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Sample records for acute stress alters

  1. REPEATED ACUTE STRESS INDUCED ALTERATIONS IN CARBOHYDRATE METABOLISM IN RAT

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    Nirupama R.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress induced alterations in the activity levels of rate limiting enzymes and concentration of intermediates of different pathways of carbohydrate metabolism have been studied. Adult male Wistar rats were restrained (RS for 1 h and after an interval of 4 h they were subjected to forced swimming (FS exercise and appropriate controls were maintained. Five rats were killed before the commencement of the experiment (initial controls, 5 control and equal number of stressed rats were killed 2 h after RS and remaining 5 rats in each group were killed 4 h after FS. There was a significant increase in the adrenal 3β- hydroxy steroid dehydrogenase activity following RS, which showed further increase after FS compared to controls and thereby indicated stress response of rats. There was a significant increase in the blood glucose levels following RS which showed further increase and reached hyperglycemic condition after FS. The hyperglycemic condition due to stress was accompanied by significant increases in the activities of glutamate- pyruvate transaminase, glutamate- oxaloacetate transaminase, glucose -6- phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase and significant decrease in the glucose -6- phosphate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase activities, whereas pyruvate kinase activity did not show any alteration compared to controls. Further, the glycogen and total protein contents of the liver were decreased whereas those of pyruvate and lactate showed significant increase compared to controls after RS as well as FS.The results put together indicate that acute stress induced hyperglycemia results due to increased gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis without alteration in glycolysis. The study first time reveals that after first acute stress exposure, the subsequent stressful experience augments metabolic stress response leading to hyperglycemia. The results have relevance to human health as human beings are exposed to several stressors in a day and

  2. Artificial light at night alters delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in response to acute stress in Siberian hamsters.

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    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Aubrecht, Taryn G; Kaugars, Katherine E; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2013-11-01

    Several physiological and behavioral processes rely on precisely timed light information derived from the natural solar cycle. Using this information, traits have adapted to allow individuals within specific niches to optimize survival and reproduction, but urbanization by humans has significantly altered natural habitats. Nighttime light exposure alters immune function in several species, which could lead to decreased fitness or survival, particularly in the face of an environmental challenge. We exposed male Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) to five lux of light at night for four weeks, and then administered six hours of acute restraint stress. Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response was assessed immediately following stress. Acute restraint increased the DTH reaction in dark nights, but exposure to nighttime light prevented this response. Exposure to light at night prolonged the DTH response in non-stressed control hamsters. These results suggest that light pollution may significantly alter physiological responses in Siberian hamsters, particularly in response to a salient environmental challenge such as stress.

  3. Alterations in neuronal morphology in infralimbic cortex predict resistance to fear extinction following acute stress.

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    Moench, Kelly M; Maroun, Mouna; Kavushansky, Alexandra; Wellman, Cara

    2016-06-01

    Dysfunction in corticolimbic circuits that mediate the extinction of learned fear responses is thought to underlie the perseveration of fear in stress-related psychopathologies, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Chronic stress produces dendritic hypertrophy in basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dendritic hypotrophy in medial prefrontal cortex, whereas acute stress leads to hypotrophy in both BLA and prelimbic cortex. Additionally, both chronic and acute stress impair extinction retrieval. Here, we examined the effects of a single elevated platform stress on extinction learning and dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex, a region considered to be critical for extinction. Acute stress produced resistance to extinction, as well as dendritic retraction in infralimbic cortex. Spine density on apical and basilar terminal branches was unaffected by stress. However, animals that underwent conditioning and extinction had decreased spine density on apical terminal branches. Thus, whereas dendritic morphology in infralimbic cortex appears to be particularly sensitive to stress, changes in spines may more sensitively reflect learning. Further, in stressed rats that underwent conditioning and extinction, the level of extinction learning was correlated with spine densities, in that rats with poorer extinction retrieval had more immature spines and fewer thin spines than rats with better extinction retrieval, suggesting that stress may have impaired learning-related spine plasticity. These results may have implications for understanding the role of medial prefrontal cortex in learning deficits associated with stress-related pathologies. PMID:26844245

  4. Acute physiological stress promotes clustering of synaptic markers and alters spine morphology in the hippocampus.

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    Veronica Sebastian

    Full Text Available GluA2-containing AMPA receptors and their association with protein kinase M zeta (PKMζ and post-synaptic density-95 (PSD-95 are important for learning, memory and synaptic plasticity processes. Here we investigated these synaptic markers in the context of an acute 1h platform stress, which can disrupt spatial memory retrieval for a short-term memory on the object placement task and long-term memory retrieval on a well-learned radial arm maze task. Acute stress increased serum corticosterone and elevated the expression of synaptic PKMζ while decreasing synaptic GluA2. Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that this stressor promotes the clustering of GluA2, PKMζ and PSD-95, which is consistent with effects reported from overexpression of PKMζ in cell culture. Because PKMζ overexpression has also been shown to induce spine maturation in culture, we examined how stress impacts synaptic markers within changing spines across various hippocampal subfields. To achieve this, we employed a new technique combining Golgi staining and immmunohistochemistry to perform 3D reconstruction of tertiary dendrites, which can be analyzed for differences in spine types and the colocalization of synaptic markers within these spines. In CA1, stress increased the densities of long-thin and mushroom spines and the colocalization of GluA2/PSD-95 within these spines. Conversely, in CA3, stress decreased the densities of filopodia and stubby spines, with a concomitant reduction in the colocalization of GluA2/PSD-95 within these spines. In the outer molecular layer (OML of the dentate gyrus (DG, stress increased both stubby and long-thin spines, together with greater GluA2/PSD-95 colocalization. These data reflect the rapid effects of stress on inducing morphological changes within specific hippocampal subfields, highlighting a potential mechanism by which stress can modulate memory consolidation and retrieval.

  5. Acute stress alters autonomic modulation during sleep in women approaching menopause.

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    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Sugarbaker, David; Trinder, John; Colrain, Ian M; Baker, Fiona C

    2016-04-01

    Hot flashes, hormones, and psychosocial factors contribute to insomnia risk in the context of the menopausal transition. Stress is a well-recognized factor implicated in the pathophysiology of insomnia; however the impact of stress on sleep and sleep-related processes in perimenopausal women remains largely unknown. We investigated the effect of an acute experimental stress (impending Trier Social Stress Task in the morning) on pre-sleep measures of cortisol and autonomic arousal in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia that developed in the context of the menopausal transition. In addition, we assessed the macro- and micro-structure of sleep and autonomic functioning during sleep. Following adaptation to the laboratory, twenty two women with (age: 50.4 ± 3.2 years) and eighteen women without (age: 48.5 ± 2.3 years) insomnia had two randomized in-lab overnight recordings: baseline and stress nights. Anticipation of the task resulted in higher pre-sleep salivary cortisol levels and perceived tension, faster heart rate and lower vagal activity, based on heart rate variability measures, in both groups of women. The effect of the stress manipulation on the autonomic nervous system extended into the first 4 h of the night in both groups. However, vagal tone recovered 4-6 h into the stress night in controls but not in the insomnia group. Sleep macrostructure was largely unaltered by the stress, apart from a delayed latency to REM sleep in both groups. Quantitative analysis of non-rapid eye movement sleep microstructure revealed greater electroencephalographic (EEG) power in the beta1 range (15-≤23 Hz), reflecting greater EEG arousal during sleep, on the stress night compared to baseline, in the insomnia group. Hot flash frequency remained similar on both nights for both groups. These results show that pre-sleep stress impacts autonomic nervous system functioning before and during sleep in perimenopausal women with and without insomnia. Findings also indicate

  6. Complexity and time asymmetry of heart rate variability are altered in acute mental stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to study the complexity and time asymmetry of short-term heart rate variability (HRV) as an index of complex neurocardiac control in response to stress using symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility methods. ECG was recorded at rest and during and after two stressors (Stroop, arithmetic test) in 70 healthy students. Symbolic dynamics parameters (NUPI, NCI, 0V%, 1V%, 2LV%, 2UV%), and time irreversibility indices (P%, G%, E) were evaluated. Additionally, HRV magnitude was quantified by linear parameters: spectral powers in low (LF) and high frequency (HF) bands. Our results showed a reduction of HRV complexity in stress (lower NUPI with both stressors, lower NCI with Stroop). Pattern classification analysis revealed significantly higher 0V% and lower 2LV% with both stressors, indicating a shift in sympathovagal balance, and significantly higher 1V% and lower 2UV% with Stroop. An unexpected result was found in time irreversibility: significantly lower G% and E with both stressors, P% index significantly declined only with arithmetic test. Linear HRV analysis confirmed vagal withdrawal (lower HF) with both stressors; LF significantly increased with Stroop and decreased with arithmetic test. Correlation analysis revealed no significant associations between symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility. Concluding, symbolic dynamics and time irreversibility could provide independent information related to alterations of neurocardiac control integrity in stress-related disease. (paper)

  7. Alteration in memory and electroencephalogram waves with sub-acute noise stress in albino rats and safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis

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    Sundareswaran Loganathan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG has not yet been reported. Objective: To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Materials and Methods: Eight-arm maze (EAM and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. Results: The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. Conclusion: These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress.

  8. Acute stress alters amygdala microRNA miR-135a and miR-124 expression: inferences for corticosteroid dependent stress response.

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    Cecilia Mannironi

    Full Text Available The amygdala is a brain structure considered a key node for the regulation of neuroendocrine stress response. Stress-induced response in amygdala is accomplished through neurotransmitter activation and an alteration of gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are important regulators of gene expression in the nervous system and are very well suited effectors of stress response for their ability to reversibly silence specific mRNAs. In order to study how acute stress affects miRNAs expression in amygdala we analyzed the miRNA profile after two hours of mouse restraint, by microarray analysis and reverse transcription real time PCR. We found that miR-135a and miR-124 were negatively regulated. Among in silico predicted targets we identified the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR as a target of both miR-135a and miR-124. Luciferase experiments and endogenous protein expression analysis upon miRNA upregulation and inhibition allowed us to demonstrate that mir-135a and mir-124 are able to negatively affect the expression of the MR. The increased levels of the amygdala MR protein after two hours of restraint, that we analyzed by western blot, negatively correlate with miR-135a and miR-124 expression. These findings point to a role of miR-135a and miR-124 in acute stress as regulators of the MR, an important effector of early stress response.

  9. Plasma omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acid status and monounsaturated fatty acids are altered by chronic social stress and predict endocrine responses to acute stress in titi monkeys

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    Disturbances in fatty acid (FA) metabolism may link chronic psychological stress, endocrine responsiveness, and psychopathology. Therefore, lipid metabolome-wide responses and their relationships with endocrine (cortisol; insulin; adiponectin) responsiveness to acute stress (AS) were assessed in a ...

  10. Hypothyroidism minimizes the effects of acute hepatic failure caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and redox environment alterations in rats.

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    Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Martinez-Perez, Yoalli; Lezama-Palacios, Ruth; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a protective effect from hypothyroidism in acute liver failure resulted from reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in four groups: (1) euthyroid (sham surgery), (2) hypothyroid, (3) euthyroid (sham surgery)+thioacetamide and (4) hypothyroid+thioacetamide. Hypothyroidism was confirmed two weeks after thyroidectomy, and thioacetamide (TAA) (400mg/kg, ip) was administrated to the appropriate groups for three days with supportive therapy. Grades of encephalopathy in all animals were determined using behavioral tests. Animals were decapitated and their blood was obtained to assess liver function. The liver was dissected: the left lobe was used for histology and the right lobe was frozen for biochemical assays. Body weight, rectal temperature and T4 concentration were lower in hypothyroid groups. When measurements of oxidative stress markers, redox environment, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined, we observed that hypothyroid animals with TAA compensated better with oxidative damage than euthyroid animals treated with TAA. Furthermore, we measured reduced expressions of GADD34, caspase-12 and GRP78 and subsequently less hypothyroidism-induced cellular damage in hypothyroid animals. We conclude that hypothyroidism protects against hepatic damage caused by TAA because it reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment.

  11. Hypothyroidism minimizes the effects of acute hepatic failure caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and redox environment alterations in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Martinez-Perez, Yoalli; Lezama-Palacios, Ruth; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a protective effect from hypothyroidism in acute liver failure resulted from reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in four groups: (1) euthyroid (sham surgery), (2) hypothyroid, (3) euthyroid (sham surgery)+thioacetamide and (4) hypothyroid+thioacetamide. Hypothyroidism was confirmed two weeks after thyroidectomy, and thioacetamide (TAA) (400mg/kg, ip) was administrated to the appropriate groups for three days with supportive therapy. Grades of encephalopathy in all animals were determined using behavioral tests. Animals were decapitated and their blood was obtained to assess liver function. The liver was dissected: the left lobe was used for histology and the right lobe was frozen for biochemical assays. Body weight, rectal temperature and T4 concentration were lower in hypothyroid groups. When measurements of oxidative stress markers, redox environment, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined, we observed that hypothyroid animals with TAA compensated better with oxidative damage than euthyroid animals treated with TAA. Furthermore, we measured reduced expressions of GADD34, caspase-12 and GRP78 and subsequently less hypothyroidism-induced cellular damage in hypothyroid animals. We conclude that hypothyroidism protects against hepatic damage caused by TAA because it reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. PMID:26238033

  12. Effects of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in Oncorhynchus mykiss liver after an acute exposure: assessment of oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histological alterations

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    Ana Cristina Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NP have numerous applications ranging from industry to the household, leading to its wide distribution namely in the aquatic environment. The hereby study aimed to assess the toxic effects of CeO2 NPs in Oncorhynchus mykiss liver following an acute exposure (96h to three different concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 25 mg/L in terms of the genotoxicity (comet assay, oxidative stress response (Catalase CAT; Glutathione S-Transferases GSTs; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances TBARS and histopathology. CeO2 NP exposure resulted in genotoxic damage in all exposure treatments, inhibition of CAT in the highest concentration and histopathological changes in all exposure concentrations with predominance of progressive and circulatory alterations. However TBARS and GSTs showed no significant differences comparatively to the control (unexposed group. The results suggest that CeO2 NP are able to cause genotoxicity, biochemical impairment and histological alterations in the liver of rainbow trout.

  13. Early altered resting-state functional connectivity predicts the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in acutely traumatized subjects.

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    Yan Zhou

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in 15 people who developed PTSD following recent trauma. Fifteen participants who experienced acute traumatic events underwent a 7.3-min resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan within 2 days post-event. All the patients were diagnosed with PTSD within 1 to 6 months after trauma. Brain areas in which activity was correlated with that of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were assessed. To assess the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas positively correlated with the PCC were correlated with the subject's Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores (CAPS when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, the PCC, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala were selected to assess the correlation of the strength of functional connectivity with the CAPS. Resting state connectivity with the PCC was negatively correlated with CAPS scores in the left superior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus/amygdala. Furthermore, the strength of connectivity between the PCC and bilateral amygdala, and even between the bilateral amygdala could predict the severity of PTSD symptoms later. These results suggest that early altered resting-state functional connectivity of the PCC with the left superior temporal gyrus, right hippocampus and amygdala could predict the severity of the disease and may be a major risk factor that predisposes patients to develop PTSD.

  14. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

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    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  15. Risk Preferences under Acute Stress

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    Cingl, Lubomír; Cahlíková, Jana

    2013-01-01

    Many important decisions are made under stress and they often involve risky alternatives. There has been ample evidence that stress influences decision making in cognitive as well as in affective domains, but still very little is known about whether individual attitudes to risk change with exposure to acute stress. To directly evaluate the causal effect of stress on risk attitudes, we adopt an experimental approach in which we randomly expose participants to a psychosocial stressor in the for...

  16. Quercetin and vitamin E attenuate Bonny Light crude oil-induced alterations in testicular apoptosis, stress proteins and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein in Wistar rats.

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    Ebokaiwe, Azubuike P; Mathur, Premendu P; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-10-01

    Studies have shown the reproductive effects of Bonny Light crude oil (BLCO) via the mechanism of oxidative stress and testicular apoptosis. We investigated the protective role of quercetin and vitamin E on BLCO-induced testicular apoptosis. Experimental rats were divided into four groups of four each. Animals were orally administered 2 ml/kg corn oil (control: group 1), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 10 mg/kg quercetin (group 2), BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight + 50 mg/kg vitamin E (group 3) and BLCO-800 mg/kg body weight only (group 4) for 7 d. Protein levels of caspase 3, FasL, NF-kB, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and stress response proteins were determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Immunofluorescence staining was used to quantify the expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB. Apoptosis was quantified by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Administration of BLCO resulted in a significant increase in the levels of stress response proteins and apoptosis-related proteins by 50% and above after 7 d following BLCO exposure and a concomitant increase in expression of caspase 3, FasL and NF-kB expression by immunofluorescence staining. Apoptosis showed a significant increase in TUNEL positive cells. Co-administration with quercetin or vitamin E reversed BLCO-induced apoptosis and levels of stress protein, relative to control. These findings suggest that quercetin and vitamin E may confer protection against BLCO-induced testicular oxidative stress-related apoptosis. PMID:26821606

  17. Acute heat stress up-regulates neuropeptide Y precursor mRNA expression and alters brain and plasma concentrations of free amino acids in chicks.

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    Ito, Kentaro; Bahry, Mohammad A; Hui, Yang; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S

    2015-09-01

    Heat stress causes an increase in body temperature and reduced food intake in chickens. Several neuropeptides and amino acids play a vital role in the regulation of food intake. However, the responses of neuropeptides and amino acids to heat-stress-induced food-intake regulation are poorly understood. In the current study, the hypothalamic mRNA expression of some neuropeptides related to food intake and the content of free amino acids in the brain and plasma was examined in 14-day-old chicks exposed to a high ambient temperature (HT; 40±1 °C for 2 or 5 h) or to a control thermoneutral temperature (CT; 30±1 °C). HT significantly increased rectal temperature and plasma corticosterone level and suppressed food intake. HT also increased the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) precursor mRNA, while no change was observed in pro-opiomelanocortin, cholecystokinin, ghrelin, or corticotropin-releasing hormone precursor mRNA. It was further found that the diencephalic content of free amino acids - namely, tryptophan, leucine, isoleucine, valine and serine - was significantly higher in HT chicks with some alterations in their plasma amino acids in comparison with CT chicks. The induction of NPY and ASIP expression and the alteration of some free amino acids during HT suggest that these changes can be the results or causes the suppression of food intake.

  18. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

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    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  19. Alteration of cholinergic and peptidergic neurotransmitters in rat ileum induced by acute stress following transient intestinal infection is mast cell dependent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LENG Yu-xin; WEI Yan-yu; CHEN Hong; ZHOU Shu-pei; YANG Yan-lin; DUAN Li-ping

    2010-01-01

    Background Mast cells are implicated in the development of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is associated with the activation of the "neural-immune" system. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mast cells in the remodeling of cholinergic and peptidergic neurotransmitters induced by acute cold restriction stress (ACRS) post infection (PI) using mast cell deficient rats (Ws/Ws) and their wild-type controls (+/+).Methods Transient intestinal infection was initiated by giving 1500 Trichinella spiralis (T.S.) larvae by gavage. ACRS was induced for 2 hours at day 100 PI. Samples of terminal ilea were prepared for H&E staining, mast cell counting and activation and assessment of IL-1β and IL-10.Results When infected, both strains of rats experienced an acute infectious stage followed by a recovery. Histological scores were significantly higher in infected rats compared with those of the non-infected controls at day 10 PI (10 day-PI vs. control: +/+: 2.75±0.17 vs. 0.42±0.09; Ws/Ws: 2.67±0.67 vs. 0.50±0.34; P0.05), accompanied by hyperplasia and activation of mast cells (PI+ACRS vs. control: 58.8±19.2 vs. 28.0±7.6; P <0.01). The balance between acetylcholine (ACh) and substance P (SP) was also disturbed (ACh: PI+ACRS vs. control: (743.94±238.72) vs. (1065.68±256.46) pg/g, P<0.05; SP: PI+ACRS vs. control: (892.60±231.12) vs. (696.61 ±148.61) pg/g, P<0.05). Nevertheless, similar changes of IL-1β/IL-10 and ACh/SP were not detected in Ws/Ws rats. Conclusion The imbalance of ACh/SP, together with the activation of mucosal immunity induced by post-infection ACRS were lacking in mast cell deficient rats, which supports the premise that mast cells play an important role in cholinergic and peptidergic remodeling in the ileum of rats.

  20. Biogenic amines and acute thermal stress in the rat

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    Williams, B. A.; Moberg, G. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study is summarized which demonstrates that depletion of the biogenic amines 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) or norepinephrine (NE) alters the normal thermoregulatory responses to acute temperature stress. Specifically, NE depletion caused a significant depression in equilibrium rectal temperature at 22 C and a greater depression in rectal temperature than controls in response to cold (6 C) stress; NE depletion also resulted in a significantly higher rectal temperature response to acute heat (38 C) stress. Depletion of 5-HT had less severe effects. It remains unclear whether the primary site of action of these agents is central or peripheral.

  1. Attenuation of Acute and Chronic Restraint Stress-induced Perturbations in Experimental Animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

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    Kulkarni, M. P.; Juvekar, A. R.

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) for 7 da...

  2. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni M; Juvekar A

    2008-01-01

    Aqueous extract of leaves of Nelumbo nucifera was investigated on acute stress (immobilization stress)-induced biochemical alterations in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) and acute chemical stress (writhing test) to gauge the antistress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the antistress activity of Nelumbo nucifera in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4° for 1 h) f...

  3. Oxidative Stress Adaptation with Acute, Chronic and Repeated Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Pickering, Andrew. M.; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; Davies, Kelvin J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation or hormesis is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster,...

  4. Anxiety symptom severity differentiates HPA acute stress reactivity in children

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Marcia J.; Grieve, Adam J.; Paletz, Elliott M.; Kalin, Ned H.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale/statement of the problem : Considerable research has focused on the relationship of anxiety with alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) acute stress response. Findings, however, differ among studies on adults and children, and among different types of anxiety. This study investigates the relationship of anxiety symptom severity with HPA reactivity to the cold pressor task (CPT) in preadolescent children. We hypothesize that children with increased symptoms of anxiet...

  5. Neonatal handling alters maternal emotional response to stress.

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    Reis, Adolfo R; Jacobs, Silvana; Menegotto, Pâmela R; Silveira, Patrícia P; Lucion, Aldo B

    2016-07-01

    Neonatal handling is an experimental procedure used to analyze the effects of environmental interventions during early postpartum days (PPD). Long-lasting effects of repeated stress exposure in the neonatal period on the maternal side are poorly studied in this model. The aim of this study was to verify if handling the pups induces enduring effects on damśstress responses, increasing their risk for depression. Dams were divided into two groups (NH-Non-handled and H-Handled) based on the handling procedure (pups were handled for 1 min/per day from PPD1-PPD10) and then subdivided into four groups (NH, NH + S, H, and H + S) based on the exposure or not to restraint stress after weaning (1 hr/per day for 7 days, PPD22-PPD28). We analyzed damśbehavior in the forced swimming test (FST PPD29-PPD30), plasma basal corticosterone and BDNF levels, as well as adrenal weight (PPD31). The results show that handling alters the stress response of dams to acute and chronic stress, as evidenced by dams of the H group having increased immobility in the first day of FST (p handling may induce a long-lasting effect on maternal stress response; these changes in the damśemotional reactivity increase their susceptibility for the development of psychiatric disorders such as depression. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 58: 614-622, 2016. PMID:27020142

  6. Acute Stress Response in Critically Ill Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. den Brinker (Marieke)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe understanding of the endocrine changes in critically ill children is important, as it provides insights in the pathophysiology of the acute stress in children and its differences compared with adults. Furthermore, it delineates prognostic factors for survival and supports the rati

  7. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. PMID:26403161

  8. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1 estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH administration; and 2 women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.

  9. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to recent acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. PMID:27155256

  10. How stress alters memory in 'smart' snails.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Dalesman

    Full Text Available Cognitive ability varies within species, but whether this variation alters the manner in which memory formation is affected by environmental stress is unclear. The great pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, is commonly used as model species in studies of learning and memory. The majority of those studies used a single laboratory strain (i.e. the Dutch strain originating from a wild population in the Netherlands. However, our recent work has identified natural populations that demonstrate significantly enhanced long-term memory (LTM formation relative to the Dutch strain following operant conditioning of aerial respiratory behaviour. Here we assess how two populations with enhanced memory formation (i.e. 'smart' snails, one from Canada (Trans Canada 1: TC1 and one from the U.K. (Chilton Moor: CM respond to ecologically relevant stressors. In control conditions the Dutch strain forms memory lasting 1-3 h following a single 0.5 h training session in our standard calcium pond water (80 mg/l [Ca(2+], whereas the TC1 and CM populations formed LTM lasting 5+ days following this training regime. Exposure to low environmental calcium pond water (20 mg/l [Ca(2+], which blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, reduced LTM retention to 24 h in the TC1 and CM populations. Crowding (20 snails in 100 ml immediately prior to training blocks LTM in the Dutch strain, and also did so in TC1 and CM populations. Therefore, snails with enhanced cognitive ability respond to these ecologically relevant stressors in a similar manner to the Dutch strain, but are more robust at forming LTM in a low calcium environment. Despite the two populations (CM and TC1 originating from different continents, LTM formation was indistinguishable in both control and stressed conditions. This indicates that the underlying mechanisms controlling cognitive differences among populations may be highly conserved in L. stagnalis.

  11. Cancer, acute stress disorder, and repressive coping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anette Fischer; Zachariae, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between repressive coping style and Acute Stress Disorder (ASD) in a sample of cancer patients. A total of 112 cancer patients recently diagnosed with cancer participated in the study. ASD was assessed by the Stanford Acute Stress...... Reaction Questionnaire, and repressive coping was assessed by a combination of scores from the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, and the Bendig version of the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Significantly fewer patients classified as "repressors" were diagnosed with ASD compared to patients...... classified as "non-repressors". However, further investigations revealed that the lower incidence of ASD in repressors apparently was caused by a low score on anxiety and not by an interaction effect between anxiety and defensiveness. Future studies have to investigate whether different psychological...

  12. Entrainment of the mouse circadian clock by sub-acute physical and psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahara, Yu; Shiraishi, Takuya; Kikuchi, Yosuke; Haraguchi, Atsushi; Kuriki, Daisuke; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Motohashi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Tomoko; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    The effects of acute stress on the peripheral circadian system are not well understood in vivo. Here, we show that sub-acute stress caused by restraint or social defeat potently altered clock gene expression in the peripheral tissues of mice. In these peripheral tissues, as well as the hippocampus and cortex, stressful stimuli induced time-of-day-dependent phase-advances or -delays in rhythmic clock gene expression patterns; however, such changes were not observed in the suprachiasmatic nucleus, i.e. the central circadian clock. Moreover, several days of stress exposure at the beginning of the light period abolished circadian oscillations and caused internal desynchronisation of peripheral clocks. Stress-induced changes in circadian rhythmicity showed habituation and disappeared with long-term exposure to repeated stress. These findings suggest that sub-acute physical/psychological stress potently entrains peripheral clocks and causes transient dysregulation of circadian clocks in vivo.

  13. Stress-related alteration of urine compositions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van den Berg; C. Uhlemann; A. Meissner; N. Laube

    2011-01-01

    Increased emotional stress in everyday life influences the way of living and metabolism of people living in developed countries. Contemporaneously, the incidence and prevalence of urolithiasis rises. Does a pathogenetically relevant relationship exist between chronic stress burden and permanently al

  14. Amygdala-Hippocampal Connectivity Changes During Acute Psychosocial Stress: Joint Effect of Early Life Stress and Oxytocin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yan; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Pruessner, Jens C; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek; Grimm, Simone

    2015-11-01

    Previous evidence shows that acute stress changes both amygdala activity and its connectivity with a distributed brain network. Early life stress (ELS), especially emotional abuse (EA), is associated with altered reactivity to psychosocial stress in adulthood and moderates or even reverses the stress-attenuating effect of oxytocin (OXT). The neural underpinnings of the interaction between ELS and OXT remain unclear, though. Therefore, we here investigate the joint effect of ELS and OXT on transient changes in amygdala-centered functional connectivity induced by acute psychosocial stress, using a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, within-subject crossover design. Psychophysiological interaction analysis in the placebo session revealed stress-induced increases in functional connectivity between amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, putamen, caudate and thalamus. Regression analysis showed that EA was positively associated with stress-induced changes in connectivity between amygdala and hippocampus. Moreover, hierarchical linear regression showed that this positive association between EA and stress-induced amygdala-hippocampal connectivity was moderated after the administration of intranasal OXT. Amygdala-hippocampal connectivity in the OXT session correlated negatively with cortisol stress responses. Our findings suggest that altered amygdala-hippocampal functional connectivity during psychosocial stress may have a crucial role in the altered sensitivity to OXT effects in individuals who have experienced EA in their childhood.

  15. Nitric oxide alterations following acute ductal constriction in the fetal lamb: a role for superoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jong-Hau; Oishi, Peter; Wiseman, Dean A; Hou, Yali; Chikovani, Omar; Datar, Sanjeev; Sajti, Eniko; Johengen, Michael J; Harmon, Cynthia; Black, Stephen M; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2010-06-01

    Acute partial compression of the fetal ductus arteriosus (DA) results in an initial abrupt increase in pulmonary blood flow (PBF), which is followed by a significant reduction in PBF to baseline values over the ensuing 2-4 h. We have previously demonstrated that this potent vasoconstricting response is due, in part, to an endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated decrease in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity. In addition, in vitro data demonstrate that ET-1 increases superoxide levels in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and that oxidative stress alters NOS activity. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine the potential role of superoxide in the alterations of hemodynamics and NOS activity following acute ductal constriction in the late-gestation fetal lamb. Eighteen anesthetized near-term fetal lambs were instrumented, and a lung biopsy was performed. After a 48-h recovery, acute constriction of the DA was performed by inflating a vascular occluder. Polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase (PEG-SOD; 1,000-1,500 units/kg, n = 7) or PEG-alone (vehicle control group, n = 5) was injected into the pulmonary artery before ductal constriction. Six animals had a sham operation. In PEG-alone-treated lambs, acute ductal constriction rapidly decreased pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) by 88%. However, by 4 h, PVR returned to preconstriction baseline. This vasoconstriction was associated with an increase in lung superoxide levels (82%), a decrease in total NOS activity (50%), and an increase in P-eNOS-Thr495 (52%) (P < 0.05). PEG-SOD prevented the increase of superoxide after ductal constriction, attenuated the vasoconstriction, preserved NOS activity, and increased P-eNOS Ser1177 (307%, P < 0.05). Sham procedure induced no changes. These data suggest that an acute decrease in NOS activity that is mediated, in part, by increased superoxide levels, and alterations in the phosphorylation status of the endothelial NOS isoform, underlie the pulmonary vascular

  16. Effect of Hemin on Brain Alterations and Neuroglobin Expression in Water Immersion Restraint Stressed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merhan Ragy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, the heme oxygenase (HO system has been reported to be very active and its modulation seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Hemin as HO-1 inducer has been shown to attenuate neuronal injury so the goal of this study was to assess the effect of hemin therapy on the acute stress and how it would modulate neurological outcome. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group and stressed group with six-hour water immersion restraint stress (WIRS and stressed group, treated with hemin, in which each rat received a single intraperitoneal injection of hemin at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight at 12 hours before exposure to WIRS. Stress hormones, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and expressions of neuroglobin and S100B mRNA in brain tissue were assayed. Our results revealed that hemin significantly affects brain alterations induced by acute stress and this may be through increased expression of neuroglobin and through antioxidant effect. Hemin decreased blood-brain barrier damage as it significantly decreased the expression of S100B. These results suggest that hemin may be an effective therapy for being neuroprotective against acute stress.

  17. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  18. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  19. Altered coriolis stress susceptibility in essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockette, W; Shepard, N; Lyos, A; Boismier, T; Mers, A

    1991-08-01

    Patients with hypertension frequently have vague complaints of dizziness and many other symptoms experienced by healthy individuals with motion sickness. We examined vestibular function in patients with essential hypertension, and we determined whether patients with essential hypertension are more prone to motion sickness using Coriolis stress testing. Vestibular function and Coriolis stress susceptibility were measured in 12 normotensive (NT) and seven asymptomatic patients with mild essential hypertension (HT). The Coriolis stress susceptibility index (CSSI) was calculated from the number of head movements in the four cardinal directions an individual could complete while being rotated in a computerized chair at increasing velocity before they developed motion sickness. The patients with hypertension had normal vestibular function and normal vestibuloocular responses as measured by standard techniques. Subjects with hypertension had significantly decreased Coriolis stress susceptibility scores compared to normotensive subjects (NT, 29.70 +/- 4.8; v HT, 5.48 +/- 2.0, P less than .001) and significantly decreased suppression of postrotatory nystagmus (NT, 44.5% +/- 3.8; v HT, 19.1% +/- 6.9, P less than .05). Medical treatment of hypertension did not result in an increased tolerance to provocative stimuli for motion sickness. It is suggested from our data that an increased susceptibility to motion sickness and abnormal vestibular responses to normal motion may account for many of the vague symptoms of "dizziness" reported by a large number of hypertensive patients.

  20. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  1. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of [3H]Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in [14C]iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress [an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures], although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results

  2. Stress kinase inhibition modulates acute experimental pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    F. Fleischer; R. Dabew; B. Goke; ACC Wagner

    2001-01-01

    AIM To examine the role of p38 during acute experimental cerulein pancreatitis.METHODS Rats were treated with cerulein with or without a specific JNK inhibitor (CEP1347)andy or a specific p38 inhbitor (SB203380) and pancreatic stress kinase activity wasdetermined. Parameters to assess pancreatitis included trypsin, amylase, lipase, pancreatic weight and histology.RESULTS JNK inhibition with CEP1347ameliorated pancreatitis, reducing pancreatic edema. In contrast, p38 inhibition with SB203580aggravated pancreatitis with higher trypsinlevels and, with induction of acinar necrosis not normally found after cerulein hyperstimulation.Simultaneous treatment with both CEP1347 and SB203580 mutually abolished the effects of either compound on cerulein pancreatitis.CONCLUSION Stress kinases modulatepancreatitis differentially. JNK seems to promote pancreatitis development, possibly by supporting inflammatory reactions such as edema formation while its inhibition ameliorates pancreatitis. In contrast, p38 may help reduce organ destruction while inhibition of p38 during induction of cerulein pancreatitis leads to the occurrence of acinar necrosis.

  3. 抑郁模型大鼠再应激后海马细胞支架蛋白的改变%Cytoskeletal alterations in rat hippocampus following chronic unpredictable mild stress and re-exposure to acute and chronic unpredictable mild stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨灿; 王高华; 王惠玲; 刘忠纯; 王晓萍; 朱志先

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究抑郁模型大鼠接受再次急性和慢性应激后细胞支架微管系统的动态性改变,并探讨可能的机制.方法 将40只大鼠按随机数字表法分为5组:对照组(空白对照+生理盐水),CUMS组(CUMS+生理盐水),氟西汀组(CUMS+氟西汀),急性再应激组(CUMS+氟西汀+药物清洗期+急性游泳应激),CUMS再应激组(CUMS+氟西汀+药物清洗期+CUMS).实验结束后进行行为学观察,并使用免疫印迹法( western blotting)检测大鼠海马乙酰化微管蛋白(Acet-Tub),酪氨酸化微管蛋白(Tyr-Tub),微管结合蛋白2(MAP-2)及磷酸化微管结合蛋白2(phospho-MAP-2).结果 (1)CUMS再应激组糖水偏好[ (43.38±7.84)%],总行程[(859.21±653.62)cm],运动平均速度[(2.05±0.60)cm/s]及直立次数[(0.12±0.30)次]均减少,与对照组及CUMS组相比均差异有显著性(P<0.01).急性再应激组行为与对照组比较差异无显著性.氟西汀组糖水偏好和旷场实验相关指标与对照组差异无显著性,与CUMS组差异有显著性(P<0.01).(2) CUMS再应激组Acet-Tub表达升高[(244.24±8.90)%],Tyr-Tub表达降低[ (30.92±11.00)%],与对照组及CUMS组差异均有显著性(P<0.01).MAP-2的表达与对照组及CUMS组比较差异无显著性,phospho-M AP-2的表达减少[(24.75±8.83)%],与对照组及CUMS组均差异有显著性(P<0.01).急性再应激组各蛋白水平与对照组比较差异无显著性.氟西汀组各蛋白的表达与对照组比较差异无显著性(P>0.05),与CUMS组比较差异有显著性(P<0.01).结论 动物再次暴露于CUMS后,其行为和微管动态性损害更严重,同时伴随微管相关蛋白磷酸化的变化,提示临床抑郁症的发生以及复发的町能机制.%Objective To investigate behavior and hippocampal cytoskeletal alterations following re-exposure to chronic unpredictable mild stress(CUMS) and acute swimming stress,and explore the possible mechanism.Methods 40 Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were

  4. Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Stephanie S; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Burgan, Sarah C; Schrey, Aaron W; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2016-08-17

    Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host-vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being more defensive, birds with elevated stress hormone concentrations were approximately twice as likely to be fed on by mosquitoes compared to control birds. Moreover, stress hormones altered the relationship between the timing of laying and clutch size in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our results suggest that host stress could affect the transmission dynamics of vector-borne parasites via multiple pathways. PMID:27512147

  5. Alterations of proteins in MDCK cells during acute potassium deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peerapen, Paleerath; Ausakunpipat, Nardtaya; Chanchaem, Prangwalai; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-06-01

    Chronic K(+) deficiency can cause hypokalemic nephropathy associated with metabolic alkalosis, polyuria, tubular dilatation, and tubulointerstitial injury. However, effects of acute K(+) deficiency on the kidney remained unclear. This study aimed to explore such effects by evaluating changes in levels of proteins in renal tubular cells during acute K(+) deficiency. MDCK cells were cultivated in normal K(+) (NK) (K(+)=5.3 mM), low K(+) (LK) (K(+)=2.5 mM), or K(+) depleted (KD) (K(+)=0 mM) medium for 24 h and then harvested. Cellular proteins were resolved by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and visualized by SYPRO Ruby staining (5 gels per group). Spot matching and quantitative intensity analysis revealed a total 48 protein spots that had significantly differential levels among the three groups. Among these, 46 and 30 protein spots had differential levels in KD group compared to NK and LK groups, respectively. Comparison between LK and NK groups revealed only 10 protein spots that were differentially expressed. All of these differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by Q-TOF MS and/or MS/MS analyses. The altered levels of heat shock protein 90 (HSP90), ezrin, lamin A/C, tubulin, chaperonin-containing TCP1 (CCT1), and calpain 1 were confirmed by Western blot analysis. Global protein network analysis showed three main functional networks, including 1) cell growth and proliferation, 2) cell morphology, cellular assembly and organization, and 3) protein folding in which the altered proteins were involved. Further investigations on these networks may lead to better understanding of pathogenic mechanisms of low K(+)-induced renal injury.

  6. Studies on effect of stress preconditioning in restrain stress-induced behavioral alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Rajneet; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal

    2010-02-01

    Stress preconditioning has been documented to confer on gastroprotective effects on stress-induced gastric ulcerations. However, the effects of prior exposure of stress preconditioning episodes on stress-induced behavioral changes have not been explored yet. Therefore the present study was designed to investigate the ameliorative effects of stress preconditioning in immobilization stress-induced behavioral alterations in rats. The rats were subjected to restrain stress by placing in restrainer (5.5 cm in diameter and 18 cm in length) for 3.5 h. Stress preconditioning was induced by subjecting the rats to two cycles of restraint and restrain-free periods of 15 min each. Furthermore, a similar type of stress preconditioning was induced using different time cycles of 30 and 45 min. The extent and severity of the stress-induced behavioral alterations were assessed using different behavioral tests such as hole-board test, social interaction test, open field test, and actophotometer. Restrain stress resulted in decrease in locomotor activity, frequency of head dips and rearing in hole board, line crossing and rearing in open field, and decreased following and increased avoidance in social interaction test. Stress preconditioning with two cycles of 15, 30 or 45 min respectively, did not attenuate stress-induced behavioral changes to any extent. It may be concluded that stress preconditioning does not seem to confer any protective effect in modulating restrain stress-induced behavioral alterations.

  7. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p preterm neonates without exposure to prenatal stress, extremely preterm neonates with exposure to prenatal stress show significantly less connectivity between the left amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  8. The role of inflammatory stress in acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈成兴; 陈灏珠; 葛均波

    2004-01-01

    Objective To summarize current understanding of the roles of anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory mechanisms in the development of atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome and to postulate the novel concept of inflammation stress as the most important factor triggering acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, markers of inflammation stress and ways to block involved pathways are elucidated.Data sources A literature search (MEDLINE 1997 to 2002) was performed using the key words "inflammation and cardiovascular disease". Relevant book chapters were also reviewed.Study selection Well-controlled, prospective landmark studies and review articles on inflammation and acute coronary syndrome were selected.Data extraction Data and conclusions from the selected articles providing solid evidence to elucidate the mechanisms of inflammation and acute coronary syndrome were extracted and interpreted in the light of our own clinical and basic research.Data synthesis Inflammation is closely linked to atherosclerosis and acute coronary syndrome. Chronic and long-lasting inflammation stress, present both systemically or in the vascular walls, can trigger acute coronary syndrome.Conclusions Inflammation stress plays an important role in the process of acute coronary syndrome. Drugs which can modulate the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes and attenuate inflammation stress, such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors/angiotensin Ⅱ receptor blockers, statins, and cytokine antagonists may play active roles in the prevention and treatment of acute coronary syndrome when used in addition to conventional therapies (glycoprotein Ⅱb/Ⅲa receptor antagonists, mechanical intervention strategies, etc).

  9. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism. PMID:26852226

  10. The Effects of Acute Stress on Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    OpenAIRE

    KUBİLAY, Ayşegül

    2002-01-01

    The physiological effects of acute stressors (transport, handling, netting and confinement) on rainbow trout in an aquaculture system were investigated. Serum cortisol level, serum glucose and lysozyme activity were determined in rainbow trout stressed by acute stressors, and compared with those of unstressed (control) fish. Serum cortisol, glucose levels and lysozyme activity were significantly higher(P

  11. Acute restraint stress induces rapid and prolonged changes in erythrocyte and hippocampal redox status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiers, Jereme G; Chen, Hsiao-Jou; Bradley, Adrian J; Anderson, Stephen T; Sernia, Conrad; Lavidis, Nickolas A

    2013-11-01

    The onset and consequential changes in reduction-oxidation (redox) status that take place in response to short-term stress have not been well defined. This study utilized erythrocytes and neural tissue from male Wistar rats to demonstrate the rapid redox alterations that occur following an acute restraining stress. Serial blood samples collected from catheterized animals were used to measure prolactin, corticosterone, glucose, general oxidative status, and glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratios. Restraint increased prolactin concentration by approximately 300% at 30 min and rapidly returned to baseline values by 120 min of stress. Baseline blood glucose and corticosterone increased during stress exposure by approximately 25% and 150% respectively. Over the experimental period, the erythrocytic oxidative status of restrained animals increased by approximately 10% per hour which persisted after stress exposure, while changes in the glutathione redox couple were not observed until 120 min following the onset of stress. Application of restraint stress increased hippocampal oxidative status by approximately 17% while no change was observed in the amygdala. It was concluded that while endocrine and metabolic markers of stress rapidly increase and habituate to stress exposure, redox status continues to change following stress in both peripheral and neural tissue. Studies with longer post-restraint times and the inclusion of several brain regions should further elucidate the consequential redox changes induced by acute restraint stress.

  12. Estimation of Subjective Stress in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND and AIMS: Mental stress is considered to be a precipitating factor in acute coronary events. We aimed to assess the association of subjective or 'perceived' mental stress with the occurrence of acute coronary events. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control survey was carried out in a referral teaching hospital. subjects & METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST elevation on electrocardiogram who were admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of a referral teaching hospital were enrolled in the study as cases. Controls were unmatched and were enrolled from amongst patients with coronary artery disease who did not have recent acute coronary events. Subjective Stress Functional Classification (SS-FC for the preceding 2-4 weeks was assessed and assigned four grades from I to IV as follows: I - baseline, II - more than usual but not affecting daily routine, III - significantly high stress affecting daily routine and IV - worst stress in life. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions of different characteristics were compared using chi-square test with Yates continuity correction. Student's unpaired t test was applied for mean age. 'p' value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SS-FC could be reliably (99% and easily assessed. Eighty (53% of the total 150 patients with acute MI reported 'high' levels of stress (stress class III and IV. This is in contrast to only 30 (20% of 150 healthy controls reporting high stress for the same period (p value < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute myocardial infarction report a higher subjective mental stress during 2 to 4 weeks preceding the acute coronary event.

  13. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-01

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases.

  14. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  15. Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Terhi O.; Antman, Cecilia A.; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Nyström, Joel H.; Toivola, Diana M.

    2016-01-01

    Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery. PMID:27626448

  16. Keratins Are Altered in Intestinal Disease-Related Stress Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helenius, Terhi O; Antman, Cecilia A; Asghar, Muhammad Nadeem; Nyström, Joel H; Toivola, Diana M

    2016-01-01

    Keratin (K) intermediate filaments can be divided into type I/type II proteins, which form obligate heteropolymers. Epithelial cells express type I-type II keratin pairs, and K7, K8 (type II) and K18, K19 and K20 (type I) are the primary keratins found in the single-layered intestinal epithelium. Keratins are upregulated during stress in liver, pancreas, lung, kidney and skin, however, little is known about their dynamics in the intestinal stress response. Here, keratin mRNA, protein and phosphorylation levels were studied in response to murine colonic stresses modeling human conditions, and in colorectal cancer HT29 cells. Dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-colitis was used as a model for intestinal inflammatory stress, which elicited a strong upregulation and widened crypt distribution of K7 and K20. K8 levels were slightly downregulated in acute DSS, while stress-responsive K8 serine-74 phosphorylation (K8 pS74) was increased. By eliminating colonic microflora using antibiotics, K8 pS74 in proliferating cells was significantly increased, together with an upregulation of K8 and K19. In the aging mouse colon, most colonic keratins were upregulated. In vitro, K8, K19 and K8 pS74 levels were increased in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in HT29 cells. In conclusion, intestinal keratins are differentially and dynamically upregulated and post-translationally modified during stress and recovery. PMID:27626448

  17. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, D.M.J. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; M-age = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi disrupts thymic homeostasis by altering intrathymic and systemic stress-related endocrine circuitries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailin Lepletier

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that experimental infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Increased glucocorticoid (GC levels are believed to be protective against the effects of acute stress during infection but result in depletion of CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes by apoptosis, driving to thymic atrophy. However, very few data are available concerning prolactin (PRL, another stress-related hormone, which seems to be decreased during T. cruzi infection. Considering the immunomodulatory role of PRL upon the effects caused by GC, we investigated if intrathymic cross-talk between GC and PRL receptors (GR and PRLR, respectively might influence T. cruzi-induced thymic atrophy. Using an acute experimental model, we observed changes in GR/PRLR cross-activation related with the survival of CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes during infection. These alterations were closely related with systemic changes, characterized by a stress hormone imbalance, with progressive GC augmentation simultaneously to PRL reduction. The intrathymic hormone circuitry exhibited an inverse modulation that seemed to counteract the GC-related systemic deleterious effects. During infection, adrenalectomy protected the thymus from the increase in apoptosis ratio without changing PRL levels, whereas an additional inhibition of circulating PRL accelerated the thymic atrophy and led to an increase in corticosterone systemic levels. These results demonstrate that the PRL impairment during infection is not caused by the increase of corticosterone levels, but the opposite seems to occur. Accordingly, metoclopramide (MET-induced enhancement of PRL secretion protected thymic atrophy in acutely infected animals as well as the abnormal export of immature and potentially autoreactive CD4(+CD8(+ thymocytes to the periphery. In conclusion, our findings clearly show that Trypanosoma cruzi subverts mouse thymus homeostasis by altering intrathymic and

  19. Sympathetic neural responses to mental stress during acute simulated microgravity

    OpenAIRE

    Durocher, John J.; Schwartz, Christopher E.; Carter, Jason R.

    2009-01-01

    Neural and cardiovascular responses to mental stress and acute 6° head-down tilt (HDT) were examined separately and combined. We hypothesized sympathoexcitation during mental stress, sympathoinhibition during HDT, and an additive neural interaction during combined mental stress and HDT. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were recorded in 16 healthy subjects (8 men, 8 women) in the supine position during three randomized trials: 1) menta...

  20. Acute Stress Reduces Reward Responsiveness: Implications for Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan, Ryan; Pizzagalli, Diego

    2006-01-01

    Background: Stress, one of the strongest risk factors for depression, has been linked to "anbedonic" behavior and dysfunctional reward-related neural circuitry in preclinical models. Methods: To test if acute stress reduces reward responsiveness (i.e., the ability to modulate behavior as a function of past reward), a signal-detection task coupled with a differential reinforcement schedule was utilized. Eighty female participants completed the task under both a stress condition, either threat-...

  1. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress. PMID:27436299

  2. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Lempert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.

  3. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.G. Carvalho-Costa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO, which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO, participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP. In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group using the analgesia index (AI in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  4. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  5. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress

  6. Cannabinoids & Stress: impact of HU-210 on behavioral tests of anxiety in acutely stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinden, Renee; Zhang, Xia

    2015-05-01

    Anxiety disorders are one of the most prevalent classes of mental disorders affecting the general population, but current treatment strategies are restricted by their limited efficacy and side effect profiles. Although the cannabinoid system is speculated to be a key player in the modulation of stress responses and emotionality, the vast majority of current research initiatives had not incorporated stress exposure into their experimental designs. This study was the first to investigate the impact of exogenous cannabinoid administration in an acutely stressed mouse model, where CD1 mice were pre-treated with HU-210, a potent CB1R agonist, prior to acute stress exposure and subsequent behavioral testing. Exogenous cannabinoid administration induced distinct behavioral phenotypes in stressed and unstressed mice. While low doses of HU-210 were anxiolytic in unstressed subjects, this effect was abolished when mice were exposed to an acute stressor. The administration of higher HU-210 doses in combination with acute stress exposure led to severe locomotor deficits that were not previously observed at the same dose in unstressed subjects. These findings suggest that exogenous cannabinoids and acute stress act synergistically in an anxiogenic manner. This study underlies the importance of including stress exposure into future anxiety-cannabinoid research due to the differential impact of cannabinoid administration on stressed and unstressed subjects.

  7. Acute stress modulates genotype effects on amygdala processing in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Cousijn, Helena; Rijpkema, Mark; Qin, Shaozheng; van Marle, Hein J. F.; Franke, Barbara; Hermans, Erno J.; van Wingen, Guido; Fernández, Guillén

    2010-01-01

    Probing gene–environment interactions that affect neural processing is crucial for understanding individual differences in behavior and disease vulnerability. Here, we tested whether the current environmental context, which affects the acute brain state, modulates genotype effects on brain function in humans. We manipulated the context by inducing acute psychological stress, which increases noradrenergic activity, and probed its effect on tonic activity and phasic responses in the amygdala us...

  8. Alterations in plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and myeloperoxidase in acute myocardial infarction: Implications for cardiac outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Perton, Frank; Tio, Rene A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The cholesterol esterifying enzyme, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), plays a key role in HDL maturation and remodeling. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) may compromise LCAT enzymatic activity. We tested the extent to which plasma LCAT activity is altered in acute myocardial infarction

  9. Attenuation of acute and chronic restraint stress-induced perturbations in experimental animals by Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, B V S; Sudhakar, M

    2010-02-01

    Ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Zingiber officinale was investigated on anoxia stress tolerance test in Swiss mice. The animals were also subjected to acute physical stress (swimming endurance test) to gauge the anti-stress potential of the extract. Further to evaluate the anti-stress activity of Z. officinale in chronic stress condition, fresh Wistar rats were subjected to cold restraint stress (4 degrees for 2 h) for 10 days. Stimulation of hypothalamus pituitary adrenal axis in stressful condition alters plasma glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, BUN and corticosterone levels. There is also alteration in the blood cell counts. Pretreatment with the extract significantly ameliorated the stress-induced variations in these biochemical levels and blood cell counts in both acute and chronic stress models. The extract treated animals showed increase in swimming endurance time and increase in anoxia tolerance time in physical and anoxia stress models, respectively. Treatment groups also reverted back increase in liver, adrenal gland weights and atrophy of spleen caused by cold chronic stress and swimming endurance stress models. The results indicate that ethanolic extract of Z. officinale has significant adaptogenic activity against a variety of biochemical and physiological perturbations in different stress models. PMID:19909780

  10. Exposure to Forced Swim Stress Alters Local Circuit Activity and Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna Maroun

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience.

