang. The ASRS has good reliability and validity. The study enrolled 1,832 male soldiers. The results showed significant differences among five dimensions and the overall response index when comparing four diverse military tasks. Further analysis found that reduced work efficiency and 24 symptom clusters were significantly positively correlated. The acute stress response of soldiers performing various tasks was influenced by many factors, including the task characteristics and external factors. In addition, the acute stress response affected their work efficiency.

  11. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  12. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Eric D; Rorabaugh, Boyd R; Zoladz, Phillip R

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions.

  13. Acute Stress Decreases but Chronic Stress Increases Myocardial Sensitivity to Ischemic Injury in Rodents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenmann, Eric D.; Rorabaugh, Boyd R.; Zoladz, Phillip R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the largest cause of mortality worldwide, and stress is a significant contributor to the development of CVD. The relationship between acute and chronic stress and CVD is well evidenced. Acute stress can lead to arrhythmias and ischemic injury. However, recent evidence in rodent models suggests that acute stress can decrease sensitivity to myocardial ischemia–reperfusion injury (IRI). Conversely, chronic stress is arrhythmogenic and increases sensitivity to myocardial IRI. Few studies have examined the impact of validated animal models of stress-related psychological disorders on the ischemic heart. This review examines the work that has been completed using rat models to study the effects of stress on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury. Utilization of animal models of stress-related psychological disorders is critical in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disorders in patients experiencing stress-related psychiatric conditions. PMID:27199778

  14. Effects of age on metabolic responses to acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odio, M R; Brodish, A

    1988-05-01

    The effect of age on the capacity of an organism to mobilize glucose and free fatty acids during stress and to adapt these responses from an acute to a chronic stress situation is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine whether aging impaired the capacity to 1) raise glucose and free fatty acid levels and suppress insulin release in acute stress situations and 2) develop adaptation of these responses to exposure to chronic stress. Our results indicate that 6-mo-old rats (young) trained to escape electric shock (short-term modulation) showed greater acute stress-induced hyperglycemic, hypoinsulinemic, and lipolytic responses than untrained young rats. By contrast, in 22-mo-old rats (old), responses of trained and untrained animals were not different. In the chronic stress (long-term adaptation) experiments, it was found that 1) adaptation of stress-induced hyperglycemia occurred at a faster rate in young than in old animals; 2) in young but not in aged rats, a strong positive correlation was observed between adaptation of stress-induced hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia; and 3) in young rats, stress-induced lipolytic responses declined proportionately to the duration of chronic stress exposure, whereas by contrast in chronically stressed aged rats steady-state levels of free fatty acids were not raised during exposure to stress. Thus we conclude that 1) glucose intolerance may play a key role in the altered stress-induced metabolic responses of aged rats; 2) with age, there is a loss of plasticity in physiological adaptive response mechanisms associated with metabolic responses to stress.

  15. Stress increases voluntary alcohol intake, but does not alter established drinking habits in a rat model of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Edward M; Long, Virginia; Fanselow, Michael S; Spigelman, Igor

    2013-04-01

    Life-altering anxiety disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), can co-occur at high rates with substance use disorders. Alcoholism, compared with other substance use disorders, is particularly common. Rodent studies of acute stress effects on alcohol consumption show that stress can alter ethanol (EtOH) consumption. This study examined voluntary EtOH consumption in male Long-Evans rats that had undergone a stress-enhanced fear learning (SEFL) procedure. Adult Long-Evans rats were exposed to a stress that consisted of 15 inescapable foot-shocks (1 mA, 1 second) known to cause a long-lasting nonassociative enhancement of subsequent fear learning. Control animals received no shock. One day later, animals were placed in a novel and very different context and received a single foot-shock. On day 3, animals were returned to the single shock context and freezing was used as a measure of learned fear. The intermittent access 2-bottle choice (2BC) regimen consisted of 1 bottle of water and 1 bottle of experimental solution, either 19% EtOH or 28.4% sucrose-0.08% quinine, for a 24-hour period, 3 days a week, and all other times 2 water bottles. This regimen lasted until stable levels of experimental solution drinking were reached, at which point the experimental solution was removed for 40 days and then returned to measure the resumption of consumption. Rats that received stress prior to EtOH consumed significantly more EtOH than control rats before and after reinstatement. Rats that received stress after drinking was established did not consume significantly more EtOH when the drug was returned. Stress had no significant effect on sucrose-quinine drinking, our calorie and taste control for EtOH. A single traumatic event sufficient to produce long-lasting enhancement of fear learning increases voluntary EtOH consumption, but does not alter previously acquired EtOH drinking habits or alter the consumption of a calorically equivalent sweet

  16. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bloomer, Richard J.; Trepanowski, John F.; Farney, Tyler M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 differe...

  17. Acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers performing various military tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Tengxiao; Miao, Danmin; Zhu, Xia

    2014-01-01

    Background To examine Chinese soldiers’ acute stress responses, we did this study. Methods The soldiers completed the Acute Stress Response Scale (ASRS) when engaged in major tasks, such as earthquake rescue in Wenchuan, Sichuan, and maintaining social stability in Urumchi, Xinjiang. The ASRS has good reliability and validity. The study enrolled 1,832 male soldiers. Results The results showed significant differences among five dimensions and the overall response index when comparing four dive...

  18. Acute myocardial infarction as a result of stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bakusová, Tereza

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to describe acute myocardial infarction as a psychosomatic disease. Represents acute myocardial infarction as a result of stress and type A behavior. Research part reveals number of respondents, affected by stresss at the time of myocardial infarction and respondents with type A behavior.

  19. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Polyphenol supplementation alters intramuscular apoptotic signaling following acute resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jeremy R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Jajtner, Adam R; Church, David D; Beyer, Kyle S; Riffe, Joshua J; Muddle, Tyler W D; Herrlinger, Kelli L; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 28-days of supplementation with an aqueous proprietary polyphenol blend (PPB) sourced from Camellia sinensis on intramuscular apoptotic signaling following an acute lower-body resistance exercise protocol and subsequent recovery. Untrained males (n = 38, 21.8 ± 2.7 years, 173.4 ± 7.9 cm, 77.6 ± 14.6 kg) were randomized to PPB (n = 14), placebo (PL; n = 14) or control (CON; n = 10). Participants completed a lower-body resistance exercise protocol comprised of the squat, leg press, and leg extension exercises. Skeletal muscle microbiopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis preexercise (PRE), 1-h (1HR), 5-h (5HR), and 48-h (48HR) post-resistance exercise. Apoptotic signaling pathways were quantified using multiplex signaling assay kits to quantify total proteins (Caspase 3, 8, 9) and markers of phosphorylation status (JNK, FADD, p53, BAD, Bcl-2). Changes in markers of muscle damage and intramuscular signaling were analyzed via separate repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Change in Bcl-2 phosphorylation at 1H was significantly greater in PL compared to CON (P = 0.001). BAD phosphorylation was significantly elevated at 5H in PL compared to PPB (P = 0.015) and CON (P = 0.006). The change in JNK phosphorylation was significantly greater in PPB (P = 0.009), and PL (P = 0.017) compared to CON at 1H, while the change for PL was elevated compared to CON at 5H (P = 0.002). A main effect was observed (P < 0.05) at 1H, 5H, and 48H for p53 and Caspase 8, with Caspase 3 and Caspase 9 elevated at 48H. These data indicate that chronic supplementation with PPB alters apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle following acute muscle-damaging resistance exercise. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Restraint stress alters neutrophil and macrophage phenotypes during wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymen, Stéphanie D.; Rojas, Isolde G.; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Fang, Zong Juan; Zhao, Yan; Marucha, Phillip T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported that stress delays wound healing, impairs bacterial clearance, and elevates the risk for opportunistic infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are responsible for the removal of bacteria present at the wound site. The appropriate recruitment and functions of these cells are necessary for efficient bacterial clearance. In our current study we found that restraint stress induced an excessive recruitment of neutrophils extending the inflammatory phase of healing, and the gene expression of neutrophil attracting chemokines MIP-2 and KC. However, restraint stress did not affect macrophage infiltration. Stress decreased the phagocytic abilities of phagocytic cells ex vivo, yet it did not affect superoxide production. The cell surface expression of adhesion molecules CD11b and TLR4 were decreased in peripheral blood monocytes in stressed mice. The phenotype of macrophages present at the wound site was also altered. Gene expression of markers of pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages, CXCL10 and CCL5, were down-regulated; as were markers associated with wound healing macrophages, CCL22, IGF-1, RELMα; and the regulatory macrophage marker, chemokine CCL1. Restraint stress also induced up-regulation of IL10 gene expression. In summary, our study has shown that restraint stress suppresses the phenotype shift of the macrophage population, as compared to the changes observed during normal wound healing, while the number of macrophages remains constant. We also observed a general suppression of chemokine gene expression. Modulation of the macrophage phenotype could provide a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of wounds under stress conditions in the clinical setting. PMID:22884902

  2. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  3. Response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolghasemi, Abass; Bakhshian, Fereshteh; Narimani, Mohammad

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals. This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder.

  4. Altered mitochondrial function after acute alteration of the endogenous insulin/glucagon ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rohweder-Dunn, G.; Aprille, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    Mannoheptulose (MH) affects pancreatic Islet cells to cause a drop in serum insulin and a rise in glucagon. This effect peaks 1 hr after injection and results in a 3-fold increase in serum glucose. Here they examined whether metabolic functions of liver mitochondria (mito) are altered by this change in hormone status. Rats fed ad lib on 12 hr light/dark cycles were given MH (2g/kg) or vehicle i.p. during the first 2 hrs of the light cycle. Liver mito were isolated 1 hr later. Acid-extracts were assayed for ATP+ADP+AMP (nmol/mg prot). Citrulline synthesis and pyruvate carboxylation rates (nmol/min/mg prot) were assayed by following H[ 14 C]O 3 - fixation in appropriate media. State 3 and 2,4-DNP-uncoupled respiratory rates (1/2 nmol O 2 /min/mg prot) were assayed polarographically with succinate. The effects of MH on mito are comparable to reported effects of glucagon injection. MH evokes acute reciprocal changes in insulin and glucagon that are highly reproducible. Thus, MH offers an interesting model for studying the effect of endogenous hormones on mito functions

  5. Exposure to Forced Swim Stress Alters Local Circuit Activity and Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Maroun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience.

  6. Exposure to Forced Swim Stress Alters Local Circuit Activity and Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, Orli; Maroun, Mouna; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP) of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI) and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience. PMID:18301720

  7. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    which a range of circulating markers of inflammatory ac- tivity (acute phase reactants, stress hormones) and oxida- tive stress (vitamin C) have been measured and compared with clinical and radiographic indices of disease activity in newly-diagnosed, hospitalised patients with pulmonary. TB in relation to smoking history.

  8. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  9. Effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Atish K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A stressful stimulus is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Antidepressants are used to manage stress and their related effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum in restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Methods Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hr. St. John's Wort (50 and 100 mg/kg was administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjecting to acute immobilized stress. Various behavioral tests parameters for anxiety, locomotor activity and nociceptive threshold were assessed followed by biochemical assessments (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein subsequently. Results 6-hr acute restraint stress caused severe anxiety like behavior, antinociception and impaired locomotor activity as compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in malondialdehyde, nitrites concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity as compared to unstressed animal brain. Five days St. John's Wort treatment in a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral (improved locomotor activity, reduced tail flick latency and antianxiety like effect and oxidative damage as compared to control (restraint stress. Conclusion Present study highlights the modest activity of St. John's Wort against acute restraint stress induced modification.

  10. Fear extinction deficits following acute stress associate with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroun, Mouna; Ioannides, Pericles J; Bergman, Krista L; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Holmes, Andrew; Wellman, Cara L

    2013-08-01

    Stress-sensitive psychopathologies such as post-traumatic stress disorder are characterized by deficits in fear extinction and dysfunction of corticolimbic circuits mediating extinction. Chronic stress facilitates fear conditioning, impairs extinction, and produces dendritic proliferation in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a critical site of plasticity for extinction. Acute stress impairs extinction, alters plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex-to-BLA circuit, and causes dendritic retraction in the medial prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined extinction learning and basolateral amygdala pyramidal neuron morphology in adult male rats following a single elevated platform stress. Acute stress impaired extinction acquisition and memory, and produced dendritic retraction and increased mushroom spine density in basolateral amygdala neurons in the right hemisphere. Unexpectedly, irrespective of stress, rats that underwent fear and extinction testing showed basolateral amygdala dendritic retraction and altered spine density relative to non-conditioned rats, particularly in the left hemisphere. Thus, extinction deficits produced by acute stress are associated with increased spine density and dendritic retraction in basolateral amygdala pyramidal neurons. Furthermore, the finding that conditioning and extinction as such was sufficient to alter basolateral amygdala morphology and spine density illustrates the sensitivity of basolateral amygdala morphology to behavioral manipulation. These findings may have implications for elucidating the role of the amygdala in the pathophysiology of stress-related disorders. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  11. Glial and tissue-specific regulation of Kynurenine Pathway dioxygenases by acute stress of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Dostal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and immune system eliciting changes in cognitive function, mood and anxiety. An important link between stress and altered behavior is stimulation of the Kynurenine Pathway which generates neuroactive and immunomodulatory kynurenines. Tryptophan entry into this pathway is controlled by rate-limiting indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (DOs: Ido1, Ido2, Tdo2. Although implicated as mediating changes in behavior, detecting stress-induced DO expression has proven inconsistent. Thus, C57BL/6J mice were used to characterize DO expression in brain-regions, astrocytes and microglia to characterize restraint-stress-induced DO expression. Stress increased kynurenine in brain and plasma, demonstrating increased DO activity. Of three Ido1 transcripts, only Ido1-v1 expression was increased by stress and within astrocytes, not microglia, indicating transcript- and glial-specificity. Stress increased Ido1-v1 only in frontal cortex and hypothalamus, indicating brain-region specificity. Of eight Ido2 transcripts, Ido2-v3 expression was increased by stress, again only within astrocytes. Likewise, stress increased Tdo2-FL expression in astrocytes, not microglia. Interestingly, Ido2 and Tdo2 transcripts were not correspondingly induced in Ido1-knockout (Ido1KO mice, suggesting that Ido1 is necessary for the central DO response to acute stress. Unlike acute inflammatory models resulting in DO induction within microglia, only astrocyte DO expression was increased by acute restraint-stress, defining their unique role during stress-dependent activation of the Kynurenine Pathway. Keywords: Stress, Ido, Tdo, Kynurenine, Astrocyte, Liver

  12. Social stress reactivity alters reward and punishment learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Allen, John J B

    2011-06-01

    To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishment learning accuracy in highly punishment sensitive individuals, but these measures were inversely related in less sensitive individuals. Combined electrophysiological measurement, performance accuracy and computational estimations of learning parameters suggest that trait and state vulnerability to stress alter cortico-striatal functioning during reinforcement learning, possibly mediated via medio-frontal cortical systems.

  13. Oxidative stress can alter the antigenicity of immunodominant peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Schwanninger, Angelika; Weinberger, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    APCs operate frequently under oxidative stress induced by aging, tissue damage, pathogens, or inflammatory responses. Phagocytic cells produce peroxides and free-radical species that facilitate pathogen clearance and can in the case of APCs, also lead to oxidative modifications of antigenic...... proteins and peptides. Little information is available presently about the consequences of such modifications on the immune response. To model oxidative modification of an immunodominant antigenic peptide, we oxidized the methionine residue of the human CMV pp65(495-503) (NLVPMVATV) peptide...... of antigenic peptides may affect T cell responses severely by binding T cell clones with different affinity. This may lead to an altered immune response against infectious agents as well as against tumor or autoantigens under oxidative stress conditions....

  14. Pasireotide treatment does not modify hyperglycemic and corticosterone acute restraint stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Schweizer, Junia R O L; Amaral, Pedro H S; Bizzi, Mariana F; Silveira, Warley Cezar da; Espirito-Santo, Daniel T A; Zille, Giancarlo; Soares, Beatriz S; Schmid, Herbert A; Yuen, Kevin C J

    2018-04-17

    Pasireotide is a new-generation somatostatin analog that acts through binding to multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes. Studies have shown that pasireotide induces hyperglycemia, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, alters neurotransmission, and potentially affects stress responses typically manifested as hyperglycemia and increased corticosterone secretion. This study specifically aimed to evaluate whether pasireotide treatment modifies glucose and costicosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats of 150-200 g were treated with pasireotide (10 µg/kg/day) twice-daily for two weeks or vehicle for the same period. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 30, and 60 min of restraint stress. The three experimental groups comprised of vehicle + restraint (VEHR), pasireotide + restraint (PASR), and pasireotide + saline (PASNR). Following pasireotide treatment, no significant differences in baseline glucose and corticosterone levels were observed among the three groups. During restraint, hyperglycemia was observed at 10 min (p stressed groups when compared to the non-stressed PASNR group (p stressed groups at 5 min (p stressed PASNR group (p stress responses, thus preserving acute stress regulation.

  15. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and physiological activity during acute stress: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Mommersteeg, P.M.; Beugen, S. van; Ramakers, C.; Boxtel, G.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on cardiovascular and cortisol activity during acute stress. METHOD: Eighty-eight healthy community-dwelling individuals reporting elevated stress levels were randomly assigned to the MBSR

  16. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and physiological activity during acute stress : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; van Beugen, S.; Ramakers, C.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to examine the effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on cardiovascular and cortisol activity during acute stress. Method: Eighty-eight healthy community-dwelling individuals reporting elevated stress levels were randomly assigned to the MBSR

  17. Genome-wide DNA methylome alterations in acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dandan; Yan, Jing; Yuan, Yunlong; Wang, Cheng; Wu, Jia; Chen, Qingwen; Song, Jiaxi; Wang, Junjun

    2018-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a common disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. The methylation status of blood DNA may serve as a potential early diagnosis and prevention biomarker for numerous diseases. The present study was designed to explore novel genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation patterns associated with ACS. The Infinium HumanMethylation450 assay was used to examine genome-wide DNA methylation profiles in 3 pairs of ACS and control group samples. Epigenome-wide DNA methylation, genomic distribution, Gene Ontology (GO) term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed. The results were confirmed using methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) and Sequenom MassARRAY analyses in ACS, stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) and control samples. A total of 11,342 differentially methylated (DM) 5'-C-phosphate-G-3' (CpG) sites were identified, including 8,865 hypomethylated and 2,477 hypermethylated CpG sites in the ACS group compared with the control samples. They varied in frequency across genomic compartments, but were particularly notable in gene bodies and shores. The results of GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses revealed that the methylated genes were associated with certain biological processes and pathways. Despite the considerable variability in methylation data, the candidate selected possessed significant methylation alteration in mothers against decapentaplegic homolog 3 (SMAD3) transcription start site 155 (Chr1:67356838-Chr1:67356942). MSP analysis from 81 ACS samples, 74 SCAD samples and 53 healthy samples, and Sequenom MassARRAY analysis, confirmed that differential CpG methylation of SMAD3 was significantly corrected with the reference results of the HumanMethylation450 array. The data identified an ACS-specific DNA methylation profile with a large number of novel DM CpG sites, some of which may serve as candidate markers for the early diagnosis of ACS.

  18. Chronic intermittent hypoxia sensitizes acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress reactivity and Fos induction in the rat locus coeruleus in response to subsequent immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Mifflin, S W; Cunningham, J T; Morilak, D A

    2008-07-17

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with several pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation, and other endocrine and metabolic disturbances comprising the "metabolic syndrome." Repeated episodes of hypoxia in OSA may represent a chronic intermittent stress, leading to HPA dysregulation. Alterations in HPA reactivity could then contribute to or exacerbate other pathophysiological processes. We showed previously that another metabolic stressor, chronic intermittent cold stress, enhanced noradrenergic facilitation of acute HPA stress reactivity. In this study, we investigated whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rat model for the arterial hypoxemia that accompanies OSA, similarly sensitizes the HPA response to novel acute stress. Rats were exposed to CIH (alternating cycles of normoxia [3 min at 21% O(2)] and hypoxia [3 min at 10% O(2)], repeated continuously for 8 h/day during the light portion of the cycle for 7 days). On the day after the final CIH exposure, there were no differences in baseline plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but the peak ACTH response to 30 min acute immobilization stress was greater in CIH-stressed rats than in controls. Induction of Fos expression by acute immobilization stress was comparable following CIH in several HPA-modulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala. Fos induction was attenuated in lateral hypothalamus, an HPA-inhibitory region. By contrast, acute Fos induction was enhanced in noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus following CIH exposure. Thus, similar to chronic cold stress, CIH sensitized acute HPA and noradrenergic stress reactivity. Plasticity in the acute stress response is important for long-term adaptation, but may also contribute to pathophysiological conditions associated with states of chronic or repeated stress, such as OSA

  19. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Lempert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.

  20. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-07-20

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress.

  1. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute stress affects risk taking but not ambiguity aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckert, Magdalena; Schwieren, Christiane; Kudielka, Brigitte M; Fiebach, Christian J

    2014-01-01

    Economic decisions are often made in stressful situations (e.g., at the trading floor), but the effects of stress on economic decision making have not been systematically investigated so far. The present study examines how acute stress influences economic decision making under uncertainty (risk and ambiguity) using financially incentivized lotteries. We varied the domain of decision making as well as the expected value of the risky prospect. Importantly, no feedback was provided to investigate risk taking and ambiguity aversion independent from learning processes. In a sample of 75 healthy young participants, 55 of whom underwent a stress induction protocol (Trier Social Stress Test for Groups), we observed more risk seeking for gains. This effect was restricted to a subgroup of participants that showed a robust cortisol response to acute stress (n = 26). Gambling under ambiguity, in contrast to gambling under risk, was not influenced by the cortisol response to stress. These results show that acute psychosocial stress affects economic decision making under risk, independent of learning processes. Our results further point to the importance of cortisol as a mediator of this effect.

  3. Stress-Related Alterations of Visceral Sensation: Animal Models for Irritable Bowel Syndrome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulak, Agata; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Stressors of different psychological, physical or immune origin play a critical role in the pathophysiology of irritable bowel syndrome participating in symptoms onset, clinical presentation as well as treatment outcome. Experimental stress models applying a variety of acute and chronic exteroceptive or interoceptive stressors have been developed to target different periods throughout the lifespan of animals to assess the vulnerability, the trigger and perpetuating factors determining stress influence on visceral sensitivity and interactions within the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence points towards adequate construct and face validity of experimental models developed with respect to animals' age, sex, strain differences and specific methodological aspects such as non-invasive monitoring of visceromotor response to colorectal distension as being essential in successful identification and evaluation of novel therapeutic targets aimed at reducing stress-related alterations in visceral sensitivity. Underlying mechanisms of stress-induced modulation of visceral pain involve a combination of peripheral, spinal and supraspinal sensitization based on the nature of the stressors and dysregulation of descending pathways that modulate nociceptive transmission or stress-related analgesic response. PMID:21860814

  4. Stress and Alterations in Bones: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia-Maria Wippert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research have demonstrated that physical stress (PS stimulates bone remodeling and affects bone structure and function through complex mechanotransduction mechanisms. Recent research has laid ground to the hypothesis that mental stress (MS also influences bone biology, eventually leading to osteoporosis and increased bone fracture risk. These effects are likely exerted by modulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity, resulting in an altered release of growth hormones, glucocorticoids and cytokines, as demonstrated in human and animal studies. Furthermore, molecular cross talk between mental and PS is thought to exist, with either synergistic or preventative effects on bone disease progression depending on the characteristics of the applied stressor. This mini review will explain the emerging concept of MS as an important player in bone adaptation and its potential cross talk with PS by summarizing the current state of knowledge, highlighting newly evolving notions (such as intergenerational transmission of stress and its epigenetic modifications affecting bone and proposing new research directions.

  5. Blunted Electrodermal and Psychological Response to Acute Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-05-10

    Caring for an offspring with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with high levels of distress, and health problems. Indeed, ED caregivers have to cope with a range of challenges related to their caring role, which represents a chronic stress situation. This tends to alter body homeostasis and caregivers' health status. This study aimed to analyse the electrodermal reactivity and psychological response to acute stress in ED caregivers compared to non-caregivers. As expected, caregivers showed lower electrodermal (p family caregivers of people with EDs.

  6. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  7. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G.; Branco, L.G.S.; Leite-Panissi, C.R.A.

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress

  8. Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghorst, Lisa H.; Bogdan, Ryan; Frank, Michael J.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2013-01-01

    Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task (PSST) that enabled comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go) and punishment-driven (NoGo) learning under either “no stress” or “stress” (threat-of-shock) conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under “stress” who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the “no stress” condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward, but not punishment, under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture. PMID:23596406

  9. Effects of hyper- and hypo- thyroidism on oxidative stress of the eye in experimental acute anterior uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgihan, K; Bilgihan, A; Diker, S; Ataoglu, O; Dolapci, M; Akata, F; Hasanreisôglu, B; Turkozkan, N

    1996-02-01

    Glutathione peroxidase activities and malondialdehyde levels were measured in the homogenated anterior segment of rat eyes with endotoxin induced acute anterior uveitis in euthyroid, hyperthyroid and hypothyroid rats. Malondialdehyde concentrations were found to be significantly increased (p 0.05). These results suggest that excess or deficiency of the thyroid hormones cause alterations in the malondialdehyde levels and glutathione peroxidase activities of the rat eyes in endotoxin induced uveitis, and hyperthyroidism may increase the oxidative stress in endotoxin induced acute anterior uveitis.

  10. History of chronic stress modifies acute stress-evoked fear memory and acoustic startle in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeltzer, Sarah N; Vollmer, Lauren L; Rush, Jennifer E; Weinert, Mychal; Dolgas, Charles M; Sah, Renu

    2015-01-01

    Chronicity of trauma exposure plays an important role in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Thus, exposure to multiple traumas on a chronic scale leads to worse outcomes than acute events. The rationale for the current study was to investigate the effects of a single adverse event versus the same event on a background of chronic stress. We hypothesized that a history of chronic stress would lead to worse behavioral outcomes than a single event alone. Male rats (n = 14/group) were exposed to either a single traumatic event in the form of electric foot shocks (acute shock, AS), or to footshocks on a background of chronic stress (chronic variable stress-shock, CVS-S). PTSD-relevant behaviors (fear memory and acoustic startle responses) were measured following 7 d recovery. In line with our hypothesis, CVS-S elicited significant increases in fear acquisition and conditioning versus the AS group. Unexpectedly, CVS-S elicited reduced startle reactivity to an acoustic stimulus in comparison with the AS group. Significant increase in FosB/ΔFosB-like immunostaining was observed in the dentate gyrus, basolateral amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex of CVS-S rats. Assessments of neuropeptide Y (NPY), a stress-regulatory transmitter associated with chronic PTSD, revealed selective reduction in the hippocampus of CVS-S rats. Collectively, our data show that cumulative stress potentiates delayed fear memory and impacts defensive responding. Altered neuronal activation in forebrain limbic regions and reduced NPY may contribute to these phenomena. Our preclinical studies support clinical findings reporting worse PTSD outcomes stemming from cumulative traumatization in contrast to acute trauma.

  11. Social media as a shield: Facebook buffers acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2018-03-01

    Facebook remains the most widely used social media platform. Research suggests that Facebook may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being, and that it may impair physiological stress recovery. However, little is known about its influence on stress reactivity. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined how Facebook influences reactivity to an acute social stressor. Facebook users (n=104, 53 males, mean age 19.50, SD=1.73) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook account or sit quietly with the option of reading electronic magazines before experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers in response to the stressor. However, participants who used Facebook experienced lower levels of psychosocial stress, physiological stress, and rated the stressor as less threatening (p'sFacebook use may buffer stress-in particular psychosocial stress-if used before experiencing an acute social stressor. This study is among the first to incorporate both objective and subjective measures in investigating the complex relationship between Facebook use and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.

  13. Acute stress and working memory in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.

  14. Deficiency of Antinociception and Excessive Grooming Induced by Acute Immobilization Stress in Per1 Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhouqiao; Zhou, Linglin; Li, Huili; Teng, Huajing; Dai, Wei; Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinociception. The clock gene, Per1, has been identified as an effecter response to the acute stresses, but its function in neuroendocrine stress systems remains unclear. In the present study we observed the alterations in grooming and nociceptive behaviors induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice and other genotypes (wild types and Per2 mutant). The results displayed that stress elicited a more robust effect on grooming behavior in Per1 mutant mice than in other genotypes. Subsequently, the obvious stress-induced antinociception was observed in the wild-type and Per2 mutant mice, however, in Per1 mutant, this antinociceptive effects were partially-reversed (mechanical sensitivity), or over-reversed to hyperalgesia (thermal sensitivity). The real-time qPCR results showed that in PVN, there were stress-induced up-regulations of Crh, Avp and c-fos in all of genotypes; moreover, the expression change of Crh in Per1 mutant mice was much larger than in others. Another hormonal gene, Oxt, was up-regulated induced by stress in wild-type and Per2 mutant but not in Per1 mutant. In addition, the stress significantly elevated the serum corticosterone levels without genotype-dependent differences, and accordingly the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, expressed with a similar pattern in PVN of all strains. Taken together, the present study indicated that in acute stress treated Per1 mutant mice, there are abnormal hormonal responses in PVN, correlating with the aberrant

  15. Altered oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of neoplasms in canines. Even though cancer induced metabolic alterations are well established, the clinical data describing the metabolic profiles of animal tumors is not available. Hence, our present investigation was carried out with the aim of studying changes in carbohydrate metabolism along with the level of oxidative stress in canine mammary tumors. Materials and Methods: Fresh mammary tumor tissues along with the adjacent healthy tissues were collected from the college surgical ward. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione, protein, hexose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were analyzed in all the tissues. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: More than two-fold increase in TBARS and three-fold increase in glutathione levels were observed in neoplastic tissues. Hexokinase activity and hexose concentration (175% was found to be increased, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase (33%, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (42%, and G6PD (5 fold activities were reduced in tumor mass compared to control. Conclusion: Finally, it was revealed that lipid peroxidation was increased with differentially altered carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors.

  16. Alterations in cognitive flexibility in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sophie A; Rodriguez-Santiago, Mariana; Riley, John; Abelson, James L; Floresco, Stan B; Liberzon, Israel

    2015-06-01

    Exposure to stressful or traumatic events is associated with increased vulnerability to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This vulnerability may be partly mediated by effects of stress on the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and associated circuitry. The PFC mediates critical cognitive functions, including cognitive flexibility, which reflects an organism's ability to adaptively alter behavior in light of changing contingencies. Prior work suggests that chronic or acute stress exerts complex effects on different forms of cognitive flexibility, via actions on the PFC. Similarly, PFC dysfunction is reported in PTSD, as are executive function deficits. Animal models that permit study of the effects of stress/trauma on cognitive flexibility may be useful in illuminating ways in which stress-linked cognitive changes contribute to PTSD. Here, we examined the behavioral effects of a rodent model of PTSD - single prolonged stress (SPS) - on performance of two forms of cognitive flexibility: reversal learning and strategy set-shifting. SPS did not impair acquisition of either a response or visual-cue discrimination but did cause slight impairments in the retrieval of the visual-cue rule. During response discrimination reversal, SPS rats made more perseverative errors. In comparison, during set-shifting from the visual-cue to response discrimination, SPS rats did not show enhanced perseveration, but did display increased never-reinforced errors, indicative of impairment in selecting a novel strategy. These data demonstrate that SPS leads to a complex and intriguing pattern of deficits in flexible responding and suggest that impairments in executive functioning associated with PTSD could, in part, be a neuro-cognitive consequence of trauma exposure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction alters collagen metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Hansen, S S; Jensen, L T

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study was to monitor collagen metabolism after thrombolytic therapy. Sequential measurements of serum aminoterminal type-III procollagen propeptide (S-PIIINP) and carboxyterminal type-I procollagen propeptide (S-PICP) were made in 62 patients suspected of acute myocardial...

  18. Alterations in acute-phase reactants (CRP, rheumatoid factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    In response to a wide range of homeostatic disturbances, such as trauma, neoplasms, bacterial infection, burn injury ... 2Department of Immunology, University of the Witwatersrand Johannesburg. CORRESPONDENCE: S J Semple ... The human body initiates an acute phase response (APR) in response to a wide range of ...

  19. Biochemical alteration in Nigerian children with acute falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish data on the effect of acute falciparum malaria on plasma levels some biochemical parameters in the pathology of malaria in Nigeria children. We estimated the levels of. Na+, K+, HCO3, Ca++ , inorganic PO4 =, bilirubin, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine and glucose in the plasma ...

  20. Converging, Synergistic Actions of Multiple Stress Hormones Mediate Enduring Memory Impairments after Acute Simultaneous Stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuncai; Molet, Jenny; Lauterborn, Julie C; Trieu, Brian H; Bolton, Jessica L; Patterson, Katelin P; Gall, Christine M; Lynch, Gary; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-11-02

    Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, hippocampal synapses are bathed in a mixture of stress-released molecules, yet it is unknown whether or how these interact to mediate the effects of stress on memory. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) on synaptic physiology and dendritic spine structure that mediate the profound effects of acute concurrent stresses on memory. Spatial memory in mice was impaired enduringly after acute concurrent stresses resulting from loss of synaptic potentiation associated with disrupted structure of synapse-bearing dendritic spines. Combined application of the stress hormones corticosterone and CRH recapitulated the physiological and structural defects provoked by acute stresses. Mechanistically, corticosterone and CRH, via their cognate receptors, acted synergistically on the spine-actin regulator RhoA, promoting its deactivation and degradation, respectively, and destabilizing spines. Accordingly, blocking the receptors of both hormones, but not each alone, rescued memory. Therefore, the synergistic actions of corticosterone and CRH at hippocampal synapses underlie memory impairments after concurrent and perhaps also single, severe acute stresses, with potential implications to spatial memory dysfunction in, for example, posttraumatic stress disorder. Stress influences memory, an adaptive process crucial for survival. During stress, adrenal corticosterone and hippocampal corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) permeate memory-forming hippocampal synapses, yet it is unknown whether (and how) these hormones interact to mediate effects of stress. Here, we demonstrate novel synergistic actions of corticosterone and CRH on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spine structure that mediate the memory-disrupting effects of stress. Combined application of both hormones provoked synaptic function collapse and spine disruption

  1. The relationship between personality and the response to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xin, Yuanyuan; Wu, Jianhui; Yao, Zhuxi; Guan, Qing; Aleman, Andre; Luo, Yuejia

    2017-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between personality traits and the response to acute psychological stress induced by a standardized laboratory stress induction procedure (the Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). The stress response was measured with a combination of cardiovascular

  2. Predicting Performance Under Acute Stress : The Role of Individual Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping

  3. Chronic stress affects immunologic but not cardiovascular responsiveness to acute psychological stress in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benschop, R. J.; Brosschot, J. F.; Godaert, G. L.; de Smet, M. B.; Geenen, R.; Olff, M.; Heijnen, C. J.; Ballieux, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    This study deals with the effect of chronic stress on physiological responsiveness to an acute psychological stressor in male high school teachers. Chronic stress was operationalized as the self-reported number of everyday problems. Twenty-seven subjects reporting extremely low or high numbers of

  4. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  5. Patient-Specific Alterations in CO2 Cerebrovascular Responsiveness in Acute and Sub-Acute Sports-Related Concussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Alan C. Mutch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundPreliminary studies suggest that sports-related concussion (SRC is associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF regulation. Here, we use advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques to measure CBF and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR in individual SRC patients and healthy control subjects.Methods15 SRC patients (mean age = 16.3, range 14–20 years and 27 healthy control subjects (mean age = 17.6, range 13–21 years underwent anatomical MRI, pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL MRI and model-based prospective end-tidal targeting (MPET of CO2 during blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD MRI. Group differences in global mean resting CBF were examined. Voxel-by-voxel group and individual differences in regional CVR were examined using statistical parametric mapping (SPM. Leave-one-out receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to evaluate the utility of brain MRI CO2 stress testing biomarkers to correctly discriminate between SRC patients and healthy control subjects.ResultsAll studies were tolerated with no complications. Traumatic structural findings were identified in one SRC patient. No significant group differences in global mean resting CBF were observed. There were no significant differences in the CO2 stimulus and O2 targeting during BOLD MRI. Significant group and patient-specific differences in CVR were observed with SRC patients demonstrating a predominant pattern of increased CVR. Leave-one-out ROC analysis for voxels demonstrating a significant increase in CVR was found to reliably discriminate between SRC patients and healthy control subjects (AUC of 0.879, p = 0.0001. The optimal cutoff for increased CVR declarative for SRC was 1,899 voxels resulting in a sensitivity of 0.867 and a specificity of 0.778 for this specific ROC analysis. There was no correlation between abnormal voxel counts and Postconcussion Symptom Scale scores among SRC patients.ConclusionAcute

  6. Does acute stress disorder predict posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies...... on the Acute Stress Disorder scale. ASD severity accounted for 40% and the inclusion of other risk factors accounted for 50% of the PTSD severity variance. In conclusion, results indicated that ASD appears to predict PTSD differently following nonsexual assault than other trauma types. ASD severity...

  7. Stress-related behavioral alterations accompanying cocaine toxicity: the effects of mixed opioid drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayase, T; Yamamoto, Y; Yamamoto, K

    2000-12-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of mixed opioid drugs on the severity of cocaine (COCA) toxicity by examining stress-related behavioral alterations in mice. In order to ascertain the strength of the stress, the continuous observation of the behavioral symptoms in the cage and the forced swimming test (Porsolt test) were performed in the COCA (75 mg/kg, i.p.)-treated groups, with or without the mixed mu-kappa receptor-related opioid drugs, buprenorphine (BUP) and pentazocine (PEN). Using the high-sensitivity activity measuring instrument Supermex, both the spontaneous behaviors in the cage and the forced swimming behaviors in the water were assessed as activity counts. The behavioral alterations in the COCA-treated groups were compared with a group of mice given a 10 min immobilization stress (IM group). In the COCA-only group, a prolonged increase in the spontaneous behaviors accompanied by convulsive seizures was observed even in the surviving mice, unlike in the IM group. However, an acceleration of behavioral despair in the Porsolt test similar to that observed in the IM group was observed in the COCA group after the disappearance of the acute toxic symptoms (5 hours after the COCA treatment). Among the opioid-treated groups, the mortality rate was attenuated only in the COCA-BUP (0.25 mg/kg, i.p.) group. In the COCA-BUP group, a prolonged suppression of the morbid hyperactivity in the cage except for the convulsive seizures, and a normalization of the swimming behavior in the Porsolt test were observed in the survivors. On the other hand, in the COCA-PEN (5 mg/kg, i.p.) group, the swimming behavior in the Porsolt test was abnormally increased in addition to the prolonged morbid hyperactivity in the cage. Therefore, the COCA-induced stress-related behaviors were normalized in the group of mice treated with BUP, a group with a good prognosis.