  11. Exposure to forced swim stress alters local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarom, Orli; Maroun, Mouna; Richter-Levin, Gal

    2008-01-01

    Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP) of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI) and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS) reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience.

  12. Acute stress impairs cognitive flexibility in men, not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Trainor, Brian C; Lam, Jovian C W; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-09-01

    Psychosocial stress influences cognitive abilities, such as long-term memory retrieval. However, less is known about the effects of stress on cognitive flexibility, which is mediated by different neurobiological circuits and could thus be regulated by different neuroendocrine pathways. In this study, we randomly assigned healthy adults to an acute stress induction or control condition and subsequently assessed participants' cognitive flexibility using an open-source version of the Wisconsin Card Sort task. Drawing on work in rodents, we hypothesized that stress would have stronger impairing effects on cognitive flexibility in men than women. As predicted, we found that stress impaired cognitive flexibility in men but did not significantly affect women. Our results thus indicate that stress exerts sex-specific effects on cognitive flexibility in humans and add to the growing body of research highlighting the need to consider sex differences in effects of stress.

  13. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.

  14. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah M. Al-Alawi; Jyotsna Janardan; Peck, Kah Y.; Alan Soward

    2016-01-01

    A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST...

  15. Acute stress increases neuropsin mRNA expression in the mouse hippocampus through the glucocorticoid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Akiko; Shiosaka, Sadao; Ishikawa, Yasuyuki; Komai, Shoji

    2008-05-01

    Stress affects synaptic plasticity and may alter various types of behaviour, including anxiety or memory formation. In the present study, we examined the effects of acute stress (1 h restraint with or without tail-shock) on mRNA levels of a plasticity-related serine protease neuropsin (NP) in the hippocampus using semiquantitative RT-PCR and in situ hybridization. We found that NP mRNA expression was dramatically increased shortly after exposure to the acute restraint tail-shock stress and remained at high level for at least 24 h. The level of NP mRNA would be correlated to the elevated plasma concentration of the glucocorticoid corticosterone (CORT) and to the stress intensity. Application of CORT either onto primary cultured hippocampal neurons (5 nM) or in vivo to adrenalectomized (ADX) mice (10 mg/kg B.W., s.c.) mimicked the effect of stress and significantly elevated NP mRNA. These results suggest that the upregulation of NP mRNA after stress is CORT-dependent and point to a role for neuropsin in stress-induced neuronal plasticity.

  16. Deficiency of antinociception and excessive grooming induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Zhouqiao; Zhou, Linglin; Li, Huili; Teng, Huajing; Dai, Wei; Wang, Yongqing; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2011-01-14

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinociception. The clock gene, Per1, has been identified as an effecter response to the acute stresses, but its function in neuroendocrine stress systems remains unclear. In the present study we observed the alterations in grooming and nociceptive behaviors induced by acute immobilization stress in Per1 mutant mice and other genotypes (wild types and Per2 mutant). The results displayed that stress elicited a more robust effect on grooming behavior in Per1 mutant mice than in other genotypes. Subsequently, the obvious stress-induced antinociception was observed in the wild-type and Per2 mutant mice, however, in Per1 mutant, this antinociceptive effects were partially-reversed (mechanical sensitivity), or over-reversed to hyperalgesia (thermal sensitivity). The real-time qPCR results showed that in PVN, there were stress-induced up-regulations of Crh, Avp and c-fos in all of genotypes; moreover, the expression change of Crh in Per1 mutant mice was much larger than in others. Another hormonal gene, Oxt, was up-regulated induced by stress in wild-type and Per2 mutant but not in Per1 mutant. In addition, the stress significantly elevated the serum corticosterone levels without genotype-dependent differences, and accordingly the glucocorticoid receptor gene, Nr3c1, expressed with a similar pattern in PVN of all strains. Taken together, the present study indicated that in acute stress treated Per1 mutant mice, there are abnormal hormonal responses in PVN, correlating with the aberrant

  17. Acute Stress Disorder: Conceptual Issues and Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koucky, Ellen M.; Galovski, Tara E.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2012-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) was included as a diagnosis to the 4th edition of the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual" (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) as a way of describing pathological reactions in the first month following a trauma. Since that time, ASD has been the focus of some controversy, particularly regarding the theoretical basis…

  18. Predicting Performance Under Acute Stress : The Role of Individual Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping st

  19. The Relationship between Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Maria; Henry, Jane L.; Bryant, Richard A.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the relationship between acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following cancer diagnosis. Patients who were recently diagnosed with 1st onset head and neck or lung malignancy (N = 82) were assessed for ASD within the initial month following their diagnosis and reassessed (n =…

  20. Does acute stress disorder predict posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studie...

  1. Does Acute Stress Disorder Predict Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Bank Robbery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Maj; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studies following nonsexual assault. The present study…

  2. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PMID:19123763

  3. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eNosjean

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2-/- mice present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2-/- mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2-/- mice behavioral rigidity.

  4. Surfactant alteration and replacement in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Walmrath Dieter; Grimminger Friedrich; Markart Philipp; Schmidt Reinhold; Ruppert Clemens; Günther Andreas; Seeger Werner

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a frequent, life-threatening disease in which a marked increase in alveolar surface tension has been repeatedly observed. It is caused by factors including a lack of surface-active compounds, changes in the phospholipid, fatty acid, neutral lipid, and surfactant apoprotein composition, imbalance of the extracellular surfactant subtype distribution, inhibition of surfactant function by plasma protein leakage, incorporation of surfactan...

  5. Surfactant alteration and replacement in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmrath Dieter

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a frequent, life-threatening disease in which a marked increase in alveolar surface tension has been repeatedly observed. It is caused by factors including a lack of surface-active compounds, changes in the phospholipid, fatty acid, neutral lipid, and surfactant apoprotein composition, imbalance of the extracellular surfactant subtype distribution, inhibition of surfactant function by plasma protein leakage, incorporation of surfactant phospholipids and apoproteins into polymerizing fibrin, and damage/inhibition of surfactant compounds by inflammatory mediators. There is now good evidence that these surfactant abnormalities promote alveolar instability and collapse and, consequently, loss of compliance and the profound gas exchange abnormalities seen in ARDS. An acute improvement of gas exchange properties together with a far-reaching restoration of surfactant properties was encountered in recently performed pilot studies. Here we summarize what is known about the kind and severity of surfactant changes occuring in ARDS, the contribution of these changes to lung failure, and the role of surfactant administration for therapy of ARDS.

  6. Mood alterations in older adults following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, E F; Pate, D W

    1994-08-01

    Limited research indicates positive affective change following acute bouts of exercise, but whether this improved affect among younger subjects may be generalized to older individuals is not known. The present study, then, examined the effects of a single bout of physical activity among older participants. 16 trained women (Mage = 64.5 +/- 7.6 yr.) completed an abbreviated Profile of Mood States prior to and immediately following a 75-min. session of aerobic line dancing. A series of one-way analyses of variance with repeated measures were used to examine differences between pre- and posttest subscores on mood states. Significant decreases following exercise in scores on Tension, Depression, Fatigue, and Anger and a significant increase in scores on Vigor relative to preexercise (control) scores were found. Global mood was significantly improved after the exercise session. No significant difference was found between pre- and postexercise measures of Confusion. Previous findings of significant improvements in affect immediately after an acute bout of exercise may be generalized to older adults. Repetition with a nonexercised control group is desirable.

  7. Influence of carbonyl stress on rheological alterations of blood materials and decarbonylation effect of glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭密军; 蔡建光; 贺洪; 龚萍; 李国林; 汤婷; 朱泽瑞; 印大中

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various toxic carbonyls such as malondialdehyde(MDA),a secondary product of lipid peroxidation,and other aldehydes on rheological parameters and their relationship with aging-associated alterations were studied.Both MDA and glutaraldehyde(Glu) in different concentrations significantly increase viscosity,plastic viscosity and yield stress of human plasma and erythrocyte suspensions.MDA(20 mmol/L) reduces sharply the typical fluorescence of proteins(excitation 280 nm/emission 350 nm),and produces age pigment-like fluorescence with a strong emission peak at 460 nm when excites at 395 nm by only being incubated for some hours.In contrast,Glu decreases merely the fluorescence of proteins without producing age pigment-like fluorescence.These data suggest interestingly that the MDA-induced gradual protein cross linking seems to form from different mechanisms compared to the fast rheological changes of blood materials which may take place either in acute and chronic diseases or during aging.On the other hand,MDA induces various deleterious alterations of erythrocytes whereas glutathione(GSH) inhibits the MDA-related carbonyl stress in a concentration-dependent manner.The results indicate that carbonyl-amino reaction exists in the blood widely and GSH has the ability to interrupt or reverse this reaction in a certain way.It implies that carbonyl stress may be one of the important factors in blood stasis and suggests a theoretical and practical approach in anti-stresses and anti-aging.

  8. Alteration of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miroslawa Pietruczuk; Milena I Dabrowska; Urszula Wereszczynska-Siemiatkowska; Andrzej Dabrowski

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in patients with acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Twenty patients with mild AP (M-AP) and 15 with severe AP (S-AP) were included in our study. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined at d 1-3, 5,10 and 30 by means of flow cytometry.RESULTS: A significant depletion of circulating lymphocytes was found in AP. In the early AP, the magnitude of depletion was similar for T- and B- lymphocytes. In the late course of S-AP, B-lymphocytes were much more depleted than T-lymphocytes. At d 10, strong shift in the CD7+/CD19+ ratio implicating predominance of Tover B-lymphocytes in S-AP was found. Among T-lymphocytes, the significant depletion of the CD4+ population was observed in M-AP and S-AP, while CD8+ cells were in the normal range. Lymphocytes were found to strongly express activation markers: CD69, CD25, CD28,CD38 and CD122. Serum interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5,IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) levels were significantly increased in both forms of AP. The magnitude of elevation of cytokines known to be produced by Th2 was much higher than cytokines produced by Th1 cells.CONCLUSION: AP in humans is characterized by significant reduction of peripheral blood T- and B-lymphocytes.

  9. Comparison of the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic features in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fatemeh ROSTAMKHANI; Homeira ZARDOOZ; Saleh ZAHEDIASL; Babak FARROKHI

    2012-01-01

    This study was aimed to compare the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on metabolic factors.Forty-two male Wistar rats were divided into control and stressed groups.Stress was applied by a communication box acutely (1 d) and chronically (15 and 30 d).Blood sampling was carried out by retro-orbital-puncture method.The plasma levels of glucose,cholesterol,triglyceride,insulin,and corticosterone were measured.In addition,feed and water intake,latency to eat and drink,adrenal and body weights were determined.Acute and chronic psychological stress did not significantly change basal plasma corticosterone levels.However,immediately (1 min) after acute exposure to stress,plasma corticosterone level increased compared to that before stress exposure.Acute stress increased plasma insulin levels significantly.Fifteen days of stress exposure resulted in plasma glucose increase.Chronic stress significantly increased feed intake,latency to eat,and adrenal weight compared to acute stress.The body weights of both control and stressed groups increased markedly during the experiment.Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index did not change significantly in the stressed group.In conclusion,application of acute and chronic psychological stress leads to different metabolic and/or behavioral changes but the metabolic changes resulting from acute exposure to stress seem to be more pronounced.

  10. Acute effect of aspartame-induced oxidative stress in Wistar albino rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashok, Iyaswamy; Sheeladevi, Rathinasamy; Wankhar, Dapkupar

    2015-09-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the acute effect of aspartame on oxidative stress in the Wistar albino rat brain. We sought to investigate whether acute administration of aspartame (75 mg/kg) could release methanol and induce oxidative stress in the rat brain 24 hours after administration. To mimic human methanol metabolism, methotrexate treated rats were used to study aspartame effects. Wistar strain male albino rats were administered with aspartame orally as a single dose and studied along with controls and methotrexate treated controls. Blood methanol and formate level were estimated after 24 hours and rats were sacrificed and free radical changes were observed in discrete regions by assessing the scavenging enzymes, reduce dglutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation and protein thiol levels. There was a significant increase in lipid peroxidation levels, superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione peroxidase levels (GPx), and catalase activity (CAT) with a significant decrease in GSH and protein thiol. Aspartame exposure resulted in detectable methanol even after 24 hours. Methanol and its metabolites may be responsible for the generation of oxidative stress in brain regions. The observed alteration in aspartame fed animals may be due to its metabolite methanol and elevated formate. The elevated free radicals due to methanol induced oxidative stress.

  11. Acute Stress Reactions in Couples after a Burn Event to Their Young Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.; Van Loey, N.E.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.; Van Son, M.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective This multicenter study examines acute stress reactions in couples following a burn event to their preschool child. Methods Participants were 182 mothers and 154 fathers, including 143 couples, of 193 children (0–4 years) with acute burns. Parents’ self-reported acute stress reactions and e

  12. Think aloud: acute stress and coping strategies during golf performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Adam R; Polman, Remco C J

    2008-07-01

    A limitation of the sport psychology coping literature is the amount of time between a stressful episode and the recall of the coping strategies used in the stressful event (Nicholls & Polman, 2007). The purpose of this study was to develop and implement a technique to measure acute stress and coping during performance. Five high-performance adolescent golfers took part in Level 2 verbalization think aloud trials (Ericsson & Simon, 1993), which involved participants verbalizing their thoughts, over six holes of golf. Verbal reports were audio-recorded during each performance, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using protocol analysis (Ericsson & Simon, 1993). Stressors and coping strategies varied throughout the six holes, which support the proposition that stress and coping is a dynamic process that changes across phases of the same performance (Lazarus, 1999). The results also revealed information regarding the sequential patterning of stress and coping, suggesting that the golfers experienced up to five stressors before reporting a coping strategy. Think aloud appears a suitable method to collect concurrent stress and coping data. PMID:18612855

  13. Prenatal Acute Stress Attenuated Epileptiform Activities in Neonate Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Heshmatian

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Development of the central nervous system (CNS is dependent on interactionsbetween genetic and epigenetic factors, some of which could affect the susceptibilityof the developing brain to damaging insults. Gestational stress has been shown as a potentialfactor associated with higher risk of developing certain neurological and psychiatricdisorders. This study tested the hypothesis that maternal stress influences the risk ofepilepsy in offsprings.Materials and Methods: Pregnant mice were exposed to restraint stress twice a day forthree days at the start of the last week of gestation. Ten days after birth, the intact hippocampiof the newborn mice were excised and prepared for investigation. The hippocampiwere bathed in low magnesium artificial cerebrospinal fluid to induce field potential,and the subsequent spontaneous seizure-like events of the CA1 neurons were recorded.Plasma corticosterone was measured using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA kitand the values were expressed as μg/100 ml.Results: Both the number of recurrent seizures and the duration of seizure activity werereduced in the stressed group compared to the controls (p<0.001. Stress induced a significantrise in serum corticosterone levels in both pregnant mice and in their newbornpups (p<0.001.Conclusion: These findings suggest that acute prenatal stress, which may mimic acutestress in human pregnancy, is a likely factor affecting seizure control in childhood temporallobe epilepsy. The underlying inhibitory mechanism may be an increase in the level ofneurosteroids both in the blood and the brain.

  14. Gestational heat stress alters postnatal offspring body composition indices and metabolic parameters in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca L Boddicker

    Full Text Available The study objectives were to test the hypothesis that heat stress (HS during gestational development alters postnatal growth, body composition, and biological response to HS conditions in pigs. To investigate this, 14 first parity crossbred gilts were exposed to one of four environmental treatments (TNTN, TNHS, HSTN, or HSHS during gestation. TNTN and HSHS dams were exposed to thermal neutral (TN, cyclical 18-22°C or HS conditions (cyclical 28-34°C during the entire gestation, respectively. Dams assigned to HSTN and TNHS treatments were heat-stressed for the first or second half of gestation, respectively. Postnatal offspring were exposed to one of two thermal environments for an acute (24 h or chronic (five weeks duration in either constant TN (21°C or HS (35°C environment. Exposure to chronic HS during their growth phase resulted in decreased longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area (LDA in offspring from HSHS and HSTN treated dams whereas LDA was larger in offspring from dams in TNTN and TNHS conditions. Irrespective of HS during prepubertal postnatal growth, pigs from dams that experienced HS during the first half of gestation (HSHS and HSTN had increased (13.9% subcutaneous fat thickness compared to pigs from dams exposed to TN conditions during the first half of gestation. This metabolic repartitioning towards increased fat deposition in pigs from dams heat-stressed during the first half of gestation was accompanied by elevated blood insulin concentrations (33%; P = 0.01. Together, these results demonstrate HS during the first half of gestation altered metabolic and body composition parameters during future development and in biological responses to a subsequent HS challenge.

  15. Gestational heat stress alters postnatal offspring body composition indices and metabolic parameters in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boddicker, Rebecca L; Seibert, Jacob T; Johnson, Jay S; Pearce, Sarah C; Selsby, Joshua T; Gabler, Nicholas K; Lucy, Matthew C; Safranski, Timothy J; Rhoads, Robert P; Baumgard, Lance H; Ross, Jason W

    2014-01-01

    The study objectives were to test the hypothesis that heat stress (HS) during gestational development alters postnatal growth, body composition, and biological response to HS conditions in pigs. To investigate this, 14 first parity crossbred gilts were exposed to one of four environmental treatments (TNTN, TNHS, HSTN, or HSHS) during gestation. TNTN and HSHS dams were exposed to thermal neutral (TN, cyclical 18-22°C) or HS conditions (cyclical 28-34°C) during the entire gestation, respectively. Dams assigned to HSTN and TNHS treatments were heat-stressed for the first or second half of gestation, respectively. Postnatal offspring were exposed to one of two thermal environments for an acute (24 h) or chronic (five weeks) duration in either constant TN (21°C) or HS (35°C) environment. Exposure to chronic HS during their growth phase resulted in decreased longissimus dorsi cross-sectional area (LDA) in offspring from HSHS and HSTN treated dams whereas LDA was larger in offspring from dams in TNTN and TNHS conditions. Irrespective of HS during prepubertal postnatal growth, pigs from dams that experienced HS during the first half of gestation (HSHS and HSTN) had increased (13.9%) subcutaneous fat thickness compared to pigs from dams exposed to TN conditions during the first half of gestation. This metabolic repartitioning towards increased fat deposition in pigs from dams heat-stressed during the first half of gestation was accompanied by elevated blood insulin concentrations (33%; P = 0.01). Together, these results demonstrate HS during the first half of gestation altered metabolic and body composition parameters during future development and in biological responses to a subsequent HS challenge.

  16. Targeted Resequencing of 9p in Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Yields Concordant Results with Array CGH and Reveals Novel Genomic Alterations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarhadi, V.K.; Lahti, L.M.; Scheinin, I.; Tyybäkinoja, A.; Savola, S.; Usvasalo, A.; Räty, R.; Elonen, E.; Saarinen-Pihkala, U.M.; Knuutila, S.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic alterations of the short arm of chromosome 9 are frequent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. We performed targeted sequencing of 9p region in 35 adolescent and adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients and sought to investigate the sensitivity of detecting copy number alterations in comparis

  17. Early weaning alters the acute phase immune response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research indicates that early weaning prior to shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute phase proteins (APP), and can increase subsequent performance in the feedlot. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system...

  18. Early weaning alters the acute phase response to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research indicates that early weaning prior to shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute phase proteins (APP), and can increase subsequent performance in the feedlot. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system...

  19. Combined heat and mental stress alters neurovascular control in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Klein, Jenna C.; Crandall, Craig G.; Matthew Brothers, R.; Carter, Jason R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of combined heat and mental stress on neurovascular control. We hypothesized that muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and forearm vascular responses to mental stress would be augmented during heat stress. Thirteen subjects performed 5 min of mental stress during normothermia (Tcore; 37 ± 0°C) and heat stress (38 ± 0°C). Heart rate, mean arterial pressure (MAP), MSNA, forearm vascular conductance (FVC; venous occlusion plethysmography), and forearm skin vasc...

  20. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress m

  1. Acute Short-Term Mental Stress Does Not Influence Salivary Flow Rate Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Naumova, Ella A; Sandulescu, Tudor; Al Khatib, Philipp; Thie, Michael; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. Methods: S...

  2. Prenatal SSRI alters the hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in female mice: Possible role for glucocorticoid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitsur, Ronit; Grinshpahet, Rachel; Goren, Naama; Weinstein, Ido; Kirshenboim, Or; Chlebowski, Noa

    2016-08-01

    Life time prevalence of major depression disorder (MDD) is higher in women compared to men especially during the period surrounding childbirth. Women suffering from MDD during pregnancy use antidepressant medications, particularly Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. The present study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, on corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mice. In young females, prenatal FLX significantly elevated corticosterone response to continuous stress. In adults, prenatal FLX augmented corticosterone response to acute stress and suppressed the response to continuous stress. Additionally, prenatal FLX significantly augmented stress-induced increase in locomotion and reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in adult, but not young mice. The dexamethasone suppression test revealed that prenatal FLX induced a state of glucocorticoid resistance in adult females, indicating that the negative feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress was disrupted. These findings provide the first indication of altered hormonal and behavioral responses to continuous stress and suggest a role for the development of glucocorticoid resistance in these effects. According to these findings, prenatal environment may have implications for stress sensitivity and responsiveness to life challenges. Furthermore, this study may assist in understanding the limitations and precautions that should be taken in the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. PMID:27283378

  3. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  4. Tumor Necrosis Factor, but Not Neutrophils, Alters the Metabolic Profile in Acute Experimental Arthritis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina C Oliveira

    Full Text Available Metabolic alterations are associated with arthritis apart from obesity. However, it is still unclear which is the underlying process behind these metabolic changes. Here, we investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF in this process in an acute model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA. Immunized male BALB/c mice received an intra-articular injection of PBS (control or methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA into their knees, and were also pre-treated with different drugs: Etanercept, an anti-TNF drug, DF2156A, a CXCR1/2 receptor antagonist, or a monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 to deplete neutrophils. Local challenge with mBSA evoked an acute neutrophil influx into the knee joint, and enhanced the joint nociception, along with a transient systemic metabolic alteration (higher levels of glucose and lipids, and altered adipocytokines. Pre-treatment with the conventional biological Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNF action, ameliorated the nociception and the acute joint inflammation dominated by neutrophils, and markedly improved many of the altered systemic metabolites (glucose and lipids, adipocytokines and PTX3. However, the lessening of metabolic changes was not due to diminished accumulation of neutrophils in the joint by Etanercept. Reduction of neutrophil recruitment by pre-treating AIA mice with DF2156A, or even the depletion of these cells by using RB6-8C5 reduced all of the inflammatory parameters and hypernociception developed after AIA challenge, but could not prevent the metabolic changes. Therefore, the induction of joint inflammation provoked acute metabolic alterations which were involved with TNF. We suggest that the role of TNF in arthritis-associated metabolic changes is not due to local neutrophils, which are the major cells present in this model, but rather due to cytokines.

  5. Tumor Necrosis Factor, but Not Neutrophils, Alters the Metabolic Profile in Acute Experimental Arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Marina C.; Tavares, Luciana P.; Vago, Juliana P.; Batista, Nathália V.; Queiroz-Junior, Celso M.; Vieira, Angelica T.; Menezes, Gustavo B.; Sousa, Lirlândia P.; van de Loo, Fons A. J.; Teixeira, Mauro M.; Amaral, Flávio A.; Ferreira, Adaliene V. M.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic alterations are associated with arthritis apart from obesity. However, it is still unclear which is the underlying process behind these metabolic changes. Here, we investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in this process in an acute model of antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Immunized male BALB/c mice received an intra-articular injection of PBS (control) or methylated bovine serum albumin (mBSA) into their knees, and were also pre-treated with different drugs: Etanercept, an anti-TNF drug, DF2156A, a CXCR1/2 receptor antagonist, or a monoclonal antibody RB6-8C5 to deplete neutrophils. Local challenge with mBSA evoked an acute neutrophil influx into the knee joint, and enhanced the joint nociception, along with a transient systemic metabolic alteration (higher levels of glucose and lipids, and altered adipocytokines). Pre-treatment with the conventional biological Etanercept, an inhibitor of TNF action, ameliorated the nociception and the acute joint inflammation dominated by neutrophils, and markedly improved many of the altered systemic metabolites (glucose and lipids), adipocytokines and PTX3. However, the lessening of metabolic changes was not due to diminished accumulation of neutrophils in the joint by Etanercept. Reduction of neutrophil recruitment by pre-treating AIA mice with DF2156A, or even the depletion of these cells by using RB6-8C5 reduced all of the inflammatory parameters and hypernociception developed after AIA challenge, but could not prevent the metabolic changes. Therefore, the induction of joint inflammation provoked acute metabolic alterations which were involved with TNF. We suggest that the role of TNF in arthritis-associated metabolic changes is not due to local neutrophils, which are the major cells present in this model, but rather due to cytokines. PMID:26742100

  6. Alteration of hepatic structure and oxidative stress induced by intravenous nanoceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Michael T., E-mail: mttsen01@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Lu, Xiaoqin, E-mail: x0lu0003@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Duan, Xiaoxian, E-mail: x0duan02@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Hardas, Sarita S., E-mail: sarita.hardas@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Sultana, Rukhsana, E-mail: rsult2@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Wu, Peng, E-mail: peng.wu@uky.edu [Dept of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Unrine, Jason M., E-mail: jason.unrine@uky.edu [Dept of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Graham, Uschi, E-mail: graham@caer.uky.edu [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Butterfield, D. Allan, E-mail: dabcns@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Grulke, Eric A., E-mail: eric.grulke@uky.edu [Dept of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Yokel, Robert A., E-mail: ryokel@email.uky.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of nanoceria applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel fuel additives, and for therapeutic intervention as a putative antioxidant. However, the biological effects of nanoceria exposure have yet to be fully defined, which gave us the impetus to examine its systemic biodistribution and biological responses. An extensively characterized nanoceria (5 nm) dispersion was vascularly infused into rats, which were terminated 1 h, 20 h or 30 days later. Light and electron microscopic tissue characterization was conducted and hepatic oxidative stress parameters determined. We observed acute ceria nanoparticle sequestration by Kupffer cells with subsequent bioretention in parenchymal cells as well. The internalized ceria nanoparticles appeared as spherical agglomerates of varying dimension without specific organelle penetration. In hepatocytes, the agglomerated nanoceria frequently localized to the plasma membrane facing bile canaliculi. Hepatic stellate cells also sequestered nanoceria. Within the sinusoids, sustained nanoceria bioretention was associated with granuloma formations comprised of Kupffer cells and intermingling CD3{sup +} T cells. A statistically significant elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level was seen at 1 and 20 h, but subsided by 30 days after ceria administration. Further, elevated apoptosis was observed on day 30. These findings, together with increased hepatic protein carbonyl levels on day 30, indicate ceria-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress, respectively. Such observations suggest a single vascular infusion of nanoceria can lead to persistent hepatic retention of particles with possible implications for occupational and therapeutic exposures. -- Highlights: ► Time course study on nanoceria induced hepatic alterations in rats. ► Serum AST elevation indicated acute hepatotoxicity. ► Ceria is retained for up to 30 days in Kupffer cells

  7. Acute Anteroseptal Myocardial Infarction after a Negative Exercise Stress Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M. Al-Alawi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A myocardial infarction is a rare complication which can occur after an exercise stress test. We report a 48-year-old male who was referred to the Mildura Cardiology Practice, Victoria, Australia, in August 2014 with left-sided chest pain. He underwent an exercise stress test which was negative for myocardial ischaemia. However, the patient presented to the Emergency Department of the Mildura Base Hospital 30 minutes after the test with severe retrosternal chest pain. An acute anteroseptal ST segment elevation myocardial infarction was observed on electrocardiography. After thrombolysis, he was transferred to a tertiary hospital where coronary angiography subsequently revealed significant left anterior descending coronary artery stenosis. Thrombus aspiration and a balloon angioplasty were performed. The patient was discharged three days after the surgical procedure in good health.

  8. Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Arthington, J D; Chase, C C

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that early weaning before shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute-phase proteins (APP) and can increase feedlot performance in beef calves. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system of calves, thus hindering subsequent performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to determine if the innate immune response of early weaned calves (EW; 80 d of age) differed from normal-weaned calves (NW; 250 d of age) in response to an endotoxin challenge. Eighteen Brahman x Angus calves (8 and 10 EW and NW, respectively; 233 +/- 5 kg of BW) were used. Calves were maintained on pasture with supplement and then moved into individual pens for 1 wk of acclimation before the start of the study. Calves were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter 1 d before LPS challenge (0 h; 1.0 microg/kg of BW, intravenously). Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h. Serum samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN), ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Whereas LPS increased serum cortisol (P or= 0.15) was observed. A weaning age x time interaction (P x time interaction (P altered innate immune system may be one of the factors responsible for the improved feedlot performance previously reported in EW calves. PMID:19717781

  9. Increased oxidative stress following acute and chronic high altitude exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, J Ashley; Simoni, Jan; Escudero, Elizabeth; Hurtado, Maria-Elena; Swenson, Erik R; Wesson, Donald E; Schreiner, George F; Schoene, Robert B; Johnson, Richard J; Hurtado, Abdias

    2004-01-01

    The generation of reactive oxygen species is typically associated with hyperoxia and ischemia reperfusion. Recent evidence has suggested that increased oxidative stress may occur with hypoxia. We hypothesized that oxidative stress would be increased in subjects exposed to high altitude hypoxia. We studied 28 control subjects living in Lima, Peru (sea level), at baseline and following 48 h exposure to high altitude (4300 m). To assess the effects of chronic altitude exposure, we studied 25 adult males resident in Cerro de Pasco, Peru (altitude 4300 m). We also studied 27 subjects living in Cerro de Pasco who develop excessive erythrocytosis (hematocrit > 65%) and chronic mountain sickness. Acute high altitude exposure led to increased urinary F(2)-isoprostane, 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.31 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 2.15 +/- 1.1, p = 0.001) and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.37 +/- 0.09, p = 0.002), with a trend to increased plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 63.8 +/- 27, p = NS). High altitude residents had significantly elevated levels of urinary 8-iso PGF(2 alpha) (1.3 +/- 0.8 microg/g creatinine versus 4.1 +/- 3.4, p = 0.007), plasma TBARS (59.7 +/- 36 pmol/mg protein versus 85 +/- 28, p = 0.008), and plasma total glutathione (1.29 +/- 0.10 micromol versus 1.55 +/- 0.19, p < 0.0001) compared to sea level. High altitude residents with excessive erythrocytosis had higher levels of oxidative stress compared to high altitude residents with normal hematological adaptation. In conclusion, oxidative stress is increased following both acute exposure to high altitude without exercise and with chronic residence at high altitude.

  10. Alterations in oxidant/antioxidant balance, high-mobility group box 1 protein and acute phase response in cross-bred suckling piglets suffering from rotaviral enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar De, Ujjwal; Mukherjee, Reena; Nandi, Sukdeb; Patel, Bhimnere Hanumatnagouda Manjunatha; Dimri, Umesh; Ravishankar, Chintu; Verma, Ashok Kumar

    2014-10-01

    Rotaviral enteritis has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in piglets during their post-natal life. The present study was carried out to examine high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices in the serum of suckling piglets suffering from enteritis with or without association of porcine group A rotavirus infection. The present investigation utilized 23 clinical cases with signs of acute enteritis and 12 more healthy piglets of a similar age group as control animals. Out of 23 enteritis cases, 12 cases were found to be positive for porcine group A rotavirus infection as confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific primers for group A rotavirus, and the rest were found negative. The acute enteritis cases in piglets were associated with an elevated level of HMGB1 protein and serum haptoglobin and ceruloplasmin suggestive of an acute phase response. Among the oxidative stress indices, the concentrations of malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in serum were significantly increased. A pronounced drop of total antioxidant capacity and the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and superoxide dismutase in the serum of piglets suffering from acute enteritis compared to healthy ones were also noticed. The alterations in HMGB1 protein, acute phase response and oxidative stress indices were more pronounced in cases with the involvement of porcine rotavirus as compared to rotavirus-negative cases. It is concluded that HMGB1 protein, markers of oxidative stress and acute phase proteins might play an important role in the aetiopathogenesis of porcine diarrhoea caused by rotavirus and might be true markers in diagnosing the conditions leading to the extension of the prompt and effective therapeutic care.

  11. Acute and chronic stress-induced disturbances of microglial plasticity, phenotype and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Frederick Rohan; Nilsson, Michael; Jones, Kimberley

    2013-10-01

    Traditionally, microglia have been considered to act as macrophages of the central nervous system. While this concept still remains true it is also becoming increasingly apparent that microglia are involved in a host of nonimmunological activities, such as monitoring synaptic function and maintaining synaptic integrity. It has also become apparent that microglia are exquisitely sensitive to perturbation by environmental challenges. The aim of the current review is to critically examine the now substantial literature that has developed around the ability of acute, sub-chronic and chronic stressors to alter microglial structure and function. The vast majority of studies have demonstrated that stress promotes significant structural remodelling of microglia, and can enhance the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines from microglia. Mechanistically, many of these effects appear to be driven by traditional stress-linked signalling molecules, namely corticosterone and norepinephrine. The specific effects of these signalling molecules are, however, complex as they can exert both inhibitory and suppressive effects on microglia depending upon the duration and intensity of exposure. Importantly, research has now shown that these stress-induced microglial alterations, rather than being epiphenomena, have broader behavioural implications, with the available evidence implicating microglia in directly regulating certain aspects of cognitive function and emotional regulation. PMID:24020974

  12. Financial stress and outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin J Shah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the association between financial stress and health care outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between self-reported financial stress during initial hospitalization and long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used prospective registry evaluating myocardial infarction: Event and Recovery (PREMIER data, an observational, multicenter US study of AMI patients discharged between January 2003 and June 2004. Primary outcomes were disease-specific and generic health status outcomes at 1 year (symptoms, function, and quality of life (QoL, assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] and Short Form [SF]-12. Secondary outcomes included 1-year rehospitalization and 4-year mortality. Hierarchical regression models accounted for patient socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of care characteristics, and access and barriers to care. RESULTS: Among 2344 AMI patients, 1241 (52.9% reported no financial stress, 735 (31.4% reported low financial stress, and 368 (15.7% reported high financial stress. When comparing individuals reporting low financial stress to no financial stress, there were no significant differences in post-AMI outcomes. In contrast, individuals reporting high financial stress were more likely to have worse physical health (SF-12 PCS mean difference -3.24, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.82, -1.66, mental health (SF-12 MCS mean difference: -2.44, 95% CI: -3.83, -1.05, disease-specific QoL (SAQ QoL mean difference: -6.99, 95% CI: -9.59, -4.40, and be experiencing angina (SAQ Angina Relative Risk = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.32 at 1 year post-AMI. While 1-year readmission rates were increased (Hazard Ratio = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86, 4-year mortality was no different. CONCLUSIONS: High financial stress is common and an important risk factor for worse long-term outcomes post-AMI, independent of access and barriers to care.

  13. Resistance to chemotherapy is associated with altered glucose metabolism in acute myeloid leukemia

    OpenAIRE

    SONG, KUI; Li, Min; Xu, Xiaojun; Xuan, Li; HUANG, GUINIAN; Liu, Qifa

    2016-01-01

    Altered glucose metabolism has been described as a cause of chemoresistance in multiple tumor types. The present study aimed to identify the expression profile of glucose metabolism in drug-resistant acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells and provide potential strategies for the treatment of drug-resistant AML. Bone marrow and serum samples were obtained from patients with AML that were newly diagnosed or had relapsed. The messenger RNA expression of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α, glucose tra...

  14. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Homa Sheikhani; Mohammad Ali Babaee Beygi; Farhad Daryanoosh; Bijan Jafari

    2011-01-01

    Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group) or bo...

  15. Chronic stress differentially affects antioxidant enzymes and modifies the acute stress response in liver of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, J; Djordjevic, A; Adzic, M; Niciforovic, A; Radojcic, M B

    2010-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest close interactions between stressors, particularly those of long duration, and liver diseases, such as hepatic inflammation, that is proposed to occur via reactive oxygen species. In the present study we have used 21-day social isolation of male Wistar rats as a model of chronic stress to investigate protein expression/activity of liver antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutases (SODs), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GLR), and protein expression of their upstream regulators: glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB). We have also characterized these parameters in either naive or chronically stressed animals that were challenged by 30-min acute immobilization. We found that chronic isolation caused decrease in serum corticosterone (CORT) and blood glucose (GLU), increase in NFkB signaling, and disproportion between CuZnSOD, peroxidases (CAT, GPx) and GLR, thus promoting H2O2 accumulation and prooxidative state in liver. The overall results suggested that chronic stress exaggerated responsiveness to subsequent stressor at the level of CORT and GLU, and potentiated GLR response, but compromised the restoration of oxido-reductive balance due to irreversible alterations in MnSOD and GPx. PMID:20406049

  16. Acute administration of l-tyrosine alters energetic metabolism of hippocampus and striatum of infant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Andrea C; Ferreira, Gabriela K; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Furlanetto, Camila B; Gonçalves, Cinara L; Ferreira, Gustavo C; Schuck, Patrícia F; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-08-01

    Tyrosinemia type II is an inborn error of metabolism caused by mutations in the gene that encodes tyrosine aminotransferase, which leads to increased blood tyrosine levels. Considering that tyrosine levels are highly elevated in fluids of patients with tyrosinemia type II, and that previous studies demonstrated significant alterations in brain energy metabolism of young rats caused by l-tyrosine, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of acute administration of l-tyrosine on the activities of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, and mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, II-III, and IV in posterior cortex, hippocampus, and striatum of infant rats. Wistar rats (10 days old) were killed 1h after a single intraperitoneal injection of tyrosine (500 mg/kg) or saline. The activities of energy metabolism enzymes were evaluated in brain of rats. Our results demonstrated that acute administration of l-tyrosine inhibited the activity of citrate synthase activity in striatum and increased the activities of malate dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase in hippocampus. On the other hand, these enzymes were not affected in posterior cortex. The activities of complex I and complex II were inhibited by acute administration of l-tyrosine in striatum. On the other hand, the acute administration of l-tyrosine increased the activity of activity of complex II-III in hippocampus. Complex IV was not affected by acute administration of l-tyrosine in infant rats. Our results indicate an alteration in the energy metabolism in hippocampus and striatum of infant rats after acute administration of l-tyrosine. If the same effects occur in the brain of the patients, it is possible that energy metabolism impairment may be contribute to possible damage in memory and cognitive processes in patients with tyrosinemia type II.

  17. Acute Restraint Stress Enhances Hippocampal Endocannabinoid Function via Glucocorticoid Receptor Activation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N.; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Alger, Bradley E.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to behavioral stress normally triggers a complex, multi-level response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory post-synaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat h...

  18. Bisphenol A in oocytes leads to growth suppression and altered stress performance in juvenile rainbow trout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakanteswar Aluru

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bisphenol A (BPA, used in the manufacture of plastics, is ubiquitously distributed in the aquatic environment. However, the effect of maternal transfer of these xenobiotics on embryonic development and growth is poorly understood in fish. We tested the hypothesis that BPA in eggs, mimicking maternal transfer, impact development, growth and stress performance in juveniles of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trout oocytes were exposed to 0, 30 and 100 microg.mL(-1 BPA for 3 h in ovarian fluid, followed by fertilization. The embryos were maintained in clean water and sampled temporally over 156-days post-fertilization (dpf, and juveniles were sampled at 400-dpf. The egg BPA levels declined steadily after exposure and were undetectable after 21- dpf. Oocyte exposure to BPA led to a delay in hatching and yolk absorption and a consistently lower body mass over 152-dpf. The growth impairment, especially in the high BPA group, correlated with higher growth hormone (GH content and lower GH receptors gene expression. Also, mRNA abundances of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-1 and IGF-2 and their receptors were suppressed in the BPA treated groups. The juvenile fish grown from the BPA-enriched eggs had lower body mass and showed perturbations in plasma cortisol and glucose response to an acute stressor. CONCLUSION: BPA accumulation in eggs, prior to fertilization, leads to hatching delays, growth suppression and altered stress response in juvenile trout. The somatotropic axis appears to be a key target for BPA impact during early embryogenesis, leading to long term growth and stress performance defects in fish.

  19. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory.

  20. The war within : Neurobiological alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, E.

    2006-01-01

    For a large number of veterans, war does not end after they are removed from a combat zone. Traumatic stress affects nearly all veterans, but while the majority of veterans learn to live with their experiences, for some veterans traumatic stress seethes inside. In this dissertation posttraumatic str

  1. Acute Stress Symptoms in Children: Results From an International Data Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Palmieri, Patrick A.; Rork, Kristine; Delahanty, Douglas L.; Kenardy, Justin; Kohser, Kristen L.; Landolt, Markus A.; Le Brocque, Robyne; Marsac, Meghan L.; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Nixon, Reginald D.V.; Bui, Eric; McGrath, Caitlin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe the prevalence of acute stress disorder (ASD) symptoms and to examine proposed "DSM-5" symptom criteria in relation to concurrent functional impairment in children and adolescents. Method: From an international archive, datasets were identified that included assessment of acute traumatic stress reactions and concurrent…

  2. A history of stress alters drought calcium signalling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, H; Brandt, S; Knight, M R

    1998-12-01

    Environmental stresses commonly encountered by plants lead to rapid transient elevations in cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt) (Bush, 1995; Knight et al., 1991). These cellular calcium (Ca2+) signals lead ultimately to the increased expression of stress-responsive genes, including those encoding proteins of protective function (Knight et al., 1996; Knight et al., 1997). The kinetics and magnitude of the Ca2+ signal, or 'calcium signature', differ between different stimuli and are thought to contribute to the specificity of the end response (Dolmetsch et al., 1997; McAinsh and Hetherington, 1998). We measured [Ca2+]cyt changes during treatment with mannitol (to mimic drought stress) in whole intact seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana. The responses of plants which were previously exposed to osmotic and oxidative stresses were compared to those of control plants. We show here that osmotic stress-induced Ca2+ responses can be markedly altered by previous encounters with either osmotic or oxidative stress. The nature of the alterations in Ca2+ response depends on the identity and severity of the previous stress: oxidative stress pre-treatment reduced the mannitol-induced [Ca2+]cyt response whereas osmotic stress pretreatment increased the [Ca2+]cyt response. Therefore, our data show that different combinations of environmental stress can produce novel Ca2+ signal outputs. These alterations are accompanied by corresponding changes in the patterns of osmotic stress-induced gene expression and, in the case of osmotic stress pre-treatment, the acquisition of stress-tolerance. This suggests that altered Ca2+ responses encode a 'memory' of previous stress encounters and thus may perhaps be involved in acclimation to environmental stresses. PMID:10069075

  3. Predictors of acute stress disorder in response to bank robbery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj Hansen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background : Research has shown that robberies in the workplace, in particular those in the bank sector are traumatising events for many employees. However, research in the acute sequelae of bank robberies is limited. Objective and design : The present study explores the prevalence and predictors of acute stress disorder (ASD in a questionnaire survey of bank employees following a bank robbery. Results : Results show that 14.5% (n=22 of participants (N=152 suffered from probable ASD, which is similar to the ASD prevalence found in other interpersonal assault studies. In addition, a number of associations were found between ASD severity, gender, age, social support, previous trauma, and trauma severity. In the final hierarchical multiple regression model, which included 12 variables, 66% of the variance in ASD symptom level was accounted for by two peri-trauma variables (perceived helplessness and perceived life threat and one post-trauma variable (perceived safety after the robbery. Conclusions : The present study yielded some promising results with regards to the influential role of peri-traumatic and post-traumatic variables in predicting ASD after a bank robbery—in particular perceived safety. Although there may be different paths to developing ASD and PTSD, a common core feature may be perceived safety. Furthermore, the results also supported the inclusion of perceived helplessness in the A2 criterion of the DSM-IV ASD diagnosis.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  4. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  5. Can Architectural Design alter the Physiological reaction to Psychosocial Stress ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson Fich, Lars; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning;

    2014-01-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment...... influences these mechanisms. The question that this study attempts to start addressing is therefore whether certain design, characteristics of indoor spaces can make a difference to the physiological stress response as well. Using a virtual version of the Trier Social Stress Test, in which the space...... in the closed room responded with more pronounced cortisol reactivity to stress induction, and continued to show higher levels throughout recovery, compared to participants in the open room. No differences were found regarding any part of the autonomic nervous system....

  6. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  7. Improved Growth and Stress Tolerance in the Arabidopsis oxt1 Mutant Triggered by Altered Adenine Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suchada Sukrong; Kil-Young Yun; Patrizia Stadler; Charan Kumar; Tony Facciuolo; Barbara A.Moffatt; Deane L.Falcone

    2012-01-01

    Plants perceive and respond to environmental stresses with complex mechanisms that are often associated with the activation of antioxidant defenses.A genetic screen aimed at isolating oxidative stress-tolerant lines of Arabidopsis thaliana has identified oxt1,a line that exhibits improved tolerance to oxidative stress and elevated temperature but displays no apparent deleterious growth effects under non-stress conditions.Oxt1 harbors a mutation that arises from the altered expression of a gene encoding adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APT1),an enzyme that converts adenine to adenosine monophosphate (AMP),indicating a link between purine metabolism,whole-plant growth responses,and stress acclimation.The oxt1 mutation results in decreased APT1 expression that leads to reduced enzymatic activity.Correspondingly,oxt1 plants possess elevated levels of adenine.Decreased APT enzyme activity directly correlates with stress resistance in transgenic lines that ectopically express APT1.The metabolic alteration in oxt1 plants also alters the expression of several antioxidant defense genes and the response of these genes to oxidative challenge.Finally,it is shown that manipulation of adenine levels can induce stress tolerance to wild-type plants.Collectively,these results show that alterations in cellular adenine levels can trigger stress tolerance and improve growth,leading to increases in plant biomass.The results also suggest that adenine might play a part in the signals that modulate responses to abiotic stress and plant growth.

  8. Oxidative Stress and Heart Failure in Altered Thyroid States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi Mishra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased or reduced action of thyroid hormone on certain molecular pathways in the heart and vasculature causes relevant cardiovascular derangements. It is well established that hyperthyroidism induces a hyperdynamic cardiovascular state, which is associated with a faster heart rate, enhanced left ventricular systolic and diastolic function whereas hypothyroidism is characterized by the opposite changes. Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism represent opposite clinical conditions, albeit not mirror images. Recent experimental and clinical studies have suggested the involvement of ROS tissue damage under altered thyroid status. Altered-thyroid state-linked changes in heart modify their susceptibility to oxidants and the extent of the oxidative damage they suffer following oxidative challenge. Chronic increase in the cellular levels of ROS can lead to a catastrophic cycle of DNA damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, further ROS generation and cellular injury. Thus, these cellular events might play an important role in the development and progression of myocardial remodeling and heart failure in altered thyroid states (hypo- and hyper-thyroidism. The present review aims at elucidating the various signaling pathways mediated via ROS and their modulation under altered thyroid state and the possibility of antioxidant therapy.

  9. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. PMID:26551431

  10. Cinnamon intake alleviates the combined effects of dietary-induced insulin resistance and acute stress on brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couturier, Karine; Hininger, Isabelle; Poulet, Laurent; Anderson, Richard A; Roussel, Anne-Marie; Canini, Frédéric; Batandier, Cécile

    2016-02-01

    Insulin resistance (IR), which is a leading cause of the metabolic syndrome, results in early brain function alterations which may alter brain mitochondrial functioning. Previously, we demonstrated that rats fed a control diet and submitted to an acute restraint stress exhibited a delayed mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening. In this study, we evaluated the combined effects of dietary and emotional stressors as found in western way of life. We studied, in rats submitted or not to an acute stress, the effects of diet-induced IR on brain mitochondria, using a high fat/high fructose diet (HF(2)), as an IR inducer, with addition or not of cinnamon as an insulin sensitizer. We measured Ca(2+) retention capacity, respiration, ROS production, enzymatic activities and cell signaling activation. Under stress, HF(2) diet dramatically decreased the amount of Ca(2+) required to open the mPTP (13%) suggesting an adverse effect on mitochondrial survival. Cinnamon added to the diet corrected this negative effect and resulted in a partial recovery (30%). The effects related to cinnamon addition to the diet could be due to its antioxidant properties or to the observed modulation of PI3K-AKT-GSK3β and MAPK-P38 pathways or to a combination of both. These data suggest a protective effect of cinnamon on brain mitochondria against the negative impact of an HF(2) diet. Cinnamon could be beneficial to counteract deleterious dietary effects in stressed conditions. PMID:26878796

  11. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriele eBuruck; Johannes eWendsche; Marlen eMelzer; Alexander eStrobel; Denise eDörfel

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain i...

  12. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others

    OpenAIRE

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via...

  13. Altered gene expression pattern in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Kiliszek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI were included. The blood was collected on the 1(st day of myocardial infarction, after 4-6 days, and after 6 months. Control group comprised 14 patients with stable coronary artery disease, without history of myocardial infarction. Gene expression analysis was performed with Affymetrix Human Gene 1.0 ST microarrays and GCS3000 TG system. Lists of genes showing altered expression levels (fold change >1.5, p<0.05 were submitted to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Gene lists from each group were examined for canonical pathways and molecular and cellular functions. Comparing acute phase of MI with the same patients after 6 months (stable phase and with control group we found 24 genes with changed expression. In canonical analysis three pathways were highlighted: signaling of PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, IL-10 and IL-6 (interleukin 10 and 6. CONCLUSIONS: In the acute phase of STEMI, dozens of genes from several pathways linked with lipid/glucose metabolism, platelet function and atherosclerotic plaque stability show altered expression. Up-regulation of SOCS3 and FAM20 genes in the first days of myocardial infarction is observed in the vast majority of patients.

  14. Hepatoprotective effect of carob against acute ethanol-induced oxidative stress in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souli, Abdelaziz; Sebai, Hichem; Chehimi, Latifa; Rtibi, Kaïs; Tounsi, Haifa; Boubaker, Samir; Sakly, Mohsen; El-Benna, Jamel; Amri, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether subacute treatment with aqueous extract of carob (Ceratonia siliqua L.) pods (AECPs) protects against ethanol (EtOH)-induced oxidative stress in rat liver. Animals were divided into four groups: control, carob, EtOH and EtOH + carob. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally pretreated with AECP (600 mg/kg body weight (bw)) during 7 days and intoxicated for 6 h by acute oral administration of EtOH (6 g/kg bw) 24 h after the last injection. We found that acute administration of EtOH leads to hepatotoxicity as monitored by the increase in the levels of hepatic marker aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase as well as hepatic tissue injury. EtOH also increased the formation of malondialdehyde in the liver, indicating an increase in lipid peroxidation and depletion of antioxidant enzyme activities as superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Subacute carob pretreatment prevented all the alterations induced by EtOH and returned their levels to near normal. Importantly, we showed that acute alcohol increased hepatic and plasmatic hydrogen peroxide and free iron levels. The carob pretreatment reversed EtOH effects to near control levels. These data suggest that carob could have a beneficial effect in inhibiting the oxidative damage induced by acute EtOH administration and that its mode of action may involve an opposite effect on plasma and tissue-free iron accumulation. Indeed, carob can be offered as a food additive to protect against EtOH-induced oxidative damage.

  15. Social stress reactivity alters reward and punishment learning

    OpenAIRE

    Cavanagh, James F.; Frank, Michael J; Allen, John J.B.

    2010-01-01

    To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishme...

  16. Pressor recovery after acute stress is impaired in high fructose-fed Lean Zucker rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jennifer A; D'Angelo, Gerard; Mintz, James D; Fulton, David J; Stepp, David W

    2016-06-01

    Insulin resistance is a powerful predictor of cardiovascular disease; however, the mechanistic link remains unclear. This study aims to determine if early cardiovascular changes associated with short-term fructose feeding in the absence of obesity manifest as abnormal blood pressure control. Metabolic dysfunction was induced in Lean Zucker rats by short-term high-fructose feeding. Rats were implanted with telemetry devices for the measurement of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and subjected to air jet stress at 5 and 8 weeks after feeding. Additional animals were catheterized under anesthesia for the determination of MAP and blood flow responses in the hind limb and mesenteric vascular beds to intravenous injection of isoproterenol (0.001-0.5 μm), a β-adrenergic agonist. Metabolic dysfunction in high-fructose rats was not accompanied by changes in 24-h MAP Yet, animals fed a high-fructose diet for 8 weeks exhibited a marked impairment in blood pressure recovery after air-jet stress. Dose-dependent decreases in MAP and peripheral blood flow in response to isoproterenol treatment were significantly attenuated in high-fructose rats. These data suggest that impaired blood pressure recovery to acute mental stress precedes the onset of hypertension in the early stages of insulin resistance. Further, blunted responses to isoproterenol implicate β2-adrenergic sensitivity as a possible mechanism responsible for altered blood pressure control after short-term high-fructose feeding. PMID:27335430

  17. Review of VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline on management of acute stress and interventions to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William P. Nash, MD

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes the recommendations of the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA/Department of Defense (DOD VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline for Management of Post-Traumatic Stress that pertain to acute stress and the prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder, including screening and early interventions for acute stress states in various settings. Recommended interventions during the first 4 days after a potentially traumatic event include attending to safety and basic needs and providing access to physical, emotional, and social resources. Psychological first aid is recommended for management of acute stress, while psychological debriefing is discouraged. Further medical and psychiatric assessment and provision of brief, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy are warranted if clinically significant distress or functional impairment persists or worsens after 2 days or if the criteria for a diagnosis of acute stress disorder are met. Follow-up monitoring and rescreening are endorsed for at least 6 months for everyone who experiences significant acute posttraumatic stress. Four interventions that illustrate early intervention principles contained in the VA/DOD Clinical Practice Guideline are described.

  18. Altered NO3- assimilation in P-stressed plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To examine P stress effects on NO3- uptake and assimilation, young tobacco plants were deprived of external P for 12 days and at selected times exposed to 15NO3- for 12h uptake periods. In -P plants, tissue P concentrations and growth decreased progressively with time relative to controls. Uptake of 15NO3- per g root DW was restricted markedly, being 70% of the control rate on the day 3 and only 17% on day 9. Additional disruptions in the NO3- assimilation pathway were evident, as larger proportions of absorbed 15NO3- were retained in the root and soluble reduced-15N accumulated in leaves with increasing P stress. The results indicate that transport processes controlling NO3- uptake into the root symplasm and its release into the xylem are major points of regulations in plants responding to P deficiency

  19. Small pulmonary vascular alteration and acute exacerbations of COPD: quantitative computed tomography analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiyue; Chen, Xuesong; Liu, Kouying; Xie, Weiping; Wang, Hong; Wei, Yongyue; Tang, Lijun; Zhu, Yinsu

    2016-01-01

    The morphologic alterations of pulmonary small vessels measured by computed tomography (CT) have been used to evaluate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the relationship between small pulmonary vascular alteration and acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) is not well understood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cross-sectional area (CSA) of small pulmonary vessel alterations measured on CT images and investigate its relationship with the COPD severity staged by the degree of airflow limitation and the occurrence of AECOPD. We retrospectively reviewed CT scans, clinical characteristics, and pulmonary function test results of 153 patients with COPD. All the patients were divided into AECOPD and non-AECOPD group according to the COPD staging and pulmonary function test results. The percentages of the total CSA less than 5 mm2 and equal to 5–10 mm2 over the lung area (%CSA<5 and %CSA5–10, respectively) were measured. The %CSA<5 steadily decreased in relation to the increase of COPD severity. In addition, %CSA<5 of the AECOPD group was significantly lower than that of the non-AECOPD group (0.41±0.13 versus 0.68±0.18, P<0.001), and the optimal cutoff value was 0.56 (sensitivity, 0.863; specificity, 0.731). Therefore, small pulmonary vascular alteration, as measured by %CSA<5, could indicate not only the degree of COPD severity, but also the occurrence of AECOPD. PMID:27578971

  20. Surviving endoplasmic reticulum stress is coupled to altered chondrocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Yeung Tsang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling (ERSS protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence of a 13-base pair deletion in Col10a1 (13del, misfolded alpha1(X chains accumulate in HCs and elicit ERSS. Histological and gene expression analyses showed that these chondrocytes survived ER stress, but terminal differentiation is interrupted, and endochondral bone formation is delayed, producing a chondrodysplasia phenotype. This altered differentiation involves cell-cycle re-entry, the re-expression of genes characteristic of a prehypertrophic-like state, and is cell-autonomous. Concomitantly, expression of Col10a1 and 13del mRNAs are reduced, and ER stress is alleviated. ERSS, abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, and altered growth plate architecture also occur in mice expressing mutant collagen II and aggrecan. Alteration of the differentiation program in chondrocytes expressing unfolded or misfolded proteins may be part of an adaptive response that facilitates survival and recovery from the ensuing ER stress. However, the altered differentiation disrupts the highly coordinated events of endochondral ossification culminating in chondrodysplasia.

  1. Prolonged Effects of Acute Stress on Decision-Making under Risk: A Human Psychophysiological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakawa, Kaori; Ohira, Hideki; Matsunaga, Masahiro; Isowa, Tokiko

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prolonged effects of physiological responses induced by acute stress on risk-taking in decision-making. Participants were divided into a Stress group (N = 14) and a Control group (N = 12). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered as an acute stressor, and reading was administered as a control task; thereafter, participants performed a decision-making task in which they needed to choose a sure option or a gamble option in Gain and Loss frame trials 2 h after (non-) exposure to the stressor. Increased cortisol, adrenaline, heart rate (HR), and subjective stress levels validated acute stress manipulation. Stressed participants made fewer risky choices only in the Gain domain, whereas no effect of stress was shown in the Loss domain. Deceleration of HR reflecting attention was greater for Gains compared with Losses only in the Stress group. Risk avoidance was determined by increased levels of cortisol caused by acute stress. These results suggest that processes regarding glucocorticoid might be involved in the prolonged effects of acute stress on the evaluation of risks and the monitoring of outcomes in decision-making.

  2. Acutely altered hemodynamics following venous obstruction in the early chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stekelenburg-de Vos, Sandra; Ursem, Nicolette T C; Hop, Wim C J; Wladimiroff, Juriy W; Gittenberger-de Groot, Adriana C; Poelmann, Robert E

    2003-03-01

    In the venous clip model specific cardiac malformations are induced in the chick embryo by obstructing the right lateral vitelline vein with a microclip. Clipping alters venous return and intracardiac laminar blood flow patterns, with secondary effects on the mechanical load of the embryonic myocardium. We investigated the instantaneous effects of clipping the right lateral vitelline vein on hemodynamics in the stage-17 chick embryo. 32 chick embryos HH 17 were subdivided into venous clipped (N=16) and matched control embryos (N=16). Dorsal aortic blood flow velocity was measured with a 20 MHz pulsed Doppler meter. A time series of eight successive measurements per embryo was made starting just before clipping and ending 5h after clipping. Heart rate, peak systolic velocity, time-averaged velocity, peak blood flow, mean blood flow, peak acceleration and stroke volume were determined. All hemodynamic parameters decreased acutely after venous clipping and only three out of seven parameters (heart rate, time-averaged velocity and mean blood flow) showed a recovery to baseline values during the 5h study period. We conclude that the experimental alteration of venous return has major acute effects on hemodynamics in the chick embryo. These effects may be responsible for the observed cardiac malformations after clipping.

  3. Alterations of Lymphoid Enhancer Factor-1 Isoform Expression in Solid Tumors and Acute Leukemias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenbing WANG; Carsten M(U)LLER-TIDOW; Ping JI; Bj(o)rn STEFFEN; Ralf METZGER; Paul M. SCHNEIDER; Hartmut HALFTER; Mark SCHRADER; Wolfgang E. BERDEL; Hubert SERVE

    2005-01-01

    Two major transcripts of lymphoid enhancer factor-1 (LEF-1) have been described. The long isoform with β-catenin binding domain functions as a transcriptional enhancer factor. The short isoform derives from an intronic promoter and exhibits dominant negative activity. Recently, alterations of LEF- 1isoforms distribution have been described in colon cancer. In the current study we employed a quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR method (TaqMan) to analyze expression of LEF-1 isoforms in a large cohort of human tumor (n=304) and tumor-free control samples (n=56). The highest expression level of LEF-1 was found in carcinoma samples whereas brain cancer samples expressed little. Expression of LEF1 was different in distinct cancer types. For example, the mRNA level of LEF-1 was lower in testicular tumor samples compared with tumor-free control samples. Besides epithelial cancers, significant LEF-1expression was also found in hematopoietic cells. In hematological malignancies, overall LEF-1 level was higher in lymphocytic leukemias compared with myeloid leukemias and normal hematopoiesis. However,acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia showed a significantly increased fraction of the oncogenic LEF-1 compared with chronic lymphocytic leukemia and chronic myeloid leukemia. Taken together,these data suggest that LEF-1 is abundantly expressed in human tumors and the ratio of the oncogenic and the dominant negative short isoform altered not only in carcinomas but also in leukemia.

  4. Cognitive Load Undermines Thought Suppression in Acute Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Reginald D V; Rackebrandt, Julie

    2016-05-01

    Thought suppression studies demonstrate that attempts to suppress can be undermined by cognitive load. We report the first instance in which this has been tested experimentally in a sample of recently traumatized individuals. Individuals with and without acute stress disorder (ASD) were recruited following recent trauma and randomized to load or no load conditions (N=56). They monitored intrusive memories during baseline, suppression, and think anything phases. The impact of suppression and load on self-reported intrusions, attention bias (dot-probe), and memory priming (word-stem task) was assessed. The ASD load group were less able to suppress memories (d=0.32, CI95 [-0.15, 0.83], p=.088) than the ASD no load group (d=0.63, CI95 [0.08, 1.24], panything phase, the ASD load group reported more intrusions than the ASD no load or non-ASD groups (with and without load). No consistent findings were observed in relation to attentional bias. ASD load individuals exhibited stronger priming responses for motor vehicle accident and assault words than all other groups (ds between 0.35-0.73). Working memory did not moderate any outcomes of interest. The findings indicate that cognitive load interferes with suppression and may enhance access to trauma memories and associated material. The study extends previous research by demonstrating these effects for the first time in a clinical sample of recent survivors of trauma. PMID:27157032

  5. Reproductive experience alters neural and behavioural responses to acute oestrogen receptor α activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, E M; Casey, K; Carini, L M; Bridges, R S

    2013-12-01

    Reproductive experience (i.e. parturition and lactation) leads to persistent alterations in anxiety-like behaviour that are influenced by the oestrous cycle. We recently found that repeated administration of the selective oestrogen receptors (ER)α agonist propyl-pyrazole triol (PPT) results in anxiolytic-like behaviours on the elevated plus maze (EPM) in primiparous (but not nulliparous) female rats. The present study examined the effects of the acute administration of PPT on EPM behaviour in primiparous and aged-matched, nulliparous female rats. In addition, corticosterone secretion, corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) gene expression and expression of the immediate early gene product Fos in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and amygdala were measured either after EPM testing or in home cage controls. Acute PPT administration significantly modified EPM behaviour as a function of reproductive experience, with nulliparous females tending toward increased anxiety-like behaviours and primiparous females tending toward decreased anxiety-like behaviours. In home cage controls, PPT increased corticosterone secretion in all females; however, both vehicle- and PPT-treated, primiparous females had reduced corticosterone levels compared to their nulliparous counterparts. Significant effects of PPT on CRH mRNA within the PVN were observed after the administration of PPT but only in primiparous females tested on the EPM. PPT also increased Fos expression within the PVN of EPM-exposed females; however, both vehicle- and PPT-treated primiparous females had reduced Fos expression compared to nulliparous females. In the amygdala, PPT increased Fos immunoreactivity in the central but not the medial or basolateral amygdala, although these effects were only observed in home cage females. Additionally, both vehicle- and PPT-treated home cage, primiparous females had increased Fos in the central nucleus of the amygdala compared to nulliparous controls. Overall, these data

  6. Histological alterations in gills of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus caused by acute exposition to zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daiane Cristina Marques; da Matta, Sérgio Luis Pinto; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; dos Santos, Jorge Abdala Dergam

    2012-11-01

    Increasing contamination of aquatic ecosystems by metals has caused various morphological, physiological and biochemical changes in aquatic organisms, and the gills of fish are recognized as indicators of environmental quality. In this context, the present work proposed to study the effects of different concentrations of zinc (Zn) in the histology of gills of yellow tail lambari (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus) after acute exposure. Seventy-two adult males of A. aff. bimaculatus were used, the treatments were six concentrations of Zn: 0; 3; 5; 10; 15; and 20 mg/L of water, by 96 h, and gills, muscle and bone fragments were removed. Fragments of gills were fixed and included, sectioned in a rotary microtome and stained with toluidin blue. Fragments of bone, muscle and gills were dehydrated and digested to quantify the absorption of Zn. The median lethal concentration (LC(50)) 96 h after Zn acute exposure was 10 mg/L of water. Noteworthy, Zn was highly toxic in acute exposure trials starting at the concentration 5 mg/L. The exposure of fish to the metal caused branchial histopathological changes correlated with increasing concentration, caused the death of fish at concentrations of 10, 15 and 20 mg/L. The histological alterations observed in the gills were hyperplasia, lamellar fusion, aneurysm, destruction of the lamellar epithelium, rupture of membrane, deletion of secondary lamellar high, which presented more severity in treatments exposed to the highest concentrations. In conclusion, gills of A. aff. bimaculatus presented profound histological alterations as a result of Zn exposure, and hence, proved to be excellent indicators of environmental contamination.

  7. Acute stress modulates feedback processing in men and women: differential effects on the feedback-related negativity and theta and beta power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Banis

    Full Text Available Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses.

  8. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular. PMID:27174311

  9. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganaraja B

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on ceruloplasmin level in acute stress. AIMS: To assess the estradiol induced changes in plasma ceruloplasmin concentration on exposure of the rats to acute stress. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Acute stress was induced by forcing the rats to swim till exhaustion. The rats were overiectomised bilaterally to remove the primary source of sex hormones. And hormone replacement was done later. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Wistar albino female rats were used. Acute stress was induced before overiectomy, following recovery from surgery, and again after Estradiol Valerate injection (for 10 days in same group of rats. The plasma ceruloplasmin was estimated immediately after stress during each stage - that is preoperative control, stressed control, after overiectomy and then following treatment with Estradiol Valerate. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Paired sample T test was applied to analyze the findings. Results: We found lowest ceruloplasmin level after stress in overiectomised animals, while on substitution of estradiol the trend appeared to be reversed. CONCLUSION: The result suggested a direct effect of estrogen on hepatic ceruloplasmin production/release and this could account for some of the beneficial effects of hormone replacement therapy.

  10. Acute stress switches spatial navigation strategy from egocentric to allocentric in a virtual Morris water maze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gerven, Dustin J H; Ferguson, Thomas; Skelton, Ronald W

    2016-07-01

    Stress and stress hormones are known to influence the function of the hippocampus, a brain structure critical for cognitive-map-based, allocentric spatial navigation. The caudate nucleus, a brain structure critical for stimulus-response-based, egocentric navigation, is not as sensitive to stress. Evidence for this comes from rodent studies, which show that acute stress or stress hormones impair allocentric, but not egocentric navigation. However, there have been few studies investigating the effect of acute stress on human spatial navigation, and the results of these have been equivocal. To date, no study has investigated whether acute stress can shift human navigational strategy selection between allocentric and egocentric navigation. The present study investigated this question by exposing participants to an acute psychological stressor (the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task, PASAT), before testing navigational strategy selection in the Dual-Strategy Maze, a modified virtual Morris water maze. In the Dual-Strategy maze, participants can chose to navigate using a constellation of extra-maze cues (allocentrically) or using a single cue proximal to the goal platform (egocentrically). Surprisingly, PASAT stress biased participants to solve the maze allocentrically significantly more, rather than less, often. These findings have implications for understanding the effects of acute stress on cognitive function in general, and the function of the hippocampus in particular.

  11. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  12. Prenatal Stress and Acute Stress Later in Life Impacts the Responses in Tests for Depressive-Like Behavior in a Sex-Specific Manner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sickmann, Helle Mark; Skoven, Christian; Arentzen, Tina S.;

    , PS blunted this effect. Relative and absolute numbers of rapid eye movement sleep bouts were higher in PS offspring. Moreover, exposure to an acute stressor induced a REM rebound effect in control animals but this compensatory mechanism was blunted in PS animals. Finally, depression-like behavioral...... stress (PS). These include increased helplessness, altered anxiety indicators and sleep modifications. Our purpose was to further investigate behavioral depression indices following PS as well as CNS structural changes including sex specificity of these variables. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were...... in locomotor activity, depressive- and anxiety-like behavior as well as sleep architecture. Some animals were analyzed for CNS microstructural changes based on diffusion MRI. Subsets of PS and control rats were exposed to an acute stressor prior to the behavioral tests. Rearing/climbing activity in a familiar...

  13. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. METHODS/RESULTS: Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. CONCLUSION: Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals

  14. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD), are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI) treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiation toxicity. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 26 ALL patients 24 hours after TBI preconditioning (4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively). Extracted DNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Average 2.31 times mtDNA and 0.53 fold CD levels were observed after 4.5 Gy exposure compared to their basal levels. 9 Gy TBI produced a greater response of both mtDNA and CD levels than 4.5 Gy. Significant inverse correlation was found between mtDNA content and CD level at 4.5 and 9 Gy (P = 0.037 and 0.048). Moreover, mtDNA content of lymphocytes without irradiation was found to be correlated to age. mtDNA and CD content may be considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity

  15. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Fuyun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD, are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiation toxicity. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 26 ALL patients 24 hours after TBI preconditioning (4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Extracted DNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Results Average 2.31 times mtDNA and 0.53 fold CD levels were observed after 4.5 Gy exposure compared to their basal levels. 9 Gy TBI produced a greater response of both mtDNA and CD levels than 4.5 Gy. Significant inverse correlation was found between mtDNA content and CD level at 4.5 and 9 Gy (P = 0.037 and 0.048. Moreover, mtDNA content of lymphocytes without irradiation was found to be correlated to age. Conclusions mtDNA and CD content may be considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity.

  16. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    OpenAIRE

    Alejandra Delgado; Erica H. Jaffé

    2011-01-01

    We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. Th...

  17. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    OpenAIRE

    Raio, Candace M.; Phelps, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ...

  18. Effects of acute stress on learning and memory processes of malnourished rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Duarte Ferreira Manhas dos Vales; Marisa Tomoe Hebihara Fukuda; Sebastião de Sousa Almeida

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of acute stress on the processes of learning and memory in malnourished rats tested in the Morris water maze. The animals were divided into eight groups according to nutritional status (malnourished or well nourished) and stress (stressed or unstressed). In Experiment I the animals were subjected to immobilization stress procedure before the learning session and in Experiment II after the learning sessions. The test consisted of two daily se...

  19. Altered oscillatory brain dynamics after repeated traumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruf Martina

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeated traumatic experiences, e.g. torture and war, lead to functional and structural cerebral changes, which should be detectable in cortical dynamics. Abnormal slow waves produced within circumscribed brain regions during a resting state have been associated with lesioned neural circuitry in neurological disorders and more recently also in mental illness. Methods Using magnetoencephalographic (MEG-based source imaging, we mapped abnormal distributions of generators of slow waves in 97 survivors of torture and war with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in comparison to 97 controls. Results PTSD patients showed elevated production of focally generated slow waves (1–4 Hz, particularly in left temporal brain regions, with peak activities in the region of the insula. Furthermore, differential slow wave activity in right frontal areas was found in PTSD patients compared to controls. Conclusion The insula, as a site of multimodal convergence, could play a key role in understanding the pathophysiology of PTSD, possibly accounting for what has been called posttraumatic alexithymia, i.e., reduced ability to identify, express and regulate emotional responses to reminders of traumatic events. Differences in activity in right frontal areas may indicate a dysfunctional PFC, which may lead to diminished extinction of conditioned fear and reduced inhibition of the amygdala.

  20. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  1. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioboo, Carmen [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); O' Connor, Jose Enrique [Laboratorio de Citomica, Unidad Mixta de Investigacion CIPF-UVEG, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda. Autopista del Saler, 16, 46013 Valencia (Spain); Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, Angeles, E-mail: cid@udc.es [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  2. Sleep alterations following exposure to stress predict fear-associated memory impairments in a rodent model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderheyden, William M; George, Sophie A; Urpa, Lea; Kehoe, Michaela; Liberzon, Israel; Poe, Gina R

    2015-08-01

    Sleep abnormalities, such as insomnia, nightmares, hyper-arousal, and difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep, are diagnostic criteria of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The vivid dream state, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, has been implicated in processing emotional memories. We have hypothesized that REM sleep is maladaptive in those suffering from PTSD. However, the precise neurobiological mechanisms regulating sleep disturbances following trauma exposure are poorly understood. Using single prolonged stress (SPS), a well-validated rodent model of PTSD, we measured sleep alterations in response to stressor exposure and over a subsequent 7-day isolation period during which the PTSD-like phenotype develops. SPS resulted in acute increases in REM sleep and transition to REM sleep, and decreased waking in addition to alterations in sleep architecture. The severity of the PTSD-like phenotype was later assessed by measuring freezing levels on a fear-associated memory test. Interestingly, the change in REM sleep following SPS was significantly correlated with freezing behavior during extinction recall assessed more than a week later. Reductions in theta (4-10 Hz) and sigma (10-15 Hz) band power during transition to REM sleep also correlated with impaired fear-associated memory processing. These data reveal that changes in REM sleep, transition to REM sleep, waking, and theta and sigma power may serve as sleep biomarkers to identify individuals with increased susceptibility to PTSD following trauma exposure. PMID:26019008

  3. Behavioral response of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to acute ammonia stress monitored by computer vision

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jian-yu; MIAO Xiang-wen; LIU Ying; CUI Shao-rong

    2005-01-01

    The behavioral responses of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to low (0.13 mg/L), moderate (0.79 mg/L) and high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were monitored using a computer vision system. The swimming activity and geometrical parameters such as location of the gravity center and distribution of the fish school were calculated continuously. These behavioral parameters of tilapia school responded sensitively to moderate and high UIA concentration. Under high UIA concentration the fish activity showed a significant increase (P<0.05), exhibiting an avoidance reaction to high ammonia condition, and then decreased gradually. Under moderate and high UIA concentration the school's vertical location had significantly large fluctuation (P<0.05) with the school moving up to the water surface then down to the bottom of the aquarium alternately and tending to crowd together. After several hours' exposure to high UIA level, the school finally stayed at the aquarium bottom. These observations indicate that alterations in fish behavior under acute stress can provide important information useful in predicting the stress.

  4. Chronic and acute effects of stress on energy balance: are there appropriate animal models?

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Ruth B. S.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates multiple neural and endocrine systems to allow an animal to respond to and survive in a threatening environment. The corticotropin-releasing factor system is a primary initiator of this integrated response, which includes activation of the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The energetic response to acute stress is determined by the nature and severity of the stressor, but a typical response to an acute stressor is inhibition of food...

  5. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  6. Oxidative stress-induced proteome alterations target different cellular pathways in human myoblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baraibar, Martin A; Hyzewicz, Janek; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina;

    2011-01-01

    Although increased oxidative stress has been associated with the impairment of proliferation and function of adult human muscle stem cells, proteins either involved in the stress response or damaged by oxidation have not been identified. A parallel proteomics approach was performed for analyzing...... are mainly cytosolic and involved in carbohydrate metabolism, cellular assembly, cellular homeostasis, and protein synthesis and degradation. Pathway analysis revealed skeletal and muscular disorders, cell death, and cancer-related as the main molecular networks altered. Interestingly, these pathways...

  7. Stress during Adolescence Alters Palatable Food Consumption in a Context-Dependent Manner

    OpenAIRE

    Handy, Christine; Yanaga, Stephanie; Reiss, Avery; Zona, Nicole; Robinson, Emily; Saxton, Katherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and preferences may be shaped by exposure to stressful environments during sensitive periods in development, and even small changes in consumption can have important effects on long term health. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a sensitive period, in which adverse experiences can alter development, but the specific programming effects that may occur during adolescence remain incompletely understood. The current study seeks to explore the effects of stress during late...

  8. Juvenile stress enhances anxiety and alters corticosteroid receptor expression in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Brydges, Nichola M.; Jin, Rowen; Seckl, Jonathan,; Holmes, Megan C; Drake, Amanda J.; Hall, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundExposure to stress in early life is correlated with the development of anxiety disorders in adulthood. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, but an imbalance in corticosteroid receptor (CR) expression in the limbic system, particularly the hippocampus, has been implicated in the etiology of anxiety disorders. However, little is known about how prepubertal stress in the so called “juvenile” period might alter the expression of these receptors.AimsTherefore, the aim of t...

  9. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  10. Renal Oxidative Stress Induced by Long-Term Hyperuricemia Alters Mitochondrial Function and Maintains Systemic Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Cristóbal-García

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We addressed if oxidative stress in the renal cortex plays a role in the induction of hypertension and mitochondrial alterations in hyperuricemia. A second objective was to evaluate whether the long-term treatment with the antioxidant Tempol prevents renal oxidative stress, mitochondrial alterations, and systemic hypertension in this model. Long-term (11-12 weeks and short-term (3 weeks effects of oxonic acid induced hyperuricemia were studied in rats (OA, 750 mg/kg BW, OA+Allopurinol (AP, 150 mg/L drinking water, OA+Tempol (T, 15 mg/kg BW, or vehicle. Systolic blood pressure, renal blood flow, and vascular resistance were measured. Tubular damage (urine N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase and oxidative stress markers (lipid and protein oxidation along with ATP levels were determined in kidney tissue. Oxygen consumption, aconitase activity, and uric acid were evaluated in isolated mitochondria from renal cortex. Short-term hyperuricemia resulted in hypertension without demonstrable renal oxidative stress or mitochondrial dysfunction. Long-term hyperuricemia induced hypertension, renal vasoconstriction, tubular damage, renal cortex oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction and decreased ATP levels. Treatments with Tempol and allopurinol prevented these alterations. Renal oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia promoted mitochondrial functional disturbances and decreased ATP content, which represent an additional pathogenic mechanism induced by chronic hyperuricemia. Hyperuricemia-related hypertension occurs before these changes are evident.

  11. Effect of Celastrus paniculatus seed oil (Jyothismati oil on acute and chronic immobilization stress induced in swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Lekha

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress alters the homeostasis and is produced by several factors. Immobilization stress induced due to reduced floor area provided for the mobility results in the imbalance of oxidant and antioxidant status. The modern computer savvy world decreases human mobility in the working environment, leading to the formation of oxygen free radicals and if left untreated might result in severe health problems like hypertension, cardiovascular disease, premature aging and brain dysfunction. Hence, modern medicines rely upon the medicinal plants for some drugs with zero side effects. In this context, Jyothismati oil (JO, extracted from Celastrus paniculatus seeds, was used to treat acute and chronic immobilization induced experimentally. C. paniculatus plant is considered to be rich in antioxidant content and so the seed oil extract′s efficacy was tested against immobilization stress in albino mice. The animals were kept in a restrainer for short and long durations, grouped separately and fed with the drug. Animals were sacrificed and the samples were analyzed. The antioxidant enzyme levels of the animals regained and markedly increased in the acute and chronic immobilized groups, respectively. The results suggested that the extract of C. paniculatus seed was highly efficacious in reducing the stress induced by least mobility for hours.

  12. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  13. Early Age Thermal Conditioning Improves Broiler Chick's Response to Acute Heat Stress at Marketing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Acute heat stress at marketing age especially in broiler chickens raised in open houses with reduced means of heat exchange leads to economic losses. The objective of this study was to determine beneficial effects of early age thermal conditioning in reducing adverse effects of acute heat stress and decrease losses. Approach: Ninety one day-old broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of three treatments (n = 30: (1 control (normally raised, (2 early age thermal conditioning (exposed to temperature of 40±1°C for 24 h at 5th day of age, then raised as control chicks and (3 chronic stress (exposed to 33±2°C from day one till 6 weeks of age. At 42nd day of age, all chicks were subjected to acute heat stress of 39±2°C for 2 h. Blood samples were collected from all groups before and after exposure to acute heat stress. Results: Blood pH increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after exposure to acute heat stress coinciding with significant decrease in blood carbon dioxide pressure (pCo2 in controls only. Blood potassium level decreased in controls, while in thermally-conditioned or chronically-stressed no significant changes were observed. Blood sodium level showed a trend toward decreased levels in controls while a trend toward increased levels was observed in both thermally-conditioned and chronically-stressed birds. Importantly, significant reductions were observed in total erythrocyte count and hemoglobin level in chronically-stressed birds as compared to other groups before and after acute stress exposure. Hetrophil/lymphocyte ratio increased in both controls and thermally-conditioned chicks after acute heat exposure, but not in chronically-stressed birds. Conclusion: When exposed to acute heat stress at marketing age, chicks subjected to early age thermal conditioning responded very similar to birds adapted to chronic heat stress indicating a protective role of early age thermal conditioning.

  14. Enhanced Negative Emotion and Alcohol Craving, and Altered Physiological Responses Following Stress and Cue Exposure in Alcohol Dependent Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Rajita; Fox, Helen C.; Hong, Kwangik A.; Bergquist, Keri; Bhagwagar, Zubin; Siedlarz, Kristen M.

    2008-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abuse is associated with changes in stress and reward pathways that could alter vulnerability to emotional stress and alcohol craving. This study examines whether chronic alcohol abuse is associated with altered stress and alcohol craving responses. Treatment-engaged, 28-day abstinent alcohol-dependent individuals (ADs; 6F/22M), and social drinkers (SDs; 10F/18M) were exposed to a brief guided imagery of a personalized stressful, alcohol-related and neutral-relaxing situation,...

  15. Microbiota alterations in acute and chronic gastrointestinal inflammation of cats and dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honneffer, Julia B; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2014-11-28

    The intestinal microbiota is the collection of the living microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. Novel bacterial identification approaches have revealed that the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs and cats is, similarly to humans, a highly complex ecosystem. Studies in dogs and cats have demonstrated that acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with alterations in the small intestinal and fecal microbial communities. Of interest is that these alterations are generally similar to the dysbiosis observed in humans with IBD or animal models of intestinal inflammation, suggesting that microbial responses to inflammatory conditions of the gut are conserved across mammalian host types. Studies have also revealed possible underlying susceptibilities in the innate immune system of dogs and cats with IBD, which further demonstrate the intricate relationship between gut microbiota and host health. Commonly identified microbiome changes in IBD are decreases in bacterial groups within the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and increases within Proteobacteia. Furthermore, a reduction in the diversity of Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV (i.e., Lachnospiraceae and Clostridium coccoides subgroups) are associated with IBD, suggesting that these bacterial groups may play an important role in maintenance of gastrointestinal health. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the functional changes associated with intestinal dysbiosis in dogs and cats.

  16. Cognitive Processing Therapy for Acute Stress Disorder Resulting from an Anti-Gay Assault

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysen, Debra; Lostutter, Ty W.; Goines, Marie A.

    2005-01-01

    This case study describes Cognitive Processing Therapy (CPT) with a 30-year-old gay man with symptoms of acute stress disorder (ASD) following a recent homophobic assault. Treatment addressed assault-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and depressive symptoms. Also addressed were low self-esteem, helplessness, and high degrees of…

  17. Previous stress and acute psychological defence as predictors of perinatal grief - An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); F. Verhage; J. Passchier (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe evaluated whether the emotional reactions of women at 2–6 weeks after the prenatal diagnosis of a lethal anomaly and at 3 months after perinatal loss might be predicted by previous stress and acute psychological defence reactions to the diagnosis. Previous stress was defined objective

  18. Acute restraint stress enhances hippocampal endocannabinoid function via glucocorticoid receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Meina; Hill, Matthew N; Zhang, Longhua; Gorzalka, Boris B; Hillard, Cecilia J; Alger, Bradley E

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to behavioural stress normally triggers a complex, multilevel response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis that helps maintain homeostatic balance. Although the endocannabinoid (eCB) system (ECS) is sensitive to chronic stress, few studies have directly addressed its response to acute stress. Here we show that acute restraint stress enhances eCB-dependent modulation of GABA release measured by whole-cell voltage clamp of inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells in vitro. Both Ca(2+)-dependent, eCB-mediated depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI), and muscarinic cholinergic receptor (mAChR)-mediated eCB mobilization are enhanced following acute stress exposure. DSI enhancement is dependent on the activation of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) and is mimicked by both in vivo and in vitro corticosterone treatment. This effect does not appear to involve cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an enzyme that can degrade eCBs; however, treatment of hippocampal slices with the L-type calcium (Ca(2+)) channel inhibitor, nifedipine, reverses while an agonist of these channels mimics the effect of in vivo stress. Finally, we find that acute stress produces a delayed (by 30 min) increase in the hippocampal content of 2-arachidonoylglycerol, the eCB responsible for DSI. These results support the hypothesis that the ECS is a biochemical effector of glucocorticoids in the brain, linking stress with changes in synaptic strength. PMID:21890595

  19. Acute maternal stress in pregnancy and schizophrenia in offspring: A cohort prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fennig S

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Schizophrenia has been linked with intrauterine exposure to maternal stress due to bereavement, famine and major disasters. Recent evidence suggests that human vulnerability may be greatest in the first trimester of gestation and rodent experiments suggest sex specificity. We aimed to describe the consequence of an acute maternal stress, through a follow-up of offspring whose mothers were pregnant during the Arab-Israeli war of 1967. A priori, we focused on gestational month and offspring's sex. Method In a pilot study linking birth records to Israel's Psychiatric Registry, we analyzed data from a cohort of 88,829 born in Jerusalem in 1964–76. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate the relative risk (RR of schizophrenia, according to month of birth, gender and other variables, while controlling for father's age and other potential confounders. Other causes of hospitalized psychiatric morbidity (grouped together were analyzed for comparison. Results There was a raised incidence of schizophrenia for those who were in the second month of fetal life in June 1967 (RR = 2.3, 1.1–4.7, seen more in females (4.3, 1.7–10.7 than in males (1.2, 0.4–3.8. Results were not explained by secular or seasonal variations, altered birth weight or gestational age. For other conditions, RRs were increased in offspring who had been in the third month of fetal life in June 1967 (2.5, 1.2–5.2, also seen more in females (3.6, 1.3–9.7 than males (1.8, 0.6–5.2. Conclusion These findings add to a growing literature, in experimental animals and humans, attributing long term consequences for offspring of maternal gestational stress. They suggest both a sex-specificity and a relatively short gestational time-window for gestational effects on vulnerability to schizophrenia.

  20. Infusion of glucose and lipids at physiological rates causes acute endoplasmic reticulum stress in rat liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Guenther; Song, Weiwei; Duan, Xunbao; Cheung, Peter; Kresge, Karen; Barrero, Carlos; Merali, Salim

    2011-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has recently been implicated as a cause for obesity-related insulin resistance; however, what causes ER stress in obesity has remained uncertain. Here, we have tested the hypothesis that macronutrients can cause acute (ER) stress in rat liver. Examined were the effects of intravenously infused glucose and/or lipids on proximal ER stress sensor activation (PERK, eIF2-α, ATF4, Xbox protein 1 (XBP1s)), unfolded protein response (UPR) proteins (GRP78, calnexin, calreticulin, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), stress kinases (JNK, p38 MAPK) and insulin signaling (insulin/receptor substrate (IRS) 1/2 associated phosphoinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)) in rat liver. Glucose and/or lipid infusions, ranging from 23.8 to 69.5 kJ/4 h (equivalent to between ~17% and ~50% of normal daily energy intake), activated the proximal ER stress sensor PERK and ATF6 increased the protein abundance of calnexin, calreticulin and PDI and increased two GRP78 isoforms. Glucose and glucose plus lipid infusions induced comparable degrees of ER stress, but only infusions containing lipid activated stress kinases (JNK and p38 MAPK) and inhibited insulin signaling (PI3K). In summary, physiologic amounts of both glucose and lipids acutely increased ER stress in livers 12-h fasted rats and dependent on the presence of fat, caused insulin resistance. We conclude that this type of acute ER stress is likely to occur during normal daily nutrient intake.

  1. Psychosocial stress, glucocorticoids, and structural alterations in the tree shrew hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E; Flügge, G; Ohl, F; Lucassen, P; Vollmann-Honsdorf, G K; Michaelis, T

    2001-06-01

    Animal models for chronic stress represent an indispensable preclinical approach to human pathology since clinical data point to a major role of psychological stress experiences, acute and/or chronic, to the development of behavioral and physiological disturbances. Chronic emotional arousal is a consequence of various types of social interactions, and one major neurohumoral accompaniment is the activation of the classic stress circuit, the limbic--hypothalamic--pituitary--adrenocortical (LHPA) axis. The adrenocortical glucocorticoid hormones cortisol and corticosterone are principal effectors within this circuit since they affect neurotransmission and neuroendocrine control, thus having profound effects on mood and behavior. Using the experimental paradigm of chronic psychosocial stress in tree shrews, we investigated the impact of aversive chronic social encounters on hippocampal structure and function. In chronically stressed animals, we observed dendritic atrophy of hippocampal pyramidal neurons and an impairment of neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus. However, a stress-induced loss of hippocampal neurons was not observed in this animal model. This review summarizes our recent results on structural changes occurring during chronic stress in neurons of the hippocampus and their potential influence on learning and memory. We discuss whether these changes are reversible and to what extent glucocorticoids might be responsible for the stress-induced effects.

  2. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI < 25) groups, and blood samples were collected for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. The acute mental stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. PMID:26511907

  3. RAAS and stress markers in acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Back, C.; Thiesen, K L; Olsen, Karsten Skovgaard;

    2015-01-01

    . RESULTS: The acute systolic blood pressure was significantly increased, 148 (141-168) vs 140 (130-147) mmHg post-stroke. Angiotensin I, renin and aldosterone levels were significantly lower, angiotensin II was unchanged, and ACE activity was higher in the acute phase compared to post-stroke. No...... differences in RAAS were detected between jugular and cubital plasma levels. Jugular venous plasma levels of epinephrine and cortisol were elevated in the acute phase compared to cubital levels (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Increased epinephrine and cortisol levels in the jugular vein blood may reflect a higher...

  4. Frequency of adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycem)a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the frequency of in-hospital adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycemia. Methodology: This was a descriptive cross sectional study conducted from August 2010 to January 2011 in Cardiology department, Lady Reading Hospital, Peshawar. Patients of age 25-70 years, of either gender, non-diabetic with acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were included. Random blood sugar >144 mg/dl was taken as stress hyperglycemia for patients at presentation of acute myocardial infarction. Patients were monitored for electrical complications such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation and complete heart block and mechanical complications such as cardiac pulmonary edema and cardiogenic shock during hospital stay. The statistical analysis was performed using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS Ver. 15.0). Results: A total of 341 patients having acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were studied. The mean age was 56.35 +- 9.748 (95% CI 57.39 - 55.31). Male were 58.1% (n=198). The frequency of various major in-hospital electrical adverse outcomes of acute myocardial infarction with stress hyperglycemia were atrial fibrillation (AF) 15.8%, ventricular tachycardia (VT) 11.7%, ventricular fibrillation (VF) 10.9% and complete heart block (CHB) 6.7%, while mechanical adverse outcomes were cardiac pulmonary edema (CPE) 7.9% and cardiogenic shock (CS) 11.7%. Conclusion: Stress hyperglycemia has adverse impact on outcomes of patients presenting with acute myocardial infarction. Among electrical and mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction in patients with stress hyperglycemia, the two most frequent in-hospital adverse outcomes were atrial fibrillation and cardiogenic shock, respectively. (author)

  5. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  6. Acute social stress and cardiac electrical activity in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, A; Stilli, D; de Boer, SF; Koolhaas, JM; Musso, E; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    1998-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of experiments aimed at describing electrocardiographic responses to different acute social stressors in healthy male rats. Electrocardiograms were telemetrically recorded during maternal aggression, social defeat, and psychosocial stimulation, as obtained using the

  7. Social Support, Social Intimacy, and Cardiovascular Reactions to Acute Psychological Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Anna C Phillips; Gallagher, Stephen; Carroll, Douglas

    2009-01-01

    peer-reviewed Background: Exaggerated cardiovascular reactions to psychological stress are considered a risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity. Social support may reduce such risk by attenuating cardiovascular reactivity to stress. Purpose: To examine the effects of three independent social support variables and their interaction on cardiovascular reactivity to acute stress. The variables were stranger or friend presence; active supportive or passive presence, and male or ...

  8. High-fat diet did not change metabolic response to acute stress in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi, Babak; Ghalami, Jamileh; Hedayati, Mehdi; Rostamkhani, Fatemeh; Zardooz, Homeira

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of high-fat diet on metabolic factors in the presence of acute foot-shock and psychological stresses in male Wistar rats. The animals were divided into high-fat (45 % cow intra-abdominal fat) and normal (standard pellets) diet groups; then, each group was allocated into stressed and control groups. Stress was induced by a communication box. Blood samples were collected by retro-orbital-puncture method under isoflurane anesthesia. Plasma levels of gluc...

  9. Working memory performance after acute exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers

    OpenAIRE

    Duncko, Roman; Johnson, Linda; Merikangas, Kathleen; Grillon, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Effects of acute stress exposure on learning and memory have been frequently studied in both animals and humans. However, only a few studies have focused specifically on working memory performance and the available data are equivocal. The present study examined working memory performance during the Sternberg item recognition task after exposure to a predominantly adrenergic stressor. Twenty four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a stress group or a control group. The stress group was...

  10. Deficiency of Antinociception and Excessive Grooming Induced by Acute Immobilization Stress in Per1 Mutant Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Zhang; Zhouqiao Wu; Linglin Zhou; Huili Li; Huajing Teng; Wei Dai; Yongqing Wang; Zhong Sheng Sun

    2011-01-01

    Acute stressors induce changes in numerous behavioral parameters through activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Several important hormones in paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) play the roles in these stress-induced reactions. Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and corticosterone are considered as molecular markers for stress-induced grooming behavior. Oxytocin in PVN is an essential modulator for stress-induced antinocicepti...

  11. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  12. Acute Modulation of Sugar Transport in Brain Capillary Endothelial Cell Cultures during Activation of the Metabolic Stress Pathway*

    OpenAIRE

    Cura, Anthony J.; Carruthers, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    GLUT1-catalyzed equilibrative sugar transport across the mammalian blood-brain barrier is stimulated during acute and chronic metabolic stress; however, the mechanism of acute transport regulation is unknown. We have examined acute sugar transport regulation in the murine brain microvasculature endothelial cell line bEnd.3. Acute cellular metabolic stress was induced by glucose depletion, by potassium cyanide, or by carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone, which reduce or deplete i...

  13. Interaction of Metabolic Stress with Chronic Mild Stress in Altering Brain Cytokines and Sucrose Preference

    OpenAIRE

    Remus, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Luke T.; Camp, Robert M.; Novak, Colleen M.; Johnson, John D.

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that metabolic stressors increase an organism’s risk of depression. Chronic mild stress is a popular animal model of depression and several serendipitous findings have suggested that food deprivation prior to sucrose testing in this model is necessary to observe anhedonic behaviors. Here, we directly tested this hypothesis by exposing animals to chronic mild stress and used an overnight two bottle sucrose test (food ad libitum) on day 5 and 10, then food and water de...

  14. Assessment of oxidative stress parameters of brain-derived neurotrophic factor heterozygous mice in acute stress model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulay Hacioglu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Exposing to stress may be associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Therefore, high level of oxidative stress may eventually give rise to accumulation of oxidative damage and development of numerous neurodegenerative diseases. It has been presented that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF supports neurons against various neurodegenerative conditions. Lately, there has been growing evidence that changes in the cerebral neurotrophic support and especially in the BDNF expression and its engagement with ROS might be important in various disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. Hence, we aimed to investigate protective effects of BDNF against stress-induced oxidative damage. Materials and Methods: Five- to six-month-old male wild-type and BDNF knock-down mice were used in this study. Activities of catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes, and the amount of malondialdehyde (MDA were assessed in the cerebral homogenates of studied groups in response to acute restraint stress. Results: Exposing to acute physiological stress led to significant elevation in the markers of oxidative stress in the cerebral cortexes of experimental groups. Conclusion: As BDNF-deficient mice were observed to be more susceptible to stress-induced oxidative damage, it can be suggested that there is a direct interplay between oxidative stress indicators and BDNF levels in the brain.

  15. Adolescent chronic mild stress alters hippocampal CB1 receptor-mediated excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, C G; Mihalik, G R; Iskander, A N; Seckler, J C; Weiss, M S

    2013-12-01

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in the stress response and alterations in eCB signaling may contribute to the etiology of mood disorders. Exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a model of depression, produces downregulation of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor in the hippocampus of male rats. However, it is unknown how this stress-induced change in CB1 levels affects eCB-mediated neurotransmission. In vitro, field potential recordings from CMS-exposed (21-days) rats were performed to assess the effects of stress on eCB-regulated glutamatergic neurotransmission in/on hippocampal area CA1. We observed that application of the CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-5 (1 μM), in stress animals resulted in a ∼135% increase in excitatory neurotransmission, whereas CB1 activation in non-stress animals leads to a ∼30% decrease. However, during blockade of GABA(A) neurotransmission with picrotoxin, CB1 activation yielded a ∼35% decrease in stress animals. These findings indicate that CMS does not directly affect glutamatergic neurotransmission. Rather, CMS sensitizes CB1 function on GABAergic terminals, leading to less inhibition and an increase in excitatory neurotransmission. This finding is reinforced in that induction of weak long-term-potentiation (LTP) is enhanced in CMS-exposed animals compared to controls and this enhancement is CB1-dependent. Lastly, we observed that the LTP-blocking property of WIN 55,212-5 shifts from being glutamate-dependent in non-stress animals to being GABA-dependent in stress animals. These results effectively demonstrate that CMS significantly alters hippocampal eCB-mediated neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity.

  16. Maintenance of a positive outlook during acute stress protects against pro-inflammatory reactivity and future depressive symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Aschbacher, K; Epel, E; Wolkowitz, O M; Prather, A A; Puterman, E; Dhabhar, F.S.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive and affective responses to acute stress influence pro-inflammatory cytokine reactivity, and peripheral cytokines (particularly lnterleukin-1 beta (IL-1β)), can act on the brain to promote depressive symptoms. It is unknown whether acute stress-induced changes in positive affect and cognitions (POS) and pro-inflammatory reactivity predict future depressive symptoms. We examined acute stress responses among women, to determine prospective predictors of depressive symptoms. Hypotheses:...

  17. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects.

  18. Mindfulness meditation training alters stress-related amygdala resting state functional connectivity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taren, Adrienne A; Gianaros, Peter J; Greco, Carol M; Lindsay, Emily K; Fairgrieve, April; Brown, Kirk Warren; Rosen, Rhonda K; Ferris, Jennifer L; Julson, Erica; Marsland, Anna L; Bursley, James K; Ramsburg, Jared; Creswell, J David

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies indicate that mindfulness meditation training interventions reduce stress and improve stress-related health outcomes, but the neural pathways for these effects are unknown. The present research evaluates whether mindfulness meditation training alters resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) of the amygdala, a region known to coordinate stress processing and physiological stress responses. We show in an initial discovery study that higher perceived stress over the past month is associated with greater bilateral amygdala-subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) rsFC in a sample of community adults (n = 130). A follow-up, single-blind randomized controlled trial shows that a 3-day intensive mindfulness meditation training intervention (relative to a well-matched 3-day relaxation training intervention without a mindfulness component) reduced right amygdala-sgACC rsFC in a sample of stressed unemployed community adults (n = 35). Although stress may increase amygdala-sgACC rsFC, brief training in mindfulness meditation could reverse these effects. This work provides an initial indication that mindfulness meditation training promotes functional neuroplastic changes, suggesting an amygdala-sgACC pathway for stress reduction effects. PMID:26048176

  19. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predict post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eIguchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD, but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress traits. In this study, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio schedule to assess the individual pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits in experimentally naïve Sprague–Dawley rats. Based on the behavioral data, the animals were classified into four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hypermotivation, and exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS before monitoring their post-stress responses once each week for 4 weeks to identify early- and late-appearing CUS-induced behavioral phenotypes. The four subgroups exhibited different behavioral phenotypes after CUS. Therefore, we identified distinct relationships between pre-stress traits and the post-stress phenotypes in each subgroup. In addition, many of the CUS-induced phenotypes in rats corresponded to symptoms in human MDD or they had putative relationships with them. We concluded that the consequences of stress may be predicted before stress exposure by determining the pre-stress traits of each individual.

  20. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Qerama, Erisela;

    2007-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...

  1. Acute stress response and recovery after whiplash injuries. A one-year prospective study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongsted, Alice; Bendix, Tom; Montvilas, Erisela Qerama;

    2008-01-01

    Chronic whiplash-associated disorder (WAD) represents a major medical and psycho-social problem. The typical symptomatology presented in WAD is to some extent similar to symptoms of post traumatic stress disorder. In this study we examined if the acute stress reaction following a whiplash injury...... outcome-measures were neck pain and headache, neck disability, general health, and working ability one year after the accident. A total of 737 participants were included and completed the IES, and 668 (91%) participated in the 1-year follow-up. A baseline IES-score denoting a moderate to severe stress...... were modified by baseline neck pain intensity. It was not possible to distinguish between participants who recovered and those who did not by means of the IES (AUC=0.6). In conclusion, the association between the acute stress reaction and persistent WAD suggests that post traumatic stress reaction may...

  2. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eŚlusarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test, the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive in 3 month old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4 and beneficial (IGF-1, BDNF phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1-2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats.Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood.

  3. Being a Grump Only Makes Things Worse: A Transactional Account of Acute Stress on Mind Wandering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melaina T Vinski

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The current work investigates the influence of acute stress on mind wandering. Participants completed the Positive and Negative Affect Scale as a measure of baseline negative mood, and were randomly assigned to either the high stress or low stress version of the Trier Social Stress Test. Participants then completed the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART as a measure of mind wandering behaviour. In Experiment 1, participants reporting a high degree of negative mood that were exposed to the high stress condition were more likely to engage in a variable response time, make more errors, and were more likely to report thinking about the stressor relative to participants that report a low level of negative mood. These effects diminished throughout task performance, suggesting that acute stress induces a temporary mind wandering state in participants with a negative mood. The temporary affect-dependent deficits observed in Experiment 1 were replicated in Experiment 2, with the high negative mood participants demonstrating limited resource availability (indicated by pupil diameter immediately following stress induction. These experiments provide novel evidence to suggest that acute psychosocial stress briefly suppresses the availability of cognitive resources and promotes an internally-oriented focus of attention in participants with a negative mood.

  4. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol.