  8. Acute myocardial infarction and stress cardiomyopathy following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christina; Elliott, John; Troughton, Richard; Frampton, Christopher; Smyth, David; Crozier, Ian; Bridgman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36 am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations. Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others. There was a significant increase in overall admissions (pearthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6-6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44-2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (pearthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events.

  9. The experience of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after acute myocardial infraction: A qualitative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staikos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide, which may result in post-traumatic stress (acute or chronic, as well as in psychological distress, both of which change to a decisive extent the life and daily routine of the patient. Purpose: To investigate the experience of post-traumatic stress disorder in patients who suffered an AMI and its effect on their quality of life. Methodology: This qualitative research was conducted using the hermeneutic/phenomenological approach. Using with the method of semi-structured interviews, 20 (15 men, 5 women patients described their experiences. The data were analyzed using the empirically grounded theory. Results: Patients who suffered an AMI exhibited a series of acute post-traumatic stress symptoms during the first hours after the onset of the disease, which sometimes may be evident for up to two years. The daily presence of psychological distress and the evident manifestation of the concept of spiritual maturation significantly altered their daily habits. Conclusions: Patients with AMI experience post-traumatic stress which starts in the first hours after the event and may last for up to two years, which significantly affect their quality of life.

  10. Brief daily postpartum separations from the litter alter dam response to psychostimulants and to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Silveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling induces several behavioral and neurochemical alterations in pups, including decreased responses to stress and reduced fear in new environments. However, there are few reports in the literature concerning the behavioral effects of this neonatal intervention on the dams during the postpartum period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if brief postpartum separation from pups has a persistent impact on the dam's stress response and behavior. Litters were divided into two neonatal groups: 1 non-handled and 2 handled [10 min/day, from postnatal day (PND 1 to 10]. Weaning occurred at PND 21 when behavioral tasks started to be applied to the dams, including sweet food ingestion (PND 21, forced swimming test (PND 28, and locomotor response to a psychostimulant (PND 28. On postpartum day 40, plasma was collected at baseline for leptin assays and after 1 h of restraint for corticosterone assay. Regarding sweet food consumption, behavior during the forced swimming test or plasma leptin levels did not differ between dams briefly separated and non-separated from their pups during the postpartum period. On the other hand, both increased locomotion in response to diethylpropion and increased corticosterone secretion in response to acute stress were detected in dams briefly separated from their pups during the first 10 postnatal days. Taken together, these findings suggest that brief, repeated separations from the pups during the neonatal period persistently impact the behavior and induce signs of dopaminergic sensitization in the dam.

  11. Brief daily postpartum separations from the litter alter dam response to psychostimulants and to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Silveira

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling induces several behavioral and neurochemical alterations in pups, including decreased responses to stress and reduced fear in new environments. However, there are few reports in the literature concerning the behavioral effects of this neonatal intervention on the dams during the postpartum period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if brief postpartum separation from pups has a persistent impact on the dam's stress response and behavior. Litters were divided into two neonatal groups: 1 non-handled and 2 handled [10 min/day, from postnatal day (PND 1 to 10]. Weaning occurred at PND 21 when behavioral tasks started to be applied to the dams, including sweet food ingestion (PND 21, forced swimming test (PND 28, and locomotor response to a psychostimulant (PND 28. On postpartum day 40, plasma was collected at baseline for leptin assays and after 1 h of restraint for corticosterone assay. Regarding sweet food consumption, behavior during the forced swimming test or plasma leptin levels did not differ between dams briefly separated and non-separated from their pups during the postpartum period. On the other hand, both increased locomotion in response to diethylpropion and increased corticosterone secretion in response to acute stress were detected in dams briefly separated from their pups during the first 10 postnatal days. Taken together, these findings suggest that brief, repeated separations from the pups during the neonatal period persistently impact the behavior and induce signs of dopaminergic sensitization in the dam.

  12. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  13. Methylphenidate treatment causes oxidative stress and alters energetic metabolism in an animal model of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comim, Clarissa M; Gomes, Karin M; Réus, Gislaine Z; Petronilho, Fabrícia; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Streck, Emílio L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Quevedo, João

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate oxidative damage through the thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyl groups; antioxidant enzymatic system - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT); and energetic metabolism in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive adult rats (SHR) after both acute and chronic treatment with methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH). Adult (60 days old) SHRs were treated during 28 days (chronic treatment), or 1 day (acute treatment). The rats received one i.p. injection per day of either saline or MPH (2 mg/kg). Two hours after the last injection, oxidative damage parameters and energetic metabolism in the cerebellum, prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, striatum and cortex were evaluated. We observed that both acute and/or chronic treatment increased TBARS and carbonyl groups, and decreased SOD and CAT activities in many of the brain structures evaluated. Regarding the energetic metabolism evaluation, the acute and chronic treatment altered the energetic metabolism in many of the brain structures evaluated. We observed that both acute and chronic use of methylphenidate hydrochloride (MPH) in adult spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) was associated with increased oxidative stress and energetic metabolism alterations. These data also reinforce the importance of the SHR animal model in further studies regarding MPH.

  14. Acute Stress Modulates Feedback Processing in Men and Women : Differential Effects on the Feedback-Related Negativity and Theta and Beta Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Banis, Hendrika

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters

  15. Interaction of metabolic stress with chronic mild stress in altering brain cytokines and sucrose preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remus, Jennifer L; Stewart, Luke T; Camp, Robert M; Novak, Colleen M; Johnson, John D

    2015-06-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism's risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight 2-bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on Day 5 and 10, then food and water deprive animals overnight and tested their sucrose consumption and preference in a 1-hr sucrose test the following morning. Approximately 65% of stressed animals consumed sucrose and showed a sucrose preference similar to nonstressed controls in an overnight sucrose test, and 35% showed a decrease in sucrose intake and preference. Following overnight food and water deprivation the previously "resilient" animals showed a significant decrease in sucrose preference and greatly reduced sucrose intake. In addition, we evaluated whether the onset of anhedonia following food and water deprivation corresponds to alterations in corticosterone, epinephrine, circulating glucose, or interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) expression in limbic brain areas. Although all stressed animals showed adrenal hypertrophy and elevated circulating epinephrine, only stressed animals that were food deprived were hypoglycemic compared with food-deprived controls. Additionally, food and water deprivation significantly increased hippocampus IL-1β while food and water deprivation only increased hypothalamus IL-1β in stress-susceptible animals. These data demonstrate that metabolic stress of food and water deprivation interacts with chronic stressor exposure to induce physiological and anhedonic responses. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Total sleep deprivation alters cardiovascular reactivity to acute stressors in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Durocher, John J; Larson, Robert A; Dellavalla, Joseph P; Carter, Jason R

    2012-09-01

    Exaggerated cardiovascular reactivity to mental stress (MS) and cold pressor test (CPT) has been linked to increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent epidemiological studies identify sleep deprivation as an important risk factor for hypertension, yet the relations between sleep deprivation and cardiovascular reactivity remain equivocal. We hypothesized that 24-h total sleep deprivation (TSD) would augment cardiovascular reactivity to MS and CPT and blunt the MS-induced forearm vasodilation. Because the associations between TSD and hypertension appear to be stronger in women, a secondary aim was to probe for sex differences. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were recorded during MS and CPT in 28 young, healthy subjects (14 men and 14 women) after normal sleep (NS) and 24-h TSD (randomized, crossover design). Forearm vascular conductance (FVC) was recorded during MS. MAP, FVC, and MSNA (n = 10) responses to MS were not different between NS and TSD (condition × time, P > 0.05). Likewise, MAP and MSNA (n = 6) responses to CPT were not different between NS and TSD (condition × time, P > 0.05). In contrast, increases in HR during both MS and CPT were augmented after TSD (condition × time, P ≤ 0.05), and these augmented HR responses persisted during both recoveries. When analyzed for sex differences, cardiovascular reactivity to MS and CPT was not different between sexes (condition × time × sex, P > 0.05). We conclude that TSD does not significantly alter MAP, MSNA, or forearm vascular responses to MS and CPT. The augmented tachycardia responses during and after both acute stressors provide new insight regarding the emerging links among sleep deprivation, stress, and cardiovascular risk.

  17. An injured man with acute altered mental status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hung-Yu; Kung, Lu-Chih; Huang, Ming-Yuan

    2018-03-01

    A 58-year-old man sustained injuries due to accidental fall from a height of 5 m onto a solid floor while operating a crane. He was fully conscious without external evidence of head injury when presented to the ED. The patient had multiple fractures involving the fourth, fifth and seventh of the left ribs, left iliac wing and superior ramus of the pelvis, comminuted fracture of the left femur shaft, and an open fracture of the mandible. Two hours after ED presentation, the patient developed acute confusion and lethargy, which rapidly progressed to coma and respiratory distress, and was subsequently intubated with mechanical ventilation support. Emergent CT scan of the head is shown (figure 1).emermed;35/3/148/F1F1F1Figure 1CT scan of the head without contrast. What is the most likely diagnosis?A. Cerebral haemorrhageB. Brain metastasisC. Cerebral fat embolismD. Diffuse axonal injury. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Altered Stress-Induced Regulation of Genes in Monocytes in Adults with a History of Childhood Adversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwaiger, Marion; Grinberg, Marianna; Moser, Dirk; Zang, Johannes C S; Heinrichs, Markus; Hengstler, Jan G; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Cole, Steve; Kumsta, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to serious or traumatic events early in life can lead to persistent alterations in physiological stress response systems, including enhanced cross talk between the neuroendocrine and immune system. These programming effects may be mechanistically involved in mediating the effects of adverse childhood experience on disease risk in adulthood. We investigated hormonal and genome-wide mRNA expression responses in monocytes to acute stress exposure, in a sample of healthy adults (n=30) with a history of early childhood adversity, and a control group (n=30) without trauma experience. The early adversity group showed altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis responses to stress, evidenced by lower ACTH and cortisol responses. Analyses of gene expression patterns showed that stress-responsive transcripts were enriched for genes involved in cytokine activity, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, chemokine activity, and G-protein coupled receptor binding. Differences between groups in stress-induced regulation of gene transcription were observed for genes involved in steroid binding, hormone activity, and G-protein coupled receptor binding. Transcription factor binding motif analysis showed an increased activity of pro-inflammatory upstream signaling in the early adversity group. We also identified transcripts that were differentially correlated with stress-induced cortisol increases between the groups, enriched for genes involved in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and glutamate receptor signaling. We suggest that childhood adversity leads to persistent alterations in transcriptional control of stress-responsive pathways, which-when chronically or repeatedly activated-might predispose individuals to stress-related psychopathology.

  19. [Acute Stress and Broken Heart Syndrome. A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Juliana; Tamayo-Orozco, Sebastián; Vallejo-Gómez, Andrés Felipe; Posada, María Teresa; Restrepo, Diana

    Stress has been associated with an acute heart failure syndrome of important morbidity and mortality. Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman with a history of an untreated generalized anxiety disorder, whom after the violent death of her son presented with oppressive chest pain irradiated to neck and left superior extremity, lasting for more than 30minutes, initial clinical suspect suggests acute coronary syndrome. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by a reversible left ventricular dysfunction and wall movement abnormalities, without any compromise of the coronary arteries, associated to high plasma levels of catecholamines which in most cases correlates with an acute stress of emotional or physical type. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy has to be considered by physicians among the differential diagnosis when facing a patient with suspected acute coronary syndrome, especially in post-menopausal women with a history of psychiatric comorbidities such as a generalized anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Results Values for TAG and MDA ( P 0.05. Conclusions Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.

  1. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Taren, Adrienne A.; Gianaros, Peter J.; Greco, Carol M.; Lindsay, Emily K.; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K.; Ferris, Jennifer L.; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L.; Bursley, James K.; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J. David

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month...

  2. The effects of acute stress on the calibration of persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; McGuire, Joseph T; Hazeltine, Danielle B; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Kable, Joseph W

    2018-02-01

    People frequently fail to wait for delayed rewards after choosing them. These preference reversals are sometimes thought to reflect self-control failure. Other times, however, continuing to wait for a delayed reward may be counterproductive (e.g., when reward timing uncertainty is high). Research has demonstrated that people can calibrate how long to wait for rewards in a given environment. Thus, the role of self-control might be to integrate information about the environment to flexibly adapt behavior, not merely to promote waiting. Here we tested effects of acute stress, which has been shown to tax control processes, on persistence, and the calibration of persistence, in young adult human participants. Half the participants (n = 60) performed a task in which persistence was optimal, and the other half (n = 60) performed a task in which it was optimal to quit waiting for reward soon after each trial began. Each participant completed the task either after cold pressor stress or no stress. Stress did not influence persistence or optimal calibration of persistence. Nevertheless, an exploratory analysis revealed an "inverted-U" relationship between cortisol increase and performance in the stress groups, suggesting that choosing the adaptive waiting policy may be facilitated with some stress and impaired with severe stress.

  3. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  4. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-13

    Patri et al. 2009). Recently, increased oxidative stress and .... increased oxidative stress. Ascorbic acid is a water-soluble antioxidant that acts as the body's primary defense against peroxyl radicals formed in the aqueous phase.

  5. Pine needle extract prevents hippocampal memory impairment in acute restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Kim, Won-Yong; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2017-07-31

    The Pinus densiflora leaf has been traditionally used to treat mental health disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine. Here we examined the ethnopharmacological relevance of pine needle on memory impairment caused by stress. To elucidate the possible modulatory actions of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on stress-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity, we adopted an acute restraint stress mouse model. Mice were orally administered with PNE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) for 9 days, and were then subjected to restraint stress (6h/day) for 3 days (from experimental day 7-9). To evaluate spatial cognitive and memory function, the Morris water maze was performed during experimental days 5-9. Restraint stress induced the memory impairment (the prolonged escape latency and cumulative path-length, and reduced time spent in the target quadrant), and these effects were significantly prevented by PNE treatment. The levels of corticosterone and its receptor in the sera/hippocampus were increased by restraint stress, which was normalized by PNE treatment. Restraint stress elicited the hippocampal excitotoxicity, the inflammatory response and oxidative injury as demonstrated by the increased glutamate levels, altered levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and imbalanced oxidant-antioxidant balance biomarkers. Two immunohistochemistry activities against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons supported the finding of excitotoxicity especially in the cornu ammonis (CA)3 region of the hippocampus. Those alterations were notably attenuated by administration of PNE. The above findings showed that PNE has pharmacological properties that modulate the hippocampal excitotoxicity-derived memory impairment under severe stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Stress Reactions in Couples after a Burn Event to Their Young Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.; Van Loey, N.E.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073087998; Van Son, M.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068440340

    2012-01-01

    Objective This multicenter study examines acute stress reactions in couples following a burn event to their preschool child. Methods Participants were 182 mothers and 154 fathers, including 143 couples, of 193 children (0–4 years) with acute burns. Parents’ self-reported acute stress reactions and

  7. Social identity influences stress appraisals and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-09-01

    This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  8. Acute illness-induced behavioral alterations are similar to those observed during withdrawal from acute alcohol exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richey, Laura; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L.; Buck, Hollin M.; Deak, Terrence

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to an immunogen results in a constellation of behavioral changes collectively referred to as “sickness behaviors,” with alterations in cytokine expression previously shown to contribute to this sickness response. Since behaviors observed during ethanol withdrawal are strikingly similar to sickness behaviors, we hypothesized that behavioral manifestations of ethanol withdrawal might be an expression of sickness behaviors induced by ethanol-related changes in peripheral and/or central cytokine expression. Accordingly, behaviors exhibited during a modified social investigation test were first characterized in male rats following an acute injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 100 μg/kg). Subsequently, behavioral changes after either a high (4-g/kg; Experiment 2) or low dose (0.5 g/kg; Experiment 3) of ethanol were also examined in the same social investigation test, as well as in the forced-swim test (FST; Experiment 4). Results from these experiments demonstrated similar reductions in both exploration and social investigatory behavior during acute illness and ethanol withdrawal, while a seemingly paradoxical decrease in immobility was observed in the FST during acute ethanol withdrawal. In follow-up studies, neither indomethacin (Experiment 5) nor interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Experiment 6) pre-exposure reversed the ethanol withdrawal-induced behavioral changes observed in this social investigation test. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that the behavioral sequelae of acute illness and ethanol withdrawal are similar in nature, while antagonist studies suggest that these behavioral alterations are not reversed by blockade of IL-1 receptors or inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis. Though a direct mechanistic link between cytokines and the expression of acute ethanol withdrawal-related behaviors has yet to be found, future studies examining the involvement of brain cytokines as potential mediators of ethanol effects are greatly needed. PMID

  9. Altered neutrophil immunophenotypes in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Elen; Bacelar, Thiago S.; Ciudad, Juana; Ribeiro, Maria Cecília M.; Garcia, Daniela R.N.; Sedek, Lukasz; Maia, Simone F.; Aranha, Daniel B.; Machado, Indyara C.; Ikeda, Arissa; Baglioli, Bianca F.; Lopez-Duarte, Nathalia; Teixeira, Lisandra A. C.; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Silva, Maria Luiza M.; Land, Marcelo G.P.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of evidences suggest a genetic predisposition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that might favor the occurrence of the driver genetic alterations. Such genetic background might also translate into phenotypic alterations of residual hematopoietic cells. Whether such phenotypic alterations are present in bone marrow (BM) cells from childhood B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL remains to be investigated. Here we analyzed the immunophenotypic profile of BM and peripheral blood (PB) maturing/matured neutrophils from 118 children with BCP-ALL and their relationship with the features of the disease. Our results showed altered neutrophil phenotypes in most (77%) BCP-ALL cases. The most frequently altered marker was CD10 (53%), followed by CD33 (34%), CD13 (15%), CD15/CD65 (10%) and CD123 (7%). Of note, patients with altered neutrophil phenotypes had younger age (p = 0.03) and lower percentages of BM maturing neutrophils (p = 0.004) together with greater BM lymphocyte (p = 0.04), and mature B-cell (p = 0.03) counts. No significant association was found between an altered neutrophil phenotype and other disease features. These findings point out the potential existence of an altered residual hematopoiesis in most childhood BCP-ALL cases. PMID:27028865

  10. The war within : Neurobiological alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, E.

    2006-01-01

    For a large number of veterans, war does not end after they are removed from a combat zone. Traumatic stress affects nearly all veterans, but while the majority of veterans learn to live with their experiences, for some veterans traumatic stress seethes inside. In this dissertation posttraumatic

  11. Acute psychological stress induces short-term variable immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Michael S; Beliakova-Bethell, Nadejda; Mujica-Parodi, Lilianne R; Carlson, Joshua M; Ensign, Wayne Y; Woelk, Christopher H; Rana, Brinda K

    2016-03-01

    In spite of advances in understanding the cross-talk between the peripheral immune system and the brain, the molecular mechanisms underlying the rapid adaptation of the immune system to an acute psychological stressor remain largely unknown. Conventional approaches to classify molecular factors mediating these responses have targeted relatively few biological measurements or explored cross-sectional study designs, and therefore have restricted characterization of stress-immune interactions. This exploratory study analyzed transcriptional profiles and flow cytometric data of peripheral blood leukocytes with physiological (endocrine, autonomic) measurements collected throughout the sequence of events leading up to, during, and after short-term exposure to physical danger in humans. Immediate immunomodulation to acute psychological stress was defined as a short-term selective up-regulation of natural killer (NK) cell-associated cytotoxic and IL-12 mediated signaling genes that correlated with increased cortisol, catecholamines and NK cells into the periphery. In parallel, we observed down-regulation of innate immune toll-like receptor genes and genes of the MyD88-dependent signaling pathway. Correcting gene expression for an influx of NK cells revealed a molecular signature specific to the adrenal cortex. Subsequently, focusing analyses on discrete groups of coordinately expressed genes (modules) throughout the time-series revealed immune stress responses in modules associated to immune/defense response, response to wounding, cytokine production, TCR signaling and NK cell cytotoxicity which differed between males and females. These results offer a spring-board for future research towards improved treatment of stress-related disease including the impact of stress on cardiovascular and autoimmune disorders, and identifies an immune mechanism by which vulnerabilities to these diseases may be gender-specific. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Bisphenol A in oocytes leads to growth suppression and altered stress performance in juvenile rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakanteswar Aluru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA, used in the manufacture of plastics, is ubiquitously distributed in the aquatic environment. However, the effect of maternal transfer of these xenobiotics on embryonic development and growth is poorly understood in fish. We tested the hypothesis that BPA in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, impact development, growth and stress performance in juveniles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trout oocytes were exposed to 0, 30 and 100 microg.mL(-1 BPA for 3 h in ovarian fluid, followed by fertilization. The embryos were maintained in clean water and sampled temporally over 156-days post-fertilization (dpf, and juveniles were sampled at 400-dpf. The egg BPA levels declined steadily after exposure and were undetectable after 21- dpf. Oocyte exposure to BPA led to a delay in hatching and yolk absorption and a consistently lower body mass over 152-dpf. The growth impairment, especially in the high BPA group, correlated with higher growth hormone (GH content and lower GH receptors gene expression. Also, mRNA abundances of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2 and their receptors were suppressed in the BPA treated groups. The juvenile fish grown from the BPA-enriched eggs had lower body mass and showed perturbations in plasma cortisol and glucose response to an acute stressor. CONCLUSION: BPA accumulation in eggs, prior to fertilization, leads to hatching delays, growth suppression and altered stress response in juvenile trout. The somatotropic axis appears to be a key target for BPA impact during early embryogenesis, leading to long term growth and stress performance defects in fish.

  13. Stress transgenerationally programs metabolic pathways linked to altered mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Douglas; Ambeskovic, Mirela; Montina, Tony; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-12-01

    Stress is among the primary causes of mental health disorders, which are the most common reason for disability worldwide. The ubiquity of these disorders, and the costs associated with them, lends a sense of urgency to the efforts to improve prediction and prevention. Down-stream metabolic changes are highly feasible and accessible indicators of pathophysiological processes underlying mental health disorders. Here, we show that remote and cumulative ancestral stress programs central metabolic pathways linked to mental health disorders. The studies used a rat model consisting of a multigenerational stress lineage (the great-great-grandmother and each subsequent generation experienced stress during pregnancy) and a transgenerational stress lineage (only the great-great-grandmother was stressed during pregnancy). Urine samples were collected from adult male F4 offspring and analyzed using 1 H NMR spectroscopy. The results of variable importance analysis based on random variable combination were used for unsupervised multivariate principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, as well as metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) and pathway analysis. We identified distinct metabolic profiles associated with the multigenerational and transgenerational stress phenotype, with consistent upregulation of hippurate and downregulation of tyrosine, threonine, and histamine. MSEA and pathway analysis showed that these metabolites are involved in catecholamine biosynthesis, immune responses, and microbial host interactions. The identification of metabolic signatures linked to ancestral programming assists in the discovery of gene targets for future studies of epigenetic regulation in pathogenic processes. Ultimately, this research can lead to biomarker discovery for better prediction and prevention of mental health disorders.

  14. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...

  15. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05 and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01, CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001 and β-carotene (r = −0.309; p < 0.05 in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction.

  16. Vitamin E Prevents Cold Wrap Restraint Stress-Induced Intestinal Fluid Transport Alterations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burdick

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress may alter gastrointestinal absorptive function by increasing the quantity of intestinal free radicals or by lowering endogenous intestinal free radical scavenging capacity. Vitamin E has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant and free radical scavenger under both physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cold wrap restraint stress altered in vivo intestinal fluid absorption in rats, and whether vitamin E administration prior to the induction of cold wrap restraint stress could prevent such changes in intestinal secretion. Jejunal, ileal and colonic fluid and electrolyte transport rates were measured in vivo using an isolated loop technique. Cold wrap restraint stress reduced in vivo fluid absorption in the ileum and colon, but not in the jejunum. Administration of vitamin E prior to the cold wrap restraint stress procedure completely prevented this alteration of ileal and colonic fluid absorption.

  17. Altered fMRI resting-state connectivity in individuals with fibromyalgia on acute pain stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichesco, E; Puiu, T; Hampson, J P; Kairys, A E; Clauw, D J; Harte, S E; Peltier, S J; Harris, R E; Schmidt-Wilcke, T

    2016-08-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic widespread pain condition, with patients commonly reporting other symptoms such as sleep difficulties, memory complaints and fatigue. The use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in fibromyalgia has allowed for the detection of neural abnormalities, with alterations in brain activation elicited by experimental pain and alterations in resting state connectivity related to clinical pain. In this study, we sought to monitor state changes in resting brain connectivity following experimental pressure pain in fibromyalgia patients and healthy controls. Twelve fibromyalgia patients and 15 healthy controls were studied by applying discrete pressure stimuli to the thumbnail bed during MRI. Resting-state functional MRI scanning was performed before and immediately following experimental pressure pain. We investigated changes in functional connectivity to the thalamus and the insular cortex. Acute pressure pain increased insula connectivity to the anterior cingulate and the hippocampus. Additionally, we observed increased thalamic connectivity to the precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, a known part of the default mode network, in patients but not in controls. This connectivity was correlated with changes in clinical pain. These data reporting changes in resting-state brain activity following a noxious stimulus suggest that the acute painful stimuli may contribute to the alteration of the neural signature of chronic pain. WHAT DOES THIS STUDY/ADD?: In this study acute pain application shows an echo in functional connectivity and clinical pain changes in chronic pain. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  18. Can Architectural Design alter the Physiological reaction to Psychosocial Stress ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson Fich, Lars; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space...... is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants...... in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system....

  19. Financial stress and outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin J Shah

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between financial stress and health care outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between self-reported financial stress during initial hospitalization and long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI.We used prospective registry evaluating myocardial infarction: Event and Recovery (PREMIER data, an observational, multicenter US study of AMI patients discharged between January 2003 and June 2004. Primary outcomes were disease-specific and generic health status outcomes at 1 year (symptoms, function, and quality of life (QoL, assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] and Short Form [SF]-12. Secondary outcomes included 1-year rehospitalization and 4-year mortality. Hierarchical regression models accounted for patient socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of care characteristics, and access and barriers to care.Among 2344 AMI patients, 1241 (52.9% reported no financial stress, 735 (31.4% reported low financial stress, and 368 (15.7% reported high financial stress. When comparing individuals reporting low financial stress to no financial stress, there were no significant differences in post-AMI outcomes. In contrast, individuals reporting high financial stress were more likely to have worse physical health (SF-12 PCS mean difference -3.24, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.82, -1.66, mental health (SF-12 MCS mean difference: -2.44, 95% CI: -3.83, -1.05, disease-specific QoL (SAQ QoL mean difference: -6.99, 95% CI: -9.59, -4.40, and be experiencing angina (SAQ Angina Relative Risk = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.32 at 1 year post-AMI. While 1-year readmission rates were increased (Hazard Ratio = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86, 4-year mortality was no different.High financial stress is common and an important risk factor for worse long-term outcomes post-AMI, independent of access and barriers to care.

  20. Social stress reactivity alters reward and punishment learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J.; Allen, John J. B.

    2010-01-01

    To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishme...

  1. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an ...

  2. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an ...

  3. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... endogenous and exogenous factors such as oxidative stress, age, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus (Andreassi and Botto 2003). Such damages, if left unrepaired, can cause mutations, which can lead to disease. To prevent accumulation of mutations and the production of.

  4. Investigation of biomarkers alterations after an acute tissue trauma in human trapezius muscle, using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line Bay; Gazerani, Parisa; Wåhlén, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in muscle milieu are suggested as important activity of peripheral drive in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Microdialysis (MD) has been used in monitoring altered metabolic response pattern in muscles. However, the insertion of MD probe causes a local tissue trauma....... Whether and how metabolites in trapezius muscle are affected by acute tissue trauma is unknown. Hence, this study investigated the metabolic response and nociceptive reaction of the tissue following MD probe insertion in patients with CMP and healthy individuals. Fifty-nine patients and forty pain...... of the metabolites was analyzed by a two-way-mixed-ANOVA. The metabolic response pattern changed over time and alterations in the level of metabolites could be seen in both CMP and healthy controls. Pain questionnaires and pain intensities manifested clinical aspects of pain closely to what CMP patients describe...

  5. Restraint stress in lactating mice alters the levels of sulfur-containing amino acids in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-03-30

    It is well known that maternal stress during the gestation and lactation periods induces abnormal behavior in the offspring and causes a lowering of the offspring's body weight. Various causes of maternal stress during the lactation period, relating to, for example, maternal nutritional status and reduced maternal care, have been considered. However, little is known about the effects on milk of maternal stress during the lactation period. The current study aimed to determine whether free amino acids, with special reference to sulfur-containing amino acids in milk, are altered by restraint stress in lactating mice. The dams in the stress group were restrained for 30 min at postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Restraint stress caused a reduction in the body weight of lactating mice. The concentration of taurine and cystathionine in milk was significantly higher in the stress group, though stress did not alter their concentration in maternal plasma. The ratio of taurine concentration in milk to its concentration in maternal plasma was significantly higher in the stress group, suggesting that stress promoted taurine transportation into milk. Furthermore, taurine concentration in milk was positively correlated with corticosterone levels in plasma. In conclusion, restraint stress in lactating mice caused the changes in the metabolism and in the transportation of sulfur-containing amino acids and resulted in higher taurine concentration in milk. Taurine concentration in milk could also be a good parameter for determining stress status in dams.

  6. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals molecular strategies of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in response to acute and chronic nitrite stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Chen, Ke; Ding, Zhili; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species threatened by ambient superfluous nitrite. De novo RNA-Seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism in M. nipponense exposed to the acute nitrite stress (26.05 mg/L nitrite-N) for 24 h and the chronic nitrite stress (1.38 mg/L nitrite-N) for 28 d A total of 175.13 million reads were obtained and assembled into 58,871 unigenes with an average length of 1028.7 bp and N50 of 1294 bp. Under the acute and chronic nitrite stress trials, 2824 and 2610 unigenes were significantly expressed. In GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis, 30 pathways were significantly different between the two treatments while four pathways were in common and the markedly altered pathways were divided into four sections as immunity, metabolism, cell and others. The immunity section revealing the different depth of immunity provoked by nitrite stress contained the most pathways including the important pathways as phagosome, folate biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism under the acute nitrite stress, and lysosome, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism under the chronic nitrite stress. This is the first report of responses of M. nipponense under acute and chronic nitrite stress through de novo transcriptome sequencing on the transcriptome level. The results of transcriptome analysis improve our understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms coping with nitrite stress in crustacean species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Probiotics enhance pancreatic glutathione biosynthesis and reduce oxidative stress in experimental acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Trulsson, Lena M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Timmerman, Harro M.; Franzen, Lennart E.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Soderholm, Johan D.; Sandstrom, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    Factors determining severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Oxidative stress causes acinar cell injury and contributes to the severity, whereas prophylactic probiotics ameliorate experimental pancreatitis. Our objective was to study how probiotics affect oxidative stress,

  8. Effect of acute intradialytic strength physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory responses in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Esgalhado

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: These data suggest that acute intradialytic strength physical exercise was unable to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation, and in addition, it seems to reduce plasma SOD levels, which could exacerbate the oxidative stress in HD patients.

  9. Zearalenone altered the cytoskeletal structure via ER stress- autophagy- oxidative stress pathway in mouse TM4 Sertoli cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wanglong; Wang, Bingjie; Si, Mengxue; Zou, Hui; Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Guoqiang; Bai, Jianfa; Bian, Jianchun; Liu, ZongPing

    2018-02-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms of the destruction of cytoskeletal structure by Zearalenone (ZEA) in mouse-derived TM4 cells. In order to investigate the role of autophagy, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum(ER) stress in the process of destruction of cytoskeletal structure, the effects of ZEA on the cell viability, cytoskeletal structure, autophagy, oxidative stress, ER stress, MAPK and PI3K- AKT- mTOR signaling pathways were studied. The data demonstrated that ZEA damaged the cytoskeletal structure through the induction of autophagy that leads to the alteration of cytoskeletal structure via elevated oxidative stress. Our results further showed that the autophagy was stimulated by ZEA through PI3K-AKT-mTOR and MAPK signaling pathways in TM4 cells. In addition, ZEA also induced the ER stress which was involved in the induction of the autophagy through inhibiting the ERK signal pathway to suppress the phosphorylation of mTOR. ER stress was involved in the damage of cytoskeletal structure through induction of autophagy by producing ROS. Taken together, this study revealed that ZEA altered the cytoskeletal structure via oxidative stress - autophagy- ER stress pathway in mouse TM4 Sertoli cells.

  10. Alteration of the renin-angiotensin system in caerulein induced acute pancreatitis in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddam, Ravinder Reddy; Ang, Abel Damien; Badiei, Alireza; Chambers, Stephen T; Bhatia, Madhav

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if RAS bioactive enzymes and peptides are perturbed in acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. The intervention group of mice were treated with ten hourly intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of caerulein (50 μg/kg) to induce acute pancreatitis. Animals were euthanized, samples of pancreas, lung and blood were collected, and plasma was prepared and stored for subsequent analysis. ACE and ACE2 activities were determined by spectrofluorometric assay. ACE, ACE2, Ang II and Ang-(1-7) levels were quantified by ELISA. There was a significant decrease in ACE2 enzymatic activity in pancreatic and lung tissues of mice with acute pancreatitis. In contrast, there were no significant changes in measured levels of ACE and ACE2 in the pancreas, and lung or activity of ACE in pancreatic and lung tissue following acute pancreatitis. There were no significant differences in the activities and levels of circulating ACE and ACE2 following acute pancreatitis. The ACE to ACE2 activity ratio was markedly increased in pancreatic and lung tissues of mice with acute pancreatitis. No significant changes were observed in the levels of Ang II except for a decrease in lung tissue. No changes were observed in Ang-(1-7) levels in pancreas, lung and plasma between the groups. The Ang II to Ang-(1-7) ratio was increased in the pancreas but was decreased in the lung following caerulein treatment. These data suggest dysregulation of RAS in acute pancreatitis as evidenced by altered Ang II/Ang-(1-7) levels induced by the imbalance of ACE/ACE2 activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  11. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA.

  12. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential microstructural alterations in rat cerebral cortex in a model of chronic mild stress depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Kroenke, Christopher D; Wiborg, Ove

    2018-01-01

    Chronic mild stress leads to depression in many cases and is linked to several debilitating diseases including mental disorders. Recently, neuronal tracing techniques, stereology, and immunohistochemistry have revealed persistent and significant microstructural alterations in the hippocampus......, hypothalamus, prefrontal cortex, and amygdala, which form an interconnected system known as the stress circuit. Most studies have focused only on this circuit, however, some studies indicate that manipulation of sensory and motor systems may impact genesis and therapy of mood disorders and therefore...... these areas should not be neglected in the study of brain microstructure alterations in response to stress and depression. For this reason, we explore the microstructural alterations in different cortical regions in a chronic mild stress model of depression. The study employs ex-vivo diffusion MRI (d...

  14. Alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences after acute LSD in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E; Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin

    2017-05-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively. Acute effects of LSD were assessed using the 5 Dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness (5D-ASC) scale after both doses and the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) after 200 μg. On the MEQ, 200 μg LSD induced mystical experiences that were comparable to those in patients who underwent LSD-assisted psychotherapy but were fewer than those reported for psilocybin in healthy subjects or patients. On the 5D-ASC scale, LSD produced higher ratings of blissful state, insightfulness, and changed meaning of percepts after 200 μg compared with 100 μg. Plasma levels of LSD were not positively correlated with its effects, with the exception of ego dissolution at 100 μg. Mystical-type experiences were infrequent after LSD, possibly because of the set and setting used in the present study. LSD may produce greater or different alterations of consciousness at 200 μg (i.e., a dose that is currently used in psychotherapy in Switzerland) compared with 100 μg (i.e., a dose used in imaging studies). Ego dissolution may reflect plasma levels of LSD, whereas more robustly induced effects of LSD may not result in such associations.

  15. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Surviving endoplasmic reticulum stress is coupled to altered chondrocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Yeung Tsang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling (ERSS protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence of a 13-base pair deletion in Col10a1 (13del, misfolded alpha1(X chains accumulate in HCs and elicit ERSS. Histological and gene expression analyses showed that these chondrocytes survived ER stress, but terminal differentiation is interrupted, and endochondral bone formation is delayed, producing a chondrodysplasia phenotype. This altered differentiation involves cell-cycle re-entry, the re-expression of genes characteristic of a prehypertrophic-like state, and is cell-autonomous. Concomitantly, expression of Col10a1 and 13del mRNAs are reduced, and ER stress is alleviated. ERSS, abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, and altered growth plate architecture also occur in mice expressing mutant collagen II and aggrecan. Alteration of the differentiation program in chondrocytes expressing unfolded or misfolded proteins may be part of an adaptive response that facilitates survival and recovery from the ensuing ER stress. However, the altered differentiation disrupts the highly coordinated events of endochondral ossification culminating in chondrodysplasia.