  5. Chronic mild stress alters circadian expressions of molecular clock genes in the liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kei; Yamada, Tetsuya; Tsukita, Sohei; Kaneko, Keizo; Shirai, Yuta; Munakata, Yuichiro; Ishigaki, Yasushi; Imai, Junta; Uno, Kenji; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Sawada, Shojiro; Oka, Yoshitomo; Katagiri, Hideki

    2013-02-01

    Chronic stress is well known to affect metabolic regulation. However, molecular mechanisms interconnecting stress response systems and metabolic regulations have yet to be elucidated. Various physiological processes, including glucose/lipid metabolism, are regulated by the circadian clock, and core clock gene dysregulation reportedly leads to metabolic disorders. Glucocorticoids, acting as end-effectors of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, entrain the circadian rhythms of peripheral organs, including the liver, by phase-shifting core clock gene expressions. Therefore, we examined whether chronic stress affects circadian expressions of core clock genes and metabolism-related genes in the liver using the chronic mild stress (CMS) procedure. In BALB/c mice, CMS elevated and phase-shifted serum corticosterone levels, indicating overactivation of the HPA axis. The rhythmic expressions of core clock genes, e.g., Clock, Npas2, Bmal1, Per1, and Cry1, were altered in the liver while being completely preserved in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nuculeus (SCN), suggesting that the SCN is not involved in alterations in hepatic core clock gene expressions. In addition, circadian patterns of glucose and lipid metabolism-related genes, e.g., peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (Ppar) α, Pparγ-1, Pparγ-coactivator-1α, and phosphoenolepyruvate carboxykinase, were also disturbed by CMS. In contrast, in C57BL/6 mice, the same CMS procedure altered neither serum corticosterone levels nor rhythmic expressions of hepatic core clock genes and metabolism-related genes. Thus, chronic stress can interfere with the circadian expressions of both core clock genes and metabolism-related genes in the liver possibly involving HPA axis overactivation. This mechanism might contribute to metabolic disorders in stressful modern societies.

  6. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predict post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Shigenobu Toda

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD), but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress traits. In this study, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio schedule to assess the individual pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits in experimentally naïve Sprague–Dawley rats. Based on the behavioral data, the animals were classified into four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hy...

  7. Methionine Metabolism Alters Oxidative Stress Resistance via the Pentose Phosphate Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kate; Vowinckel, Jakob; Keller, Markus A; Ralser, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Nutrient uptake and metabolism have a significant impact on the way cells respond to stress. The amino acid methionine is, in particular, a key player in the oxidative stress response, and acting as a reactive oxygen species scavenger, methionine is implicated in caloric restriction phenotypes and aging. We here provide evidence that some effects of methionine in stress situations are indirect and caused by altered activity of the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) producing oxidative part of the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, both methionine prototrophic (MET15) and auxotrophic (met15Δ) cells supplemented with methionine showed an increase in PPP metabolite concentrations downstream of the NADPH producing enzyme, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase. Proteomics revealed this enzyme to also increase in expression compared to methionine self-synthesizing cells. Oxidant tolerance was increased in cells preincubated with methionine; however, this effect was abolished when flux through the oxidative PPP was prevented by deletion of its rate limiting enzyme, ZWF1. Stress resistance phenotypes that follow methionine supplementation hence involve the oxidative PPP. Effects of methionine on oxidative metabolism, stress signaling, and aging have thus to be seen in the context of an altered activity of this NADP reducing pathway.

  8. Divergent responses of inflammatory mediators within the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecchiarelli, Haley A; Gandhi, Chaitanya P; Gray, J Megan; Morena, Maria; Hassan, Kowther I; Hill, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    There is now a growing body of literature that indicates that stress can initiate inflammatory processes, both in the periphery and brain; however, the spatiotemporal nature of this response is not well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an acute psychological stress on changes in mRNA and protein levels of a wide range of inflammatory mediators across a broad temporal range, in key corticolimbic brain regions involved in the regulation of the stress response (amygdala, hippocampus, hypothalamus, medial prefrontal cortex). mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators were analyzed immediately following 30min or 120min of acute restraint stress and protein levels were examined 0h through 24h post-termination of 120min of acute restraint stress using both multiplex and ELISA methods. Our data demonstrate, for the first time, that exposure to acute psychological stress results in an increase in the protein level of several inflammatory mediators in the amygdala while concomitantly producing a decrease in the protein level of multiple inflammatory mediators within the medial prefrontal cortex. This pattern of changes seemed largely restricted to the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex, with stress producing few changes in the mRNA or protein levels of inflammatory mediators within the hippocampus or hypothalamus. Consistent with previous research, stress resulted in a general elevation in multiple inflammatory mediators within the circulation. These data indicate that neuroinflammatory responses to stress do not appear to be generalized across brain structures and exhibit a high degree of spatiotemporal specificity. Given the impact of inflammatory signaling on neural excitability and emotional behavior, these data may provide a platform with which to explore the importance of inflammatory signaling within the prefrontocortical-amygdala circuit in the regulation of the neurobehavioral responses to stress.

  9. Inclusion of biotic stress (consumer pressure) alters predictions from the stress gradient hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Rietkerk, Max; Wassen, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts a shift from net negative interactions in benign environments towards net positive in harsh environments in ecological communities. While several studies found support for the SGH, others found evidence against it, leading to a debate on how nature and s

  10. Depressive Symptoms Are Associated with Mental Stress-Induced Myocardial Ischemia after Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Jingkai Wei; Pratik Pimple; Shah, Amit J.; Cherie Rooks; Douglas Bremner, J.; Nye, Jonathon A.; Ijeoma Ibeanu; Nancy Murrah; Lucy Shallenberger; Paolo Raggi; Viola Vaccarino

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI), and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI. Methods We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men) age 38–60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion ...

  11. A diagnostic interview for acute stress disorder for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Alisa; Enlow, Michelle Bosquet; Reich, Wendy; Saxe, Glenn

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a semistructured clinical interview for assessing acute stress disorder (ASD) in youth and test its psychometric properties. Youth (N = 168) with an acute burn or injury were administered the acute stress disorder module of the Diagnostic Interview for Children and Adolescents (DICA-ASD). The DICA-ASD demonstrated strong psychometric properties, including high internal consistency (alpha = .97) and perfect diagnostic interrater agreement (kappa = 1.00). Participants diagnosed with ASD scored significantly higher than those not diagnosed on validated traumatic stress symptomatology measures but not on other symptomatology measures, providing evidence of convergent and discriminant validity. Preliminary evidence supports the reliability and validity of the first semistructured clinical interview for diagnosing ASD in youth.

  12. Characterization of novel genomic alterations and therapeutic approaches using acute megakaryoblastic leukemia xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiollier, Clarisse; Lopez, Cécile K; Gerby, Bastien; Ignacimouttou, Cathy; Poglio, Sandrine; Duffourd, Yannis; Guégan, Justine; Rivera-Munoz, Paola; Bluteau, Olivier; Mabialah, Vinciane; Diop, M'boyba; Wen, Qiang; Petit, Arnaud; Bauchet, Anne-Laure; Reinhardt, Dirk; Bornhauser, Beat; Gautheret, Daniel; Lecluse, Yann; Landman-Parker, Judith; Radford, Isabelle; Vainchenker, William; Dastugue, Nicole; de Botton, Stéphane; Dessen, Philippe; Bourquin, Jean-Pierre; Crispino, John D; Ballerini, Paola; Bernard, Olivier A; Pflumio, Françoise; Mercher, Thomas

    2012-10-22

    Acute megakaryoblastic leukemia (AMKL) is a heterogeneous disease generally associated with poor prognosis. Gene expression profiles indicate the existence of distinct molecular subgroups, and several genetic alterations have been characterized in the past years, including the t(1;22)(p13;q13) and the trisomy 21 associated with GATA1 mutations. However, the majority of patients do not present with known mutations, and the limited access to primary patient leukemic cells impedes the efficient development of novel therapeutic strategies. In this study, using a xenotransplantation approach, we have modeled human pediatric AMKL in immunodeficient mice. Analysis of high-throughput RNA sequencing identified recurrent fusion genes defining new molecular subgroups. One subgroup of patients presented with MLL or NUP98 fusion genes leading to up-regulation of the HOX A cluster genes. A novel CBFA2T3-GLIS2 fusion gene resulting from a cryptic inversion of chromosome 16 was identified in another subgroup of 31% of non-Down syndrome AMKL and strongly associated with a gene expression signature of Hedgehog pathway activation. These molecular data provide useful markers for the diagnosis and follow up of patients. Finally, we show that AMKL xenograft models constitute a relevant in vivo preclinical screening platform to validate the efficacy of novel therapies such as Aurora A kinase inhibitors. PMID:23045605

  13. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Jeremy S; Ni, Jie; Osmond, Morgan; Lee, Kyung; Gusella, G Luca; Salem, Fadi; Ross, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC) from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO). Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3) and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.

  14. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Leventhal

    Full Text Available Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO. Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3 and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.

  15. Adaptogenic potential of curcumin in experimental chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress-induced memory deficits and alterations in functional homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Nitish; Jaggi, Amteshwar Singh; Singh, Nirmal; Anand, Preet; Dhawan, Ravi

    2011-07-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of curcumin in chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress-induced memory deficits and alteration of functional homeostasis in mice. Chronic stress was induced by immobilizing the animal for 2 h daily for 10 days, whereas chronic unpredictable stress was induced by employing a battery of stressors of variable magnitude and time for 10 days. Curcumin was administered to drug-treated mice prior to induction of stress. Body weight, adrenal gland weight, ulcer index and biochemical levels of glucose, creatine kinase, cholesterol, corticosterone, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were evaluated to assess stress-induced functional changes. Memory deficits were evaluated using the elevated plus maze (EPM) model. Chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress significantly increased the levels of corticosterone, glucose and creatine kinase and decreased cholesterol levels. Moreover, chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress resulted in severe memory deficits along with adrenal hypertrophy, weight loss and gastric ulceration. Chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress also increased oxidative stress assessed in terms of increase in TBARS and decrease in GSH levels. Pretreatment with curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg p.o.) attenuated chronic stress and chronic unpredictable stress-associated memory deficits, biochemical alterations, pathological outcomes and oxidative stress. It may be concluded that curcumin-mediated antioxidant actions and decrease in corticosterone secretion are responsible for its adaptogenic and memory restorative actions in chronic and chronic unpredictable stress.

  16. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis. PMID:20217640

  17. Protective effect of Labisia pumila on stress-induced behavioral, biochemical, and immunological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kour, Kiranjeet; Sharma, Neelam; Chandan, Bal Krishan; Koul, Surrinder; Sangwan, Payare Lal; Bani, Sarang

    2010-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the antistress potential of LABISIA PUMILA aqueous extract (LPPM/A003) using a battery of tests widely employed in different stressful situations. Pretreatment of experimental animals with LPPM/A003 caused an increase in the swimming endurance and hypoxia time and also showed the recovery of physical stress-induced depletion of neuromuscular coordination and scopolamine induced memory deficit. LPPM/A003 at graded doses reversed the chronic restraint stress (RST), induced depletion of CD4 (+) and CD8 (+) T lymphocytes, NK cell population, and corresponding cytokines expression besides downregulating the stress-induced increase in plasma corticosterone, a major stress hormone. In addition, LPPM/A003 reversed the chronic stress-induced increase in adrenal gland weight, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and hepatic lipid peroxidation (LP) levels and augmented the RST induced decrease in hepatic glutathione (GSH), thymus and spleen weight. Thus, we conclude that LPPM/A003 has the ability to reverse the alterations produced by various stressful stimuli and therefore restores homeostasis.

  18. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered Insulin Signalling in Sprague-Dawley Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morakinyo, Ayodele O; Ajiboye, Kolawole I; Oludare, Gabriel O; Samuel, Titilola A

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were exposed to one of the four different restraint stressors; 1 h, twice daily for a period of 7 days (S7D), 14 days (S14D) and 28 days (S28D). Glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity were evaluated following the final stress exposure. ELISA were performed to assess the level of insulin and adiponectin as well as expression of INSR and GLUT4 protein in skeletal muscle. Plasma corticosterone level was also determined as a marker of stress exposure. Restraint stress for 7 days caused transient glucose intolerance, while S14D rats demonstrated increased glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity. However, restraint stress for 28 days had no effect on glucose tolerance, but did cause an increase in glucose response to insulin challenge. The serum level of adiponectin was significantly (pcontrol value while insulin remained unchanged except at in S28D rats that had a significant (pcontrol counterparts. Restraint stress caused glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity in male Sprague-Dawley rats, which becomes accommodated with prolonged exposure and was likely related to the blunted insulin signalling in skeletal muscle. PMID:27574760

  19. Psychobiology of the acute stress response and its relationship to the psychobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D; Garakani, Amir

    2002-06-01

    The literature to date that examines the biology of the acute stress reactions suggests that relatively lower baseline cortisol is associated with the development of PTSD. This is particularly informative because of the ongoing controversy surrounding baseline cortisol in PTSD. Studies have found low baseline cortisol, normal range, and elevated baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD, and it has been unclear whether this reflects methodologic differences across studies or true heterogeneity within the disorder. Thus, the few studies to date support the finding of low-normal baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD and suggest that it is a pre-existing functional trait. Whether it plays an etiologic role or is an epiphenomenon of some other process is unclear. What does seem clear, however, is that this characteristic is relatively nonspecific to PTSD, given the fact that low cortisol has been observed in multiple subject populations, including normal individuals under chronic stress as well as chronic medical conditions (for review see [23]). For example, it is possible that reduced baseline cortisol reflects the net result of input to the hypothalamus from cortical and subcortical regions of the brain linked to increased vigilance, sensitization to trauma because of prior traumatic experiences, or genetic factors. For example, primate studies have demonstrated persistent alterations in HPA axis functioning in animals reared by mothers living in moderately stressful conditions [24]. The development of PTSD is associated with sensitization of the startle response. Because the neurobiology of startle is well characterized, this finding implicates a role for specific neurocircuitry in PTSD [25]. Non-habituation of the startle response in PTSD appears related to sensitization specifically to contextual cues (i.e., the environment) that signal the presence of potential threat of danger-related fears [26]. This may be the neurobiological correlate to the over-generalization seen in

  20. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.;

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...

  1. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christian M; Fischer Hansen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Signs of myocardial involvement are common in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. ST segment deviations, abnormal left ventricular function, increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), prolonged QT interval, and/or raised troponins are observed in up to one third of the...

  2. Altered Gene Expression, Mitochondrial Damage and Oxidative Stress: Converging Routes in Motor Neuron Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Rossi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Motor neuron diseases (MNDs are a rather heterogeneous group of diseases, with either sporadic or genetic origin or both, all characterized by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons. At the cellular level, MNDs share features such as protein misfolding and aggregation, mitochondrial damage and energy deficit, and excitotoxicity and calcium mishandling. This is particularly well demonstrated in ALS, where both sporadic and familial forms share the same symptoms and pathological phenotype, with a prominent role for mitochondrial damage and resulting oxidative stress. Based on recent data, however, altered control of gene expression seems to be a most relevant, and previously overlooked, player in MNDs. Here we discuss which may be the links that make pathways apparently as different as altered gene expression, mitochondrial damage, and oxidative stress converge to generate a similar motoneuron-toxic phenotype.

  3. Alterations in cytokines and haematological parameters during the acute and convalescent phases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Nunes Rodrigues-da-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Haematological and cytokine alterations in malaria are a broad and controversial subject in the literature. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated various cytokines in a single patient group during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. The aim of this study was to sequentially characterise alterations in haematological patters and circulating plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum from a Brazilian endemic area during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. During the acute phase, thrombocytopaenia, eosinopaenia, lymphopaenia and an increased number of band cells were observed in the majority of the patients. During the convalescent phase, the haematologic parameters returned to normal. During the acute phase, P. vivax and P. falciparum patients had significantly higher interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels than controls and maintained high levels during the convalescent phase. IL-10 was detected at high concentrations during the acute phase, but returned to normal levels during the convalescent phase. Plasma IL-10 concentration was positively correlated with parasitaemia in P. vivax and P. falciparum-infected patients. The same was true for the TNF-α concentration in P. falciparum-infected patients. Finally, the haematological and cytokine profiles were similar between uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections.

  4. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    OpenAIRE

    Kliszczewicz Brian; John Quindry C.; Daniel Blessing L.; Gretchen Oliver D.; Michael Esco R.; Kyle Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs havi...

  5. Acute stress increases sex differences in risk seeking in the balloon analogue risk task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichole R Lighthall

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Decisions involving risk often must be made under stressful circumstances. Research on behavioral and brain differences in stress responses suggest that stress might have different effects on risk taking in males and females. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, participants played a computer game designed to measure risk taking (the Balloon Analogue Risk Task fifteen minutes after completing a stress challenge or control task. Stress increased risk taking among men but decreased it among women. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute stress amplifies sex differences in risk seeking; making women more risk avoidant and men more risk seeking. Evolutionary principles may explain these stress-induced sex differences in risk taking behavior.

  6. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior. PMID:24910626

  7. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  8. Acute psychosocial stress and emotion regulation skills modulate empathic reactions to pain in others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buruck, Gabriele; Wendsche, Johannes; Melzer, Marlen; Strobel, Alexander; Dörfel, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one's emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  9. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  10. [Biological function prediction of mir-210 in the liver of acute cold stress rat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wen-Jin; Lian, Shuai; Guo, Jing-Ru; Zhai, Jun-Fei; Zhang, Yu-Chen; Li, Yue; Zhen, Li; Ji, Hong; Yang, Huan-Min

    2016-04-25

    The study was aimed to observe mir-210 expression in liver tissue of acute cold stress rat and predict the function of mir-210 in cold stress. Thirty SPF Wistar male rats which were 12-week-old and weighed (340 ± 20) g were used. The rats were pre-fed in normal room temperature for one week, and then were randomly divided into acute cold stress group at (4 ± 0.1) °C and normal control group at (24 ± 0.1) °C. After the rats were treated with cold stress for 12 h, the liver tissue was extracted and the gene expression of mir-210 was assayed using qRT-PCR. The results demonstrated that the gene expression of mir-210 was significantly enhanced in acute cold stress group compared with that in normal control group (n = 3, P kinds of target genes such as E2F3, RAD52, ISCU and Ephrin-A3 are more relative with liver cold stress. ISCU regulates the cell respiratory metabolism and Ephrin-A3 is related with cell proliferation and apoptosis. On the other hand, up-regulated mir-210 affects the DNA repairing mechanism which usually leads to genetic instabilities. Our results suggest that cold stress-induced up-regulation of mir-210 in liver harmfully influences cell growth, energy metabolism and hereditary.

  11. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  12. Stress among nurses working in an acute hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study\\'s aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses\\' occupational stress in Ireland.

  13. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  14. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Materials and Methods: Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1st, 5th, 7th, and 10th day of the experiment. On the 11th and 12th treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Results: Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Conclusion: Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them. PMID:27366354

  15. SaliCylic Acid-Altering Arabidopsis Mutants Response to Cd Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu; Tian; Liang; Wu

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the role of endogenous SA in plant response to Cd stress,Arabidopsis wild type(Columbia)and its SA-altering mutants snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive) with high SA level, nahG(tansgenic line)with low SA level and npr1-1(non-expressor of PR gene)with SA signaling blockage were used in this study. Results showed that a greater growth inhibition occurred in snc1,while a less inhibition was observed in nahG and npr1-1 plants. Although the anti-oxidative enzymes SOD and POD increased upon Cd exposure,they were insufficient to remove oxidative stress,especially in snc1 plants. The accumulations of soluble sugar and proline in the tested plants were positively related to their tolerance to Cd stress.

  16. Stress induced alterations in pre-pubertal ovarian follicular development in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yajurvedi H.N.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to find out whether stress experienced during neo-natal period alters the timing of formation of pre-antral and antral follicles and if so, whether pre-treatment with CRH receptor antagonist prevents these effects in rats. New born rat pups (n= 15 were exposed to maternal separation (6 hours/ day from post-natal day (PND 1 to 7 and were killed on PND 8, 11 and 15. The time of exposure was randomly changed every day during light phase (7Am to 7Pm of the day to avoid habituation. There was a significant increase in serum corticosterone levels on PND 8 and 11 in stress group rats compared to controls indicating stress response in these pups. The ovary of both control and stressed rats contained oocytes and primary follicles on PND 8 and 11 and in showed progress of follicular development upto to pre-antral and early antral follicle formation on PND 11 and 15. However, mean number of healthy oocytes and all categories of follicles at all ages studied were significantly lower in stressed rats compared to controls. Concomitant with these changes, number of atreatic follicles showed an increase over control values in stressed rats. The increase in atresia of follicles was due to apoptosis as shown by increase in the percentage of granulosa cells showing TUNEL positive staining and caspase 3 activity. On the other hand, pre-treatment with CRH- receptor antagonist (CRH 9-41 2ng/ 0.1 ml/ rat prior to undergoing stress regime on PND 1 to 7, prevented alterations in pre- pubertal follicular development thereby indicating that the ovarian changes were due to effects of stress induced activation of HPA axis. The results indicate that, stress during neonatal phase, though does not affect timing of formation of pre-antral and antral follicles, it does enhance atresia of follicles of all categories, including follicular reserve, which may affect the reproductive potential of adults. The results, for the first time reveal that CRF

  17. An acute dose of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid alters gene expression in multiple mouse brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnackenberg, B J; Saini, U T; Robinson, B L; Ali, S F; Patterson, T A

    2010-10-13

    Gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is normally found in the brain in low concentrations and may function as a neurotransmitter, although the mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated. GHB has been used as a general anesthetic and is currently used to treat narcolepsy and alcoholism. Recreational use of GHB is primarily as a "club drug" and a "date rape drug," due to its amnesic effects. For this study, the hypothesis was that behavioral and neurochemical alterations may parallel gene expression changes in the brain after GHB administration. Adult male C57/B6N mice (n=5/group) were administered a single dose of 500 mg/kg GHB (i.p.) and were sacrificed 1, 2 and 4 h after treatment. Control mice were administered saline. Brains were removed and regionally dissected on ice. Total RNA from the hippocampus, cortex and striatum was extracted, amplified and labeled. Gene expression was evaluated using Agilent whole mouse genome 4x44K oligonucleotide microarrays. Microarray data were analyzed by ArrayTrack and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using P or = 1.7 as the criteria for significance. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) showed that samples from each time point clustered into distinct treatment groups with respect to sacrifice time. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA) was used to identify involved pathways. The results show that GHB induces gene expression alterations in hundreds of genes in the hippocampus, cortex and striatum, and the number of affected genes increases throughout a 4-h time course. Many of these DEGs are involved in neurological disease, apoptosis, and oxidative stress.

  18. Corticosterone and dehydroepiandrosterone in songbird plasma and brain: effects of season and acute stress

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Amy E.M.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged increases in plasma glucocorticoids can exacerbate neurodegeneration. In rats, these neurodegenerative effects can be reduced by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor with anti-glucocorticoid actions. In song sparrows, season and acute restraint stress affect circulating levels of corticosterone and DHEA, and the effects of stress differ in plasma collected from the brachial and jugular veins. Jugular plasma is an indirect index of the neural steroidal milieu. Here, w...

  19. Acute stress increases interstitial fluid amyloid-β via corticotropin-releasing factor and neuronal activity

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Jae-Eun; Cirrito, John R.; Dong, Hongxin; John G. Csernansky; Holtzman, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the extracellular space of the brain is critical in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ is produced by neurons and released into the brain interstitial fluid (ISF), a process regulated by synaptic activity. To determine whether behavioral stressors can regulate ISF Aβ levels, we assessed the effects of chronic and acute stress paradigms in amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice. Isolation stress over 3 months increased Aβ levels by 84%. ...

  20. Prognostic significance of sinus deceleration during dobutamine stress echocardiography test following acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Šalinger Sonja; Tomašević Miloje; Glasnović Jozef; Apostolović Svetlana; Pavlović Milan; Pešić Zoran; Ranđelović Miomir; Stojković Aleksandar; Krstić Nebojša; Milić Dragan

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim. Chronotropic incompetence during exercise stress testing after acute myocardial infarction is an indicator of ischemia or impaired left ventricular function. On the other side, infusion of dobutamine leads to a typical dose-dependent increase in heart rate. The aim of this study was to evaluate of paradoxical sinus deceleration during dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE), as the sign of ischemia and impaired left ventricular function, or the consequence of infarction local...

  1. Effect of estrogen on plasma ceruloplasmin level in rats exposed to acute stress

    OpenAIRE

    Ganaraja B; Pavithran P; Ghosh S

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma ceruloplasmin, a copper containing protein, belongs to a class called acute phase proteins. Reduced level of ceruloplasmin was associated with Wilson′s disease and Menke′s kinky hair disease in man, primarily affecting copper metabolism. Stress was known to increase Ceruloplasmin. Several stress associated changes were commonly observed in women at menopause and also those who underwent overiectomy. Present experiment investigated the effect of estrogen on cer...

  2. Graded stress radiography in acute injury to the lateral ligaments of the ankle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnostic accuracy of graded stress radiography in 26 patients with acute injury to the lateral ankle ligaments has been compared with findings at arthrography and surgery. Measuring talar tilt angles and anterior talar displacement over a range of pressures applied to the distal tibia using a commercially available stress device allows diagnostic distinction between isolated anterior talofibular ligament injury and a combined lesion that involves the calcaneofibular ligament. The results compare well with arthrographic and surgical findings. (orig.)

  3. Sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Ordaz, Sarah; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Females begin to demonstrate greater negative affective responses to stress than males in adolescence. This may reflect the concurrent emergence of underlying differences in physiological response systems, including corticolimbic circuitries, the hypothalamic—pituitary— adrenal axis (HPAA), and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). This review examines when sex differences in physiological reactivity to acute psychosocial stress emerge and the directionality of these differences over developmen...

  4. Individuals with hematological malignancies before undergoing chemotherapy present oxidative stress parameters and acute phase proteins correlated with nutritional status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Carolina de Quadros; Borges, Dayanne da Silva; de Oliveira, Paula Fernanda; Chagas, Thayz Rodrigues; Del Moral, Joanita Angela Gonzaga; Durigon, Giovanna Steffanello; Dias, Bruno Vieira; Vieira, André Guedes; Gaspareto, Patrick; Trindade, Erasmo Benício Santos de Moraes; Nunes, Everson Araújo

    2015-01-01

    Hematological malignancies present abnormal blood cells that may have altered functions. This study aimed to evaluate nutritional status, acute phase proteins, parameters of cell's functionality, and oxidative stress of patients with hematological malignancies, providing a representation of these variables at diagnosis, comparisons between leukemias and lymphomas and establishing correlations. Nutritional status, C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, phagocytic capacity and superoxide anion production of mononuclear cells, lipid peroxidation and catalase activity in plasma were evaluated in 16 untreated subjects. Main diagnosis was acute leukemia (n = 9) and median body mass index (BMI) indicated overweight (25.6 kg/m(2)). Median albumin was below (3.2 g/dL) and CRP above (37.45 mg/L) the reference values. Albumin was inversely correlated with BMI (r = -0.53). Most patients were overweight before the beginning of treatment and had a high CRP/albumin ratio, which may indicate a nutrition inflammatory risk. BMI values correlated positively with lipid peroxidation and catalase activity. A strong correlation between catalase activity and lipid peroxidation was found (r = 0.75). Besides the elevated BMI, these patients also have elevated CRP values and unexpected relations between nutritional status and albumin, reinforcing the need for nutritional counseling during the course of chemotherapy, especially considering the correlations between oxidative stress parameters and nutritional status evidenced here.

  5. Acute stress induces increases in salivary IL-10 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Yvette Z; Newton, Tamara L; Miller, James J; Lyle, Keith B; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress-reactivity of the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10, in saliva and to determine how salivary IL-10 levels change in relation to those of IL-1β, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, following stress. Healthy young adults were randomly assigned to retrieve a negative emotional memory (n = 46) or complete a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (n = 45). Saliva samples were taken 10 min before (baseline) and 50 min after (post-stressor) onset of a 10-min stressor, and were assayed using a high sensitivity multiplex assay for cytokines. Measurable IL-10 levels (above the minimum detectable concentration) were found in 96% of the baseline samples, and 98% of the post-stressor samples. Flow rate-adjusted salivary IL-10 levels as well as IL-1β/IL-10 ratios showed moderate but statistically significant increases in response to stress. Measurement of salivary IL-10 and pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios may be useful, noninvasive tools, in stress research.

  6. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  7. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buechel, Heather M; Popovic, Jelena; Staggs, Kendra; Anderson, Katie L; Thibault, Olivier; Blalock, Eric M

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/stress hormone/allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation), and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 month) and aged (21 month) male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress) groups (n = 9-12/group). We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the 3 h restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 h after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  8. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  9. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Sheikhani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group or body building (resistance group volunteered to participate in the present study. Track and field athletes (n = 20 were requested to run 8 km at 60% to 70% of maximum heart rate. Body building athletes (n = 20 performed a resistance training session of 5 exercises in 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1 RM (bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl, and leg press. Before and immediately after the exercise, plasma BNP levels of both groups of athletes were measured by PATHFASTTM NT-proBNP assay, an immunochemiluminescent assay using two polyclonal antibodies in sandwich test format, on a PATHFASTTM automated analyzer. Results: Plasma BNP levels immediately following exercise increased significantly as compared with baseline values. Plasma BNP concentrations in the aerobic group were significantly higher than in the resistance group before and after exercise. Moreover, the increase in mean BNP concentrations in aerobic athletes was 7 times more than in resistance athletes. Conclusions: BNP levels in athlete who performed distance exercises increased significantly compared with resistance training. Possibly exercise program type, intensity of exercise, volume of exercise program, and field sport can be factors of changes in BNP levels

  10. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  11. Chronic stress effects in contralateral medial pterygoid muscle of rats with occlusion alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loyola, Bruno Melo; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro; Fernández, Rodrigo Alberto Restrepo; Iyomasa, Daniela Mizusaki; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Leite-Panissi, Christie Ramos Andrade; Issa, João Paulo Mardegan; Iyomasa, Mamie Mizusaki

    2016-10-01

    +US groups, the deeply stained fibers increased compared to NO+C.·The exodontia factor was able to increase the ROS activity in muscle, whereas the stress factor does not significantly alter ROS in this tissue. It was concluded that both unpredictable chronic stress and the extraction induce metabolic and density of capillary changes in the contralateral medial pterygoid muscle to extraction, suggesting that these factors for a longer period of this experiment could induce muscle damage related to TMD. PMID:27342425

  12. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  13. Acute and reversible cardiomyopathy provoked by stress in a Chinese woman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Lian-ming; ZHANG Jian; DOU Ke-fei; XU Zhi-min; GAO Xiao-jin; YANG Yue-jin

    2008-01-01

    @@ Areversible cardiomyopathy triggered by psychologically stressful events occurs in older women and may mimic evolving acute myocardial infarction or coronary syndrome.This condition is characterized by a distinctive form of systolic dysfunction that predominantly affects the distal left ventricle chamber and a favourable outcome with appropriate medical therapy.

  14. Family Stress Management Following Acute Myocardial Infarction: An Educational and Skills Training Intervention Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David V.; Cleveland, Sidney E.; Baer, Paul E.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a conceptual background for specific behavioral-therapy approach to family stress management in dealing with the sequelae of acute myocardial infarction for all family members with the goal of reducing morbidity for all family members as they cope with ongoing survivorship issues. Describes the program and discusses its pilot…

  15. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Rojas

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study.

  16. Salivary MUC5B-mediated adherence (ex vivo) of Heliocobacter pylori during acute stress.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Bosch; E.J.C. de Geus; T.J.M. Ligtenberg; K. Nazmi; E.C.I. Veerman; J. Hoogstraten; A.V. Amerongen Nieuwland

    2000-01-01

    Biochemical host defenses at mucosal sites, such as the oral cavity, play a key role in the regulation of microbial ecology and the prevention of infectious disease. This study investigated the effects of acute stress on the salivary levels of the carbohydrate structure sulfo-Lewis-super(a ) (SL), w

  17. Acute exercise improves endothelial function despite increasing vascular resistance during stress in smokers and nonsmokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooks, Cherie R; McCully, Kevin K; Dishman, Rod K

    2011-09-01

    The present study examined the effect of acute exercise on flow mediated dilation (FMD) and reactivity to neurovascular challenges among female smokers and nonsmokers. FMD was determined by arterial diameter, velocity, and blood flow measured by Doppler ultrasonography after forearm occlusion. Those measures and blood pressure and heart rate were also assessed in response to forehead cold and the Stroop Color-Word Conflict Test (CWT) before and after 30 min of rest or an acute bout of cycling exercise (∼50% VO₂ peak). Baseline FMD and stress responses were not different between smokers and nonsmokers. Compared to passive rest, exercise increased FMD and decreased arterial velocity and blood flow responses during the Stroop CWT and forehead cold in both groups. Overall, acute exercise improved endothelial function among smokers and nonsmokers despite increasing vascular resistance and reducing limb blood flow during neurovascular stress. PMID:21457274

  18. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP. PMID:25354525

  19. Repeated restraint stress alters sensitivity to the social consequences of ethanol differentially in early and late adolescent rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Varlinskaya, Elena I.; Truxell, Eric M.; Spear, Linda P.

    2013-01-01

    In rats, considerable differences in the social consequences of acute ethanol are seen across ontogeny, with adolescents being more sensitive to low dose ethanol-induced social facilitation and less sensitive to the social inhibition evident at higher ethanol doses relative to adults. Stressor exposure induces social anxiety-like behavior, indexed via decreases in social preference, and alters responsiveness to the social consequences of acute ethanol by enhancing ethanol-associated social fa...

  20. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  1. Stress and parental care: Prolactin responses to acute stress throughout the breeding cycle in a long-lived bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riou, Samuel; Chastel, Olivier; Lacroix, André; Hamer, Keith C

    2010-08-01

    While the role of corticosterone in mediating the response of birds to acute stress is well established, it has recently been proposed that a decrease in prolactin levels following stress may complement corticosterone in redirecting resources away from breeding activities and towards behaviors promoting immediate survival. Here, for the first time, we detail changes in the prolactin stress response of birds throughout the breeding cycle. We then discuss the modulation of the corticosterone and prolactin stress responses over successive stages of breeding, differing in reproductive value and parental effort. In a long-lived Procellariiform seabird, the Manx shearwater Puffinus puffinus, we found that prolactin levels decreased in response to acute stress during incubation and mid chick-rearing but increased in response to stress during late chick-rearing and in non parenting birds, a pattern similar to that previously described for mammals. The high corticosterone stress response in pre-breeders was consistent with predictions based on reproductive value, but a similar response during late chick-rearing was not. This probably reflected foraging effort and a heightened importance of the parents' own nutritional status at this stage of the season, in advance of post-breeding migration. We also found that baseline prolactin levels were maintained at high levels during chick-rearing and were only slightly lower during late chick-rearing and in failed breeders and non-breeders. These data suggest that prolactin may play a role in nestling care long beyond the brooding phase, that this is not due to birds spending long periods away from the colony and that prolactin secretion may be necessary for nest-guarding behavior.

  2. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. PMID:25016451

  3. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis.

  4. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  5. The Latent Factor Structure of Acute Stress Disorder following Bank Robbery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Lasgaard, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced into the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) to identify posttraumatic stress reactions occurring within the first month after a trauma and thus help...... for the ASD diagnosis in the pending DSM-5, there is a profound need for empirical studies that investigate the latent structure of ASD prior to the DSM-5 being finalized. DESIGN: Based on previous factor analytic research, the DSM-IV, and the proposed DSM-5 formulation of ASD, four different models...... of the latent structure of ASD were specified and estimated. METHOD: The analyses were based on a national study of bank robbery victims (N = 450) using the acute stress disorder scale. RESULTS: The results of the confirmatory factor analyses showed that the DSM-IV model provided the best fit to the data. Thus...

  6. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Marsac, Meghan L; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston, Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within ...

  7. Consecutive bouts of diverse contractile activity alter acute responses in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coffey, Vernon G; Pilegaard, Henriette; Garnham, Andrew P;

    2009-01-01

    -activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha mRNA did not reveal an order effect. We conclude that acute responses to diverse bouts of contractile activity are modified by the exercise order. Moreover, undertaking divergent exercise in close proximity influences the acute molecular profile and likely exacerbates...

  8. Oxidative Stress Alters miRNA and Gene Expression Profiles in Villous First Trimester Trophoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E. Cross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and miRNA changes in placenta as a potential mechanism involved in preeclampsia (PE is not fully elucidated. We investigated the impact of oxidative stress on miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles of genes associated with PE in villous 3A first trimester trophoblast cells exposed to H2O2 at 12 different concentrations (0-1 mM for 0.5, 4, 24, and 48 h. Cytotoxicity, determined using the SRB assay, was used to calculate the IC50 of H2O2. RNA was extracted after 4 h exposure to H2O2 for miRNA and gene expression profiling. H2O2 exerted a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity on 3A trophoblast cells. Short-term exposure of 3A cells to low concentration of H2O2 (5% of IC50 significantly altered miRNA profile as evidenced by significant changes in 195 out of 595 evaluable miRNAs. Tool for annotations of microRNAs (TAM analysis indicated that these altered miRNAs fall into 43 clusters and 34 families, with 41 functions identified. Exposure to H2O2 altered mRNA expression of 22 out of 84 key genes involved in dysregulation of placental development. In conclusion, short-term exposure of villous first trimester trophoblasts to low concentrations of H2O2 significantly alters miRNA profile and expression of genes implicated in placental development.

  9. Prenatal stress alters progestogens to mediate susceptibility to sex-typical, stress-sensitive disorders, such as drug abuse: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A Frye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Maternal-offspring interactions begin prior to birth. Experiences of the mother during gestation play a powerful role in determining the developmental programming of the central nervous system. In particular, stress during gestation alters developmental programming of the offspring resulting in susceptibility to sex-typical and stress-sensitive neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, neither these effects, nor the underlying mechanisms, are well understood. Our hypothesis is that allopregnanolone, during gestation, plays a particularly vital role in mitigating effects of stress on the developing fetus and may mediate, in part, alterations apparent throughout the lifespan. Specifically, altered balance between glucocorticoids and progestogens during critical periods of development (stemming from psychological, immunological, and/or endocrinological stressors during gestation may permanently influence behavior, brain morphology, and/or neuroendocrine-sensitive processes. 5α-reduced progestogens are integral in the developmental programming of sex-typical, stress-sensitive, and/or disorder-relevant phenotypes. Prenatal stress may alter these responses and dysregulate allopregnanolone and its normative effects on stress axis function. As an example of a neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and/or neurodegenerative process, this review focuses on responsiveness to drugs of abuse, which is sensitive to prenatal stress and progestogen milieu. This review explores the notion that allopregnanolone may effect, or be influenced by, prenatal stress, with consequences for neurodevelopmental-, neuropsychiatric- and/or neurodegenerative- relevant processes, such as addiction.

  10. Changes of central haemodynamic parameters during mental stress and acute bouts of static and dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydakis, C; Momen, A; Blaha, C; Gugoff, S; Gray, K; Herr, M; Leuenberger, U A; Sinoway, L I

    2008-05-01

    Chronic dynamic (aerobic) exercise decreases central arterial stiffness, whereas chronic resistance exercise evokes the opposite effect. Nevertheless, there is little information available on the effects of acute bouts of exercise. Also, there is limited data showing an increase of central arterial stiffness during acute mental stress. This study aimed to determine the effect of acute mental and physical (static and dynamic exercise) stress on indices of central arterial stiffness. Fifteen young healthy volunteers were studied. The following paradigms were performed: (1) 2 min of mental arithmetic, (2) short bouts (20 s) of static handgrip at 20 and 70% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), (3) fatiguing handgrip at 40% MVC and (4) incremental dynamic knee extensor exercise. Central aortic waveforms were assessed using SphygmoCor software. As compared to baseline, pulse wave transit time decreased significantly for all four interventions indicating that central arterial stiffness increased. During fatiguing handgrip there was a fall in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure from 1.69+/-0.02 at baseline to 1.56+/-0.05 (Pfatiguing handgrip protocols, whereas there was no change in the knee extensor protocol. We conclude that (1) during all types of acute stress tested in this study (including dynamic exercise) estimated central stiffness increased, (2) during static exercise the workload posed on the left ventricle (expressed as change in central pulse pressure) is relatively higher than that posed during dynamic exercise (given the same pulse pressure change in the periphery). PMID:18273040

  11. Whole transcriptome analysis of transgenic barley with altered cytokinin homeostasis and increased tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Petr; Kokáš, Filip; Husičková, Alexandra; Grúz, Jiří; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Marchetti, Cintia F; Jiskrová, Eva; Ježilová, Eliška; Mik, Václav; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinin plant hormones have been shown to play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we expand upon the findings of Pospíšilová et al. [30] regarding preparation of novel transgenic barley lines overexpressing cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis under the control of mild root-specific promotor of maize β-glycosidase. These lines showed drought-tolerant phenotype mainly due to alteration of root architecture and stronger lignification of root tissue. A detailed transcriptomic analysis of roots of transgenic plants subjected to revitalization after drought stress revealed attenuated response through the HvHK3 cytokinin receptor and up-regulation of two transcription factors implicated in stress responses and abscisic acid sensitivity. Increased expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway as well as of genes encoding arogenate dehydratase/lyase participating in phenylalanine synthesis was found in roots during revitalization. Although more precursors of lignin synthesis were present in roots after drought stress, final lignin accumulation did not change compared to that in plants grown under optimal conditions. Changes in transcriptome indicated a higher auxin turnover in transgenic roots. The same analysis in leaves revealed that genes encoding putative enzymes responsible for production of jasmonates and other volatile compounds were up-regulated. Although transgenic barley leaves showed lower chlorophyll content and down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis than did wild-type plants when cultivated under optimal conditions, they did show a tendency to return to initial photochemical activities faster than did wild-type leaves when re-watered after severe drought stress. In contrast to optimal conditions, comparative transcriptomic analysis of revitalized leaves displayed up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in photosynthesis, and especially

  12. Sensitivity of gypsy moth neurosecretory neurons to acute thermal stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilijin Larisa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In gypsy moth caterpillars exposed to a temperature of 35°C (for 1, 12 and 24 h and caterpillars that were exposed to elevated temperature for 12 h and were allowed to recover for 12 h at 23°C, changes in the brain protein profiles and morphometric characteristics of A1’ medial and L2 lateral protocerebral neurosecretory neurons were analyzed. In all groups, protein bands with a molecular mass corresponding to that of members of heat-shock protein families were detected, indicating that acute exposure to this temperature likely induced the synthesis of HSP. Increased morphometric parameters of A1’ neurons and the large amount of neurosecretory material in the neuron body implicate that the temperature of 35°C is not in the temperature range that exerts stimulatory effects on growth and survival. Changes in the morphometric characteristics of L2 neurosecretory neurons from the lateral part of the protocerebrum, and retention of neurosecretory material in their cytoplasm indicate a low level of secretion.

  13. Post-stress rumination predicts HPA axis responses to repeated acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianferante, Danielle; Thoma, Myriam V; Hanlin, Luke; Chen, Xuejie; Breines, Juliana G; Zoccola, Peggy M; Rohleder, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    Failure of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to habituate to repeated stress exposure is related with adverse health outcomes, but our knowledge of predictors of non-habituation is limited. Rumination, defined as repetitive and unwanted past-centered negative thinking, is related with exaggerated HPA axis stress responses and poor health outcomes. The aim of this study was to test whether post-stress rumination was related with non-habituation of cortisol to repeated stress exposure. Twenty-seven participants (n=13 females) were exposed to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) twice on consecutive afternoons. Post-stress rumination was measured after the first TSST, and HPA axis responses were assessed by measuring salivary cortisol 1 min before, and 1, 10, 20, 60, and 120 min after both TSSTs. Stress exposure induced HPA axis activation on both days, and this activation showed habituation indicated by lower responses to the second TSST (F=3.7, p=0.015). Post-stress rumination after the first TSST was associated with greater cortisol reactivity after the initial stress test (r=0.45, pHPA axis responses. This finding implicates rumination as one possible mechanism mediating maladaptive stress response patterns, and it might also offer a pathway through which rumination might lead to negative health outcomes.

  14. Alterations in catecholamine turnover in specific regions of the rat brain following acute exposure to nitrous oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuri, A R; Kugel, G; Engelking, L R; Kumar, M S

    1998-04-01

    The effects of nitrous oxide (N2O) on steady-state concentrations and turnover rates of catecholamines in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, brain stem, hippocampus, striatum, thalamus, cerebral cortex, and spinal cord were determined in rats. Animals were exposed for 2 h to either 60% N2O or air. Immediately following exposure, all animals were injected intraperitoneally with alpha-methylparatyrosine (alphaMPT), a competitive inhibitor of tyrosine hydroxylase, and sacrificed at 0, 30, or 90 min postinjection. Brain catecholamine concentrations were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrochemical detection (HPLC-EC). Results indicate that N2O exposure significantly elevates steady-state concentrations of norepinephrine (NE) in the hypothalamus and striatum yet decreases amine levels in the brain stem region. Steady-state levels of dopamine (DA) were not significantly altered in any region of the CNS by N2O exposure. Acute exposure to N2O also resulted in significant decreases in the turnover rate of NE in the brain stem, yet it increased turnover of this amine in the olfactory bulb, hypothalamus, and striatum. Acute exposure to N2O resulted in a decreased turnover rate of DA in the hippocampus and striatum. In contrast, N2O appears to increase DA turnover in the olfactory bulb. These results indicate that acute exposure to N2O in rats causes region-specific alterations in steady-state levels and turnover rates of DA and NE within the central nervous system.

  15. Oxidative Stress in Retinal Muller Cells contributes to Dysfunction of Retinal Glutamate Uptake and Altered Protein Expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Kehler, Anne Katrine; Skytt, Dorte Marie; Kolko, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    minor, though significant, reduction of cell viability was seen after 1 and 24 hours of exposure to oxidative stress. The glutamate transporter, EAAT1, was significantly up-regulated at RNA-level after exposure to oxidative stress, whereas the alterations of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) was time...

  16. The evolution of the painful sensitivity in acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristea, A; Ciobanu, A; Stoenescu, M; Rusei, I

    1994-01-01

    The clinical research was made on two groups of young volunteer students. We considered stress consisting in chronic informational overexposure during the examination session and the acute stress from their emotions before a hard examination. The painful sensitivity was analysed by measuring the retraction time of the finger from water at 55 degrees C. The experimental research was made on a group of 100 male mice. The acute stress was performed by subjecting each mouse to swim (behavioral despair test). Painful sensitivity was determined by the test of the hot plate heated at 50 degrees C. Individuals with hyper (H) and hypo (h) painful sensitivity were selected for the tests. In chronic stress, the results proved increased painful sensitivity (hyperalgia) more important at "h" compared to "H" (p behaviors with opposite mechanisms involved in stress analgesia. This hypothesis is related with studies which demonstrate the involvement in stress analgesia of non-opioid monoaminergic mechanisms together with the opioid mechanisms (Lewis, 1980). PMID:8640371

  17. Symptoms of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients With Acute Hand Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, Lonneke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Postema, Klass; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hand injuries may delay return to work, even when criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV are not met. This study investigated which biomedical and psychosocial factors relate to symptoms of ac

  18. The influences of reproductive status and acute stress on the levels of phosphorylated mu opioid receptor immunoreactivity in rat hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith L. Gonzales

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Opioids play a critical role in hippocampally dependent behavior and plasticity. In the hippocampal formation, mu opioid receptors (MOR are prominent in parvalbumin (PARV containing interneurons. Previously we found that gonadal hormones modulate the trafficking of MORs in PARV interneurons. Although sex differences in response to stress are well documented, the point at which opioids, sex and stress interact to influence hippocampal function remains elusive. Thus, we used quantitative immunocytochemistry in combination with light and electron microscopy for the phosphorylated MOR at the SER375 carboxy-terminal residue (pMOR in male and female rats to assess these interactions. In both sexes, pMOR-immunoreactivity (ir was prominent in axons and terminals and in a few neuronal somata and dendrites, some of which contained PARV in the mossy fiber pathway region of the dentate gyrus (DG hilus and CA3 stratum lucidum. In unstressed rats, the levels of pMOR-ir in the DG or CA3 were not affected by sex or estrous cycle stage. However, immediately following 30 minutes of acute immobilization stress (AIS, males had higher levels of pMOR-ir whereas females at proestrus and estrus (high estrogen stages had lower levels of pMOR-ir within the DG. In contrast, the number and types of neuronal profiles with pMOR-ir were not altered by AIS in either males or proestrus females. These data demonstrate that although gonadal steroids do not affect pMOR levels at resting conditions, they are differentially activated both pre- and post-synaptic MORs following stress. These interactions may contribute to the reported sex differences in hippocampally dependent behaviors in stressed animals.

  19. Cerebrovascular expression of proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity is altered with aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Jinhua

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most neurodegenerative diseases are age-related disorders; however, how aging predisposes the brain to disease has not been adequately addressed. The objective of this study is to determine whether expression of proteins in the cerebromicrovasculature related to inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity is altered with aging. Methods Brain microvessels are isolated from Fischer 344 rats at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age. Levels of interleukin (IL-1β and IL-6 RNA are determined by RT-PCR and release of cytokines into the media by ELISA. Vessel conditioned media are also screened by ELISA for IL-1α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNFα, and interferon γ (IFNγ. Immunofluorescent analysis of brain sections for IL-1β and IL-6 is performed. Results Expression of IL-1β and IL-6, both at RNA and protein levels, significantly (p Conclusions These data demonstrate that cerebrovascular expression of proteins related to inflammation, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity is altered with aging and suggest that the microvasculature may contribute to functional changes in the aging brain.

  20. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurilio da Silva Morrone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n=8 and one OVX group (n=11 were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil, and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n=8/group. OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause.

  1. Curcumin Supplementation Decreases Intestinal Adiposity Accumulation, Serum Cholesterol Alterations, and Oxidative Stress in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrone, Maurilio da Silva; Schnorr, Carlos Eduardo; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Gasparotto, Juciano; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; da Boit Martinello, Katia; Saldanha Henkin, Bernardo; Rabello, Thallita Kelly; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of curcumin oral supplementation (50 and 100 mg/Kg/day, for 30 days) in circumventing menopause-associated oxidative stress and lipid profile dysfunctions in a rat ovariectomy (OVX) model. Female Wistar rats were operated and randomly divided into either sham-operated or OVX groups. Sham-operated group (n = 8) and one OVX group (n = 11) were treated with vehicle (refined olive oil), and the other two OVX groups received curcumin at 50 or 100 mg/Kg/day doses (n = 8/group). OVX vehicle-treated animals presented a higher deposition of intestinal adipose tissue as well as increased serum levels of IL-6, LDL, and total cholesterol when compared to sham-operated rats. In addition, several oxidative stress markers in serum, blood, and liver (such as TBARS, carbonyl, reduced-sulphydryl, and nonenzymatic antioxidant defenses) were altered toward a prooxidant status by OVX. Interestingly, curcumin supplementation attenuated most of these parameters to sham comparable values. Thus, the herein presented results show that curcumin may be useful to ameliorate lipid metabolism alterations and oxidative damage associated with hormone deprivation in menopause.

  2. High glucose alters retinal astrocytes phenotype through increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are macroglial cells that have a crucial role in development of the retinal vasculature and maintenance of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB. Diabetes affects the physiology and function of retinal vascular cells including astrocytes (AC leading to breakdown of BRB. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to retinal AC dysfunction under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Here we show that high glucose conditions did not induce the apoptosis of retinal AC, but instead increased their rate of DNA synthesis and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. These alterations were associated with changes in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration and proliferation. High glucose conditions also affected the expression of inflammatory cytokines in retinal AC, activated NF-κB, and prevented their network formation on Matrigel. In addition, we showed that the attenuation of retinal AC migration under high glucose conditions, and capillary morphogenesis of retinal endothelial cells on Matrigel, was mediated through increased oxidative stress. Antioxidant proteins including heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 levels were also increased in retinal AC under high glucose conditions through nuclear localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2. Together our results demonstrated that high glucose conditions alter the function of retinal AC by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress with significant impact on their proliferation, adhesion, and migration.

  3. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  4. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingkai Wei

    Full Text Available Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI.We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task, and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS, obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores.There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30, p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56, p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress.Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological stress.

  5. Folylpolyglutamate synthetase splicing alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are provoked by methotrexate and other chemotherapeutics and mediate chemoresistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtuszkiewicz, Anna; Raz, Shachar; Stark, Michal; Assaraf, Yehuda G; Jansen, Gerrit; Peters, Godefridus J; Sonneveld, Edwin; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; Cloos, Jacqueline

    2016-04-01

    Methotrexate (MTX), a folate antagonist which blocks de novo nucleotide biosynthesis and DNA replication, is an anchor drug in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment. However, drug resistance is a primary hindrance to curative chemotherapy in leukemia and its molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. We have recently shown that impaired folylpolyglutamate synthetase (FPGS) splicing possibly contributes to the loss of FPGS activity in MTX-resistant leukemia cell line models and adult leukemia patients. However, no information is available on the possible splicing alterations in FPGS in pediatric ALL. Here, using a comprehensive PCR-based screen we discovered and characterized a spectrum of FPGS splicing alterations including exon skipping and intron retention, all of which proved to frequently emerge in both pediatric and adult leukemia patient specimens. Furthermore, an FPGS activity assay revealed that these splicing alterations resulted in loss of FPGS function. Strikingly, pulse-exposure of leukemia cells to antifolates and other chemotherapeutics markedly enhanced the prevalence of several FPGS splicing alterations in antifolate-resistant cells, but not in their parental antifolate-sensitive counterparts. These novel findings suggest that an assortment of deleterious FPGS splicing alterations may constitute a mechanism of antifolate resistance in childhood ALL. Our findings have important implications for the rational overcoming of drug resistance in individual leukemia patients.

  6. Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Social Defeat Stress Alters Anxiety, Contextual Fear Extinction, and Limbic Monoamines in Adult Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Daniel R.; Olson, Dawne; Meyer, Danielle L.; Scholl, Jamie L.; Watt, Michael J.; Manzerra, Pasquale; Renner, Kenneth J.; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mTBI...

  7. Mild traumatic brain injury with social defeat stress alters anxiety, contextual fear extinction, and limbic monoamines in adult rats

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel eDavies; Dawne eOlson; Danielle eMeyer; Jamie eScholl; Michael eWatt; Pasquale eManzerra; Kenneth eRenner; Forster, Gina L.

    2016-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) produces symptoms similar to those typifying posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in humans. We sought to determine whether a rodent model of stress concurrent with mTBI produces characteristics of PTSD such as impaired contextual fear extinction, while also examining concurrent alterations to limbic monoamine activity in brain regions relevant to fear and anxiety states. Male rats were exposed to social stress or control conditions immediately prior to mT...

  8. Altered Gene Expression Pattern in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Marek Kiliszek; Beata Burzynska; Marcin Michalak; Monika Gora; Aleksandra Winkler; Agata Maciejak; Agata Leszczynska; Ewa Gajda; Janusz Kochanowski; Grzegorz Opolski

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite a substantial progress in diagnosis and therapy, acute myocardial infarction (MI) is a major cause of mortality in the general population. A novel insight into the pathophysiology of myocardial infarction obtained by studying gene expression should help to discover novel biomarkers of MI and to suggest novel strategies of therapy. The aim of our study was to establish gene expression patterns in leukocytes from acute myocardial infarction patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twe...

  9. Altered molecular specificity of surfactant phosphatidycholine synthesis in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dushianthan, Ahilanandan; Goss, Victoria; Cusack, Rebecca; Grocott, Michael P. W.; Postle, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threatening critical illness, characterised by qualitative and quantitative surfactant compositional changes associated with premature airway collapse, gas-exchange abnormalities and acute hypoxic respiratory failure. The underlying mechanisms for this dysregulation in surfactant metabolisms are not fully explored. Lack of therapeutic benefits from clinical trials, highlight the importance of detailed in-vivo analysis and charact...

  10. Metabolic Alterations of the Zebrafish Brain after Acute Alcohol Treatment by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Cheol Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with acute alcohol treatment in zebrafish by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS. The brain metabolism of zebrafish was investigated after acute alcohol treatment (one-hour long exposure of adult fish to 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% ethyl alcohol with whole brain extraction. The results of this study showed that glutamate (Glu was significantly decreased, scyllo-inositol (sIns showed a small apparent increase only in the highest acute treatment dose group, and myoinositol (mIns showed a significant decrease. [Glu]/[tCr] and [mIns]/[tCr] levels were significantly reduced regardless of the alcohol dose, and [sIns]/[tCr] was increased in the highest alcohol treatment dose group. The present NMR study revealed that specific metabolites, such as Glu and mIns, were substantially decreased in case of acute alcohol exposed zebrafish brain.

  11. Mitochondrial functions modulate neuroendocrine, metabolic, inflammatory, and transcriptional responses to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Martin; McManus, Meagan J; Gray, Jason D; Nasca, Carla; Moffat, Cynthia; Kopinski, Piotr K; Seifert, Erin L; McEwen, Bruce S; Wallace, Douglas C

    2015-12-01

    The experience of psychological stress triggers neuroendocrine, inflammatory, metabolic, and transcriptional perturbations that ultimately predispose to disease. However, the subcellular determinants of this integrated, multisystemic stress response have not been defined. Central to stress adaptation is cellular energetics, involving mitochondrial energy production and oxidative stress. We therefore hypothesized that abnormal mitochondrial functions would differentially modulate the organism's multisystemic response to psychological stress. By mutating or deleting mitochondrial genes encoded in the mtDNA [NADH dehydrogenase 6 (ND6) and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI)] or nuclear DNA [adenine nucleotide translocator 1 (ANT1) and nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NNT)], we selectively impaired mitochondrial respiratory chain function, energy exchange, and mitochondrial redox balance in mice. The resulting impact on physiological reactivity and recovery from restraint stress were then characterized. We show that mitochondrial dysfunctions altered the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, sympathetic adrenal-medullary activation and catecholamine levels, the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, circulating metabolites, and hippocampal gene expression responses to stress. Each mitochondrial defect generated a distinct whole-body stress-response signature. These results demonstrate the role of mitochondrial energetics and redox balance as modulators of key pathophysiological perturbations previously linked to disease. This work establishes mitochondria as stress-response modulators, with implications for understanding the mechanisms of stress pathophysiology and mitochondrial diseases. PMID:26627253

  12. Perfusion deficits and functional connectivity alterations in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Liang; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    To explore the alteration in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity between survivors with recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without PTSD, survived from the same coal mine flood disaster. In this study, a processing pipeline using arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was proposed. Considering low spatial resolution of ASL sequence, a linear regression method was firstly used to correct the partial volume (PV) effect for better CBF estimation. Then the alterations of CBF between two groups were analyzed using both uncorrected and PV-corrected CBF maps. Based on altered CBF regions detected from the CBF analysis as seed regions, the functional connectivity abnormities in PTSD patients was investigated. The CBF analysis using PV-corrected maps indicates CBF deficits in the bilateral frontal lobe, right superior frontal gyrus and right corpus callosum of PTSD patients, while only right corpus callosum was identified in uncorrected CBF analysis. Furthermore, the regional CBF of the right superior frontal gyrus exhibits significantly negative correlation with the symptom severity in PTSD patients. The resting-state functional connectivity indicates increased connectivity between left frontal lobe and right parietal lobe. These results indicate that PV-corrected CBF exhibits more subtle perfusion changes and may benefit further perfusion and connectivity analysis. The symptom-specific perfusion deficits and aberrant connectivity in above memory-related regions may be putative biomarkers for recent onset PTSD induced by a single prolonged trauma exposure and help predict the severity of PTSD.

  13. Psychoneuroendocrine immunology: perception of stress can alter body temperature and natural killer cell activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, R N; Solvason, H B; Hsueh, C M; Rogers, C F; Demissie, S; Hiramoto, N S; Gauthier, D K; Lorden, J F; Ghanta, V K

    1999-01-01

    Psychoimmunology has been credited with using the mind as a way to alter immunity. The problem with this concept is that many of the current psychoimmunology techniques in use are aimed at alleviating stress effects on the immune system rather than at direct augmentation of immunity by the brain. Studies in animals provide a model that permits us to approach the difficulties associated with gaining an understanding of the CNS-immune system connection. A particular advantage of using animals over humans is that psychological and social contributions play a less prominent role for animals than for human subjects, since the animals are all inbred and reared under identical controlled conditions. If the insightful information provided by animal studies is correct, then psychotherapy for the treatment of diseases might be made more effective if some aspect of this knowledge is included in the design of the treatment. We emphasize conditioning as a regimen and an acceptable way to train the brain to remember an output pathway to raise immunity. We propose that a specific drug or perception (mild stress, represented by rotation, total body heating or handling) could substitute and kindle the same output pathway without the need for conditioning. If this view is correct, then instead of using conditioning, it may be possible to use an antigen to activate desired immune cells, and substitute a drug or an external environmental sensory stimulus (perception) to energize the output pathway to these cells. Alternatively, monitoring alterations of body temperature in response to a drug or perception might allow us to follow how effectively the brain is performing in altering immunity. Studies with animals suggest that there are alternative ways to use the mind to raise natural or acquired immunity in man.

  14. Sleep restriction alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo, P.; Koehl, M.; van der Borght, K.; Turek, F. W.

    2002-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction is an increasing problem in many countries and may have many, as yet unknown, consequences for health and well being. Studies in both humans and rats suggest that sleep deprivation may activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems. However, few attempts have been made to examine how sleep loss affects the HPA axis response to subsequent stressors. Furthermore, most studies applied short-lasting total sleep deprivation and not restriction of sleep over a longer period of time, as often occurs in human society. Using the rat as our model species, we investigated: (i) the HPA axis activity during and after sleep deprivation and (ii) the effect of sleep loss on the subsequent HPA response to a novel stressor. In one experiment, rats were subjected to 48 h of sleep deprivation by placing them in slowly rotating wheels. Control rats were placed in nonrotating wheels. In a second experiment, rats were subjected to an 8-day sleep restriction protocol allowing 4 h of sleep each day. To test the effects of sleep loss on subsequent stress reactivity, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress. Blood samples were taken at several time points and analysed for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. The results show that ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were elevated during sleep deprivation but returned to baseline within 4 h of recovery. After 1 day of sleep restriction, the ACTH and corticosterone response to restraint stress did not differ between control and sleep deprived rats. However, after 48 h of total sleep deprivation and after 8 days of restricted sleep, the ACTH response to restraint was significantly reduced whereas the corticosterone response was unaffected. These results show that sleep loss not only is a mild activator of the HPA axis itself, but also affects the subsequent response to stress. Alterations in HPA axis regulation may gradually appear under

  15. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6 h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A·)/ascorbate (AH−) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A·/AH− ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR·) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8 h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21 h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6 h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8 h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR· generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR· generation rate after 6 h

  16. Acute iron overload and oxidative stress in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piloni, Natacha E; Fermandez, Virginia; Videla, Luis A; Puntarulo, Susana

    2013-12-01

    An in vivo model in rat was developed by intraperitoneally administration of Fe-dextran to study oxidative stress triggered by Fe-overload in rat brain. Total Fe levels, as well as the labile iron pool (LIP) concentration, in brain from rats subjected to Fe-overload were markedly increased over control values, 6h after Fe administration. In this in vivo Fe overload model, the ascorbyl (A)/ascorbate (AH(-)) ratio, taken as oxidative stress index, was assessed. The A/AH(-) ratio in brain was significantly higher in Fe-dextran group, in relation to values in control rats. Brain lipid peroxidation indexes, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) generation rate and lipid radical (LR) content detected by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR), in Fe-dextran supplemented rats were similar to control values. However, values of nuclear factor-kappaB deoxyribonucleic acid (NFκB DNA) binding activity were significantly increased (30%) after 8h of Fe administration, and catalase (CAT) activity was significantly enhanced (62%) 21h after Fe administration. Significant enhancements in Fe content in cortex (2.4 fold), hippocampus (1.6 fold) and striatum (2.9 fold), were found at 6h after Fe administration. CAT activity was significantly increased after 8h of Fe administration in cortex, hippocampus and striatum (1.4 fold, 86, and 47%, respectively). Fe response in the whole brain seems to lead to enhanced NF-κB DNA binding activity, which may contribute to limit oxygen reactive species-dependent damage by effects on the antioxidant enzyme CAT activity. Moreover, data shown here clearly indicate that even though Fe increased in several isolated brain areas, this parameter was more drastically enhanced in striatum than in cortex and hippocampus. However, comparison among the net increase in LR generation rate, in different brain areas, showed enhancements in cortex lipid peroxidation, without changes in striatum and hippocampus LR generation rate after 6h of Fe overload

  17. Assessment of oxidative stress in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfahani A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Many chemotherapeutic regimens used in the treatment of cancer generate free radicals that may be a part of their beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to assess the oxidative status in patients undergoing chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia (AML."n "nMethods: Thirty-eight patients with AML (17 female and 21 male patients with a mean age 34.05±12.49 years were included in the study. All the patients received cytarabine and daunorubicin as their standard induction therapy. Serum levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, total antioxidant capacity (TAC, and also the erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured before and 14 days after chemotherapy."n "nResults: Plasma malondialdehyde concentrations increased significantly (from a former 2.68±0.89 nmol/ml to 3.14±1.29 nmol/ml 14 days post chemotherapy (p=0.04. Moreover, the total plasma antioxidant capacity changed from 1.09±0.15 mmol/L to 1.02±0.14 mmol/L (p=0.005. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity decreased over time from 1157.24±543.61 U/gHb to 984.01±419.09 U/gHb (p=0.04 and 46.96±13.70 U/gHb to 41.40±6.44 U/gHb (p=0.02, respectively."n "nConclusion: In this study, an increase in malondialdehyde levels and a decrease in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and total antioxidant capacity were observed. It seems that chemotherapy by cytarabine and daunorubicin generates enormous amounts of free radicals in patients undergoing the treatment for AML. Use of antioxidant supplementation during chemotherapy i is discouraged as it may interfere with the generation of free radicals that may be a part of the therapeutic efficacy of these drugs.

  18. Effects of Prepubertal Acute Immobilization Stress on Serum Kisspeptin Level and Testis Histology in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Yusefi, Alireza; Razeghi, Ali; Zabetiyan, Hassan; Karami, Mohammad Yasin; Madani, Abdol Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Stress has inhibitory effect on HPG axis through increasing cortisol serum level. In this study, the effect of acute prepubertal stress on kisspeptin, which plays essential role in puberty achievement is assessed. To do this experimental study thirty immature healthy male wistar rats of 4 weeks old and without any symptoms of puberty were selected randomly. These rats were divided into three groups, randomly. Two groups were chosen as control and pretest and one as stress (test) group. Immobilization stress was applied for 10 days and serum level of cortisol, testosterone and kisspeptin were measured. Primary and secondary spermatocyte and sertoli cell evaluated and compared among groups. Mean serum level of kisspeptin in pretest group, control group and stress (test) group were 0.0381 ± 0.0079, 91.0500 ± 4.87430 and 15.2156 ± 3.88135 pg mL(-1) respectively. Serum level of kisspeptin had significant differences between three groups (p stress led to decrease in serum level of kisspeptin and testosterone in stress (test) group compared to control groups. Also stress caused a significant decrease in the numbers of secondary spermatocytes of the test group. PMID:26930799

  19. Skeletal Muscle Regeneration and Oxidative Stress Are Altered in Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avin, Keith G; Chen, Neal X; Organ, Jason M; Zarse, Chad; O'Neill, Kalisha; Conway, Richard G; Konrad, Robert J; Bacallao, Robert L; Allen, Matthew R; Moe, Sharon M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy and impaired muscle function are associated with lower health-related quality of life, and greater disability and mortality risk in those with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the pathogenesis of skeletal dysfunction in CKD is unknown. We used a slow progressing, naturally occurring, CKD rat model (Cy/+ rat) with hormonal abnormalities consistent with clinical presentations of CKD to study skeletal muscle signaling. The CKD rats demonstrated augmented skeletal muscle regeneration with higher activation and differentiation signals in muscle cells (i.e. lower Pax-7; higher MyoD and myogenin RNA expression). However, there was also higher expression of proteolytic markers (Atrogin-1 and MuRF-1) in CKD muscle relative to normal. CKD animals had higher indices of oxidative stress compared to normal, evident by elevated plasma levels of an oxidative stress marker, 8-hydroxy-2' -deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), increased muscle expression of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and Nox4 and altered mitochondria morphology. Furthermore, we show significantly higher serum levels of myostatin and expression of myostatin in skeletal muscle of CKD animals compared to normal. Taken together, these data show aberrant regeneration and proteolytic signaling that is associated with oxidative stress and high levels of myostatin in the setting of CKD. These changes likely play a role in the compromised skeletal muscle function that exists in CKD. PMID:27486747

  20. Monocrotophos induced oxidative stress and alterations in brain dopamine and serotonin receptors in young rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhwar, Madhu L; Yadav, Rajesh S; Shukla, Rajendra K; Singh, Dhirendra; Ansari, Reyaz W; Pant, Aditya B; Parmar, Devendra; Khanna, Vinay K

    2016-03-01

    Human exposure to monocrotophos, an organophosphate pesticide, could occur due to its high use in agriculture to protect crops. Recently, we found that postlactational exposure to monocrotophos impaired cholinergic mechanisms in young rats and such changes persisted even after withdrawal of monocrotophos exposure. In continuation to this, the effect of monocrotophos on noncholinergic targets and role of oxidative stress in its neurotoxicity has been studied. Exposure of rats from postnatal day (PD)22 to PD49 to monocrotophos (0.50 or 1.0 mg kg(-1) body weight, perorally) significantly impaired motor activity and motor coordination on PD50 as compared to controls. A significant decrease in the binding of (3)H-spiperone to striatal membrane (26%, p 0.05; 37%, p < 0.05) in those exposed at a higher dose, respectively, was observed on PD50 compared with the controls. Alterations in the binding persisted even after withdrawal of monocrotophos exposure on PD65. Increased oxidative stress in brain regions following exposure of rats to monocrotophos was also observed on PD50 that persisted 15 days after withdrawal of exposure on PD65. The results suggest that monocrotophos exerts its neurobehavioral toxicity by affecting noncholinergic functions involving dopaminergic and serotonergic systems associated with enhanced oxidative stress. The results also exhibit vulnerability of developing brain to monocrotophos as most of the changes persisted even after withdrawal of its exposure. PMID:24105069

  1. Role of Tyrosine Isomers in Acute and Chronic Diseases Leading to Oxidative Stress - A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Gergő A; Kun, Szilárd; Sélley, Eszter; Kertész, Melinda; Szélig, Lívia; Csontos, Csaba; Böddi, Katalin; Bogár, Lajos; Miseta, Attila; Wittmann, István

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of a variety of acute and chronic diseases. Measurement of the oxidative stress-related end products may be performed, e.g. that of structural isomers of the physiological para-tyrosine, namely meta- and ortho-tyrosine, that are oxidized derivatives of phenylalanine. Recent data suggest that in sepsis, serum level of meta-tyrosine increases, which peaks on the 2(nd) and 3(rd) days (pglucose product in non-diabetic septic cases (pRats were fed a standard high cholesterol-diet, and were given para-tyrosine or vehicle orally. High-cholesterol feeding lead to a significant increase in aortic wall meta-tyrosine content and a decreased vasorelaxation of the aorta to insulin and the glucagon-like peptide-1 analogue, liraglutide, that both could be prevented by administration of para-tyrosine. Concluding, these data suggest that meta- and ortho-tyrosine are potential markers of oxidative stress in acute diseases related to oxidative stress, and may also interfere with insulin action in septic humans. Competition of meta- and ortho-tyrosine by supplementation of para-tyrosine may exert a protective role in oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26785996

  2. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E;

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...... developed clinical AMS (AMS+) and were more hypoxaemic relative to subjects without AMS (AMS-). A more marked increase in the venous concentration of the ascorbate radical (A(*-)), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and increased susceptibility of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) to oxidation was observed during...

  3. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  4. Relationship between antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Cemek; Semiha Dede; Fahri Bayiro(g)lu; Hüseyin (C)aksen; Fatma Cemek; Nihat Mert

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in children with acute hepatitis A.According to our knowledge, there are no data about the blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of oxidative stress) and nonenzymic antioxidants in children with acute hepatitis A.METHODS: Whole blood MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum β-carotene, retinol, vitamin E and vitamin C levels were studied in 19 (10 females, 9 males)children with acute hepatitis A and in 29 (13 females, 16males) healthy control subjects.RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between patients and controls for all parameters (P <0.05). Lipid peroxidation marker MDA was significantly elevated (P < 0.001), while antioxidants β-carotene,retinol and GSH were significantly decreased (all P <0.001) in patients compared to healthy subjects. In addition, α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid levels were significantly lower in patients when compared to age and sex matched controls (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, respectively).CONCLUSION: Our study shows that hepatitis A virus induces oxidative stress in childern with hepatitis A. This finding could be taken into consideration to improve the therapeutic approach in acute hepatitis A.

  5. The effects of acute anticipatory stress on frontal executive functions in healthy females

    OpenAIRE

    Brookmann, Frieda

    2010-01-01

    Objective Results from previous studies show effects of stress hormones (cortisol) on cognitive functions, particularly those mediated by the hippocampus, but little research has examined the effects of cortisol on frontal executive functions, despite a preponderance of cortisol receptors in the frontal lobes. Existing research has focused on traditional measures of executive functions and the findings are inconsistent. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of acute stres...

  6. Time profile of oxidative stress and neutrophil activation in ovine acute lung injury and sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Matthias; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Daniel L.; Horvath, Eszter; Hamahata, Atsumori; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Traber, Lillian D.; Cox, Robert A.; Schmalstieg, Frank C.; Herndon, David N.; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei

    2012-01-01

    The formation of oxidative stress in the lung and activation of neutrophils are major determinants in the development of respiratory failure following acute lung injury (ALI) and sepsis. However, the time changes of these pathogenic factors have not been sufficiently described. Twenty-four chronically instrumented sheep were subjected to cotton smoke inhalation injury and instillation of live Pseudomonas aeruginosa into both lungs. The sheep and were euthanized at 4, 8, 12, 18, and 24 hours p...

  7. Acute stress and working memory: The role of sex and cognitive stress appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A

    2016-10-01

    Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. PMID:27321755

  8. The acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Oxidative stress and oxygen free radicals are thought to play an important role in acute effects of a number of neurotoxic processes. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy, a ring substituted amphetamine derivate, has attracted a great deal of media attention in recent years due to its widespread abuse as recreational drug by the young generation. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine on oxidative stress parameters (index of lipid peroxidation - ILP, superoxide radicals O2-, superoxide dismutase - SOD and glutathione - GSH in frontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus in Wistar rats. Materials and methods The study included 40 male Wistar rats (200-250 g, housed 4 per cage having free access to food and water. MDMA was dissolved in distillated water and administered peroraly at 5, 10, 20 or 40 mg/kg. 8 hours following MDMA, the rats were killed by decapitation, their brains were rapidly removed and the brain structures were dissected out on ice and analyzed biochemically. Results Acute peroral administration of a single dose (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg resulted in increase of ILP, O2-, SOD and decrease of GSH. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study suggest that oxidative stress plays a crucial role in MDMA-induced neurotoxicity and that the mechanism of MDMA neurotoxycity may vary between brain regions.

  9. Association between Peripheral Oxidative Stress and White Matter Damage in Acute Traumatic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ming Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative stress is believed to be one of the mechanisms involved in the neuronal damage after acute traumatic brain injury (TBI. However, the disease severity correlation between oxidative stress biomarker level and deep brain microstructural changes in acute TBI remains unknown. In present study, twenty-four patients with acute TBI and 24 healthy volunteers underwent DTI. The peripheral blood oxidative biomarkers, like serum thiol and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS concentrations, were also obtained. The DTI metrics of the deep brain regions, as well as the fractional anisotropy (FA and apparent diffusion coefficient, were measured and correlated with disease severity, serum thiol, and TBARS levels. We found that patients with TBI displayed lower FAs in deep brain regions with abundant WMs and further correlated with increased serum TBARS level. Our study has shown a level of anatomic detail to the relationship between white matter (WM damage and increased systemic oxidative stress in TBI which suggests common inflammatory processes that covary in both the peripheral and central reactions after TBI.

  10. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  11. Stress response and humoral immune system alterations related to chronic hypergravity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguinou, Nathan; Bojados, Mickaël; Jamon, Marc; Derradji, Hanane; Baatout, Sarah; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Legrand-Frossi, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Spaceflights are known to induce stress and immune dysregulation. Centrifugation, as hindlimb unloading, is a good ground based-model to simulate altered gravity which occurs during space missions. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of a long-term exposure to different levels of hypergravity on the stress response and the humoral immunity in a mouse model. For this purpose, adult C57Bl/6J male mice were subjected for 21 days either to control conditions or to 2G or 3G acceleration gravity forces. Corticosterone level and anxiety behavior revealed a stress response which was associated with a decrease of body weight, after 21-day of centrifugation at 3G but not at 2G. Spleen lymphocyte lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness was diminished by 40% in the 2G group only, whereas a decrease was noted when cells were stimulated with concanavalin A for both 2G and 3G groups (about 25% and 20%, respectively) compared to controls. Pro-inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and IP-10) and Th1 cytokines (IFNγ and IL2) were slightly decreased in the 2G group and strongly decreased in the 3G mouse group. Regarding Th2 cytokines (IL4, IL5) no further significant modification was observed, whereas the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 was slightly increased in the 3G mice. Finally, serum IgG concentration was twice higher whereas IgA concentration was slightly increased (about 30%) and IgM were unchanged in 2G mice compared to controls. No difference was observed in the 3G group with these isotypes. Consequently, functional immune dysregulations and stress responses were dependent of the gravity level. PMID:21724335

  12. No alteration in serum leptin levels during acute endotoxemia in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, M; Abdelhady, S; Fattouh, I; Ishioka, K; Kitamura, H; Kimura, K; Saito, M

    2001-10-01

    To determine the role of leptin in endotoxin-induced anorexia in ruminants, circulating leptin levels were measured during acute experimental endotoxemia in sheep. Injection of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (450 ng/kg, i.v.) induced anorexia accompanied with fever and increases in serum levels of cortisol, insulin and glucose which are known to stimulate leptin secretion in rodent and human, while it did not affect serum leptin levels at all. These results indicate that serum leptin levels in sheep during acute endotoxemia are differentially regulated from those in rodent and human, and that leptin might not be involved in the endotoxin-induced anorexia in sheep. PMID:11714034

  13. Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Sylow, Lykke; Fazakerley, Daniel J;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 on metabolism is unknown. A single injection of the mTOR kinase inhibitor, AZD8055, induced a transient, yet marked increase in fat oxidation and insulin resistance in mice, whereas the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin had no effect. AZD8055...... SIN1 rescued glycolysis. Glucose intolerance following AZD8055 administration was absent in mice lacking the mTORC2 subunit Rictor in muscle, and in vivo glucose uptake into Rictor-deficient muscle was reduced despite normal Akt activity. Taken together, acute mTOR inhibition is detrimental to glucose...

  14. Acute mTOR inhibition induces insulin resistance and alters substrate utilization in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Sylow, Lykke; Fazakerley, Daniel J.;

    2014-01-01

    The effect of acute inhibition of both mTORC1 and mTORC2 on metabolism is unknown. A single injection of the mTOR kinase inhibitor, AZD8055, induced a transient, yet marked increase in fat oxidation and insulin resistance in mice, whereas the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin had no effect. AZD8055...... SIN1 rescued glycolysis. Glucose intolerance following AZD8055 administration was absent in mice lacking the mTORC2 subunit Rictor in muscle, and in vivo glucose uptake into Rictor-deficient muscle was reduced despite normal Akt activity. Taken together, acute mTOR inhibition is detrimental to glucose...

  15. EFFECT OF HELICOBACTER PYLORI INFECTION ON ACUTE STRESS-RELATED GASTRIC MUCOSAL DAMAGE OF SERIOUSLY ILL PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵超; 肖文; 叶光福; 周建平; 周其璋

    2002-01-01

    Emergency endoscopy studies have shown that the most of seriously ill patients develop acute stress-related mucosal damage and ulceration within 24 hours of admission, which manifest the upper gastrointestinal tract

  16. A dopamine receptor d2-type agonist attenuates the ability of stress to alter sleep in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson, F; Ehlen, J C; Williams, N S; Montemarano, J J; Paul, K N

    2014-11-01

    Although sleep disruptions that accompany stress reduce quality of life and deteriorate health, the mechanisms through which stress alters sleep remain obscure. Psychological stress can alter sleep in a variety of ways, but it has been shown to be particularly influential on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Prolactin (PRL), a sexually dimorphic, stress-sensitive hormone whose basal levels are higher in females, has somnogenic effects on REM sleep. In the current study, we examined the relationship between PRL secretion and REM sleep after restraint stress to determine whether: 1) the ability of stress to increase REM sleep is PRL-dependent, and 2) fluctuating PRL levels underlie sex differences in sleep responses to stress. Because dopamine D2 receptors in the pituitary gland are the primary regulator of PRL secretion, D2 receptor agonist, 1-[(6-allylergolin-8β-yl)-carbonyl]-1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylurea (cabergoline), was used to attenuate PRL levels in mice before 1 hour of restraint stress. Mice were implanted with electroencephalographic/electromyographic recording electrodes and received an ip injection of either 0.3-mg/kg cabergoline or vehicle before a control procedure of 1 hour of sleep deprivation by gentle handling during the light phase. Six days after the control procedure, mice received cabergoline or vehicle 15 minutes before 1 hour of restraint stress. Cabergoline blocked the ability of restraint stress to increase REM sleep amount in males but did not alter REM sleep amount after stress in females even though it reduced basal REM sleep amount in female controls. These data provide evidence that the ability for restraint stress to increase REM sleep is dependent on PRL and that sex differences in REM sleep amount may be driven by PRL.

  17. BEHAVIORAL CHARACTERISTICS OF RATS ON VARIOUS HIERARCHICAL LEVEL CAUSED BY ACUTE INFORMATIONAL STRESS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matitaishvili, T; Domianidze, T; Emukhvari, N; Khananashvili, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our research was to study behavioral indices of rats standing on various hierarchical level in the conditions of acute informational stress as well as their resistance to stress taking into account their social status. The Animal's behavior has been studied in conflict and agonist conditions against the background of high food and thirst motivation. After determination of hierarchical relations the stressing procedure of two active avoidance reactions was performed simultaneously during one trial (14 days). During the experiment, behavioral indices of rats induced by stressing procedure were registered. We used "open field" test in order to assess animals' emotional state. The studies performed by us demonstrated behavioral characteristics of animals standing on various hierarchical level. The obtained results showed that after stressing all the animals of the group under stressogenic influence of equal strength, behavior of rats did nor reliably differ in conflict situations. Dominants standing on high hierarchical level remained active in both conflict situations. The impact of stress on their behavior was less detected. Dominant animal maintained its hierarchical status. Submissive rats were more greatly influenced by stress. The obtained results confirmed that dominant animals were characterized with more comprehensively developed self-regulating mechanisms of brain. PMID:27119838

  18. Biomarkers for oxidative stress in acute lung injury induced in rabbits submitted to different strategies of mechanical ventilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative damage has been said to play an important role in pulmonary injury, which is associated with the development and progression of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). We aimed to identify biomarkers to determine the oxidative stress in an animal model of acute lung injury (ALI) using ...

  19. Mice lacking sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2) ATP sensitive potassium channels are resistant to acute cardiovascular stress

    OpenAIRE

    Stoller, Douglas; Kakkar, Rahul; Smelley, Matthew; Chalupsky, Karel; Earley, Judy U.; Shi, Nian-Qing; Makielski, Jonathan C.; McNally, Elizabeth M.

    2007-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are thought to mediate stress response by sensing intracellular ATP concentration. Cardiomyocyte KATP channels are composed of the pore-forming Kir6.2 subunit and the regulatory sulfonylurea receptor 2 (SUR2). We studied the response to acute isoproterenol in SUR2 null mice as a model of acute adrenergic stress and found that the episodic coronary vasospasm observed at baseline in SUR2 null mice was alleviated. Similar results were ob...

  20. Pharmacogenetic risk factors for altered bone mineral density and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. te Winkel (Mariël Lizet); R.D. van Beek (Robert Diederik); S.M.P.F. de Muinck Keizer-Schrama (Sabine); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); R. Pieters (Rob); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground This study investigates pharmacogenetic risk factors for bone mineral (apparent) density (BM(A)D) and body composition in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia Design and Methods We determined the influence of SNPs in 4 genes (vitamin-D receptor (VDR: BsmI/ApaI/TaqI and Cdx-2

  1. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Boelen; J. Kwakkel; O. Chassande; E. Fliers

    2009-01-01

    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during lipopolysacchar

  2. Acute hypoxic exercise does not alter post-exercise iron metabolism in moderately trained endurance athletes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govus, A.D.; Abbiss, C.R.; Garvican-Lewis, L.A.; Swinkels, D.W.; Laarakkers, C.M.; Gore, C.J.; Peeling, P.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study measured the influence of acute hypoxic exercise on Interleukin-6 (IL-6), hepcidin, and iron biomarkers in athletes. METHODS: In a repeated measures design, 13 moderately trained endurance athletes performed 5 x 4 min intervals at 90 % of their peak oxygen consumption velocity (v

  3. 3xTgAD mice exhibit altered behavior and elevated Aβ after chronic mild social stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, Sarah M.; Herdener, Nathan; Camandola, Simonetta; Texel, Sarah J.; Mughal, Mohamed R.; Cong, Wei-na; Martin, Bronwen; Mattson, Mark P.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic stress may be a risk factor for developing Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but most studies of the effects of stress in models of AD utilize acute adverse stressors of questionable clinical relevance. The goal of this work was to determine how chronic psychosocial stress affects behavioral and pathological outcomes in an animal model of AD, and to elucidate underlying mechanisms. A triple-transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTgAD mice) and nontransgenic control mice were used to test for an affe...

  4. Expansion of highly activated invariant natural killer T cells with altered phenotype in acute dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaladasa, A; Wickramasinghe, N; Adikari, T N; Gomes, L; Shyamali, N L A; Salio, M; Cerundolo, V; Ogg, G S; Malavige, G Neelika

    2016-08-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are capable of rapid activation and production of cytokines upon recognition of antigenic lipids presented by CD1d molecules. They have been shown to play a significant role in many viral infections and were observed to be highly activated in patients with acute dengue infection. In order to characterize further their role in dengue infection, we investigated the proportion of iNKT cells and their phenotype in adult patients with acute dengue infection. The functionality of iNKT cells in patients was investigated by both interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 ex-vivo enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays following stimulation with alpha-galactosyl-ceramide (αGalCer). We found that circulating iNKT cell proportions were significantly higher (P = 0·03) in patients with acute dengue when compared to healthy individuals and were predominantly of the CD4(+) subset. iNKT cells of patients with acute dengue had reduced proportions expressing CD8α and CD161 when compared to healthy individuals. The iNKT cells of patients were highly activated and iNKT activation correlated significantly with dengue virus-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody levels. iNKT cells expressing Bcl-6 (P = 0·0003) and both Bcl-6 and inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) (P = 0·006) were increased significantly in patients when compared to healthy individuals. Therefore, our data suggest that in acute dengue infection there is an expansion of highly activated CD4(+) iNKT cells, with reduced expression of CD161 markers. PMID:26874822

  5. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Jennifer M.; Matsen, Miles E.; Mundinger, Thomas O.; Morton, Gregory J.; Stefanovski, Darko; Bergman, Richard N.; Kaiyala, Karl J.; Taborsky, Gerald J.; Schwartz, Michael W.

    2015-01-01

    iv glucose (given during the FSIGT) contributed to the rapid resolution of the sympathoadrenal response induced by icv FGFRi, we performed an additional study comparing groups that received iv saline or iv glucose 30 min after icv FGFRi. Our finding that elevated plasma catecholamine levels returned rapidly to baseline irrespective of whether rats subsequently received an iv bolus of saline or glucose indicates that the rapid reversal of sympathoadrenal activation following icv FGFRi was unrelated to the subsequent glucose bolus. Conclusions The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study. PMID:26266088

  6. Effect of acute stresses on zebra fish (Danio rerio) metabolome measured by NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaq, Mian Yahya; Marçal, Rosilene Moretti; Champagne, Danielle L; van der Kooy, Frank; Verpoorte, Robert; Choi, Young Hae

    2014-09-01

    We applied an acute stress model to zebra fish in order to measure the changes in the metabolome due to biological stress. This was done by submitting the fish to fifteen minutes of acute confinement (netting) stress, and then five minutes for the open field and light/dark field tests. A polar extract of the zebra fish was then subjected to (1)H nuclear magnetic spectroscopy. Multivariate data analysis of the spectra showed a clear separation associated to a wide range of metabolites between zebra fish that were submitted to open field and light/dark field tests. Alanine, taurine, adenosine, creatine, lactate, and histidine were high in zebra fish to which the light/dark field test was applied, regardless of stress, while acetate and isoleucine/lipids appeared to be higher in zebra fish exposed to the open field test. These results show that any change in the environment, even for a small period of time, has a noticeable physiological impact. This research provides an insight of how different mechanisms are activated under different environments to maintain the homeostasis of the body. It should also contribute to establish zebra fish as a model for metabolomics studies. PMID:25098933

  7. Fluoxetine Treatment Rescues Energy Metabolism Pathway Alterations in a Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chi-Ya; He, Zhisong; Henes, Kathrin; Asara, John M; Webhofer, Christian; Filiou, Michaela D; Khaitovich, Philipp; Wotjak, Carsten T; Turck, Christoph W

    2016-05-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent psychiatric disorder. Several studies have attempted to characterize molecular alterations associated with PTSD, but most findings were limited to the investigation of specific cellular markers in the periphery or defined brain regions. In the current study, we aimed to unravel affected molecular pathways/mechanisms in the fear circuitry associated with PTSD. We interrogated a foot shock-induced PTSD mouse model by integrating proteomics and metabolomics profiling data. Alterations at the proteome level were analyzed using in vivo (15)N metabolic labeling combined with mass spectrometry in the prelimbic cortex (PrL), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), basolateral amygdala, central nucleus of the amygdala and CA1 of the hippocampus between shocked and nonshocked (control) mice, with and without fluoxetine treatment. In silico pathway analyses revealed an upregulation of the citric acid cycle pathway in PrL, and downregulation in ACC and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Chronic fluoxetine treatment prevented decreased citric acid cycle activity in NAc and ACC and ameliorated conditioned fear response in shocked mice. Our results shed light on the role of energy metabolism in PTSD pathogenesis and suggest potential therapy through mitochondrial targeting. PMID:27606320

  8. Magnetic resonance signal alterations in the acute onset of heterotopic ossification in patients with spinal cord injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, L.; Berger, M.; Knecht, H. [Schweizerisches Paraplegikerzentrum, Radiologie, Nottwil (Switzerland); Gluecker, T.; Ledermann, H.P. [University of Basel, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Basel (Switzerland)

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of our study was to evaluate magnetic resonance (MR) signal characteristics of acutely forming heterotopic ossification (HO) in paralyzed patients. Fourteen patients with spinal cord injury (female n=2, male n=12, mean age 38.3 years) and acute onset of radiographically proven HO had contrast-enhanced 1.5-T MRI within 13.4{+-}18.3 days of clinical onset of symptoms. MR signal alterations of affected muscles, fascia, subcutaneous tissue, skin and adjacent bone were evaluated. A diffuse T2-hyperintense signal of multiple muscle groups was seen in all patients (bilateral in 12) involving quadriceps (n=13, 93%), adductors (n=13, 93%) and iliopsoas (n=12, 86%) with contrast enhancement in n=11 (79%), n=8 (57%) and n=8 (57%) patients. All patients had nonenhancing areas (mean size 2 x 3.5 x 5.8 cm) within diffusely enhancing muscles. HO formation occurred around these nonenhancing areas in four patients with computed tomography follow-up. Other MR findings included fascial edema (n=14, 100%), fascial enhancement (n=13, 93%), subcutaneous edema (n=13, 93%), subcutaneous enhancement (n=12, 86%), bone marrow edema (n=5, 36%), and joint effusion (n=12, 86%). MRI reveals mostly bilateral edema and enhancement of muscles, fascia and subcutaneous tissue during acute onset of HO. HO develops in the periphery of well-defined areas of no enhancement. (orig.)

  9. Acute Ethanol Gavage Attenuates Hemorrhage/Resuscitation-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Relja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.. Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial blood pressure of 30±2 mmHg for 60 min and resuscitated. Two control groups underwent surgical procedures without H/R (sham_ctrl and sham_EtOH, resp.. Liver tissues were harvested at 2, 24, and 72 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage induced histological picture of acute fatty liver. Hepatic oxidative (4-hydroxynonenal, 4-HNE and nitrosative (3-nitrotyrosine, 3-NT stress were significantly reduced in EtOH-gavaged rats compared to controls after H/R. Proapoptotic caspase-8 and Bax expressions were markedly diminished in EtOH-gavaged animals compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. EtOH-gavage increased antiapoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression compared with controls 2 h after resuscitation. iNOS protein expression increased following H/R but was attenuated in EtOH-gavaged animals after H/R. Taken together, the data suggest that acute EtOH-gavage may attenuate H/R-induced oxidative stress thereby reducing cellular injury in rat liver.

  10. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress.

  11. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute Cl2 exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl2 inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl2 dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl2 exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO3− or NO2−. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl2 exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl2 inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl2 gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor. • Alterations in surfactant homeostasis and pulmonary mechanics

  12. The Effects of Hemodynamic Shear Stress on Stemness of Acute Myelogenous Leukemia (AML)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raddatz, Andrew; Triantafillu, Ursula; Kim, Yonghyun (John)

    2015-11-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have recently been identified as the root cause of tumors generated from cancer cell populations. This is because these CSCs are drug-resistant and have the ability to self-renew and differentiate. Current methods of culturing CSCs require much time and money, so cancer cell culture protocols, which maximize yield of CSCs are needed. It was hypothesized that the quantity of Acute myelogenous leukemia stem cells (LSCs) would increase after applying shear stress to the leukemia cells based on previous studies with breast cancer in bioreactors. The shear stress was applied by pumping the cells through narrow tubing to mimic the in vivo bloodstream environment. In support of the hypothesis, shear stress was found to increase the amount of LSCs in a given leukemia population. This work was supported by NSF REU Site Award 1358991.

  13. Telomere dynamics in human mesenchymal stem cells after exposure to acute oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbo, M.; Koelvraa, S.; Serakinci, N.;

    2012-01-01

    A gradual shortening of telomeres due to replication can be measured using the standard telomere restriction fragments (TRF) assay and other methods by measuring the mean length of all the telomeres in a cell. In contrast, stress-induced telomere shortening, which is believed to be just...... due to the advantages of the newly developed Universal single telomere length assay (STELA), and we therefore believe that this method should be considered the method of choice when measuring the length of telomeres after exposure to oxidative stress. In order to test our hypothesis, cultured human...... estimated by senescence-associated beta-galactosidase staining. The exposure to acute oxidative stress resulted in an increased number of ultra-short telomeres, which correlated strongly with the percentage of senescent cells, whereas a correlation between mean telomere length and the percentage...

  14. Estrogen alters proenkephalin RNAs in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus following stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukhananov, R Y; Handa, R J

    1997-08-01

    Gonadal steroids modulate activity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) following stress, but the regulatory pathways of this modulation are unknown. A possible site of action is the synthesis of CRH and/or enkephalin in cells of the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN). To investigate this possibility, we utilized two stressors, i.p. hypertonic saline injection (HSI) or exposure to novel environment, and examined the response of CRH or c-fos mRNAs and proenkephalin (PPE) mRNA and heteronuclear RNA (hnRNA, primary transcript). Male rats were gonadectomized and treated with estrogen or dihydrotestosterone propionate (DHTP) for 2 weeks. In situ hybridization revealed that novelty or HSI elevated levels of PPE hnRNA and c-fos mRNA in the PVN. Estrogen attenuated the elevation of PPE hnRNA in the PVN following HSI, and enhanced the c-fos mRNA response to novelty. In contrast, DHTP did not affect PPE hnRNA, but inhibited the c-fos mRNA response to novelty. These data indicate that in male rats estrogen receptor but not androgen receptor may modulate the endocrine stress response by altering PPE transcription in the PVN and that this effect depends on the type of stressor. PMID:9295199

  15. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  16. Prenatal Stress Alters Progestogens to Mediate Susceptibility to Sex-Typical, Stress-Sensitive Disorders, such as Drug Abuse: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Paris, Jason J.; Osborne, Danielle M.; Campbell, Joannalee C.; Kippin, Tod E.

    2011-01-01

    Maternal–offspring interactions begin prior to birth. Experiences of the mother during gestation play a powerful role in determining the developmental programming of the central nervous system. In particular, stress during gestation alters developmental programming of the offspring resulting in susceptibility to sex-typical and stress-sensitive neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. However, neither these effects, nor the underlying mechanisms, are well underst...

  17. Prenatal stress alters progestogens to mediate susceptibility to sex-typical, stress-sensitive disorders, such as drug abuse: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Paris, Jason J.; Danielle eOsborne; Joanna eCampbell; Tod eKippin

    2011-01-01

    Maternal-offspring interactions begin prior to birth. Experiences of the mother during gestation play a powerful role in determining the developmental programming of the central nervous system. In particular, stress during gestation alters developmental programming of the offspring resulting in susceptibility to sex-typical and stress-sensitive neurodevelopmental, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. However, neither these effects, nor the underlying mechanisms, are well unders...

  18. Effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres I.L.S.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that glucocorticoids released during stress might impair neuronal function by decreasing glucose uptake by hippocampal neurons. Previous work has demonstrated that glucose uptake is reduced in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices 24 h after exposure to acute stress, while no effect was observed after repeated stress. Here, we report the effect of acute and repeated restraint stress on glucose oxidation to CO2 in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices and on plasma glucose and corticosterone levels. Male adult Wistar rats were exposed to restraint 1 h/day for 50 days in the chronic model. In the acute model there was a single exposure. Immediately or 24 h after stress, the animals were sacrificed and the hippocampus and cerebral cortex were dissected, sliced, and incubated with Krebs buffer, pH 7.4, containing 5 mM glucose and 0.2 µCi D-[U-14C] glucose. CO2 production from glucose was estimated. Trunk blood was also collected, and both corticosterone and glucose were measured. The results showed that corticosterone levels after exposure to acute restraint were increased, but the increase was smaller when the animals were submitted to repeated stress. Blood glucose levels increased after both acute and repeated stress. However, glucose utilization, measured as CO2 production in hippocampal and cerebral cortex slices, was the same in stressed and control groups under conditions of both acute and chronic stress. We conclude that, although stress may induce a decrease in glucose uptake, this effect is not sufficient to affect the energy metabolism of these cells.

  19. Behavioral economic analysis of stress effects on acute motivation for alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Max M; Ray, Lara A; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Due to issues of definition and measurement, the heavy emphasis on subjective craving in the measurement of acute motivation for alcohol and other drugs remains controversial. Behavioral economic approaches have increasingly been applied to better understand acute drug motivation, particularly using demand curve modeling via purchase tasks to characterize the perceived reinforcing value of the drug. This approach has focused on using putatively more objective indices of motivation, such as units of consumption, monetary expenditure, and price sensitivity. To extend this line of research, the current study used an alcohol purchase task to determine if, compared to a neutral induction, a personalized stress induction would increase alcohol demand in a sample of heavy drinkers. The stress induction significantly increased multiple measures of the reinforcing value of alcohol to the individual, including consumption at zero price (intensity), the maximum total amount of money spent on alcohol (Omax), the first price where consumption was reduced to zero (breakpoint), and the general responsiveness of consumption to increases in price (elasticity). These measures correlated only modestly with craving and mood. Self-reported income was largely unrelated to demand but moderated the influence of stress on Omax. Moderation based on CRH-BP genotype (rs10055255) was present for Omax, with T allele homozygotes exhibiting more pronounced increases in response to stress. These results provide further support for a behavioral economic approach to measuring acute drug motivation. The findings also highlight the potential relevance of income and genetic factors in understanding state effects on the perceived reinforcing value of alcohol. PMID:25413719

  20. The Effects of Social Context and Acute Stress on Decision Making Under Uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    FeldmanHall, Oriel; Raio, Candace M; Kubota, Jennifer T; Seiler, Morgan G; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2015-12-01

    Uncertainty preferences are typically studied in neutral, nonsocial contexts. This approach, however, fails to capture the dynamic factors that influence choices under uncertainty in the real world. Our goal was twofold: to test whether uncertainty valuation is similar across social and nonsocial contexts, and to investigate the effects of acute stress on uncertainty preferences. Subjects completed matched gambling and trust games following either a control or a stress manipulation. Those who were not under stress exhibited no differences between the amount of money gambled and the amount of money entrusted to partners. In comparison, stressed subjects gambled more money but entrusted less money to partners. We further found that irrespective of stress, subjects were highly attuned to irrelevant feedback in the nonsocial, gambling context, believing that every loss led to a greater chance of winning (the gamblers' fallacy). However, when deciding to trust a stranger, control subjects behaved rationally, treating each new interaction as independent. Stress compromised this adaptive behavior, increasing sensitivity to irrelevant social feedback. PMID:26546080

  1. Pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions: acute reduction in pulmonary blood flow alters lung mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Schulze-Neick, I; Penny, D; Derrick, G; Dhillon, R; Rigby, M.; Kelleher, A.; Bush, A; Redington, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Postoperative pulmonary hypertension in children after congenital heart surgery is a risk factor for death and is associated with severe acute changes in both pulmonary vascular resistance and lung mechanics.
OBJECTIVE—To examine the impact of changes in pulmonary blood flow on lung mechanics in preoperative children with congenital heart disease, in order to assess the cause-effect relation of pulmonary vascular-bronchial interactions.
DESIGN—Prospective, cross sectional study.
SE...

  2. Subtle BBB alterations in brain edema associated with acute liver failure

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Justin H

    2010-01-01

    Vasogenic mechanism of brain edema in acute liver failure (ALF) remains poorly understood. Recent work demonstrates that matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) contributes to the development of brain edema in experimental ALF (J Hepatol 44:1105, 2006). Importantly, MMP-9 blockage with specific monoclonal antibodies and/or synthetic inhibitor, the edema is attenuated. Specifically, utrastructural evaluations demonstrate intact blood-brain barrier and its tight junction. These results suggest that ...

  3. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette;

    2015-01-01

    -Extended. RESULTS: Three months after the injury, elevated stress hormones (i.e. 30 min. stimulated cortisol, prolactin and/or insulin-like growth factor 1) and/or suppressed gonadal- or thyroid hormones were recorded in 68% and 32% of the patients, respectively. At one year, lower functioning level (Functional...... Independence Measure) and lower capability of normal life activities (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended) were related to both elevated stress hormones (p≤0.01) and reduced gonadal and/or thyroid hormones (p≤0.01) measured at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that brain injury-related endocrine...... alterations mimicking secondary hypogonadism and hypothyroidism and with elevated stress hormones most probably reflect a prolonged stress response 2 to 5 months after severe brain injury, rather than pituitary insufficiency per se. These endocrine alterations thus seem to reflect a more severe disease state...

  4. The revised Atlanta criteria 2012 altered the classiifcation, severity assessment and management of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Huang; Hong-Ping Qu; Yun-Feng Zheng; Xu-Wei Song; Lei Li; Zhi-Wei Xu; En-Qiang Mao; Er-Zhen Chen

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Atlanta criteria for acute pancreatitis (AP) has been revised recently. This study was to evaluate its practical value in classiifcation of AP, the severity assessment and management. METHODS: The clinical features, severity classiifcation, out-come and risk factors for mortality of 3212 AP patients who had been admitted in Ruijin Hospital from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed based on the revised Atlanta criteria (RAC) and the original Atlanta criteria (OAC). RESULTS: Compared to the OAC group, the incidence of se-vere acute pancreatitis (SAP) was decreased by approximately one half (13.9% vs 28.2%) in the RAC group. The RAC present-ed a lower sensitivity but higher speciifcity, and its predictive value for severity and poor outcome was higher than those of the OAC. The proportion of SAP diagnosis and ICU admission in the early phase in the RAC group was signiifcantly lower than that in the OAC group (P CONCLUSIONS: The RAC showed a higher predictive value for severity and poorer outcome than the OAC. However, the RAC resulted in fewer ICU admissions in the early phase due to its lower sensitivity for diagnosis of SAP. Among SAP cases, older age, high CTSI, renal and cardiovascular failure, com-plications of acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis were independent risk factors for mortality.