  17. Plant Abiotic Stress Proteomics: The Major Factors Determining Alterations in Cellular Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic

  18. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  19. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  20. Predictors of acute stress disorder in response to bank robbery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2011-01-01

    Research has shown that robberies in the workplace, in particular those in the bank sector are traumatising events for many employees. However, research in the acute sequelae of bank robberies is limited. The present study explores the prevalence and predictors of acute stress disorder (ASD) in a questionnaire survey of bank employees following a bank robbery. Results show that 14.5% (n=22) of participants (N=152) suffered from probable ASD, which is similar to the ASD prevalence found in other interpersonal assault studies. In addition, a number of associations were found between ASD severity, gender, age, social support, previous trauma, and trauma severity. In the final hierarchical multiple regression model, which included 12 variables, 66% of the variance in ASD symptom level was accounted for by two peri-trauma variables (perceived helplessness and perceived life threat) and one post-trauma variable (perceived safety after the robbery). The present study yielded some promising results with regards to the influential role of peri-traumatic and post-traumatic variables in predicting ASD after a bank robbery-in particular perceived safety. Although there may be different paths to developing ASD and PTSD, a common core feature may be perceived safety. Furthermore, the results also supported the inclusion of perceived helplessness in the A2 criterion of the DSM-IV ASD diagnosis.

  1. Effects of acute ozone stress on reproductive traits of tomato, fruit yield and fruit composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thwe, Aye Aye; Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Hélène; Gay, Frédéric; Phattaralerphong, Jessada; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2015-02-01

    Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition are altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. Fifty-one-day-old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m(-3)) for 4 h. Ozone reduced well-developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and young fruits at the time of ozone exposure were more affected. Contents of total soluble sugars (total SS), total organic acids (total OA) and ascorbic acid (AsA) increased in fruits harvested from ozone-treated plants. Tomato fruit composition was altered under ozone stress, leading to a lower sugar:acid ratio. These changes were mostly due to increased contents of malic acid, ascorbate and glucose despite a decrease in sucrose. Acute ozone exposure up to 500 µg m(-3) greatly influences tomato fruit quality. As final fruit yield was not significantly reduced, it highlighted that there may be compensatory mechanisms present in the reproductive structures of tomato. Further research would be necessary to determine how reproductive traits are affected by repeated ozone exposure or longer-term exposure. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Acute and Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in the Emergence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: A Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A; Creamer, Mark; O'Donnell, Meaghan; Forbes, David; McFarlane, Alexander C; Silove, Derrick; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan

    2017-02-01

    Little is understood about how the symptoms of posttraumatic stress develop over time into the syndrome of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). To use a network analysis approach to identify the nature of the association between PTSD symptoms in the acute phase after trauma and the chronic phase. A prospective cohort study enrolled 1138 patients recently admitted with traumatic injury to 1 of 4 major trauma hospitals across Australia from March 13, 2004, to February 26, 2006. Participants underwent assessment during hospital admission (n = 1388) and at 12 months after injury (n = 852). Networks of symptom associations were analyzed in the acute and chronic phases using partial correlations, relative importance estimates, and centrality measures of each symptom in terms of its association strengths, closeness to other symptoms, and importance in connecting other symptoms to each other. Data were analyzed from March 3 to September 5, 2016. Severity of PTSD was assessed at each assessment with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Of the 1138 patients undergoing assessment at admission (837 men [73.6%] and 301 women [26.4%]; mean [SD] age, 37.90 [13.62] years), strong connections were found in the acute phase. Reexperiencing symptoms were central to other symptoms in the acute phase, with intrusions and physiological reactivity among the most central symptoms in the networks in terms of the extent to which they occur between other symptoms (mean [SD], 1.2 [0.7] and 1.0 [0.9], respectively), closeness to other symptoms (mean [SD], 0.9 [0.3] and 1.1 [0.9], respectively), and strength of the associations (mean [SD], 1.6 [0.3] and 1.5 [0.3] respectively) among flashbacks, intrusions, and avoidance of thoughts, with moderately strong connections between intrusions and nightmares, being upset by reminders, and physiological reactivity. Intrusions and physiological reactivity were central in the acute phase. Among the 852 patients (73.6%) who completed the 12-month

  3. Salt stress alters DNA methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Lawati, A; Al-Bahry, S; Victor, R; Al-Lawati, A H; Yaish, M W

    2016-02-26

    Modification of DNA methylation status is one of the mechanisms used by plants to adjust gene expression at both the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels when plants are exposed to suboptimal conditions. Under abiotic stress, different cultivars often show heritable phenotypic variation accompanied by epigenetic polymorphisms at the DNA methylation level. This variation may provide the raw materials for plant breeding programs that aim to enhance abiotic stress tolerance, including salt tolerance. In this study, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analysis was used to assess cytosine methylation levels in alfalfa (Medicago spp) roots exposed to increasing NaCl concentrations (0.0, 8.0, 12.0, and 20.0 dS/m). Eleven indigenous landraces were analyzed, in addition to a salt-tolerant cultivar that was used as a control. There was a slight increase in DNA methylation upon exposure to high levels of soil salinity. Phylogenetic analysis using MSAP showed epigenetic variation within and between the alfalfa landraces when exposed to saline conditions. Based on MSAP and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results, we found that salinity increased global DNA methylation status, particularly in plants exposed to the highest level of salinity (20 dS/m). Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction indicated that this might be mediated by the overexpression of methyltransferase homolog genes after exposure to saline conditions. DNA demethylation using 5-azacytidine reduced seedling lengths and dry and fresh weights, indicating a possible decrease in salinity tolerance. These results suggest that salinity affects DNA methylation flexibility.

  4. Effects of Optogenetic inhibition of BLA on Sleep Brief Optogenetic Inhibition of the Basolateral Amygdala in Mice Alters Effects of Stressful Experiences on Rapid Eye Movement Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machida, Mayumi; Wellman, Laurie L; Fitzpatrick Bs, Mairen E; Hallum Bs, Olga; Sutton Bs, Amy M; Lonart, György; Sanford, Larry D

    2017-04-01

    Stressful events can directly produce significant alterations in subsequent sleep, in particular rapid eye movement sleep (REM); however, the neural mechanisms underlying the process are not fully known. Here, we investigated the role of the basolateral nuclei of the amygdala (BLA) in regulating the effects of stressful experience on sleep. We used optogenetics to briefly inhibit glutamatergic cells in BLA during the presentation of inescapable footshock (IS) and assessed effects on sleep, the acute stress response, and fear memory. c-Fos expression was also assessed in the amygdala and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), both regions involved in coping with stress, and in brain stem regions implicated in the regulation of REM. Compared to control mice, peri-shock inhibition of BLA attenuated an immediate reduction in REM after IS and produced a significant overall increase in REM. Moreover, upon exposure to the shock context alone, mice receiving peri-shock inhibition of BLA during training showed increased REM without altered freezing (an index of fear memory) or stress-induced hyperthermia (an index of acute stress response). Inhibition of BLA during REM under freely sleeping conditions enhanced REM only when body temperature was high, suggesting the effect was influenced by stress. Peri-shock inhibition of BLA also led to elevated c-Fos expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala and mPFC and differentially altered c-Fos activity in the selected brain stem regions. Glutamatergic cells in BLA can modulate the effects of stress on REM and can mediate effects of fear memory on sleep that can be independent of behavioral fear. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Histopathological alterations in the edible snail, Babylonia areolata (spotted babylon), in acute and subchronic cadmium poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanhan, P; Sretarugsa, P; Pokethitiyook, P; Kruatrachue, M; Upatham, E S

    2005-04-01

    Histopathological alterations in 6- to 8-month-old juvenile spotted babylon, Babylonia areolata, from acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light microscopy. The 96-h LC(50) value of cadmium for B. areolata was found to be 3.35 mg/L, and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 1.6 mg/L. Snails were exposed to 3.35 and 0.08 mg/L (5% of MATC) of cadmium for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. After exposure the gill, the organs of the digestive system (proboscis, esophagus, stomach, digestive gland, and rectum), and the foot were analyzed for cadmium accumulation. The results showed that most digestive organs had a high affinity for cadmium. The main target organ was the stomach, which could accumulate on average 1192.18 microg/g dry weight of cadmium. Cadmium was shown to accumulate to a lesser extent in the digestive gland, gill, rectum, esophagus, proboscis, and foot. Histopathological alterations were observed in the gill and digestive organs (proboscis, esophagus, stomach, and rectum). The study showed that the stomach and gill were the primary target organs of both acute and subchronic exposure. Gill alterations included increased size of mucous vacuoles, reduced length of cilia, dilation and pyknosis of nuclei, thickening of basal lamina, and accumulation of hemocytes. The epithelial lining of the digestive tract showed similar alterations such as increased size of mucous vacuoles, reduced length of cilia, and dilation of nuclei. In addition, fragmentation of the muscle sheath was observed.

  6. Altered lipid homeostasis in Sertoli cells stressed by mild hyperthermia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana S Vallés

    Full Text Available Spermatogenesis is known to be vulnerable to temperature. Exposures of rat testis to moderate hyperthermia result in loss of germ cells with survival of Sertoli cells (SC. Because SC provide structural and metabolic support to germ cells, our aim was to test the hypothesis that these exposures affect SC functions, thus contributing to germ cell damage. In vivo, regularly repeated exposures (one of 15 min per day, once a day during 5 days of rat testes to 43 °C led to accumulation of neutral lipids. This SC-specific lipid function took 1-2 weeks after the last of these exposures to be maximal. In cultured SC, similar daily exposures for 15 min to 43 °C resulted in significant increase in triacylglycerol levels and accumulation of lipid droplets. After incubations with [3H]arachidonate, the labeling of cardiolipin decreased more than that of other lipid classes. Another specifically mitochondrial lipid metabolic function, fatty acid oxidation, also declined. These lipid changes suggested that temperature affects SC mitochondrial physiology, which was confirmed by significantly increased degrees of membrane depolarization and ROS production. This concurred with reduced expression of two SC-specific proteins, transferrin, and Wilms' Tumor 1 protein, markers of SC secretion and differentiation functions, respectively, and with an intense SC cytoskeletal perturbation, evident by loss of microtubule network (α-tubulin and microfilament (f-actin organization. Albeit temporary and potentially reversible, hyperthermia-induced SC structural and metabolic alterations may be long-lasting and/or extensive enough to respond for the decreased survival of the germ cells they normally foster.

  7. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rioboo, Carmen; O'Connor, Jose Enrique; Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion; Cid, Angeles

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  8. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioboo, Carmen [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); O' Connor, Jose Enrique [Laboratorio de Citomica, Unidad Mixta de Investigacion CIPF-UVEG, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda. Autopista del Saler, 16, 46013 Valencia (Spain); Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, Angeles, E-mail: cid@udc.es [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  9. Stress habituation and alterations in perceived stress predict BMI percentile changes across a school year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents experience stressful situations at a high rate during school. Indeed, school is the most common source of stress for teens. This high rate of stress may promote increases in adiposity during a developmental period important for establishing the adult physique. Adiposity gains may be th...

  10. Acute stress enhances learning and memory by activating acid-sensing ion channels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Shunjie; Yang, Rong; Xiong, Qiuju; Yang, Youhua; Zhou, Lianying; Gong, Yeli; Li, Changlei; Ding, Zhenhan; Ye, Guohai; Xiong, Zhe

    2018-04-15

    Acute stress has been shown to enhance learning and memory ability, predominantly through the action of corticosteroid stress hormones. However, the valuable targets for promoting learning and memory induced by acute stress and the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) play an important role in central neuronal systems and involves in depression, synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. In the current study, we used a combination of electrophysiological and behavioral approaches in an effort to explore the effects of acute stress on ASICs. We found that corticosterone (CORT) induced by acute stress caused a potentiation of ASICs current via glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) not mineralocorticoid receptors (MRs). Meanwhile, CORT did not produce an increase of ASICs current by pretreated with GF109203X, an antagonist of protein kinase C (PKC), whereas CORT did result in a markedly enhancement of ASICs current by bryostatin 1, an agonist of PKC, suggesting that potentiation of ASICs function may be depended on PKC activating. More importantly, an antagonist of ASICs, amiloride (10 μM) reduced the performance of learning and memory induced by acute stress, which is further suggesting that ASICs as the key components involves in cognitive processes induced by acute stress. These results indicate that acute stress causes the enhancement of ASICs function by activating PKC signaling pathway, which leads to potentiated learning and memory. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  13. Piroxicam attenuates 3-nitropropionic acid-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    C, Jadiswami; H M, Megha; Dhadde, Shivsharan B; Durg, Sharanbasappa; Potadar, Pandharinath P; B S, Thippeswamy; V P, Veerapur

    2014-12-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin that produces Huntington's disease like symptoms in both animals and humans. Piroxicam, a non-selective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, used as anti-inflammatory agent and also known to decrease free oxygen radical production. In this study, the effect of piroxicam was evaluated against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration in mice. Adult male Swiss albino mice were injected with vehicle/piroxicam (10 and 20 mg/kg, i.p.) 30 min before 3-NP challenge (15 mg/kg, i.p.) regularly for 14 days. Body weights of the mice were measured on alternative days of the experiment. At the end of the treatment schedule, mice were evaluated for behavioral alterations (movement analysis, locomotor test, beam walking test and hanging wire test) and brain homogenates were used for the estimation of oxidative stress markers (lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and catalase). Administration of 3-NP significantly altered the behavioral activities and brain antioxidant status in mice. Piroxicam, at both the tested doses, caused a significant reversal of 3-NP-induced behavioral alterations and oxidative stress in mice. These findings suggest piroxicam protects the mice against 3-NP-induced brain oxidative stress and behavioral alteration. The antioxidant properties of piroxicam may be responsible for the observed beneficial actions.

  14. Bone alterations by stress in athletes. Schaedigung des Knochens durch Ueberlastung bei Leistungssportlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doege, H. (Bezirkskrankenhaus ' Friedrich Wolf' , Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Chemnitz (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.).

  15. Acute Exposure to Fluoxetine Alters Aggressive Behavior of Zebrafish and Expression of Genes Involved in Serotonergic System Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Pavlidis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is an emerging model organism in stress and neurobehavioral studies. In nature, the species forms shoals, yet when kept in pairs it exhibits an agonistic and anxiety-like behavior that leads to the establishment of dominant-subordinate relationships. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is used as an anxiolytic tool to alter aggressive behavior in several vertebrates and as an antidepressant drug in humans. Pairs of male zebrafish were held overnight to develop dominant—subordinate behavior, either treated or non-treated for 2 h with fluoxetine (5 mg L−1, and allowed to interact once more for 1 h. Behavior was recorded both prior and after fluoxetine administration. At the end of the experiment, trunk and brain samples were also taken for cortisol determination and mRNA expression studies, respectively. Fluoxetine treatment significantly affected zebrafish behavior and the expression levels of several genes, by decreasing offensive aggression in dominants and by eliminating freezing in the subordinates. There was no statistically significant difference in whole-trunk cortisol concentrations between dominant and subordinate fish, while fluoxetine treatment resulted in higher (P = 0.004 cortisol concentrations in both groups. There were statistically significant differences between dominant and subordinate fish in brain mRNA expression levels of genes involved in stress axis (gr, mr, neural activity (bdnf, c-fos, and the serotonergic system (htr2b, slc6a4b. The significant decrease in the offensive and defensive aggression following fluoxetine treatment was concomitant with a reversed pattern in c-fos expression levels. Overall, an acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor alters aggressive behavior in male zebrafish in association with changes in the neuroendocrine mediators of coping styles.

  16. [Effect of opioid receptors on acute stress-induced changes in recognition memory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Wu, Yu-Wei; Qian, Zhao-Qiang; Yan, Cai-Fang; Fan, Ka-Min; Xu, Jin-Hui; Li, Xiao; Liu, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-12-25

    Although ample evidence has shown that acute stress impairs memory, the influences of acute stress on different phases of memory, such as acquisition, consolidation and retrieval, are different. Experimental data from both human and animals support that endogenous opioid system plays a role in stress, as endogenous opioid release is increased and opioid receptors are activated during stress experience. On the other hand, endogenous opioid system mediates learning and memory. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of acute forced swimming stress on recognition memory of C57 mice and the role of opioid receptors in this process by using a three-day pattern of new object recognition task. The results showed that 15-min acute forced swimming damaged the retrieval of recognition memory, but had no effect on acquisition and consolidation of recognition memory. No significant change of object recognition memory was found in mice that were given naloxone, an opioid receptor antagonist, by intraperitoneal injection. But intraperitoneal injection of naloxone before forced swimming stress could inhibit the impairment of recognition memory retrieval caused by forced swimming stress. The results of real-time PCR showed that acute forced swimming decreased the μ opioid receptor mRNA levels in whole brain and hippocampus, while the injection of naloxone before stress could reverse this change. These results suggest that acute stress may impair recognition memory retrieval via opioid receptors.

  17. Maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced hypomyelination, synaptic alterations, and learning impairment in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2016-11-15

    Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Histopathological alterations of white seabass, Lates calcarifer, in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thophon, S.; Kruatrachue, M.; Upatham, E.S.; Pokethitiyook, P.; Sahaphong, S.; Jaritkhuan, S.

    2003-01-01

    White seabass responded differently to cadmium at chronic and subchronic levels. - Histopathological alterations to white seabass, Lates calcarifer aged 3 months in acute and subchronic cadmium exposure were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The 96-h LC 50 values of cadmium to L. calcarifer was found to be 20.12±0.61 mg/l and the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) was 7.79 mg/l. Fish were exposed to 10 and 0.8 mg/l of Cd (as CdCl 2 H 2 O) for 96 h and 90 days, respectively. The study showed that gill lamellae and kidney tubules were the primary target organs for the acute toxic effect of cadmium while in the subchronic exposure, the toxic effect to gills was less than that of kidney and liver. Gill alterations included edema of the epithelial cells with the breakdown of pillar cell system, aneurisms with some ruptures, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial and chloride cells. The liver showed blood congestion in sinusoids and hydropic swelling of hepatocytes, vacuolation and dark granule accumulation. Lipid droplets and glycogen content were observed in hepatocytes at the second and third month of subchronic exposure. The kidney showed hydropic swelling of tubular cell vacuolation and numerous dark granule accumulation in many tubules. Tubular degeneration and necrosis were seen in some areas

  19. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  20. Impact of Acute Metal Stress in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella; Glaser, Walter; Schüller, Christoph; Klipp, Edda

    2014-01-01

    Although considered as essential cofactors for a variety of enzymatic reactions and for important structural and functional roles in cell metabolism, metals at high concentrations are potent toxic pollutants and pose complex biochemical problems for cells. We report results of single dose acute toxicity testing in the model organism S. cerevisiae. The effects of moderate toxic concentrations of 10 different human health relevant metals, Ag+, Al3+, As3+, Cd2+, Co2+, Hg2+, Mn2+, Ni2+, V3+, and Zn2+, following short-term exposure were analyzed by transcription profiling to provide the identification of early-on target genes or pathways. In contrast to common acute toxicity tests where defined endpoints are monitored we focused on the entire genomic response. We provide evidence that the induction of central elements of the oxidative stress response by the majority of investigated metals is the basic detoxification process against short-term metal exposure. General detoxification mechanisms also comprised the induction of genes coding for chaperones and those for chelation of metal ions via siderophores and amino acids. Hierarchical clustering, transcription factor analyses, and gene ontology data further revealed activation of genes involved in metal-specific protein catabolism along with repression of growth-related processes such as protein synthesis. Metal ion group specific differences in the expression responses with shared transcriptional regulators for both, up-regulation and repression were also observed. Additionally, some processes unique for individual metals were evident as well. In view of current concerns regarding environmental pollution our results may support ongoing attempts to develop methods to monitor potentially hazardous areas or liquids and to establish standardized tests using suitable eukaryotic a model organism. PMID:24416162

  1. Impact of Membrane Phospholipid Alterations in Escherichia coli on Cellular Function and Bacterial Stress Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlett, Veronica W; Mallampalli, Venkata K P S; Karlstaedt, Anja; Dowhan, William; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margolin, William; Vitrac, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to sense and rapidly adapt to challenging and ever-changing environmental conditions. The ability to alter membrane lipid composition, a key component of the cellular envelope, is crucial for bacterial survival and adaptation in response to environmental stress. However, the precise roles played by membrane phospholipids in bacterial physiology and stress adaptation are not fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to define the role of membrane phospholipids in adaptation to stress and maintenance of bacterial cell fitness. By using genetically modified strains in which the membrane phospholipid composition can be systematically manipulated, we show that alterations in major Escherichia coli phospholipids transform these cells globally. We found that alterations in phospholipids impair the cellular envelope structure and function, the ability to form biofilms, and bacterial fitness and cause phospholipid-dependent susceptibility to environmental stresses. This study provides an unprecedented view of the structural, signaling, and metabolic pathways in which bacterial phospholipids participate, allowing the design of new approaches in the investigation of lipid-dependent processes involved in bacterial physiology and adaptation. IMPORTANCE In order to cope with and adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, bacteria have to sense and quickly respond to fluctuating conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of systematic and controlled alterations in bacterial phospholipids on cell shape, physiology, and stress adaptation. We provide new evidence that alterations of specific phospholipids in Escherichia coli have detrimental effects on cellular shape, envelope integrity, and cell physiology that impair biofilm formation, cellular envelope remodeling, and adaptability to environmental stresses. These findings hold promise for future antibacterial therapies that target bacterial lipid biosynthesis

  2. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-09-20

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p stress and could have implications for intervention in acute stress effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders.

  3. Acute stress modulates feedback processing in men and women: differential effects on the feedback-related negativity and theta and beta power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Banis

    Full Text Available Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses.

  4. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C; Hong, Kwangik A; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  5. Stress Altered Stem Cells with Decellularized Allograft to Improve Rate of Nerve Regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    of the cellular elements normally present in peripheral nerve . 2. KEYWORDS: peripheral nerve repair , nerve injury , decellularized nerve ... nerve regeneration. The slow rate of nerve re generation in limbs results in poor prognosis for patients suffering from severe injuries , leading to...allograft, neural regeneration, stem cells, stress altered cells, peripheral nerve injury model, nerve graft 3 This comprehensive final report summarizes

  6. Stress-related alterations of acyl and desacyl ghrelin circulating levels: mechanisms and functional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting peptide hormone that stimulates food intake and digestive functions. Ghrelin circulates as acylated and desacylated forms and recently the acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and the de-acylating enzyme, thioesterase 1/lysophospholipase 1 have been identified adding new layers of complexity to the regulation of ghrelin. Stress is known to alter gastrointestinal motility and food intake and was recently shown to modify circulating ghrelin and GOAT levels with differential responses related to the type of stressors including a reduction induced by physical stressors (abdominal surgery and immunological/endotoxin injection, exercise) and elevation by metabolic (cold exposure, fasting and caloric restriction) and psychological stressors. However, the pathways underlying the alterations of ghrelin under these various stress conditions are still largely to be defined and may relate to stress-associated autonomic changes. There is evidence that alterations of circulating ghrelin may contribute to the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses along with sustaining the energetic requirement needed upon repeated exposure to stressors. A better understanding of these mechanisms will allow targeting components of ghrelin signaling that may improve food intake and gastric motility alterations induced by stress. PMID:21782868

  7. [Copy number alterations in adult patients with mature B acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with specific immunochemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; García, Olga; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús-María; Genescà, Eulàlia; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2016-12-02

    Unlike Burkitt lymphoma, molecular abnormalities other than C-MYC rearrangements have scarcely been studied in patients with mature B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and prognostic significance of copy number alterations (CNA) in genes involved in lymphoid differentiation, cell cycle and tumor suppression in adult patients with B-ALL. We have analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification the genetic material from bone marrow at diagnosis from 25 adult B-ALL patients treated with rituximab and specific chemotherapy. The most frequent CNA were alterations in the 14q32.33 region (11 cases, 44%) followed by alterations in the cell cycle regulator genes CDKN2A/B and RB1 (16%). No correlation between the presence of specific CNA and the clinical-biologic features or the response to therapy was found. The high frequency of CNA in the 14q32.33 region, CDKN2A/B and RB1 found in our study could contribute to the aggressiveness and invasiveness of mature B-ALL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Age-dependent effects of chronic stress on ACTH and corticosterone responses to an acute novel stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodish, A; Odio, M

    1989-05-01

    Aging effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system have been studied primarily in the sedentary, environmentally deprived laboratory rat. Since it is known that chronic activation changes the responsiveness of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system, the present experiments were undertaken to determine whether age-related effects on this system would differ between sedentary and chronically stressed rats. Groups of 6- and 20-month-old F-344 rats were exposed to daily sessions of a 2-way shock-escape procedure over a 6-month period. When the rats were 12 (adult) and 26 months of age (old), pituitary-adrenocortical responses to an acute, novel stimulus were examined in young and old chronically stressed and age-matched control rats. Young and old control rats showed essentially the same corticosterone response to an acute motion stress. Chronic stress exposure increased the corticosterone response to the novel acute stressor in young but not in old rats. ACTH levels in response to acute stress were significantly reduced in old control rats compared to young control animals. Chronic stress did not change the ACTH acute stress response in young animals, whereas in old animals chronic stress elevated the ACTH responsiveness so that the old rats showed stress-induced ACTH levels that were comparable to the young animals. In conclusion, the effects of chronic stress on the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical system are age-dependent, and environmental factors can significantly influence the progression of aging of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system.

  9. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Prenatal stress-induced alterations in major physiological systems correlate with gut microbiota composition in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubeva, Anna V; Crampton, Sean; Desbonnet, Lieve; Edge, Deirdre; O'Sullivan, Orla; Lomasney, Kevin W; Zhdanov, Alexander V; Crispie, Fiona; Moloney, Rachel D; Borre, Yuliya E; Cotter, Paul D; Hyland, Niall P; O'Halloran, Ken D; Dinan, Timothy G; O'Keeffe, Gerard W; Cryan, John F

    2015-10-01

    Early-life adverse experiences, including prenatal stress (PNS), are associated with a higher prevalence of neurodevelopmental, cardiovascular and metabolic disorders in affected offspring. Here, in a rat model of chronic PNS, we investigate the impact of late gestational stress on physiological outcomes in adulthood. Sprague-Dawley pregnant dams were subjected to repeated restraint stress from embryonic day 14 to day 20, and their male offspring were assessed at 4 months of age. PNS induced an exaggeration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress, as well as an elevation of blood pressure and impairment of cognitive function. Altered respiratory control was also observed, as demonstrated by increased variability in basal respiratory frequency and abnormal frequency responses to both hypoxic and hypercapnic challenges. PNS also affected gastrointestinal neurodevelopment and function, as measured by a decrease in the innervation density of distal colon and an increase in the colonic secretory response to catecholaminergic stimulation. Finally, PNS induced long lasting alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition. 16S rRNA gene 454 pyrosequencing revealed a strong trend towards decreased numbers of bacteria in the Lactobacillus genus, accompanied by elevated abundance of the Oscillibacter, Anaerotruncus and Peptococcus genera in PNS animals. Strikingly, relative abundance of distinct bacteria genera significantly correlated with certain respiratory parameters and the responsiveness of the HPA axis to stress. Together, these findings provide novel evidence that PNS induces long-term maladaptive alterations in the gastrointestinal and respiratory systems, accompanied by hyper-responsiveness to stress and alterations in the gut microbiota. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  12. Chronic unpredictable mild stress alters an anxiety-related defensive response, Fos immunoreactivity and hippocampal adult neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, J S; Céspedes, I C; Abrão, R O; Dos Santos, T B; Diniz, L; Britto, L R G; Spadari-Bratfisch, R C; Ortolani, D; Melo-Thomas, L; da Silva, R C B; Viana, M B

    2013-08-01

    Previous results show that elevated T-maze (ETM) avoidance responses are facilitated by acute restraint. Escape, on the other hand, was unaltered. To examine if the magnitude of the stressor is an important factor influencing these results, we investigated the effects of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) on ETM avoidance and escape measurements. Analysis of Fos protein immunoreactivity (Fos-ir) was used to map areas activated by stress exposure in response to ETM avoidance and escape performance. Additionally, the effects of the UCMS protocol on the number of cells expressing the marker of migrating neuroblasts doublecortin (DCX) in the hippocampus were investigated. Corticosterone serum levels were also measured. Results showed that UCMS facilitates ETM avoidance, not altering escape. In unstressed animals, avoidance performance increases Fos-ir in the cingulate cortex, hippocampus (dentate gyrus) and basomedial amygdala, and escape increases Fos-ir in the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. In stressed animals submitted to ETM avoidance, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, ventrolateral septum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, amygdala, dorsal and median raphe nuclei. In stressed animals submitted to ETM escape, increases in Fos-ir were observed in the cingulate cortex, periaqueductal gray and locus ceruleus. Also, UCMS exposure decreased the number of DCX-positive cells in the dorsal and ventral hippocampus and increased corticosterone serum levels. These data suggest that the anxiogenic effects of UCMS are related to the activation of specific neurobiological circuits that modulate anxiety and confirm that this stress protocol activates the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and decreases hippocampal adult neurogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of Repeated Acute Stress in Obese and Non-Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-02

    periphery, affecting the immune, cardiovascular , and metabolic systems . Effects of Stress In human and rodents, stress can result in negative emotions...Grunberg, N.E., Popp, K.A., & Winders, S.E. (1988). Effects of nicotine on body weight in rats with access to " junk " foods . Psychopharmacology, 94(4...examined effects of repeated acute stress on genetically obese and non-obese male and female rats. In Experiment I, stress: (1) decreased bland food

  14. Interaction of Metabolic Stress with Chronic Mild Stress in Altering Brain Cytokines and Sucrose Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Luke T.; Camp, Robert M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Johnson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism’s risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight two bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on day 5 and 10, then food and water de...

  15. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  16. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, S.; Antunes, S.C.; Correia, A.T.; Nunes, B.

    2016-01-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  17. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, S., E-mail: up201208875@fc.up.pt [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Correia, A.T. [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Fernando Pessoa (FCS-UFP), Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, 4200–150, Porto (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  18. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, N.Y.L.; Both, S.; van Heemst, D.; van der Grond, J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in

  19. Acute incremental exercise to maximal performance does not cause alterations in serum oxidant levels of healthy young individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amir, O; Yamin, C; Sagiv, M; Eynon, N; Shnizer, S; Kagan, T; Reznick, A Z; Sagiv, M; Amir, R E

    2009-03-01

    This study was designed to analyze serum oxidative stress (OS) levels in healthy young individuals performing a routine maximal aerobic exercise and to evaluate the correlation between OS levels and physiological parameters. Serum OS levels were studied by thermochemiluminescence (TCL) parameters at rest and following maximal aerobic exercise in 85 healthy young subjects. Levels were measured by a real time on line TCL assay (higher TCL-Ratio and TCL-H3 = lower OS level). Aerobic capacity had no effect on baseline OS levels. Post-exercise OS levels correlated with maximal oxygen uptake (V.O(2max)) (Pexercise OS levels for the whole study group did not vary from baseline values. However, individuals with higher fitness level (V.O(2max) >percentile 60) had significantly lower values of TCL-H3 (P=0.04) and tended to have lower TCL-Ratio, indicating they had elevated OS levels. In a multivariate analysis OS level was most affected by V.O(2) after VTH (anaerobic phase of the test) (P=0.003; adjusted odds ratio of 3.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.55-7.48). In conclusion, acute incremental exercise to maximal performance does not cause alterations in serum oxidant levels of healthy young individuals. In healthy individuals performing maximal aerobic exercise, OS levels correlate with maximal aerobic power.

  20. Alterations in gills of Lepomis gibbosus, after acute exposure to several xenobiotics (pesticide, detergent and pharmaceuticals): morphometric and biochemical evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Sara; Correia, Alberto T; Antunes, Sara C; Nunes, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    In recent decades, scientific research about the effects of anthropogenic xenobiotics on non-target organisms has increased. Among the likely effects, some studies reported the evaluation of biochemical and morphological changes in specific tissues or organs of fishes, such as gills, which are key organs for the direct action of pollutants in the aquatic environment. This work intended to assess biochemical [oxidative stress/phase II conjugation isoenzymes glutathione S-transferase (GSTs)] and morphological [secondary lamellar length (SLL), secondary lamellar width (SLW), interlamellar distance (ID), basal epithelial thickness (BET) and proportion of the secondary lamellae available for gas exchange (PAGE)] changes in gills, after acute exposure to the pesticide chlorfenvinphos, the detergent sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) and to the anticholinesterasic pharmaceuticals (neostigmine and pyridostigmine). Our results point to a significant, eventually hormetic, effect in the activity of GSTs following exposure to chlorfenvinphos that significantly increased the activity of GSTs at concentration of 0.2 mg/L. The activity of GSTs increased significantly after exposure to 100 mg/L of neostigmine. Considering the morphometric analysis of the gills, the data obtained showed that chlorfenvinphos exerted mainly minor architectural alterations in gills, with the exception of the highest tested concentration of chlorfenvinphos that produced also a slight decrease of the PAGE. The overall conclusions point to a null or negligible toxicity of the selected toxicants towards L. gibbosus, which may be reverted if exposure is withdrawn.

  1. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  3. [Markers for early detection of alterations in carbohydrate metabolism after acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gea-García, J H; Benali, L; Galcerá-Tomás, J; Padilla-Serrano, A; Andreu-Soler, E; Melgarejo-Moreno, A; Alonso-Fernández, N

    2014-03-01

    Undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism is often seen in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, although there is no consensus on which patients should be studied with a view to establishing an early diagnosis. The present study examines the potential of certain variables obtained upon admission to diagnose abnormal glucose metabolism. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The Intensive Care Unit of Arrixaca University Hospital (Murcia), Spain. A total of 138 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with acute myocardial infarction and without known or de novo diabetes mellitus. After one year, oral glucose tolerance testing was performed. Clinical and laboratory test parameters were recorded upon admission and one year after discharge. Additionally, after one year, oral glucose tolerance tests were made, and a study was made of the capacity of the variables obtained at admission to diagnose diabetes, based on the ROC curves and multivariate analysis. Of the 138 patients, 112 (72.5%) had glucose metabolic alteration, including 16.7% with diabetes. HbA1c was independently associated with a diagnosis of diabetes (RR: 7.28, 95%CI 1.65 to 32.05, P = .009), and showed the largest area under the ROC curve for diabetes (0.81, 95%CI 0.69 to 0.92, P = .001). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, HbA1c helps identify those individuals with abnormal glucose metabolism after one year. Thus, its determination in this group of patients could be used to identify those subjects requiring a more exhaustive study in order to establish an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, H; Postma, DS; Timens, W; Ten Hacken, NHT

    Compared with the effects of chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are few data on the acute effects of smoking. A review of the literature identified 123 studies investigating the acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation and oxidative stress in human,

  5. Treatment of acute posttraumatic stress disorder with brief cognitive behavioral therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Olff, Miranda; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; de Vries, Mirjam H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of brief cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from various types of psychological trauma. METHOD: The authors randomly assigned 143 patients with acute PTSD (irrespective

  6. Trauma exposure relates to heightened stress, altered amygdala morphology and deficient extinction learning: Implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Ridder, Stephanie; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Diener, Slawomira J; Liebscher, Claudia; Flor, Herta

    2017-02-01

    Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume. Traumas included unexpected adverse experiences such as vehicle accidents or sudden loss of a loved one. As a measure of aversive learning, we implemented a cued fear conditioning paradigm. Additionally, to provide a biological marker of chronic stress, we measured the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a dexamethasone suppression test. Compared to the HC, the TR group showed significantly higher levels of chronic stress, current stress and trait anxiety, as well as increased volume of the left amygdala. Specifically, we observed a focal enlargement in its lateral portion, in line with previous animal data. Compared to HC, the TR group also showed enhanced late acquisition of conditioned fear and deficient extinction learning, as well as salivary cortisol hypo-suppression to dexamethasone. Left amygdala volumes positively correlated with suppressed morning salivary cortisol. Our results indicate differences in trauma-exposed individuals which resemble those previously reported in animals exposed to stress and in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms through which traumatic stress might prompt vulnerability for psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. MDMA does not alter responses to the Trier Social Stress Test in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Miller, Melissa A; de Wit, Harriet

    2017-07-01

    ±3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is a stimulant-psychedelic drug with unique social effects. It may dampen reactivity to negative social stimuli such as social threat and rejection. Perhaps because of these effects, MDMA has shown promise as a treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the effect of single doses of MDMA on responses to an acute psychosocial stressor has not been tested. In this study, we sought to test the effects of MDMA on responses to stress in healthy adults using a public speaking task. We hypothesized that the drug would reduce responses to the stressful task. Volunteers (N = 39) were randomly assigned to receive placebo (N = 13), 0.5 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13), or 1.0 mg/kg MDMA (N = 13) during a stress and a no-stress session. Dependent measures included subjective reports of drug effects and emotional responses to the task, as well as salivary cortisol, heart rate, and blood pressure. The stress task produced its expected increase in physiological responses (cortisol, heart rate) and subjective ratings of stress in all three groups, and MDMA produced its expected subjective and physiological effects. MDMA alone increased ratings of subjective stress, heart rate, and saliva cortisol concentrations, but contrary to our hypothesis, it did not moderate responses to the Trier Social Stress Test. Despite its efficacy in PTSD and anxiety, MDMA did not reduce either the subjective or objective responses to stress in this controlled study. The conditions under which MDMA relieves responses to negative events or memories remain to be determined.