  5. The revised Atlanta criteria 2012 altered the classiifcation, severity assessment and management of acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Huang; Hong-Ping Qu; Yun-Feng Zheng; Xu-Wei Song; Lei Li; Zhi-Wei Xu; En-Qiang Mao; Er-Zhen Chen

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Atlanta criteria for acute pancreatitis (AP) has been revised recently. This study was to evaluate its practical value in classiifcation of AP, the severity assessment and management. METHODS: The clinical features, severity classiifcation, out-come and risk factors for mortality of 3212 AP patients who had been admitted in Ruijin Hospital from 2004 to 2011 were analyzed based on the revised Atlanta criteria (RAC) and the original Atlanta criteria (OAC). RESULTS: Compared to the OAC group, the incidence of se-vere acute pancreatitis (SAP) was decreased by approximately one half (13.9% vs 28.2%) in the RAC group. The RAC present-ed a lower sensitivity but higher speciifcity, and its predictive value for severity and poor outcome was higher than those of the OAC. The proportion of SAP diagnosis and ICU admission in the early phase in the RAC group was signiifcantly lower than that in the OAC group (P CONCLUSIONS: The RAC showed a higher predictive value for severity and poorer outcome than the OAC. However, the RAC resulted in fewer ICU admissions in the early phase due to its lower sensitivity for diagnosis of SAP. Among SAP cases, older age, high CTSI, renal and cardiovascular failure, com-plications of acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis were independent risk factors for mortality.

  6. Dioscin alleviates dimethylnitrosamine-induced acute liver injury through regulating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weixin; Yin, Lianhong; Tao, Xufeng; Xu, Lina; Zheng, Lingli; Han, Xu; Xu, Youwei; Wang, Changyuan; Peng, Jinyong

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, the effects of dioscin against alcohol-, carbon tetrachloride- and acetaminophen-induced liver damage have been found. However, the activity of it against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced acute liver injury remained unknown. In the present study, dioscin markedly decreased serum ALT and AST levels, significantly increased the levels of SOD, GSH-Px, GSH, and decreased the levels of MDA, iNOS and NO. Mechanism study showed that dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, IκBα, p50 and p65 through regulating TLR4/MyD88 pathway to rehabilitate inflammation. In addition, dioscin markedly up-regulated the expression levels of SIRT1, HO-1, NQO1, GST and GCLM through increasing nuclear translocation of Nrf2 against oxidative stress. Furthermore, dioscin significantly decreased the expression levels of FasL, Fas, p53, Bak, Caspase-3/9, and upregulated Bcl-2 level through decreasing IRF9 level against apoptosis. In conclusion, dioscin showed protective effect against DMN-induced acute liver injury via ameliorating apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation, which should be developed as a new candidate for the treatment of acute liver injury in the future. PMID:27317992

  7. Association between Oxidative Stress and Outcome in Different Subtypes of Acute Ischemic Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wen Tsai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. This study investigated serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS and free thiol levels in different subtypes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS and evaluated their association with clinical outcomes. Methods. This prospective study evaluated 100 AIS patients, including 75 with small-vessel and 25 with large-vessel diseases. Serum oxidative stress (TBARS and antioxidant (thiol were determined within 48 hours and days 7 and 30 after stroke. For comparison, 80 age- and sex-matched participants were evaluated as controls. Results. Serum TBARS was significantly higher and free thiol was lower in stroke patients than in the controls on days 1 and 7 after AIS. The level of free thiol was significantly lower in the large-vessel disease than in the small-vessel disease on day 7 after stroke. Using the stepwise logistic regression model for potential variables, only stroke subtype, NIHSS score, and serum TBARS level were independently associated with three-month outcome. Higher TBARS and lower thiol levels in the acute phase of stroke were associated with poor outcome. Conclusions. Patients with large-vessel disease have higher oxidative stress but lower antioxidant defense compared to those with small-vessel disease after AIS. Serum TBARS level at the acute phase of stroke is a potential predictor for three-month outcome.

  8. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  9. Algorithms Based on CWT and Classifiers to Control Cardiac Alterations and Stress Using an ECG and a SCR

    OpenAIRE

    Amaia Méndez Zorrilla; Begoña García Zapirain; María Viqueira Villarejo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG) for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and J48) have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%), arrhythmia (93.48%) and extrasystoles (99.29%). The detection of stress level is complemented with Ski...

  10. Social Isolation Stress Induces Anxious-Depressive-Like Behavior and Alterations of Neuroplasticity-Related Genes in Adult Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Ieraci; Alessandra Mallei; Maurizio Popoli

    2016-01-01

    Stress is a major risk factor in the onset of several neuropsychiatric disorders including anxiety and depression. Although several studies have shown that social isolation stress during postweaning period induces behavioral and brain molecular changes, the effects of social isolation on behavior during adulthood have been less characterized. Aim of this work was to investigate the relationship between the behavioral alterations and brain molecular changes induced by chronic social isolation ...

  11. Acutely altered hemodynamics following venous obstruction in the early chick embryo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Stekelenburg-de Vos (Sandra); N.T.C. Ursem (Nicolette); W.C.J. Hop (Wim); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); A.C. Gittenberger-de Groot (Adriana); R.E. Poelmann (Robert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn the venous clip model specific cardiac malformations are induced in the chick embryo by obstructing the right lateral vitelline vein with a microclip. Clipping alters venous return and intracardiac laminar blood flow patterns, with secondary effects on the mechanical

  12. The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Selectively Matches Metabolic Output to Acute Contractile Stress in the Heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwong, Jennifer Q; Lu, Xiyuan; Correll, Robert N; Schwanekamp, Jennifer A; Vagnozzi, Ronald J; Sargent, Michelle A; York, Allen J; Zhang, Jianyi; Bers, Donald M; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2015-07-01

    In the heart, augmented Ca(2+) fluxing drives contractility and ATP generation through mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading. Pathologic mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload with ischemic injury triggers mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) opening and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake is primarily mediated by the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU). Here, we generated mice with adult and cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Mcu, which produced mitochondria refractory to acute Ca(2+) uptake, with impaired ATP production, and inhibited MPTP opening upon acute Ca(2+) challenge. Mice lacking Mcu in the adult heart were also protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, resting/basal mitochondrial Ca(2+) levels were normal in hearts of Mcu-deleted mice, and mitochondria lacking MCU eventually loaded with Ca(2+) after stress stimulation. Indeed, Mcu-deleted mice were unable to immediately sprint on a treadmill unless warmed up for 30 min. Hence, MCU is a dedicated regulator of short-term mitochondrial Ca(2+) loading underlying a "fight-or-flight" response that acutely matches cardiac workload with ATP production.

  13. The Mitochondrial Calcium Uniporter Selectively Matches Metabolic Output to Acute Contractile Stress in the Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Q. Kwong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In the heart, augmented Ca2+ fluxing drives contractility and ATP generation through mitochondrial Ca2+ loading. Pathologic mitochondrial Ca2+ overload with ischemic injury triggers mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP opening and cardiomyocyte death. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake is primarily mediated by the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter (MCU. Here, we generated mice with adult and cardiomyocyte-specific deletion of Mcu, which produced mitochondria refractory to acute Ca2+ uptake, with impaired ATP production, and inhibited MPTP opening upon acute Ca2+ challenge. Mice lacking Mcu in the adult heart were also protected from acute ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, resting/basal mitochondrial Ca2+ levels were normal in hearts of Mcu-deleted mice, and mitochondria lacking MCU eventually loaded with Ca2+ after stress stimulation. Indeed, Mcu-deleted mice were unable to immediately sprint on a treadmill unless warmed up for 30 min. Hence, MCU is a dedicated regulator of short-term mitochondrial Ca2+ loading underlying a “fight-or-flight” response that acutely matches cardiac workload with ATP production.

  14. Chronic and Acute Stress, Gender, and Serotonin Transporter Gene-Environment Interactions Predicting Depression Symptoms in Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.; Keenan-Miller, Danielle; Hazel, Nicholas A.; Najman, Jake M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Many recent studies of serotonin transporter gene by environment effects predicting depression have used stress assessments with undefined or poor psychometric methods, possibly contributing to wide variation in findings. The present study attempted to distinguish between effects of acute and chronic stress to predict depressive…

  15. Temporal Dynamics of Acute Stress-Induced Dendritic Remodeling in Medial Prefrontal Cortex and the Protective Effect of Desipramine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nava, Nicoletta; Treccani, Giulia; Alabsi, Abdelrahman;

    2015-01-01

    dendrites was observed at 1 day, which was prevented by chronic DMI, and at 14 days after stress exposure. Chronic DMI resulted in dendritic elaboration at 7 days but did not prevent the effects of FS-stress. Collectively, these data demonstrate that 1) acute stressors may induce rapid and sustained changes...

  16. Hepatic and renal oxidative stress in acute toxicity of N-nitrosodiethylamine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, A K; Trivedi, R; Soni, G L; Bhatnagar, D

    2000-09-01

    Nitrosoamines such as N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) produce oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species and may alter antioxidant defence system in the tissues. NDEA was administered ip as a single dose to rats in LD50 or in lower amounts and the animals were sacrificed after 0-48 hr of treatment. The results showed that lipid peroxidation in liver increased, however no significant increase in kidney LPO was observed after NDEA administration. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH-R) activity increased in liver, however, catalase (CAT) activity in liver was inhibited in NDEA treated rats. Kidney showed an increase in SOD activity after an initial decrease along with increase in GSH-R activity in NDEA treated rats. However, kidney CAT activity was not significantly altered in NDEA intoxicated rats. Serum transaminases, serum alkaline phosphatase blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine and scrum proteins were elevated in NDEA treated rats. The results indicate NDEA-induced oxidative stress and alteration in antioxidant enzymes in liver and kidney to neutralise oxidative stress. PMID:12561951

  17. Acute effects of nandrolone decanoate on oxidative stress in isolated rat heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevđević Maja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abuse of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS produces side effects in different tissues, with oxidative stress linked to their pathophysiology, being involved in fibrosis, cellular proliferation, and tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND on oxidative stress in isolated rat heart. The hearts of male Wistar albino were excised and perfused according to the Langendorff technique at gradually increasing coronary perfusion pressures (40-120 cmH2O. The hearts were perfused with ND at doses of 1, 10 and 100 μM. Oxidative stress markers, including the index of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, nitric oxide (nitrites; NO2-, the superoxide anion radical (O2- and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 were measured in the coronary venous effluent. Our results showed that acute effects of ND do not promote the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Our finding pointed out that the highest concentration of ND may even possess some anti-oxidative potential, which should be examined further.

  18. Investigation of risk factors for acute stress reaction following induced abortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukelić Jelka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Termination of pregnancy - induced abortion is inevitable in family planning as the final solution in resolving unwanted pregnancies. It can be the cause of major physical and phychological concequences on women’s health. Diverse opinions on psychological consequences of induced abortion can be found in literature. Material and methods. A prospective study was performed in order to predict acute stress disorder (ASD after the induced abortion and the possibility of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Seven days after the induced abortion, 40 women had to fill in: 1. a special questionnaire made for this investigation, with questions linked to some risk factors inducing stress, 2. Likert’s emotional scale and 3. Bryant’s acute stress reaction scale. Results. After an induced abortion 52.5% women had ASD and 32.5% women had PTSD. Women with ASD after the abortion developed more sense of guilt, irritability, shame, self-judgement, fear from God and self-hatred. They were less educated, had lower income, they were more religious, did not approve of abortion and had worse relationship with their partners after the abortion in comparison to women without ASD. Age, number of previous abortions and decision to abort did not differ between the two groups. Discussion and conclusion. Induced abortion represents a predisposing factor for ASD and PTSD in women. Some psychosocial factors contribute to the development of stress after abortion. Serbia has a task to reduce the number of abortions which is very high, in order, to preserve reproductive and phychological health of women.

  19. Is gill cortisol concentration a good acute stress indicator in fish? A study in rainbow trout and zebrafish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gesto, Manuel; Hernandez, Juan; Lopez-Patino, Marcos A.;

    2015-01-01

    -invasive techniques have been developed to measure cortisol directly in the water from fish-holding tanks, in skin mucus or in scales. In this study, we explored the possibility to analyze fish cortisol from gill filaments as a reliable acute stress marker. Our results show that gill cortisol levels correlate well...... with plasma cortisol levels in both rainbow trout and zebrafish exposed or not to an acute stress protocol. Measuring cortisol in gill filaments increases the available possibilities for stress assessment in fish. Although this approach should yet be tested for its use with other stressors, it has several...

  20. Chronic desipramine prevents acute stress-induced reorganization of medial prefrontal cortex architecture by blocking glutamate vesicle accumulation and excitatory synapse increase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nava, Nicoletta; Treccani, Giulia; Liebenberg, Nico;

    2014-01-01

    While a clear negative influence of chronic exposure to stressful experiences has been repeatedly demonstrated, the outcome of acute stress on key brain regions has only just started to be elucidated. Although it has been proposed that acute stress may produce enhancement of brain plasticity...

  1. Trait Hostility and Acute Inflammatory Responses to Stress in the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Dominique; Tardif, Jean-Claude; Boisclair Demarble, Julie; D'Antono, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Hostility has been associated with higher basal levels of inflammation. The present study evaluated the association of hostility with acute stress-induced changes in inflammatory activity. One hundred and ninety-nine healthy men and women, aged 19-64 years, were exposed to a stress protocol involving four interpersonal stressors. Participants completed the Cook-Medley Hostility questionnaire and provided two blood samples for the measurement of inflammatory biomarkers (CRP, Il-6, MPO, TNF-α, MCP-1, Il-8, Il-10, and Il-18), prior to and following exposure to a standardized stress protocol. In univariate analyses, hostility was associated with significantly higher TNF-α, but lower Il-8 and Il-18 values post-stress, though only Il-8 remained significant after controlling for baseline differences. In multivariate analyses, a significant Age by Hostility interaction emerged for Il-6, while sex moderated the relation between hostility and Il-10 reactivity. Following stress, hostility was associated with greater pro-inflammatory Il-6 activity among younger individuals and to decreased anti-inflammatory Il-10 activity in women. Future research is needed to replicate these findings and to evaluate their implication for disease. PMID:27270459

  2. Effects of different kinds of acute stress on nerve growth factor content in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Richthofen, Sita; Lang, Undine E; Hellweg, Rainer

    2003-10-17

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has several effects on the central nervous system; on the one hand NGF fosters survival and function of cholinergic neurons of the basal forebrain, on the other hand this protein is implicated in the stress response of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis (HPAA). In this study we tested the influence of threatening and painful stress treatments in three different intensities as well as forced motoric activity on NGF content in different brain areas in adult rats. We found that threatening treatment with or without painful stimuli was followed by a significant decrease of NGF concentration in the amygdala (44.5%; P=0.03) and the frontal cortex (-45.5%; P=0.02). We also observed that after stress of forced motoric activity NGF content in the frontal cortex (-32%; P=0.01) and the hippocampus (-32%; P=0.006) was significantly reduced. Thus, NGF content in distinct brain regions is decreased, following different forms of acute stress. This might be relevant for the pathophysiological understanding of psychiatric diseases, such as depression, which are associated with stress.

  3. Cold stress aggravates inflammatory responses in an LPS-induced mouse model of acute lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Su-Yeon; Park, Mi-Ju; Kim, Kyun-Ha; Choi, Hee-Jung; Chung, Tae-Wook; Kim, Yong Jin; Kim, Joung Hee; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Joo, Myungsoo; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-08-01

    Although the relationship between environmental cold temperature and susceptibility to respiratory infection is generally accepted, the effect of ambient cold temperature on host reactivity in lung inflammation has not been fully studied. To examine the function of ambient cold temperature on lung inflammation, mice were exposed to 4 °C for 8 h each day for 14 days. In the lungs of mice exposed to cold stress, inflammatory cells in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and lung tissues were slightly increased by about twofold. However, the structures of pulmonary epithelial cells were kept within normal limits. Next, we examined the effect of cold stress on the inflammatory responses in a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse model. The infiltration of neutrophils and inflammation of lung tissue determined by histology were significantly increased by exposure to ambient cold temperature. In addition, the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-12, IL-17, and monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was elevated by exposure to cold stress. Therefore, we suggest that cold stress is a factor that exacerbates lung inflammation including ALI. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the relationship between cold stress and severity of lung inflammation.

  4. Altered brain morphology and functional connectivity reflect a vulnerable affective state after cumulative multigenerational stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreary, J Keiko; Truica, L Sorina; Friesen, Becky; Yao, Youli; Olson, David M; Kovalchuk, Igor; Cross, Albert R; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-08-25

    Prenatal stress is a risk factor for abnormal neuroanatomical, cognitive, behavioral and mental health outcomes with potentially transgenerational consequences. Females in general seem more resilient to the effects of prenatal stress than males. Here, we examined if repeated stress across generations may diminish stress resiliency and cumulatively enhance the susceptibility for adverse health outcomes in females. Pregnant female rats of three successive generations were exposed to stress from gestational days 12-18 to generate multigenerational prenatal stress (MPS) in the maternal lineage. Stress response was measured by plasma corticosterone levels and open-field exploration in each generation. Neuromorphological consequences of MPS were investigated in the F3 generation using in vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI), T2-relaxometry, and cytoarchitectonics in relation to candidate gene expression involved in brain plasticity and mental health. Each additional generation of prenatal stress incrementally elevated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activation, anxiety-like and aversive behaviors in adult female offspring. Elevated stress responses in the MPS F3 generation were accompanied by reduced neural density in prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and whole brain along with altered brain activation patterns in in vivo MEMRI. MPS increased ephrin receptor A5 (Epha5), neuronal growth regulator (Negr1) and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (Snap25) gene expression and reduced fibroblast growth factor 12 (Fgf12) in prefrontal cortex. These genes regulate neuronal maturation, arborization and synaptic plasticity and may explain altered brain cytoarchitectonics and connectivity. These findings emphasize that recurrent stress across generations may cumulatively increase stress vulnerability and the risk of adverse health outcomes through perinatal programing in females. PMID:27241944

  5. [The influence of acute hypoxia on motility of rats in the open field test under the conditions of an altered photoperiod].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopova, I Iu

    2014-01-01

    The influence of acute hypoxia on the motility of rats under the conditions of an altered photoperiod in the open field test was studied. Thus, keeping the animals in constant darkness after the modeling of acute hypoxia leads to the depression of locomotive and exploratory components of the behavior. At the same time the animals that were kept under the conditions of constant light show a change in the correlation between the components of motility after the action of hypoxia.

  6. Histological alterations in liver and testis of Astyanax aff. bimaculatus caused by acute exposition to zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristina Marques dos Santos*

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of acute exposition to zinc (Zn on histology of the liver and testes of yellow tail lambari (Astyanax aff. bimaculatus. The exposure consisted of six concentrations of Zn (0, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 mg/L for 96 hours of exposure. Fragments of liver and testis were routinely processed and embedded in plastic resin based on glycol methacrylate. Fragments of bones, muscles, liver and testis were dehydrated and digested to quantify the absorption levels of Zn in the tissue. Acute exposure to concentrations above 10mg/L has produced structural changes in the liver and gonads. The changes found in the liver were vascular congestion; decrease of cellular volume; displacement of the hepatocyte nucleus; necrosis; disarrangement of cordon structure; leukocyte infiltrate and vacuolization. The changes found in the gonads were ruptured cyst, delayed development of germ cells, pyknotic nucleus, cell cluster, displacement of cyst wall and vacuolization. The histological changes observed were compatible with the increasing concentration of zinc in environment, compromising liver and reproductive functions, because there was an increase in relative frequency of hepatocytes and reduced sperm production

  7. Acute stress increases depolarization-evoked glutamate release in the rat prefrontal/frontal cortex: the dampening action of antidepressants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Musazzi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Behavioral stress is recognized as a main risk factor for neuropsychiatric diseases. Converging evidence suggested that acute stress is associated with increase of excitatory transmission in certain forebrain areas. Aim of this work was to investigate the mechanism whereby acute stress increases glutamate release, and if therapeutic drugs prevent the effect of stress on glutamate release. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Rats were chronically treated with vehicle or drugs employed for therapy of mood/anxiety disorders (fluoxetine, desipramine, venlafaxine, agomelatine and then subjected to unpredictable footshock stress. Acute stress induced marked increase in depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex in superfusion, and the chronic drug treatments prevented the increase of glutamate release. Stress induced rapid increase in the circulating levels of corticosterone in all rats (both vehicle- and drug-treated, and glutamate release increase was blocked by previous administration of selective antagonist of glucocorticoid receptor (RU 486. On the molecular level, stress induced accumulation of presynaptic SNARE complexes in synaptic membranes (both in vehicle- and drug-treated rats. Patch-clamp recordings of pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cortex revealed that stress increased glutamatergic transmission through both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms, and that antidepressants may normalize it by reducing release probability. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Acute footshock stress up-regulated depolarization-evoked release of glutamate from synaptosomes of prefrontal/frontal cortex. Stress-induced increase of glutamate release was dependent on stimulation of glucocorticoid receptor by corticosterone. Because all drugs employed did not block either elevation of corticosterone or accumulation of SNARE complexes, the dampening action of the drugs on glutamate release must be downstream of these processes

  8. The Prefrontal Cortex Communicates with the Amygdala to Impair Learning after Acute Stress in Females but Not in Males

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Y. Maeng; Waddell, Jaylyn; Shors, Tracey J.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress exposure enhances classical eyeblink conditioning in male rats, whereas exposure to the same event dramatically impairs performance in females (Wood & Shors, 1998; Wood et al., 2001). We hypothesized that stress affects learning differently in males and females because different brain regions and circuits are being activated. In the first experiment, we determined that neuronal activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) during the stressful event is necessary to disrupt ...

  9. A New Model for Predicting Acute Mucosal Toxicity in Head-and-Neck Cancer Patients Undergoing Radiotherapy With Altered Schedules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strigari, Lidia, E-mail: strigari@ifo.it [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Pedicini, Piernicola [Department of Medical Physics, Regional Cancer Hospital C.R.O.B, Rionero in Vulture (Italy); D' Andrea, Marco [Laboratory of Medical Physics and Expert Systems, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Pinnaro, Paola; Marucci, Laura; Giordano, Carolina [Department of Radiotherapy, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute, Rome (Italy); Benassi, Marcello [Department of Medical Physics, Istituto Scientifico Romagnolo per lo Studio e la Cura dei tumori, Meldola (Italy)

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: One of the worst radiation-induced acute effects in treating head-and-neck (HN) cancer is grade 3 or higher acute (oral and pharyngeal) mucosal toxicity (AMT), caused by the killing/depletion of mucosa cells. Here we aim to testing a predictive model of the AMT in HN cancer patients receiving different radiotherapy schedules. Methods and Materials: Various radiotherapeutic schedules have been reviewed and classified as tolerable or intolerable based on AMT severity. A modified normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model has been investigated to describe AMT data in radiotherapy regimens, both conventional and altered in dose and overall treatment time (OTT). We tested the hypothesis that such a model could also be applied to identify intolerable treatment and to predict AMT. This AMT NTCP model has been compared with other published predictive models to identify schedules that are either tolerable or intolerable. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for all models, assuming treatment tolerance as the gold standard. The correlation between AMT and the predicted toxicity rate was assessed by a Pearson correlation test. Results: The AMT NTCP model was able to distinguish between acceptable and intolerable schedules among the data available for the study (AUC = 0.84, 95% confidence interval = 0.75-0.92). In the equivalent dose at 2 Gy/fraction (EQD2) vs OTT space, the proposed model shows a trend similar to that of models proposed by other authors, but was superior in detecting some intolerable schedules. Moreover, it was able to predict the incidence of {>=}G3 AMT. Conclusion: The proposed model is able to predict {>=}G3 AMT after HN cancer radiotherapy, and could be useful for designing altered/hypofractionated schedules to reduce the incidence of AMT.

  10. Exposure of Lactating Dairy Cows to Acute Pre-Ovulatory Heat Stress Affects Granulosa Cell-Specific Gene Expression Profiles in Dominant Follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanselow, Jens; Vernunft, Andreas; Koczan, Dirk; Spitschak, Marion; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    High environmental temperatures induce detrimental effects on various reproductive processes in cattle. According to the predicted global warming the number of days with unfavorable ambient temperatures will further increase. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of acute heat stress during the late pre-ovulatory phase on morphological, physiological and molecular parameters of dominant follicles in cycling cows during lactation. Eight German Holstein cows in established lactation were exposed to heat stress (28°C) or thermoneutral conditions (15°C) with pair-feeding for four days. After hormonal heat induction growth of the respective dominant follicles was monitored by ultrasonography for two days, then an ovulatory GnRH dose was given and follicular steroid hormones and granulosa cell-specific gene expression profiles were determined 23 hrs thereafter. The data showed that the pre-ovulatory growth of dominant follicles and the estradiol, but not the progesterone concentrations tended to be slightly affected. mRNA microarray and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed distinct expression profiles in granulosa cells derived from heat stressed compared to pair-fed animals. Among the 255 affected genes heatstress-, stress- or apoptosis associated genes were not present. But instead, we found up-regulation of genes essentially involved in G-protein coupled signaling pathways, extracellular matrix composition, and several members of the solute carrier family as well as up-regulation of FST encoding follistatin. In summary, the data of the present study show that acute pre-ovulatory heat stress can specifically alter gene expression profiles in granulosa cells, however without inducing stress related genes and pathways and suggestively can impair follicular growth due to affecting the activin-inhibin-follistatin system. PMID:27532452

  11. The effects of acute stress exposure on neural correlates of Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea H Lewis

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence brain regions involved in associative learning such as the ventral striatum.

  12. The effects of acute stress exposure on striatal activity during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Andrea H; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans, particularly in the striatum, is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence, and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence the striatum during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary reinforcers.

  13. Role of TNF-α in lung tight junction alteration in mouse model of acute lung inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuzzocrea Salvatore

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the present study, we used tumor necrosis factor-R1 knock out mice (TNF-αR1KO to understand the roles of TNF-α on epithelial function in models of carrageenan-induced acute lung inflammation. In order to elucidate whether the observed anti-inflammatory status is related to the inhibition of TNF-α, we also investigated the effect of etanercept, a TNF-α soluble receptor construct, on lung TJ function. Pharmacological and genetic TNF-α inhibition significantly reduced the degree of (1 TNF-α production in pleural exudates and in the lung tissues, (2 the inflammatory cell infiltration in the pleural cavity as well as in the lung tissues (evaluated by MPO activity, (3 the alteration of ZO-1, Claudin-2, Claudin-4, Claudin-5 and β-catenin (immunohistochemistry and (4 apoptosis (TUNEL staining, Bax, Bcl-2 expression. Taken together, our results demonstrate that inhibition of TNF-α reduces the tight junction permeability in the lung tissues associated with acute lung inflammation, suggesting a possible role of TNF-α on lung barrier dysfunction.

  14. Social play in juvenile hamsters alters dendritic morphology in the medial prefrontal cortex and attenuates effects of social stress in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Cody A; Pedersen, Robert W; Seddighi, Sahba; DeBusk, Lauren E; Burghardt, Gordon M; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-08-01

    Social play is a fundamental aspect of behavioral development in many species. Social play deprivation in rats alters dendritic morphology in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and we have shown that this brain region regulates responses to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. In this study, we tested whether play deprivation during the juvenile period disrupts dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and potentiates the effects of social defeat stress. At weaning, male hamsters were either group-housed with peers or pair-housed with their mother, with whom they do not play. In adulthood, animals received acute social defeat stress or no-defeat control treatment. The hamsters were then tested for a conditioned defeat response in a social interaction test with a novel intruder, and were also tested for social avoidance of a familiar opponent. Brains were collected for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology in the infralimbic (IL), prelimbic (PL), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Play-deprived animals showed an increased conditioned defeat response and elevated avoidance of a familiar opponent compared with play-exposed animals. Furthermore, play-deprived animals showed increased total length and branch points in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the IL and PL cortices, but not in the OFC. These findings suggest that social play deprivation in juvenile hamsters disrupts neuronal development in the vmPFC and increases vulnerability to the effects of social stress in adulthood. Overall, these results suggest that social play is necessary for the natural dendritic pruning process during adolescence and promotes coping with stress in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176563

  15. Social play in juvenile hamsters alters dendritic morphology in the medial prefrontal cortex and attenuates effects of social stress in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burleson, Cody A; Pedersen, Robert W; Seddighi, Sahba; DeBusk, Lauren E; Burghardt, Gordon M; Cooper, Matthew A

    2016-08-01

    Social play is a fundamental aspect of behavioral development in many species. Social play deprivation in rats alters dendritic morphology in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and we have shown that this brain region regulates responses to social defeat stress in Syrian hamsters. In this study, we tested whether play deprivation during the juvenile period disrupts dendritic morphology in the prefrontal cortex and potentiates the effects of social defeat stress. At weaning, male hamsters were either group-housed with peers or pair-housed with their mother, with whom they do not play. In adulthood, animals received acute social defeat stress or no-defeat control treatment. The hamsters were then tested for a conditioned defeat response in a social interaction test with a novel intruder, and were also tested for social avoidance of a familiar opponent. Brains were collected for Golgi-Cox staining and analysis of dendritic morphology in the infralimbic (IL), prelimbic (PL), and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Play-deprived animals showed an increased conditioned defeat response and elevated avoidance of a familiar opponent compared with play-exposed animals. Furthermore, play-deprived animals showed increased total length and branch points in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons in the IL and PL cortices, but not in the OFC. These findings suggest that social play deprivation in juvenile hamsters disrupts neuronal development in the vmPFC and increases vulnerability to the effects of social stress in adulthood. Overall, these results suggest that social play is necessary for the natural dendritic pruning process during adolescence and promotes coping with stress in adulthood. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. In Vivo Acute on Chronic Ethanol Effects in Liver: A Mouse Model Exhibiting Exacerbated Injury, Altered Metabolic and Epigenetic Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shivendra D; Aroor, Annayya R; Restrepo, Ricardo; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Ibdah, Jamal A

    2015-11-20

    Chronic alcoholics who also binge drink (i.e., acute on chronic) are prone to an exacerbated liver injury but its mechanism is not understood. We therefore investigated the in vivo effects of chronic and binge ethanol ingestion and compared to chronic ethanol followed by three repeat binge ethanol on the liver of male C57/BL6 mice fed ethanol in liquid diet (4%) for four weeks followed by binge ethanol (intragastric administration, 3.5 g/kg body weight, three doses, 12h apart). Chronic followed by binge ethanol exacerbated fat accumulation, necrosis, decrease in hepatic SAM and SAM:SAH ratio, increase in adenosine levels, and elevated CYP2E1 levels. Histone H3 lysine acetylation (H3AcK9), dually modified phosphoacetylated histone H3 (H3AcK9/PS10), and phosphorylated H2AX increased after binge whereas phosphorylation of histone H3 ser 10 (H3S10) and H3 ser 28 (H3S28) increased after chronic ethanol-binge. Histone H3 lysine 4 and 9 dimethylation increased with a marked dimethylation in H3K9 in chronic ethanol binge group. Trimethylated histone H3 levels did not change. Nuclear levels of histone acetyl transferase GCN5 and histone deacetylase HDAC3 were elevated whereas phospho-CREB decreased in a distinctive manner. Taken together, acute on chronic ethanol ingestion caused amplification of liver injury and elicited characteristic profiles of histone modifications, metabolic alterations, and changes in nuclear protein levels. These findings demonstrate that chronic ethanol exposure renders liver more susceptible to repeat acute/binge ethanol induced acceleration of alcoholic liver disease.

  17. miRNA-dysregulation associated with tenderness variation induced by acute stress in Angus cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Chunping

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract miRNAs are a class of small, single-stranded, non-coding RNAs that perform post-transcriptional repression of target genes by binding to 3’ untranslated regions. Research has found that miRNAs involved in the regulation of many metabolic processes. Here we uncovered that the beef quality of Angus cattle sharply diversified after acute stress. By performing miRNA microarray analysis, 13 miRNAs were significantly differentially expressed in stressed group compared to control group. Using a bioinformatics method, 135 protein-coding genes were predicted as the targets of significant differentially expressed miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO term and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA mined that these target genes involved in some important pathways, which may have impact on meat quality and beef tenderness.

  18. Posterior midline activation during symptom provocation in acute stress disorder: An fMRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Christopher Cwik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Functional imaging studies of patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder showed wide-spread activation of mid-line cortical areas during symptom provocation i.e., exposure to trauma-related cues. The present study aimed at investigating neural activation during exposure to trauma-related pictures in patients with Acute Stress Disorder (ASD shortly after the traumatic event. Nineteen ASD patients and 19 healthy control participants were presented with individualized pictures of the traumatic event and emotionally neutral control pictures during the acquisition of whole-brain data with a 3-T fMRI scanner. Compared to the control group and to control pictures, ASD patients showed significant activation in mid-line cortical areas in response to trauma-related pictures including precuneus, cuneus, postcentral gyrus and pre-supplementary motor area. The results suggest that the trauma-related pictures evoke emotionally salient self-referential processing in ASD patients.

  19. Altered cognition-related brain activity and interactions with acute pain in migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vani A. Mathur

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the effect of migraine on neural cognitive networks. However, cognitive dysfunction is increasingly being recognized as a comorbidity of chronic pain. Pain appears to affect cognitive ability and the function of cognitive networks over time, and decrements in cognitive function can exacerbate affective and sensory components of pain. We investigated differences in cognitive processing and pain–cognition interactions between 14 migraine patients and 14 matched healthy controls using an fMRI block-design with two levels of task difficulty and concurrent heat (painful and not painful stimuli. Across groups, cognitive networks were recruited in response to a difficult cognitive task, and a pain–task interaction was found in the right (contralateral to pain stimulus posterior insula (pINS, such that activity was modulated by decreasing the thermal pain stimulus or by engaging the difficult cognitive task. Migraine patients had less task-related deactivation within the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and left dorsal anterior midcingulate cortex (aMCC compared to controls. These regions have been reported to have decreased cortical thickness and cognitive-related deactivation within other pain populations, and are also associated with pain regulation, suggesting that the current findings may reflect altered cognitive function and top-down regulation of pain. During pain conditions, patients had decreased task-related activity, but more widespread task-related reductions in pain-related activity, compared to controls, suggesting cognitive resources may be diverted from task-related to pain-reduction-related processes in migraine. Overall, these findings suggest that migraine is associated with altered cognitive-related neural activity, which may reflect altered pain regulatory processes as well as broader functional restructuring.

  20. Involvement of Nitric Oxide, Neurotrophins and HPA Axis in Neurobehavioural Alterations Induced by Prenatal Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maur, Damian G; Pascuan, Cecilia G; Genaro, Ana M; Zorrilla-Zubilete, Maria A

    2015-01-01

    Several studies suggest that negative emotions during pregnancy generate adverse effects on the cognitive, behavioural and emotional development of the descendants. The psychoneuroendocrine pathways involve the transplacentary passage of maternal glucocorticoids in order to influence directly on fetal growth and brain development.Nitric oxide is a gaseous neurotransmitter that plays an important role in the control of neural activity by diffusing into neurons and participates in learning and memory processes. It has been demonstrated that nitric oxide is involved in the regulation of corticosterone secretion. Thus, it has been found that the neuronal isoform of nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is an endogenous inhibitor of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the hippocampus and that nNOS in the hippocampus may participate in the modulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity via GR.Neurotrophins are a family of secreted growth factors consisting of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT3) and NT4. Although initially described in the nervous system, they regulate processes such as cell survival, proliferation and differentiation in several other compartments. It has been demonstrated that the NO-citrulline cycle acts together with BDNF in maintaining the progress of neural differentiation.In the present chapter, we explore the interrelation between nitric oxide, glucocorticoids and neurotrophins in brain areas that are key structures in learning and memory processes. The participation of this interrelation in the behavioural and cognitive alterations induced in the offspring by maternal stress is also addressed. PMID:25287536

  1. Alteration of methotrexate binding to human serum albumin induced by oxidative stress. Spectroscopic comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciążek-Jurczyk, M.; Sułkowska, A.; Równicka-Zubik, J.

    2016-01-01

    Changes of oxidative modified albumin conformation by comparison of non-modified (HSA) and modified (oHSA) human serum albumin absorption spectra, Red Edge Excitation Shift (REES) effect and fluorescence synchronous spectra were investigated. Studies of absorption spectra indicated that changes in the value of absorbance associated with spectral changes in the region from 200 to 250 nm involve structural alterations related to variations in peptide backbone conformation. Analysis of the REES effect allowed for the observation of changes caused by oxidation in the region of the hydrophobic pocket containing the tryptophanyl residue. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed changes of the position of the tryptophanyl and tyrosil residues fluorescent band. Effect of oxidative stress on binding of methotrexate (MTX) was investigated by spectrofluorescence, UV-VIS and 1HNMR spectroscopy. MTX caused the fluorescence quenching of non-modified (HSA) and modified (oHSA) human serum albumin molecule. The values of binding constants, Hill's coefficients and a number of binding sites in the protein molecule in the high affinity binding site were calculated for the binary MTX-HSA and MTX-oHSA systems. For these systems, qualitative analysis in the low affinity binding sites was performed with the use of the 1HNMR technique.

  2. Combined neonicotinoid pesticide and parasite stress alter honeybee queens' physiology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaubat, Claudia; Maisonnasse, Alban; Crauser, Didier; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Kretzschmar, André; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Le Conte, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee colony survival strongly relies on the queen to overcome worker losses exposed to combined stressors like pesticides and parasites. Queen's capacity to withstand these stressors is however very little known. The effects of the common neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid in a chronic and sublethal exposure together with the wide distributed parasite Nosema ceranae have therefore been investigated on queen's physiology and survivorship in laboratory and field conditions. Early physiological changes were observed on queens, particularly the increase of enzyme activities (catalase [CAT] and glutathione-S-transferase [GST] in the heads) related to protective responses to xenobiotics and oxidative stress against pesticide and parasite alone or combined. Stressors also alter the activity of two other enzymes (carboxylesterase alpha [CaE α] and carboxylesterase para [CaE p] in the midguts) involved in metabolic and detoxification functions. Furthermore, single and combined effects of pesticide and parasite decrease survivorship of queens introduced into mating hives for three months. Because colony demographic regulation relies on queen's fertility, the compromise of its physiology and life can seriously menace colony survival under pressure of combined stressors. PMID:27578396

  3. Combined neonicotinoid pesticide and parasite stress alter honeybee queens’ physiology and survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaubat, Claudia; Maisonnasse, Alban; Crauser, Didier; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Kretzschmar, André; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Le Conte, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee colony survival strongly relies on the queen to overcome worker losses exposed to combined stressors like pesticides and parasites. Queen’s capacity to withstand these stressors is however very little known. The effects of the common neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid in a chronic and sublethal exposure together with the wide distributed parasite Nosema ceranae have therefore been investigated on queen’s physiology and survivorship in laboratory and field conditions. Early physiological changes were observed on queens, particularly the increase of enzyme activities (catalase [CAT] and glutathione-S-transferase [GST] in the heads) related to protective responses to xenobiotics and oxidative stress against pesticide and parasite alone or combined. Stressors also alter the activity of two other enzymes (carboxylesterase alpha [CaE α] and carboxylesterase para [CaE p] in the midguts) involved in metabolic and detoxification functions. Furthermore, single and combined effects of pesticide and parasite decrease survivorship of queens introduced into mating hives for three months. Because colony demographic regulation relies on queen’s fertility, the compromise of its physiology and life can seriously menace colony survival under pressure of combined stressors. PMID:27578396

  4. Combined neonicotinoid pesticide and parasite stress alter honeybee queens' physiology and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaubat, Claudia; Maisonnasse, Alban; Crauser, Didier; Tchamitchian, Sylvie; Bonnet, Marc; Cousin, Marianne; Kretzschmar, André; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Le Conte, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Honeybee colony survival strongly relies on the queen to overcome worker losses exposed to combined stressors like pesticides and parasites. Queen's capacity to withstand these stressors is however very little known. The effects of the common neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid in a chronic and sublethal exposure together with the wide distributed parasite Nosema ceranae have therefore been investigated on queen's physiology and survivorship in laboratory and field conditions. Early physiological changes were observed on queens, particularly the increase of enzyme activities (catalase [CAT] and glutathione-S-transferase [GST] in the heads) related to protective responses to xenobiotics and oxidative stress against pesticide and parasite alone or combined. Stressors also alter the activity of two other enzymes (carboxylesterase alpha [CaE α] and carboxylesterase para [CaE p] in the midguts) involved in metabolic and detoxification functions. Furthermore, single and combined effects of pesticide and parasite decrease survivorship of queens introduced into mating hives for three months. Because colony demographic regulation relies on queen's fertility, the compromise of its physiology and life can seriously menace colony survival under pressure of combined stressors.

  5. Thermal, physiological and perceptual strain mediate alterations in match-play tennis under heat stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, Julien D; Racinais, Sébastien; Knez, Wade L; Herrera, Christopher P; Christian, Ryan J; Girard, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study compared the thermal, physiological and perceptual responses associated with match-play tennis in HOT (∼34°C wet-bulb-globe temperature (WBGT)) and COOL (∼19°C WBGT) conditions, along with the accompanying alterations in match characteristics. Methods 12 male tennis players undertook two matches for an effective playing time (ie, ball in play) of 20 min, corresponding to ∼119 and ∼102 min of play in HOT and COOL conditions, respectively. Rectal and skin temperatures, heart rate, subjective ratings of thermal comfort, thermal sensation and perceived exertion were recorded, along with match characteristics. Results End-match rectal temperature increased to a greater extent in the HOT (∼39.4°C) compared with the COOL (∼38.7°C) condition (ptennis characteristics under severe heat stress appear to represent a behavioural strategy adopted to minimise or offset the sensation of environmental conditions being rated as difficult. PMID:24668377

  6. Effects of chondroitin sulfate on alteration of actin cytoskeleton in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Ye He; Ren-Xuan Guo

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In experimental acute pancreatitis, a large amount of reactive oxygen species are produced, and in turn cytoskeletal changes may be induced in pancreatic tissue. These changes contribute to an imbalance of digestive enzyme segregation, transport, exocytosis and activation, resulting in cell injury. In this study, we assessed the effects of chondroitin sulfate (CS) on attenuation of oxidative damage and protection of F-actin in rats with acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). METHODS:Ninety male Wistar rats were divided randomly into three groups. Group A was infused with 5% sodium taurocholate; group B was treated with CS;and group C served as control. Rats from the three groups were killed at 1, 3 or 8 hours. The levels were measured of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione synthetase (GSH), serum amylase (SAM) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). F-actin immunostained with rhodamine-phalloidin was analyzed using a confocal laser scanning system and the content of F-actin protein was determined. RESULTS: The levels of SAM increased in groups A and B, whereas the levels of GSH, SOD and ATP in group A decreased markedly during pancreatitis, and MDA increased signiifcantly. The levels of GSH, SOD and ATP in group B were higher than those in group A, but the level of MDA was lower than in group A. At the same time, ANP resulted in early disruption of the cytoskeleton with dramatic changes and a loss of F-actin. Administration of CS moderated the damage to the actin cytoskeleton. CONCLUSIONS:Retrograde infusion of sodium taurocholate via the pancreatic duct may produce pancreatic necrosis and a marked increase in serum amylase activity, induce a severe depletion of ATP level, prime lipid peroxidation, and damage F-actin. Treatment with CS can ameliorate pancreatic cell conditions, limit cell membrane peroxidation, protect F-actin, and attenuate pancreatitis.

  7. Alterations of CNS structure & function by charged particle radiation & resultant oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory; Chang, Polly; Favre, Cecile; Fike, John; Komarova, Natalia; Limoli, Charles; Mao, Xiao-Wen; Obenaus, Andre; Raber, Jacob; Spigelman, Igor; Soltesz, Ivan; Song, Sheng-Kwei; Stampanoni, Marco; Vlkolinsky, Roman; Wodarz, Dominik

    were complex and suggested continuous remodeling of the brain for up to 6 months. Thus we demonstrated a suite of CNS structural and functional changes after proton and iron ion exposure in the low dose regime. Based on these findings we will now test whether oxidative stress mediates the reactions of CNS to radiation exposure and what role radiation quality and dose rate play in the responses. We will use cultured neural precursor cells (mouse human) to detect changes in oxidative status and differentiation as functions of charged particle charge and velocity. These results will inform the selection of particles for many in vivo measurements that will compare wild type mice to a transgenic strain that over-expresses a human catalase gene (which inactivates hydrogen peroxide) in the mitochondrial compartment. This will explicitly test the role of reactive oxygen species in mediating the mechanisms underlying the CNS endpoints that we will measure. We will extend the electrophysiological measurements on individual nerves in hippocampal slices to characterize both inhibitory and excitatory synapses. Further, multi-electrode arrays will be used to follow correlated electrical activity in different hippocampal regions in order to understand network-level function as well as synaptic efficacy and plasticity. Controlled oxidative stress on irradiated samples will explore whether response mechanisms are shared. To link alterations in neurogenesis to performance we will explore behavioral changes mediated by the hippocampus simultaneously with measures of expression of the Arc gene in newly-born neurons. This will test whether decrements in performance correlate with loss of new cells and whether behavior properly stimulates functional integration of the new cells; the behavioral paradigm will be contextual fear conditioning. We will develop mathematical frameworks for CNS responses to radiation in order to inform risk estimates. Finally, we will couple a high

  8. Tolerance and responsive gene expression of Sogatella furcifera under extreme temperature stresses are altered by its vectored plant virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Zhong, Ting; Feng, Wendi; Zhou, Guohui

    2016-01-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), a newly emerged fijivirus causing great loss to rice production in eastern and southeastern Asian countries in recent years, is efficiently transmitted by a rice pest, white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera) in a persistent, circulative propagative manner and can be considered as an insect virus. In this study, SRBSDV infection in WBPH was found to increase the vector's death rate under extreme cold stress but improve its survival rate under extreme heat stress. Digital gene expression profiling based on RNA-Seq revealed different gene regulation patterns in WBPH under viral and/or temperature stress. Under cold stress, the virus infection upregulated 1540 genes and downregulated 131 genes in the insect, most of which were related to membrane properties and biological processes of actin and cytoskeleton; whereas under heat stress, it upregulated 363 genes and downregulated 548 genes, most of which were associated to metabolism and intracellular organelles. Several types of stress-responsive genes involving intestinal mucin, cuticle protein, ubiquitin protease, immune response, RNA interference and heat shock response, were largely upregulated under cold stress, but largely downregulated under heat stress, by SRBSDV infection. Our results suggest two distinct mechanisms of virus-altered vector insect tolerance to temperature stress. PMID:27531640

  9. Acute chlorine gas exposure produces transient inflammation and a progressive alteration in surfactant composition with accompanying mechanical dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massa, Christopher B.; Scott, Pamela; Abramova, Elena; Gardner, Carol; Laskin, Debra L.; Gow, Andrew J., E-mail: Gow@rci.rutgers.edu

    2014-07-01

    Acute Cl{sub 2} exposure following industrial accidents or military/terrorist activity causes pulmonary injury and severe acute respiratory distress. Prior studies suggest that antioxidant depletion is important in producing dysfunction, however a pathophysiologic mechanism has not been elucidated. We propose that acute Cl{sub 2} inhalation leads to oxidative modification of lung lining fluid, producing surfactant inactivation, inflammation and mechanical respiratory dysfunction at the organ level. C57BL/6J mice underwent whole-body exposure to an effective 60 ppm-hour Cl{sub 2} dose, and were euthanized 3, 24 and 48 h later. Whereas pulmonary architecture and endothelial barrier function were preserved, transient neutrophilia, peaking at 24 h, was noted. Increased expression of ARG1, CCL2, RETLNA, IL-1b, and PTGS2 genes was observed in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells with peak change in all genes at 24 h. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no effect on NOS2 mRNA or iNOS protein expression, nor on BAL NO{sub 3}{sup −} or NO{sub 2}{sup −}. Expression of the alternative macrophage activation markers, Relm-α and mannose receptor was increased in alveolar macrophages and pulmonary epithelium. Capillary surfactometry demonstrated impaired surfactant function, and altered BAL phospholipid and surfactant protein content following exposure. Organ level respiratory function was assessed by forced oscillation technique at 5 end expiratory pressures. Cl{sub 2} exposure had no significant effect on either airway or tissue resistance. Pulmonary elastance was elevated with time following exposure and demonstrated PEEP refractory derecruitment at 48 h, despite waning inflammation. These data support a role for surfactant inactivation as a physiologic mechanism underlying respiratory dysfunction following Cl{sub 2} inhalation. - Highlights: • Effect of 60 ppm*hr Cl{sub 2} gas on lung inflammation and mechanical function examined. • Pulmonary inflammation is transient and minor.

  10. Acute melatonin treatment alters dendritic morphology and circadian clock gene expression in the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Nelson, Randy J

    2015-02-01

    In the hippocampus of Siberian hamsters, dendritic length and dendritic complexity increase in the CA1 region whereas dendritic spine density decreases in the dentate gyrus region at night. However, the underlying mechanism of the diurnal rhythmicity in hippocampal neuronal remodeling is unknown. In mammals, most daily rhythms in physiology and behaviors are regulated by a network of circadian clocks. The central clock, located in the hypothalamus, controls melatonin secretion at night and melatonin modifies peripheral clocks by altering expression of circadian clock genes. In this study, we examined the effects of acute melatonin treatment on the circadian clock system as well as on morphological changes of hippocampal neurons. Male Siberian hamsters were injected with melatonin in the afternoon; 4 h later, mRNA levels of hypothalamic and hippocampal circadian clock genes and hippocampal neuron dendritic morphology were assessed. In the hypothalamus, melatonin treatment did not alter Period1 and Bmal1 expression. However, melatonin treatment increased both Period1 and Bmal1 expression in the hippocampus, suggesting that melatonin affected molecular oscillations in the hippocampus. Melatonin treatment also induced rapid remodeling of hippocampal neurons; melatonin increased apical dendritic length and dendritic complexity in the CA1 region and reduced the dendritic spine density in the dentate gyrus region. These data suggest that structural changes in hippocampal neurons are regulated by a circadian clock and that melatonin functions as a nighttime signal to coordinate the diurnal rhythm in neuronal remodeling.

  11. Acute phenanthrene toxicity to juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): Molecular, biochemical, and histopathological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Romano, Nicholas; Hamzah, Hazilawati; Simpson, Stuart L; Yap, Chee Kong

    2016-05-01

    Information on the biological responses of polyploid animals towards environmental contaminants is scarce. This study aimed to compare reproductive axis-related gene expressions in the brain, plasma biochemical responses, and the liver and gill histopathological alterations in diploid and triploid full-sibling juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Fish were exposed for 96 h to one of the two waterborne phenanthrene (Phe) concentrations [mean measured (SD): 6.2 (2.4) and 76 (4.2) μg/L]. In triploids, exposure to 76 μg/L Phe increased mRNA level of fushi tarazu-factor 1 (ftz-f1). Expression of tryptophan hydroxylase2 (tph2) was also elevated in both ploidies following the exposure to 76 μg/L Phe compared to the solvent control. In triploids, 76 μg/L Phe increased plasma alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels compared to the other Phe-exposed group. It also elevated lactate and glucose contents relative to the other groups. In diploids, however, biochemical biomarkers did not change. Phenanthrene exposures elevated glycogen contents and the prevalence of histopathological lesions in the liver and gills of both ploidies. This study showed substantial differences between diploids and triploids on biochemical and molecular biomarker responses, but similar histopathological alterations following acute Phe exposures. PMID:26845363

  12. Selective alterations in cerebral metabolism within the mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic system produced by acute cocaine administration in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porrino, L.J.; Domer, F.R.; Crane, A.M.; Sokoloff, L.

    1988-05-01

    The 2-(/sup 14/C)deoxyglucose method was used to examine the effects of acute intravenous administration of cocaine on local cerebral glucose utilization in rats. These effects were correlated with the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity assessed simultaneously in the same animals. At the lowest dose of cocaine, 0.5 mg/kg (1.47 mumol/kg), alterations in glucose utilization were restricted to the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Metabolic activity at 1.0 mg/kg (2.9 mumol/kg) was altered in these structures, but in the substantia nigra reticulata and lateral habenula as well. The selectivity of cocaine's effects at low doses demonstrates the particular sensitivity of these structures to cocaine's actions in the brain. In contrast, 5.0 mg/kg (14.7 mumol/kg) produced widespread changes in glucose utilization, particularly in the extrapyramidal system. Only this dose significantly increased locomotor activity above levels in vehicle-treated controls. Rates of glucose utilization were positively correlated with locomotor activity in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra reticulata, and subthalamic nucleus, and negatively correlated in the lateral habenula.

  13. Acute effects of tetracycline exposure in the freshwater fish Gambusia holbrooki: antioxidant effects, neurotoxicity and histological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, B; Antunes, S C; Gomes, R; Campos, J C; Braga, M R; Ramos, A S; Correia, A T

    2015-02-01

    A large body of evidence was compiled in the recent decades showing a noteworthy increase in the detection of pharmaceutical drugs in aquatic ecosystems. Due to its ubiquitous presence, chemical nature, and practical purpose, this type of contaminant can exert toxic effects in nontarget organisms. Exposure to pharmaceutical drugs can result in adaptive alterations, such as changes in tissues, or in key homeostatic mechanisms, such as antioxidant mechanisms, biochemical/physiological pathways, and cellular damage. These alterations can be monitored to determine the impact of these compounds on exposed aquatic organisms. Among pharmaceutical drugs in the environment, antibiotics are particularly important because they include a variety of substances widely used in medical and veterinary practice, livestock production, and aquaculture. This wide use constitutes a decisive factor contributing for their frequent detection in the aquatic environment. Tetracyclines are the individual antibiotic subclass with the second highest frequency of detection in environmental matrices. The characterization of the potential ecotoxicological effects of tetracycline is a much-required task; to attain this objective, the present study assessed the acute toxic effects of tetracycline in the freshwater fish species Gambusia holbrooki by the determination of histological changes in the gills and liver, changes in antioxidant defense [glutathione S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), and lipoperoxidative damage] as well as potential neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase activity). The obtained results suggest the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between the exposure to tetracycline and histological alterations (more specifically in gills) and enzymatic activity (particularly the enzyme CAT in liver and GST in gills) indicating that this compound can exert a pro-oxidative activity. PMID:25475590

  14. Chronic intermittent hypoxia alters ventilatory and metabolic responses to acute hypoxia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Barbara J; Adrian, Russell; Wang, Zun-Yi; Bates, Melissa L; Dopp, John M

    2016-05-15

    We determined the effects of chronic exposure to intermittent hypoxia (CIH) on chemoreflex control of ventilation in conscious animals. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CIH [nadir oxygen saturation (SpO2), 75%; 15 events/h; 10 h/day] or normoxia (NORM) for 21 days. We assessed the following responses to acute, graded hypoxia before and after exposures: ventilation (V̇e, via barometric plethysmography), V̇o2 and V̇co2 (analysis of expired air), heart rate (HR), and SpO2 (pulse oximetry via neck collar). We quantified hypoxia-induced chemoreceptor sensitivity by calculating the stimulus-response relationship between SpO2 and the ventilatory equivalent for V̇co2 (linear regression). An additional aim was to determine whether CIH causes proliferation of carotid body glomus cells (using bromodeoxyuridine). CIH exposure increased the slope of the V̇e/V̇co2/SpO2 relationship and caused hyperventilation in normoxia. Bromodeoxyuridine staining was comparable in CIH and NORM. Thus our CIH paradigm augmented hypoxic chemosensitivity without causing glomus cell proliferation. PMID:26917692

  15. Redrawing Papez' circuit: a theory about how acute stress becomes chronic and causes disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, Arnold E

    2007-01-01

    The diseases of chronic stress include migraine, essential hypertension, depression, and the metabolic syndrome. A theory is presented to explain how acute stress becomes chronic and causes these inter-related conditions. The theory is based on a new "circuit of emotion", which is derived from Papez' famous theory of emotion. The hypothesis is as follows: There is a basic circuit of emotion which runs from the hippocampus (defined as the dentate gyrus plus the CA regions), where emotion arises, to the amygdala and from there to serotonergic pacemaker cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN). The DRN projects back to the dentate gyrus in two ways: a direct route without a stop and an indirect route via pacemaker cells in the entorhinal cortex. The purpose of the direct route is to promote neurogenesis in the subgranular zone of the dentate; the indirect route has two purposes: to imprint ongoing moments of consciousness onto new dentate cells for retention as memory and to provide a negative feedback loop for regulation of the whole process. The hippocampus, the amygdala, and the DRN all project to the hypothalamus, which are branches off the basic loop that subserve the autonomic expression of emotion. Pathologic overdrive of the DRN causes overdrive of the entorhinal cortex, which leads to excitotoxic cell death of neurons in the hippocampus involved in the negative feedback loop. The disinhibited amygdala and DRN are then free to orchestrate the syndromes of chronic stress. Recovery from chronic stress requires repopulation of the dentate gyrus and restoration of the feedback loop. Excitotoxic cell death in the hippocampus results from either extraordinary acute stress or increased susceptibility to DRN overdrive, as might be caused, for example, by genetic factors, age, high cortisol levels, or incomplete recovery from previous damage. Three goals for therapeutic intervention are identified: inhibition of pacemaker cells in the DRN (which can be targeted by

  16. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliszczewicz Brian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE, immediately-post-exercise (IPE, 1 hr-post (1-HP and 2 hr-post (2-HP, to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%,Treadmill=+115% and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%,Treadmill+167%. Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%, while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%,Treadmill=−8% and 2-HP (CF=−16%,TM=−1% compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%,Treadmill=+17%, 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%,Treadmill=+4.8%, 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%,Treadmill=+12%. Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™= −10%,Treadmill=−12%, 1-HP (CrossFit™= −12%,Treadmill=−6%, 2-HP (CrossFit™= −7%,Treadmill=−11%. No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.

  17. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit(™) vs. Treadmill Bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C John; Blessing, L Daniel; Oliver, D Gretchen; Esco, R Michael; Taylor, J Kyle

    2015-09-29

    CrossFit(™), a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit(™) bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit(™) experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit(™) and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-16%, Treadmill=-8%) and 2-HP (CF=-16%, TM=-1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit(™) and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit(™)=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit(™)=-10%, Treadmill=-12%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-12%, Treadmill=-6%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=-7%, Treadmill=-11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit(™) bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID

  18. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C. John; Blessing, L. Daniel; Oliver, D. Gretchen; Esco, R. Michael; Taylor, J. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%, Treadmill=−8%) and 2-HP (CF=−16%, TM=−1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™=−10%, Treadmill=−12%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=−12%, Treadmill=−6%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=−7%, Treadmill=−11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID:26557192

  19. Partial genetic deletion of neuregulin 1 and adolescent stress interact to alter NMDA receptor binding in the medial prefrontal cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Waseem Chohan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia is thought to arise due to a complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors during early neurodevelopment. We have recently shown that partial genetic deletion of the schizophrenia susceptibility gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1 and adolescent stress interact to disturb sensorimotor gating, neuroendocrine activity and dendritic morphology in mice. Both stress and Nrg1 may have converging effects upon N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs which are implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, sensorimotor gating and dendritic spine plasticity. Using an identical repeated restraint stress paradigm to our previous study, here we determined NMDAR binding across various brain regions in adolescent Nrg1 heterozygous (HET and wild-type (WT mice using [3H] MK-801 autoradiography. Repeated restraint stress increased NMDAR binding in the ventral part of the lateral septum (LSV and the dentate gyrus (DG of the hippocampus irrespective of genotype. Partial genetic deletion of Nrg1 interacted with adolescent stress to promote an altered pattern of NMDAR binding in the infralimbic (IL subregion of the medial prefrontal cortex. In the IL, whilst stress tended to increase NMDAR binding in WT mice, it decreased binding in Nrg1 HET mice. However in the DG, stress selectively increased the expression of NMDAR binding in Nrg1 HET mice but not WT mice. These results demonstrate a Nrg1-stress interaction during adolescence on NMDAR binding in the medial prefrontal cortex.

  20. Glomerular hemodynamic alterations during acute hyperinsulinemia in normal and diabetic rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, B. J.; Anderson, C. M.; Thies, R. S.; Collins, R. C.; Blantz, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Treatment of insulin dependent diabetes invariably requires exogenous insulin to control blood glucose. Insulin treatment, independent of other factors associated with insulin dependent diabetes, may induce changes that affect glomerular function. Due to exogenous delivery of insulin in insulin dependent diabetes entering systemic circulation prior to the portal vein, plasma levels of insulin are often in excess of that observed in non-diabetics. The specific effects of hyperinsulinemia on glomerular hemodynamics have not been previously examined. Micropuncture studies were performed in control (non-diabetic), untreated diabetic and insulin-treated diabetic rats 7 to 10 days after administration of 65 mg/kg body weight streptozotocin. After the first period micropuncture measurements were obtained, 5 U of regular insulin (Humulin-R) was infused i.v., and glucose clamped at euglycemic values (80 to 120 mg/dl). Blood glucose concentration in non-diabetic controls was 99 +/- 6 mg/dl. In control rats, insulin infusion and glucose clamp increased nephron filtration rate due to decreases in both afferent and efferent arteriolar resistance (afferent greater than efferent) resulting in increased plasma flow and increased glomerular hydrostatic pressure gradient. However, insulin infusion and glucose clamp produced the opposite effect in both untreated and insulin-treated diabetic rats with afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction resulting in decreases in plasma flow, glomerular hydrostatic pressure gradient and nephron filtration rate. Thromboxane A2 (TX) synthetase inhibition partially decreased the vasoconstrictive response due to acute insulin infusion in diabetic rats preventing the decrease in nephron filtration rate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  1. Altered Cortical Activation in Adolescents With Acute Migraine: A Magnetoencephalography Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Jing; deGrauw, Xinyao; Korostenskaja, Milena; Korman, Abraham M.; O’Brien, Hope L.; Kabbouche, Marielle A.; Powers, Scott W.; Hershey, Andrew D.

    2013-01-01

    To quantitatively assess cortical dysfunction in pediatric migraine, 31 adolescents with acute migraine and age- and gender-matched controls were studied using a magnetoencephalography (MEG) system at a sampling rate of 6,000 Hz. Neuromagnetic brain activation was elicited by a finger-tapping task. The spectral and spatial signatures of magnetoencephalography data in 5 to 2,884 Hz were analyzed using Morlet wavelet and beamformers. Compared with controls, 31 migraine subjects during their headache attack phases (ictal) showed significantly prolonged latencies of neuromagnetic activation in 5 to 30 Hz, increased spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz, and a higher likelihood of neuromagnetic activation in the supplementary motor area, the occipital and ipsilateral sensorimotor cortices, in 2,200 to 2,800 Hz. Of the 31 migraine subjects, 16 migraine subjects during their headache-free phases (interictal) showed that there were no significant differences between interictal and control MEG data except that interictal spectral power in 100 to 200 Hz was significantly decreased. The results demonstrated that migraine subjects had significantly aberrant ictal brain activation, which can normalize interictally. The spread of abnormal ictal brain activation in both low- and high-frequency ranges triggered by movements may play a key role in the cascade of migraine attacks. Perspective This is the first study focusing on the spectral and spatial signatures of cortical dysfunction in adolescents with migraine using MEG signals in a frequency range of 5 to 2,884 Hz. This analyzing aberrant brain activation may be important for developing new therapeutic interventions for migraine in the future. PMID:23792072

  2. Tamsulosin alters levofloxacin pharmacokinetics in prostates derived from rats with acute bacterial prostatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo-Dong Qin; Ming-Zhao Xiao; Yuan-Da Zhou; Jing Yang; Hai-Xia He; Yue He; Yang Zeng

    2013-01-01

    The combination of levofloxacin and α1 adrenergic antagonist treatment is the current preferred choice for both bacterial and non-bacterial prostatitis.The aim of this study is to explore the influence of α1 adrenergic antagonists on the pharmacokinetics of levofloxacin using rat models with acute bacterial prostatitis (ABP) induced by direct injection with Escherichia coli(ATCC25922).A total of 96 model rats were randomly assigned into two groups:the experimental group (treated with both tamsulosin and levofloxacin,n=48) and the control group (treated with levofloxacin and solvents,n=48).Six rats from each group were euthanized to collect blood,liver,kidney and prostate samples at the time points of 0.125,0.25,0.5,1,2,4,8 and 12 h after drug administration.The levofloxacin concentrations were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC),and the pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using the 3p97 software program.There were no obvious differences (P>0.05) between the experimental and control groups in the major pharmacokinetic parameters of levofloxacin,including the halftime (t1/2),time to peak (tpeak),clearance rate (CL),maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve (AUC0~12),in the plasma or in the hepatic and kidney tissues of the model rats.However,in the prostatic tissues,tamsulosin increased the Cmax,prolonged the t1/2 and decreased the CL of levofloxacin (P<0.05).These results indicate that tamsulosin may enhance the effect of levofloxacin in the treatment of bacterial prostatitis without changing the drug concentration in the liver and kidney.

  3. Shear Stress-Induced Alteration of Epithelial Organization in Human Renal Tubular Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Maggiorani

    Full Text Available Tubular epithelial cells in the kidney are continuously exposed to urinary fluid shear stress (FSS generated by urine movement and recent in vitro studies suggest that changes of FSS could contribute to kidney injury. However it is unclear whether FSS alters the epithelial characteristics of the renal tubule. Here, we evaluated in vitro and in vivo the influence of FSS on epithelial characteristics of renal proximal tubular cells taking the organization of junctional complexes and the presence of the primary cilium as markers of epithelial phenotype. Human tubular cells (HK-2 were subjected to FSS (0.5 Pa for 48 h. Control cells were maintained under static conditions. Markers of tight junctions (Claudin-2, ZO-1, Par polarity complex (Pard6, adherens junctions (E-Cadherin, β-Catenin and the primary cilium (α-acetylated Tubulin were analysed by quantitative PCR, Western blot or immunocytochemistry. In response to FSS, Claudin-2 disappeared and ZO-1 displayed punctuated and discontinuous staining in the plasma membrane. Expression of Pard6 was also decreased. Moreover, E-Cadherin abundance was decreased, while its major repressors Snail1 and Snail2 were overexpressed, and β-Catenin staining was disrupted along the cell periphery. Finally, FSS subjected-cells exhibited disappeared primary cilium. Results were confirmed in vivo in a uninephrectomy (8 months mouse model where increased FSS induced by adaptive hyperfiltration in remnant kidney was accompanied by both decreased epithelial gene expression including ZO-1, E-cadherin and β-Catenin and disappearance of tubular cilia. In conclusion, these results show that proximal tubular cells lose an important number of their epithelial characteristics after long term exposure to FSS both in vitro and in vivo. Thus, the changes in urinary FSS associated with nephropathies should be considered as potential insults for tubular cells leading to disorganization of the tubular epithelium.

  4. Effects of acute ozone stress on reproductive traits of tomato, fruit yield and fruit composition

    OpenAIRE

    Vercambre, Gilles; Gautier, Helene; Gay, Frédéric; Phattaralerphong, Jessada; Kasemsap, Poonpipope

    2014-01-01

    Tomato is sensitive to ozone. Fruit growth and composition is altered under ozone stress by modification of reproductive development. . Fifty-one-day-old plants were exposed to three concentrations of ozone (200, 350 and 500 µg m(-3) ) for four hours. Ozone reduced well-developed fruit number and fruit size, but it did not significantly affect flowering rate and fruit setting rate. The effect of ozone depends on organ developmental stage at the time of ozone application, as flowers and you...

  5. Clinical evaluation of oxidative stress in patients with diabetes mellitus type II: Impact of acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exercise is a well recognized model of oxidative stress and, also, an important tool in diabetes management. The aim of our study was to evaluate oxidative stress in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 and to determine influence of acute exercise training on the investigated parameters. Methods. To evaluate oxidative stress in the patients, we determinated following parameters: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, oxidized LDL cholesterol (Ox LDL, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI which were measured at rest and immediately after the acute bout of cardiopulmonary exercise cycle-ergometer test. Results. In basal condition, diabetic patients compared to controls have significant higher values of TG (3.12 ± 1.09 vs 1.74 ± 0.9 mmol/L, p < 0.01, Ox LDL (84.73 ± 16.90 vs 79.00 ± 29.26 mmol/L, p < 0.05 and SOD enzyme activity (913.38 ± 120.36 vs 877.14 ± 153.18 U/g Hb, p < 0.05. During the acute exercise test, there was significant increase of Ox LDL in both the study patients (from 84.73 ± 16.90 to 92.33 ± 23.29 mmol/L, p < 0.05 and in the control group (from 79.00 ± 29.26 to 89.30 ± 29.07 mmol/L, p < 0.05. SOD activity was significantly increased in both groups during exercise, in diabetic patients from 913.38 ± 120.36 to 921.50 ± 130.03 U/gHb, p < 0.05, and in the controls from 877.14 ± 153.18 to 895.00 ± 193.49, U/gHb, p < 0.05. GSH-Px activity was significantly increased only in the diabetic patients after the acute exercise (from 45.04 ± 11.19 to 51.81 ± 15.07 U/gHb, p < 0.01, but not in the controls (from 44.63 ± 13.73 to 43.97 ± 25.97 U/gHb, p = ns. PAI significantly decreased during the exercise test, only in the healthy subjects (from 2.60 ± 0.35 to 2.22 ± 0.65, p < 0.05. Type 2 diabetic patients with complications had only significant increase in GSH-Px activity (from 47.10 ± 7.37 to 54.52 ± 11.97 U

  6. Acute effects of traditional Thai massage on cortisol levels, arterial blood pressure and stress perception in academic stress condition: A single blind randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Surussawadi; Bennett, Michael John; Chatchawan, Uraiwon; Jenjaiwit, Patcharaporn; Pantumethakul, Rungthip; Kunhasura, Soontorn; Eungpinichpong, Wichai

    2016-04-01

    Traditional Thai massage (TTM) has been applied widely to promote relaxation. However, there is little evidence to support its efficacy on academic stress. A randomised controlled trial was performed to examine the acute effects of TTM on cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception in academic stress. This prospective trial included 36 physiotherapy students with a self perceived stress score of between 3 and 5. They were randomly allocated into the TTM (18 people) group or the control group (18 people). Saliva cortisol level, blood pressure, heart rate and stress perception rating were measured before and after the intervention. Both groups showed a significant reduction in cortisol level and heart rate when compared with baseline (p stress of TTM.

  7. Prenatal stress alters diazepam withdrawal syndrome and 5HT1A receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakehayli, S; Said, N; El Khachibi, M; El Ouahli, M; Nadifi, S; Hakkou, F; Tazi, A

    2016-08-25

    Early-life events have long-term effects on brain structures and cause behavioral alterations that persist into adulthood. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of prenatal stress on diazepam-induced withdrawal syndrome and serotonin-1A (5HT1A) receptor expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. The results of the present study reveal that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress increased the anxiety-like behavior in the prenatally stressed (PS) animals withdrawn from chronic diazepam (2.5mg/kg/day i.p for 1week). Moreover, prenatal stress induced a down-regulation of 5HT1A mRNA in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate that maternal exposure to chronic footshock stress enhances diazepam withdrawal symptoms and alters 5HT1A receptor gene expression in the raphe nuclei of adult offspring. Thus, more studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms underlying the decrease of 5HT1A receptors expression in the raphe nuclei of PS rats. PMID:27235743

  8. Taxol inhibits stretch-induced electrophysiological alterations in isolated rat hearts with acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Mechanosensitive channels have been determined to work as transducers of mechanoelectric feedback in the heart, which is associated with the generation of arrhythmias. Recent studies have investigated the role of the cytoskeleton in ion channels control. This study explored the ability of taxol to inhibit stretch-induced electrophysiological alterations in the ischemic myocardium. Thirty-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group (n=9), taxol group (n=7), myocardial infarction (MI) group (n=9), and MI+taxol group (n=7). After Langendorff perfusion, the isolated hearts were stretched for 5 s by balloon inflation to 0.2 or 0.3 mL. The effects of stretching on 90% monophasic action potential duration (MAPD90), premature ventricular beats (PVB), and ventricular tachycardia (VT) were observed for 30 s. Stretching increased MAPD90 in both the normal control and MI groups, but MAPD90 increased more in the MI group for the same degree of stretch. Taxol (5 μmol L?1) had no effect on MAPD90 under baseline, unstretched conditions, but MAPD90 in the taxol group was slightly increased after stretching compared with the normal control group (P>0.05). However, taxol reduced MAPD90 in infarcted myocardium (P<0.05 at V=0.3 mL). The incidences of PVB and VT in the MI group were higher than in the normal control group (both P<0.01). Taxol had no effect on the occurrence of arrhythmias in normal myocardium, but it inhibited PVB and VT in infarcted hearts (both P<0.01). Thus changes in MAPD and the occurrence of arrhythmias caused by mechanical stretching of the myocardium could be inhibited by taxol in isolated rat hearts during AMI, indicating the involvement of tubulin in mechanoelectric feedback in AMI.

  9. "Stress" hyperglycaemia during acute myocardial infarction: an indicator of pre-existing diabetes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husband, D J; Alberti, K G; Julian, D G

    1983-07-23

    Hyperglycaemia occurring at admission in patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction is generally held to represent stress hyperglycaemia. 26 patients, not previously known to be diabetic, had blood glucose values greater than or equal to 10 mmol/l on admission to a coronary care unit. 16 survived for 2 months at which time a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) showed diabetes in 10 (63%) and impaired glucose tolerance in 1 (WHO criteria). All those with abnormal glucose tolerance at 2 months had had raised glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1) (greater than 7.5%) on admission, indicating pre-existing diabetes. All those with a HbA1 level over 8% had abnormal glucose tolerance. 7 of the 10 who died or did not have an OGTT also had raised HbA1 at admission. An admission blood glucose greater than or equal to 10 mmol/l in patients with severe chest pain is more likely to indicate previously undiagnosed diabetes than "stress" hyperglycaemia. There is no evidence that myocardial infarction precipitates diabetes. The glycosylated haemoglobin concentration can be used to distinguish between stress hyperglycaemia and hyperglycaemia caused by diabetes.

  10. Biochemical and histological evaluation of kidney damage after sub-acute exposure to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic herbicide in rats: involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayeb, Wafa; Nakbi, Amel; Trabelsi, Mounir; Miled, Abdelhedi; Hammami, Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of sub-acute exposure to different doses of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) on rat kidney. Forty animals were divided into four equal groups and treated with different doses of 2,4-D: 0, 15, 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight per day via oral gavage for 28 consecutive days. Renal function, histopathology, tissue malondialdehyde and antioxidant enzyme activities were evaluated. The results showed a significant decrease (p kidney MDA as compared to controls. The histopathological study revealed tubular damages, glomerular alterations, vascular congestion and increased number of pyknotic nuclei in kidneys of all 2,4-D treated groups. The severity of these alterations increase in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings confirm that sub-acute exposure to 2,4-D induced oxidative renal dysfunction in rats. Therefore, at higher doses, 2,4-D may be implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney failure via lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress.

  11. Role for MMP-9 in stress-induced downregulation of nectin-3 in hippocampal CA1 and associated behavioural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Michael A; Fantin, Martina; Rejmak, Emilia; Grosse, Jocelyn; Zanoletti, Olivia; Fournier, Celine; Ganguly, Krishnendu; Kalita, Katarzyna; Kaczmarek, Leszek; Sandi, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic stress is a risk factor for the development of psychopathologies characterized by cognitive dysfunction and deregulated social behaviours. Emerging evidence suggests a role for cell adhesion molecules, including nectin-3, in the mechanisms that underlie the behavioural effects of stress. We tested the hypothesis that proteolytic processing of nectins by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), an enzyme family that degrades numerous substrates, including cell adhesion molecules, is involved in hippocampal effects induced by chronic restraint stress. A reduction in nectin-3 in the perisynaptic CA1, but not in the CA3, compartment is observed following chronic stress and is implicated in the effects of stress in social exploration, social recognition and a CA1-dependent cognitive task. Increased MMP-9-related gelatinase activity, involving N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, is specifically found in the CA1 and involved in nectin-3 cleavage and chronic stress-induced social and cognitive alterations. Thus, MMP-9 proteolytic processing emerges as an important mediator of stress effects in brain function and behaviour. PMID:25232752

  12. Retrobulbar blood flow and visual field alterations after acute ethanol ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber A

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Anke Weber, Andreas Remky, Marion Bienert, Klaudia Huber-van der Velden, Thomas Kirschkamp, Corinna Rennings, Gernot Roessler, Niklas Plange Department of Ophthalmology, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany Background: The purpose of this study was to test the effect of ethyl alcohol on the koniocellular and magnocellular pathway of visual function and to investigate the relationship between such visual field changes and retrobulbar blood flow in healthy subjects. Methods: In 12 healthy subjects (mean age 32 ± 4 years, color Doppler imaging, short-wavelength automated perimetry, and frequency doubling perimetry was performed before and 60 minutes after oral intake of 80 mL of 40 vol% ethanol. Mean and pattern standard deviations for short-wavelength automated and frequency doubling perimetry were assessed. End diastolic velocity (EDV and peak systolic velocity (PSV were measured in the central retinal and ophthalmic arteries using color Doppler imaging. Systemic blood pressure, heart rate, intraocular pressure, and blood alcohol concentration were determined. Results: Mean PSV and EDV in the central retinal artery showed a significant increase after alcohol intake (P = 0.03 and P = 0.02, respectively. Similarly, we found a significant acceleration of blood flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (P = 0.02 for PSV; P = 0.04 for EDV. Mean intraocular pressure decreased by 1.0 mmHg after alcohol ingestion (P = 0.01. Retinal sensitivity in short-wavelength automated perimetry did not alter, whereas in frequency doubling perimetry, the mean deviation decreased significantly. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly. Mean blood alcohol concentration was 0.38 ± 0.16 g/L. Conclusion: Although ethanol is known to cause peripheral vasodilation, our subjects had no significant drop in systemic blood pressure. However, a significant increase of blood flow velocity was seen in the retrobulbar vessels. Regarding visual function

  13. Morphological and migratory alterations in retinal Müller cells during early stages of hypoxia and oxidative stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaohui Zhang; Zhaohui Feng; Chunhua Li; Yuping Zheng

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, retinal Müller cells were cultured in vitro and treated with hydrogen peroxide (oxidative stressor) and cobalt chloride (hypoxic injury). Following 24 hours of culture, compensatory hypertrophy was observed and cellular apoptosis increased. Hypoxia enhanced the migration ability of retinal Müller cells and induced the expression of α-smooth muscle actin. Oxidative stress altered the morphology of Müller cells when compared with hypoxia treatment.

  14. Changes of cytosolic [Ca2+]i in neutrophils in pancreatic microcirculation of rats with caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis under fluid shear stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong-Guang Zhou; You-Qin Chen; Xu-Bao Liu; Wei-Ming Hu; Bo-Le Tian; Huai-Qing Chen

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the fluid shear stress induced changes of [Ca2+]i in neutrophils in pancreatic microcirculation of experimental acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: Wistar rats (n = 36) were randomized into three groups. A model of AP was established by subcutaneous injection of caerulein. Low-shear 30 viscometer was used to provide steady fluid shear stress on separated neutrophils.The mean fluorescent intensity tested by flow cytometry was used as the indication of [Ca2+]i quantity.RESULTS: Under steady shear, cytosolic [Ca2+]i showed biphasic changes. The shear rate changed from low to high,[Ca2+]i in different groups decreased slightly and then increased gradually to a high level (P<0.05). A close correlation was observed between the cytosolic [Ca2+]i level and the alteration of fluid shear stress in regional microcirculation of AP.CONCLUSION: The increase of [Ca2+]i is highly related to the activation of neutrophils, which contributes to neutrophil adhesion to endothelium in the early phase of AP. The effect of fluid shear stress on [Ca2+]i may play a crucial role in pancreatic microcirculatory failure of AP.

  15. Chronic Psychosocial Factors and Acute Physiological Responses to Laboratory-Induced Stress in Healthy Populations: A Quantitative Review of 30 Years of Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chida, Yoichi; Hamer, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This meta-analysis included 729 studies from 161 articles investigating how acute stress responsivity (including stress reactivity and recovery of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal [HPA] axis, autonomic, and cardiovascular systems) changes with various chronic psychosocial exposures (job stress; general life stress; depression or hopelessness;…

  16. Dehydroepiandrosterone and Corticosterone Are Regulated by Season and Acute Stress in a Wild Songbird: Jugular Versus Brachial Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Amy E.M.; Pradhan, Devaleena S.; Soma, Kiran K.

    2008-01-01

    Stress has well-known effects on adrenal glucocorticoid secretion, and chronic elevation of glucocorticoids can have detrimental effects on the brain. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), an androgen precursor synthesized in the adrenal glands or the brain itself, has anti-glucocorticoid properties, but little is known about the role of DHEA in the stress response, particularly in the brain. Here, we measured the effects of acute restraint on circulating corticosterone (CORT) and DHEA levels in wil...

  17. Brain aromatase and circulating corticosterone are rapidly regulated by combined acute stress and sexual interaction in a sex specific manner

    OpenAIRE

    Dickens, M.J.; Balthazart, J.; Cornil, C. A.

    2012-01-01

    Neural production of 17β-oestradiol via aromatisation of testosterone may play a critical role in rapid, non-genomic regulation of physiological and behavioural processes. In brain nuclei implicated in the control of sexual behaviour, sexual or stressfull stimuli induce respectively a rapid inhibition or increase in preoptic aromatase activity (AA). Here, we tested quail that were either non-stressed or acutely stressed (15 min restraint) immediately prior to sexual interaction (5 min) with s...

  18. Vacuum-Cleaner Noise and Acute Stress Responses in Female C57BL/6 Mice (Mus musculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Kelly; Hahn, Nina E; Palme, Rupert; Saxton, Katherine; Francis, Darlene D.

    2010-01-01

    Audiogenic stress is a well-documented phenomenon in laboratory rodents. Despite the recommendation in the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals to consider noise a concern in the animal facility, only a small body of literature empirically addresses the effects of facility noise on laboratory rodents, particularly mice. The objective of this study was to determine whether facility noise generated by a vacuum cleaner induces an acute stress response in a commonly used strain of lab...

  19. The Stressed Female Brain: Neuronal activity in the prelimbic but not infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex suppresses learning after acute stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Y. Maeng

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Women are nearly twice as likely as men to suffer from anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, indicating that many females are especially vulnerable to stressful life experience. A profound sex difference in the response to stress is also observed in laboratory animals. Acute exposure to an uncontrollable stressful event disrupts associative learning during classical eyeblink conditioning in female rats but enhances this same type of learning process in males. These sex differences in response to stress are dependent on neuronal activity in similar but also different brain regions. Neuronal activity in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA is necessary in both males and females. However, neuronal activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC during the stressor is necessary to modify learning in females but not in males. The mPFC is often divided into its prelimbic (PL and infralimbic (IL subregions, which differ both in structure and function. Through its connections to the BLA, we hypothesized that neuronal activity within the PL, but not IL, during the stressor is necessary to suppress learning in females. To test this hypothesis, either the PL or IL of adult female rats was bilaterally inactivated with GABAA agonist muscimol during acute inescapable swim stress. 24h later, all subjects were trained with classical eyeblink conditioning. Though stressed, females without neuronal activity in the PL learned well. In contrast, females with IL inactivation during the stressor did not learn well, behaving similar to stressed vehicle-treated females. These data suggest that exposure to a stressful event critically engages the PL, but not IL, to disrupt associative learning in females. Together with previous studies, these data indicate that the PL communicates with the BLA to suppress learning after a stressful experience in females. This circuit may be similarly engaged in women who become cognitively impaired after stressful

  20. Interaction of prenatal stress and morphine alters prolactin and seizure in rat pups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saboory, Ehsan; Ebrahimi, Loghman; Roshan-Milani, Shiva; Hashemi, Paria

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to stress and morphine has complicated effects on epileptic seizure. In the present study, effect of prenatal forced-swim stress and morphine co-administration on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) induced epileptic behaviors and prolactin blood level (PBL) was investigated in rat offspring. Pregnant Wistar rats were divided to four groups of control-saline, control-morphine, stressed-saline and stressed-morphine. In the stressed group, pregnant rats were placed in 25°C water on gestation days 17, 18 and 19 (GD17, GD18 and GD19) for 30 min. In the morphine/saline group, pregnant rats received morphine (10, 12 and 15 mg/kg, IP, on GD17, GD18 and GD19, respectively) or saline (1 ml, IP). In the morphine/saline-stressed group, the rats received morphine or saline and then exposed to stress. On postnatal days 6 and 15 (P6 and P15), blood samples were obtained and PBL was determined. At P15 and P25, the rest of the pups was injected with PTZ to induce seizure. Then, epileptic behaviors of each rat were observed individually. Latency of first convulsion decreased in control-morphine and stressed-saline groups while increased in stressed-morphine rats compared to control-saline group on P15 (P=0.04). Number of tonic-clonic seizures significantly increased in control-morphine and stressed-saline rats compared to control-saline group at P15 (P=0.02). PBL increased in stressed-saline, control-morphine and stress-morphine groups compared to control-saline rats. It can be concluded that prenatal exposure of rats to forced-swim stress and morphine changed their susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure and PBL during infancy and prepubertal period. Co-administration of morphine attenuated effect of stress on epileptic behaviors.

  1. Functional Genomic Analysis of Variation on Beef Tenderness Induced by Acute Stress in Angus Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunping Zhao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the leading sources of protein, B vitamins, iron, and zinc in human food. Beef palatability is based on three general criteria: tenderness, juiciness, and flavor, of which tenderness is thought to be the most important factor. In this study, we found that beef tenderness, measured by the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF, was dramatically increased by acute stress. Microarray analysis and qPCR identified a variety of genes that were differentially expressed. Pathway analysis showed that these genes were involved in immune response and regulation of metabolism process as activators or repressors. Further analysis identified that these changes may be related with CpG methylation of several genes. Therefore, the results from this study provide an enhanced understanding of the mechanisms that genetic and epigenetic regulations control meat quality and beef tenderness.

  2. Femoral diaphyseal stress fracture as the initial presentation of acute leukaemia in an adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Helen Emily; Pang, Joe Hwong; Sanghrajka, Anish Pradip

    2016-01-01

    A 14-year-old boy was referred to the orthopaedic clinic by his general practitioner, reporting of a 6-week history of left thigh pain. Clinical examination was unremarkable. Radiographs demonstrated a periosteal reaction at the proximal femur. MRI scans demonstrated a stress fracture of the femur, with no associated sinister features and no evidence of a pathological lesion. As the fracture healed and symptoms improved, the patient became unwell with weight loss, lethargy, chest and jaw pain and fevers. After multiple blood tests over a 25-day period, including five full blood counts and two normal blood films, a third blood film finally demonstrated blasts in keeping with acute leukaemia. We discuss a literature review of musculoskeletal manifestations of leukaemia and the often atypical presentations found. PMID:27353177

  3. Neonatal exposure to benzo[a]pyrene induces oxidative stress causing altered hippocampal cytomorphometry and behavior during early adolescence period of male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhupesh; Das, Saroj Kumar; Das, Swagatika; Das, Lipsa; Patri, Manorama

    2016-05-01

    Environmental neurotoxicants like benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) have been well documented regarding their potential to induce oxidative stress. However, neonatal exposure to B[a]P and its subsequent effect on anti-oxidant defence system and hippocampal cytomorphometry leading to behavioral changes have not been fully elucidated. We investigated the effect of acute exposure of B[a]P on five days old male Wistar pups administered with single dose of B[a]P (0.2 μg/kg BW) through intracisternal mode. Control group was administered with vehicle i.e., DMSO and a separate group of rats without any treatment was taken as naive group. Behavioral analysis showed anxiolytic-like behavior with significant increase in time spent in open arm in elevated plus maze. Further, significant reduction in fall off time during rotarod test showing B[a]P induced locomotor hyperactivity and impaired motor co-ordination in adolescent rats. B[a]P induced behavioral changes were further associated with altered anti-oxidant defence system involving significant reduction in the total ATPase, Na(+) K(+) ATPase, Mg(2+) ATPase, GR and GPx activity with a significant elevation in the activity of catalase and GST as compared to naive and control groups. Cytomorphometry of hippocampus showed that the number of neurons and glia in B[a]P treated group were significantly reduced as compared to naive and control. Subsequent observation showed that the area and perimeter of hippocampus, hippocampal neurons and neuronal nucleus were significantly reduced in B[a]P treated group as compared to naive and control. The findings of the present study suggest that the alteration in hippocampal cytomorphometry and neuronal population associated with impaired antioxidant signaling and mood in B[a]P treated group could be an outcome of neuromorphological alteration leading to pyknotic cell death or impaired differential migration of neurons during early postnatal brain development. PMID:26946409

  4. Characterisation of acute toxicity, genotoxicity and oxidative stress posed by textile effluent on zebrafish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjuan Zhang; Wei Liu; Jing Zhang; Huimin Zhao; Yaobin Zhang; Xie Quan; Yihe Jin

    2012-01-01

    Textile industries are important sources of toxic discharges and contribute enormously to water deterioration,while little attention has been paid to the toxicity of textile effluents in discharge regulation.Bioassays with zebrafish were employed to evaluate the toxicity of wastewater samples collected from different stages at a textile factory and sewage treatment plants (STPs).Physico-chemical parameters,acute toxicity,genotoxicity and oxidative stress biomarkers were analyzed.The wastewater samples from bleaching,rinsing and soaping of the textile factory exhibited high acute toxicity and genotoxicity.The coexisting components of dye compounds,as assistants and oxidants,seemed to cause some effect on the toxic response.After treatment employing the anoxic-oxic (A/O) process in STPs,the color and the chemical oxygen demand (COD) were reduced by 40% and 84%,respectively,falling within the criteria of the Chinese Sewage Discharge Standard.In contrast,increases in acute toxicity and genotoxicity were observed in the anaerobic tank,indicating the formation of toxic intermediates.The genotoxicity of the effluent of the STP was not significantly different from that of the influent,suggesting the wastewater treatment processes were not effective in removing the genotoxicity of the dye wastewater.Results indicated that the effluent contains pro-oxidants since the activities of glutathione (GSH),malondialdehyde (MDA),and total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC) were all elevated.In addition,decreases in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) activities observed can be interpreted as a cytotoxicity sign due to an over-production of reactive oxygen species (ROS).The results of the present study suggest that the STPs were not capable of reducing the toxicity of wastewater sufficiently.Further treatment is needed to remove the potential risks posed by textile effluent to ecosystems and human health,and employing a toxicity index is necessary for

  5. S-nitroso-proteome in poplar leaves in response to acute ozone stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Vanzo

    Full Text Available Protein S-nitrosylation, the covalent binding of nitric oxide (NO to protein cysteine residues, is one of the main mechanisms of NO signaling in plant and animal cells. Using a combination of the biotin switch assay and label-free LC-MS/MS analysis, we revealed the S-nitroso-proteome of the woody model plant Populus x canescens. Under normal conditions, constitutively S-nitrosylated proteins in poplar leaves and calli comprise all aspects of primary and secondary metabolism. Acute ozone fumigation was applied to elicit ROS-mediated changes of the S-nitroso-proteome. This treatment changed the total nitrite and nitrosothiol contents of poplar leaves and affected the homeostasis of 32 S-nitrosylated proteins. Multivariate data analysis revealed that ozone exposure negatively affected the S-nitrosylation status of leaf proteins: 23 proteins were de-nitrosylated and 9 proteins had increased S-nitrosylation content compared to the control. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase 2 (log2[ozone/control] = -3.6 and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase (-3.4, key enzymes catalyzing important steps in the phenylpropanoid and subsequent lignin biosynthetic pathways, respectively, were de-nitrosylated upon ozone stress. Measuring the in vivo and in vitro phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity indicated that the increase of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity in response to acute ozone is partly regulated by de-nitrosylation, which might favor a higher metabolic flux through the phenylpropanoid pathway within minutes after ozone exposure.

  6. OPTICAL IMAGING OF LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS IN ACUTE LUNG INJURY FROM HYPEROXIA AND SEPSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Audi, Said H; Maleki, Sepideh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Eis, Annie L; Konduri, Girija G; Ranji, Mahsa

    2013-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many acute and chronic pulmonary disorders such as acute lung injury (ALI) in adults and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in premature infants. Bacterial infection and oxygen toxicity, which result in pulmonary vascular endothelial injury, contribute to impaired vascular growth and alveolar simplification seen in the lungs of premature infants with BPD. Hyperoxia induces ALI, reduces cell proliferation, causes DNA damage and promotes cell death by causing mitochondrial dysfunction. The objective of this study was to use an optical imaging technique to evaluate the variations in fluorescence intensities of the auto-fluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes, NADH and FAD in four different groups of rats. The ratio of these fluorescence signals (NADH/FAD), referred to as NADH redox ratio (NADH RR) has been used as an indicator of tissue metabolism in injuries. Here, we investigated whether the changes in metabolic state can be used as a marker of oxidative stress caused by hyperoxia and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure in neonatal rat lungs. We examined the tissue redox states of lungs from four groups of rat pups: normoxic (21% O2) pups, hyperoxic (90% O2) pups, pups treated with LPS (normoxic + LPS), and pups treated with LPS and hyperoxia (hyperoxic + LPS). Our results show that hyperoxia oxidized the respiratory chain as reflected by a ~31% decrease in lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic lungs. LPS treatment alone or with hyperoxia had no significant effect on lung tissue NADH RR as compared to that for normoxic or hyperoxic lungs, respectively. Thus, NADH RR serves as a quantitative marker of oxidative stress level in lung injury caused by two clinically important conditions: hyperoxia and LPS exposure.

  7. Differences in gene expression and alterations in cell cycle of acute myeloid leukemia cell lines after treatment with JAK inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunerka, Pawel; Dymek, Barbara; Stanczak, Aleksandra; Bujak, Anna; Grygielewicz, Paulina; Turowski, Pawel; Dzwonek, Karolina; Lamparska-Przybysz, Monika; Pietrucha, Tadeusz; Wieczorek, Maciej

    2015-10-15

    Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitors are a promising treatment strategy in several hematological malignancies and autoimmune diseases. A number of inhibitors are in clinical development, and two have already reached the market. Unfortunately, all of them are burdened with different toxicity profiles. To check if the JAK inhibitors of different selectivity evoke different responses on JAK2-dependent and independent cells, we have used three acute myeloid leukemia cell lines with confirmed JAK2 mutation status. We have found that JAK inhibitors exert distinct effect on the expression of BCLXL, CCND1 and c-MYC genes, regulated by JAK pathway, in JAK2 wild type cells in comparison to JAK2 V617F-positive cell lines. Moreover, cell cycle analysis showed that inhibitors alter the cycle by arresting cells in different phases. Our results suggest that observed effect of JAK2 inhibitors on transcription and cell cycle level in different cell lines are associated not with activity within JAK family, but presumably with other off-target activities. PMID:26300391

  8. Impact of physical activity on energy balance, food intake and choice in normal weight and obese children in the setting of acute social stress: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Horsch A.; Wobmann M.; Kriemler S.; Munsch S.; Borloz S.; Balz A.; Marques-Vidal P.; Borghini A.; Puder J. J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Psychological stress negatively influences food intake and food choices, thereby contributing to the development of childhood obesity. Physical activity can also moderate eating behavior and influence calorie intake. However, it is unknown if acute physical activity influences food intake and overall energy balance after acute stress exposure in children. We therefore investigated the impact of acute physical activity on overall energy balance (food intake minus energy expenditure...

  9. Algorithms Based on CWT and Classifiers to Control Cardiac Alterations and Stress Using an ECG and a SCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaia Méndez Zorrilla

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT and J48 have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%, arrhythmia (93.48% and extrasystoles (99.29%. The detection of stress level is complemented with Skin Conductance Response (SCR, whose success is 94.02%. The heart rate variability does not show added value to the stress detection in this case. With this pulsimeter, it is possible to prevent and detect anomalies for a non-intrusive way associated to a telemedicine system. It is also possible to use it during physical activity due to the fact the CWT minimizes the motion artifacts.

  10. Algorithms based on CWT and classifiers to control cardiac alterations and stress using an ECG and a SCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarejo, María Viqueira; Zapirain, Begoña García; Zorrilla, Amaia Méndez

    2013-05-10

    This paper presents the results of using a commercial pulsimeter as an electrocardiogram (ECG) for wireless detection of cardiac alterations and stress levels for home control. For these purposes, signal processing techniques (Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT) and J48) have been used, respectively. The designed algorithm analyses the ECG signal and is able to detect the heart rate (99.42%), arrhythmia (93.48%) and extrasystoles (99.29%). The detection of stress level is complemented with Skin Conductance Response (SCR), whose success is 94.02%. The heart rate variability does not show added value to the stress detection in this case. With this pulsimeter, it is possible to prevent and detect anomalies for a non-intrusive way associated to a telemedicine system. It is also possible to use it during physical activity due to the fact the CWT minimizes the motion artifacts.

  11. Classification of acute stress using linear and non-linear heart rate variability analysis derived from sternal ECG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tanev, George; Saadi, Dorthe Bodholt; Hoppe, Karsten;

    2014-01-01

    features from electrocardiograms (ECG) acquired by the wireless wearable ePatch® recorder. The highest recognition rates were acquired for the neutral stage (90%), the acute stress stage (80%) and the baseline stage (80%) by sample entropy, detrended fluctuation analysis and normalized high frequency...

  12. Acute Exposure to Stress Improves Performance in Trace Eyeblink Conditioning and Spatial Learning Tasks in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncko, Roman; Cornwell, Brian; Cui, Lihong; Merikangas, Kathleen R.; Grillon, Christian

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of acute stress exposure on learning performance in humans using analogs of two paradigms frequently used in animals. Healthy male participants were exposed to the cold pressor test (CPT) procedure, i.e., insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60 sec. Following the CPT or the control procedure,…

  13. Locus of Control Predicts Cortisol Reactivity and Speech Performance in Response to Acute Stress in Undergraduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Yvette Z.; Chang, Andrew; Chancellor-Freeland, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have found that an individual's perception of control in a situation (Locus of Control; LOC) can serve as a protective factor that has physiological and psychological benefits. The present study examines LOC in an acute stress paradigm to examine the relationship between LOC and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning as…

  14. Maternal postnatal depression predicts altered offspring biological stress reactivity in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Barry, Tom J.; Murray, Lynne; Fearon, R. M. Pasco; Moutsiana, Christina; Cooper, Peter; Goodyer, Ian M.; Herbert, Joe; Halligan, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary The offspring of depressed parents have been found to show elevated basal levels of the stress hormone cortisol. Whether heightened cortisol stress reactivity is also present in this group has yet to be clearly demonstrated. We tested whether postnatal maternal depression predicts subsequent increases in offspring biological sensitivity to social stress, as indexed by elevated cortisol reactivity. Participants (mean age 22.4-years) derived from a 22-year prospective longitudinal study...

  15. Rest/stress myocardial perfusion imaging: A means to prevent missed acute ischemic coronary syndrome diagnoses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: The sensitivity and specificity of rest/stress (R/S) myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in detecting an acute ischemic coronary syndrome (AICS) was determined in 100 consecutive patients (pts) admitted to the Chest Pain Clinic-Observation Unit (CPC-OU) with chest pain (CP) of suspected cardiac etiology and a negative (neg) or non diagnostic (dx) EKG. There were 57 females and 43 males, 30-83 years of age. 50 studies were performed from 1/15/98 to 4/2/98; 50 from 11/19/99 to 1/10/00. Material and Methods: An AICS was deemed present if a reversible perfusion defect was demonstrated scintigraphically; a ?50% luminal narrow angiographically. No AICS if the pt had a normal R/S MPI, a fixed defect with normal wall motion and thickening, a neg cardiac catheterization, or was free of cardiac symptoms and had no history of a vascular event for 2-3 years post CPC-OU admission. 13 pts with a positive MPI had a cardiac catheterization, none with a neg MPI. SPECT rest MPI's were performed 30-90 minutes (mins) post 10.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. SPECT stress MPI's were performed following a 6-8 hour acute myocardial infarction enzyme (CP-MB/Troponin 1) rule out and 30-90 mins post 30.0 mCi of technetium 99m Sestamibi. Results: 29 pts were lost to follow-up. There were 12 true positive, 5 false positive, 54 true negative and 0 false negative studies. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of a R/S MPI in detecting an AICS is 100%, 91%, 70% and 100%, respectively. An AICS was detected in 12% of pts admitted to the CPC-OU; a finding that correlates with its reported incidence of 2-12%. 6 were managed medically, 3 required emergent bypass surgery, 3 were stented. Conclusion: R/S MPI should be included in the CPC-OU dx work-up of pts with CP of suspected cardiac etiology to prevent missed AICS diagnoses. Patient care will be optimized and health care and medical malpractice awards for failure to diagnosis an acute myocardial infarction

  16. Understanding low reliability of memories for neutral information encoded under stress: alterations in memory-related activation in the hippocampus and midbrain.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to an acute stressor can lead to unreliable remembrance of intrinsically neutral information, as exemplified by low reliability of eyewitness memories, which stands in contrast with enhanced memory for the stressful incident itself. Stress-sensitive neuromodulators (e.g., catecholamines) ar

  17. Time-Course Changes of Steroidogenic Gene Expression and Steroidogenesis of Rat Leydig Cells after Acute Immobilization Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Lin

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Leydig cells secrete testosterone, which is essential for male fertility and reproductive health. Stress increases the secretion of glucocorticoid (corticosterone, CORT; in rats, which decreases circulating testosterone levels in part through a direct action by binding to the glucocorticoid receptors (NR3C1 in Leydig cells. The intratesticular CORT level is dependent on oxidative inactivation of glucocorticoid by 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1 in Leydig cells. In the present study, we investigated the time-course changes of steroidogenic gene expression levels after acute immobilization stress in rats. The plasma CORT levels were significantly increased 0.5, 1, 3 and 6 h after immobilization stress, while plasma testosterone levels were significantly reduced 3 and 6 h, after stress and luteinizing hormone (LH did not change. Immobilization stress caused the down-regulation of Scarb1, Star and Cyp17a1 expression levels in the rat testis starting at the first hour of stress, ahead of the significant decreases of plasma testosterone levels. Other mRNA levels, including Cyp11a1, Hsd3b1 and Hsd17b3, began to decline after 3 h. Hsd11b1 and Nos2 mRNA levels did not change during the course of stress. Administration of glucocorticoid antagonist RU486 significantly restored plasma testosterone levels. In conclusion, Scarb1, Star and Cyp17a1 expression levels are more sensitive to acute stress, and acute immobilization stress causes the decline of the steroidogenic pathway via elevating the levels of glucocorticoid, which binds to NR3C1 in Leydig cells to inhibit steroidogenic gene expression.

  18. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress.

  19. Acute social stress before the planning phase improves memory performance in a complex real life-related prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glienke, Katharina; Piefke, Martina

    2016-09-01

    Successful execution of intentions, but also the failure to recall are common phenomena in everyday life. The planning, retention, and realization of intentions are often framed as the scientific concept of prospective memory. The current study aimed to examine the influence of acute stress on key dimensions of complex "real life" prospective memory. To this end, we applied a prospective memory task that involved the planning, retention, and performance of intentions during a fictional holiday week. Forty healthy males participated in the study. Half of the subjects were stressed with the Socially Evaluated Cold Pressor Test (SECPT) before the planning of intentions, and the other half of the participants underwent a control procedure at the same time. Salivary cortisol was used to measure the effectiveness of the SECPT stress induction. Stressed participants did not differ from controls in planning accuracy. However, when we compared stressed participants with controls during prospective memory retrieval, we found statistically significant differences in PM across the performance phase. Participants treated with the SECPT procedure before the planning phase showed improved prospective memory retrieval over time, while performance of controls declined. Particularly, there was a significant difference between the stress and control group for the last two days of the holiday week. Interestingly, control participants showed significantly better performance for early than later learned items, which could be an indicator of a primacy effect. This differential effect of stress on performance was also found in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our results demonstrate for the first time, that acute stress induced before the planning phase may improve prospective memory over the time course of the performance phase in time- and event-dependent prospective memory. Our data thus indicate that prospective memory can be enhanced by acute stress. PMID:27370532

  20. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE AND CHRONIC STRESS ON ERYTHROCYTE DYNAMIC IN COMBINATION WITH ß–ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS BLOCKADE IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hritcu

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available : 3 consecutive days propranolol hydrochloride administration (5 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneous injections under acute and chronic stress conditions causes changes of peripheral erythrocyte distribution in rats. The effects of acute stress and its combination with ȕ-adrenergic receptor blockade on erythrocyte dynamic were more pregnant beside the effects of chronic stress and its combination with ȕ-adrenergic receptor blockade, respectively. ȕ-adrenergic mechanisms were shown to be involved in regulation of erythrocyte dynamic in acute and chronic stress response.