  8. Microbiota alterations in acute and chronic gastrointestinal inflammation of cats and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honneffer, Julia B; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is the collection of the living microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. Novel bacterial identification approaches have revealed that the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs and cats is, similarly to humans, a highly complex ecosystem. Studies in dogs and cats have demonstrated that acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with alterations in the small intestinal and fecal microbial communities. Of interest is that these alterations are generally similar to the dysbiosis observed in humans with IBD or animal models of intestinal inflammation, suggesting that microbial responses to inflammatory conditions of the gut are conserved across mammalian host types. Studies have also revealed possible underlying susceptibilities in the innate immune system of dogs and cats with IBD, which further demonstrate the intricate relationship between gut microbiota and host health. Commonly identified microbiome changes in IBD are decreases in bacterial groups within the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and increases within Proteobacteia. Furthermore, a reduction in the diversity of Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV (i.e., Lachnospiraceae and Clostridium coccoides subgroups) are associated with IBD, suggesting that these bacterial groups may play an important role in maintenance of gastrointestinal health. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the functional changes associated with intestinal dysbiosis in dogs and cats. PMID:25469017

  9. Social evaluative threat with verbal performance feedback alters neuroendocrine response to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Jenny M; Schneider, Ekaterina; Peres, Jeremy; Miocevic, Olga; Meyer, Vanessa; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A

    2017-11-01

    Laboratory stress tasks such as the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) have provided a key piece to the puzzle for how psychosocial stress impacts the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, other stress-responsive biomarkers, and ultimately wellbeing. These tasks are thought to work through biopsychosocial processes, specifically social evaluative threat and the uncontrollability heighten situational demands. The present study integrated an experimental modification to the design of the TSST to probe whether additional social evaluative threat, via negative verbal feedback about speech performance, can further alter stress reactivity in 63 men and women. This TSST study confirmed previous findings related to stress reactivity and stress recovery but extended this literature in several ways. First, we showed that additional social evaluative threat components, mid-task following the speech portion of the TSST, were still capable of enhancing the psychosocial stressor. Second, we considered stress-reactive hormones beyond cortisol to include dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and testosterone, and found these hormones were also stress-responsive, and their release was coupled with one another. Third, we explored whether gain- and loss-framing incentive instructions, meant to influence performance motivation by enhancing the personal relevance of task performance, impacted hormonal reactivity. Results showed that each hormone was stress reactive and further had different responses to the modified TSST compared to the original TSST. Beyond the utility of showing how the TSST can be modified with heightened social evaluative threat and incentive-framing instructions, this study informs about how these three stress-responsive hormones have differential responses to the demands of a challenge and a stressor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic stress-induced alterations in mouse colonic 5-HT and defecation responses are strain dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julio-Pieper, Marcela; O'Mahony, Cliona M; Clarke, Gerard; Bravo, Javier A; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2012-03-01

    Mood disorders and chronic stress are frequently associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms including diarrhoea or constipation. Locally produced serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] regulates GI motility and is a key factor in the pathophysiology of stress-associated GI disorders. We aimed to establish whether chronic stress can differentially affect faecal output and colon 5-HT concentration in two inbred mouse strains: BALB/c and C57BL/6 which differ in their ability to cope with stress. Adult male BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice were restrained for 2 h daily for 10 days. Defecation was monitored during each stress session. Twenty-four hours after the last session of stress, plasma corticosterone concentration was higher than control in both strains, indicative of a physiological effect of chronic stress; however, stress-induced diarrhoea was more persistent in C57BL/6 mice. Basal concentration of colon 5-HT was higher in C57BL/6 mice, and stress elicited an increase in colon 5-HT only in this strain. Finally, naïve BALB/c mice had a higher sensitivity (incidence of diarrhoea) to 5-HT (0.33 mg/kg, i.p.) than C57BL/6 mice. Our results suggest that differential defecation responses to stress may be associated with colon 5-HT concentration, which may in turn reflect the individual sensitivity to 5-HT. In addition, C57BL/6 mice emerge as a relevant model for studying GI alterations induced by chronic stress.

  11. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  12. Timing matters: the interval between acute stressors within chronic mild stress modifies behavioral and physiologic stress responses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavigelli, Sonia A; Bao, Alexander D; Bourne, Rebecca A; Caruso, Michael J; Caulfield, Jasmine I; Chen, Mary; Smyth, Joshua M

    2018-04-12

    Chronic mild stress can lead to negative health outcomes. Frequency, duration, and intensity of acute stressors can affect health-related processes. We tested whether the temporal pattern of daily acute stressors (clustered or dispersed across the day) affects depression-related physiology. We used a rodent model to keep stressor frequency, duration, and intensity constant, and experimentally manipulated the temporal pattern of acute stressors delivered during the active phase of the day. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to one of three chronic mild stress groups: Clustered: stressors that occurred within 1 hour of each other (n = 21), Dispersed: stressors that were spread out across the active phase (n = 21), and Control: no stressors presented (n = 21). Acute mild stressors included noise, strobe lights, novel cage, cage tilt, wet bedding, and water immersion. Depression-related outcomes included: sucrose preference, body weight, circulating glucocorticoid (corticosterone) concentration after a novel acute stressor and during basal morning and evening times, and endotoxin-induced circulating interleukin-6 concentrations. Compared to control rats, those in the Clustered group gained less weight, consumed less sucrose, had a blunted acute corticosterone response, and an accentuated acute interleukin-6 response. Rats in the Dispersed group had an attenuated corticosterone decline during the active period and after an acute stressor compared to the Control group. During a chronic mild stress experience, the temporal distribution of daily acute stressors affected health-related physiologic processes. Regular exposure to daily stressors in rapid succession may predict more depression-related symptoms, whereas exposure to stressors dispersed throughout the day may predict diminished glucocorticoid negative feedback.

  13. Acute immobilization stress following contextual fear conditioning reduces fear memory: timing is essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaya, Akemi; Lee, Hyunjin; Park, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hosung; Muto, Junko; Nakajima, Sanae; Ohta, Shigeo; Mikami, Toshio

    2016-02-24

    Histone acetylation is regulated in response to stress and plays an important role in learning and memory. Chronic stress is known to deteriorate cognition, whereas acute stress facilitates memory formation. However, whether acute stress facilitates memory formation when it is applied after fear stimulation is not yet known. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress applied after fear training on memory formation, mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression, and corticosterone level in mice in vivo. Mice were subjected to acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 or 90 min after contextual fear conditioning training, and acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 14 (H3K14) and level of corticosterone were measured using western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. A freezing behavior test was performed 24 h after training, and mRNA expression of BDNF was measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Different groups of mice were used for each test. Freezing behavior significantly decreased with the down-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression caused by acute immobilization stress at 60 min after fear conditioning training owing to the reduction of H3K14 acetylation. However, BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation were not reduced in animals subjected to immobilization stress at 90 min after the training. Further, the corticosterone level was significantly high in mice subjected to immobilization stress at 60 min after the training. Acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 min after fear conditioning training impaired memory formation and reduced BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation in the hippocampus of mice owing to the high level of corticosterone.

  14. Loneliness and acute stress reactivity: A systematic review of psychophysiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eoin G; Gallagher, Stephen; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2018-05-01

    Physiological reactivity to acute stress has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism by which loneliness may lead to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. This review was conducted to investigate the association between loneliness and physiological responses to acute stress. A series of electronic databases were systematically searched (PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct) for relevant studies, published up to October 2016. Eleven studies were included in the review. Overall, the majority of studies reported positive associations between loneliness and acute stress responses, such that higher levels of loneliness were predictive of exaggerated physiological reactions. However, in a few studies, loneliness was also linked with decreased stress responses for particular physiological outcomes, indicating the possible existence of blunted relationships. There was no clear pattern suggesting any sex- or stressor-based differences in these associations. The available evidence supports a link between loneliness and atypical physiological reactivity to acute stress. A key finding of this review was that greater levels of loneliness are associated with exaggerated blood pressure and inflammatory reactivity to acute stress. However, there was some indication that loneliness may also be related to blunted cardiac, cortisol, and immune responses. Overall, this suggests that stress reactivity could be one of the biological mechanisms through which loneliness impacts upon health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  15. Acute stress in residents during emergency care: a study of personal and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.

  16. Inclusion of biotic stress (consumer pressure) alters predictions from the stress gradient hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Rietkerk, Max; Wassen, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts a shift from net negative interactions in benign environments towards net positive in harsh environments in ecological communities. While several studies found support for the SGH, others found evidence against it, leading to a debate on how nature and

  17. Effect of the chronic ingestion of chlorimipramine and desipramine on the hole board response to acute stresses in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Echandía, E L; Broitman, S T; Fóscolo, M R

    1987-02-01

    The effect of the chronic ingestion of chlorimipramine (CI) or desipramine (DS) on the alterations of hole board behavior caused by a model stress (2 IP injections of physiological saline) and by a short restraint stress (5 min) is analyzed in this study. The experimental groups ingested about 3 mg/kg/24 hr CI or DS for 15 days. Then some experimental and control rats were assigned to control of drug effects on baseline activity. The remaining rats were submitted to saline stress (Experiment I) or restraint stress (Experiment II). The baseline scores of hole board locomotion, head dipping, grooming and defecation were not affected by DS treatment but locomotion slightly increased in the CI treated group. Saline stress impaired significantly head dipping and caused excessive grooming in control rats. The CI treatment induced almost full protection against these behavioral effects of saline stress but DS treatment was ineffective. Restraint stress was found to cause a pronounced inhibition of head dipping as well as a great increase of the scores of grooming in the control group. The CI treatment clearly attenuated these effects of restraint but DS treatment was not effective. The results suggest that male rats treated chronically with CI tolerated both acute stresses better than untreated rats, and that a similar treatment with DS did not provide protection against the effect of such stresses on hole board responding. Inasmuch as CI and DS have different relative potency at noradrenergic and serotonergic systems, it is speculated that this might be in part responsible for their differences as stress protectors.

  18. Perceived Stress After Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Comparison Between Young and Middle-Aged Women Versus Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao; Bao, Haikun; Strait, Kelly M; Edmondson, Donald E; Davidson, Karina W; Beltrame, John F; Bueno, Héctor; Lin, Haiqun; Dreyer, Rachel P; Brush, John E; Spertus, John A; Lichtman, Judith H; DʼOnofrio, Gail; Krumholz, Harlan M

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how psychological stress changes over time in young and middle-aged patients after experiencing an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and whether these changes differ between men and women. We analyzed data obtained from 2358 women and 1151 men aged 18 to 55 years hospitalized for AMI. Psychological stress was measured using the 14-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) at initial hospitalization and at 1 month and 12 months after AMI. We used linear mixed-effects models to examine changes in PSS-14 scores over time and sex differences in these changes, while adjusting for patient characteristics and accounting for correlation among repeated observations within patients. Overall, patients' perceived stress decreased over time, especially during the first month after AMI. Women had higher levels of perceived stress than men throughout the 12-month period (difference in PSS-14 score = 3.63, 95% confidence interval = 3.08 to 4.18, p stress changed over time. Adjustment for patient characteristics did not alter the overall pattern of sex difference in changes of perceived stress over time other than attenuating the magnitude of sex difference in PSS-14 score (difference between women and men = 1.74, 95% confidence interval = 1.32 to 2.16, p stress was similar in patients with versus without post-AMI angina, even though patients with angina experienced less improvement in PSS-14 score than those without angina. In young and middle-aged patients with AMI, women reported higher levels of perceived stress than men throughout the first 12 months of recovery. However, women and men had a similar pattern in how perceived stress changed over time.

  19. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, Nicole Y. L.; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Summary Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain’s ‘‘reward system’’, and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PETstudies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between st...

  20. Stress-induced alterations in estradiol sensitivity increase risk for obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to rise, increasing individual vulnerability to an array of adverse health outcomes. One factor that has been implicated causally in the increased accumulation of fat and excess food intake is the activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis in the face of relentless stressor exposure. However, translational and clinical research continues to understudy the effects sex and gonadal hormones and LHPA axis dysfunction in the etiology of obesity even though women continue to be at greater risk than men for stress-induced disorders, including depression, emotional feeding and obesity. The current review will emphasize the need for sex-specific evaluation of the relationship between stress exposure and LHPA axis activity on individual risk for obesity by summarizing data generated by animal models currently being leveraged to determine the etiology of stress-induced alterations in feeding behavior and metabolism. There exists a clear lack of translational models that have been used to study female-specific risk. One translational model of psychosocial stress exposure that has proven fruitful in elucidating potential mechanisms by which females are at increased risk for stress-induced adverse health outcomes is that of social subordination in socially housed female macaque monkeys. Data from subordinate female monkeys suggest that increased risk for emotional eating and the development of obesity in females may be due to LHPA axis-induced changes in the behavioral and physiological sensitivity of estradiol. The lack in understanding of the mechanisms underlying these alterations necessitate the need to account for the effects of sex and gonadal hormones in the rationale, design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of results in our studies of stress axis function in obesity. Doing so may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets with which to combat stress-induced obesity

  1. The combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.

    We investigated the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing, employing a monetary incentive delay task in combination with EEG. Females participated during late follicular and late luteal phases, performing in both control and stress conditions. We

  2. Evaluating the Impact of a Brief Artistic Intervention on Cardiovascular Recovery from Acute Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Katharina; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-01-01

    In this study we tested whether drawing and coloring influence cardiovascular recovery and perceived stress following exposure to a stressor. In a mixed experimental design, participants (N = 62) completed an acute stress task before being randomly assigned to one of three brief activities: free-form drawing (full creative control), coloring…

  3. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  4. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  5. The analgesics morphine and tramadol do not alter the acute toxicity induced by Bothrops asper snake venom in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez, José María; Herrera Arias, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Analgesics tramadol and morphine were used in mice injected with Bothrops asper venom. Analgesics did not alter the acute toxicity of B. asper venom in mice. Precautionary (prophylactic) analgesia should be introduced routinely in Toxinology. UCR::Investigación::Unidades de Investigación::Ciencias de la Salud::Instituto Clodomiro Picado (ICP)

  6. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ.

  7. Acetaminophen (Paracetamol) Induces Hypothermia During Acute Cold Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Josh; Mauger, Alexis R; Govus, Andrew; Hewson, David; Taylor, Lee

    2017-11-01

    Acetaminophen is an over-the-counter drug used to treat pain and fever, but it has also been shown to reduce core temperature (T c ) in the absence of fever. However, this side effect is not well examined in humans, and it is unknown if the hypothermic response to acetaminophen is exacerbated with cold exposure. To address this question, we mapped the thermoregulatory responses to acetaminophen and placebo administration during exposure to acute cold (10 °C) and thermal neutrality (25 °C). Nine healthy Caucasian males (aged 20-24 years) participated in the experiment. In a double-blind, randomised, repeated measures design, participants were passively exposed to a thermo-neutral or cold environment for 120 min, with administration of 20 mg/kg lean body mass acetaminophen or a placebo 5 min prior to exposure. T c , skin temperature (T sk ), heart rate, and thermal sensation were measured every 10 min, and mean arterial pressure was recorded every 30 min. Data were analysed using linear mixed effects models. Differences in thermal sensation were analysed using a cumulative link mixed model. Acetaminophen had no effect on T c in a thermo-neutral environment, but significantly reduced T c during cold exposure, compared with a placebo. T c was lower in the acetaminophen compared with the placebo condition at each 10-min interval from 80 to 120 min into the trial (all p cold exposure (range 0.16-0.57 °C), whereas there was no change in the placebo group (0.01 ± 0.1 °C). T sk , heart rate, thermal sensation, and mean arterial pressure were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). This preliminary trial suggests that acetaminophen-induced hypothermia is exacerbated during cold stress. Larger scale trials seem warranted to determine if acetaminophen administration is associated with an increased risk of accidental hypothermia, particularly in vulnerable populations such as frail elderly individuals.

  8. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  9. Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Nilsson, E; Chapman, C D; Cedernaes, J; Vogel, H; Dickson, S L; Broman, J-E; Schiöth, H B; Benedict, C

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans. A total of 16 healthy normal-weight men participated in 2 conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30 h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning after regular sleep and TSD, circulating concentrations of ghrelin and glucose were measured. In addition, participants hunger level was assessed by means of visual analogue scales, both before and after a caloric preload. Finally, following the preload, participants rated both intensity and pleasantness of six orally presented yogurt probes with varying sucrose concentrations (2-29 %). Feelings of hunger were significantly more intense under both fasted and sated conditions when subjects were sleep-deprived. In contrast, the change in hunger induced by the preload was similar between the sleep and TSD conditions. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were significantly higher under conditions of TSD, whereas plasma glucose did not differ between the conditions. No effects were found either on sweet taste intensity or on pleasantness after TSD. One night of TSD increases morning plasma concentrations of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin in healthy young men. In contrast, sweet taste perception was not affected by nocturnal wakefulness. This suggests that an altered sweet taste perception is an unlikely mechanism by which TSD enhances food intake.

  10. Influence of acute stress on decision outcomes and heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J; Kovacs, Attila J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the take-the-first (TTF) heuristic and decision outcomes in sports under conditions of no, mental, and physical stress. Participants (N.=68) performed 8 video decision-making trials under each of 3 stress conditions: no stress (counting backwards), mental stress (mental serial subtraction), and physical stress (running on treadmill at 13 RPE). Prior to each decision-making trial, participants were exposed to 30 seconds of stress. The decision-making task required participants to watch a video depicting an offensive situation in basketball and then decide what the player with the ball should do next. No differences were found between the 3 stress conditions on TTF frequency, number of options generated, quality of first generated option, or final decision quality. However, participants performing under conditions of no stress and physical stress generated their first option and made their final decision faster than they did when making decisions under mental stress. Overall, results suggest that mental stress impairs decision speed and that TTF is an ecologically rationale heuristic in dynamic, time-pressured situations.

  11. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behaviour in stressed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabha Dey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Withania somnifera root extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behaviour in stressed mice or not. Materials and Methods: Groups of mice treated with 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of Withania somnifera root (WSR extract were subjected to a foot shock stress induced hyperthermia test on the 1st, 5th, 7th and 10th day of the experiment. On the 11th and 12th treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Results: Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Conclusion: Marble burying test in stressed mice are well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of Withania somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them. [J Complement Med Res 2016; 5(3.000: 274-277

  12. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, AJ; Schamarek, I; Lustig, RH; Kirschbaum, C; Puterman, E; Havel, PJ; Epel, ES

    2012-01-01

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating...

  13. Aluminum stress inhibits root growth and alters physiological and metabolic responses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Shuvasish; Sharma, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) roots were treated with aluminum (Al3+) in calcium chloride (CaCl2) solution (pH 4.7) and growth responses along with physiological and metabolic changes were investigated. Al3+ treatment for 7d resulted in a dose dependent decline of seed germination and inhibition of root growth. A significant (p ≤ 0.05) decline in fresh and dry biomass were observed after 7d of Al3+ stress.The root growth (length) was inhibited after 24 and 48 h of stress imposition. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels increased significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with respect to control in Al3+ treated roots. The hematoxylin and Evans blue assay indicated significant (p ≤ 0.05) accumulation of Al3+ in the roots and loss of plasma membrane integrity respectively. The time-course evaluation of lipid peroxidation showed increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) after 12, 24 and 48 h of stress imposition. Al3+ treatment did not alter the MDA levels after 2 or 4 h of stress, however, a minor increase was observed after 6 and 10 h of treatment. The proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of the perchloric acid extracts showed variation in the abundance of metabolites and suggested a major metabolic shift in chickpea root during Al3+ stress. The key differences that were observed include changes in energy metabolites. Accumulation of phenolic compounds suggested its possible role in Al3+ exclusion in roots during stress. The results suggested that Al3+ alters growth pattern in chickpea and induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that causes physiological and metabolic changes.

  14. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fideler, Nancy

    2007-01-01

    .... The purpose of the proposed study is to test a model for chemical sensitivity in GWV, in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  15. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy L; Laumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Lunfeng

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The proposed study is designed to test a model of Gulf War Illness, in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  16. The Effects of Diesel Exhaust and Stress on the Acute Phase Response and Symptoms in the Chemically Intolerant

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fiedler, Nancy; Leumbach, Robert; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul; Zhang, Jungfeng; Lehrer, Paul

    2006-01-01

    .... The purpose of the proposed study is to test a model for chemical sensitivity in GWV in which simultaneous acute exposures to DE and psychological stress cause increased symptoms via the acute phase response (APR...

  17. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  18. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  19. Prior exercise training does not prevent acute cardiac alterations after myocardial infarction in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo C. A. Veiga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether previous exercise training could prevent or attenuate acute cardiac alterations after myocardial infarction. METHODS: Female rats were submitted to swim training (1 h/day; 5 days/week or allowed to remain sedentary for 8 weeks. Afterwards, they were randomly assigned to left coronary artery occlusion or sham surgery. After this procedure, the rats remained sedentary for one week until euthanasia. Cardiac structural and functional analyses were performed using Doppler echocardiography. The rats that had a moderate or large infarct size were included in the evaluations. The data (mean + SEM were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA model followed byTukey's post-hoc test. RESULTS: After the surgery, no significant difference between the exercise and sedentary groups was observed in the left ventricular infarct sizes (34.58 + 3.04 vs. 37.59 + 3.07. In another group of rats evaluated with Evans blue 1 h after myocardial infarction, no siginificant difference in the area at risk was observed between the exercised and sedentary rats (49.73 + 1.52 vs. 45.48 + 3.49. The changes in the left ventricular fractional areas for the exercised and sedentary myocardial infarction groups (36 + 2% and 39 + 3%, respectively were smaller than those for the exercise sham surgery (ES, 67+1% and sedentary sham surgery (SS, 69 + 2% groups. The E/A was higher in the sedentary myocardial infarction (4.4 + 0.3 and exercised myocardial infarction (5.5 + 0.3 rats than in the SS (2.4 + 0.1 and ES (2.2 + 0.1 rats. CONCLUSION: Previous swim training of female rats does not attenuate systolic and diastolic function alterations after myocardial infarction induced by left coronary artery occlusion, suggesting that cardioprotection cannot be provided by exercise training in this experimental model.

  20. Lymphocyte subsets are influenced by positivity levels in healthy subjects before and after mild acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Nisini, Roberto; Castellani, Valeria; Vittorio, Pasquali; Alessandri, Guido; Vincenzo, Ziparo; Claudia, Ferlito; Valentina, Germano; Andrea, Picchianti Diamanti; Biondo, Michela Ileen; Milanetti, Francesca; Salerno, Gerardo; Vincenzo, Visco; Mario, Pietrosanti; Aniballi, Eros; Simonetta, Salemi; Angela, Santoni; D'Amelio, Raffaele

    2017-08-01

    In the current study, the possible association of positivity (POS), recently defined as general disposition to view life under positive outlook, with immune markers and post-stress modifications, was analyzed. Circulating lymphocyte subsets and serum cytokine levels were evaluated before and after a standard mild acute stress test, in 41 healthy students, previously selected by a questionnaire for their level of POS (high [POS-H] and low [POS-L]). The CD3 + and CD4 + cell frequency was higher in the POS-H students before and after acute stress. CD4 + subpopulation analysis revealed baseline higher terminally differentiated frequency in the POS-H, whereas higher effector memory frequency was present in the POS-L students. Moreover, the frequency of post-stress B cells was higher in the POS-H students. The mild-stress test was associated to an increase of the IL-10 mean values, while mean values of the other cytokines tested did not change significantly. It is tempting to speculate that IL-10 may work as biomarker of response to acute mild stress and that POS-H may be associated to a better capacity of the immune system to contrast the disturbing effects of mild acute stress. Yet further studies on lymphocyte subset absolute number and function of larger and different populations are needed to definitively prove these preliminary observations. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effect of acute glucagon removal on the metabolic response to stress hormone infusion in the conscious dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, O P; Murrell, S; Moran, C; Bracy, D; Cherrington, A D

    1994-10-01

    The effect of acute glucagon removal on glucose metabolism following long-term (70-hour) stress hormone infusion (day 3) was investigated in 20-hour-fasted conscious dogs. Stress hormone infusion increased arterial plasma glucagon, cortisol, epinephrine, and norepinephrine (approximately fivefold), as well as arterial plasma glucose (delta 82 +/- 16 mg/dL) and insulin (delta 26 +/- 5 microU/mL). After assessing basal glucose metabolism on day 3, the long-term glucagon infusion was discontinued (n = 6), and the remaining hormones were infused for an additional 180 minutes. Constant glycemia was maintained by an exogenous glucose infusion. In five dogs, the stress hormone infusion containing glucagon was continued for 180 minutes. Glucose production and gluconeogenesis were assessed using tracer and arteriovenous-difference techniques. Acute removal of glucagon decreased arterial plasma glucagon from 220 +/- 24 to 32 +/- 4 pg/mL and net hepatic glucose output (delta 1.6 +/- 0.3 mg/kg/min). Net hepatic handling of lactate, alanine, and glycerol was not altered. The efficiency of gluconeogenesis, on the other hand, was decreased by 40%. Liver biopsies taken following discontinuation of glucagon indicated that both 3H- and 14C-glucose accumulated in glycogen. The calculated rate of plasma glucose and gluconeogenic precursor diversion to glycogen increased by fivefold and fourfold, respectively. The increased gluconeogenic precursor diversion to glycogen accounted for 58% of the decrease in the efficiency of gluconeogenesis. In conclusion, acute removal of glucagon during stress hormone infusion decreased net hepatic glycogenolysis in the face of prevailing hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia, while having minimal effects on the gluconeogenic process per se.

  2. FKBP5 polymorphisms influence pre-learning stress-induced alterations of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Dailey, Alison M; Nagle, Hannah E; Fiely, Miranda K; Mosley, Brianne E; Brown, Callie M; Duffy, Tessa J; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2017-03-01

    FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 and significantly influences glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene are associated with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, changes in the structure and function of several cognitive brain areas, and increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder and suicidal events. The mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown, but it has been speculated that the influence of these SNPs on emotional memory systems may play a role. In the present study, 112 participants were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test (stress) or control (no stress) conditions immediately prior to learning a list of 42 words. Participant memory was assessed immediately after learning (free recall) and 24 h later (free recall and recognition). Participants provided a saliva sample that enabled the genotyping of three FKBP5 polymorphisms: rs1360780, rs3800373 and rs9296158. Results showed that stress impaired immediate recall in risk allele carriers. More importantly, stress enhanced long-term recall and recognition memory in non-carriers of the risk alleles, effects that were completely absent in risk allele carriers. Follow-up analyses revealed that memory performance was correlated with salivary cortisol levels in non-carriers, but not in carriers. These findings suggest that FKBP5 risk allele carriers may possess a sensitized stress response system, perhaps specifically for stress-induced changes in corticosteroid levels, which might aid our understanding of how SNPs in the FKBP5 gene confer increased risk for stress-related psychological disorders and their related phenotypes. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Acute and sub-lethal exposure to copper oxide nanoparticles causes oxidative stress and teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Santhanamari; Anaimalai Thirumurthi, Naveenkumar; Raghunath, Azhwar; Vijayakumar, Savitha; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2016-04-01

    Nano-copper oxides are a versatile inorganic material. As a result of their versatility, the immense applications and usage end up in the environment causing a concern for the lifespan of various beings. The ambiguities surround globally on the toxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). Hence, the present study endeavored to study the sub-lethal acute exposure effects on the developing zebrafish embryos. The 48 hpf LC50 value was about 64 ppm. Therefore, we have chosen the sub-lethal dose of 40 and 60 ppm for the study. Accumulation of CuO-NPs was evidenced from the SEM-EDS and AAS analyzes. The alterations in the AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities disrupted the development process. An increment in the levels of oxidants with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress triggered apoptosis in the exposed embryos. Developmental anomalies were observed with CuO-NPs exposure in addition to oxidative stress in the developing embryos. Decreased heart rate and hatching delay hindered the normal developmental processes. Our work has offered valuable data on the connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity leading to lethality caused by CuO-NPs. A further molecular mechanism unraveling the uncharted connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity will aid in the safe use of CuO-NPs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Acute stress among adolescents and female rape victims measured by ASC-Kids: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris; Nordenstam, Carin; Green, Sara; Wetterhall, Annika; Lundin, Tom; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-01-01

    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often with durable consequences. How the aftermath of rape is for young adolescents' girls considering acute stress is an overlooked field and remains to be studied. In this study, we wanted to investigate acute stress among adolescent victims of rape and the psychometric properties of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children (ASC-Kids). A clinical sample (n = 79) of raped girls, 13-17 years old who had turned to a special rape victim unit for treatment, answered the ASC-Kids. ASC-Kids was also given to a group of minor stressed, non-raped adolescents in the same age range (n = 154) together with the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD RI), and the Sense of Coherence Scale 13 (SOC-13). The scores from the groups were compared and showed significant differences in mean values on all the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder. In the clinical group, 36.7% obtained full ASD criteria. ASC-Kids could discriminate well between groups. Cronbach's alpha was found to be excellent, and the correlation between the UCLA PTSD RI and ASC-Kids found to be good; both ASC-Kids and UCLA PTSD RI had a good and moderate negative correlation with SOC-13. Adolescent female rape victims were shown to have a very high level of acute stress, and the ASC-Kids was found to have sound psychometrics and can be a valuable screening instrument to support clinicians in their assessments of an indication of adolescents after potentially stressful events such as rape.

  5. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Leventhal

    Full Text Available Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO. Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3 and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.

  6. Influence of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation during exercise-heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawka, M.N.; Gonzalez, R.R.; Dennis, R.C.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.; Martin, J.W.; Francesconi, R.P.; Pandolf, K.B.; Valeri, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effects of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation responses during exercise in the heat. In a double blind study, 6 subjects (Ss) received a 700-ml solution of autologous red blood cells at a 60% Hct, and 3 Ss (control) received a 700-ml saline solution. All Ss attempted a Heat Stress Test (HST) two weeks prior to and 48-h post-transfusion during summer months. After 30 min of rest in a 20 0 C antechamber, the HST consisted of a 120-min exposure (two repeats of 15-min rest and 45-min treadmill walk) in a 35 0 C, 45% rh environment while euhydrated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and red cell volume (RCV, 51 Cr) were measured approximately 24 h before each HST. For experimental Ss, an increase in RCV (11%, P 2 max (11%, P < 0.05) was found following transfusion, whereas, differences were not observed in the control Ss. During the HSTs for experimental Ss, metabolic rate as well as steady state rectal and esophageal temperatures were similar, but heat storage tended (P = 0.13) to be lower post-transfusion. Steady state local arm (R + C) was reduced (P < 0.05) with no change in total body sweating rate or local arm evaporative heat loss post-transfusion. For control Ss, thermoregulatory responses were generally not altered post-transfusion. Erythrocythemia may improve steady state sensible heat exchange by allowing a greater volume of blood to be directed to the cutaneous vasculature

  7. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Altering the sex determination pathway in Drosophila fat body modifies sex-specific stress responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neckameyer, Wendi S.

    2014-01-01

    The stress response in Drosophila melanogaster reveals sex differences in behavior, similar to what has been observed in mammals. However, unlike mammals, the sex determination pathway in Drosophila is well established, making this an ideal system to identify factors involved in the modulation of sex-specific responses to stress. In this study, we show that the Drosophila fat body, which has been shown to be important for energy homeostasis and sex determination, is a dynamic tissue that is altered in response to stress in a sex and time-dependent manner. We manipulated the sex determination pathway in the fat body via targeted expression of transformer and transformer-2 and analyzed these animals for changes in their response to stress. In the majority of cases, manipulation of transformer or transformer-2 was able to change the physiological output in response to starvation and oxidative stress to that of the opposite sex. Our data also uncover the possibility of additional downstream targets for transformer and transformer-2 that are separate from the sex determination pathway and can influence behavioral and physiological responses. PMID:24789992

  9. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP.

  10. Mice lacking integrin β3 expression exhibit altered response to chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Varney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate multiple roles for integrin αvβ3 in adult neurons, including response to pharmacological agents such as cocaine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this study, we examined the role of the integrin β3 gene (Itgb3 in the response to environmental stimuli by subjecting Itgb3+/+ and Itgb3−/− mice to unpredictable chronic mild stressors. We found that genetic abrogation of integrin β3 expression elicits an exaggerated vulnerability to chronic unpredictable stress in the open field test. In this test, chronic stress elicited significant decreases in stereotypic behavior and horizontal locomotor activity, including increases in anxiety behaviors. Mild chronic stress led to reductions in dopamine turnover in midbrains of Itgb3+/+, but not Itgb3−/− mice, suggesting a disruption of stress-dependent regulation of DA homeostasis. Chronic stress elicited altered synaptic expression of syntaxin and synaptophysin in midbrains of Itgb3−/− mice, when compared to Itgb3+/+. Semi-quantitative Western blot studies revealed that the synaptic expression, but not total tissue expression, of multiple signaling proteins is correlated with integrin αv levels in the midbrain. Moreover, loss of integrin β3 expression modifies this correlation network. Together, these findings demonstrate that Itgb3−/− mice display a pattern of changes indicating disrupted regulation of midbrain synaptic systems involved in conferring resilience to mild stressors.

  11. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela

    2007-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...... outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...

  12. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama

    2008-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...... outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...

  13. Alterations of postawakening cortisol parameters during a prolonged stress period: Results of a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Deinzer, Renate

    2010-08-01

    Though postawakening cortisol is considered to be altered under chronic stress prospective studies proving this assumption is missing, so far. Furthermore, there is some uncertainty which aspects of postawakening cortisol alterations are strongest related to stress. The present study thus analyzed the cortisol concentration at awakening itself (0 min), the cortisol awakening response (CAR; i.e. the increase within 30 min after awakening), the area under the curve of the first hour after awakening (AUC(G)60) and the mean of samples taken 0 min and 30 min after awakening (AUC(G)30) in 12 exam students, participating in a major exam and 12 matched control students not participating in any exam. Saliva samples were taken on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening, respectively, at four time points (T1-T4): on the verge of exams, when students anticipated and prepared the exam (T1), in the middle of exams (T2), and shortly after (T3). T4 (weeks after exams) represents a reference measure. Repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed a significantly higher AUC(G)30 (p=0.007) and AUC(G)60 (p=0.011) and higher cortisol concentrations at awakening (p=0.016) in exam students and a significant time by group interaction for concentration at awakening (p=0.031). No effects were found for the CAR. The results of this prospective controlled study support notions that chronic stress induces increases of overall postawakening cortisol. They further indicate that the CAR is not affected by chronic stress and that the awakening concentration responds later than the AUC(G) to conditions of chronic stress as analyzed here. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Systemic apomorphine alters HPA axis responses to interleukin-1 beta administration but not sound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, K M; Crane, J W; Spencer, S J; Day, T A

    2003-08-01

    Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor agonist that was recently licensed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, although sexual activity can be stressful, there has been little investigation into whether treatments for erectile dysfunction affect stress responses. We have examined whether a single dose of apomorphine, sufficient to produce penile erections (50 microg/kg, i.a.), can alter basal or stress-induced plasma ACTH levels, or activity of central pathways thought to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats. An immune challenge (interleukin-1 beta, 1 microg/kg, i.a.) was used as a physical stressor while sound stress (100 dB white noise, 30 min) was used as a psychological stressor. Intravascular administration of apomorphine had no effect on basal ACTH levels but did substantially increase the number of Fos-positive amygdala and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. Administration of apomorphine prior to immune challenge augmented the normal ACTH response to this stressor at 90 min and there was a corresponding increase in the number of Fos-positive paraventricular nucleus corticotropin-releasing factor cells, paraventricular nucleus oxytocin cells and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. However, apomorphine treatment did not alter ACTH or Fos responses to sound stress. These data suggest that erection-inducing levels of apomorphine interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibitory feedback mechanisms in response to a physical stressor, but have no effect on the response to a psychological stressor. Consequently, it is likely that apomorphine acts on a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis control pathway that is unique to physical stressors. A candidate for this site of action is the nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cell population and, in particular, A2 noradrenergic neurons.

  15. Being a Grump Only Makes Things Worse: A Transactional Account of Acute Stress on Mind Wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melaina T Vinski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Scale as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high stress or low stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART as a measure of mind wandering behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally-oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood.

  16. RAAS and stress markers in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, C.; Thiesen, K L; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    . MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood from a jugular and cubital vein was collected within 48 h of stroke onset, after 24 and 48 h, and renin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, norepinephrine, epinephrine, and cortisol were measured. Post-stroke cubital vein samples were collected after 8 (4.7-10) months....... RESULTS: The acute systolic blood pressure was significantly increased, 148 (141-168) vs 140 (130-147) mmHg post-stroke. Angiotensin I, renin and aldosterone levels were significantly lower, angiotensin II was unchanged, and ACE activity was higher in the acute phase compared to post......-stroke. No differences in RAAS were detected between jugular and cubital plasma levels. Jugular venous plasma levels of epinephrine and cortisol were elevated in the acute phase compared to cubital levels (P vein blood may reflect a higher...

  17. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress.

  18. Raman spectroscopic study of acute oxidative stress induced changes in mice skeletal muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriramoju, Vidyasagar; Alimova, Alexandra; Chakraverty, Rahul; Katz, A.; Gayen, S. K.; Larsson, L.; Savage, H. E.; Alfano, R. R.

    2008-02-01

    The oxidative stress due to free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue damage in diseases such as muscular dystrophy, Alzheimer dementia, diabetes mellitus, and mitochrondrial myopathies. In this study, the acute oxidative stress induced changes in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in mouse skeletal muscles are studied in vitro using Raman spectroscopy. Mammalian skeletal muscles are rich in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotides in both reduced (NADH) and oxidized (NAD) states, as they are sites of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. The relative levels of NAD and NADH are altered in certain physiological and pathological conditions of skeletal muscles. In this study, near infrared Raman spectroscopy is used to identify the molecular fingerprints of NAD and NADH in five-week-old mice biceps femoris muscles. A Raman vibrational mode of NADH is identified in fresh skeletal muscle samples suspended in buffered normal saline. In the same samples, when treated with 1% H IIO II for 5 minutes and 15 minutes, the Raman spectrum shows molecular fingerprints specific to NAD and the disappearance of NADH vibrational bands. The NAD bands after 15 minutes were more intense than after 5 minutes. Since NADH fluoresces and NAD does not, fluorescence spectroscopy is used to confirm the results of the Raman measurements. Fluorescence spectra exhibit an emission peak at 460 nm, corresponding to NADH emission wavelength in fresh muscle samples; while the H IIO II treated muscle samples do not exhibit NADH fluorescence. Raman spectroscopy may be used to develop a minimally invasive, in vivo optical biopsy method to measure the relative NAD and NADH levels in muscle tissues. This may help to detect diseases of muscle, including mitochondrial myopathies and muscular dystrophies.

  19. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  1. Effects of paternal and peripubertal stress on aggression, anxiety, and metabolic alterations in the lateral septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, M I; Just, N; Poirier, G L; Sandi, C

    2016-02-01

    Early-life stress and biological predispositions are linked to mood and personality disorders related to aggressive behavior. We previously showed that exposure to peripubertal stress leads to increased anxiety-like behaviors and aggression against males and females, as well as increased aggression against females in their male offspring. Here, we investigated whether paternal (pS) and individual (iS) exposure to peripubertal stress may exert additive effects on the long-term programming of anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors in rats. Given the key role of the lateral septum (LS) in the regulation of anxiety and aggressive behaviors and the hypothesized alterations in balance between neural excitation and inhibition in aggression-related disorders, markers for these processes were examined in the LS. Peripubertal stress was applied both in naïve male rats and in the offspring of peripubertally stressed males, and anxiety-like and aggressive behaviors were assessed at adulthood. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 6-months, and post-mortem analysis of glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67) at 12-months were conducted in LS. We confirmed that aggressive behavior was increased by pS and iS, while only iS increased anxiety-like behavior. Individual stress led to reduced GABA, confirmed by reduced GAD67 immunolabelling, and increased glutamate, N-acetyl-aspartate, phosphocholine and creatine; while pS specifically led to reduced phosphocreatine. pS and iS do not interact and exert a differential impact on the analyzed aspects of brain function and anxiety-like behaviors. These data support the view that early-life stress can affect the behavioral and neurodevelopmental trajectories of individuals and their offspring, which may involve different neurobiological mechanisms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  2. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, C.M.; Hansen, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Signs of myocardial involvement are common in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. ST segment deviations, abnormal left ventricular function, increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), prolonged QT interval, and/or raised troponins are observed in up to one third of th...... and not coronary thrombosis. However, all patients with signs of cardiac involvement during acute cerebrovascular events should receive a cardiological follow-up in order to exclude concomitant ischemic heart disease. Copyright (C) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  3. Activation of Erk and JNK MAPK pathways by acute swim stress in rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvadore Christopher

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs have been shown to participate in a wide array of cellular functions. A role for some MAPKs (e.g., extracellular signal-regulated kinase, Erk1/2 has been documented in response to certain physiological stimuli, such as ischemia, visceral pain and electroconvulsive shock. We recently demonstrated that restraint stress activates the Erk MAPK pathway, but not c-Jun-N-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase (JNK/SAPK or p38MAPK, in several rat brain regions. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a different stressor, acute forced swim stress, on the phosphorylation (P state of these MAPKs in the hippocampus, neocortex, prefrontal cortex, amygdala and striatum. In addition, effects on the phosphorylation state of the upstream activators of the MAPKs, their respective MAPK kinases (MAPKKs; P-MEK1/2, P-MKK4 and P-MKK3/6, were determined. Finally, because the Erk pathway can activate c-AMP response element (CRE binding (CREB protein, and swim stress has recently been reported to enhance CREB phosphorylation, changes in P-CREB were also examined. Results A single 15 min session of forced swimming increased P-Erk2 levels 2–3-fold in the neocortex, prefrontal cortex and striatum, but not in the hippocampus or amygdala. P-JNK levels (P-JNK1 and/or P-JNK2/3 were increased in all brain regions about 2–5-fold, whereas P-p38MAPK levels remained essentially unchanged. Surprisingly, levels of the phosphorylated MAPKKs, P-MEK1/2 and P-MKK4 (activators of the Erk and JNK pathways, respectively were increased in all five brain regions, and much more dramatically (P-MEK1/2, 4.5 to > 100-fold; P-MKK4, 12 to ~300-fold. Consistent with the lack of forced swim on phosphorylation of p38MAPK, there appeared to be no change in levels of its activator, P-MKK3/6. P-CREB was increased in all but cortical (prefrontal, neocortex areas. Conclusions Swim stress specifically and markedly

  4. Psychological stress affects the severity of radiation-induced acute skin reactions in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, A E; Bennett, N C; Herst, P M

    2017-11-01

    Psychological stress exacerbates many pathological conditions including inflammatory skin conditions. The effect of psychological stress on acute radiation-induced skin reactions has not been documented before. Here, we aimed to explore if psychological stress could aggravate skin reaction severity in breast cancer patients. We conducted a secondary analysis of patient data obtained during a randomised, controlled clinical trial for acute radiation-induced skin reaction severity in 78 breast cancer patients. Patients were assessed three times a week during treatment. Skin reaction severity was measured using the modified Radiation-Induced Skin Reaction Assessment Scale (RISRAS) and Radiation Therapy Oncology Group grades. Stress levels were determined using a 5-point LIKERT scale to rate physical well-being, managing stress levels, house, family, work and other commitments. A total of 20 patients (26%) of the 78-patient cohort were considered stressed. Skin reaction severity in stressed patients was twice that of non-stressed patients (p stressed patients were five times more likely to develop moist desquamation. Our results show that psychological stress aggravates skin reaction severity during radiation therapy. This research needs to be validated in a more rigorous manner by incorporating a validated scale such as the Distress Thermometer and Impact Thermometer in future skin trials. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Hyperresponse to acute stress and poorer memory in former preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Amaro Quesada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background : Preterm birth is marked by stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life. Furthermore, preterms are exposed to repeated painful procedures, loud noise, and restricted contact with parents in the neonatal intensive care unit. This environment can affect hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Despite this, little is known about how early-life stress affects preterms later on in childhood. The goals of the current study were threefold: (1 comparing cortisol profile, including cortisol awakening response (CAR, between preterm and full-term children; (2 assessing memory, behavior, and emotion of preterms; (3 evaluating if preterms are more responsive to an acute stressor. Methods : Basal cortisol and α-amylase (sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children were evaluated. Salivary samples were measured on two consecutive days at four time points: awakening, 30 min post-awakening, 1600h, and 2100h. Furthermore, we assess memory functions by using the wide range assessment of memory and learning and screen behavior/emotion by using strengths and difficulties questionnaire. The results of preterms were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group (n=31. One week after, the participants were exposed to Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C. Results : Preterms had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR, and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-terms. In addition, cortisol concentrations at awakening were larger in preterm girls than in preterm boys. A trend of sex-specific differences was also observed on TSST-C exposure, with higher cortisol response in preterm girls. Preterms also showed more emotional problems and poorer memory. Conclusions : Our findings illustrate the long-lasting effects of preterm birth on the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA axis, internalizing behavior, and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that

  6. Evidence for Stress-like Alterations in the HPA-Axis in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Johannes; König, Johanna; Homuth, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Using oral contraceptives has been implicated in the aetiology of stress-related disorders like depression. Here, we followed the hypothesis that oral contraceptives deregulate the HPA-axis by elevating circulating cortisol levels. We report for a sample of 233 pre-menopausal women increased...... circulating cortisol levels in those using oral contraceptives. For women taking oral contraceptives, we observed alterations in circulating phospholipid levels and elevated triglycerides and found evidence for increased glucocorticoid signalling as the transcript levels of the glucocorticoid-regulated genes...... DDIT4 and FKBP5 were increased in whole blood. The effects were statistically mediated by cortisol. The associations of oral contraceptives with higher FKBP5 mRNA and altered phospholipid levels were modified by rs1360780, a genetic variance implicated in psychiatric diseases. Accordingly...

  7. Acute psychosocial stress does not increase dysfunctional attitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeoh, Su Ying; Wilkinson, Paul

    2014-11-01

    Dysfunctional attitudes about oneself, the world and the future, measured quantitatively by Weissman's Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale (DAS), are thought to influence the onset and persistence of major depressive disorder. However, never-depressed individuals may also harbour latent negative schema which may become activated under stressful conditions, giving rise to dysfunctional negative cognitions. This study investigated whether everyday psychosocial stresses could be sufficient to activate dysfunctional self-schema and increase negative cognitions in a large group of healthy adolescents and a preliminary cohort of previously depressed adolescents. 92 never-depressed adolescents aged 17-19 and 18 previously depressed adolescents, recruited from the Cambridge ROOTS cohort, took either version A or B of the DAS at rest on day 1. On day 2, they were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test, a psychosocial stress paradigm, 22 minutes after which they took the other version of DAS. Stress did not affect the DAS score in either group. Brief psychosocial stress does not appear to influence negative assumptions in healthy young adults with or without a past history of depression. It is possible that this is because dysfunctional assumptions, unlike self-schemas, are not latent. More long-term stresses may be needed to activate negative thoughts to a level where risk of depression is increased.

  8. Effects of Acute Laboratory Stress on Executive Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starcke, Katrin; Wiesen, Carina; Trotzke, Patrick; Brand, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999): attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40) were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20), or to a rest condition (N = 20). Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group). The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  9. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  10. Cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress and cognitive ability in the Dutch Famine Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T.; Phillips, Anna C.; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Carroll, Douglas; Derooij, Susanne R.

    2012-01-01

    Given evidence linking blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute stress and a range of adverse behavioral outcomes, the present study examined the associations between cardiovascular and cortisol reactivity and cognitive ability measured independently of the stress task exposure.

  11. Intrauterine ethanol exposure results in hypothalamic oxidative stress and neuroendocrine alterations in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Korami; Yao, Xing-Hai; Chen, Li; Nyomba, B L Grégoire

    2006-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) exposure is associated with low birth weight, followed by increased appetite, catch-up growth, insulin resistance, and impaired glucose tolerance in the rat offspring. Because EtOH can induce oxidative stress, which is a putative mechanism of insulin resistance, and because of the central role of the hypothalamus in the regulation of energy homeostasis and insulin action, we investigated whether prenatal EtOH exposure causes oxidative damage to the hypothalamus, which may alter its function. Female rats were given EtOH by gavage throughout pregnancy. At birth, their offspring were smaller than those of non-EtOH rats. Markers of oxidative stress and expression of neuropeptide Y and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) were determined in hypothalami of postnatal day 7 (PD7) and 3-mo-old (adult) rat offspring. In both PD7 and adult rats, prenatal EtOH exposure was associated with decreased levels of glutathione and increased expression of MnSOD. The concentrations of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls were normal in PD7 EtOH-exposed offspring, but were increased in adult EtOH-exposed offspring. Both PD7 and adult EtOH-exposed offspring had normal neuropeptide Y and POMC mRNA levels, but the adult offspring had reduced POMC protein concentration. Thus only adult offspring preexposed to EtOH had increased hypothalamic tissue damage and decreased levels of POMC, which could impair melanocortin signaling. We conclude that prenatal EtOH exposure causes hypothalamic oxidative stress, which persists into adult life and alters melanocortin action during adulthood. These neuroendocrine alterations may explain weight gain and insulin resistance in rats exposed to EtOH early in life.

  12. Behavioral Predictors of Acute Stress Symptoms During Intense Military Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    SD Range Age (years) 35 21.7 2.1 19.0–30.0 Body mass index (kg/m2) 35 24.5 1.7 20.8–27.8 Years of military service 33 1.7 0.8 1.0–5.0 Education High...circumstances. With respect to the military environment, a growing body of literature examines multidimensional stress responses during Survival, Evasion...encountered during mock-captivity. The Perceived Stress Scale-10 ( PSS -10) is a 10-item question- naire examining the role of nonspecific appraised stress that

  13. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, C.M.; Hansen, J.F.

    2008-01-01

    Signs of myocardial involvement are common in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. ST segment deviations, abnormal left ventricular function, increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), prolonged QT interval, and/or raised troponins are observed in up to one third...

  14. Oxidative Stress Alters miRNA and Gene Expression Profiles in Villous First Trimester Trophoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E. Cross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and miRNA changes in placenta as a potential mechanism involved in preeclampsia (PE is not fully elucidated. We investigated the impact of oxidative stress on miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles of genes associated with PE in villous 3A first trimester trophoblast cells exposed to H2O2 at 12 different concentrations (0-1 mM for 0.5, 4, 24, and 48 h. Cytotoxicity, determined using the SRB assay, was used to calculate the IC50 of H2O2. RNA was extracted after 4 h exposure to H2O2 for miRNA and gene expression profiling. H2O2 exerted a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity on 3A trophoblast cells. Short-term exposure of 3A cells to low concentration of H2O2 (5% of IC50 significantly altered miRNA profile as evidenced by significant changes in 195 out of 595 evaluable miRNAs. Tool for annotations of microRNAs (TAM analysis indicated that these altered miRNAs fall into 43 clusters and 34 families, with 41 functions identified. Exposure to H2O2 altered mRNA expression of 22 out of 84 key genes involved in dysregulation of placental development. In conclusion, short-term exposure of villous first trimester trophoblasts to low concentrations of H2O2 significantly alters miRNA profile and expression of genes implicated in placental development.

  15. Stress among nurses working in an acute hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study\\'s aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses\\' occupational stress in Ireland.

  16. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  17. The Estrous Cycle of the Ewe Is Resistant to Disruption by Repeated, Acute Psychosocial Stress1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R.; Breen, Kellie M.; Oakley, Amy E.; Tilbrook, Alan J.; Karsch, Fred J.

    2010-01-01

    Five experiments were conducted to test the hypothesis that psychosocial stress interferes with the estrous cycle of sheep. In experiment 1, ewes were repeatedly isolated during the follicular phase. Timing, amplitude, and duration of the preovulatory luteinizing hormone (LH) surge were not affected. In experiment 2, follicular-phase ewes were subjected twice to a “layered stress” paradigm consisting of sequential, hourly application of isolation, restraint, blindfold, and predator cues. This reduced the LH pulse amplitude but did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 3, different acute stressors were given sequentially within the follicular phase: food denial plus unfamiliar noises and forced exercise, layered stress, exercise around midnight, and transportation. This, too, did not affect the LH surge. In experiment 4, variable acute psychosocial stress was given every 1–2 days for two entire estrous cycles; this did not disrupt any parameter of the cycle monitored. Lastly, experiment 5 examined whether the psychosocial stress paradigms of experiment 4 would disrupt the cycle and estrous behavior if sheep were metabolically stressed by chronic food restriction. Thirty percent of the food-restricted ewes exhibited deterioration of estrous cycle parameters followed by cessation of cycles and failure to express estrous behavior. However, disruption was not more evident in ewes that also encountered psychosocial stress. Collectively, these findings indicate the estrous cycle of sheep is remarkably resistant to disruption by acute bouts of psychosocial stress applied intermittently during either a single follicular phase or repeatedly over two estrous cycles. PMID:20164438

  18. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa S

    2012-08-20

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more "comfort food" (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to regulate satiety. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Stephanie A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Episodic retrieval allows people to access memories from the past to guide current thoughts and decisions. In many real-world situations, retrieval occurs under conditions of acute stress, either elicited by the retrieval task or driven by other, unrelated concerns. Memory under such conditions may be hindered, as acute stress initiates a cascade of neuromodulatory changes that can impair episodic retrieval. Here, we review emerging evidence showing that dissociable stress systems interact over time, influencing neural function. In addition to the adverse effects of stress on hippocampal-dependent retrieval, we consider how stress biases attention and prefrontal cortical function, which could further affect controlled retrieval processes. Finally, we consider recent data indicating that stress at retrieval increases activity in a network of brain regions that enable reflexive, rapid responding to upcoming threats, while transiently taking offline regions supporting flexible, goal-directed thinking. Given the ubiquity of episodic memory retrieval in everyday life, it is critical to understand the theoretical and applied implications of acute stress. The present review highlights the progress that has been made, along with important open questions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  20. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  1. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    OpenAIRE

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2013-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -...

  2. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    OpenAIRE

    Kliszczewicz Brian; John Quindry C.; Daniel Blessing L.; Gretchen Oliver D.; Michael Esco R.; Kyle Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit?, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit? bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ? 2.7 yrs havi...

  3. ABA pretreatment can alter the distribution of polysomes in salt-stressed barley sprouts

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    Szypulska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed caryopses of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Stratus. Caryopses were germinated in darkness at 20°C in three experimental setups: (a in distilled water for 24 hours, followed by 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (salinity stress, SS, (b in 100 μM of abscisic acid for the first 24 hours, followed by rinsing with distilled water to remove residual ABA, and in 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (ABA pretreatment + salinity stress, ABAS, (c in distilled water only (control, C. Changes in the content of free polysomes (FP, membrane-bound polysomes (MBP, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (CBP and cytomatrix-bound polysomes (CMBP were examined in barley sprouts germinated in SS and ABAS treatments for 48 hours. In salt-stressed barley sprouts, the concentrations of membrane-bound and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (MBP, CBP and CMBP decreased significantly, whereas an increase was noted only in the free polysome (FP fraction. ABA pretreatment altered the distribution of polysomes in stressed plants. The content of cytoskeletonbound polysomes (CBP and CMBP increased, FP levels decreased, whereas no changes in MBP content were observed in response to ABA treatment. Our results suggest that plants respond to salt stress by increasing the concentrations of free polysomes that are probably released from damaged cell structures, mainly membranes. Our present and previous findings indicate that ABA could inhibit the release of FP in stressed plants by enhancing polysome binding to the cytoskeleton.

  4. Cold stress alters transcription in meiotic anthers of cold tolerant chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kamal Dev; Nayyar, Harsh

    2014-10-11

    Cold stress at reproductive phase in susceptible chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) leads to pollen sterility induced flower abortion. The tolerant genotypes, on the other hand, produce viable pollen and set seed under cold stress. Genomic information on pollen development in cold-tolerant chickpea under cold stress is currently unavailable. DDRT-PCR analysis was carried out to identify anther genes involved in cold tolerance in chickpea genotype ICC16349 (cold-tolerant). A total of 9205 EST bands were analyzed. Cold stress altered expression of 127 ESTs (90 up-regulated, 37 down-regulated) in anthers, more than two third (92) of which were novel with unknown protein identity and function. Remaining about one third (35) belonged to several functional categories such as pollen development, signal transduction, ion transport, transcription, carbohydrate metabolism, translation, energy and cell division. The categories with more number of transcripts were carbohydrate/triacylglycerol metabolism, signal transduction, pollen development and transport. All but two transcripts in these categories were up-regulated under cold stress. To identify time of regulation after stress and organ specificity, expression levels of 25 differentially regulated transcripts were also studied in anthers at six time points and in four organs (anthers, gynoecium, leaves and roots) at four time points. Limited number of genes were involved in regulating cold tolerance in chickpea anthers. Moreover, the cold tolerance was manifested by up-regulation of majority of the differentially expressed transcripts. The anthers appeared to employ dual cold tolerance mechanism based on their protection from cold by enhancing triacylglycerol and carbohydrate metabolism; and maintenance of normal pollen development by regulating pollen development genes. Functional characterization of about two third of the novel genes is needed to have precise understanding of the cold tolerance mechanisms in chickpea anthers.

  5. Correlation between oxidative stress and alteration of intracellular calcium handling in isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Alvarez-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Yáñez, Lucía; Vidrio, Susana; Martínez, Lidia; Rosas, Gisele; Yáñez, Mario; Ramírez, Sotero; de Sánchez, Victoria Chagoya

    2006-09-01

    Myocardial Ca(2+) overload and oxidative stress are well documented effects associated to isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial necrosis, but information correlating these two issues is scarce. Using an ISO-induced myocardial infarction model, 3 stages of myocardial damage were defined: pre-infarction (0-12 h), infarction (12-24 h) and post-infarction (24-96 h). Alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis and oxidative stress were studied in mitochondria, sarcoplasmic reticulum and plasmalemma by measuring the Ca(2+) content, the activity of Ca(2+) handling proteins, and by quantifying TBARs, nitric oxide (NO) and oxidative protein damage (changes in carbonyl and thiol groups). Free radicals generated system, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress (GSH/GSSG ratio) were also monitored at different times of ISO-induced cardiotoxicity. The Ca(2+) overload induced by ISO was counterbalanced by a diminution in the ryanodine receptor activity and the Na(+)-Ca(+2) exchanger as well as by the increase in both calcium ATPases activities (vanadate- and thapsigargine-sensitive) and mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake during pre-infarction and infarction stages. Pro-oxidative reactions and antioxidant defences during the 3 stages of cardiotoxicity were observed, with maximal oxidative stress during the infarction. Significant correlations were found among pro-oxidative reactions with plasmalemma and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPases, and ryanodine receptor activities at the onset and development of ISO-induced infarction. These findings could be helpful in the design of antioxidant therapies in this pathology.

  6. Repeated restraint stress alters sensitivity to the social consequences of ethanol in adolescent and adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Doremus-Fitzwater, Tamara L; Spear, Linda P

    2010-08-01

    Human adolescents consume alcohol largely to enhance social interactions. Adolescent, but not adult rats likewise exhibit ethanol-induced social facilitation under low-stress circumstances. Since the relationship between stress and ethanol sensitivity across ontogeny still has yet to be well explored, the present study sought to characterize possible age-associated differences in the influence of stressor exposure on ethanol-induced changes in social behavior in adolescent [postnatal days (P) 30-36] and adult (P65-71) male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. Animals were repeatedly restrained (90min/day) for 5days, followed by examination of ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0g/kg) alterations in social behaviors on the last day. Results revealed typical age-related differences in sensitivity to ethanol among controls, with adolescents being uniquely sensitive to low-dose ethanol stimulation of social investigation and play fighting, but less sensitive than adults to the social suppression emerging at higher doses. At both ages, stressor exposure decreased sensitivity to social inhibitory effects of ethanol, while augmenting expression of ethanol's social facilitatory effects. Ethanol also attenuated the stress-related suppression of social motivation at both ages. These results suggest that repeated stressor exposure diminishes age-related differences in the social consequences of ethanol, with stress enhancing ethanol-induced social facilitation across age. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Prenatal stress alters progestogens to mediate susceptibility to sex-typical, stress-sensitive disorders, such as drug abuse: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal-offspring interactions begin prior to birth. Experiences of the mother during gestation play a powerful role in determining the developmental programming of the central nervous system. In particular, stress during gestation alters developmental programming of the offspring resulting in susceptibility to sex-typical and stress-sensitive neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, neither these effects, nor the underlying mechanisms, are well understood. Our hypothesis is that allopregnanolone, during gestation, plays a particularly vital role in mitigating effects of stress on the developing fetus and may mediate, in part, alterations apparent throughout the lifespan. Specifically, altered balance between glucocorticoids and progestogens during critical periods of development (stemming from psychological, immunological, and/or endocrinological stressors during gestation may permanently influence behavior, brain morphology, and/or neuroendocrine-sensitive processes. 5α-reduced progestogens are integral in the developmental programming of sex-typical, stress-sensitive, and/or disorder-relevant phenotypes. Prenatal stress may alter these responses and dysregulate allopregnanolone and its normative effects on stress axis function. As an example of a neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and/or neurodegenerative process, this review focuses on responsiveness to drugs of abuse, which is sensitive to prenatal stress and progestogen milieu. This review explores the notion that allopregnanolone may effect, or be influenced by, prenatal stress, with consequences for neurodevelopmental-, neuropsychiatric- and/or neurodegenerative- relevant processes, such as addiction.

  8. Tryptophan pathway alterations in the postpartum period and in acute postpartum psychosis and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Cato; Myint, Aye Mu; Burgerhout, Karin M; Schwarz, Markus J; Schütze, Gregor; Kushner, Steven A; Hoogendijk, Witte J; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Bergink, Veerle

    2016-01-01

    Women are at very high risk for the first onset of acute and severe mood disorders the first weeks after delivery. Tryptophan breakdown is increased as a physiological phenomenon of the postpartum period and might lead to vulnerability for affective psychosis (PP) and severe depression (PD). The aim of the current study was to investigate alterations in tryptophan breakdown in the physiological postpartum period compared to patients with severe postpartum mood disorders. We included 52 patients (29 with PP, 23 with PD), 52 matched healthy postpartum women and 29 healthy non-postpartum women. Analyzes of serum tryptophan metabolites were performed using LC-MS/MS system for tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, kynurenic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The first two months of the physiological postpartum period were characterized by low tryptophan levels, increased breakdown towards kynurenine and a downstream shift toward the 3-OH-kynurenine arm, away from the kynurenic acid arm. Kynurenine was significantly lower in patients with PP and PD as compared to healthy postpartum women (p=0.011 and p=0.001); the remaining tryptophan metabolites demonstrated few differences between patients and healthy postpartum women. Low prevalence of the investigated disorders and strict exclusion criteria to obtain homogenous groups, resulted in relatively small sample sizes. The high kynurenine levels and increased tryptophan breakdown as a phenomenon of the physiological postpartum period was not present in patients with severe postpartum mood disorders. No differences were observed in the levels of the 'neurotoxic' 3-OH-kynurenine and the 'neuroprotective' kynurenic acid arms between patients and healthy postpartum women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effect of mild acute stress during memory consolidation on emotional recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Brittany; Weinberg, Lisa; Duarte, Audrey

    2017-11-01

    Stress during consolidation improves recognition memory performance. Generally, this memory benefit is greater for emotionally arousing stimuli than neutral stimuli. The strength of the stressor also plays a role in memory performance, with memory performance improving up to a moderate level of stress and thereafter worsening. As our daily stressors are generally minimal in strength, we chose to induce mild acute stress to determine its effect on memory performance. In the current study, we investigated if mild acute stress during consolidation improves memory performance for emotionally arousing images. To investigate this, we had participants encode highly arousing negative, minimally arousing negative, and neutral images. We induced stress using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in half of the participants and a control task to the other half of the participants directly after encoding (i.e. during consolidation) and tested recognition 48h later. We found no difference in memory performance between the stress and control group. We found a graded pattern among confidence, with responders in the stress group having the least amount of confidence in their hits and controls having the most. Across groups, we found highly arousing negative images were better remembered than minimally arousing negative or neutral images. Although stress did not affect memory accuracy, responders, as defined by cortisol reactivity, were less confident in their decisions. Our results suggest that the daily stressors humans experience, regardless of their emotional affect, do not have adverse effects on memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of mild acute stress during memory consolidation on emotional recognition memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbett, Brittany; Weinberg, Lisa; Duarte, Audrey

    2018-01-01

    Stress during consolidation improves recognition memory performance. Generally, this memory benefit is greater for emotionally arousing stimuli than neutral stimuli. The strength of the stressor also plays a role in memory performance, with memory performance improving up to a moderate level of stress and thereafter worsening. As our daily stressors are generally minimal in strength, we chose to induce mild acute stress to determine its effect on memory performance. In the current study, we investigated if mild acute stress during consolidation improves memory performance for emotionally arousing images. To investigate this, we had participants encode highly arousing negative, minimally arousing negative, and neutral images. We induced stress using the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST) in half of the participants and a control task to the other half of the participants directly after encoding (i.e. during consolidation) and tested recognition 48 h later. We found no difference in memory performance between the stress and control group. We found a graded pattern among confidence, with responders in the stress group having the least amount of confidence in their hits and controls having the most. Across groups, we found highly arousing negative images were better remembered than minimally arousing negative or neutral images. Although stress did not affect memory accuracy, responders, as defined by cortisol reactivity, were less confident in their decisions. Our results suggest that the daily stressors humans experience, regardless of their emotional affect, do not have adverse effects on memory. PMID:28838881

  12. Protective effect of Habenaria intermedia tubers against acute and chronic physical and psychological stress paradigms in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PV Habbu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic activity of ethanol (EtHI, ethyl acetate (EAHI fractions of Habenaria intermedia D. Don, Orchidaceae (HI, tubers using immobilization induced acute stress (AS, chronic stress (CS and swimming induced stress in experimental animals. The tested doses of EtHI (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. and higher dose of EAHI (200 mg/kg, p.o. normalized altered serum biochemical parameters and the severity of ulcers in both AS and CS. EAHI and EtHI restored the hyperthrophy of adrenal gland and atrophy of spleen and thymus gland in AS and CS. Greater swimming time was noted in the mice pretreated with EtHI and EAHI. Levels of adrenal ascorbic acid and cortisol were restored significantly. EAHI exhibited prominent scavenging effect of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation in vitro. Phytochemical studies resulted in the isolation of scopoletin and gallic acid as marker compounds. Our results proved the traditional claim of HI as anti-stress/adaptogen in Ayurvdea.

  13. Protective effect of Habenaria intermedia tubers against acute and chronic physical and psychological stress paradigms in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PV Habbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic activity of ethanol (EtHI, ethyl acetate (EAHI fractions of Habenaria intermedia D. Don, Orchidaceae (HI, tubers using immobilization induced acute stress (AS, chronic stress (CS and swimming induced stress in experimental animals. The tested doses of EtHI (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. and higher dose of EAHI (200 mg/kg, p.o. normalized altered serum biochemical parameters and the severity of ulcers in both AS and CS. EAHI and EtHI restored the hyperthrophy of adrenal gland and atrophy of spleen and thymus gland in AS and CS. Greater swimming time was noted in the mice pretreated with EtHI and EAHI. Levels of adrenal ascorbic acid and cortisol were restored significantly. EAHI exhibited prominent scavenging effect of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation in vitro. Phytochemical studies resulted in the isolation of scopoletin and gallic acid as marker compounds. Our results proved the traditional claim of HI as anti-stress/adaptogen in Ayurvdea.

  14. Aerobic Fitness Level Affects Cardiovascular and Salivary Alpha Amylase Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Thomas; Boesch, Maria; Roos, Lilian; Tschopp, Céline; Frei, Klaus M; Annen, Hubert; La Marca, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training. Heart rate was measured continuously, and salivary alpha amylase was measured twice, before and after the stress intervention. In the same week, all volunteers participated in a physical fitness test and they responded to questionnaires on lifestyle factors and personal traits. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine ANS responses to acute psychosocial stress from physical fitness test performances, controlling for personal traits, behavioural factors, and socioeconomic data. Multiple linear regression revealed three variables predicting 15 % of the variance in heart rate response (area under the individual heart rate response curve during TSST-G) and four variables predicting 12 % of the variance in salivary alpha amylase response (salivary alpha amylase level immediately after the TSST-G) to acute psychosocial stress. A strong performance at the progressive endurance run (high maximal oxygen consumption) was a significant predictor of ANS response in both models: low area under the heart rate response curve during TSST-G as well as low salivary alpha amylase level after TSST-G. Further, high muscle power, non-smoking, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were predictors of a favourable ANS response in either one of the two dependent variables. Good physical fitness, especially good aerobic endurance capacity, is an important protective factor against health

  15. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Monika F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and...

  16. Morphological substantiation for acute immobilization stress-related disorders of adaptation mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koptev, Mykhailo M; Vynnyk, Nataliia I

    Nowadays, an individual is being constantly accompanied by stresses in his/her everyday life. Stress reactions, produced in the process of evolution, have become the organisms' response to emergency action or pathological factors and are the important link in adaptation process. However, the adverse course of stress reaction can lead to derangement of the adaptation mechanisms in the body and become the element of the pathogenesis of various diseases. The study was aimed at morphological substantiation of derangement of adaptation mechanisms in white Wistar rats caused by the acute immobilization stress. 40 Wistar white male rats of 240-260 g body weight aged 8-10 months were involved into study. 20 laboratory animals were assigned to the main group and the rest 20 rats formed the control (II) group. Experimental stress model was simulated by immobilization of rats, lying supine, for 6 hours. Morphological examination of heart, lungs and kidneys was carried out after animals' decapitation, which proved the derangement of rats' adaptation mechanisms caused by the acute immobilization stress. It has been established that six-hour immobility of rats, lying in the supine position, led to the development of destructive phenomena, hemorrhagic lesions and impaired hemomicrocirculation. Microscopically, the acute immobilization stress causes significant subendocardial hemorrhages, plethora of vessels of hemomicrocirculatory flow with dysdiemorrhysis, myocardial intersticium edema in the heart. Histologically, immobilization-induced trauma causes significant hemodynamic disorders, spasm of arterioles and considerable venous hyperemia, concomitant with microthrombosis in kidneys; at the same time dystrophic lesions and desquamation of epithelium of renal tubules has been observed in renal corpuscles. The abovementioned structural changes can contribute to origination and development of multiple lesions, demonstrating the morphologically grounded role of the acute

  17. Graded stress radiography in acute injury to the lateral ligaments of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijke, A.M.; Vierhout, P.A. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA). Dept. of Radiology Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery)

    1990-03-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of graded stress radiography in 26 patients with acute injury to the lateral ankle ligaments has been compared with findings at arthrography and surgery. Measuring talar tilt angles and anterior talar displacement over a range of pressures applied to the distal tibia using a commercially available stress device allows diagnostic distinction between isolated anterior talofibular ligament injury and a combined lesion that involves the calcaneofibular ligament. The results compare well with arthrographic and surgical findings. (orig.).

  18. Graded stress radiography in acute injury to the lateral ligaments of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijke, A.M.; Vierhout, P.A.; Rijksuniversiteit Leiden

    1990-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of graded stress radiography in 26 patients with acute injury to the lateral ankle ligaments has been compared with findings at arthrography and surgery. Measuring talar tilt angles and anterior talar displacement over a range of pressures applied to the distal tibia using a commercially available stress device allows diagnostic distinction between isolated anterior talofibular ligament injury and a combined lesion that involves the calcaneofibular ligament. The results compare well with arthrographic and surgical findings. (orig.)

  19. High glucose alters retinal astrocytes phenotype through increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are macroglial cells that have a crucial role in development of the retinal vasculature and maintenance of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB. Diabetes affects the physiology and function of retinal vascular cells including astrocytes (AC leading to breakdown of BRB. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to retinal AC dysfunction under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Here we show that high glucose conditions did not induce the apoptosis of retinal AC, but instead increased their rate of DNA synthesis and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. These alterations were associated with changes in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration and proliferation. High glucose conditions also affected the expression of inflammatory cytokines in retinal AC, activated NF-κB, and prevented their network formation on Matrigel. In addition, we showed that the attenuation of retinal AC migration under high glucose conditions, and capillary morphogenesis of retinal endothelial cells on Matrigel, was mediated through increased oxidative stress. Antioxidant proteins including heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 levels were also increased in retinal AC under high glucose conditions through nuclear localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2. Together our results demonstrated that high glucose conditions alter the function of retinal AC by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress with significant impact on their proliferation, adhesion, and migration.

  20. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; da Boit Martinello, Katia; Saldanha Henkin, Bernardo; Rabello, Thallita Kelly; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days) in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n = 8) and one OVX group (n = 11) were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil), and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n = 8/group). OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses) were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause. PMID:26640615

  1. Embryo-larval exposure to atrazine reduces viability and alters oxidative stress parameters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Aguiar, Lais Mattos de; Rosa, Carlos Eduardo da

    2017-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been used worldwide with subsequent residual contamination of water and food, which may cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Animal exposure to this herbicide may affect development, reproduction and energy metabolism. Here, the effects of atrazine regarding survival and redox metabolism were assessed in the fruit fly D. melanogaster exposed during embryonic and larval development. The embryos (newly fertilized eggs) were exposed to different atrazine concentrations (10μM and 100μM) in the diet until the adult fly emerged. Pupation and emergence rates, developmental time and sex ratio were determined as well as oxidative stress parameters and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system were evaluated in newly emerged male and female flies. Atrazine exposure reduced pupation and emergence rates in fruit flies without alterations to developmental time and sex ratio. Different redox imbalance patterns were observed between males and females exposed to atrazine. Atrazine caused an increase in oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity and decreased thiol-containing molecules. Further, atrazine exposure altered the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gss, gclm, gclc, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2). Reductions in fruit fly larval and pupal viability observed here are likely consequences of the oxidative stress induced by atrazine exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Psychobiology of the acute stress response and its relationship to the psychobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D; Garakani, Amir

    2002-06-01

    The literature to date that examines the biology of the acute stress reactions suggests that relatively lower baseline cortisol is associated with the development of PTSD. This is particularly informative because of the ongoing controversy surrounding baseline cortisol in PTSD. Studies have found low baseline cortisol, normal range, and elevated baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD, and it has been unclear whether this reflects methodologic differences across studies or true heterogeneity within the disorder. Thus, the few studies to date support the finding of low-normal baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD and suggest that it is a pre-existing functional trait. Whether it plays an etiologic role or is an epiphenomenon of some other process is unclear. What does seem clear, however, is that this characteristic is relatively nonspecific to PTSD, given the fact that low cortisol has been observed in multiple subject populations, including normal individuals under chronic stress as well as chronic medical conditions (for review see [23]). For example, it is possible that reduced baseline cortisol reflects the net result of input to the hypothalamus from cortical and subcortical regions of the brain linked to increased vigilance, sensitization to trauma because of prior traumatic experiences, or genetic factors. For example, primate studies have demonstrated persistent alterations in HPA axis functioning in animals reared by mothers living in moderately stressful conditions [24]. The development of PTSD is associated with sensitization of the startle response. Because the neurobiology of startle is well characterized, this finding implicates a role for specific neurocircuitry in PTSD [25]. Non-habituation of the startle response in PTSD appears related to sensitization specifically to contextual cues (i.e., the environment) that signal the presence of potential threat of danger-related fears [26]. This may be the neurobiological correlate to the over-generalization seen in

  3. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  4. Children's biological responsivity to acute stress predicts concurrent cognitive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Beauchamp, Kathryn G; Giuliano, Ryan; Zalewski, Maureen; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2018-04-10

    Although prior research has characterized stress system reactivity (i.e. hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, HPAA; autonomic nervous system, ANS) in children, it has yet to examine the extent to which biological reactivity predicts concurrent goal-directed behavior. Here, we employed a stressor paradigm that allowed concurrent assessment of both stress system reactivity and performance on a speeded-response task to investigate the links between biological reactivity and cognitive function under stress. We further investigated gender as a moderator given previous research suggesting that the ANS may be particularly predictive of behavior in males due to gender differences in socialization. In a sociodemographically diverse sample of young children (N = 58, M age = 5.38 yrs; 44% male), individual differences in sociodemographic covariates (age, household income), HPAA (i.e. cortisol), and ANS (i.e. respiratory sinus arrhythmia, RSA, indexing the parasympathetic branch; pre-ejection period, PEP, indexing the sympathetic branch) function were assessed as predictors of cognitive performance under stress. We hypothesized that higher income, older age, and greater cortisol reactivity would be associated with better performance overall, and flexible ANS responsivity (i.e. RSA withdrawal, PEP shortening) would be predictive of performance for males. Overall, females performed better than males. Two-group SEM analyses suggest that, for males, greater RSA withdrawal to the stressor was associated with better performance, while for females, older age, higher income, and greater cortisol reactivity were associated with better performance. Results highlight the relevance of stress system reactivity to cognitive performance under stress. Future research is needed to further elucidate for whom and in what situations biological reactivity predicts goal-directed behavior.

  5. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  6. Acute stress does not impair long-term memory retrieval in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Almela, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Villada, Carolina; Puig-Perez, Sara; Salvador, Alicia

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that stress-induced cortisol increases impair memory retrieval in young people. This effect has not been studied in older people; however, some findings suggest that age-related changes in the brain can affect the relationships between acute stress, cortisol and memory in older people. Our aim was to investigate the effects of acute stress on long-term memory retrieval in healthy older people. To this end, 76 participants from 56 to 76 years old (38 men and 38 women) were exposed to an acute psychosocial stressor or a control task. After the stress/control task, the recall of pictures, words and stories learned the previous day was assessed. There were no differences in memory retrieval between the stress and control groups on any of the memory tasks. In addition, stress-induced cortisol response was not associated with memory retrieval. An age-related decrease in cortisol receptors and functional changes in the amygdala and hippocampus could underlie the differences observed between the results from this study and those found in studies performed with young people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Perfusion deficits and functional connectivity alterations in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Liang; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    To explore the alteration in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity between survivors with recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without PTSD, survived from the same coal mine flood disaster. In this study, a processing pipeline using arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was proposed. Considering low spatial resolution of ASL sequence, a linear regression method was firstly used to correct the partial volume (PV) effect for better CBF estimation. Then the alterations of CBF between two groups were analyzed using both uncorrected and PV-corrected CBF maps. Based on altered CBF regions detected from the CBF analysis as seed regions, the functional connectivity abnormities in PTSD patients was investigated. The CBF analysis using PV-corrected maps indicates CBF deficits in the bilateral frontal lobe, right superior frontal gyrus and right corpus callosum of PTSD patients, while only right corpus callosum was identified in uncorrected CBF analysis. Furthermore, the regional CBF of the right superior frontal gyrus exhibits significantly negative correlation with the symptom severity in PTSD patients. The resting-state functional connectivity indicates increased connectivity between left frontal lobe and right parietal lobe. These results indicate that PV-corrected CBF exhibits more subtle perfusion changes and may benefit further perfusion and connectivity analysis. The symptom-specific perfusion deficits and aberrant connectivity in above memory-related regions may be putative biomarkers for recent onset PTSD induced by a single prolonged trauma exposure and help predict the severity of PTSD.

  8. Alterations in Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitophagy in Subjects with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Shipra; Bhansali, Anil; Walia, Rama; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Dhawan, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress impedes cell-reparative process like autophagy, which has been implicated in impairment of β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the role of mitophagy (selective mitochondrial autophagy) in progression of hyperglycemia remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the impact of increasing severity of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial stress and mitophagy. A case-control study included healthy controls, subjects with prediabetes, newly diagnosed T2DM (NDT2DM) and advanced duration of T2DM (ADT2DM) ( n  = 20 each). Mitochondrial stress indices, transcriptional and translational expression of mitophagy markers ( PINK1, PARKIN, MFN2, NIX, LC3-II , and LAMP-2 ) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies were performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With mild hyperglycemia in subjects with prediabetes, to moderate to severe hyperglycemia in NDT2DM and ADT2DM, a progressive rise in mitochondrial oxidative stress was observed. Prediabetic subjects exhibited significantly increased expression of mitophagy-related markers and showed a positive association with HOMA-β, whereas, patients with NDT2DM and ADT2DM demonstrated decreased expression, with a greater decline in ADT2DM subjects. TEM studies revealed significantly reduced number of distorted mitochondria in prediabetics, as compared to the T2DM patients. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed HbA 1C  > 7% (53 mmol/mol) was associated with attenuated mitophagy. Increasing hyperglycemia is associated with progressive rise in oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial morphology. Sustenance of mitophagy at HbA 1C  < 7% (53 mmol/mol) strengthens the rationale of achieving HbA 1C below this cutoff for good glycemic control. An "adaptive" increase in mitophagy may delay progression to T2DM by preserving the β-cell function in subjects with prediabetes.

  9. Alterations in Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitophagy in Subjects with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Bhansali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimHyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress impedes cell-reparative process like autophagy, which has been implicated in impairment of β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, the role of mitophagy (selective mitochondrial autophagy in progression of hyperglycemia remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the impact of increasing severity of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial stress and mitophagy.Design and methodsA case–control study included healthy controls, subjects with prediabetes, newly diagnosed T2DM (NDT2DM and advanced duration of T2DM (ADT2DM (n = 20 each. Mitochondrial stress indices, transcriptional and translational expression of mitophagy markers (PINK1, PARKIN, MFN2, NIX, LC3-II, and LAMP-2 and transmission electron microscopic (TEM studies were performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.ResultsWith mild hyperglycemia in subjects with prediabetes, to moderate to severe hyperglycemia in NDT2DM and ADT2DM, a progressive rise in mitochondrial oxidative stress was observed. Prediabetic subjects exhibited significantly increased expression of mitophagy-related markers and showed a positive association with HOMA-β, whereas, patients with NDT2DM and ADT2DM demonstrated decreased expression, with a greater decline in ADT2DM subjects. TEM studies revealed significantly reduced number of distorted mitochondria in prediabetics, as compared to the T2DM patients. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed HbA1C > 7% (53 mmol/mol was associated with attenuated mitophagy.ConclusionIncreasing hyperglycemia is associated with progressive rise in oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial morphology. Sustenance of mitophagy at HbA1C < 7% (53 mmol/mol strengthens the rationale of achieving HbA1C below this cutoff for good glycemic control. An “adaptive” increase in mitophagy may delay progression to T2DM by preserving the β-cell function in subjects with prediabetes.

  10. Sleep restriction alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo, P.; Koehl, M.; van der Borght, K.; Turek, F. W.

    2002-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction is an increasing problem in many countries and may have many, as yet unknown, consequences for health and well being. Studies in both humans and rats suggest that sleep deprivation may activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems. However, few attempts have been made to examine how sleep loss affects the HPA axis response to subsequent stressors. Furthermore, most studies applied short-lasting total sleep deprivation and not restriction of sleep over a longer period of time, as often occurs in human society. Using the rat as our model species, we investigated: (i) the HPA axis activity during and after sleep deprivation and (ii) the effect of sleep loss on the subsequent HPA response to a novel stressor. In one experiment, rats were subjected to 48 h of sleep deprivation by placing them in slowly rotating wheels. Control rats were placed in nonrotating wheels. In a second experiment, rats were subjected to an 8-day sleep restriction protocol allowing 4 h of sleep each day. To test the effects of sleep loss on subsequent stress reactivity, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress. Blood samples were taken at several time points and analysed for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. The results show that ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were elevated during sleep deprivation but returned to baseline within 4 h of recovery. After 1 day of sleep restriction, the ACTH and corticosterone response to restraint stress did not differ between control and sleep deprived rats. However, after 48 h of total sleep deprivation and after 8 days of restricted sleep, the ACTH response to restraint was significantly reduced whereas the corticosterone response was unaffected. These results show that sleep loss not only is a mild activator of the HPA axis itself, but also affects the subsequent response to stress. Alterations in HPA axis regulation may gradually appear under

  11. Exploring the possible mechanisms of blunted cardiac reactivity to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindle, Ryan C; Whittaker, Anna C; Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Ginty, Annie T

    2017-03-01

    Blunted cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress has been linked to a range of adverse health and behavioral outcomes. However, the origins of blunted reactivity remain unclear. The current study aimed to explore the following possibilities: different appraisals of task stressfulness and/or difficulty, diminished task effort, or reduced physiological capacity to respond. Individuals characterized, via pre-screening, as blunted (n=17) or exaggerated (n=16) heart rate (HR) reactors to acute psychological stress (socially evaluative mental arithmetic) were exposed to a psychological stress, cold pressor and exercise tasks during a follow-up testing session while HR and blood pressure (BP) were measured. At follow-up, groups again mounted significantly different HR reactions to psychological stress, despite reporting similar levels of subjective stress and difficulty, and achieving similar tasks scores (measure of task effort) at both testing sessions. In response to the cold pressor and exercise blunted and exaggerated reactors displayed similar HR and BP responses. Results indicated that blunted reactors do not differ from exaggerated reactors on appraisals of task stressfulness or difficulty, or objective task effort, and do possess the physiological capacity to respond to other laboratory challenges. Other sources of blunted stress reactivity remain to be explored. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative acute toxicity and oxidative stress responses in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    LC50 = 2915 mg/L) while unused engine oil remained the least toxic (LC50= 7353 mg/L). Further, assessment of oxidative stress markers was conducted using sub lethal concentrations of the test compounds (1/100th 96 h LC50). There was ...

  13. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity

  14. Personality and physiological reactions to acute psychological stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bibbey, Adam; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J.; Phillips, Anna C.; de Rooij, Susanne R.

    2013-01-01

    Stable personality traits have long been presumed to have biological substrates, although the evidence relating personality to biological stress reactivity is inconclusive. The present study examined, in a large middle aged cohort (N=352), the relationship between key personality traits and both

  15. Sex differences in subcellular distribution of delta opioid receptors in the rat hippocampus in response to acute and chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoara Mazid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs. Immediately after acute immobilization stress (AIS or one-day after chronic immobilization stress (CIS, the brains of adult female and male rats were perfusion-fixed with aldehydes. The CA3b region and the dentate hilus of the dorsal hippocampus were quantitatively analyzed by light microscopy using DOR immunoperoxidase or dual label electron microscopy for DOR using silver intensified immunogold particles (SIG and GABA using immunoperoxidase. At baseline, females compared to males had more DORs near the plasmalemma of pyramidal cell dendrites and about 3 times more DOR-labeled CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers. In AIS females, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in GABAergic hilar dendrites. However, in AIS males, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in CA3 pyramidal cell and hilar GABAergic dendrites and the percentage of CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers increased to about half that seen in unstressed females. Conversely, after CIS, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in hilar GABA-labeled dendrites of females whereas in males plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in CA3 pyramidal cell dendrites and near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased hilar GABA-labeled dendrites. As CIS in females, but not males, redistributed DOR-SIGs near the plasmalemmal of hilar GABAergic dendrites, a subsequent experiment examined the acute affect of oxycodone on the redistribution of DOR-SIGs in a separate cohort of CIS females. Plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs were significantly elevated on hilar

  16. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Rojas

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study.

  17. The Effects of Acute Stress on Cognitive Performance. A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    A., Ramat, L., and Teixeira, A. (2009). Effect of lecturing to 200 students on heart rate variability and alpha - amylase . European Journal of Applied...Determining the relationship of acute stress, anxiety, and salivary a- amylase level with performance of student nurse anesthesiologists during

  18. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  19. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  20. Role of heat shock protein hsp90 in formation of protective reactions in acute toxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glushkova, O V; Novoselova, T V; Khrenov, M O; Parfenyuk, S B; Lunin, S M; Fesenko, E E; Novoselova, E G

    2010-06-01

    The involvement of heat shock protein Hsp90 in pro-inflammatory response in male NMRI mice under conditions of acute toxic stress, caused by lipopolysaccharide from Gram negative bacteria, was studied using geldanamycin, a specific blocker of the activity of this protein. It is shown that the introduction of geldanamycin lowers total intoxication of the organism upon acute toxic stress caused by endotoxin. Thus, a decrease in cytokine TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma, IL-1, and IL-10 concentrations in blood serum of the geldanamycin-treated animals with acute toxic stress was found along with normalization of functional activity of nitric oxide producing peritoneal macrophages. Studying expression of receptor protein Tlr-4 as well of proteins of two signal cascades, NF-kappaB and SAPK/JNK, has shown that mechanisms of the geldanamycin protective effect are realized at the level of inhibition of Tlr-4 receptor expression, which provides for endotoxin-to-cell binding, and due to lowering the endotoxin-stimulated activation of signal cascades NF-kappaB and SAPK/JNK. The results suggest Hsp90 might be a therapeutic target in diseases accompanied by acute toxic stress.

  1. A review of oxidative stress in acute kidney injury: protective role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the common clinical syndrome which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The severity extends from less to more advanced spectrums which link to biological, physical and chemical agents. Oxidative stress (OS)-related AKI has demonstrated the increasing of reactive oxygen ...

  2. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. The Nature of Trauma Memories in Acute Stress Disorder in Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmond, C. H.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Glucksman, E.; Thompson, P.; Dalgleish, T.; Smith, P.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is increasing theoretical, clinical and research evidence for the role of trauma memory in the aetiology of acute pathological stress responses in adults. However, research into the phenomenology of trauma memories in young people is currently scarce. Methods: This study compared the nature of trauma narratives to narratives of…

  4. Natural variations in the stress and acute phase responses of cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The initial response of the innate immune system upon activation has been defined as the acute phase response (APR). Activation of the APR results in several responses that include fever, metabolic adaptations, and changes in behavior. The APR can be modulated by many factors, with stress being th...

  5. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities and alteration of microRNAs in acute myeloid leukemia and response to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahjahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with.

  6. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Alteration of microRNAs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Response to Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahani, Mohammad; Khodadi, Elahe; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Asl, Javad Mohammadi; Golchin, Neda; Zaieri, Zeynab Deris

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with. PMID:26779308

  7. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Alteration of microRNAs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Response to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahani, Mohammad; Khodadi, Elahe; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Asl, Javad Mohammadi; Golchin, Neda; Zaieri, Zeynab Deris; Saki, Najmaldin

    2015-02-10

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with.

  8. Do subjects with vasovagal syncope have subtle haemodynamic alterations during orthostatic stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fucà, Giuseppe; Dinelli, Maurizio; Gianfranchi, Lorella; Bressan, Sabrina; Lamborghini, Catia; Alboni, Paolo

    2008-06-01

    There are conflicting reports on the presence of subtle haemodynamic alterations during orthostatic stress in subjects with vasovagal syncope (VVS). The aim of the present study was to investigate whether young/middle-aged subjects with VVS show abnormal responses to orthostatic stress. Four groups of subjects underwent tilt testing (TT) during the passive phase and, if negative, after nitroglycerin administration: Group I, 20 subjects with a history of syncope and positive passive TT; Group II, 23 subjects with a history of syncope and TT positive after nitroglycerin; Group III, 23 subjects with a history of syncope and negative TT; and Group IV, 20 normal control subjects. Heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, stroke volume, cardiac output, and total peripheral resistance were computed from pressure pulsations (Modelflow). The demographic data and the values of the haemodynamic variables in the supine position did not differ significantly among the four groups. The per cent changes in these variables did not differ significantly among the four groups after 2 and 5 min of TT and among Groups II, III, and IV, 2 min after nitroglycerin administration. Young/middle-aged subjects with VVS have a normal measured haemodynamic response to orthostatic stress; therefore, the vasovagal reflex is not secondary to an impairment of the primary vasoconstrictive mechanism.

  9. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Collins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H2O2 and menadione/FeCl3 exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H2O2, but not menadione/FeCl3 (i.e., valosin-containing protein, indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  10. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Cassandra; Hurley, Rachel; Almutlaqah, Nada; O'Keeffe, Grainne; Keane, Thomas M; Fitzpatrick, David A; Owens, Rebecca A

    2017-09-17

    Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H₂O₂ and menadione/FeCl₃ exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H₂O₂, but not menadione/FeCl₃ (i.e., valosin-containing protein), indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM) enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  11. Alterations of proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal cells in prenatally stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongli; Su, Qian; Zhang, Huifang; Liu, Weimin; Zhang, Huiping; Ding, Ding; Zhu, Zhongliang; Li, Hui

    2015-06-01

    To clarify the alterations of proliferation and differentiation of hippocampal cells in prenatally stressed rats. We investigated the impact of prenatal restraint stress on the hipocampal cell proliferation in the progeny with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU), which is a marker of proliferating cells and their progeny. In addition, we observed the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) with double labeling of BrdU/neurofilament (NF), BrdU/glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in the hipocampus. Prenatal stress (PS) increased cell proliferation in the dentate gyrus (DG) only in female and neuron differentiation of newly divided cells in the DG and CA4 in both male and female. Moreover, the NF and GFAP-positive cells, but not the BrdU-positive cells, BrdU/NF and BrdU/GFAP-positive cells, were found frequently in the CA3 and CA1 in the offspring of each group. These results possibly suggest a compensatory adaptive response to neuronal damage or loss in hippocampus induced by PS. Copyright © 2014 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M.; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being. PMID:28974938

  13. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users ( n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration ( p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.

  14. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Huijie; Ulanov, Alexander V; Nobu, Masaru; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-02-01

    The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three studies on N. europaea were compared to achieve a

  16. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  17. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-guo Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no significant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our findings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  18. Serotonin regulates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in select brain regions during acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, De-Guo; Jin, Shi-Li; Li, Gong-Ying; Li, Qing-Qing; Li, Zhi-Ruo; Ma, Hong-Xia; Zhuo, Chuan-Jun; Jiang, Rong-Huan; Ye, Min-Jie

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that serotonin (5-HT) might interact with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) during the stress response. However, the relationship between 5-HT and BDNF expression under purely psychological stress is unclear. In this study, one hour before psychological stress exposure, the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT or antagonist MDL73005, or the 5-HT2A receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin were administered to rats exposed to psychological stress. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization revealed that after psychological stress, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were higher in the 5-HT1A and the 5-HT2A receptor agonist groups compared with the solvent control no-stress or psychological stress group in the CA1 and CA3 of the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, central amygdaloid nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, dentate gyrus, shell of the nucleus accumbens and the midbrain periaqueductal gray. There was no significant difference between the two agonist groups. In contrast, after stress exposure, BDNF protein and mRNA expression levels were lower in the 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptor antagonist groups than in the solvent control non-stress group, with the exception of the ventral tegmental area. Our findings suggest that 5-HT regulates BDNF expression in a rat model of acute psychological stress.

  19. Randomized controlled evaluation of the effects of cognitive-behavioral stress management on cortisol responses to acute stress in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaab, J; Blättler, N; Menzi, T; Pabst, B; Stoyer, S; Ehlert, U

    2003-08-01

    Psychosocial stress is a potent activator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. While neuroendocrine stress responses are essential for the maintenance of homeostasis, evidence suggests that excessive activation of the HPA axis constitutes a risk for disease and psychopathology. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of cognitive-behavioral stress management training on endocrine stress responses and cognitive appraisal under acute psychosocial stress among healthy young subjects. Forty-eight healthy, non-smoking male students without acute or chronic medical or psychiatric disorder on self report were randomly assigned to receive group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management training either before or after a standardized psychosocial stress test (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). Endocrine and psychological stress responses were assessed with salivary free cortisol response and cognitive appraisal processes to the TSST. In comparison with the control group, subjects in the treatment group showed an attenuated endocrine response (F (2.55/117.41) = 3.81; P = 0.02; effect size f(2) = 0.35) to the TSST. In addition, subjects in the SIT group had lower stress appraisal and higher control expectancies (F (2/45) = 6.56; P = 0.003, effect size f(2) = 0.29) compared to controls. Short group-based cognitive-behavioral stress management training reduces the neuroendocrine stress response to an acute stressor in healthy subjects. Therefore, stress management training may prove useful in preventing detrimental effects of stress-induced neuroendocrine activation

  20. A sustained hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to acute psychosocial stress in irritable bowel syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, P J; Cryan, J F; Quigley, E M M; Dinan, T G; Clarke, G

    2014-10-01

    Despite stress being considered a key factor in the pathophysiology of the functional gastrointestinal (GI) disorder irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), there is a paucity of information regarding the ability of IBS patients to respond to acute experimental stress. Insights into the stress response in IBS could open the way to novel therapeutic interventions. To this end, we assessed the response of a range of physiological and psychological parameters to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in IBS. Thirteen female patients with IBS and 15 healthy female age-matched control participants underwent a single exposure to the TSST. Salivary cortisol, salivary C-reactive protein (CRP), skin conductance level (SCL), GI symptoms, mood and self-reported stress were measured pre- and post-exposure to the TSST. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the TSST was sustained in IBS, as shown by a greater total cortisol output throughout (p = 0.035) and higher cortisol levels measured by an area under the curve with respect to ground (AUCG) analysis (p = 0.044). In IBS patients, GI symptoms increased significantly during the recovery period following exposure to the TSST (p = 0.045). Salivary CRP and SCL activity showed significant changes in relation to stress but with no differential effect between experimental groups. Patients with IBS exhibit sustained HPA axis activity, and an increase in problematic GI symptoms in response to acute experimental psychosocial stress. These data pave the way for future interventional studies aimed at identifying novel therapeutic approaches to modulate the HPA axis and GI symptom response to acute psychosocial stress in IBS.

  1. Characterizing dynamic interactions between ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity and acute stress using the phase response curve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Rankin

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis is a dynamic oscillatory hormone signalling system that regulates the pulsatile secretion of glucocorticoids from the adrenal glands. In addition to regulation of basal levels of glucocorticoids, the HPA axis provides a rapid hormonal response to stress that is vitally important for homeostasis. Recently it has become clear that glucocorticoid pulses encode an important biological signal that regulates receptor signalling both in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. It is therefore important to understand how stressful stimuli disrupt the pulsatile dynamics of this system. Using a computational model that incorporates the crucial feed-forward and feedback components of the axis, we provide novel insight into experimental observations that the size of the stress-induced hormonal response is critically dependent on the timing of the stress. Further, we employ the theory of Phase Response Curves to show that an acute stressor acts as a phase-resetting mechanism for the ultradian rhythm of glucocorticoid secretion. Using our model, we demonstrate that the magnitude of an acute stress is a critical factor in determining whether the system resets via a Type 1 or Type 0 mechanism. By fitting our model to our in vivo stress-response data, we show that the glucocorticoid response to an acute noise stress in rats is governed by a Type 0 phase-resetting curve. Our results provide additional evidence for the concept of a deterministic sub-hypothalamic oscillator regulating the ultradian glucocorticoid rhythm, which constitutes a highly responsive peripheral hormone system that interacts dynamically with hypothalamic inputs to regulate the overall hormonal response to stress.

  2. A dopamine receptor d2-type agonist attenuates the ability of stress to alter sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, F; Ehlen, J C; Williams, N S; Montemarano, J J; Paul, K N

    2014-11-01

    Although sleep disruptions that accompany stress reduce quality of life and deteriorate health, the mechanisms through which stress alters sleep remain obscure. Psychological stress can alter sleep in a variety of ways, but it has been shown to be particularly influential on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Prolactin (PRL), a sexually dimorphic, stress-sensitive hormone whose basal levels are higher in females, has somnogenic effects on REM sleep. In the current study, we examined the relationship between PRL secretion and REM sleep after restraint stress to determine whether: 1) the ability of stress to increase REM sleep is PRL-dependent, and 2) fluctuating PRL levels underlie sex differences in sleep responses to stress. Because dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary gland are the primary regulator of PRL secretion, D2 receptor agonist, 1-[(6-allylergolin-8β-yl)-carbonyl]-1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylurea (cabergoline), was used to attenuate PRL levels in mice before 1 hour of restraint stress. Mice were implanted with electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording electrodes and received an ip injection of either 0.3-mg/kg cabergoline or vehicle before a control procedure of 1 hour of sleep deprivation by gentle handling during the light phase. Six days after the control procedure, mice received cabergoline or vehicle 15 minutes before 1 hour of restraint stress. Cabergoline blocked the ability of restraint stress to increase REM sleep amount in males but did not alter REM sleep amount after stress in females even though it reduced basal REM sleep amount in female controls. These data provide evidence that the ability for restraint stress to increase REM sleep is dependent on PRL and that sex differences in REM sleep amount may be driven by PRL.

  3. The gene expression response of the catadromous perciform barramundi Lates calcarifer to an acute heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, J R; De Santis, C; Jerry, D R

    2012-07-01

    The acute heat-shock response of the tropical estuarine fish species barramundi Lates calcarifer as indicated by the expression of genes within stress (hsp 90AA, hsp 90AB, hsp 70 and hsc 70), metabolic (cisy, cco II and ldh) and growth (igf1 and mstn 1) related pathways was examined following an increase in water temperature from 28 to 36° C over 30 min. Lates calcarifer were maintained at the acute stress temperature of 36° C for 1 h before being returned to 28° C and allowed to recover at this temperature for a further 2 weeks. Muscle tissue sampling over the experimental period allowed for the expression quantification of stress, metabolic and growth-related genes via quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qrt-PCR) where a robust and reliable normalization approach identified both α-tub and Rpl8 as appropriate genes for the analysis of gene expression in response to an acute heat stress. hsp90AA and hsp70 of the inducible heat-shock response pathway showed a massive up-regulation of gene expression in response to heat stress, whilst the constitutive heat-shock genes hsp90AB and hsp70 showed no change over the course of the experiment and a small increase after 2 weeks of recovery, respectively. Of the three genes representing the metabolic pathway (cisy, cco II and ldh) only cco II changed significantly showing a decrease in gene expression, which may suggest a small suppression of aerobic metabolism. igf1 of the growth pathway showed no significant differences in response to an acute heat stress, whilst mstn1 increased at the beginning of the heat stress but returned to basal levels soon after. Overall, the results demonstrate that an acute heat stress in L. calcarifer caused a significant increase in the expression of genes from the stress response pathway and a possible decrease in aerobic metabolism with only relatively minor changes to the growth pathway highlighting the hardy nature of L. calcarifer and its resilience in coping with sudden

  4. Evaluation of the prevalence of stress and its phases in acute myocardial infarction in patients active in the labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Luciane Boreki Lucinda; Ana Claudia Merchan Giaxa Prosdócimo; Katherine Athayde Teixeira de Carvalho; Julio Cesar Francisco; Cristina Pellegrino Baena; Marcia Olandoski; Vivian Ferreira do Amaral; José Rocha Faria-Neto; Luiz César Guarita-Souza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction is a social health problem of epidemiological relevance, with high levels of morbidity and mortality. Stress is one of the modifiable risk factors that triggers acute myocardial infarction. Stress is a result of a set of physiological reactions, which when exaggerated in intensity or duration can lead to imbalances in one's organism, resulting in vulnerability to diseases. Objective: To identify the presence of stress and its phases in hospitalized an...

  5. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  6. The effects of acute stress on episodic memory: A meta-analysis and integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Sazma, Matthew A; McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-06-01

    A growing body of research has indicated that acute stress can critically impact memory. However, there are a number of inconsistencies in the literature, and important questions remain regarding the conditions under which stress effects emerge as well as basic questions about how stress impacts different phases of memory. In this meta-analysis, we examined 113 independent studies in humans with 6,216 participants that explored effects of stress on encoding, postencoding, retrieval, or postreactivation phases of episodic memory. The results indicated that when stress occurred prior to or during encoding it impaired memory, unless both the delay between the stressor and encoding was very short and the study materials were directly related to the stressor, in which case stress improved encoding. In contrast, postencoding stress improved memory unless the stressor occurred in a different physical context than the study materials. When stress occurred just prior to or during retrieval, memory was impaired, and these effects were larger for emotionally valenced materials than neutral materials. Although stress consistently increased cortisol, the magnitude of the cortisol response was not related to the effects of stress on memory. Nonetheless, the effects of stress on memory were generally reduced in magnitude for women taking hormonal contraceptives. These analyses indicate that stress disrupts some episodic memory processes while enhancing others, and that the effects of stress are modulated by a number of critical factors. These results provide important constraints on current theories of stress and memory, and point to new questions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Preconception paternal stress in rats alters dendritic morphology and connectivity in the brain of developing male and female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, A; Raza, S; Williamson, K; Kolb, B; Gibb, R

    2015-09-10

    The goal of this research was to examine the effect of preconception paternal stress (PPS) on the subsequent neurodevelopment and behavior of male and female offspring. Prenatal (gestational) stress has been shown to alter brain morphology in the developing brain, and is presumed to be a factor in the development of some adult psychopathologies. Our hypothesis was that paternal stress in the preconception period could impact brain development in the offspring, leading to behavioral abnormalities later in life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preconception paternal stress on developing male and female offspring brain morphology in five brain areas; medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), parietal cortex (Par1), hippocampus (CA1) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Alterations in dendritic measures and spine density were observed in each brain area examined in paternal stress offspring. Our two main findings reveal; (1) PPS alters brain morphology and organization and these effects are different than the effects of stress observed at other ages; and, (2) the observed dendritic changes were sexually dimorphic. This study provides direct evidence that PPS modifies brain architecture in developing offspring, including dendritic length, cell complexity, and spine density. Alterations observed may contribute to the later development of psychopathologies and maladaptive behaviors in the offspring. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Active behavioral coping alters the behavioral but not the endocrine response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Dana L.; Tylee, Daniel; Christianson, John P.; Kubala, Kenneth H.; Govindarajan, Sindhuja T.; O’Neill, William E.; Becoats, Kyeesha; Watkins, Linda; Maier, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Exposure to traumatic stressors typically causes lasting changes in emotionality and behavior. However, coping strategies have been shown to prevent and alleviate many stress consequences and the biological mechanisms that underlie coping are of great interest. Whereas the laboratory stressor inescapable tail-shock induces anxiety-like behaviors, here we demonstrate that permitting a rat to chew on a wooden dowel during administration of tail-shock prevented the development of anxiety like behaviors in the open field and juvenile social exploration tests. Uncontrollable stressors increase corticosterone and decrease thyroid hormone, and we hypothesized that coping would blunt these changes. While tail-shock did produce these effects, active coping did not alter hormone levels. The dissociation between behavioral resilience and circulating hormones is discussed with regard to the utility of these molecules as biomarkers for psychiatric disease. PMID:22578266

  9. Heritable alteration in DNA methylation induced by nitrogen-deficiency stress accompanies enhanced tolerance by progenies to the stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, H P; Li, Y; Song, X X; Ou, X F; Xing, S C; Ma, J; Von Wettstein, D; Liu, B

    2011-09-15

    Cytosine methylation is responsive to various biotic- and abiotic-stresses, which may produce heritable epialleles. Nitrogen (N)-deficiency is an abiotic stress being repeatedly experienced by plants. To address possible epigenetic consequences of N-deficiency-stress, we investigated the stability of cytosine methylation in rice (Oryza sativa L.) subsequent to a chronic (a whole-generation) N-deficiency at two levels, moderate (20mg/L) and severe (10mg/L), under hydroponic culture. MSAP analysis revealed that locus-specific methylation alteration occurred in leaf-tissue of the stressed plants (S(0)) experiencing either level of N-deficiency, which was validated by gel-blotting. Analysis on three non-stressed self-fed progenies (S(1), S(2) and S(3)) by gel-blotting indicated that ca. 50% of the altered methylation patterns in somatic cells (leaf) of the stressed S(0) plants were recaptured in S(1), which were then stably inherited to S(2) and S(3). Bisulfite sequencing of two variant MSAP loci with homology to low-copy retrotransposons on one stressed plant (S(0)) and its non-stressed progenies (S(1) and S(2)) showed that whereas one locus exhibited limited and non-heritable CHH methylation alteration, the other locus manifested dramatic heritable hypermethylation at nearly all cytosine sites within the assayed region. Intriguingly, when two groups of S(2) plants descended from the same N-deficiency-stressed S(0) plant were re-subjected to the stress, the group inheriting the modified methylation patterns showed enhanced tolerance to the N-deficiency-stress compared with the group bearing the original patterns. Our results thus demonstrate heritability of an acquired adaptive trait in rice, which was accompanied by epigenetic inheritance of modified cytosine methylation patterns, implicating an epigenetic basis underlying the inheritance of an acquired trait in plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Fear learning alterations after traumatic brain injury and their role in development of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Daniel E; Acheson, Dean T; Geyer, Mark A; Nievergelt, Caroline M; Baker, Dewleen G; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2017-08-01

    It is unknown how traumatic brain injury (TBI) increases risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). One potential mechanism is via alteration of fear-learning processes that could affect responses to trauma memories and cues. We utilized a prospective, longitudinal design to determine if TBI is associated with altered fear learning and extinction, and if fear processing mediates effects of TBI on PTSD symptom change. Eight hundred fifty two active-duty Marines and Navy Corpsmen were assessed before and after deployment. Assessments included TBI history, PTSD symptoms, combat trauma and deployment stress, and a fear-potentiated startle task of fear acquisition and extinction. Startle response and self-reported expectancy and anxiety served as measures of fear conditioning, and PTSD symptoms were measured with the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Individuals endorsing "multiple hit" exposure (both deployment TBI and a prior TBI) showed the strongest fear acquisition and highest fear expression compared to groups without multiple hits. Extinction did not differ across groups. Endorsing a deployment TBI was associated with higher anxiety to the fear cue compared to those without deployment TBI. The association of deployment TBI with increased postdeployment PTSD symptoms was mediated by postdeployment fear expression when recent prior-TBI exposure was included as a moderator. TBI associations with increased response to threat cues and PTSD symptoms remained when controlling for deployment trauma and postdeployment PTSD diagnosis. Deployment TBI, and multiple-hit TBI in particular, are associated with increases in conditioned fear learning and expression that may contribute to risk for developing PTSD symptoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Pamidronate Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Energetic Metabolism Changes but Worsens Functional Outcomes in Acute Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

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    Paula Bernardo de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiotoxicity is the major side effect of doxorubicin. As mechanisms that are involved in cardiotoxicity are ambiguous, new methods for attenuating cardiotoxicity are needed. Recent studies have shown that bisphosphonates can decrease oxidative stress. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pamidronate on preventing acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods: Sixty-four male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: the control group (C, the pamidronate group (P, the doxorubicin group (D and the doxorubicin/pamidronate group (DP. The rats in the P and DP groups received pamidronate injections (3 mg/kg, IP. After 24 hours, the rats in the D and DP groups received doxorubicin injections (20 mg/kg, IP. Forty-eight hours after doxorubicin injection, the rats were killed. Echocardiography, isolated heart study and biochemical analysis were performed. Results: Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity showed increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 activation, oxidative damage and induced alterations in myocardial energetic metabolism. Pamidronate did not inhibit MMP-2 activation but attenuated oxidative stress and improved myocardial energetic metabolism. Regarding cardiac function, the DP group exhibited a decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction in the echocardiography and a decrease in +dP/dt in the isolated heart study compared with other groups. The same DP group presented serum hypocalcaemia. Conclusions: Despite its ability to reduce oxidative stress and improve energy metabolism in the heart, pamidronate worsened systolic function in rats treated with doxorubicin, and therefore we cannot recommend its use in conjunction with anthracycline chemotherapy.

  12. Stress/aggressiveness-induced immune changes are altered in adult rats submitted to neonatal malnutrition.

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    Barreto-Medeiros, Jairza; Queiros-Santos, Adenilda; Cabral-Filho, José Eulálio; Ferreira E Silva, Wylla Tatiana; Leandro, Carol Góis; Deiró, Tereza Cristina; Manhaes-de-Castro, Raul; Machado Barbosa de-Castro, Célia Maria

    2007-01-01

    Neonatal malnutrition induces metabolic and endocrine changes that have beneficial effects on the neonatal in the short term but, in the longer term, these alterations lead to maladaptations. We investigated the effect of neonatal malnutrition on immune responses in adult rats submitted or not to an aggressiveness test. Male Wistar rats were distributed to one of two groups according to their mothers' diet during lactation: the well-nourished group (group C, n = 42, receiving 23% of protein) and the malnourished group (group MN, n = 42, receiving 8% of protein). After weaning, all rats received normoproteic diet. Ninety days after birth, each group was subdivided into three subgroups: control rats (n = 14, respectively), aggressive rats (n = 14, respectively) and rats receiving foot shock (FS; n = 14, respectively). Plasma corticosterone concentration was measured after FS sessions. Leukocyte counts and humoral immunity were evaluated. In neonatal malnourished animals, FS-induced stress reduced plasma corticosterone concentration. Intraspecific aggressiveness induced alterations in leukocyte counts and antibody titers 7 and 15 days after immunization. Neonatal malnourished animals showed no changes in the immune parameters evaluated. Expression of intraspecific aggressiveness activates the immune system. Neonatal malnutrition seems to have a long-lasting effect on components of both neuroendocrine and immune functions.

  13. Alterations on peripheral B cell subsets following an acute uncomplicated clinical malaria infection in children

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    Ng'ang'a Zipporah W

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of Plasmodium falciparum on B-cell homeostasis have not been well characterized. This study investigated whether an episode of acute malaria in young children results in changes in the peripheral B cell phenotype. Methods Using flow-cytofluorimetric analysis, the B cell phenotypes found in the peripheral blood of children aged 2–5 years were characterized during an episode of acute uncomplicated clinical malaria and four weeks post-recovery and in healthy age-matched controls. Results There was a significant decrease in CD19+ B lymphocytes during acute malaria. Characterization of the CD19+ B cell subsets in the peripheral blood based on expression of IgD and CD38 revealed a significant decrease in the numbers of naive 1 CD38-IgD+ B cells while there was an increase in CD38+IgD- memory 3 B cells during acute malaria. Further analysis of the peripheral B cell phenotype also identified an expansion of transitional CD10+CD19+ B cells in children following an episode of acute malaria with up to 25% of total CD19+ B cell pool residing in this subset. Conclusion Children experiencing an episode of acute uncomplicated clinical malaria experienced profound disturbances in B cell homeostasis.

  14. Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress

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    Picard, Martin; McManus, Meagan J.; Gray, Jason D.; Nasca, Carla; Moffat, Cynthia; Kopinski, Piotr K.; Seifert, Erin L.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Wallace, Douglas C.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of psychological stress triggers neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic, and transcriptional perturbations that ultimately predispose to disease. However, the subcellular determinants of this integrated, multisystemic stress response have not been defined. Central to stress adaptation is cellular energetics, involving mitochondrial energy production and oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesized that abnormal mitochondrial functions would differentially modulate the organism’s multisystemic response to psychological stress. By mutating or deleting mitochondrial genes encoded in the mtDNA [NADH dehydrogenase 6 (ND6) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)] or nuclear DNA [adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT)], we selectively impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain function, energy exchange, and mitochondrial redox balance in mice. The resulting impact on physiological reactivity and recovery from restraint stress were then characterized. We show that mitochondrial dysfunctions altered the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal–medullary activation and catecholamine levels, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, circulating metabolites, and hippocampal gene expression responses to stress. Each mitochondrial defect generated a distinct whole-body stress-response signature. These results demonstrate the role of mitochondrial energetics and redox balance as modulators of key pathophysiological perturbations previously linked to disease. This work establishes mitochondria as stress-response modulators, with implications for understanding the mechanisms of stress pathophysiology and mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26627253

  15. Real-time Acute Stress Facilitates Allocentric Spatial Processing in a Virtual Fire Disaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhengcao; Wang, Yamin; Zhang, Liang

    2017-11-06

    Prior studies have shown that spatial cognition is influenced by stress prior to task. The current study investigated the effects of real-time acute stress on allocentric and egocentric spatial processing. A virtual reality-based spatial reference rule learning (SRRL) task was designed in which participants were instructed to make a location selection by walking to one of three poles situated around a tower. A selection was reinforced by either an egocentric spatial reference rule (leftmost or rightmost pole relative to participant) or an allocentric spatial reference rule (nearest or farthest pole relative to the tower). In Experiment 1, 32 participants (16 males, 16 females; aged from 18 to 27) performed a SRRL task in a normal virtual reality environment (VRE). The hit rates and rule acquisition revealed no difference between allocentric and egocentric spatial reference rule learning. In Experiment 2, 64 participants (32 males, 34 females; aged from 19 to 30) performed the SRRL task in both a low-stress VRE (a mini virtual arena) and a high-stress VRE (mini virtual arena with a fire disaster). Allocentric references facilitated learning in the high-stressful VRE. The results suggested that acute stress facilitate allocentric spatial processing.

  16. Compression garments do not alter cerebrovascular responses to orthostatic stress after mild passive heating.

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    Morrison, S A; Ainslie, P N; Lucas, R A I; Cheung, S S; Cotter, J D

    2014-04-01

    Whole-body heating increases the likelihood of syncope, whereas utilizing lower-body compression garments may reduce syncope risk. We hypothesized that graded compression garments would reduce the typically observed large postural reductions in arterial blood pressure and middle cerebral artery velocity, in normothermia and especially once passively heat stressed. Fifteen men (age: 27 ± 4 years, aerobic fitness range: 30-75 mL/kg(/) min) completed a supine-to-stand orthostatic challenge for 3 min at normothermia and after passive heating (esophageal temperature, +0.5 °C from baseline) on two occasions (> 7 days): once wearing commercially available compression trousers and once wearing low-compression placebo trousers (randomized order). Blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (transcranial Doppler), mean arterial blood pressure (mean BP: Finometer) and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure were measured continuously. During normothermia, compression, garments did not alter the magnitude of the postural changes in mean BP or middle cerebral artery velocity. After passive heating, although the magnitudes of these changes were exaggerated, they were not significantly affected by compression garments. Compression garments did not attenuate the initial or sustained orthostatic hypotension associated with posture change, either during normothermia or following passive heat stress. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Microglial depletion alters the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, T Jordan; Crews, Fulton T

    2017-04-20

    Recent studies have implicated microglia-the resident immune cells of the brain-in the pathophysiology of alcoholism. Indeed, post-mortem alcoholic brains show increased microglial markers and increased immune gene expression; however, the effects of ethanol on microglial functioning and how this impacts the brain remain unclear. In this present study, we investigate the effects of acute binge ethanol on microglia and how microglial depletion changes the brain neuroimmune response to acute binge ethanol withdrawal. C57BL/6J mice were treated intragastrically with acute binge ethanol for time course and dose-response studies. Cultured mouse BV2 microglia-like cells were treated with ethanol in vitro for time course studies. Mice were also administered the colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) inhibitor PLX5622 to deplete microglia from the brain. These mice were subsequently treated with acute binge ethanol and sacrificed during withdrawal. Brain and BV2 mRNA were isolated and assessed using RT-PCR to examine expression of microglial and neuroimmune genes. Acute binge ethanol biphasically changed microglial (e.g., Iba1, CD68) gene expression, with initial decreases during intoxication and subsequent increases during withdrawal. Acute ethanol withdrawal dose dependently increased neuroimmune gene (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2, IL-1ra, IL-4) expression beginning at high doses. BV2 cells showed biphasic changes in pro-inflammatory (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2) gene expression following ethanol treatment in vitro. Administration of PLX5622 depleted microglia from the brains of mice. Although some neuroimmune genes were reduced by microglial depletion, many others were unchanged. Microglial depletion blunted pro-inflammatory (e.g., TNFα, Ccl2) gene expression and enhanced anti-inflammatory (e.g., IL-1ra, IL-4) gene expression during acute binge ethanol withdrawal. These studies find acute binge ethanol withdrawal increases microglial and neuroimmune gene expression. Ethanol exposure

  18. Assessment of fructosamine concentrations in cats with acute and chronic stress

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    Lívia Fagundes Moraes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fructosamine are glycated serum proteins that are formed continuously due to the reaction between glucose and circulating proteins, and corresponding to the blood glucose control assessment over the last one to two weeks in cats. The fructosamine concentration has been used for differentiation between persistent and transient hyperglycemia. Therefore, the determination of fructosamine is considered the gold standard for monitoring glycemia into control in diabetic cats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic stress of cats on serum fructosamine. 62 cats were selected from the Veterinary Hospital of FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu campus. They were distributed into three groups: cats with a history of any illness or stress condition, excluding Diabetes Mellitus (DM, for a maximum of 48 hours (Group A, n = 21 or for a period exceeding 120 hours (Group B n = 27. The third group (Group C = control was formed by 14 health cats. The groups were evaluated for serum fructosamine, glucose, protein and albumin. In this study, there was a significant increase in the values of fructosamine in animals subjected to acute and chronic stress, but these values remained within the reference range. The animals were, on average, normoglycemic, despite the positive correlation between fructosamine and glucose concentrations. We conclude that the fructosamine concentration is influenced by acute and chronic stress in cats, remaining, however, within the reference range, and therefore, still useful in the diagnosis of DM.

  19. Stress hormonal changes in the brain and plasma after acute noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

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    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  1. Innate immunity and testosterone rapidly respond to acute stress, but is corticosterone at the helm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S; Noor, S; Carpentier, E; Deviche, P

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a stressor, vertebrates can rapidly increase the secretion of glucocorticoids, which is thought to improve the chances of survival. Concurrent changes in other physiological systems, such as the reproductive endocrine or innate immune systems, have received less attention, particularly in wild vertebrates. It is often thought that glucocorticoids directly modulate immune performance during a stress response, but, in many species, androgens also rapidly respond to stress. However, to our knowledge, no study has simultaneously examined the interactions between the glucocorticoid, androgen, and innate immune responses to stress in a wild vertebrate. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that the change in plasma corticosterone (CORT) in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma testosterone (T) and innate immune performance (estimated by the capacity of plasma to agglutinate and lyse foreign cells) in the Abert's Towhee (Melozone aberti). Furthermore, to broaden the generality of the findings, we compared male and female towhees, as well as males from urban and non-urban populations. Acute stress increased plasma CORT, decreased plasma T in males, and decreased innate immune performance, but the increase in CORT during stress was not correlated with the corresponding decreases in either plasma T or innate immunity. By contrast, the plasma T stress response was positively correlated with the innate immune stress response. Collectively, our results challenge the proposition that the glucocorticoid stress response is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma T, a key reproductive hormone, and innate immunity, as estimated by agglutination and lysis.

  2. Symptoms of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients With Acute Hand Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, Lonneke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Postema, Klass; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Purpose Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hand injuries may delay return to work, even when criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV are not met. This study investigated which biomedical and psychosocial factors relate to symptoms of

  3. Vinclozolin alters the expression of hormonal and stress genes in the midge Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquilino, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Martínez-Guitarte, José-Luis

    2016-05-01

    Vinclozolin is a fungicide used in agriculture that can reach aquatic ecosystems and affect the organisms living there. Its effects have been intensively studied in vertebrates, where it acts as an antiandrogen, but there is a lack of information about its mechanistic effects on invertebrates. In this work, we analyzed the response of genes related to the endocrine system, the stress response, and the detoxification mechanisms of Chironomus riparius fourth instar larvae after 24h and 48h exposures to 20 (69.9nM), 200 (699nM), and 2000μg/L (6.99μM) of Vinclozolin. Survival analysis showed that this compound has low toxicity, as it was not lethal for this organism at the concentrations used. However, this fungicide was shown to modify the transcriptional activity of the ecdysone response pathway genes EcR, E74, and Kr-h1 by increasing their mRNA levels. While no changes were observed in disembodied, a gene related with the ecdysone synthesis metabolic pathway, Cyp18A1, which is involved in the inactivation of the active form of ecdysone, was upregulated. Additionally, the expression of two genes related to other hormones, FOXO and MAPR, did not show any changes when Vinclozolin was present. The analysis of stress response genes showed significant changes in the mRNA levels of Hsp70, Hsp24, and Gp93, indicating that Vinclozolin activates the cellular stress mechanisms. Finally, the expressions of the genes Cyp4G and GstD3, which encode enzymes involved in phase I and phase II detoxification, respectively, were analyzed. It was found that their mRNA levels were altered by Vinclozolin, suggesting their involvement in the degradation of this compound. For the first time, these results show evidence that Vinclozolin can modulate gene expression, leading to possible significant endocrine alterations of the insect endocrine system. These results also offer new clues about the mode of action of this compound in invertebrates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  4. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

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    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  5. Acute Stress Suppresses Synaptic Inhibition and Increases Anxiety via Endocannabinoid Release in the Basolateral Amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Shi; Itoga, Christy A; Fisher, Marc O; Solomonow, Jonathan; Roltsch, Emily A; Gilpin, Nicholas W; Tasker, Jeffrey G

    2016-08-10

    Stress and glucocorticoids stimulate the rapid mobilization of endocannabinoids in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Cannabinoid receptors in the BLA contribute to anxiogenesis and fear-memory formation. We tested for rapid glucocorticoid-induced endocannabinoid regulation of synaptic inhibition in the rat BLA. Glucocorticoid application to amygdala slices elicited a rapid, nonreversible suppression of spontaneous, but not evoked, GABAergic synaptic currents in BLA principal neurons; the effect was also seen with a membrane-impermeant glucocorticoid, but not with intracellular glucocorticoid application, implicating a membrane-associated glucocorticoid receptor. The glucocorticoid suppression of GABA currents was not blocked by antagonists of nuclear corticosteroid receptors, or by inhibitors of gene transcription or protein synthesis, but was blocked by inhibiting postsynaptic G-protein activity, suggesting a postsynaptic nongenomic steroid signaling mechanism that stimulates the release of a retrograde messenger. The rapid glucocorticoid-induced suppression of inhibition was prevented by blocking CB1 receptors and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) synthesis, and it was mimicked and occluded by CB1 receptor agonists, indicating it was mediated by the retrograde release of the endocannabinoid 2-AG. The rapid glucocorticoid effect in BLA neurons in vitro was occluded by prior in vivo acute stress-induced, or prior in vitro glucocorticoid-induced, release of endocannabinoid. Acute stress also caused an increase in anxiety-like behavior that was attenuated by blocking CB1 receptor activation and inhibiting 2-AG synthesis in the BLA. Together, these findings suggest that acute stress causes a long-lasting suppression of synaptic inhibition in BLA neurons via a membrane glucocorticoid receptor-induced release of 2-AG at GABA synapses, which contributes to stress-induced anxiogenesis. We provide a cellular mechanism in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) for the rapid stress

  6. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

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    Ronaldo Lopes Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.; acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days; and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

  7. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piloni, Natacha E.; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A.; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-01-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6 h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A·)/ascorbate (AH − ) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A·/AH − ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR·) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8 h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21 h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6 h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8 h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR· generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR· generation rate after 6

  8. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

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    Yiwen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats.

  9. Progenitor cells are mobilized by acute psychological stress but not beta-adrenergic receptor agonist infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Natalie E; Burns, Victoria E; Wallace, Graham R; Edwards, Kate M; Drayson, Mark; Redwine, Laura S; Hong, Suzi; Bui, Jack C; Fischer, Johannes C; Mills, Paul J; Bosch, Jos A

    2015-10-01

    Stimuli that activate the sympathetic nervous system, such as acute psychological stress, rapidly invoke a robust mobilization of lymphocytes into the circulation. Experimental animal studies suggest that bone marrow-derived progenitor cells (PCs) also mobilize in response to sympathetic stimulation. Here we tested the effects of acute psychological stress and brief pharmacological β-adrenergic (βAR) stimulation on peripheral PC numbers in humans. In two studies, we investigated PC mobilization in response to an acute speech task (n=26) and βAR-agonist (isoproterenol) infusion (n=20). A subset of 8 participants also underwent the infusion protocol with concomitant administration of the βAR-antagonist propranolol. Flow cytometry was used to enumerate lymphocyte subsets, total progenitor cells, total haematopoietic stem cells (HSC), early HSC (multi-lineage potential), late HSC (lineage committed), and endothelial PCs (EPCs). Both psychological stress and βAR-agonist infusion caused the expected mobilization of total monocytes and lymphocytes and CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Psychological stress also induced a modest, but significant, increase in total PCs, HSCs, and EPC numbers in peripheral blood. However, infusion of a βAR-agonist did not result in a significant change in circulating PCs. PCs are rapidly mobilized by psychological stress via mechanisms independent of βAR-stimulation, although the findings do not exclude βAR-stimulation as a possible cofactor. Considering the clinical and physiological relevance, further research into the mechanisms involved in stress-induced PC mobilization seems warranted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Sylow, Lykke; Fazakerley, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 on metabolism is unknown. A single injection of the mTOR kinase inhibitor, AZD8055, induced a transient, yet marked increase in fat oxidation and insulin resistance in mice, whereas the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin had no effect. AZD8055...... SIN1 rescued glycolysis. Glucose intolerance following AZD8055 administration was absent in mice lacking the mTORC2 subunit Rictor in muscle, and in vivo glucose uptake into Rictor-deficient muscle was reduced despite normal Akt activity. Taken together, acute mTOR inhibition is detrimental to glucose...

  11. Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Sylow, Lykke; Fazakerley, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 on metabolism is unknown. A single injection of the mTOR kinase inhibitor, AZD8055, induced a transient, yet marked increase in fat oxidation and insulin resistance in mice, whereas the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin had no effect. AZD8055...... SIN1 rescued glycolysis. Glucose intolerance following AZD8055 administration was absent in mice lacking the mTORC2 subunit Rictor in muscle, and in vivo glucose uptake into Rictor-deficient muscle was reduced despite normal Akt activity. Taken together, acute mTOR inhibition is detrimental to glucose...

  12. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  13. Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eChilds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has long been considered beneficial to health and regular exercise is purported to relieve stress. However empirical evidence demonstrating these effects is limited. In this study, we compared psychophysiological responses to an acute psychosocial stressor between individuals who did, or did not, report regular physical exercise. Healthy men and women (N=111 participated in two experimental sessions, one with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and one with a non-stressful control task. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol and self-reported mood before and at repeated times after the tasks.Individuals who reported physical exercise at least once per week exhibited lower heart rate at rest than non-exercisers, but the groups did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the TSST. Level of habitual exercise did not influence self-reported mood before the tasks, but non-exercisers reported a greater decline in positive affect after the TSST in comparison to exercisers. These findings provide modest support for claims that regular exercise protects against the negative emotional consequences of stress, and suggest that exercise has beneficial effects in healthy individuals. These findings are limited by their correlational nature, and future prospective controlled studies on the effects of regular exercise on response to acute stress are needed.

  14. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Acute and delayed restraint stress-induced changes in nitric oxide producing neurons in limbic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, M B; Guimarães, F S; Del Bel, E A

    2004-01-01

    Microinjection into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, induces antinociceptive effect 5 days after a single restraint episode. The mechanisms of this stress-antinociceptive modulatory effect have not been investigated but may involve plastic changes in the hippocampal formation (HF). The objective of the present study was to investigate possible mechanisms of the stress-modulating effect on antinociception induced by NOS inhibition in the hippocampus. We analyzed the effects of restraint stress on neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemical activity (NADPH-d) in the HF and related brain regions. Male Wistar rats (n=6-11/group) were submitted to a single (acute stress) or repeated (5 days) episodes of 2-h restraint. Control animals remained in their home cages being all animals daily handled during this period. In the fifth day, animals received unilateral microinjection of l-NAME (150 nmol/0.2 microl) or saline (control) into the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus (DG). Immediately before and after drug microinjection tail-flick reflex latency or hotplate licking reaction was measured. Animals were killed i. immediately; ii. 5 days after acute stress; or iii. after repeated stress. NADPH-d and nNOS expression were quantified in the HF, caudate-putamen, secondary somatosensorial, entorhinal and piriform cortices and amygdaloid complex. Five days after one or five restraint episodes l-NAME microinjection into the DG elicited antinociceptive effect (analysis of variance [ANOVA], Psomatosensorial cortex. The results confirm that the dorsal hippocampus participates in the modulation of stress consequences. They also show that a single stress episode causes acute changes in nitric oxide system in the amygdala complex and delayed modifications in the HF. The delayed (5 days) antinociceptive effect of

  16. Behavioral response of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to acute ammonia stress monitored by computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian-yu; Miao, Xiang-wen; Liu, Ying; Cui, Shao-rong

    2005-08-01

    The behavioral responses of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to low (0.13 mg/L), moderate (0.79 mg/L) and high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were monitored using a computer vision system. The swimming activity and geometrical parameters such as location of the gravity center and distribution of the fish school were calculated continuously. These behavioral parameters of tilapia school responded sensitively to moderate and high UIA concentration. Under high UIA concentration the fish activity showed a significant increase (Pfish behavior under acute stress can provide important information useful in predicting the stress.

  17. Reversible Stress Cardiomyopathy Presenting as Acute Coronary Syndrome with Elevated Troponin in the Absence of Regional Wall Motion Abnormalities: A Forme Fruste of Stress Cardiomyopathy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Anantha Narayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of reversible stress cardiomyopathy in a surgical patient, described here as a forme fruste due to its atypical features. It is important to recognize such unusual presentation of stress cardiomyopathy that mimics acute coronary syndrome. Stress cardiomyopathy commonly presents as acute coronary syndrome and is characterized by typical or atypical variants of regional wall motion abnormalities. We report a 60-year-old Caucasian male with reversible stress cardiomyopathy following a sternal fracture fixation. Although the patient had several typical features of stress cardiomyopathy including physical stress, ST-segment elevation, elevated cardiac biomarkers and normal epicardial coronaries, there were few features that were atypical, including unusual age, gender, absence of regional wall motion abnormalities, high lateral ST elevation, and high troponin-ejection fraction product. In conclusion, this could represent a forme fruste of stress cardiomyopathy.

  18. Immediate and long-term effects of meditation on acute stress reactivity, cognitive functions, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after

  19. Acute stress symptoms during the second Lebanon war in a random sample of Israeli citizens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Miri; Yahav, Rivka

    2008-02-01

    The aims of this study were to assess prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and acute stress symptoms (ASS) in Israel during the second Lebanon war. A telephone survey was conducted in July 2006 of a random sample of 235 residents of northern Israel, who were subjected to missile attacks, and of central Israel, who were not subjected to missile attacks. Results indicate that ASS scores were higher in the northern respondents; 6.8% of the northern sample and 3.9% of the central sample met ASD criteria. Appearance of each symptom ranged from 15.4% for dissociative to 88.4% for reexperiencing, with significant differences between northern and central respondents only for reexperiencing and arousal. A low ASD rate and a moderate difference between areas subjected and not subjected to attack were found.

  20. Early life diets with prebiotics and bioactive milk fractions attenuate the impact of stress on learned helplessness behaviours and alter gene expression within neural circuits important for stress resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Agnieszka; Day, Heidi E W; Martinez, Alexander; Rumian, Nicole L; Greenwood, Benjamin N; Chichlowski, Maciej; Berg, Brian M; Fleshner, Monika

    2017-02-01

    Manipulating gut microbes may improve mental health. Prebiotics are indigestible compounds that increase the growth and activity of health-promoting microorganisms, yet few studies have examined how prebiotics affect CNS function. Using an acute inescapable stressor known to produce learned helplessness behaviours such as failure to escape and exaggerated fear, we tested whether early life supplementation of a blend of two prebiotics, galactooligosaccharide (GOS) and polydextrose (PDX), and the glycoprotein lactoferrin (LAC) would attenuate behavioural and biological responses to stress later in life. Juvenile, male F344 rats were fed diets containing either GOS and PDX alone, LAC alone, or GOS, PDX and LAC. All diets altered gut bacteria, while diets containing GOS and PDX increased Lactobacillus spp. After 4 weeks, rats were exposed to inescapable stress, and either immediately killed for blood and tissues, or assessed for learned helplessness 24 h later. Diets did not attenuate stress effects on spleen weight, corticosterone and blood glucose; however, all diets differentially attenuated stress-induced learned helplessness. Notably, in situ hybridization revealed that all diets reduced stress-evoked cfos mRNA in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), a structure important for learned helplessness behaviours. In addition, GOS, PDX and LAC diet attenuated stress-evoked decreases in mRNA for the 5-HT 1A autoreceptor in the DRN and increased basal BDNF mRNA within the prefrontal cortex. These data suggest early life diets containing prebiotics and/or LAC promote behavioural stress resistance and uniquely modulate gene expression in corresponding circuits. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Symptoms of acute stress in Jewish and Arab Israeli citizens during the Second Lebanon War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahav, Rivka; Cohen, Miri

    2007-10-01

    The "Second Lebanon War" exposed northern Israel to massive missile attacks, aimed at civilian centers, Jewish and Arab, for a period of several weeks. To assess prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) and acute stress symptoms (ASS) in Jewish and Arab samples, and their correlates with demographic and exposure variables. Telephone survey conducted in the third week of the second Lebanon war with a random sample of 133 Jewish and 66 Arab adult residents of northern Israel. ASD, ASS and symptoms-related impairment were measured by the Acute Stress Disorder Interview (ASDI) questionnaire, in addition to war-related exposure and demographic data. The majority of respondents experienced at least one of four symptom groups of ASD, 5.5% of the Jewish respondents and 20.3% of the Arabs met the criteria of ASD. Higher rates of Arab respondents reported symptoms of dissociation, reexperiencing and arousal, but a similar rate of avoidance was reported by the two samples. Higher mean scores of ASS and of symptoms-related impairment were reported by the Arab respondents. According to multiple regression analyses, younger age, female gender, Arab ethnicity and experiencing the war more intensely as a stressor significantly explained ASS variance, while Arab ethnicity and proximity to missiles exploding significantly explained the variance of symptoms-related impairment. A substantial rate of participants experienced symptoms of acute stress, while for only small proportion were the symptoms consistent with ASD. Higher ASD and ASS were reported by the Arab sample, calling attention to the need to build interventions to reduce the present symptoms and to help prepare for possible similar situations in the future.

  2. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men

    OpenAIRE

    von Känel Roland; Meister Rebecca; Stutz Monika; Kummer Petra; Arpagaus Angela; Huber Susanne; Ehlert Ulrike; Wirtz Petra H.

    2014-01-01

    Flavanoid rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20 50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption both groups un...

  3. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Chassande, Olivier; Fliers, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during

  4. 16p11.2 deletion syndrome mice perseverate with active coping response to acute stress - rescue by blocking 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzini, Chris M; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Alchahin, Adele M; Guo, Yueping; Commons, Kathryn G

    2017-12-01

    In humans a chromosomal hemideletion of the 16p11.2 region results in variable neurodevelopmental deficits including developmental delay, intellectual disability, and features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Serotonin is implicated in ASD but its role remains enigmatic. In this study we sought to determine if and how abnormalities in serotonin neurotransmission could contribute to the behavioral phenotype of the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome in a mouse model (Del mouse). As ASD is frequently associated with altered response to acute stress and stress may exacerbate repetitive behavior in ASD, we studied the Del mouse behavior in the context of an acute stress using the forced swim test, a paradigm well characterized with respect to serotonin. Del mice perseverated with active coping (swimming) in the forced swim test and failed to adopt passive coping strategies with time as did their wild-type littermates. Analysis of monoamine content by HPLC provided evidence for altered endogenous serotonin neurotransmission in Del mice while there was no effect of genotype on any other monoamine. Moreover, we found that Del mice were highly sensitive to the 5-HT2A antagonists M100907, which at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg normalized their level of active coping and restored the gradual shift to passive coping in the forced swim test. Supporting evidence for altered endogenous serotonin signaling was provided by observations of additional ligand effects including altered forebrain Fos expression. Taken together, these observations indicate notable changes in endogenous serotonin signaling in 16p11.2 deletion mice and support the therapeutic utility of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  5. Expansion of highly activated invariant natural killer T cells with altered phenotype in acute dengue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaladasa, A.; Wickramasinghe, N.; Adikari, T. N.; Gomes, L.; Shyamali, N. L. A.; Salio, M.; Cerundolo, V.; Ogg, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are capable of rapid activation and production of cytokines upon recognition of antigenic lipids presented by CD1d molecules. They have been shown to play a significant role in many viral infections and were observed to be highly activated in patients with acute dengue infection. In order to characterize further their role in dengue infection, we investigated the proportion of iNKT cells and their phenotype in adult patients with acute dengue infection. The functionality of iNKT cells in patients was investigated by both interferon (IFN)‐γ and interleukin (IL)−4 ex‐vivo enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays following stimulation with alpha‐galactosyl‐ceramide (αGalCer). We found that circulating iNKT cell proportions were significantly higher (P = 0·03) in patients with acute dengue when compared to healthy individuals and were predominantly of the CD4+ subset. iNKT cells of patients with acute dengue had reduced proportions expressing CD8α and CD161 when compared to healthy individuals. The iNKT cells of patients were highly activated and iNKT activation correlated significantly with dengue virus‐specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody levels. iNKT cells expressing Bcl‐6 (P = 0·0003) and both Bcl‐6 and inducible T cell co‐stimulator (ICOS) (P = 0·006) were increased significantly in patients when compared to healthy individuals. Therefore, our data suggest that in acute dengue infection there is an expansion of highly activated CD4+ iNKT cells, with reduced expression of CD161 markers. PMID:26874822

  6. Elimination of the last reactions in ergosterol biosynthesis alters the resistance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to multiple stresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Guodong; Chen, Yun; Faergeman, Nils J.

    2017-01-01

    , the mutants showed altered resistances to different exogenous stresses regarding the specific growth rate and duration of lag phase. The erg5 deletion mutant whose sterol has a saturated side chain exhibited overall robust growth under the tested stress conditions. The thermotolerant phenotype of erg5......The sterol composition of membranes is known to influence many phenotypes of yeast. However, a systematic study of the relationship between sterol composition and stress resistances has not been conducted. Here, we therefore constructed single or double gene deletion mutants of the last four...

  7. Impact of Oxidative Stress on Hemorheological Parameters in Patients with Acute Poisonings by Psychopharmacological Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Belova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the impact of oxidative stress intensity on hemorheological parameters in acute poisonings by psychopharmacological agents. Subjects and methods. The blood values of lipid peroxidation (LPO and the antioxidant system (AOS, and hemorheological parameters were determined in 196 patients with acute poisoning by psychopharmacological agents. Results. Mild poisoning was accompanied by a moderate rise in peroxidation processes, by compensated antioxidant activity, and by a decrease in hemorheological parameters. In moderate poisoning, and severe one in particular, there was an increase in the LPO/AOS imbalance attended by increases in the viscosity characteristics of blood and plasma and in the aggregation activity of platelets and red blood cells. Conclusion. As the intensity of oxidative stress increases, there are more severe impairments in blood viscosity and aggregation properties, the leading mechanism of which is damage to blood cells due to higher stiffness of their membranes and to plasma release of large-disperse molecules under the action of an excess of LPO products. Key words: oxidative stress, acute poisonings, hemorheology.

  8. Antioxidant defense and oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic-Dragonjic, Lidija; Jovanovic, Maja; Vrbic, Miodrag; Konstantinovic, Ljiljana; Kostic, Velimir; Dragonjic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    Published data on oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A are still very scarce. This study aims to evaluate the oxidant/antioxidant status of these patients. Prospective, case-control study, over 2.5 years in patients under hospitalized and ambulatory care. The levels of a whole-blood antioxidant, reduced glutathione; and plasma antioxidants, β-carotene, retinol, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol; and the biomarker of oxidative stress, malondialdehyde, were evaluated in 50 pediatric patients (age range, 5-16 years; 29 males and 21 females) with acute hepatitis A and in 50 healthy children as control subjects (age range, 5-16 years; 25 males and 25 females). Plasma levels of reduced glutathione, β-carotene, retinol, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid were significantly lower, while malondialdehyde plasma levels were significantly increased in the patient group when compared to the controls (Ppediatric patients with acute hepatitis A were influenced by oxidative stress, resulting in significantly lower levels of plasma antioxidants and increased lipid peroxidation. In the absence of other therapeutic options, antioxidant vitamin supplements could be added to the therapy for these patients to help reestablish the oxidant status balance. Further investigations to confirm this suggestion are recommended.

  9. Association between Peripheral Oxidative Stress and White Matter Damage in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress is believed to be one of the mechanisms involved in the neuronal damage after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the disease severity correlation between oxidative stress biomarker level and deep brain microstructural changes in acute TBI remains unknown. In present study, twenty-four patients with acute TBI and 24 healthy volunteers underwent DTI. The peripheral blood oxidative biomarkers, like serum thiol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS concentrations, were also obtained. The DTI metrics of the deep brain regions, as well as the fractional anisotropy (FA and apparent diffusion coefficient, were measured and correlated with disease severity, serum thiol, and TBARS levels. We found that patients with TBI displayed lower FAs in deep brain regions with abundant WMs and further correlated with increased serum TBARS level. Our study has shown a level of anatomic detail to the relationship between white matter (WM damage and increased systemic oxidative stress in TBI which suggests common inflammatory processes that covary in both the peripheral and central reactions after TBI.

  10. The Effect of Supportive Counseling on the Symptoms of Acute Stress Disorder Following Emergency Cesarean Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Mojrian

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Adverse childbirth experiences can lead to the emergence of mental disorders, such as acute stress disorder (ASD, in mothers in the postpartum period. Birth trauma can occur following aggressive procedures such as emergency cesarean section. This study aimed to determine the effect of supportive counseling intervention on the symptoms of ASD in women after emergency cesarean delivery. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 126 women with traumatic emergency cesarean section at Payambar-E Azam and Afzalipoor hospitals in Kerman, Iran. The participants were selected based on DSM-IV criteria. The subjects were randomly divided into the intervention and control groups. The intervention group received individual and face-to-face supportive counseling. The data collection tool was the Acute Stress Disorder Questionnaire, which was completed one and three weeks post-intervention. The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics by SPSS, version 13. Results: The two groups were comparable in terms of demographic characteristics, pregnancy complications, and midwifery history. Also, there was no significant difference between two groups regarding the depression and anxiety mean scores at the pre-intervention stage. The results revealed a statistically significant difference between the control and intervention groups in terms of all acute stress disorder symptoms after one and three weeks of the intervention (P

  11. Transcriptional analysis of bla NDM-1 and copy number alteration under carbapenem stress

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    Deepjyoti Paul

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New Delhi metallo beta-lactamase is known to compromise carbapenem therapy and leading to treatment failure. However, their response to carbapenem stress is not clearly known. Here, we have investigated the transcriptional response of bla NDM-1 and plasmid copy number alteration under carbapenem exposure. Methods Three bla NDM-1 harboring plasmids representing three incompatibility types (IncFIC, IncA/C and IncK were inoculated in LB broth with and without imipenem, meropenem and ertapenem. After each 1 h total RNA was isolated, immediately reverse transcribed into cDNA and quantitative real time PCR was used for transcriptional expression of bla NDM-1. Horizontal transferability and stability of the plasmids encoding bla NDM-1 were also determined. Changes in copy number of bla NDM-1 harboring plasmids under the exposure of different carbapenems were determined by real time PCR. Clonal relatedness among the isolates was determined by pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Results Under carbapenem stress over an interval of time there was a sharp variation in the transcriptional expression of bla NDM-1 although it did not follow a specific pattern. All bla NDM-1 carrying plasmids were transferable by conjugation. These plasmids were highly stable and complete loss was observed between 92nd to 96th serial passages when antibiotic pressure was withdrawn. High copy number of bla NDM-1 was found for IncF type plasmids compared to the other replicon types. Conclusion This study suggests that the single dose of carbapenem pressure does not significantly influence the expression of bla NDM-1 and also focus on the stability of this gene as well as the change in copy number with respect to the incompatible type of plasmid harboring resistance determinant.

  12. Acute stress impairs recall after interference in older people, but not in young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2014-03-01

    Stress has been associated with negative changes observed during the aging process. However, very little research has been carried out on the role of age in acute stress effects on memory. We aimed to explore the role of age and sex in the relationship between hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) and sympathetic nervous system (SNS) reactivity to psychosocial stress and short-term declarative memory performance. To do so, sixty-seven participants divided into two age groups (each group with a similar number of men and women) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and a control condition in a crossover design. Memory performance was assessed by the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). As expected, worse memory performance was associated with age; but more interestingly, the stressor impaired recall after interference only in the older group. In addition, this effect was negatively correlated with the alpha-amylase over cortisol ratio, which has recently been suggested as a good marker of stress system dysregulation. However, we failed to find sex differences in memory performance. These results show that age moderates stress-induced effects on declarative memory, and they point out the importance of studying both of the physiological systems involved in the stress response together. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Magnetic resonance signal alterations in the acute onset of heterotopic ossification in patients with spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, L.; Berger, M.; Knecht, H. [Schweizerisches Paraplegikerzentrum, Radiologie, Nottwil (Switzerland); Gluecker, T.; Ledermann, H.P. [University of Basel, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) signal characteristics of acutely forming heterotopic ossification (HO) in paralyzed patients. Fourteen patients with spinal cord injury (female n=2, male n=12, mean age 38.3 years) and acute onset of radiographically proven HO had contrast-enhanced 1.5-T MRI within 13.4{+-}18.3 days of clinical onset of symptoms. MR signal alterations of affected muscles, fascia, subcutaneous tissue, skin and adjacent bone were evaluated. A diffuse T2-hyperintense signal of multiple muscle groups was seen in all patients (bilateral in 12) involving quadriceps (n=13, 93%), adductors (n=13, 93%) and iliopsoas (n=12, 86%) with contrast enhancement in n=11 (79%), n=8 (57%) and n=8 (57%) patients. All patients had nonenhancing areas (mean size 2 x 3.5 x 5.8 cm) within diffusely enhancing muscles. HO formation occurred around these nonenhancing areas in four patients with computed tomography follow-up. Other MR findings included fascial edema (n=14, 100%), fascial enhancement (n=13, 93%), subcutaneous edema (n=13, 93%), subcutaneous enhancement (n=12, 86%), bone marrow edema (n=5, 36%), and joint effusion (n=12, 86%). MRI reveals mostly bilateral edema and enhancement of muscles, fascia and subcutaneous tissue during acute onset of HO. HO develops in the periphery of well-defined areas of no enhancement. (orig.)

  14. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSänger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For the selection of relevant information out of a continuous stream of information, which is a common definition of attention, two core mechanisms are assumed: a competition-based comparison of the neuronal activity in sensory areas and the top-down modulation of this competition by frontal executive control functions. Those control functions are thought to bias the processing of information towards the intended goals. Acute stress is thought to impair these frontal functions through the release of cortisol.In the present study, subjects had to detect a luminance change of a stimulus and ignore more salient but task irrelevant orientation changes. Before the execution of this task, subjects underwent a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT or a non-stressful control situation. The SECPT revealed reliable stress response with a significant increase of cortisol and alpha-amylase. Stressed subjects showed higher error rates than controls, particularly in conditions which require top-down control processing to bias the less salient target feature against the more salient and spatially separated distracter.By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection.

  15. Relationship of alkaline stress and acute copper toxicity in the snail Goniobasis livescens (Menke)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulson, P.C. (Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor); Pratt, J.R.; Cairns J. Jr.

    1983-12-01

    Organism response to toxic compounds is routinely tested in highly controlled laboratory tests conducted under rigorous standards. Toxicants are rarely present in nature in singular doses, and stresses on particular organisms may come from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. A number of studies have shown alteration of responses to toxicants as a result of multiple assaults or prior stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior sublethal stress (in this case, alkaline pH) on the subsequent toxicity of copper. The initial hypothesis was that elevated pH stress would increase susceptibility of test organisms to copper toxicity. Although pH excursions into acid ranges have normally attracted attention, industrial process waters commonly range to pH 11.7. Excursions to pH above 7 may also increase the relative toxicity of other compounds.

  16. Associations of acute stress and overnight heart rate with feed efficiency in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, J C; Schenkel, F S; Physick-Sheard, P W; Fontoura, A B P; Miller, S P; Tennessen, T; Montanholi, Y R

    2017-03-01

    Proxies have the potential to accelerate feed efficiency (residual feed intake (RFI); kg dry matter/day) improvement, assisting with the reduction of beef cattle feed costs and environmental impact. Heart rate (HR) (beats per minute (BPM)) is associated with feed efficiency and influenced by autonomic activity and peripheral metabolism, suggesting HR could be used as a proxy for feed efficiency. Objectives were to assess associations between overnight HR, lying patterns and RFI, and between acute stress HR and RFI. Heifer calves (n=107; 408±28 days of age, 341±42.2 kg) and yearling heifers (n=36; 604±92 days of age, 539±52.2 kg) were exposed to a performance test to determine productive performance. Overnight HR (electrode based) and lying patterns (accelerometer based) were monitored on a subgroup of heifer calves (n=40; 20 lowest RFI; 20 highest RFI). In the 10-min acute stress assessment, all heifers were individually exposed to the opening and closing of an umbrella and HR before (HRBEF), in response to (HRMAX), after (HRAFT) and change (HRCHG; HRAFT-HRBEF) as a result of exposure were determined. Using polynomial regression, rate of HR decrease pre-exposure (β 1) and rates of HR increase (β 2) and decrease (β 3, β 4) post-exposure were determined. Heifer calves in the overnight assessment were classified into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and HR means were treated as repeated measures and compared using multiple regression. In the acute stress assessment, heifers were classified within cattle category into equal RFI groups (low RFI; high RFI) and means and polynomial regression parameters were compared using multiple regression. Low-RFI heifer calves had a lower overnight HR (69.2 v. 72.6 BPM), similar HR change from lying to standing intervals (8.9 v. 9.2 BPM) and similar time lying (61.1% v. 64.5%) compared with high-RFI heifer calves. Low-RFI heifer calves had a higher absolute HRMAX (162.9 v. 145.7 BPM) and β 2 (-0.34 v. -0.20) than high

  17. Effect of pentobarbital and isoflurane on acute stress response in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xue-Yan; Hu, Yu-Ting; Guo, Lei; Lu, Jing; Zhu, Qiong-Bin; Yu, Er; Wu, Juan-Li; Shi, Li-Gen; Huang, Man-Li; Bao, Ai-Min

    2015-06-01

    Anesthesia administration before sacrificing animals is a common practice in stress-related studies, but the effect of anesthesia on the results remains understudied. We aimed to reveal the interference of different anesthetics, i.e. intraperitoneal (i.p.) sodium-pentobarbital injection or isoflurane inhalation, with the acute stress responses in rats. Rats were randomly divided into foot shock (FS) and non-stressed control groups, and further grouped according to the sacrificing procedure: direct decapitation, decapitation after i.p. sodium-pentobarbital injection, or isoflurane inhalation. There was also a non-stressed group sacrificed by decapitation following i.p. saline injection. Plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT), testosterone and estradiol, hypothalamic stress-related molecule mRNA expression of corticotropin-releasing hormone, arginine vasopressin and oxytocin, and frontal lobe stress-related molecule mRNA expression of NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, GABAA receptor and the neuronal-type nicotinic acetylcholine receptor were measured. FS significantly increased plasma CORT levels in direct decapitation and isoflurane groups, while this stress response 'disappeared' following i.p. sodium-pentobarbital injection. In control animals, both the injection of saline and pentobarbital caused a significant increase of plasma CORT. Neither the sex hormone levels nor the mRNA expression of stress-related molecules in the brain showed significant differences among the groups. The injection of the anesthetic compound rather than the compound itself may cause extra stress which interferes with the plasma CORT levels, but not with plasma sex hormone levels nor with the brain mRNA expression. Isoflurane inhalation leaves the stress response intact and is also optimal from an ethical point of view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Uccello, R., & Lachenmeyer, J. (1998, November). Behavioral treatment of body dysmorphic disorder . Poster presented at the annual meeting of the...TITLE: Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or Post-Traumatic...Stress Disorder PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marjan G. Holloway, Ph.D

  19. Persistent Effects of Acute Stress on Fear and Drug-Seeking in a Novel Model of the Comorbidity between Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzimenti, Christie L.; Navis, Tom M.; Lattal, K. Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Even following long periods of abstinence, individuals with anxiety disorders have high rates of relapse to drugs of abuse. Although many current models of relapse demonstrate effects of acute stress on drug-seeking, most of these studies examine stressful experiences that occur in close temporal and physical proximity to the reinstatement test.…

  20. Facultative grazing and bioturbation by macrodetritivores alter saltmarsh plant-plant interactions under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howison, Ruth A.; Olff, Han; van Puijenbroek, Marinka E. B.; Smit, Christian

    The importance of positive plant-plant interactions is generally suggested to increase towards more stressful conditions, due to mutual stress amelioration between plants. Bioturbating macrodetritivores can also ameliorate stress through bioturbation, but can also become selective herbivores under

  1. Facultative grazing and bioturbation by macrodetritivores alter saltmarsh plant–plant interactions under stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howison, Ruth A.; Olff, H.; Puijenbroek, van M.E.B.; Smit, Christian

    2016-01-01

    1.The importance of positive plant–plant interactions is generally suggested to increase towards more stressful conditions, due to mutual stress amelioration between plants. Bioturbating macrodetritivores can also ameliorate stress through bioturbation, but can also become selective herbivores under

  2. Alterations in brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the mouse hippocampus following acute but not repeated benzodiazepine treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie C Licata

    Full Text Available Benzodiazepines (BZs are safe drugs for treating anxiety, sleep, and seizure disorders, but their use also results in unwanted effects including memory impairment, abuse, and dependence. The present study aimed to reveal the molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the effects of BZs in the hippocampus (HIP, an area involved in drug-related plasticity, by investigating the regulation of immediate early genes following BZ administration. Previous studies have demonstrated that both brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and c-Fos contribute to memory- and abuse-related processes that occur within the HIP, and their expression is altered in response to BZ exposure. In the current study, mice received acute or repeated administration of BZs and HIP tissue was analyzed for alterations in BDNF and c-Fos expression. Although no significant changes in BDNF or c-Fos were observed in response to twice-daily intraperitoneal (i.p. injections of diazepam (10 mg/kg + 5 mg/kg or zolpidem (ZP; 2.5 mg/kg + 2.5 mg/kg, acute i.p. administration of both triazolam (0.03 mg/kg and ZP (1.0 mg/kg decreased BDNF protein levels within the HIP relative to vehicle, without any effect on c-Fos. ZP specifically reduced exon IV-containing BDNF transcripts with a concomitant increase in the association of methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2 with BDNF promoter IV, suggesting that MeCP2 activity at this promoter may represent a ZP-specific mechanism for reducing BDNF expression. ZP also increased the association of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein (pCREB with BDNF promoter I. Future work should examine the interaction between ZP and DNA as the cause for altered gene expression in the HIP, given that BZs can enter the nucleus and intercalate into DNA directly.

  3. Testosterone and acute stress are associated with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in African men: the SABPA study

    OpenAIRE

    Malan, Nicolaas T.; Schutte, Alta E.; Huisman, Hugo W.; Schutte, Rudolph; Smith, Wayne; Mels, Carina M.; Kruger, Ruan; Meiring, Muriel; Van Rooyen, Johannes M.; Malan, Leoné

    2013-01-01

    Background: Low testosterone, acute and chronic stress and hypercoagulation are all associated with hypertension and hypertension-related diseases. The interaction between these factors and future risk for coronary artery disease in Africans has not been fully elucidated. In this study, associations of testosterone, acute cardiovascular and coagulation stress responses with fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor in African and Caucasian men in a South African cohort were investigate...

  4. Influence of chitosan and melanin-glucan complex onto gamma-exposure with low doses and acute stressful reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senyuk, O.F.; Tarasenko, P.D.; Pazukhin, Eh.M.; Gorovoj, L.F.; Varlamov, V.P.

    2004-01-01

    Possibilities of prevention and reduction of consequences of acute exposure on the background of immobilization stress with the help of chitosan preparations and of melanin - glucan complex of highest bazidiomicetes (fungi) were studied. Tested preparations were capable to protect hematological and immunological homeostasis of line BALB/c mice from stressful reaction provoked by acute exposure and two-hour immobilization. The most expressed normalizing and adapting effect had the mixture composed of chitosan and melanin-glucan complex

  5. Diallyl tetrasulfide improves cadmium induced alterations of acetylcholinesterase, ATPases and oxidative stress in brain of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pari, Leelavinothan; Murugavel, Ponnusamy

    2007-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a neurotoxic metal, which induces oxidative stress and membrane disturbances in nerve system. The garlic compound diallyl tetrasulfide (DTS) has the cytoprotective and antioxidant activity against Cd induced toxicity. The present study was carried out to investigate the efficacy of DTS in protecting the Cd induced changes in the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), membrane bound enzymes, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status in the brain of rats. In rats exposed to Cd (3 mg/kg/day subcutaneously) for 3 weeks, a significant (P + K + -ATPase, Mg 2+ -ATPase and Ca 2+ -ATPase) were observed in brain tissue. Oral administration of DTS (40 mg/kg/day) with Cd significantly (P < 0.05) diminished the levels of LPO and protein carbonyls and significantly (P < 0.05) increased the activities of ATPases, antioxidant enzymes, GSH and TSH in brain. These results indicate that DTS attenuate the LPO and alteration of antioxidant and membrane bound enzymes in Cd exposed rats, which suggest that DTS protects the brain function from toxic effects of Cd

  6. Alteration of methotrexate binding to human serum albumin induced by oxidative stress. Spectroscopic comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M; Sułkowska, A; Równicka-Zubik, J

    2016-01-05

    Changes of oxidative modified albumin conformation by comparison of non-modified (HSA) and modified (oHSA) human serum albumin absorption spectra, Red Edge Excitation Shift (REES) effect and fluorescence synchronous spectra were investigated. Studies of absorption spectra indicated that changes in the value of absorbance associated with spectral changes in the region from 200 to 250nm involve structural alterations related to variations in peptide backbone conformation. Analysis of the REES effect allowed for the observation of changes caused by oxidation in the region of the hydrophobic pocket containing the tryptophanyl residue. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed changes of the position of the tryptophanyl and tyrosil residues fluorescent band. Effect of oxidative stress on binding of methotrexate (MTX) was investigated by spectrofluorescence, UV-VIS and (1)HNMR spectroscopy. MTX caused the fluorescence quenching of non-modified (HSA) and modified (oHSA) human serum albumin molecule. The values of binding constants, Hill's coefficients and a number of binding sites in the protein molecule in the high affinity binding site were calculated for the binary MTX-HSA and MTX-oHSA systems. For these systems, qualitative analysis in the low affinity binding sites was performed with the use of the (1)HNMR technique. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Assay of alterations in oxidative stress markers in pigs naturally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei var. suis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimri, Umesh; Bandyopadhyay, S; Singh, Shanker Kumar; Ranjan, Rakesh; Mukherjee, R; Yatoo, M I; Patra, P H; De, U K; Dar, A A

    2014-09-15

    The present study aimed to examine the status of antioxidant systems of the pigs naturally suffering from sarcoptic mange. Fifty nine pigs were divided into three groups, healthy control (group I, n=15), subclinical sarcoptic mange (group II, n=22) and clinical sarcoptic mange (group III, n=22). To assess the status of antioxidant systems; lipid peroxides (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), ascorbic acid, zinc and copper concentrations in the blood samples as well as LPO, SOD, CAT and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) activities in the skin were measured. The GSH, SOD, GPx, ascorbic acid, zinc, copper concentrations in blood were significantly lower in the pigs suffering from clinical and subclinical sarcoptic mange, when compared with the healthy control. However, LPO content of these infested pigs was significantly higher. The CAT, SOD and GST activities in the skin of the diseased pigs were significantly lower, whereas LPO was significantly higher as compared to the healthy control. From the present study, it may be concluded that sarcoptic mange bestows remarkable alterations in the oxidative stress markers and imposes compromisation of the antioxidant status of the infested pigs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Routine exercise alters measures of immunity and the acute phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, P L; West, N P; Pyne, D B; Koerbin, G; Lehtinen, S J; Fricker, P A; Cripps, A W

    2015-02-01

    To expand our understanding of the overall anti-inflammatory nature of routine exercise; we compared resting blood values from adults who habitually undertake frequent, moderate levels of exercise to reference interval values assumed to reflect values largely from non-exercisers. This information would be useful for clinicians interpreting blood tests assessing inflammatory, immune and acute phase responses. Blood samples were collected from 119 community adult self-reported routine exercisers (61 males and 58 females aged 18-60 years). Samples were analysed for 20 cellular and non-cellular biomarkers which included 11 immunological and 9 acute phase reactants. These data were compared to reference intervals from the same hospital laboratory that performed the analyses on our participants' samples. Individual analyte values were also compared with participants' self-reported 150 day exercise patterns which included exercise frequency, intensity and duration. In general, mean values for routine exercise participants fell at the lower end of laboratory reference interval for most inflammatory analytes. More than 10 % of participants had numbers of CD19(+), CD8(+) and 16/56(+) NK cells below the low end of the respective reference interval. More than 10 % of observed acute phase reactant values (for C3, haptoglobin and ferritin) were also below the low end of the reference interval. At rest IgM (r = -0.22) and IgG (r = -0.31) values correlated negatively (p acute phase reactants. These wide-ranging systemic effects are presumably adaptive changes, not pathology and collectively confirm the well-reported and clinically important anti-inflammatory effects of exercise.

  9. The revised Atlanta criteria 2012 altered the classification, severity assessment and management of acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Qu, Hong-Ping; Zheng, Yun-Feng; Song, Xu-Wei; Li, Lei; Xu, Zhi-Wei; Mao, En-Qiang; Chen, Er-Zhen

    2016-06-01

    The Atlanta criteria for acute pancreatitis (AP) has been revised recently. This study was to evaluate its practical value in classification of AP, the severity assessment and management. The clinical features, severity classification, outcome and risk factors for mortality of 3212 AP patients who had been admitted in Ruijin Hospital from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed based on the revised Atlanta criteria (RAC) and the original Atlanta criteria (OAC). Compared to the OAC group, the incidence of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) was decreased by approximately one half (13.9% vs 28.2%) in the RAC group. The RAC presented a lower sensitivity but higher specificity, and its predictive value for severity and poor outcome was higher than those of the OAC. The proportion of SAP diagnosis and ICU admission in the early phase in the RAC group was significantly lower than that in the OAC group (Pacute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis. Compared to the OAC, the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score, Ranson score, idiopathic etiology, respiratory failure and laparotomy debridement were not risk factors of death in contrast to walled-off necrosis. Interestingly, hypertriglyceridemia-related SAP had good outcomes in both groups. The RAC showed a higher predictive value for severity and poorer outcome than the OAC. However, the RAC resulted in fewer ICU admissions in the early phase due to its lower sensitivity for diagnosis of SAP. Among SAP cases, older age, high CTSI, renal and cardiovascular failure, complications of acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis were independent risk factors for mortality.

  10. Acute stress-induced cortisol elevations mediate reward system activity during subconscious processing of sexual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oei, Nicole Y L; Both, Stephanie; van Heemst, Diana; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2014-01-01

    Stress is thought to alter motivational processes by increasing dopamine (DA) secretion in the brain's "reward system", and its key region, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). However, stress studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), mainly found evidence for stress-induced decreases in NAcc responsiveness toward reward cues. Results from both animal and human PET studies indicate that the stress hormone cortisol may be crucial in the interaction between stress and dopaminergic actions. In the present study we therefore investigated whether cortisol mediated the effect of stress on DA-related responses to -subliminal-presentation of reward cues using the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), which is known to reliably enhance cortisol levels. Young healthy males (n = 37) were randomly assigned to the TSST or control condition. After stress induction, brain activation was assessed using fMRI during a backward-masking paradigm in which potentially rewarding (sexual), emotionally negative and neutral stimuli were presented subliminally, masked by pictures of inanimate objects. A region of interest analysis showed that stress decreased activation in the NAcc in response to masked sexual cues (voxel-corrected, pcortisol levels were related to stronger NAcc activation, showing that cortisol acted as a suppressor variable in the negative relation between stress and NAcc activation. The present findings indicate that cortisol is crucially involved in the relation between stress and the responsiveness of the reward system. Although generally stress decreases activation in the NAcc in response to rewarding stimuli, high stress-induced cortisol levels suppress this relation, and are associated with stronger NAcc activation. Individuals with a high cortisol response to stress might on one hand be protected against reductions in reward sensitivity, which has been linked to anhedonia and depression, but they may ultimately be more vulnerable to increased reward

  11. Biomarkers for oxidative stress in acute lung injury induced in rabbits submitted to different strategies of mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative damage has been said to play an important role in pulmonary injury, which is associated with the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to identify biomarkers to determine the oxidative stress in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) using ...

  12. Acute nicotine alteration of sensory memory impairment in smokers with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulude, Louise; Labelle, Alain; Knott, Verner J

    2010-10-01

    Patients with schizophrenia have a high rate of cigarette smoking and also exhibit profound deficits in sensory processing, which may in part be ameliorated by the acute actions of smoke-inhaled nicotine. The mismatch negativity (MMN), a preattentive event-related potential index of auditory sensory memory, is diminished in schizophrenia. The MMN is increased in healthy controls with acute nicotine. To utilize the MMN to compare auditory sensory memory in minimally tobacco-deprived (3 hours) patients and matched tobacco-deprived smoking controls and to assess the effects of acute nicotine on MMN-indexed sensory memory processing in the patients. Event-related potentials were recorded in 2 auditory oddball paradigms, one involving tone frequency changes (frequency MMN) and one involving tone duration changes (duration MMN). Controls were assessed once under nontreatment conditions, and patients were assessed twice under randomized double-blind treatment conditions involving placebo and nicotine (8 mg) gum. Outpatient mental health center. Twelve smokers with schizophrenia and twelve control smokers. Compared with the controls, the patients showed reduced frequency-MMN (P sensory memory processing in patients with schizophrenia, an effect that may be mediated by activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the function of which is diminished in schizophrenia. These ameliorating actions of nicotine may have implications for understanding the close relationship between tobacco smoking and schizophrenia and for developing nicotinic pharmacotherapies to alleviate sensory memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  13. Progranulin Protects Hippocampal Neurogenesis via Suppression of Neuroinflammatory Responses Under Acute Immune Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanbo; Matsuwaki, Takashi; Yamanouchi, Keitaro; Nishihara, Masugi

    2017-07-01

    Immune stress is well known to suppress adult neurogenesis in the hippocampus. We have demonstrated that progranulin (PGRN) has a mitogenic effect on neurogenesis under several experimental conditions. We have also shown that PGRN suppresses excessive neuroinflammatory responses after traumatic brain injury. However, the role of PGRN in modulating neurogenesis under acute immune stress is yet to be elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the involvement of PGRN in neurogenesis and inflammatory responses in the hippocampus using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immune stress model. Treatment of mice with LPS significantly increased the expression of PGRN in activated microglia and decreased neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. PGRN deficiency increased CD68-immunoreactive area and exacerbated suppression of neurogenesis following LPS treatment. The expression levels of lysosomal genes including lysozyme M, macrophage expressed gene 1, and cathepsin Z were higher in PGRN-deficient than in wild-type mice, while PGRN deficiency decreased mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) mRNA levels, suggesting that PGRN suppresses excessive lysosomal biogenesis by promoting mTOR signaling. LPS treatment also increased the expression of proinflammatory genes such as interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1) in the hippocampus, and PGRN deficiency further enhanced gene expression of IL-6 and mPGES-1. These results suggest that PGRN plays a protecting role in hippocampal neurogenesis at least partially by attenuating neuroinflammatory responses during LPS-induced acute immune stress.

  14. Incorporating tissue anisotropy and heterogeneity in finite element models of trabecular bone altered predicted local stress distributions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Max A; Wallace, Joseph M; Allen, Matthew R; Siegmund, Thomas

    2018-04-01

    Trabecular bone is composed of organized mineralized collagen fibrils, which results in heterogeneous and anisotropic mechanical properties at the tissue level. Recently, biomechanical models computing stresses and strains in trabecular bone have indicated a significant effect of tissue heterogeneity on predicted stresses and strains. However, the effect of the tissue-level mechanical anisotropy on the trabecular bone biomechanical response is unknown. Here, a computational method was established to automatically impose physiologically relevant orientation inherent in trabecular bone tissue on a trabecular bone microscale finite element model. Spatially varying tissue-level anisotropic elastic properties were then applied according to the bone mineral density and the local tissue orientation. The model was used to test the hypothesis that anisotropy in both homogeneous and heterogeneous models alters the predicted distribution of stress invariants. Linear elastic finite element computations were performed on a 3 mm cube model isolated from a microcomputed tomography scan of human trabecular bone from the distal femur. Hydrostatic stress and von Mises equivalent stress were recorded at every element, and the distributions of these values were analyzed. Anisotropy reduced the range of hydrostatic stress in both tension and compression more strongly than the associated increase in von Mises equivalent stress. The effect of anisotropy was independent of the spatial redistribution high compressive stresses due to tissue elastic heterogeneity. Tissue anisotropy and heterogeneity are likely important mechanisms to protect bone from failure and should be included for stress analyses in trabecular bone.

  15. In-Person Communication Between Radiologists and Acute Care Surgeons Leads to Significant Alterations in Surgical Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Elliot C; Alam, Hasan B; Brown, Richard K J; Stojanovska, Jadranka; Davenport, Matthew S

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if direct in-person communication between an acute care surgical team and radiologists alters surgical decision making. Informed consent was waived for this institutional review board-exempt, HIPAA-compliant, prospective quality improvement study. From January 29, 2015 to December 10, 2015, semiweekly rounds lasting approximately 60 min were held between the on-call acute care surgery team (attending surgeon, chief resident, and residents) and one of three expert abdominal radiologists. A comprehensive imaging review was performed of recent and comparison examinations for cases selected by the surgeons in which medical and/or surgical decision making was pending. All reviewed examinations had available finalized reports known to the surgical team. RADPEER interradiologist concordance scores were assigned to all reviewed examinations. The impression and plan of the attending surgeon were recorded before and after each in-person review. One hundred patients were reviewed with 11 attending surgeons. The in-person meetings led to changes in surgeons' diagnostic impressions in 43% (43 of 100) and changes in medical and/or surgical planning in 43% (43 of 100; 20 acute changes, 23 nonacute changes, 19 changes in operative management) of cases. There were major discrepancies (RADPEER score ≥3) between the impression of the reviewing radiologist and the written report in 11% of cases (11 of 100). Targeted in-person collaboration between radiologists and acute care surgeons is associated with substantial and frequent changes in patient management, even when the original written report contains all necessary data. The primary mechanism seems to be promotion of a shared mental model that facilitates the exchange of complex information. Copyright © 2016 American College of Radiology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Partial regulatory T cell depletion prior to acute feline immunodeficiency virus infection does not alter disease pathogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Rochelle Mikkelsen

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV infection in cats follows a disease course similar to HIV-1, including a short acute phase characterized by high viremia, and a prolonged asymptomatic phase characterized by low viremia and generalized immune dysfunction. CD4(+CD25(hiFoxP3(+ immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg cells have been implicated as a possible cause of immune dysfunction during FIV and HIV-1 infection, as they are capable of modulating virus-specific and inflammatory immune responses. Additionally, the immunosuppressive capacity of feline Treg cells has been shown to be increased during FIV infection. We have previously shown that transient in vivo Treg cell depletion during asymptomatic FIV infection reveals FIV-specific immune responses suppressed by Treg cells. In this study, we sought to determine the immunological influence of Treg cells during acute FIV infection. We asked whether Treg cell depletion prior to infection with the highly pathogenic molecular clone FIV-C36 in cats could alter FIV pathogenesis. We report here that partial Treg cell depletion prior to FIV infection does not significantly change provirus, viremia, or CD4(+ T cell levels in blood and lymphoid tissues during the acute phase of disease. The effects of anti-CD25 mAb treatment are truncated in cats acutely infected with FIV-C36 as compared to chronically infected cats or FIV-naïve cats, as Treg cell levels were heightened in all treatment groups included in the study within two weeks post-FIV infection. Our findings suggest that the influence of Treg cell suppression during FIV pathogenesis is most prominent after Treg cells are activated in the environment of established FIV infection.

  17. Partial regulatory T cell depletion prior to acute feline immunodeficiency virus infection does not alter disease pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, S Rochelle; Long, Julie M; Zhang, Lin; Galemore, Erin R; VandeWoude, Sue; Dean, Gregg A

    2011-02-25

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection in cats follows a disease course similar to HIV-1, including a short acute phase characterized by high viremia, and a prolonged asymptomatic phase characterized by low viremia and generalized immune dysfunction. CD4(+)CD25(hi)FoxP3(+) immunosuppressive regulatory T (Treg) cells have been implicated as a possible cause of immune dysfunction during FIV and HIV-1 infection, as they are capable of modulating virus-specific and inflammatory immune responses. Additionally, the immunosuppressive capacity of feline Treg cells has been shown to be increased during FIV infection. We have previously shown that transient in vivo Treg cell depletion during asymptomatic FIV infection reveals FIV-specific immune responses suppressed by Treg cells. In this study, we sought to determine the immunological influence of Treg cells during acute FIV infection. We asked whether Treg cell depletion prior to infection with the highly pathogenic molecular clone FIV-C36 in cats could alter FIV pathogenesis. We report here that partial Treg cell depletion prior to FIV infection does not significantly change provirus, viremia, or CD4(+) T cell levels in blood and lymphoid tissues during the acute phase of disease. The effects of anti-CD25 mAb treatment are truncated in cats acutely infected with FIV-C36 as compared to chronically infected cats or FIV-naïve cats, as Treg cell levels were heightened in all treatment groups included in the study within two weeks post-FIV infection. Our findings suggest that the influence of Treg cell suppression during FIV pathogenesis is most prominent after Treg cells are activated in the environment of established FIV infection.

  18. Alterations in core body temperature, locomotor activity, and corticosterone following acute and repeated social defeat of male NMRI mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeney, A J; Hogg, S; Marsden, C A

    Repeated social defeat of male NMRI mice, coupled with the stress of continuously living opposite a dominant animal, induces a citalopram-reversible increase in anxiety. The experiments reported in the present paper were performed in an attempt to further validate this paradigm by studying the effects of acute and repeated social defeat on corticosterone and the circadian rhythms of core body temperature and locomotor activity, measured by telemetry. Acute social defeat induced a large (controls: 37.14+/-0.29 degrees C; subordinates: 39.79+/-0.33 degrees C) increase in core body temperature and corticosterone (controls: 30.14+/-2.70 ng/ml; subordinates: 89.62+/-9.25 ng/ml). Repeated social defeat (24 defeats) induced a chronic elevation in core body temperature across 24-h (controls: 36.62+/-0.04 degrees C; subordinates: 37.11+/-0.16 degrees C) in subordinate animals and a very large increase in corticosterone (controls: 28.60+/-1.27 ng/ml; subordinates: 441.52+/-8.86 ng/ml). These results illustrate that the chronic social defeat procedure described in this paper induces a state of chronic stress in the subordinate animals. Further studies are warranted to ascertain if the chronic hyperthermia and increases in corticosterone observed in the subordinate animals could be attenuated by chronic antidepressant treatment, thus further extending the predictive validity of this model.

  19. Acute inescapable stress alleviates fear extinction recall deficits caused by serotonin transporter abolishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipper, Pieter; Henckens, Marloes J A G; Lopresto, Dora; Kozicz, Tamas; Homberg, Judith R

    2018-07-02

    Life stress increases risk for developing post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and more prominently so in short-allele carriers of the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR). Serotonin transporter knockout (5-HTT -/- ) rats show compromised extinction (recall) of conditioned fear, which might mediate the increased risk for PTSD and reduce the therapeutic efficacy of exposure therapy. Here, we assessed whether acute inescapable stress (IS) differentially affects fear extinction and extinction recall in 5-HTT -/- rats and wildtype controls. Surprisingly, IS experience improved fear extinction recall in 5-HTT -/- rats to the level of wildtype animals, while wildtypes were unaffected by this IS. Thus, whereas 5-HTT -/- rats evidently were more responsive to the stressor, the behavioral consequences presented themselves as adaptive. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Ventral tegmental area dopamine revisited: effects of acute and repeated stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holly, Elizabeth N.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2015-01-01

    Aversive events rapidly and potently excite certain dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), promoting phasic increases in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. This is in apparent contradiction to a wealth of literature demonstrating that most VTA dopamine neurons are strongly activated by reward and reward-predictive cues while inhibited by aversive stimuli. How can these divergent processes both be mediated by VTA dopamine neurons? The answer may lie within the functional and anatomical heterogeneity of the VTA. We focus on VTA heterogeneity in anatomy, neurochemistry, electrophysiology, and afferent/efferent connectivity. Second, recent evidence for a critical role of VTA dopamine neurons in response to both acute and repeated stress will be discussed. Understanding which dopamine neurons are activated by stress, the neural mechanisms driving the activation, and where these neurons project will provide valuable insight into how stress can promote psychiatric disorders associated with the dopamine system, such as addiction and depression. PMID:26676983

  1. Acute stress and depression 3 days after vaginal delivery--observational, comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imsiragić, Azijada Srkalović; Begić, Drazen; Martić-Biocina, Sanja

    2009-06-01

    During the first month postpartum, 85% of women experience some form of mood disorders. The most common are: postpartum blues, non-psychotic postpartum depression, puerperal psychosis. Delivery of a child can be traumatic for some women. Several authors have found that women could get symptoms of one form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after childbirth. However, etiology of established postpartum disorders is still unknown. The aim of this study is to detect symptoms of acute stress reaction and acute depressive state as a consequence of peripartal complications, as early as three days postpartum using Impact of Events Scale revised (IES-R) and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) questionnaires and to demonstrate their potential usage for the early detection of vulnerable mothers with greater risk to develop any of postpartum psychiatric disorder, including PTSD. For that purpose 103 subjects, without previous medical history of psychiatric illness, were included in the investigation. Long duration of delivery (> or = 12 h), very painful delivery, complication and illness of mother during and after delivery as a consequence of delivery, preterm delivery (before week 36) and/or illness of the child (as a consequence of delivery or congenital) are considered to be risk factors for acute stress reaction and acute depressive state after delivery. Sixty one out of 103 investigated mothers had one or more researched peripartal complications. A statistically significant difference has been found between the control (n=42) and the peripartal complications (n=61) groups in both the mean IES-R (4.67 +/- 5.43 and 13.50 +/- 14.12, respectively, p depressive state in the peripartal complications group there were no cases of these states in the control group. Based on our findings we conclude that using IES-R and EPDS questionnaires as early as three days after delivery could provide an early detection of previously healthy mothers with greater risk for

  2. Acute Ethanol Gavage Attenuates Hemorrhage/Resuscitation-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Relja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.. Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30±2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.. Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver.

  3. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  4. Response to Acute Psychophysical Stress and 24-Hour Glycemic Control in Healthy Older People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loretta DiPietro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the relation between stress reactivity and 24 h glycemic control in 17 inactive, healthy older people (≥60 years under both a novel psychophysical stress and a seated control condition. Plasma cortisol was measured over the course of the stress and recovery periods. Glycemic control was determined over the subsequent 3 h from an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT and over 24 h via continuous glucose monitoring (CGM. We observed significant (P<0.05 elevations in perceived stress, cardiovascular activity, and peak cortisol response at 30 min (10.6±3.1 versus 8.6±2.6 μg·dL−1, resp. during the stress compared with the control condition; however, 3 h OGTT glucose and insulin responses were similar between conditions. The CGM data suggested a 30–40 min postchallenge delay in peak glucose response and attenuated glucose clearance over the 6 h following the stress condition, but these alterations were not statistically significant. Healthy older people may demonstrate minimal disruption in metabolic resiliency following everyday psychological stress.

  5. Prenatal noise and restraint stress interact to alter exploratory behavior and balance in juvenile rats, and mixed stress reverses these effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badache, Soumeya; Bouslama, Slim; Brahmia, Oualid; Baïri, Abdel Madjid; Tahraoui, Abdel Krim; Ladjama, Ali

    2017-05-01

    We aimed to investigate in adolescent rats the individual and combined effects of prenatal noise and restraint stress on balance control, exploration, locomotion and anxiety behavior. Three groups of pregnant rats were exposed to daily repeated stress from day 11 to day 19 of pregnancy: 3 min noise (Noise Stress, NS); 10 min restraint (restraint stress, RS); or 3 min noise followed by 10 min restraint (mixed stress, MS). On postnatal days (PND) 44, 45 and 46, four groups of male rats (Control, NS, RS:, MS; 16 rats each), were tested as follows: (1) beam walking (BW), (2) open field (OF) and (3) elevated plus maze (EPM). Our results show that the NS group had significantly impaired balance control, locomotion and both horizontal and vertical exploration (p prenatal stressors exert non-additive effects on locomotion, exploration and balance control, but induce greater anxiety through additive effects. Terminal plasma ACTH concentration was increased by prenatal stress, especially noise, which group had the largest adrenal glands. Overall, contrary to expectation, combined prenatal stressors can interact to increase anxiety level, but diminish alteration of exploration, locomotion and impaired balance control, which were strongly induced by noise stress. Lay summary: Experience of stress in pregnancy can have negative effects on the offspring that are long-lasting. Here, we used laboratory rats to see whether repeated episodes of exposure to loud noise or preventing free movement, alone or together, during pregnancy had different effects on behaviors of the adolescent offspring. Using standard tests, we found the prenatal stresses caused the offspring to be anxious, and not to balance when moving around as well as normal offspring; the degree of impairment depended on the type of stress - loud noise exposure had the greatest effects, but if the stresses were combined the effects were not worse. The results point to the need to aim to avoid stress in pregnant

  6. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Severe brain injury poses a risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective was to assess the pattern and prevalence...... of pituitary hormone alterations three months after severe brain injury with relation to functional outcome at one year follow-up. DESIGN: Prospective study at a tertiary university referral centre. METHODS: A total of 163 patients admitted to neurorehabilitation after severe traumatic (N=111) or non......-traumatic (N=52) brain injury were included. Main outcome measures were endocrine alterations 3.3 months (median) after the brain injury and their relationship to functioning and ability of the patients at one year follow-up, as measured by Functional Independence Measure and Glasgow Outcome Scale...

  7. Effects of dietary nucleotides supplementation on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) performance and acute stress response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahmasebi-Kohyani, Ahmad; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Nematollahi, Amin; Mahmoudi, Nemat; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein

    2012-04-01

    This experiment was conducted to examine the effect of dietary nucleotides (NT) on fish performance and acute stress response on fingerling rainbow trout (23 g ± 0.01, mean weight ± SEM). Five experimental diets according to different levels of supplemented nucleotides (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15, and 0.2%) were assayed on experimental fish for 8 weeks. Growth, hematological parameters (hematocrit, hemoglobin, erythrocyte, lymphocyte, and neutrophil count), serum proteins (globulin, albumin), and plasma enzymatic activity (alkaline phosphatase, ALP; aspartate transaminase, AST; lactate dehydrogenase, LDH; alanine transaminase, ALT) were assayed. At the end of feeding trial, fish fed the control and 0.2% diets were subjected to handling and crowding stress. Modulatory effects of nucleotides on acute stress response (cortisol and glucose) and plasma electrolytes (Na(+), Cl(-), K(+), and Ca(2+)) were studied. The percentage of body weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of fish were better when the fish were fed 0.15-0.2% diets. Fish fed the nucleotide-supplemented diets tended to have lower levels of serum enzymes including ALP, AST, LDH, and ALT. Plasma cortisol levels of fish fed on 0.2% diet under handling and crowding stress were significantly lower than fish fed the control diet at all post-stress time intervals. In our study, fish fed nucleotide-supplemented diet had significantly lower concentrations of glucose compared to those fed the basal diet. The concentrations of sodium, chloride, calcium, and potassium of fish fed the control diet were significantly lower than in fish fed nucleotide-supplemented diet. Dietary nucleotides administration seems to promote growth and to enhance resistance against handling and crowding stress in fingerling rainbow trout.

  8. Acute hypoxia stress induced abundant differential expression genes and alternative splicing events in heart of tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Jun Hong; Li, Hong Lian; Li, Bi Jun; Gu, Xiao Hui; Lin, Hao Ran

    2018-01-10

    Hypoxia is one of the critical environmental stressors for fish in aquatic environments. Although accumulating evidences indicate that gene expression is regulated by hypoxia stress in fish, how genes undergoing differential gene expression and/or alternative splicing (AS) in response to hypoxia stress in heart are not well understood. Using RNA-seq, we surveyed and detected 289 differential expressed genes (DEG) and 103 genes that undergo differential usage of exons and splice junctions events (DUES) in heart of a hypoxia tolerant fish, Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus following 12h hypoxic treatment. The spatio-temporal expression analysis validated the significant association of differential exon usages in two randomly selected DUES genes (fam162a and ndrg2) in 5 tissues (heart, liver, brain, gill and spleen) sampled at three time points (6h, 12h, and 24h) under acute hypoxia treatment. Functional analysis significantly associated the differential expressed genes with the categories related to energy conservation, protein synthesis and immune response. Different enrichment categories were found between the DEG and DUES dataset. The Isomerase activity, Oxidoreductase activity, Glycolysis and Oxidative stress process were significantly enriched for the DEG gene dataset, but the Structural constituent of ribosome and Structural molecule activity, Ribosomal protein and RNA binding protein were significantly enriched only for the DUES genes. Our comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals abundant stress responsive genes and their differential regulation function in the heart tissues of Nile tilapia under acute hypoxia stress. Our findings will facilitate future investigation on transcriptome complexity and AS regulation during hypoxia stress in fish. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Social Context and Acute Stress on Decision Making Under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Raio, Candace M; Kubota, Jennifer T; Seiler, Morgan G; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty preferences are typically studied in neutral, nonsocial contexts. This approach, however, fails to capture the dynamic factors that influence choices under uncertainty in the real world. Our goal was twofold: to test whether uncertainty valuation is similar across social and nonsocial contexts, and to investigate the effects of acute stress on uncertainty preferences. Subjects completed matched gambling and trust games following either a control or a stress manipulation. Those who were not under stress exhibited no differences between the amount of money gambled and the amount of money entrusted to partners. In comparison, stressed subjects gambled more money but entrusted less money to partners. We further found that irrespective of stress, subjects were highly attuned to irrelevant feedback in the nonsocial, gambling context, believing that every loss led to a greater chance of winning (the gamblers' fallacy). However, when deciding to trust a stranger, control subjects behaved rationally, treating each new interaction as independent. Stress compromised this adaptive behavior, increasing sensitivity to irrelevant social feedback. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Individual variation in an acute stress response reflects divergent coping strategies in a large herbivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monestier, Chloé; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Morellet, Nicolas; Debeffe, Lucie; Cebe, Nicolas; Merlet, Joël; Picot, Denis; Rames, Jean-Luc; Hewison, A J Mark; Verheyden, Hélène

    2016-11-01

    Individuals differ in the manner that they cope with risk. When these behavioral differences are manifested in risky or challenging environments (i.e. stressful situations), they are generally interpreted within the "coping style" framework. As studying inter-individual variability in behavior is particularly challenging in the wild, we used a captive facility to explore consistency in the individual behavioral response to an acute stress in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Using behavioral and physiological parameters measured six times across a calendar year, we first quantified individual repeatability and, second, explored the correlations among these parameters that might indicate a coherent stress response. Finally, we analyzed the link between the stress response and individual body mass, a reliable indicator of phenotypic quality in roe deer. We found that the measured parameters were highly repeatable across seasons, indicating that the individual stress response is consistent over time. Furthermore, there was considerable covariation among the stress response parameters, describing a proactivity-reactivity gradient at the individual level. Finally, proactive individuals had higher body mass than reactive individuals. We suggest that consistent individual differences in energy metabolism and physiology may promote consistent individual differences in behavioral traits, providing a mechanistic link between food acquisition tactics and demographic performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V.