  1. Facilitation of the HPA Axis to a Novel Acute Stress Following Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Histone Acetylation and the ERK/MAPK Pathway in the Dentate Gyrus of Male Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ferland, Chantelle L.; Harris, Erin P.; Lam, Mai; Schrader, Laura A.

    2014-01-01

    Evidence suggests that when presented with novel acute stress, animals previously exposed to chronic homotypic or heterotypic stressors exhibit normal or enhanced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) response compared with animals exposed solely to that acute stressor. The molecular mechanisms involved in this effect remain unknown. The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) is one of the key pathways regulated in the hippocampus in both acute and chronic stress. The aim of this study wa...

  2. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  3. The impact of acute stress on hormones and cytokines, and how their recovery is affected by music-evoked positive mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koelsch, Stefan; Boehlig, Albrecht; Hohenadel, Maximilian; Nitsche, Ines; Bauer, Katrin; Sack, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Stress and recovery from stress significantly affect interactions between the central nervous system, endocrine pathways, and the immune system. However, the influence of acute stress on circulating immune-endocrine mediators in humans is not well known. Using a double-blind, randomized study design, we administered a CO2 stress test to n = 143 participants to identify the effects of acute stress, and recovery from stress, on serum levels of several mediators with immune function (IL-6, TNF-α, leptin, and somatostatin), as well as on noradrenaline, and two hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis hormones (ACTH and cortisol). Moreover, during a 1 h-recovery period, we repeatedly measured these serum parameters, and administered an auditory mood-induction protocol with positive music and a neutral control stimulus. The acute stress elicited increases in noradrenaline, ACTH, cortisol, IL-6, and leptin levels. Noradrenaline and ACTH exhibited the fastest and strongest stress responses, followed by cortisol, IL-6 and leptin. The music intervention was associated with more positive mood, and stronger cortisol responses to the acute stressor in the music group. Our data show that acute (CO2) stress affects endocrine, immune and metabolic functions in humans, and they show that mood plays a causal role in the modulation of responses to acute stress. PMID:27020850

  4. Acute predator stress impairs the consolidation and retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory in male and female rats

    OpenAIRE

    Collin R Park; Zoladz, Phillip R.; Conrad, Cheryl D.; Fleshner, Monika; Diamond, David M

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the effects of an acute predator stress experience on spatial learning and memory in adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. All rats were trained to learn the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze (RAWM), a hippocampus-dependent spatial memory task. In the control (non-stress) condition, female rats were superior to the males in the accuracy and consistency of their spatial memory performance tested over multiple days of training. In the stress ...

  5. von Willebrand Factor and Oxidative Stress Parameters in Acute Coronary Syndromes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Koprivica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the role of von Willebrand factor (vWf in hemostasis, and the role of oxidative stress in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic disease, the aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between vWf, parameters of oxidative stress and different types of acute coronary syndromes (ACS. Levels of vWf activity (vWfAct, vWf antigen (vWfAg, nitric oxide (estimated through nitrites–NO2 −, superoxide anion radical (O2 −, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, index of lipid peroxidation (estimated through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances–TBARS, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity of 115 patients were compared with those of 40 healthy controls. ACS patients had significantly higher vWfAct and vWfAg levels, as well as TBARS levels, while their levels of NO2 −, H2O2, SOD and CAT activities were lower than controls'. vWfAg showed high specificity and sensitivity as a test to reveal healthy or diseased subjects. Multivariant logistic regression marked only vWfAg and TBARS as parameters that were under independent effect of ACS type. The results of our study support the implementation of vWf in clinical rutine and into therapeutic targets, and suggest that ACS patients are in need of antioxidant supplementation to improve their impaired antioxidant defence.

  6. Von Willebrand factor and oxidative stress parameters in acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprivica, Zoran; Djordjevic, Dusica; Vuletic, Milena; Zivkovic, Vladimir; Barudzic, Nevena; Andjelkovic, Nebojsa; Djuric, Dragan; Iric-Cupic, Violeta; Krkeljic, Jelena; Jakovljevic, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Considering the role of von Willebrand factor (vWf) in hemostasis, and the role of oxidative stress in the development of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic disease, the aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between vWf, parameters of oxidative stress and different types of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Levels of vWf activity (vWfAct), vWf antigen (vWfAg), nitric oxide (estimated through nitrites-NO(2)-), superoxide anion radical (O(2)-), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), index of lipid peroxidation (estimated through thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activity of 115 patients were compared with those of 40 healthy controls. ACS patients had significantly higher vWfAct and vWfAg levels, as well as TBARS levels, while their levels of NO(2)-, H2O2, SOD and CAT activities were lower than controls'. vWfAg showed high specificity and sensitivity as a test to reveal healthy or diseased subjects. Multivariant logistic regression marked only vWfAg and TBARS as parameters that were under independent effect of ACS type. The results of our study support the implementation of vWf in clinical rutine and into therapeutic targets, and suggest that ACS patients are in need of antioxidant supplementation to improve their impaired antioxidant defence.

  7. Cortisol response to acute stress in asthma: Moderation by depressive mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueba, Ana F; Simon, Erica; Auchus, Richard J; Ritz, Thomas

    2016-05-15

    Both individuals with asthma and depression show signs of a dysregulated hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, little is known about the cortisol response to stress in the context of co-occurring asthma and depressive mood. Thirty-nine individuals with asthma and 41 healthy controls underwent a combined speech and mental arithmetic stressor. During the course of the laboratory session, salivary cortisol was collected 5 times, with 1 sample at 0min before the stressor and 4 samples at 0, 15, 30 and 45min after the stressor. Depressive mood in the past week was assessed with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at the beginning of the session. Depressive symptoms moderated cortisol response to the acute stressor, but only among asthmatic patients. Higher depressive mood was associated with a significant increase in cortisol, whereas low depressive mood was associated with no cortisol response. In healthy participants, depressive mood had no substantial effect on cortisol response to the stressor. These findings suggest that depressive mood and chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma can interact to augment cortisol response to stress.

  8. Effect of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, E; Carrier, J; Cullen, J; Tischler, M; Allard, J P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal iron dextran (100 mg/100 g body weight) on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium. In both colitis and healthy animals, disease activity index, crypt and inflammatory scores, colon length, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides, and plasma vitamins E, C, and retinol were assessed. The results showed that iron-supplemented groups had moderate iron deposition in the colonic submucosa and lamina propria. In the colitis group supplemented with iron, colon length was significantly shorter; disease activity index, crypt, and inflammatory scores and colonic lipid peroxides were significantly higher; and plasma alpha-tocopherol was significantly lower compared to the colitis group without iron supplementation. There was no intestinal inflammation and no significant increase in colonic lipid peroxides in healthy rats supplemented with iron. In conclusion, iron injection resulted in an increased oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with colitis but not in healthy rats. PMID:11341654

  9. Effects of Breaking Sitting by Standing and Acute Exercise on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Sedentary behavior, which includes sitting and TV viewing, has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breaking sedentary behavior improves metabolic health such as postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Objectives Here, we examined whether breaking sitting by standing and acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress. Patient and Methods Fifteen participants performed 3 trials (sitting, standing, and exercise, each lasting 2 days, in a randomised order. On day one of sitting trial, participants sat in a chair. For the standing trial, the participants stood 6 times, for a 45-minute period each time. For the exercise trial, the participants walked or ran at approximately 60% of age-predicted maximum heart rate for 30 minutes. On day two of each trial, participants rested and consumed the standardised breakfast and lunch. Blood samples were collected in the morning and afternoon on day one, and fasting and at 2, 4, and 6 hours postprandially on day two. Results The concentrations of serum derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs measured at 4 hours (P = 0.064 and 6 hours (P = 0.071 tended to be higher than that in the fasting state in the sitting trial, but not standing and exercise trial (two-factor analysis of variance (ANOVA, trial × time interaction, P = 0.006. Conclusions Our results indicate the importance of reducing sitting time for improving postprandial oxidative stress status.

  10. Ulinastatin suppresses endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats with acute paraquat poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-feng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lung injury is the main manifestation of paraquat poisoning. Few studies have addressed brain damage after paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin is a protease inhibitor that can effectively stabilize lysosomal membranes, prevent cell damage, and reduce the production of free radicals. This study assumed that ulinastatin would exert these effects on brain tissues that had been poisoned with paraquat. Rat models of paraquat poisoning were intraperitoneally injected with ulinastatin. Simultaneously, rats in the control group were administered normal saline. Hematoxylin-eosin staining showed that most hippocampal cells were contracted and nucleoli had disappeared in the paraquat group. Fewer cells in the hippocampus were concentrated and nucleoli had disappeared in the ulinastatin group. Western blot assay showed that expressions of GRP78 and cleaved-caspase-3 were significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Immunohistochemical findings showed that CHOP immunoreactivity was significantly lower in the ulinastatin group than in the paraquat group. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling staining showed that the number of apoptotic cells was reduced in the paraquat and ulinastatin groups. These data confirmed that endoplasmic reticular stress can be induced by acute paraquat poisoning. Ulinastatin can effectively inhibit this stress as well as cell apoptosis, thereby exerting a neuroprotective effect.

  11. Prenatal Transportation Stress Alters Temperament and Serum Cortisol Concentrations in Suckling Brahman Calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This experiment examined the relationship between prenatal stress and subsequent calf temperament through weaning. The prenatal stressor utilized was repeated transportation of pregnant Brahman cows for 2 hours at 60, 80, 100, 120, and 140 days of gestation. Prenatally stressed calves (n = 41) were ...

  12. Morphological and biological alteration of maize root architectures on drought stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drought tolerance is a complex agronomic trait and root characteristics logically play an important role in determining the response of plants to drought stress. Studies were conducted to investigate genotypic variations in morphological and physiological responses of roots to drought stress in corn...

  13. Anatomical Alteration in Response to Irrigation and Water Stress in Some Legume Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel, C. G.; Al-Rawi, Iqbal Murad Thahir

    2011-01-01

    Anatomical alteration of leaf tissues components were investigated in regards to adequate and inadequate watering in Mungbean, Vetch and three Lentil cultivars namely Baraka, Adlib and Nineveh. The possibility of mitigating the alteration of these adversities by the aid of GA3 was also investigated. Lentil plants irrigated by 50% level appeared to be the most effective treatment. This treatment manifested the best results as it exceeded that of 75% level in terms of cuticle thickness (69.3%),...

  14. Neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase upregulation in the rat medial prefrontal cortex following acute restraint stress: A dataset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jereme G. Spiers

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This data article provides additional evidence on gene expression changes in the neuronal and inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase in the medial prefrontal cortex following acute stress. Male Wistar rats aged 6–8 weeks were exposed to control or restraint stress conditions for up to four hours in the dark cycle after which the brain was removed and the medial prefrontal cortex isolated by cryodissection. Following RNA extraction and cDNA synthesis, gene expression data were measured using quantitative real-time PCR. The mRNA levels of the neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthase isoforms, and the inhibitory subunit of NF-κB, I kappa B alpha were determined using the ΔΔCT method relative to control animals. This data article presents complementary results related to the research article entitled ‘Acute restraint stress induces specific changes in nitric oxide production and inflammatory markers in the rat hippocampus and striatum’ [1].

  15. Consequences of acclimation on the resistance to acute thermal stress: Proteomic focus on mussels from pristine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péden, Romain; Rocher, Béatrice; Chan, Philippe; Vaudry, David; Poret, Agnès; Olivier, Stéphanie; Le Foll, Frank; Bultelle, Florence

    2016-10-01

    Climate change constitutes an additional threat for intertidal species that already have to cope with a challenging environment. The present study focuses on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and aims at investigating the importance of thermal acclimation in heat stress response. Microcosm exposures were performed with mussels submitted to an identical acute thermal stress following two thermal summer acclimations standing for present or future temperature conditions. Gill proteomes were analyzed by 2DE and 96 differentially expressed proteoforms were identified. Our results show that cell integrity appears to be maintained by the rise in molecular protective systems (i.e. Heat Shock Proteins), and by the reallocation of energy production via a switch to anaerobic metabolism and the setting up of alternative energy pathways. Finally, our results indicate that the response of mussels to acute thermal stress is conditioned by the acclimation temperature with an improved response in organisms acclimated to higher temperatures.

  16. Consequences of acclimation on the resistance to acute thermal stress: Proteomic focus on mussels from pristine site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péden, Romain; Rocher, Béatrice; Chan, Philippe; Vaudry, David; Poret, Agnès; Olivier, Stéphanie; Le Foll, Frank; Bultelle, Florence

    2016-10-01

    Climate change constitutes an additional threat for intertidal species that already have to cope with a challenging environment. The present study focuses on the blue mussel Mytilus edulis and aims at investigating the importance of thermal acclimation in heat stress response. Microcosm exposures were performed with mussels submitted to an identical acute thermal stress following two thermal summer acclimations standing for present or future temperature conditions. Gill proteomes were analyzed by 2DE and 96 differentially expressed proteoforms were identified. Our results show that cell integrity appears to be maintained by the rise in molecular protective systems (i.e. Heat Shock Proteins), and by the reallocation of energy production via a switch to anaerobic metabolism and the setting up of alternative energy pathways. Finally, our results indicate that the response of mussels to acute thermal stress is conditioned by the acclimation temperature with an improved response in organisms acclimated to higher temperatures. PMID:26972988

  17. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Young and Aged Rats after Acute Homocysteine Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Sorina CĂTANĂ

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hyperhomocysteinemia plays an etiologic role in homocystinuria, neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Potential mechanisms involved in the degenerative diseases of aging include: oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and inflammation. Aim: In the present study we evaluated the effect of acute administration of homocysteine (Hcy, at a level similar to that found in homocystinuria, on biochemical markers of inflammation (such as IL-6 and of oxidative stress (such as gluthathione peroxidase - GPx. Material and Method: The study was performed on 40 young and older Wistar rats. IL-6 serum level was quantified by a high-sensitivity enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA method and the activity of whole blood GPx was measured using a commercially available Randox kit. Results: Our results showed that Hcy administration increased the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 in young rats (p<0.3 and decreased IL-6 level in older rats (p<0.008, when compared to the control group. GPx activity was found to increase with age (587.07 U/gHb versus 847.5 U/gHb, p<0.001. Two hours after Hcy administration, GPx activity was found to decrease, but not in a statistically significant manner. The difference between GPx activities in Hcy treated groups remains statistically significant (p<0.01 in the younger group, compared to older group (556.62 U/gHb versus 748.38 U/gHb. Conclusion: Our results indicate the existence of a correlation between hyperhomocysteinemia, proinflammatory state and oxidative stress, illustrated by the direct dependence of whole blood GPx activities on the increasing age.

  18. Intrathecal Clonidine Pump Failure Causing Acute Withdrawal Syndrome With 'Stress-Induced' Cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hwee Min D; Ruggoo, Varuna; Graudins, Andis

    2016-03-01

    Clonidine is a central alpha(2)-agonist antihypertensive used widely for opioid/alcohol withdrawal, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and chronic pain management. We describe a case of clonidine withdrawal causing life-threatening hypertensive crisis and stress-induced cardiomyopathy. A 47-year-old man with chronic back pain, treated with clonidine for many years via intrathecal pump (550 mcg/24 h), presented following a collapse and complaining of sudden worsening of back pain, severe headache, diaphoresis, nausea and vomiting. A few hours prior to presentation, his subcutaneous pump malfunctioned. On presentation, vital signs included pulse 100 bpm, BP 176/103 mmHg, temperature 37.8 °C and O2 saturation 100 % (room air). Acute clonidine withdrawal with hypertensive crisis was suspected. Intravenous clonidine loading dose and a 50 mcg/h infusion were commenced. Five hours later, severe chest pain, dyspnoea, tachycardia, hypoxia, with BP 180/120 mmHg and pulmonary edema ensued. ECG showed sinus tachycardia with no ST elevation. Repeated intravenous clonidine doses were given (25 mcg every 5-10 min), with ongoing clonidine infusion to control blood pressure. Glyceryl trinitrate infusion, positive pressure ventilation and intravenous benzodiazepines were added. Bedside echocardiogram showed stress-induced cardiomyopathy pattern. Serum troponin-I was markedly elevated. His coronary angiography showed minor irregularities in the major vessels. Over the next 3 days in the ICU, drug infusions were weaned. Discharge was 12 days later on oral clonidine, metoprolol, perindopril, aspirin and oxycodone-SR. Two months later, his echocardiogram was normal. The intrathecal pump was removed. We report a case of stress-induced cardiomyopathy resulting from the sudden cessation of long-term intrathecal clonidine. This was managed by re-institution of clonidine and targeted organ-specific therapies. PMID:26370679

  19. Cinnamon (Cinnamomum sp.) inclusion in diets for Nile tilapia submitted to acute hypoxic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Dos Santos, Welliene; S de Brito, Túlio; de A Prado, Samuel; G de Oliveira, Camila; C De Paula, Andréia; C de Melo, Daniela; A P Ribeiro, Paula

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of diets supplemented with probiotics and different cinnamon levels (powder and essential oil) on immunological parameters of Nile tilapia after being subjected to acute stress by hypoxia. Three hundred and thirty juvenile male tilapia fish (66.08 ± 2.79 g) were distributed in 30 tanks of 100 L capacity (11/cage) with a water recirculation system. The animals were fed for 71 days with diets containing extruded cinnamon powder at different levels (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2%), cinnamon essential oil (0.05, 0.1, 0.15; 0.2%) and probiotics (0.4%), all in triplicate. At the end of the experiment, the fish (200.36 ± 19.88 g) of the different groups were subjected to stress by hypoxia. Hypoxia was achieved by capturing the animals with a net, keeping them out of the water for three minutes, and then sampling the blood 30 min after the procedure to determine the levels of cortisol, glucose, haematocrit, lysozyme, bactericidal index, total protein, and its fractions. The animals kept blood homeostasis after hypoxic stress. Diet supplementation with 0.5% cinnamon powder improved the fish immune response, since it resulted in an increase of 0.5% in γ-globulin level. Administration of 0.15% cinnamon essential oil resulted in an increase of α1 and α2-globulins, which may be reflected in increased lipid content of the carcass and the hepatosomatic index. More studies are necessary to better understand the effects of these additives for fish immunity. PMID:27142937

  20. In vitro acute exposure to DEHP affects oocyte meiotic maturation, energy and oxidative stress parameters in a large animal model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Ambruosi

    Full Text Available Phthalates are ubiquitous environmental contaminants because of their use in plastics and other common consumer products. Di-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP is the most abundant phthalate and it impairs fertility by acting as an endocrine disruptor. The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of in vitro acute exposure to DEHP on oocyte maturation, energy and oxidative status in the horse, a large animal model. Cumulus cell (CC apoptosis and oxidative status were also investigated. Cumulus-oocyte complexes from the ovaries of slaughtered mares were cultured in vitro in presence of 0.12, 12 and 1200 µM DEHP. After in vitro maturation (IVM, CCs were removed and evaluated for apoptosis (cytological assessment and TUNEL and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS levels. Oocytes were evaluated for nuclear chromatin configuration. Matured (Metaphase II stage; MII oocytes were further evaluated for cytoplasmic energy and oxidative parameters. DEHP significantly inhibited oocyte maturation when added at low doses (0.12 µM; P<0.05. This effect was related to increased CC apoptosis (P<0.001 and reduced ROS levels (P<0.0001. At higher doses (12 and 1200 µM, DEHP induced apoptosis (P<0.0001 and ROS increase (P<0.0001 in CCs without affecting oocyte maturation. In DEHP-exposed MII oocytes, mitochondrial distribution patterns, apparent energy status (MitoTracker fluorescence intensity, intracellular ROS localization and levels, mt/ROS colocalization and total SOD activity did not vary, whereas increased ATP content (P<0.05, possibly of glycolytic origin, was found. Co-treatment with N-Acetyl-Cysteine reversed apoptosis and efficiently scavenged excessive ROS in DEHP-treated CCs without enhancing oocyte maturation. In conclusion, acute in vitro exposure to DEHP inhibits equine oocyte maturation without altering ooplasmic energy and oxidative stress parameters in matured oocytes which retain the potential to be fertilized and develop into

  1. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p < 0.01) with the subjective perception of examination stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p < 0.01) positively with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition. PMID:26187200

  2. Serum leptin and cortisol, related to acutely perceived academic examination stress and performance in female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, Darakhshan J; Inam, Qurrat-Ul-Aen; Haider, Saida; Perveen, Tahira; Haleem, Muhammad Abdul

    2015-12-01

    Leptin, identified as an antiobesity hormone, also has important role in responses to stress and processing of memory. This study was designed to determine effects of academic examination stress-induced changes in serum leptin and its impact on academic performance. Eighty five healthy female students (age 19-21 years; BMI 21.9 ± 1.6) were recruited for the study. Serum leptin and cortisol were monitored at base line (beginning of academic session) and on the day of examination; using a standardized ELISA kit. Acute perception of academic examination stress was determined with the help of a questionnaire derived from Hamilton Anxiety Scale and self report of stress perception. Academic performance was evaluated by the percentage of marks obtained in the examination. Serum cortisol levels were positively correlated (p stress but not with academic performance. There was an inverted U-shape relationship between level of stress and academic performance. Leptin increased in all stress groups and correlated (p stress and circulating leptin. The findings suggest the peptide hormone, leptin, is a biomarker of stress perception and a mediator of facilitating effects of stress on cognition.

  3. Cadmium stress alters the redox reaction and hormone balance in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui; Filardo, Fiona; Hu, Xiaotao; Zhao, Xiaomin; Fu, DongHui

    2016-02-01

    In order to understand the physiological response of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) leaves to cadmium (Cd) stress and exploit the physiological mechanisms involved in Cd tolerance, macro-mineral and chlorophyll concentrations, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, activities of enzymatic antioxidants, nonenzymatic compounds metabolism, endogenous hormonal changes, and balance in leaves of oilseed rape exposed to 0, 100, or 200 μM CdSO4 were investigated. The results showed that under Cd exposure, Cd concentrations in the leaves continually increased while macro-minerals and chlorophyll concentrations decreased significantly. Meanwhile, with increased Cd stress, superoxide anion (O2(• -)) production rate and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentrations in the leaves increased significantly, which caused malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and oxidative stress. For scavenging excess accumulated ROS and alleviating oxidative injury in the leaves, the activity of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), and catalase (CAT), was increased significantly at certain stress levels. However, with increased Cd stress, the antioxidant enzyme activities all showed a trend towards reduction. The nonenzymatic antioxidative compounds, such as proline and total soluble sugars, accumulated continuously with increased Cd stress to play a long-term role in scavenging ROS. In addition, ABA levels also increased continuously with Cd stress while ZR decreased and the ABA/ZR ratio increased, which might also be providing a protective role against Cd toxicity. PMID:26498815

  4. Reciprocal relationship between acute stress and acute fatigue in everyday life in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerr, Johanna M; Ditzen, Beate; Strahler, Jana; Linnemann, Alexandra; Ziemek, Jannis; Skoluda, Nadine; Hoppmann, Christiane A; Nater, Urs M

    2015-09-01

    We investigated whether stress may influence fatigue, or vice versa, as well as factors mediating this relationship. Fifty healthy participants (31 females, 23.6±3.2 years) completed up to 5 momentary assessments of stress and fatigue during 5 days of preparation for their final examinations (exam condition) and 5 days of a regular semester week (control condition). Sleep quality was measured by self-report at awakening. A sub-group of participants (n=25) also collected saliva samples. Fatigue was associated with concurrent stress, stress reported at the previous measurement point, and previous-day stress. However, momentary stress was also predicted by concurrent fatigue, fatigue at the previous time point, and previous-day fatigue. Sleep quality mediated the association between stress and next-day fatigue. Cortisol and alpha-amylase did not mediate the stress-fatigue relationship. In conclusion, there is a reciprocal stress-fatigue relationship. Both prevention and intervention programs should comprehensively cover how stress and fatigue might influence one another. PMID:26143479

  5. Acacetin promotes healthy aging by altering stress response in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Jyotsna; Mishra, B N; Pandey, Rakesh

    2016-08-01

    The progression in lifespan has been associated with elevated intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress level which contributes to development of age related disorders. The discovery of lifespan modulating phytomolecules may promote development of natural therapies against age related afflictions. Acacetin (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyflavone), is a naturally occurring flavonoid known to possess therapeutic properties. To this end, the present study evaluates effect of acacetin (AC) on lifespan, stress and neurotoxicity for the first time by using well-established free living, multicellular Caenorhabditis elegans model system. The 25 μM dose of AC significantly prolonged the mean lifespan of worms by 27.31% in comparison to untreated control and other tested doses of AC. Additionally, AC enhanced stress resistance against oxidative and thermal stress in worms. Furthermore, AC attenuated age related intracellular ROS level, aggregation of age pigment lipofuscin and increased the mean survival in stress hypersensitive mev-1 mutant by 40.5%. AC supplementation also reduced the alpha synuclein aggregation in transgenic worm model of Parkinson's disease. The enhanced stress resistance, lifespan and alleviation of age related pathology can be attributed to increment in stress modulatory enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) level. Altogether the results suggest AC exposure maintains stress level, health span and extends mean lifespan of C. elegans. The longevity promoting and neuromodulatory effects of AC are mediated by up regulation of the stress response genes sod-3 and gst-4. The present finding gives new insights of natural remedies and their future prospects in developing therapeutic interventions for managing age related diseases. PMID:27150237

  6. Nitric oxide synthase and nitric oxide alterations in chronically stressed rats: a model for nitric oxide in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang-Feng; Lu, Yun-Rong; Shi, Li-Gen; Wu, Xue-Yan; Sun, Bo; Fu, Xin-Yan; Luo, Jian-Hong; Bao, Ai-Min

    2014-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and NO synthase-1 (NOS1) are involved in the stress response and in depression. We compared NOS-NO alterations in rats exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) with alterations in major depressive disorder (MDD) in humans. In the hypothalamus of male CUS rats we determined NOS activity, and in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) we determined NOS1-immunoreactive (ir) cell densities and co-localization of NOS1 with stress-related neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), vasopressin (AVP) or oxytocin (OXT). We measured plasma NO levels and cortisol in male medicine-naïve MDD patients and plasma NO and corticosterone (CORT) in CUS rats. In the CUS rat total NOS activity in the hypothalamus (P=0.018) and NOS1-ir cell density in the PVN were both significantly decreased (P=0.018), while NOS1 staining was mainly expressed in OXT-ir neurons in this nucleus. Interestingly, plasma NO levels were significantly increased both in male CUS rats (P=0.001) and in male MDD patients (Pdepression.

  7. Mismatch negativity in tobacco-naïve cannabis users and its alteration with acute nicotine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impey, Danielle; El-Marj, Nicole; Parks, Andrea; Choueiry, Joelle; Fisher, Derek; Knott, Verner J

    2015-09-01

    Chronic cannabis use may interact with factors, such as age of onset of cannabis use, family history, and genetic factors, to elicit schizophrenia (SZ)-like symptoms, including sensory and cognitive deficits. However, evidence of a relationship between cannabis use and cognitive impairment is confounded by concomitant use of tobacco. The objective of this study was to compare tobacco-naïve cannabis users with individuals without a history of tobacco/cannabis use on the auditory mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential (ERP), a neural measure of auditory deviance detection which is diminished in SZ. An exploratory arm of the study, conducted within a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design, examined the acute effects of nicotine gum (6mg) on MMN in cannabis users. MMN was recorded in response to 5 deviant stimuli within an optimal MMN paradigm in 44 healthy, non-tobacco smoking volunteers aged 18-26. Cannabis users (n=21) started smoking cannabis prior to age 17, at least 1 joint per month. To examine the effects of chronicity, users were grouped into relatively heavy long-term (HLT; n=11) users and light short-term (LST; n=10) users. Impaired deviance detection was shown in cannabis users vs. nonusers as reflected by a smaller MMN to duration deviants. Chronicity of use was also associated with MMN alterations, as HLTs displayed a reduced duration and gap MMN vs. LSTs. Compared with placebo, nicotine treatment enhanced select MMN deviants in cannabis user subgroups. As deficits associated with early and persistent cannabis use are similar to those seen in SZ, these dose-dependant disturbances in early sensory processing with cannabis use may be one cognitive pathway which mediates an increased risk for SZ in vulnerable youth, and be influenced by concurrent cigarette smoking behavior. PMID:26188167

  8. Neonatal pain-related stress and NFKBIA genotype are associated with altered cortisol levels in preterm boys at school age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth E Grunau

    Full Text Available Neonatal pain-related stress is associated with elevated salivary cortisol levels to age 18 months in children born very preterm, compared to full-term, suggesting early programming effects. Importantly, interactions between immune/inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems may underlie programming effects. We examined whether cortisol changes persist to school age, and if common genetic variants in the promoter region of the NFKBIA gene involved in regulation of immune and inflammatory responses, modify the association between early experience and later life stress as indexed by hair cortisol levels, which provide an integrated index of endogenous HPA axis activity. Cortisol was assayed in hair samples from 128 children (83 born preterm ≤ 32 weeks gestation and 45 born full-term without major sensory, motor or cognitive impairments at age 7 years. We found that hair cortisol levels were lower in preterm compared to term-born children. Downregulation of the HPA axis in preterm children without major impairment, seen years after neonatal stress terminated, suggests persistent alteration of stress system programming. Importantly, the etiology was gender-specific such that in preterm boys but not girls, specifically those with the minor allele for NFKBIA rs2233409, lower hair cortisol was associated with greater neonatal pain (number of skin-breaking procedures from birth to term, independent of medical confounders. Moreover, the minor allele (CT or TT of NFKBIA rs2233409 was associated with higher secretion of inflammatory cytokines, supporting the hypothesis that neonatal pain-related stress may act as a proinflammatory stimulus that induces long-term immune cell activation. These findings are the first evidence that a long-term association between early pain-related stress and cortisol may be mediated by a genetic variants that regulate the activity of NF-κB, suggesting possible involvement of stress/inflammatory mechanisms in HPA programming in

  9. Viewing nature scenes positively affects recovery of autonomic function following acute-mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Daniel K; Barton, Jo L; Gladwell, Valerie F

    2013-06-01

    A randomized crossover study explored whether viewing different scenes prior to a stressor altered autonomic function during the recovery from the stressor. The two scenes were (a) nature (composed of trees, grass, fields) or (b) built (composed of man-made, urban scenes lacking natural characteristics) environments. Autonomic function was assessed using noninvasive techniques of heart rate variability; in particular, time domain analyses evaluated parasympathetic activity, using root-mean-square of successive differences (RMSSD). During stress, secondary cardiovascular markers (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure) showed significant increases from baseline which did not differ between the two viewing conditions. Parasympathetic activity, however, was significantly higher in recovery following the stressor in the viewing scenes of nature condition compared to viewing scenes depicting built environments (RMSSD; 50.0 ± 31.3 vs 34.8 ± 14.8 ms). Thus, viewing nature scenes prior to a stressor alters autonomic activity in the recovery period. The secondary aim was to examine autonomic function during viewing of the two scenes. Standard deviation of R-R intervals (SDRR), as change from baseline, during the first 5 min of viewing nature scenes was greater than during built scenes. Overall, this suggests that nature can elicit improvements in the recovery process following a stressor.

  10. Acute physiological stress down-regulates mRNA expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Nakano

    Full Text Available Growth and development in fish are regulated to a major extent by growth-related factors, such as liver-derived insulin-like growth factor (IGF -1 in response to pituitary-secreted growth hormone (GH binding to the GH receptor (GHR. Here, we report on the changes in the expressions of gh, ghr, and igf1 genes and the circulating levels of GH and IGF-1 proteins in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch in response to handling as an acute physiological stressor. Plasma GH levels were not significantly different between stressed fish and prestressed control. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations in stressed fish 1.5 h post-stress were the same as in control fish, but levels in stressed fish decreased significantly 16 h post-stress. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR analysis showed that ghr mRNA levels in pituitary, liver, and muscle decreased gradually in response to the stressor. After exposure to stress, hepatic igf1 expression transiently increased, whereas levels decreased 16 h post-stress. On the other hand, the pituitary gh mRNA level did not change in response to the stressor. These observations indicate that expression of gh, ghr, and igf1 responded differently to stress. Our results show that acute physiological stress can mainly down-regulate the expressions of growth-related genes in coho salmon in vivo. This study also suggests that a relationship between the neuroendocrine stress response and growth-related factors exists in fish.

  11. Acute hematopoietic stress in mice is followed by enhanced osteoclast maturation in the bone marrow microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmac, Sania; Grcevic, Danka; Sucur, Alan; Ivcevic, Sanja; Katavic, Vedran

    2014-11-01

    Osteoclasts are components of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) niches, but their role as contributors to the HSC homeostasis and release are still controversial. We aimed to investigate whether an acute blood loss of 10% of total blood content, along with the consequent intense hematopoiesis, would affect osteoclast differentiation and activity. Isolated peripheral blood, spleen, and bone marrow (BM) cells from bones of hind limbs were investigated for the presence of specific subpopulations of osteoclast precursors: B220(-)CD3(-)NK1.1(-)CD11b(-/low)CD115(+)CD117(+) cells in BM, and B220(-)CD3(-)NK1.1(-)Gr-1(-)CD11b(+)CD115(+) cells in peripheral blood and spleen as well as the receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B(+) cycle-arrested quiescent osteoclast precursors. Expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes CD115, receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B, and cathepsin K, the potential of BM cells to form osteoclast-like cells in vitro, and osteoclast activity in vivo were also evaluated. We observed an increase in spleen cellularity and myelopoiesis during week 1 following blood loss, without any significant effects on BM cellularity or BM myeloid precursors, including cells with high osteoclastogenic potential. However, at 1 week postbleeding, hematopoiesis significantly promoted the expression of cathepsin K, interleukin-34, and bone morphogenetic protein-6. Quiescent osteoclast precursors increased significantly in spleen 2 days following bleeding, whereas osteoclast activity remained unchanged up to 2 weeks postbleeding. Osteoclast-dependent B-cell differentiation was affected at the pre-B stage of maturation in BM, whereas the Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-kit(+) population expanded in BM and spleen after 2 days postbleeding. Our data demonstrate that an acute blood loss promotes differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts at 1 week but does not enhance osteoresorption at 2 weeks postbleeding. Our data also identify osteoclast differentiation as a consequent and

  12. The acute glucocorticoid stress response does not differentiate between rewarding and aversive social stimuli in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buwalda, Bauke; Scholte, Jan; de Boer, Sietse F; Coppens, Caroline M; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2012-02-01

    The mere presence of elevated plasma levels of corticosterone is generally regarded as evidence of compromised well-being. However, environmental stimuli do not necessarily need to be of a noxious or adverse nature to elicit activation of the stress response systems. In the present study, the physiological and neuroendocrine responses to repeated social stimuli that can be regarded as emotional opposites, i.e. social defeat and sexual behavior, were compared. Similar corticosterone responses were observed in animals confronted for the first time with either a highly aggressive male intruder or a receptive female, but a decrease was noticed in defeated rats tested during a third interaction. Only if animals are being physically attacked does the corticosterone response remain similar to the one observed during sexual behavior. In addition, the number of activated cells in the parvocellular hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, as visualized by c-Fos immunocytochemistry, shows no difference between rats 1h after the third exposure to defeat or sex. Finally, biotelemetric recordings of heart rate, body temperature and locomotor activity show a robust response to both social stimuli that is generally, however, higher in animals being confronted with a receptive female. The data clearly indicate that acute plasma corticosterone levels are not reflecting the emotional valence of a salient stimulus. The magnitude of the response seems to be a direct reflection of the behavioral activity and hence of the metabolic requirements of activated tissues. Next to its direct metabolic role, acute increases in plasma corticosterone will have neurobiological and behavioral effects that largely depend on the neural circuitry that is activated by the stimulus that triggered its release. PMID:22210197

  13. Role for leptin in promoting glucose mobilization during acute hyperosmotic stress in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzegar, David A; Reading, Benjamin J; Douros, Jonathon D; Borski, Russell J

    2014-01-01

    Osmoregulation is critical for survival in all vertebrates, yet the endocrine regulation of this metabolically expensive process is not fully understood. Specifically, the function of leptin in the regulation of energy expenditure in fishes, and among ectotherms, in general, remains unresolved. In this study, we examined the effects of acute salinity transfer (72  h) and the effects of leptin and cortisol on plasma metabolites and hepatic energy reserves in the euryhaline fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Transfer to 2/3 seawater (23  ppt) significantly increased plasma glucose, amino acid, and lactate levels relative to those in the control fish. Plasma glucose levels were positively correlated with amino acid levels (R2=0.614), but not with lactate levels. The mRNA expression of liver leptin A (lepa), leptin receptor (lepr), and hormone-sensitive and lipoprotein lipases (hsl and lpl) as well as triglyceride content increased during salinity transfer, but plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels remained unchanged. Both leptin and cortisol significantly increased plasma glucose levels in vivo, but only leptin decreased liver glycogen levels. Leptin decreased the expression of liver hsl and lpl mRNAs, whereas cortisol significantly increased the expression of these lipases. These findings suggest that hepatic glucose mobilization into the blood following an acute salinity challenge involves both glycogenolysis, induced by leptin, and subsequent gluconeogenesis of free amino acids. This is the first study to report that teleost leptin A has actions that are functionally distinct from those described in mammals acting as a potent hyperglycemic factor during osmotic stress, possibly in synergism with cortisol. These results suggest that the function of leptin may have diverged during the evolution of vertebrates, possibly reflecting differences in metabolic regulation between poikilotherms and homeotherms. PMID:24194509

  14. TISSUE SPECIFIC RESPONSES ALTER THE BIOMASS ACCUMULATION IN WHEAT UNDER GRADUAL AND SUDDEN SALT STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Yumurtaci A.; Uncuoglu A. A.

    2012-01-01

    Salinity is one the major limiting environmental factors which has negative side effects on crop production. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between the gradual and sudden salt stress effects on biomass accumulation associated with whole plant development in three different tissues of two wheat species ( Triticum aestivum and Triticum durum) under hydroponic conditions in the long term. Considering the effects of sudden and gradual stress for biomass accumulation,...

  15. Alterations in the hippocampal glycinergic system in an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Yamamoto, Shigeto; Morinobu, Shigeru; Iwamoto, Yasuyuki; Ueda, Yuto; Takei, Shiro; FUJITA, Yosuke; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that rats subjected to single prolonged stress (SPS) exhibit posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-like symptoms such as enhanced contextual fear in response to trauma related and trauma-unrelated events Furthermore we previously reported that upregulation of hippocampal glycine transporter 1 (GlyT-1) mRNA after context exposure could be the initial mechanism underlying impaired fear extinction in SPS rats To clarify the involvement of the hippocampal glycine...

  16. The impact of threat of shock on the framing effect and temporal discounting: executive functions unperturbed by acute stress?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Joe Robinson

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anxiety and stress-related disorders constitute a large global health burden, but are still poorly understood. Prior work has demonstrated clear impacts of stress upon basic cognitive function: biasing attention towards unexpected and potentially threatening information and instantiating a negative affective bias. However, the impact that these changes have on higher-order, executive, decision-making processes is unclear. In this study we examined the impact of a translational within-subjects stress induction (threat of unpredictable shock on two well-established executive decision-making biases: the framing effect (N=83, and temporal discounting (N=36. In both studies, we demonstrate a clear subjective effects of stress, and b clear executive decision-making biases but c no impact of stress on these decision-making biases. Indeed, Bayes factor analyses confirmed substantial preference for decision-making models that did not include stress. We posit that while stress may induce subjective mood change and alter low-level perceptual and action processes (Robinson et al., 2013b, some higher-level executive processes remain unperturbed by these impacts. As such, although stress can induce a transient affective biases and altered mood, these need not result in poor financial decision-making.

  17. Characterization of singlet oxygen-accumulating mutants isolated in a screen for altered oxidative stress response in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eggen Rik IL

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When photosynthetic organisms are exposed to harsh environmental conditions such as high light intensities or cold stress, the production of reactive oxygen species like singlet oxygen is stimulated in the chloroplast. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii singlet oxygen was shown to act as a specific signal inducing the expression of the nuclear glutathione peroxidase gene GPXH/GPX5 during high light stress, but little is known about the cellular mechanisms involved in this response. To investigate components affecting singlet oxygen signaling in C. reinhardtii, a mutant screen was performed. Results Mutants with altered GPXH response were isolated from UV-mutagenized cells containing a GPXH-arylsulfatase reporter gene construct. Out of 5500 clones tested, no mutant deficient in GPXH induction was isolated, whereas several clones showed constitutive high GPXH expression under normal light conditions. Many of these GPXH overexpressor (gox mutants exhibited higher resistance to oxidative stress conditions whereas others were sensitive to high light intensities. Interestingly, most gox mutants produced increased singlet oxygen levels correlating with high GPXH expression. Furthermore, different patterns of altered photoprotective parameters like non-photochemical quenching, carotenoid contents and α-tocopherol levels were detected in the various gox mutants. Conclusions Screening for mutants with altered GPXH expression resulted in the isolation of many gox mutants with increased singlet oxygen production, showing the relevance of controlling the production of this ROS in photosynthetic organisms. Phenotypic characterization of these gox mutants indicated that the mutations might lead to either stimulated triplet chlorophyll and singlet oxygen formation or reduced detoxification of singlet oxygen in the chloroplast. Furthermore, changes in multiple protection mechanisms might be responsible for high singlet oxygen formation and GPXH

  18. The implicit Power Motive and Adolescents' Salivary Cortisol Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress and Exercise in School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Scheuermann, Katharina S; Machado, Sergio; Budde, Henning

    2015-01-01

    In the present study we examined the moderating effect of the power motive on salivary cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress and exercise in adolescents. Fifty-seven high school students aged M = 14.8 years participated in the study. The Operant Motive Test was applied to measure the implicit power motive and the Personality Research Form was used to measure the explicit power motive. Salivary cortisol levels were assessed before and after the stress stimuli. Participants were randomly assigned to three experimental groups. An exercise group ran 15 minutes at a defined heart rate of 65-75% HRmax. A psychosocial stress group worked on a standard intelligence test for the same amount of time under the assumption, that their test scores will be made public in class after the test. The control group participated in a regular class session. The implicit power motive was significantly associated with increased cortisol levels in the psychosocial stress group. The explicit power motive was not associated with cortisol responses. Findings suggest that the implicit power motive moderates the cortisol responses to acute stress in an adolescent age group with higher responses to psychosocial stress in comparison to exercise or control conditions.

  19. Ectopic expression of a stress-inducible glycosyltransferase from saffron enhances salt and oxidative stress tolerance in Arabidopsis while alters anchor root formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrazem, Oussama; Rubio-Moraga, Angela; Trapero-Mozos, Almudena; Climent, María Fernanda López; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Gómez-Gómez, Lourdes

    2015-05-01

    Glycosyltransferases play diverse roles in cellular metabolism by modifying the activities of regulatory metabolites. Three stress-regulated UDP-glucosyltransferase-encoding genes have been isolated from the stigmas of saffron, UGT85U1, UGT85U2 and UGT85V1, which belong to the UGT85 family that includes members associated with stress responses and cell cycle regulation. Arabidopsis constitutively expressing UGT85U1 exhibited and increased anchor root development. No differences were observed in the timing of root emergence, in leaf, stem and flower morphology or flowering time. However, salt and oxidative stress tolerance was enhanced in these plants. Levels of glycosylated compounds were measured in these plants and showed changes in the composition of several indole-derivatives. Moreover, auxin levels in the roots were higher compared to wild type. The expression of several key genes related to root development and auxin homeostasis, including CDKB2.1, CDKB2.2, PIN2, 3 and 4; TIR1, SHR, and CYCD6, were differentially regulated with an increase of expression level of SHR, CYCD6, CDKB2.1 and PIN2. The obtained results showed that UGT85U1 takes part in root growth regulation via auxin signal alteration and the modified expression of cell cycle-related genes, resulting in significantly improved survival during oxidative and salt stress treatments.

  20. Association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and biomarkers of oxidative stress among patients hospitalised with acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian L Megson

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with oxidative stress among patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. DESIGN: An existing cohort study of 1,261 patients hospitalised for acute myocardial infarction. SETTING: Nine acute hospitals in Scotland. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty never smokers who had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke (admission serum cotinine ≥3.0 ng/mL were compared with 60 never smokers who had not (admission serum cotinine ≤0.1 ng/mL. INTERVENTION: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Three biomarkers of oxidative stress (protein carbonyl, malondialdehyde (MDA and oxidised low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL were measured on admission blood samples and adjusted for potential confounders. RESULTS: After adjusting for baseline differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with serum concentrations of both protein carbonyl (beta coefficient 7.96, 95% CI 0.76, 15.17, p = 0.031 and MDA (beta coefficient 10.57, 95% CI 4.32, 16.81, p = 0.001 but not ox-LDL (beta coefficient 2.14, 95% CI -8.94, 13.21, p = 0.703. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was associated with increased oxidative stress. Further studies are requires to explore the role of oxidative stress in the association between environmental tobacco smoke and myocardial infarction.

  1. Greater Heart Rate Responses to Acute Stress Are Associated with Better Post-Error Adjustment in Special Police Cadets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhuxi; Yuan, Yi; Buchanan, Tony W; Zhang, Kan; Zhang, Liang; Wu, Jianhui

    2016-01-01

    High-stress jobs require both appropriate physiological regulation and behavioral adjustment to meet the demands of emergencies. Here, we investigated the relationship between the autonomic stress response and behavioral adjustment after errors in special police cadets. Sixty-eight healthy male special police cadets were randomly assigned to perform a first-time walk on an aerial rope bridge to induce stress responses or a walk on a cushion on the ground serving as a control condition. Subsequently, the participants completed a Go/No-go task to assess behavioral adjustment after false alarm responses. Heart rate measurements and subjective reports confirmed that stress responses were successfully elicited by the aerial rope bridge task in the stress group. In addition, greater heart rate increases during the rope bridge task were positively correlated with post-error slowing and had a trend of negative correlation with post-error miss rate increase in the subsequent Go/No-go task. These results suggested that stronger autonomic stress responses are related to better post-error adjustment under acute stress in this highly selected population and demonstrate that, under certain conditions, individuals with high-stress jobs might show cognitive benefits from a stronger physiological stress response. PMID:27428280

  2. Implications of Altered Glutathione Metabolism in Aspirin-Induced Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in HepG2 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Raza, Haider; John, Annie

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported that acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin, ASA) induces cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in HepG2 cells. In the present study, we have further elucidated that altered glutathione (GSH)-redox metabolism in HepG2 cells play a critical role in ASA-induced cytotoxicity. Using selected doses and time point for ASA toxicity, we have demonstrated that when GSH synthesis is inhibited in HepG2 cells by buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), prior to ASA tre...

  3. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  4. Effects of acute and chronic physical exercise and stress on different types of memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Billig Mello

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the effect of acute and chronic physical exercise in a treadmill and of daily stress (because forced exercise involves a degree of stress during 2 or 8 weeks on different types of memory in male Wistar rats. The memory tests employed were: habituation in an open field, object recognition and spatial learning in the Morris water maze. Daily foot-shock stress enhanced habituation learning after 2 but not after 8 weeks; it hindered both short- (STM and long-term memory (LTM of the recognition task at 2 weeks but only STM after 8 weeks and had no effect on spatial learning after either 2 or 8 weeks. Acute but not chronic exercise also enhanced habituation in the open field and hindered STM and LTM in the recognition task. Chronic exercise enhanced one important measure of spatial learning (latency to escape but not others. Our findings indicate that some care must be taken when interpreting effects of forced exercise on brain parameters since at least part of them may be due to the stress inherent to the training procedure.Neste trabalho estudamos os efeitos do exercício forçado diário em esteira rolante e da exposição diária ao estresse (porque o exercício forçado envolve um certo grau de estresse durante 2 ou 8 semanas em diferentes tipos de memória em ratos Wistar machos. Os testes de memória utilizados foram: habituação da exploração em um campo aberto, reconhecimento de objetos, e memória espacial no labirinto aquático de Morris. O estresse diário facilitou a memória de habituação, os animais aprenderam após 2 mas não após 8 semanas; houve prejuízo na memória curta (STM e de longa duração (LTM no teste de reconhecimento em 2 semanas, mas somente de STM após 8 semanas; não houve nenhum efeito na memória espacial após 2 ou 8 semanas. O protocolo do exercício facilitou também a memória de habituação no campo aberto após 2 mas não após 8 semanas; prejudicou STM e LTM na tarefa do reconhecimento

  5. KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine protects against acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Huang, P; Lu, Q; Zhou, M; Guo, L; Xu, X

    2014-11-01

    Spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) are impaired by stress. KCNQ/Kv7 channels are closely associated with memory and the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine represents neuroprotective effects. This study aims to test whether KCNQ/Kv7 channel activation prevents acute stress-induced impairments of spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP. Rats were placed on an elevated platform in the middle of a bright room for 30 min to evoke acute stress. The expression of KCNQ/Kv7 subunits was analyzed at 1, 3 and 12 h after stress by Western blotting. Spatial memory was examined by the Morris water maze (MWM) and the field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) in the hippocampal CA1 area was recorded in vivo. Acute stress transiently decreased the expression of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in the hippocampus. Acute stress impaired the spatial memory retrieval and hippocampal LTP, the KCNQ/Kv7 channel activator flupirtine prevented the impairments, and the protective effects of flupirtine were blocked by XE-991 (10,10-bis(4-Pyridinylmethyl)-9(10H)-anthracenone), a selective KCNQ channel blocker. Furthermore, acute stress decreased the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9 in the hippocampus, and flupirtine inhibited the reduction. These results suggest that the KCNQ/Kv7 channels may be a potential target for protecting both hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory retrieval from acute stress influences. PMID:25234320

  6. Aftershocks can Significantly Alter Stress Change Patterns Produced by Their Mainshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, K. R.; Becker, T. W.; Abercrombie, R. E.; Ekström, G.; Rice, J. R.

    2001-12-01

    Many studies over the last decade have used the static Coulomb stress change produced by a mainshock to predict the locations of triggered earthquakes. This method has shown some success, but often fails to predict the locations of 20% to 40% of the aftershocks of a given mainshock. We use statistical Monte Carlo modeling to show that this amount of failure is consistent with the perturbation to the stress field provided by the aftershocks themselves. Although most aftershocks are more than a magnitude unit smaller than their mainshocks, the ability of earthquakes of all magnitudes to produce large static stress changes at short range, and the pronounced clustering of aftershock hypocenters, implies that many aftershock hypocenters in a sequence may be primarily stressed by a previous aftershock rather than by the mainshock itself. The exact percentage stressed by previous aftershocks increases with the activity of the aftershock sequence, the magnitude of the mainshock, and the time since the mainshock. Our model predicts that two days after the average California M7 earthquake, for example, over 50% of new aftershocks are primarily in response to stress changes from previous aftershocks. This means that the majority of the new aftershocks are most likely to occur near previous aftershocks, and not necessarily within regions of Coulomb stress increase from the mainshock. The same happens three days after the average M6, and three weeks after the average M5 mainshock. Our statistical modeling uses Omori's Law for aftershock decay, the Gutenberg-Richter magnitude frequency relationship, Baath's Law, and the assumptions that earthquakes of all sizes are capable of generating aftershocks and that the timing of each aftershock is essentially determined by a single mainshock. We apply our model to the 1999 M7.1 Hector Mine earthquake, which may be classified as an aftershock of the 1992 M7.3 Landers earthquake. Our modeling shows that at the time of the Hector Mine

  7. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood.