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Sample records for acute stress alters

  1. Examination stress results in altered cardiovascular responses to acute challenge and lower cortisol.

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    Loft, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Petrie, Keith J; Booth, Roger J; Miles, Jeremy; Vedhara, Kavita

    2007-05-01

    The present study examined how cardiovascular and salivary cortisol responses varied in response to an acute challenge in medical students under exam stress versus those not under exam stress. One hundred and twenty-nine medical students were randomly assigned to undertake a CO2 inhalation test either prior to an examination period (exam group) or during a regular academic period (non-exam group). Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were measured for 5 min before and 5 min after the task, and salivary cortisol samples were collected 1 min before and 10 and 30 min after the CO2 inhalation test. Participants also completed a questionnaire measuring self-reported perceived stress. The exam group exhibited significantly higher HR reactivity following the CO2 inhalation test and slower systolic blood pressure (SBP) recovery compared with the non-exam group. The exam group also reported higher perceived stress and higher stress scores were related to higher HR reactivity following CO2 inhalation. Female students across both groups exhibited significantly lower SBP reactivity compared with male students. Salivary cortisol levels were consistently lower in the exam group. These findings indicate that ongoing natural stress alters cortisol secretion and cardiovascular responses in the face of an acute stress challenge.

  2. Acute Stress Alters Auditory Selective Attention in Humans Independent of HPA: A Study of Evoked Potentials

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    Elling, Ludger; Steinberg, Christian; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Dobel, Christan; Bölte, Jens; Junghofer, Markus

    2011-01-01

    Background Acute stress is a stereotypical, but multimodal response to a present or imminent challenge overcharging an organism. Among the different branches of this multimodal response, the consequences of glucocorticoid secretion have been extensively investigated, mostly in connection with long-term memory (LTM). However, stress responses comprise other endocrine signaling and altered neuronal activity wholly independent of pituitary regulation. To date, knowledge of the impact of such “paracorticoidal” stress responses on higher cognitive functions is scarce. We investigated the impact of an ecological stressor on the ability to direct selective attention using event-related potentials in humans. Based on research in rodents, we assumed that a stress-induced imbalance of catecholaminergic transmission would impair this ability. Methodology/Principal Findings The stressor consisted of a single cold pressor test. Auditory negative difference (Nd) and mismatch negativity (MMN) were recorded in a tonal dichotic listening task. A time series of such tasks confirmed an increased distractibility occuring 4–7 minutes after onset of the stressor as reflected by an attenuated Nd. Salivary cortisol began to rise 8–11 minutes after onset when no further modulations in the event-related potentials (ERP) occurred, thus precluding a causal relationship. This effect may be attributed to a stress-induced activation of mesofrontal dopaminergic projections. It may also be attributed to an activation of noradrenergic projections. Known characteristics of the modulation of ERP by different stress-related ligands were used for further disambiguation of causality. The conjuncture of an attenuated Nd and an increased MMN might be interpreted as indicating a dopaminergic influence. The selective effect on the late portion of the Nd provides another tentative clue for this. Conclusions/Significance Prior studies have deliberately tracked the adrenocortical influence on cognition

  3. Cinnamon modulates biochemical alterations in rats loaded with acute restraint stress

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    Khataibeh, Moayad

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to investigate pretreatment efficacy of cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum) on blood glucose level as well as oxidative changes at the liver level. Following acute restraint stress, the experimental animals (n = 6) were randomly assigned into four groups, i.e., non-stressed control, stress control and treatment groups (cinnamon decoction 10%, 3 and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days). Anti-stress effect of cinnamon was studied by estimation of blood glucose level, liver...

  4. Cinnamon modulates biochemical alterations in rats loaded with acute restraint stress

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    Moayad Khataibeh

    2016-09-01

    Following acute restraint stress, the experimental animals (n = 6 were randomly assigned into four groups, i.e., non-stressed control, stress control and treatment groups (cinnamon decoction 10%, 3 and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days. Anti-stress effect of cinnamon was studied by estimation of blood glucose level, liver marker enzymes; aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase, liver reduced glutathione (GSH and liver antioxidant enzymes; super oxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, catalase (CAT and glutathione reductase (GR. Acute restraint stress was evidenced by reduction of blood glucose level and liver GSH and elevation of liver marker enzymes in serum. In addition, antioxidant enzymes were drastically inhibited in liver homogenate of stress control rats. Pre-treatment with cinnamon decoction 10%, (3 ml/kg and 6 ml/kg, p.o, for 7 days avoided the changes observed in stress control rats. This study substantiates that cinnamon is effective in minimizing stress responses thereby beneficial in stress therapy.

  5. Alteration in Memory and Electroencephalogram Waves with Sub-acute Noise Stress in Albino Rats and Safeguarded by Scoparia dulcis.

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    Loganathan, Sundareswaran; Rathinasamy, Sheeladevi

    2016-01-01

    Noise stress has different effects on memory and novelty and the link between them with an electroencephalogram (EEG) has not yet been reported. To find the effect of sub-acute noise stress on the memory and novelty along with EEG and neurotransmitter changes. Eight-arm maze (EAM) and Y-maze to analyze the memory and novelty by novel object test. Four groups of rats were used: Control, control treated with Scoparia dulcis extract, noise exposed, and noise exposed which received Scoparia extract. The results showed no marked difference observed between control and control treated with Scoparia extract on EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and EEG in both prefrontal and occipital region, however, noise stress exposed rats showed significant increase in the reference memory and working memory error in EAM and latency delay, triad errors in Y-maze, and prefrontal and occipital EEG frequency rate with the corresponding increase in plasma corticosterone and epinephrine, and significant reduction in the novelty test, and significant reduction in the novelty test, amplitude of prefrontal, occipital EEG, and acetylcholine. These noise stress induced changes in EAM, Y-maze, novel object test, and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extract and these changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia extract on the brain, which altered due to noise stress. Noise stress exposure causes EEG, behavior, and neurotransmitter alteration in the frontoparietal and occipital regions mainly involved in planning and recognition memoryOnly the noise stress exposed animals showed the significant alteration in the EEG, behavior, and neurotransmittersHowever, these noise stress induced changes in EEG behavior and neurotransmitters were significantly prevented when treated with Scoparia extractThese changes may be due to the normalizing action of Scoparia dulcis (adoptogen) on the brain which altered by noise stress. Abbreviations used: EEG

  6. Acute Restraint Stress Alters Wheel-Running Behavior Immediately Following Stress and up to 20 Hours Later in House Mice.

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    Malisch, Jessica L; deWolski, Karen; Meek, Thomas H; Acosta, Wendy; Middleton, Kevin M; Crino, Ondi L; Garland, Theodore

    In vertebrates, acute stressors-although short in duration-can influence physiology and behavior over a longer time course, which might have important ramifications under natural conditions. In laboratory rats, for example, acute stress has been shown to increase anxiogenic behaviors for days after a stressor. In this study, we quantified voluntary wheel-running behavior for 22 h following a restraint stress and glucocorticoid levels 24 h postrestraint. We utilized mice from four replicate lines that have been selectively bred for high voluntary wheel-running activity (HR mice) for 60 generations and their nonselected control (C) lines to examine potential interactions between exercise propensity and sensitivity to stress. Following 6 d of wheel access on a 12L∶12D photo cycle (0700-1900 hours, as during the routine selective breeding protocol), 80 mice were physically restrained for 40 min, beginning at 1400 hours, while another 80 were left undisturbed. Relative to unrestrained mice, wheel running increased for both HR and C mice during the first hour postrestraint (P Wheel running was also examined at four distinct phases of the photoperiod. Running in the period of 1600-1840 hours was unaffected by restraint stress and did not differ statistically between HR and C mice. During the period of peak wheel running (1920-0140 hours), restrained mice tended to run fewer revolutions (-11%; two-tailed P = 0.0733), while HR mice ran 473% more than C (P = 0.0008), with no restraint × line type interaction. Wheel running declined for all mice in the latter part of the scotophase (0140-0600 hours), restraint had no statistical effect on wheel running, but HR again ran more than C (+467%; P = 0.0122). Finally, during the start of the photophase (0720-1200 hours), restraint increased running by an average of 53% (P = 0.0443) in both line types, but HR and C mice did not differ statistically. Mice from HR lines had statistically higher plasma corticosterone concentrations

  7. Zn(II)-curcumin protects against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism.

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    Yu, Chuan; Mei, Xue-Ting; Zheng, Yan-Ping; Xu, Dong-Hui

    2014-03-01

    Curcumin can chelate metal ions, forming metallocomplexes. We compared the effects of Zn(II)-curcumin with curcumin against hemorheological alterations, oxidative stress and liver injury in a rat model of acute alcoholism. Oral administration of Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently prevented the ethanol-induced elevation of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) content and reductions in glutathione level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Zn(II)-curcumin also inhibited ethanol-induced liver injury. Additionally, Zn(II)-curcumin dose-dependently inhibited hemorheological abnormalities, including the ethanol-induced elevation of whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, blood viscosity at corrected hematocrit (45%), erythrocyte aggregation index, erythrocyte rigidity index and hematocrit. Compared to curcumin at the same dose, Zn(II)-curcumin more effectively elevated SOD activity, ameliorated liver injury and improved hemorheological variables. These results suggest that Zn(II)-curcumin protected the rats from ethanol-induced liver injury and hemorheological abnormalities via the synergistic effect of curcumin and zinc. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Acute brief heat stress in late gestation alters neonatal calf innate immune functions.

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    Strong, R A; Silva, E B; Cheng, H W; Eicher, S D

    2015-11-01

    Heat stress, as one of the environmental stressors affecting the dairy industry, compromises the cow milk production, immune function, and reproductive system. However, few studies have looked at how prenatal heat stress (HS) affects the offspring. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of HS during late gestation on calf immunity. Calves were born to cows exposed to evaporative cooling (CT) or HS (cyclic 23-35°C) for 1 wk at 3 wk before calving. Both bull and heifer calves (CT, n=10; HS, n=10) were housed in similar environmental temperatures after birth. Both CT and HS calves received 3.78 L of pooled colostrum within 12 h after birth and were fed the same diet throughout the study. In addition to tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA), and toll-like receptor (TLR)2, and TLR4 mRNA expression, the expression of CD14(+) and CD18(+) cells, and DEC205(+) dendritic cells were determined in whole blood samples at d 0, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. The neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, differential cell counts, and the hematocrit were also determined. During late gestation, the HS cows had greater respiration rates, rectal temperatures, and tended to spend more time standing compared with the CT cows. The HS calves had less expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and TLR2 and greater levels of IL-1β, IL-1RA, and TLR4 compared with CT calves. The HS calves also had a greater percentage of CD18(+) cells compared with the CT calves. Additionally, a greater percentage of neutrophils and lesser percentage of lymphocytes were in the HS calves compared with the CT calves. The results indicate that biomarkers of calves' immunity are affected in the first several weeks after birth by HS in the dam during late gestation. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exposure to Acute Psychosocial Stress Disrupts the Luteinizing Hormone Surge Independent of Estrous Cycle Alterations in Female Mice.

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    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-08-01

    The disruptive effects of severe stress on reproductive function are well documented, but surprisingly few studies exist that demonstrate milder psychosocial stressors interfere with the ovarian cycle in females. We hypothesized repeated application of psychosocial stress would disrupt estrous cycles in mice. Mice were transferred to a new cage, transported to a new room, and restrained (2 hours) for 21 consecutive days. Contrary to our hypothesis, this paradigm did not affect estrous cycles. We next tested the hypothesis that a single exposure to mild stress disrupts a specific aspect of the cycle: the proestrous luteinizing hormone (LH) surge. We developed a model of acute, layered psychosocial stress (sequential application of new cage, transport to new room, restraint and predator cues lasting 5 hours total) that consistently increased circulating corticosterone. Application of this stress paradigm on midmorning of proestrus disrupted the LH surge measured near lights out in 14 of 24 mice; there was no evidence for a 24-hour delay of the surge. Following stress, mice continued to have normal estrous cycles, even when the LH surge was disrupted. Stressed mice failing to exhibit an LH surge had uterine masses suggesting the proestrous estradiol rise occurred. To test specifically whether the layered stress paradigm blocks estradiol-dependent positive feedback mechanisms, we examined the estradiol-induced LH surge. Stress blocked the estradiol-induced LH surge in all mice. These results suggest exposure to mild, acute psychosocial stress on proestrus can severely disrupt the generation of the LH surge in mice without affecting the overall estrous cycle. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  10. Hypothyroidism minimizes the effects of acute hepatic failure caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and redox environment alterations in rats.

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    Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Cano-Europa, Edgar; Martinez-Perez, Yoalli; Lezama-Palacios, Ruth; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Ortiz-Butron, Rocio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if a protective effect from hypothyroidism in acute liver failure resulted from reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in four groups: (1) euthyroid (sham surgery), (2) hypothyroid, (3) euthyroid (sham surgery)+thioacetamide and (4) hypothyroid+thioacetamide. Hypothyroidism was confirmed two weeks after thyroidectomy, and thioacetamide (TAA) (400mg/kg, ip) was administrated to the appropriate groups for three days with supportive therapy. Grades of encephalopathy in all animals were determined using behavioral tests. Animals were decapitated and their blood was obtained to assess liver function. The liver was dissected: the left lobe was used for histology and the right lobe was frozen for biochemical assays. Body weight, rectal temperature and T4 concentration were lower in hypothyroid groups. When measurements of oxidative stress markers, redox environment, γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase and glutathione-S-transferase were determined, we observed that hypothyroid animals with TAA compensated better with oxidative damage than euthyroid animals treated with TAA. Furthermore, we measured reduced expressions of GADD34, caspase-12 and GRP78 and subsequently less hypothyroidism-induced cellular damage in hypothyroid animals. We conclude that hypothyroidism protects against hepatic damage caused by TAA because it reduces endoplasmic reticulum stress and changes to the redox environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of cerium dioxide nanoparticles in Oncorhynchus mykiss liver after an acute exposure: assessment of oxidative stress, genotoxicity and histological alterations

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    Ana Cristina Nunes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At present cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeO2 NP have numerous applications ranging from industry to the household, leading to its wide distribution namely in the aquatic environment. The hereby study aimed to assess the toxic effects of CeO2 NPs in Oncorhynchus mykiss liver following an acute exposure (96h to three different concentrations (0.25, 2.5 and 25 mg/L in terms of the genotoxicity (comet assay, oxidative stress response (Catalase CAT; Glutathione S-Transferases GSTs; Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances TBARS and histopathology. CeO2 NP exposure resulted in genotoxic damage in all exposure treatments, inhibition of CAT in the highest concentration and histopathological changes in all exposure concentrations with predominance of progressive and circulatory alterations. However TBARS and GSTs showed no significant differences comparatively to the control (unexposed group. The results suggest that CeO2 NP are able to cause genotoxicity, biochemical impairment and histological alterations in the liver of rainbow trout.

  12. Early altered resting-state functional connectivity predicts the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in acutely traumatized subjects.

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    Yan Zhou

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between resting-state functional connectivity and the severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms in 15 people who developed PTSD following recent trauma. Fifteen participants who experienced acute traumatic events underwent a 7.3-min resting functional magnetic resonance imaging scan within 2 days post-event. All the patients were diagnosed with PTSD within 1 to 6 months after trauma. Brain areas in which activity was correlated with that of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC were assessed. To assess the relationship between the severity of PTSD symptoms and PCC connectivity, contrast images representing areas positively correlated with the PCC were correlated with the subject's Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale scores (CAPS when they were diagnosed. Furthermore, the PCC, medial prefrontal cortex and bilateral amygdala were selected to assess the correlation of the strength of functional connectivity with the CAPS. Resting state connectivity with the PCC was negatively correlated with CAPS scores in the left superior temporal gyrus and right hippocampus/amygdala. Furthermore, the strength of connectivity between the PCC and bilateral amygdala, and even between the bilateral amygdala could predict the severity of PTSD symptoms later. These results suggest that early altered resting-state functional connectivity of the PCC with the left superior temporal gyrus, right hippocampus and amygdala could predict the severity of the disease and may be a major risk factor that predisposes patients to develop PTSD.

  13. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

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    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  14. [Epigenetic alterations in acute lymphoblastic leukemia].

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    Navarrete-Meneses, María Del Pilar; Pérez-Vera, Patricia

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. It is well-known that genetic alterations constitute the basis for the etiology of ALL. However, genetic abnormalities are not enough for the complete development of the disease, and additional alterations such as epigenetic modifications are required. Such alterations, like DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA regulation have been identified in ALL. DNA hypermethylation in promoter regions is one of the most frequent epigenetic modifications observed in ALL. This modification frequently leads to gene silencing in tumor suppressor genes, and in consequence, contributes to leukemogenesis. Alterations in histone remodeling proteins have also been detected in ALL, such as the overexpression of histone deacetylases enzymes, and alteration of acetyltransferases and methyltransferases. ALL also shows alteration in the expression of miRNAs, and in consequence, the modification in the expression of their target genes. All of these epigenetic modifications are key events in the malignant transformation since they lead to the deregulation of oncogenes as BLK, WNT5B and WISP1, and tumor suppressors such as FHIT, CDKN2A, CDKN2B, and TP53, which alter fundamental cellular processes and potentially lead to the development of ALL. Both genetic and epigenetic alterations contribute to the development and evolution of ALL. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute stress affects prospective memory functions via associative memory processes.

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    Szőllősi, Ágnes; Pajkossy, Péter; Demeter, Gyula; Kéri, Szabolcs; Racsmány, Mihály

    2017-11-14

    Recent findings suggest that acute stress can improve the execution of delayed intentions (prospective memory, PM). However, it is unclear whether this improvement can be explained by altered executive control processes or by altered associative memory functioning. To investigate this issue, we used physical-psychosocial stressors to induce acute stress in laboratory settings. Then participants completed event- and time-based PM tasks requiring the different contribution of control processes and a control task (letter fluency) frequently used to measure executive functions. According to our results, acute stress had no impact on ongoing task performance, time-based PM, and verbal fluency, whereas it enhanced event-based PM as measured by response speed for the prospective cues. Our findings indicate that, here, acute stress did not affect executive control processes. We suggest that stress affected event-based PM via associative memory processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. SN56 basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss after acute and long-term chlorpyrifos exposure through oxidative stress generation; P75(NTR) and α7-nAChRs alterations mediated partially by AChE variants disruption.

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    Del Pino, Javier; Moyano, Paula; Anadon, María José; García, José Manuel; Díaz, María Jesús; Gómez, Gloria; García, Jimena; Frejo, María Teresa

    2016-04-15

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphates insecticide reported to induce, both after acute and repeated exposure, cognitive disorders and basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss, involved on learning and memory regulation, which could be the cause of such cognitive disorders. This neuronal loss was mediated partially by AChE variants alteration, suggesting other mechanisms are involved. In this regard, CPF induces oxidative stress that is implicated in the induction of cognitive deficits, changes in AChE variants expression and neuronal loss. Otherwise, it has been shown that P75(NTR) and the α7-nAChRs expression is altered in basal forebrain of rats after CPF long-term exposure; this alteration has been related with oxidative stress induction, cholinergic cell loss, and disruption of learning and memory processes. According to these data, we hypothesized that CPF induces basal forebrain cholinergic neuronal loss through induction of oxidative stress produced by P75(NTR) and α7-nAChRs altered expression, which could mediate this action in part through AChE variants disruption. We evaluated this hypothesis in septal SN56 basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, after 24h and 14days CPF exposure in vitro. This study shows that CPF upregulated P75(NTR) and downregulated α7-nAChRs expression, which increased H2O2 and malondialdehyde content and reduced cell viability partially through AChE variants induction. Alpha7-nAChRs repression induced oxidative stress and cell death partially through this mechanism, but P75(NTR) overexpression did not produce these effects, although it increased oxidative stress and cell death after CPF treatment, showing that its overexpression increases cell vulnerability. Our present results provide new understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the harmful effects of CPF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Adulthood stress responses in rats are variably altered as a factor of adolescent stress exposure.

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    Moore, Nicole L T; Altman, Daniel E; Gauchan, Sangeeta; Genovese, Raymond F

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure during development may influence adulthood stress response severity. The present study investigates persisting effects of two adolescent stressors upon adulthood response to predator exposure (PE). Rats were exposed to underwater trauma (UWT) or PE during adolescence, then to PE after reaching adulthood. Rats were then exposed to predator odor (PO) to test responses to predator cues alone. Behavioral and neuroendocrine assessments were conducted to determine acute effects of each stress experience. Adolescent stress altered behavioral response to adulthood PE. Acoustic startle response was blunted. Bidirectional changes in plus maze exploration were revealed as a factor of adolescent stress type. Neuroendocrine response magnitude did not predict severity of adolescent or adult stress response, suggesting that different adolescent stress events may differentially alter developmental outcomes regardless of acute behavioral or neuroendocrine response. We report that exposure to two different stressors in adolescence may differentially affect stress response outcomes in adulthood. Acute response to an adolescent stressor may not be consistent across all stressors or all dependent measures, and may not predict alterations in developmental outcomes pertaining to adulthood stress exposure. Further studies are needed to characterize factors underlying long-term effects of a developmental stressor.

  18. Surface wetting strategy prevents acute heat exposure-induced alterations of hypothalamic stress- and metabolic-related genes in broiler chickens.

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    Rajaei-Sharifabadi, H; Greene, E; Piekarski, A; Falcon, D; Ellestad, L; Donoghue, A; Bottje, W; Porter, T; Liang, Y; Dridi, S

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress (HS) is devastating to poultry production worldwide, yet its biology and molecular responses are not well defined. Although advances in management strategy have partially alleviated the negative impact of HS, productivity still continues to decline when the ambient temperature rises. Therefore, identifying mechanism-based approaches to decrease HS susceptibility while improving production traits is critical. Recently, we made a breakthrough by applying a surface wetting strategy and showing that it improves growth performance compared with the current conventional cooling system. In the present study, we aimed to further define molecular mechanisms associated with surface wetting in ameliorating HS productivity loss in broilers. Five-week-old broiler chickens were exposed to acute HS (35°C for 2 h) alone or in combination with surface wetting. A control group was maintained at thermoneutral conditions (25°C). Core body temperature (BT) and feed intake were recorded. Blood was collected and hypothalamic tissues (main site involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis) were harvested to determine the expression profile of stress- and metabolic-related genes. Surface wetting prevents HS from increasing BT and plasma corticosterone levels ( < 0.05) and improves feeding and drinking behaviors. At molecular levels, surface wetting blocks the activation of hypothalamic heat shock protein and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein-induced by HS and significantly modulates the expression of feeding-related hypothalamic neuropeptides (agouti-related protein, proopiomelanocortin, orexin, orexin receptor, and leptin receptor). Taken together, our data represent the first evidence that surface wetting alleviates systemic and intracellular stress induced by HS and preserves the intracellular energy status, which, in turn, may result in improved broiler well-being and growth performance.

  19. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

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    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  20. Acute stress does not affect risky monetary decision-making

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    Peter Sokol-Hessner

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.

  1. Acute stress does not affect risky monetary decision-making.

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    Sokol-Hessner, Peter; Raio, Candace M; Gottesman, Sarah P; Lackovic, Sandra F; Phelps, Elizabeth A

    2016-12-01

    The ubiquitous and intense nature of stress responses necessitate that we understand how they affect decision-making. Despite a number of studies examining risky decision-making under stress, it is as yet unclear whether and in what way stress alters the underlying processes that shape our choices. This is in part because previous studies have not separated and quantified dissociable valuation and decision-making processes that can affect choices of risky options, including risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency, among others. Here, in a large, fully-crossed two-day within-subjects design, we examined how acute stress alters risky decision-making. On each day, 120 participants completed either the cold pressor test or a control manipulation with equal probability, followed by a risky decision-making task. Stress responses were assessed with salivary cortisol. We fit an econometric model to choices that dissociated risk attitudes, loss aversion, and choice consistency using hierarchical Bayesian techniques to both pool data and allow heterogeneity in decision-making. Acute stress was found to have no effect on risk attitudes, loss aversion, or choice consistency, though participants did become more loss averse and more consistent on the second day relative to the first. In the context of an inconsistent previous literature on risk and acute stress, our findings provide strong and specific evidence that acute stress does not affect risk attitudes, loss aversion, or consistency in risky monetary decision-making.

  2. Stress and translocation: alterations in the stress physiology of translocated birds

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    Dickens, Molly J.; Delehanty, David J.; Romero, L. Michael

    2009-01-01

    Translocation and reintroduction have become major conservation actions in attempts to create self-sustaining wild populations of threatened species. However, avian translocations have a high failure rate and causes for failure are poorly understood. While ‘stress’ is often cited as an important factor in translocation failure, empirical evidence of physiological stress is lacking. Here we show that experimental translocation leads to changes in the physiological stress response in chukar partridge, Alectoris chukar. We found that capture alone significantly decreased the acute glucocorticoid (corticosterone, CORT) response, but adding exposure to captivity and transport further altered the stress response axis (the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis) as evident from a decreased sensitivity of the negative feedback system. Animals that were exposed to the entire translocation procedure, in addition to the reduced acute stress response and disrupted negative feedback, had significantly lower baseline CORT concentrations and significantly reduced body weight. These data indicate that translocation alters stress physiology and that chronic stress is potentially a major factor in translocation failure. Under current practices, the restoration of threatened species through translocation may unwittingly depend on the success of chronically stressed individuals. This conclusion emphasizes the need for understanding and alleviating translocation-induced chronic stress in order to use most effectively this important conservation tool. PMID:19324794

  3. Ex-vivo diffusion MRI reveals microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions: A chronic mild stress recovery study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Ahmad Raza; Hansen, Brian; Wiborg, Ove

    Depression is a leading cause of disability worldwide and causes significant microstructural alterations in stress-sensitive brain regions. However, the potential recovery of these microstructural alterations has not previously been investigated, which we, therefore, set out to do using diffusion...... MRI (d-MRI) in the chronic mild stress (CMS) rat model of depression. This study reveals significant microstructural alterations after 8 weeks of recovery, in the opposite direction to change induced by stress in the acute phase of the experiment. Such findings may be useful in the prognosis...

  4. Thrombolytic therapy of acute myocardial infarction alters collagen metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, N B; Hansen, S S; Jensen, L T

    1994-01-01

    infarction and receiving thrombolytic therapy. Regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction was confirmed or not, S-PIIINP increased (94-120%) 4 h after streptokinase therapy (p ....02). With confirmed acute myocardial infarction, S-PIIINP increased from 24 h towards a plateau reached at day 2-3 (p acute myocardial infarction had S-PICP above baseline at 1, 2, and 6 months (p ....05). A less pronounced S-PIIINP increase was noted with tissue-plasminogen activator than with streptokinase. Thrombolytic therapy induces collagen breakdown regardless of whether acute myocardial infarction is confirmed or not. With confirmed acute myocardial infarction collagen metabolism is altered...

  5. Initial transference of wild birds to captivity alters stress physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickens, Molly J; Earle, Kristen A; Romero, L Michael

    2009-01-01

    Maintaining wild animals in captivity has long been used for conservation and research. While often suggested that captivity causes chronic stress, impacts on the underlying stress physiology are poorly understood. We used wild-caught chukar (Alectoris chukar) as a model avian species to assess how the initial 10 days of captivity alters the corticosterone (CORT) secretory pathway. In the first few days of captivity, birds lost weight, had lower hematocrit and demonstrated changes in CORT concentrations. Both baseline and restraint-stress-induced CORT concentrations decreased by days 3-5 of captivity and remained significantly lower throughout the 10 days although stress-induced concentrations began to recover by day 9. To delineate potential mechanisms underlying these CORT changes, we evaluated alterations to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Although chukar appear to be resistant to arginine vasotocin's (AVT) effects on CORT release, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) stimulated CORT release; however, ACTH stimulation did not differ during the 10 days of captivity. In contrast, negative feedback axis sensitivity, as determined by both dexamethasone suppression as well as endogenous negative feedback, decreased by day 5 but was regained by day 9. In addition, the combined stressors of capture and long distance transport eliminated the animals' ability to mount an acute CORT response on the day following the move. Therefore, introduction into captivity appeared to shift the chukar into a temporary state of chronic stress that began to recover within 9days. The duration of these alterations likely varies due to differences in capture techniques, transport distance, and species studied.

  6. Acute psychophysiological stress impairs human associative learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, M R; Todd, R M

    2017-11-01

    Addiction is increasingly discussed asa disorder of associative learning processes, with both operant and classical conditioning contributing to the development of maladaptive habits. Stress has long been known to promote drug taking and relapse and has further been shown to shift behavior from goal-directed actions towards more habitual ones. However, it remains to be investigated how acute stress may influence simple associative learning processes that occur before a habit can be established. In the present study, healthy young adults were exposed to either acute stress or a control condition half an hour before performing simple classical and operant conditioning tasks. Psychophysiological measures confirmed successful stress induction. Results of the operant conditioning task revealed reduced instrumental responding under delayed acute stress that resembled behavioral responses to lower levels of reward. The classical conditioning experiment revealed successful conditioning in both experimental groups; however, explicit knowledge of conditioning as indicated by stimulus ratings differentiated the stress and control groups. These findings suggest that operant and classical conditioning are differentially influenced by the delayed effects of acute stress with important implications for the understanding of how new habitual behaviors are initially established. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Dynamic changes in saliva after acute mental stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumova, Ella A.; Sandulescu, Tudor; Bochnig, Clemens; Khatib, Philipp Al; Lee, Wing-Kee; Zimmer, Stefan; Arnold, Wolfgang H.

    2014-01-01

    Stress-related variations of fluoride concentration in supernatant saliva and salivary sediment, salivary cortisol, total protein and pH after acute mental stress were assessed. The hypothesis was that stress reactions have no influence on these parameters. Thirty-four male students were distributed into two groups: first received the stress exposure followed by the same protocol two weeks later but without stress exposure, second underwent the protocol without stress exposure followed by the stress exposure two weeks later. The stressor was a public speech followed by tooth brushing. Saliva was collected before, immediately after stress induction and immediately, at 10, 30 and 120 min. after tooth brushing. Cortisol concentrations, total protein, intraoral pH, and fluoride content in saliva were measured. The data were analyzed statistically. Salivary sediment was ca 4.33% by weight of whole unstimulated saliva. Fluoride bioavailability was higher in salivary sediment than in supernatant saliva. The weight and fluoride concentration was not altered during 2 hours after stress exposure. After a public speech, the salivary cortisol concentration significantly increased after 20 minutes compared to the baseline. The salivary protein concentration and pH also increased. Public speaking influences protein concentration and salivary pH but does not alter the fluoride concentration of saliva. PMID:24811301

  8. Differential effects of mild chronic stress on cortisol and S-IgA responses to an acute stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viena, Tatiana D; Banks, Jonathan B; Barbu, Isabelle M; Schulman, Allan H; Tartar, Jaime L

    2012-10-01

    While acute stress is adaptive in the short term, chronic stress may interfere with HPA axis functioning and self-regulation that can, in turn, alter the body's immune response. Several studies suggest that acute and chronic stress consistently increase cortisol levels; however, the same cannot be said about S-IgA levels. We tested the effects of a mild chronic stress (an academic exam period), on cortisol and S-IgA responses to an acute stress. Exposure to an acute stressor significantly increases cortisol levels during periods of no-stress, but not during mild chronic stress, while S-IgA levels consistently increase during both sessions. Furthermore, we find that during the period of chronic mild stress, the perception of stress is related to increased cortisol response to an acute stressor. Combined, these findings shed light on the impact of increased background stress on acute stress responses. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  10. Stress during Adolescence Alters Palatable Food Consumption in a Context-Dependent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Christine; Yanaga, Stephanie; Reiss, Avery; Zona, Nicole; Robinson, Emily; Saxton, Katherine B

    2016-01-01

    Food consumption and preferences may be shaped by exposure to stressful environments during sensitive periods in development, and even small changes in consumption can have important effects on long term health. Adolescence is increasingly recognized as a sensitive period, in which adverse experiences can alter development, but the specific programming effects that may occur during adolescence remain incompletely understood. The current study seeks to explore the effects of stress during late adolescence on consumption of a palatable, high-fat, high-sugar food in adulthood-under basal conditions, as well following acute stress. Male Long-Evans rats were exposed to a regimen of variable stress for seven days in late adolescence (PND 45-51). During the stress regimen, stressed animals gained significantly less weight than control animals, but weight in adulthood was unaffected by adolescent stress. Palatable food consumption differed between experimental groups, and the direction of effect depended on context; stressed rats ate significantly more palatable food than controls upon first exposure, but ate less following an acute stressor. Leptin levels and exploratory behaviors did not differ between stressed and non-stressed groups, suggesting that other factors regulate preference for a palatable food. Altered food consumption following adolescent stress suggests that rats remain sensitive to stress during late adolescence, and that adult feeding behavior may be affected by previous adverse experiences. Such programming effects highlight adolescence as a period of plasticity, with the potential to shape long term food consumption patterns and preferences.

  11. Stress among parents with acutely ill children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizam, M; Norzila, M Z

    2001-12-01

    A child's admission into intensive care is a major cause of stress for parents. However among Malaysian parents, data concerning the perception of stress are virtually absent. Therefore we conducted a study to measure the reliability of the Malay version of Parental Stressor Scale: Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PSS: PICU) in identifying sources of stress and to study factors that might influence their stress response. Over a six-month period, one hundred and twelve parents were requested to answer the questionnaires twice either in Malay or English, a week apart. Spearman's correlation and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to assess the repeatability and internal consistency of the questionnaires. Ninety-four (83.9%) and seventy-one (75.3%) parents responded to the first and second administration of questionnaire respectively. All answered in the Malay language except for three. The correlation ranged from 0.50 to 0.71 with a total score of 0.76. The Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranged from 0.75 to 0.93, with total a score of 0.95. Alteration in parental roles was the most stressful source of stress. Fathers, parents of children with higher PRISM score and parents with no previous admission into intensive care unit scored significantly higher in staffs communication. The Malay version of PSS: PICU is reliable in identifying sources of stress. Alteration in parental roles was the most stressful source of stress. Parents' gender, previous experience and severity of the child illness may influence their stress responses.

  12. Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with genetic alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Annually, it is estimated that approximately 150-200 children aged 0-16 years are diagnosed with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In Japan, clinical studies with ANLL91, AML99, CCLSG-AML9805, and JPLSG-AML05 protocols were performed historically, and the risk stratification with a combination of chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation resulted in the improvement of clinical outcomes. Regarding the onset of pediatric AML at the molecular level, mutations in FLT3-ITD or KIT (Class I mutation) showed a poor prognosis, but the ratio of mutations in Class III-V genes was smaller than that in adult AML. In contrast, several pediatric AML cases are complicated due to chromosome fragility syndrome or congenital bone marrow failure syndrome. To improve the clinical outcomes, clinical application of next generation sequencing may allow for personalized therapy in each patient in the future.

  13. Effects of acute restraint stress on set-shifting and reversal learning in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thai, Chester A; Zhang, Ying; Howland, John G

    2013-03-01

    Exposure to acute stress alters cognition; however, few studies have examined the effects of acute stress on executive functions such as behavioral flexibility. The goal of the present experiments was to determine the effects of acute periods of stress on two distinct forms of behavioral flexibility: set-shifting and reversal learning. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained and tested in an operant-chamber-based task. Some of the rats were exposed to acute restraint stress (30 min) immediately before either the set-shifting test day or the reversal learning test day. Acute stress had no effect on set-shifting, but it significantly facilitated reversal learning, as assessed by both trials to criterion and total errors. In a second experiment, the roles of glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) in the acute-stress-induced facilitation of reversal learning were examined. Systemic administration of the GR-selective antagonist RU38486 (10 mg/kg) or the MR-selective antagonist spironolactone (50 mg/kg) 30 min prior to acute stress failed to block the facilitation on reversal learning. The present results demonstrate a dissociable effect of acute stress on set-shifting and reversal learning and suggest that the facilitation of reversal learning by acute stress may be mediated by factors other than corticosterone.

  14. Fluoxetine and diazepam acutely modulate stress induced-behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomini, Ana Cristina V V; Abreu, Murilo S; Giacomini, Luidia V; Siebel, Anna M; Zimerman, Fernanda F; Rambo, Cassiano L; Mocelin, Ricieri; Bonan, Carla D; Piato, Angelo L; Barcellos, Leonardo J G

    2016-01-01

    Drug residue contamination in aquatic ecosystems has been studied extensively, but the behavioral effects exerted by the presence of these drugs are not well known. Here, we investigated the effects of acute stress on anxiety, memory, social interaction, and aggressiveness in zebrafish exposed to fluoxetine and diazepam at concentrations that disrupt the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI) axis. Stress increased the locomotor activity and time spent in the bottom area of the tank (novel tank). Fluoxetine and diazepam prevented these behaviors. We also observed that stress and fluoxetine and diazepam exposures decreased social interaction. Stress also increased aggressive behavior, which was not reversed by fluoxetine or diazepam. These data suggest that the presence of these drugs in aquatic ecosystems causes significant behavioral alterations in fish. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Risk preferences under acute stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cahlíková, Jana; Cingl, L.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 1 (2017), s. 209-236 ISSN 1386-4157 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) SVV 265801/2012 Institutional support: Progres-Q24 Keywords : risk preferences * risk aversion * stress Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 2.391, year: 2016

  16. Individual differences in performance under acute stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Gaillard, A.W.K.

    2008-01-01

    To be able to predict which persons are capable to perform under acute stress is important for the selection and training of professionals in the military, police, and fire- fighting domain. The present study examines how individual differences in coping (style, efficacy, and behavior) explain

  17. Acute noise stress impairs feedback processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2012-01-01

    We examined the impact of acute noise stress on the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and whether this effect depended on stressor predictability. Participants performed a gambling task in a silence and a noise condition with either predictable or unpredictable noise. FRN amplitude was measured in

  18. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarín, Juan J; Hamatani, Toshio; Cano, Antonio

    2010-05-26

    This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1) estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) administration; and 2) women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes. Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating) the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.

  19. Acute stress may induce ovulation in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cano Antonio

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to gather information either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis that acute stress may induce ovulation in women. The formulation of this hypothesis is based on 2 facts: 1 estrogen-primed postmenopausal or ovariectomized women display an adrenal-progesterone-induced ovulatory-like luteinizing hormone (LH surge in response to exogenous adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH administration; and 2 women display multiple follicular waves during an interovulatory interval, and likely during pregnancy and lactation. Thus, acute stress may induce ovulation in women displaying appropriate serum levels of estradiol and one or more follicles large enough to respond to a non-midcycle LH surge. Methods A literature search using the PubMed database was performed to identify articles up to January 2010 focusing mainly on women as well as on rats and rhesus monkeys as animal models of interaction between the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG axes. Results Whereas the HPA axis exhibits positive responses in practically all phases of the ovarian cycle, acute-stress-induced release of LH is found under relatively high plasma levels of estradiol. However, there are studies suggesting that several types of acute stress may exert different effects on pituitary LH release and the steroid environment may modulate in a different way (inhibiting or stimulating the pattern of response of the HPG axis elicited by acute stressors. Conclusion Women may be induced to ovulate at any point of the menstrual cycle or even during periods of amenorrhea associated with pregnancy and lactation if exposed to an appropriate acute stressor under a right estradiol environment.

  20. Effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on platelet aggregation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Fumikazu; Kitamura, Nobuo; Satoh, Eiki

    2014-03-01

    Although psychological stress has long been known to alter cardiovascular function, there have been few studies on the effect of psychological stress on platelets, which play a pivotal role in cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effects of acute and chronic psychological stress on the aggregation of platelets and platelet cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]i). Mice were subjected to both transportation stress (exposure to novel environment, psychological stress) and restraint stress (psychological stress) for 2 h (acute stress) or 3 weeks (2 h/day) (chronic stress). In addition, adrenalectomized mice were subjected to similar chronic stress (both transportation and restraint stress for 3 weeks). The aggregation of platelets from mice and [Ca(2+)]i was determined by light transmission assay and fura-2 fluorescence assay, respectively. Although acute stress had no effect on agonist-induced platelet aggregation, chronic stress enhanced the ability of the platelet agonists thrombin and ADP to stimulate platelet aggregation. However, chronic stress failed to enhance agonist-induced increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Adrenalectomy blocked chronic stress-induced enhancement of platelet aggregation. These results suggest that chronic, but not acute, psychological stress enhances agonist-stimulated platelet aggregation independently of [Ca(2+)]i increase, and the enhancement may be mediated by stress hormones secreted from the adrenal glands.

  1. Individual differences in early adolescents' latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to recent acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroud, Catherine B; Chen, Frances R; Doane, Leah D; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-08-01

    Research suggests that environmental stress contributes to health by altering the regulation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis. Recent evidence indicates that early life stress alters trait indicators of HPA axis activity, but whether recent stress alters such indicators is unknown. Using objective contextual stress interviews with adolescent girls and their mothers, we examined the impact of recent acute and chronic stress occurring during the past year on early adolescent girls' latent trait cortisol (LTC) level. We also examined whether associations between recent stress and LTC level: a) varied according to the interpersonal nature and controllability of the stress; and b) remained after accounting for the effect of early life stress. Adolescents (n=117;M age=12.39years) provided salivary cortisol samples three times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days. Results indicated that greater recent interpersonal acute stress and greater recent independent (i.e., uncontrollable) acute stress were each associated with a higher LTC level, over and above the effect of early adversity. In contrast, greater recent chronic stress was associated with a lower LTC level. Findings were similar in the overall sample and a subsample of participants who strictly adhered to the timed schedule of saliva sample collection. Implications for understanding the impact of recent stress on trait-like individual differences in HPA axis activity are discussed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower electrodermal activity to acute stress in caregivers of people with autism spectrum disorder: an adaptive habituation to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-02-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between parents of people with (n = 30) and without (n = 34) ASD (caregivers and non-caregivers, respectively). Caregivers showed lower EDA in response to acute stress than non-caregivers. They also presented higher trait anxiety, anger, depression, and somatic symptoms than non-caregivers. Higher EDA was related to a worse mood and more severe somatic symptoms only in caregivers. These results could reflect an adaptive habituation to stress and establish that high EDA in response to acute stress depends on caregivers' health.

  3. Stress alters personal moral decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Farid F; Dookeeram, Karine; Basdeo, Vasant; Francis, Emmanuel; Doman, Mekaeel; Mamed, Danielle; Maloo, Stefan; Degannes, Joel; Dobo, Linda; Ditshotlo, Phatsimo; Legall, George

    2012-04-01

    While early studies of moral decision making highlighted the role of rational, conscious executive processes involving frontal lobe activation more recent work has suggested that emotions and gut reactions have a key part to play in moral reasoning. Given that stress can activate many of the same brain regions that are important for and connected to brain centres involved in emotional processing we sought to evaluate if stress could influence moral decision making. Sixty-five undergraduate volunteers were randomly assigned to control (n=33) and experimental groups (n=32). The latter underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and induction of stress was assessed by measurement of salivary cortisol levels. Subjects were then required to provide a response to thirty moral dilemmas via a computer interface that recorded both their decision and reaction time. Three types of dilemmas were used: non-moral, impersonal moral and personal moral. Using a binary logistic model there were no significant predicators of utilitarian response in non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas. However the stressed group and females were found to predict utilitarian responses to personal moral dilemmas. When comparing percentage utilitarian responses there were no significant differences noted for the non-moral and impersonal moral dilemmas but the stressed group showed significantly less utilitarian responses compared to control subjects. The stress response was significantly negatively correlated with utilitarian responses. Females also showed significantly less utilitarian responses than males. We conclude that activation of the stress response predisposed participants to less utilitarian responses when faced with high conflict personal moral dilemmas and suggest that this offers further support for dual process theory of moral judgment. We also conclude that females tend to make less utilitarian personal moral decisions compared to males, providing further evidence that there are

  4. Effect of Hemin on Brain Alterations and Neuroglobin Expression in Water Immersion Restraint Stressed Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merhan Ragy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the brain, the heme oxygenase (HO system has been reported to be very active and its modulation seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Hemin as HO-1 inducer has been shown to attenuate neuronal injury so the goal of this study was to assess the effect of hemin therapy on the acute stress and how it would modulate neurological outcome. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group and stressed group with six-hour water immersion restraint stress (WIRS and stressed group, treated with hemin, in which each rat received a single intraperitoneal injection of hemin at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight at 12 hours before exposure to WIRS. Stress hormones, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and expressions of neuroglobin and S100B mRNA in brain tissue were assayed. Our results revealed that hemin significantly affects brain alterations induced by acute stress and this may be through increased expression of neuroglobin and through antioxidant effect. Hemin decreased blood-brain barrier damage as it significantly decreased the expression of S100B. These results suggest that hemin may be an effective therapy for being neuroprotective against acute stress.

  5. Connexin43 and angiotensin II alterations in hearts of rats having undergone an acute exposure to alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Quan-Yong; Li, Xue-Fang; Liu, Shui-Ping

    2013-03-01

    Alcohol-induced heart damage is associated with enzyme and protein alterations. The purpose of this study was to investigate alcohol-induced alterations in cardiac connexin 43 (Cx43) and angiotensin II (Ang II) after acute alcohol administration. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: a control group and an ethanol group. The ethanol group intraperitoneally received 3.8 g/kg ethanol; the controls were given the same amount of saline via the same route. After the righting reflex disappeared, midsternotomy was performed in all animals. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed to evaluate protein expression of Cx43 and Ang II. Sections were analyzed by digital image analysis. The expression of Cx43 was significantly reduced after acute ethanol treatment, with the integrated optical density lower when compared with control (P heart during acute ethanol. The present study indicated that acute ethanol toxicity caused different alterations in heart proteins that would be related to oxidative stress.

  6. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  7. Nosema ceranae alters a highly conserved hormonal stress pathway in honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayack, C; Natsopoulou, M E; McMahon, D P

    2015-12-01

    Nosema ceranae, an emerging pathogen of the western honeybee (Apis mellifera), is implicated in recent pollinator losses and causes severe energetic stress. However, whether precocious foraging and accelerated behavioural maturation in infected bees are caused by the infection itself or via indirect energetic stress remains unknown. Using a combination of nutritional and infection treatments, we investigated how starvation and infection alters the regulation of adipokinetic hormone (AKH) and octopamine, two highly conserved physiological pathways that respond to energetic stress by mobilizing fat stores and increasing search activity for food. Although there was no response from AKH when bees were experimentally infected with N. ceranae or starved, supporting the notion that honeybees have lost this pathway, there were significant regulatory changes in the octopamine pathway. Significantly, we found no evidence of acute energetic stress being the only cause of symptoms associated with N. ceranae infection. Therefore, the parasite itself appears to alter regulatory components along a highly conserved physiological pathway in an infection-specific manner. This indicates that pathogen-induced behavioural alteration of chronically infected bees should not just be viewed as a coincidental short-term by-product of pathogenesis (acute energetic stress) and may be a result of a generalist manipulation strategy to obtain energy for reproduction. © 2015 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Repeated swim stress alters brain benzodiazepine receptors measured in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weizman, R.; Weizman, A.; Kook, K.A.; Vocci, F.; Deutsch, S.I.; Paul, S.M.

    1989-06-01

    The effects of repeated swim stress on brain benzodiazepine receptors were examined in the mouse using both an in vivo and in vitro binding method. Specific in vivo binding of (/sup 3/H)Ro15-1788 to benzodiazepine receptors was decreased in the hippocampus, cerebral cortex, hypothalamus, midbrain and striatum after repeated swim stress (7 consecutive days of daily swim stress) when compared to nonstressed mice. In vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding was unaltered after repeated swim stress in the cerebellum and pons medulla. The stress-induced reduction in in vivo benzodiazepine receptor binding did not appear to be due to altered cerebral blood flow or to an alteration in benzodiazepine metabolism or biodistribution because there was no difference in (14C)iodoantipyrine distribution or whole brain concentrations of clonazepam after repeated swim stress. Saturation binding experiments revealed a change in both apparent maximal binding capacity and affinity after repeated swim stress. Moreover, a reduction in clonazepam's anticonvulsant potency was also observed after repeated swim stress (an increase in the ED50 dose for protection against pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures), although there was no difference in pentylenetetrazol-induced seizure threshold between the two groups. In contrast to the results obtained in vivo, no change in benzodiazepine receptor binding kinetics was observed using the in vitro binding method. These data suggest that environmental stress can alter the binding parameters of the benzodiazepine receptor and that the in vivo and in vitro binding methods can yield substantially different results.

  9. Critical disease windows shaped by stress exposure alter allocation trade-offs between development and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Crespi, Erica J; Warne, Robin W

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitous environmental stressors are often thought to alter animal susceptibility to pathogens and contribute to disease emergence. However, duration of exposure to a stressor is likely critical, because while chronic stress is often immunosuppressive, acute stress can temporarily enhance immune function. Furthermore, host susceptibility to stress and disease often varies with ontogeny; increasing during critical developmental windows. How the duration and timing of exposure to stressors interact to shape critical windows and influence disease processes is not well tested. We used ranavirus and larval amphibians as a model system to investigate how physiological stress and pathogenic infection shape development and disease dynamics in vertebrates. Based on a resource allocation model, we designed experiments to test how exposure to stressors may induce resource trade-offs that shape critical windows and disease processes because the neuroendocrine stress axis coordinates developmental remodelling, immune function and energy allocation in larval amphibians. We used wood frog larvae (Lithobates sylvaticus) to investigate how chronic and acute exposure to corticosterone, the dominant amphibian glucocorticoid hormone, mediates development and immune function via splenocyte immunohistochemistry analysis in association with ranavirus infection. Corticosterone treatments affected immune function, as both chronic and acute exposure suppressed splenocyte proliferation, although viral replication rate increased only in the chronic corticosterone treatment. Time to metamorphosis and survival depended on both corticosterone treatment and infection status. In the control and chronic corticosterone treatments, ranavirus infection decreased survival and delayed metamorphosis, although chronic corticosterone exposure accelerated rate of metamorphosis in uninfected larvae. Acute corticosterone exposure accelerated metamorphosis increased survival in infected larvae. Interactions

  10. Alterations in Cardiac Deformation, Timing of Contraction and Relaxation, and Early Myocardial Fibrosis Accompany the Apparent Recovery of Acute Stress-Induced (Takotsubo) Cardiomyopathy: An End to the Concept of Transience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Konstantin; Ahearn, Trevor; Srinivasan, Janaki; Neil, Christopher J; Scally, Caroline; Rudd, Amelia; Jagpal, Baljit; Frenneaux, Michael P; Pislaru, Cristina; Horowitz, John D; Dawson, Dana K

    2017-08-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is an increasingly recognized cause of chest pain and occasionally of cardiogenic shock. Despite rapid improvement of the left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction, recent registry data raise concerns about long-term prognosis. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that restoration of normal ejection fraction after acute takotsubo syndrome is not equivalent to full functional recovery. Fifty-two patients with takotsubo syndrome (according to the Mayo Clinic criteria plus cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to exclude myocardial infarction) and 44 healthy control subjects of the same age, gender, and cardiovascular comorbidity distribution were prospectively recruited. The focus of the investigation was on patients with takotsubo syndrome presenting with ST-segment elevation-type electrocardiographic findings or malignant arrhythmias and with LV apical ballooning variant, and a 4-month recovery endpoint was assessed. Patients underwent echocardiographic assessment of LV myocardial deformation (global longitudinal, radial, and circumferential strain; LV twist, torsion, and untwist; and time to peak twist and untwist) and assessment of LV myocardial structure by pre- and post-contrast-enhanced cardiac magnetic resonance by T1 mapping acutely and at 4-month follow-up. Control subjects underwent a single-time-point investigation. Data were analyzed using paired or unpaired tests, as appropriate for their distribution, and corrected for multiple comparisons. The patients' mean age was 66 years (range, 28-87 years), and 92% were women. All abnormal echocardiographic indices observed acutely in patients with takotsubo syndrome improved (but did not necessarily normalize) at follow-up. Significant mechanotemporal alterations characterizing both systole (global longitudinal strain and apical circumferential strain, P T1 (which demonstrates edema) normalized at 4-months follow-up only in segments contracting normally during the acute phase (T1

  11. Prenatal stress alters amygdala functional connectivity in preterm neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinost, Dustin; Kwon, Soo Hyun; Lacadie, Cheryl; Sze, Gordon; Sinha, Rajita; Constable, R Todd; Ment, Laura R

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to prenatal and early-life stress results in alterations in neural connectivity and an increased risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. In particular, alterations in amygdala connectivity have emerged as a common effect across several recent studies. However, the impact of prenatal stress exposure on the functional organization of the amygdala has yet to be explored in the prematurely-born, a population at high risk for neuropsychiatric disorders. We test the hypothesis that preterm birth and prenatal exposure to maternal stress alter functional connectivity of the amygdala using two independent cohorts. The first cohort is used to establish the effects of preterm birth and consists of 12 very preterm neonates and 25 term controls, all without prenatal stress exposure. The second is analyzed to establish the effects of prenatal stress exposure and consists of 16 extremely preterm neonates with prenatal stress exposure and 10 extremely preterm neonates with no known prenatal stress exposure. Standard resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and seed connectivity methods are used. When compared to term controls, very preterm neonates show significantly reduced connectivity between the amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, the brainstem, and the insula (p amygdala and the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the peristriate cortex (p amygdala connectivity associated with preterm birth. Functional connectivity from the amygdala to other subcortical regions is decreased in preterm neonates compared to term controls. In addition, these data, for the first time, suggest that prenatal stress exposure amplifies these decreases.

  12. Heat Stress in Dairy Cattle Alters Lipid Composition of Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z; Ezernieks, V; Wang, J; Arachchillage, N Wanni; Garner, J B; Wales, W J; Cocks, B G; Rochfort, S

    2017-04-19

    Heat stress, potentially affecting both the health of animals and the yield and composition of milk, occurs frequently in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate regions. A simulated acute heat stress experiment was conducted in controlled-climate chambers and milk samples collected before, during and after the heat challenge. Milk lipid composition, surveyed using LC-MS, showed significant changes in triacylglycerol (TAG) and polar lipid profiles. Heat stress (temperature-humidity index up to 84) was associated with a reduction in TAG groups containing short- and medium-chain fatty acids and a concomitant increase in those containing long-chain fatty acids. The abundance of five polar lipid classes including phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, lysophosphatidylcholine and glucosylceramide, was found to be significantly reduced during heat stress. Lysophosphatidylcholine, showing the greatest reduction in concentration, also displayed a differential response between heat tolerant and heat susceptible cows during heat stress. This phospholipid could be used as a heat stress biomarker for dairy cattle. Changes in TAG profile caused by heat stress are expected to modify the physical properties of milk fat, whereas the reduction of phospholipids may affect the nutritional value of milk. The results are discussed in relation to animal metabolism adaptation in the event of acute heat stress.

  13. Markers of acute stress in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breineková, K; Svoboda, M; Smutná, M; Vorlová, L

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the biological validation of markers of acute stress in pigs subjected to transportation for slaughter. The stress markers selected for monitoring were neopterin and cortisol. Their levels in pig serum were measured for two porcine stress syndrome genotypes, NN and Nn, after a 30-min transport to a slaughterhouse. Blood samples were withdrawn before transport (control group) and immediately after the animals' arrival (experimental group). The values of neopterin and cortisol measured before the transport were 5.60+/-1.65 nmol/l and 273.54+/-66.17 nmol/l respectively. After the transfer, the concentration of cortisol rose significantly compared to the control (355.69+/-85.13 nmol/l, p<0.01). Neopterin concentrations in the serum (8.25+/-1.60 nmol/l) were also significantly higher (p<0.01) after transportation. The elevated concentrations of both analytes were found to be independent of the genotype. These results document the stimulation of the endocrine system and the immune system that develops in animals undergoing transportation for slaughter.

  14. The influence of acute stress on the regulation of conditioned fear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Candace M. Raio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fear learning and regulation is a prominent model for describing the pathogenesis of anxiety disorders and stress-related psychopathology. Fear expression can be modulated using a number of regulatory strategies, including extinction, cognitive emotion regulation, avoidance strategies and reconsolidation. In this review, we examine research investigating the effects of acute stress and stress hormones on these regulatory techniques. We focus on what is known about the impact of stress on the ability to flexibly regulate fear responses that are acquired through Pavlovian fear conditioning. Our primary aim is to explore the impact of stress on fear regulation in humans. Given this, we focus on techniques where stress has been linked to alterations of fear regulation in humans (extinction and emotion regulation, and briefly discuss other techniques (avoidance and reconsolidation where the impact of stress or stress hormones have been mainly explored in animal models. These investigations reveal that acute stress may impair the persistent inhibition of fear, presumably by altering prefrontal cortex function. Characterizing the effects of stress on fear regulation is critical for understanding the boundaries within which existing regulation strategies are viable in everyday life and can better inform treatment options for those who suffer from anxiety and stress-related psychopathology.

  15. Acute Stress Symptoms in Young Children with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoddard, Frederick J.; Saxe, Glenn; Ronfeldt, Heidi; Drake, Jennifer E.; Burns, Jennifer; Edgren, Christy; Sheridan, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms are a focus of much research with older children, but little research has been conducted with young children, who account for about 50% of all pediatric burn injuries. This is a 3-year study of 12- to 48-month-old acutely burned children to assess acute traumatic stress outcomes. The aims were to…

  16. Management under stress : integration of acute stress in crisis management : the acute stress's impacts on managers capabilities in crisis situation

    OpenAIRE

    Vraie, Benoît

    2017-01-01

    The integration of the "acute stress" factor in the problems of Human Management entails revisiting contributions and theories of Management Sciences, reexamining and shedding new light on fundamental concepts of Management. Thus, it appears that the performance and the capacity of restitution of skills acquired by individuals, depends directly on their level of stress. In fact, depending on the imbalance between the perception that a person has of the constraints imposed by his environment a...

  17. Perceived life stress exposure modulates reward-related medial prefrontal cortex responses to acute stress in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M; Berghorst, Lisa H; Treadway, Michael T; Brooks, Nancy H; Dutra, Sunny J; Greve, Douglas N; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2015-07-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r=0.79, p=0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r=0.79) and no-stress (r=-0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC gray matter, but functional findings remained robust while accounting for structural differences. Small sample size, which warrants replication. Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Perceived Chronic Stress Exposure Modulates Reward-Related Medial Prefrontal Cortex Responses to Acute Stress in Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Slavich, George M.; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Treadway, Michael T.; Brooks, Nancy H.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Greve, Douglas N.; O'Donovan, Aoife; Bleil, Maria E.; Maninger, Nicole; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Major depressive disorder (MDD) is often precipitated by life stress and growing evidence suggests that stress-induced alterations in reward processing may contribute to such risk. However, no human imaging studies have examined how recent life stress exposure modulates the neural systems that underlie reward processing in depressed and healthy individuals. Methods In this proof-of-concept study, 12 MDD and 10 psychiatrically healthy individuals were interviewed using the Life Events and Difficulties Schedule (LEDS) to assess their perceived levels of recent acute and chronic life stress exposure. Additionally, each participant performed a monetary incentive delay task under baseline (no-stress) and stress (social-evaluative) conditions during functional MRI. Results Across groups, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) activation to reward feedback was greater during acute stress versus no-stress conditions in individuals with greater perceived stressor severity. Under acute stress, depressed individuals showed a positive correlation between perceived stressor severity levels and reward-related mPFC activation (r = 0.79, p = 0.004), whereas no effect was found in healthy controls. Moreover, for depressed (but not healthy) individuals, the correlations between the stress (r = 0.79) and no-stress (r = −0.48) conditions were significantly different. Finally, relative to controls, depressed participants showed significantly reduced mPFC grey matter, but functional findings remained when accounting for structural differences. Limitation Small sample size, which warrants replication. Conclusion Depressed individuals experiencing greater recent life stress recruited the mPFC more under stress when processing rewards. Our results represent an initial step toward elucidating mechanisms underlying stress sensitization and recurrence in depression. PMID:25898329

  19. Blunted Electrodermal and Psychological Response to Acute Stress in Family Caregivers of People with Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2016-05-10

    Caring for an offspring with an eating disorder (ED) is associated with high levels of distress, and health problems. Indeed, ED caregivers have to cope with a range of challenges related to their caring role, which represents a chronic stress situation. This tends to alter body homeostasis and caregivers' health status. This study aimed to analyse the electrodermal reactivity and psychological response to acute stress in ED caregivers compared to non-caregivers. As expected, caregivers showed lower electrodermal (p stress than non-caregivers. The findings suggest the existence of physiological adaptation to chronic stress in family caregivers of people with EDs.

  20. Prenatal stress alters cardiovascular responses in adult rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igosheva, N; Klimova, O; Anishchenko, T; Glover, V

    2004-01-01

    Environmental factors in early life are clearly established risk factors for cardiovascular disease in later life. Most studies have focused on nutritional programming and analysed basal cardiovascular parameters rather than responses. In the present study we have investigated whether prenatal stress has long-term effects on cardiovascular responses in adult offspring. Female pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to stress three times daily from day 15 to day 21 of gestation. Litters from stressed and control females were cross-fostered at birth to control for mothering effects. When the offspring were 6 months old, blood pressure was measured in the conscious rats through implanted catheters at rest, during restraint stress and during recovery. Basal haemodynamic parameters were similar in the different groups but the pattern of cardiovascular responses during stress and recovery differed markedly between prenatally stressed (PS) and control animals. PS rats had higher and longer-lasting systolic arterial pressure elevations to restraint stress than control animals. They also showed elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure values during the recovery phase. PS rats demonstrated a greater increase in blood pressure variability compared with control animals during exposure to restraint stress, and showed more prolonged heart rate responses to acute stress and delayed recovery than controls. There was no effect of prenatal stress on baroreflex regulation of heart rate. PS females showed a greater increase in systolic arterial pressure and blood pressure variability and delayed heart rate recovery following return to the home cage then did PS males. These findings demonstrate for the first time that prenatal stress can induce long-term, sex-related changes in the sensitivity of the cardiovascular system to subsequent stress. PMID:15034122

  1. The stressed prefrontal cortex and goal-directed behaviour: acute psychosocial stress impairs the flexible implementation of task goals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessow, Franziska; Kiesel, Andrea; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2012-02-01

    Goals are often at the basis of human actions. As an essential mechanism of behavioural adaptation, individuals need to be able to flexibly implement new task goals so as to alter their actions (switch tasks) in response to contextual changes. The present study investigated the effect of acute psychosocial stress on cognitive control processes of flexible task-goal implementation with temporal focus on the occurrence interval of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) stress response. For this, forty-eight healthy volunteers were either challenged with a standardised stress-induction protocol (the Trier Social Stress Test) or underwent a standardised control situation. Subsequently, they were exposed to a task-switching procedure with two tasks alternating in random order. Participants of the stress group displayed increased salivary α-amylase activity immediately after stress exposure as well as elevations of salivary cortisol from 10 min after stress cessation, reflecting the typical stress-related activity increases in the sympathetic nervous system and the HPA axis, respectively. At the time interval of elevated cortisol levels, stressed individuals persistently showed larger performance differences between task switches and task repetitions (switch costs) than controls. This effect was reliably evident when tested 5-20 min as well as 25-40 min following treatment cessation. These results indicate that acute psychosocial stress impairs cognitive control processes of flexible task-goal implementation essential for voluntary goal-directed behaviour.

  2. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description.

  3. A large-scale perspective on stress-induced alterations in resting-state networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron-Katz, Adi; Vaisvaser, Sharon; Lin, Tamar; Hendler, Talma; Shamir, Ron

    2016-02-01

    Stress is known to induce large-scale neural modulations. However, its neural effect once the stressor is removed and how it relates to subjective experience are not fully understood. Here we used a statistically sound data-driven approach to investigate alterations in large-scale resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) induced by acute social stress. We compared rsfMRI profiles of 57 healthy male subjects before and after stress induction. Using a parcellation-based univariate statistical analysis, we identified a large-scale rsFC change, involving 490 parcel-pairs. Aiming to characterize this change, we employed statistical enrichment analysis, identifying anatomic structures that were significantly interconnected by these pairs. This analysis revealed strengthening of thalamo-cortical connectivity and weakening of cross-hemispheral parieto-temporal connectivity. These alterations were further found to be associated with change in subjective stress reports. Integrating report-based information on stress sustainment 20 minutes post induction, revealed a single significant rsFC change between the right amygdala and the precuneus, which inversely correlated with the level of subjective recovery. Our study demonstrates the value of enrichment analysis for exploring large-scale network reorganization patterns, and provides new insight on stress-induced neural modulations and their relation to subjective experience.

  4. Modulation of the metabolic response to vaccination in naive beef steers using an acute versus chronic stress model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Available energy plays a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of an immune response to a pathogen a process that is further altered by activation of stress system. This study was designed to determine the effect of an acute versus chronic stress model on the metabolic response to vaccinat...

  5. Mitochondrial dynamics altered by oxidative stress in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Boyun; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-10-01

    Mitochondria as crucial organelles regulate cellular energy generation, calcium and redox homeostasis, and apoptosis. To perform the cellular functions effectively, mitochondria continuously change their structure and morphology through protein machineries controlling fission and fusion process (mitochondrial dynamics). Traditionally, many researches had focused on the interaction of mitochondrial dynamics and apoptosis. However, recent studies are reporting the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics in human diseases including many types of cancers. Considering that cancers maintain a high level of reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial dynamics can be influenced by oxidative stress. In this review, we will discuss the alteration of mitochondrial dynamics by ROS and its effect on metastasis and chemoresistance in cancers.

  6. Dual-task performance under acute stress in female adolescents with borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaess, Michael; Parzer, Peter; Koenig, Julian; Resch, Franz; Brunner, Romuald

    2016-09-01

    Research to elucidate early alterations of higher cognitive processes in adolescents with BPD is rare. This study investigated differences in dual-task performance in adolescents with BPD during stress and non-stress conditions. The study sample comprised 30 female adolescents with BPD and 34 healthy controls. The impact of stress on dual-task performance was measured using a standardized stressor. Self-reports of distress and measures of heart rate (HR) were obtained to measure stress reactivity. There were no group differences in task performance. Under stress conditions, the performance on the auditory task decreased in both groups but without significant group differences. Healthy controls showed an increase of mean HR after stress induction compared to no change in the BPD group. The finding of attenuated HR response to acute stress in adolescent patients with BPD may contradict current theories that the affective hyperresponsivity in BPD is based on a biologically determined mechanism.

  7. Acute Stress Influences Neural Circuits of Reward Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony John Porcelli

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available People often make decisions under aversive conditions such as acute stress. Yet, less is known about the process in which acute stress can influence decision-making. A growing body of research has established that reward-related information associated with the outcomes of decisions exerts a powerful influence over the choices people make and that an extensive network of brain regions, prominently featuring the striatum, is involved in the processing of this reward-related information. Thus, an important step in research on the nature of acute stress’ influence over decision-making is to examine how it may modulate responses to rewards and punishments within reward-processing neural circuitry. In the current experiment, we employed a simple reward processing paradigm – where participants received monetary rewards and punishments – known to evoke robust striatal responses. Immediately prior to performing each of two task runs, participants were exposed to acute stress (i.e., cold pressor or a no stress control procedure in a between-subjects fashion. No stress group participants exhibited a pattern of activity within the dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex consistent with past research on outcome processing – specifically, differential responses for monetary rewards over punishments. In contrast, acute stress group participants’ dorsal striatum and orbitofrontal cortex demonstrated decreased sensitivity to monetary outcomes and a lack of differential activity. These findings provide insight into how neural circuits may process rewards and punishments associated with simple decisions under acutely stressful conditions.

  8. Perceived stress at work is associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Theorell, Töres; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2013-09-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) have been suggested to play a protective role during acute psychosocial stress, because they act as antagonists to the effects of the stress hormone cortisol. This study aims to investigate whether prolonged psychosocial stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, is related to the capacity to produce DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. It also aims to investigate whether prolonged perceived stress affects the balance between production of cortisol and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress. Thirty-six healthy subjects (19 men and 17 women, mean age 37 years, SD 5 years), were included. Perceived stress at work during the past week was measured by using the Stress-Energy (SE) Questionnaire. The participants were divided into three groups based on their mean scores; Low stress, Medium stress and High stress. The participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. General Linear Models were used to investigate if the Medium stress group and the High stress group differ regarding stress response compared to the Low stress group. Higher perceived stress at work was associated with attenuated DHEA-S response during acute psychosocial stress. Furthermore, the ratio between the cortisol production and the DHEA-S production during the acute stress test were higher in individuals reporting higher perceived stress at work compared to individuals reporting low perceived stress at work. There was no statistical difference in DHEA response between the groups. This study shows that prolonged stress, measured as perceived stress at work during the past week, seems to negatively affect the capacity to produce DHEA-S during acute stress. Given the protective functions of DHEA-S, attenuated DHEA-S production during acute stress may lead to higher risk for adverse

  9. The alteration of the urinary steroid profile under the stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gronowska

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the second part of twentieth century anabolic-androgenic steroids were introduced into doping practice and received continuously increasing significance. In order to prove the usage of doping substances, the determination of steroid profile in the urine came into practice. Several factors may be responsible for alterations in the normal steroid profile for example age, sex and diet. The aim of this study was to find out, whether the psychological stress may cause modifications in the steroid profile and T/Et ratio. The effect of physical activity was also considered. The steroid profile was determined in the group of 34 students being in non-stress conditions and under stress immediately before an important university exam. The intensity of stress was rated by self-reported questionnaire. The GC/MS method was applied to determine the steroid profile in the urine samples. The results of the experiment have shown that psychological stress may cause significant changes in the steroid profile, especially in females. Physical activity, independently of stress significantly modified the steroid profile. In summary, observed changes in steroid profile suggest, that major fluctuations of T/Et and A/E ratios under the influence of stressogenic factors and physical activity are unlikely.

  10. OSO paradigm--A rapid behavioral screening method for acute psychosocial stress reactivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzózka, M M; Unterbarnscheidt, T; Schwab, M H; Rossner, M J

    2016-02-09

    Chronic psychosocial stress is an important environmental risk factor for the development of psychiatric diseases. However, studying the impact of chronic psychosocial stress in mice is time consuming and thus not optimally suited to 'screen' increasing numbers of genetically manipulated mouse models for psychiatric endophenotypes. Moreover, many studies focus on restraint stress, a strong physical stressor with limited relevance for psychiatric disorders. Here, we describe a simple and a rapid method based on the resident-intruder paradigm to examine acute effects of mild psychosocial stress in mice. The OSO paradigm (open field--social defeat--open field) compares behavioral consequences on locomotor activity, anxiety and curiosity before and after exposure to acute social defeat stress. We first evaluated OSO in male C57Bl/6 wildtype mice where a single episode of social defeat reduced locomotor activity, increased anxiety and diminished exploratory behavior. Subsequently, we applied the OSO paradigm to mouse models of two schizophrenia (SZ) risk genes. Transgenic mice with neuronal overexpression of Neuregulin-1 (Nrg1) type III showed increased risk-taking behavior after acute stress exposure suggesting that NRG1 dysfunction is associated with altered affective behavior. In contrast, Tcf4 transgenic mice displayed a normal stress response which is in line with the postulated predominant contribution of TCF4 to cognitive deficits of SZ. In conclusion, the OSO paradigm allows for rapid screening of selected psychosocial stress-induced behavioral endophenotypes in mouse models of psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute myocardial infarction as a result of stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bakusová, Tereza

    2007-01-01

    This thesis aims to describe acute myocardial infarction as a psychosomatic disease. Represents acute myocardial infarction as a result of stress and type A behavior. Research part reveals number of respondents, affected by stresss at the time of myocardial infarction and respondents with type A behavior.

  12. Estimation of Subjective Stress in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam A

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND and AIMS: Mental stress is considered to be a precipitating factor in acute coronary events. We aimed to assess the association of subjective or 'perceived' mental stress with the occurrence of acute coronary events. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective case-control survey was carried out in a referral teaching hospital. subjects & METHODS: Consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and ST elevation on electrocardiogram who were admitted to the Coronary Care Unit of a referral teaching hospital were enrolled in the study as cases. Controls were unmatched and were enrolled from amongst patients with coronary artery disease who did not have recent acute coronary events. Subjective Stress Functional Classification (SS-FC for the preceding 2-4 weeks was assessed and assigned four grades from I to IV as follows: I - baseline, II - more than usual but not affecting daily routine, III - significantly high stress affecting daily routine and IV - worst stress in life. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Proportions of different characteristics were compared using chi-square test with Yates continuity correction. Student's unpaired t test was applied for mean age. 'p' value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS: SS-FC could be reliably (99% and easily assessed. Eighty (53% of the total 150 patients with acute MI reported 'high' levels of stress (stress class III and IV. This is in contrast to only 30 (20% of 150 healthy controls reporting high stress for the same period (p value < 0.001. CONCLUSION: Patients with acute myocardial infarction report a higher subjective mental stress during 2 to 4 weeks preceding the acute coronary event.

  13. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  14. Calcium signaling alterations, oxidative stress, and autophagy in aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureshino, Rodrigo Portes; Rocha, Katiucha Karolina; Lopes, Guiomar Silva; Bincoletto, Cláudia; Smaili, Soraya Soubhi

    2014-07-01

    Aging is a multi-factorial process that may be associated with several functional and structural deficits which can evolve into degenerative diseases. In this review, we present data that may depict an expanded view of molecular aging theories, beginning with the idea that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major effectors in this process. In addition, we have correlated the importance of autophagy as a neuroprotective mechanism and discussed a link between age-related molecules, Ca(2+) signaling, and oxidative stress. There is evidence suggesting that alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, including mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload and alterations in electron transport chain (ETC) complexes, which increase cell vulnerability, are linked to oxidative stress in aging. As much as Ca(2+) signaling is altered in aged cells, excess ROS can be produced due to an ineffective coupling of mitochondrial respiration. Damaged mitochondria might not be removed by the macroautophagic system, which is hampered in aging by lipofuscin accumulation, boosting ROS generation, damaging DNA, and, ultimately, leading to apoptosis. This process can lead to altered protein expression (such as p53, Sirt1, and IGF-1) and progress to cell death. This cycle can lead to increased cell vulnerability in aging and contribute to an increased susceptibility to degenerative processes. A better understanding of Ca(2+) signaling and molecular aging alterations is important for preventing apoptosis in age-related diseases. In addition, caloric restriction, resveratrol and autophagy modulation appear to be predominantly cytoprotective, and further studies of this process are promising in age-related disease therapeutics.

  15. Response Inhibition and Cognitive Appraisal in Clients with Acute Stress Disorder and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abass Abolghasemi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of the present study was to compare response inhibition and cognitive appraisal in clients with acute stress disorder, clients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and normal individuals .Method:This was a comparative study. The sample consisted of 40 clients with acute stress disorder, 40 patients with posttraumatic stress disorder, and 40 normal individuals from Mazandaran province selected through convenience sampling method. Data were collected using Composite International Diagnostic Interview, Stroop Color-Word Test, Posttraumatic Cognitions Inventory, and the Impact of Event Scale. Results:Results showed that individuals with acute stress disorder are less able to inhibit inappropriate responses and have more impaired cognitive appraisals compared to those with posttraumatic stress disorder. Moreover, results showed that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal explain 75% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and 38% of the variance in posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms .Conclusion:The findings suggest that response inhibition and cognitive appraisal are two variables that influence the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder symptoms. Also, these results have important implications for pathology, prevention, and treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and acute stress disorder

  16. Does acute psychological stress increase perception of oesophageal acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, G. J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients often report an increase in their reflux symptoms during stressful situations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of acute psychological stress on oesophageal acid perception. In 15 healthy volunteers and 10 GORD patients with a

  17. Does acute psychological stress increase perception of oesophageal acid?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemmink, G. J. M.; Bredenoord, A. J.; Weusten, B. L. A. M.; Timmer, R.; Smout, A. J. P. M.

    2009-01-01

    P>Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) patients often report an increase in their reflux symptoms during stressful situations. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of acute psychological stress on oesophageal acid perception. In 15 healthy volunteers and 10 GORD patients with a

  18. Exposure to Forced Swim Stress Alters Local Circuit Activity and Plasticity in the Dentate Gyrus of the Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orli Yarom

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that, depending on its severity and context, stress can affect neural plasticity. Most related studies focused on synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation (LTP of principle cells. However, evidence suggests that following high-frequency stimulation, which induces LTP in principal cells, modifications also take place at the level of complex interactions with interneurons within the dentate gyrus, that is, at the local circuit level. So far, the possible effects of stress on local circuit activity and plasticity were not studied. Therefore, we set out to examine the possible alterations in local circuit activity and plasticity following exposure to stress. Local circuit activity and plasticity were measured by using frequency dependant inhibition (FDI and commissural modulation protocols following exposure to a 15 minute-forced swim trial. Exposure to stress did not alter FDI. The application of theta-burst stimulation (TBS reduced FDI in both control and stressed rats, but this type of plasticity was greater in stressed rats. Commissural-induced inhibition was significantly higher in stressed rats both before and after applying theta-burst stimulation. These findings indicate that the exposure to acute stress affects aspects of local circuit activity and plasticity in the dentate gyrus. It is possible that these alterations underlie some of the behavioral consequences of the stress experience.

  19. Repeated exposure to conditioned fear stress increases anxiety and delays sleep recovery following exposure to an acute traumatic stressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin N Greenwood

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Repeated stressor exposure can sensitize physiological responses to novel stressors and facilitate the development of stress-related psychiatric disorders including anxiety. Disruptions in diurnal rhythms of sleep-wake behavior accompany stress-related psychiatric disorders and could contribute to their development. Complex stressors that include fear-eliciting stimuli can be a component of repeated stress experienced by humans, but whether exposure to repeated fear can prime the development of anxiety and sleep disturbances is unknown. In the current study, adult male F344 rats were exposed to either control conditions or repeated contextual fear conditioning for 22 days followed by exposure to either no, mild (10, or severe (100 acute uncontrollable tail shock stress. Exposure to acute stress produced anxiety-like behavior as measured by a reduction in juvenile social exploration and exaggerated shock-elicited freezing in a novel context. Prior exposure to repeated fear enhanced anxiety-like behavior as measured by shock-elicited freezing, but did not alter social exploratory behavior. The potentiation of anxiety produced by prior repeated fear was temporary; exaggerated fear was present 1 day but not 4 days following acute stress. Interestingly, exposure to acute stress reduced REM and NREM sleep during the hours immediately following acute stress. This initial reduction in sleep was followed by robust REM rebound and diurnal rhythm flattening of sleep / wake behavior. Prior repeated fear extended the acute stress-induced REM and NREM sleep loss, impaired REM rebound, and prolonged the flattening of the diurnal rhythm of NREM sleep following acute stressor exposure. These data suggest that impaired recovery of sleep / wake behavior following acute stress could contribute to the mechanisms by which a history of prior repeated stress increases vulnerability to subsequent novel stressors and stress-related disorders.

  20. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veld, D.M.J. de; Riksen-Walraven, J.M.A.; Weerth, C. de

    2014-01-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; M-age = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM

  1. Early endocrine alterations reflect prolonged stress and relate to one year functional outcome in patients with severe brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marina, Djordje; Klose, Marianne; Nordenbo, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Independence Measure) and lower capability of normal life activities (Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended) were related to both elevated stress hormones (p≤0.01) and reduced gonadal and/or thyroid hormones (p≤0.01) measured at 3 months. CONCLUSIONS: The present study suggests that brain injury-related endocrine...... alterations mimicking secondary hypogonadism and hypothyroidism and with elevated stress hormones most probably reflect a prolonged stress response 2 to 5 months after severe brain injury, rather than pituitary insufficiency per se. These endocrine alterations thus seem to reflect a more severe disease state......OBJECTIVE: Severe brain injury poses a risk of developing acute and chronic hypopituitarism. Pituitary hormone alterations developed in the early recovery phase after brain injury may have implications for long-term functional recovery. The objective was to assess the pattern and prevalence...

  2. Glial and tissue-specific regulation of Kynurenine Pathway dioxygenases by acute stress of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos R. Dostal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Stressors activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and immune system eliciting changes in cognitive function, mood and anxiety. An important link between stress and altered behavior is stimulation of the Kynurenine Pathway which generates neuroactive and immunomodulatory kynurenines. Tryptophan entry into this pathway is controlled by rate-limiting indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (DOs: Ido1, Ido2, Tdo2. Although implicated as mediating changes in behavior, detecting stress-induced DO expression has proven inconsistent. Thus, C57BL/6J mice were used to characterize DO expression in brain-regions, astrocytes and microglia to characterize restraint-stress-induced DO expression. Stress increased kynurenine in brain and plasma, demonstrating increased DO activity. Of three Ido1 transcripts, only Ido1-v1 expression was increased by stress and within astrocytes, not microglia, indicating transcript- and glial-specificity. Stress increased Ido1-v1 only in frontal cortex and hypothalamus, indicating brain-region specificity. Of eight Ido2 transcripts, Ido2-v3 expression was increased by stress, again only within astrocytes. Likewise, stress increased Tdo2-FL expression in astrocytes, not microglia. Interestingly, Ido2 and Tdo2 transcripts were not correspondingly induced in Ido1-knockout (Ido1KO mice, suggesting that Ido1 is necessary for the central DO response to acute stress. Unlike acute inflammatory models resulting in DO induction within microglia, only astrocyte DO expression was increased by acute restraint-stress, defining their unique role during stress-dependent activation of the Kynurenine Pathway. Keywords: Stress, Ido, Tdo, Kynurenine, Astrocyte, Liver

  3. Inactivation of medial prefrontal cortex or acute stress impairs odor span in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Don A Davies; Molder, Joel J.; Greba, Quentin; Howland, John G.

    2013-01-01

    The capacity of working memory is limited and is altered in brain disorders including schizophrenia. In rodent working memory tasks, capacity is typically not measured (at least not explicitly). One task that does measure working memory capacity is the odor span task (OST) developed by Dudchenko and colleagues. In separate experiments, the effects of medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) inactivation or acute stress on the OST were assessed in rats. Inactivation of the mPFC profoundly impaired odor...

  4. δPKC mediates microcerebrovascular dysfunction in acute ischemia and in chronic hypertensive stress in vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Bright, Rachel; Steinberg, Gary K.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining cerebrovascular function is a priority for reducing damage following acute ischemic events such as stroke, and under chronic stress in diseases such as hypertension. Ischemic episodes lead to endothelial cell damage, deleterious inflammatory responses, and altered neuronal and astrocyte regulation of vascular function. These, in turn, can lead to impaired cerebral blood flow and compromised blood–brain barrier function, promoting microvascular collapse, edema, hemorrhagic transfor...

  5. Oxidative stress can alter the antigenicity of immunodominant peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Schwanninger, Angelika; Weinberger, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    APCs operate frequently under oxidative stress induced by aging, tissue damage, pathogens, or inflammatory responses. Phagocytic cells produce peroxides and free-radical species that facilitate pathogen clearance and can in the case of APCs, also lead to oxidative modifications of antigenic...... of antigenic peptides may affect T cell responses severely by binding T cell clones with different affinity. This may lead to an altered immune response against infectious agents as well as against tumor or autoantigens under oxidative stress conditions....... proteins and peptides. Little information is available presently about the consequences of such modifications on the immune response. To model oxidative modification of an immunodominant antigenic peptide, we oxidized the methionine residue of the human CMV pp65(495-503) (NLVPMVATV) peptide...

  6. Social stress reactivity alters reward and punishment learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, James F; Frank, Michael J; Allen, John J B

    2011-06-01

    To examine how stress affects cognitive functioning, individual differences in trait vulnerability (punishment sensitivity) and state reactivity (negative affect) to social evaluative threat were examined during concurrent reinforcement learning. Lower trait-level punishment sensitivity predicted better reward learning and poorer punishment learning; the opposite pattern was found in more punishment sensitive individuals. Increasing state-level negative affect was directly related to punishment learning accuracy in highly punishment sensitive individuals, but these measures were inversely related in less sensitive individuals. Combined electrophysiological measurement, performance accuracy and computational estimations of learning parameters suggest that trait and state vulnerability to stress alter cortico-striatal functioning during reinforcement learning, possibly mediated via medio-frontal cortical systems.

  7. Acute psychological stress reduces working memory-related activity in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, S.; Hermans, E.J.; Marle, H.J.F. van; Luo, J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute psychological stress impairs higher-order cognitive function such as working memory (WM). Similar impairments are seen in various psychiatric disorders that are associated with higher susceptibility to stress and with prefrontal cortical dysfunctions, suggesting that acute stress

  8. Stressed memories: How acute stress affects memory formation in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M.J.A.G.; Hermans, E.J.; Pu, Z.; Joels, M.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2009-01-01

    Stressful, aversive events are extremely well remembered. Such a declarative memory enhancement is evidently beneficial for survival, but the same mechanism may become maladaptive and culminate in mental diseases such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Stress hormones are known to enhance

  9. Gold nanoparticles alter parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism in organs of adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Gabriela Kozuchovski; Cardoso, Eria; Vuolo, Francieli Silva; Michels, Monique; Zanoni, Elton Torres; Carvalho-Silva, Milena; Gomes, Lara Mezari; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Rezin, Gislaine Tezza; Streck, Emilio L; Paula, Marcos Marques da Silva

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the parameters of oxidative stress and energy metabolism after the acute and long-term administration of gold nanoparticles (GNPs, 10 and 30 nm in diameter) in different organs of rats. Adult male Wistar rats received a single intraperitoneal injection or repeated injections (once daily for 28 days) of saline solution, GNPs-10 or GNPs-30. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, the animals were killed, and the liver, kidney, and heart were isolated for biochemical analysis. We demonstrated that acute administration of GNPs-30 increased the TBARS levels, and that GNPs-10 increased the carbonyl protein levels. The long-term administration of GNPs-10 increased the TBARS levels, and the carbonyl protein levels were increased by GNPs-30. Acute administration of GNPs-10 and GNPs-30 increased SOD activity. Long-term administration of GNPs-30 increased SOD activity. Acute administration of GNPs-10 decreased the activity of CAT, whereas long-term administration of GNP-10 and GNP-30 altered CAT activity randomly. Our results also demonstrated that acute GNPs-30 administration decreased energy metabolism, especially in the liver and heart. Long-term GNPs-10 administration increased energy metabolism in the liver and decreased energy metabolism in the kidney and heart, whereas long-term GNPs-30 administration increased energy metabolism in the heart. The results of our study are consistent with other studies conducted in our research group and reinforce the fact that GNPs can lead to oxidative damage, which is responsible for DNA damage and alterations in energy metabolism.

  10. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and physiological activity during acute stress : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Mommersteeg, P.M.C.; van Beugen, S.; Ramakers, C.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to examine the effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on cardiovascular and cortisol activity during acute stress. Method: Eighty-eight healthy community-dwelling individuals reporting elevated stress levels were randomly assigned to the MBSR

  11. Mindfulness-based stress reduction and physiological activity during acute stress: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyklicek, I.; Mommersteeg, P.M.; Beugen, S. van; Ramakers, C.; Boxtel, G.J.M. van

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to examine the effects of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) intervention on cardiovascular and cortisol activity during acute stress. METHOD: Eighty-eight healthy community-dwelling individuals reporting elevated stress levels were randomly assigned to the MBSR

  12. Chronic intermittent hypoxia sensitizes acute hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress reactivity and Fos induction in the rat locus coeruleus in response to subsequent immobilization stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S; Mifflin, S W; Cunningham, J T; Morilak, D A

    2008-07-17

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with several pathophysiological conditions, including hypertension, obesity, insulin resistance, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) dysregulation, and other endocrine and metabolic disturbances comprising the "metabolic syndrome." Repeated episodes of hypoxia in OSA may represent a chronic intermittent stress, leading to HPA dysregulation. Alterations in HPA reactivity could then contribute to or exacerbate other pathophysiological processes. We showed previously that another metabolic stressor, chronic intermittent cold stress, enhanced noradrenergic facilitation of acute HPA stress reactivity. In this study, we investigated whether chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), a rat model for the arterial hypoxemia that accompanies OSA, similarly sensitizes the HPA response to novel acute stress. Rats were exposed to CIH (alternating cycles of normoxia [3 min at 21% O(2)] and hypoxia [3 min at 10% O(2)], repeated continuously for 8 h/day during the light portion of the cycle for 7 days). On the day after the final CIH exposure, there were no differences in baseline plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), but the peak ACTH response to 30 min acute immobilization stress was greater in CIH-stressed rats than in controls. Induction of Fos expression by acute immobilization stress was comparable following CIH in several HPA-modulatory brain regions, including the paraventricular nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, and amygdala. Fos induction was attenuated in lateral hypothalamus, an HPA-inhibitory region. By contrast, acute Fos induction was enhanced in noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus following CIH exposure. Thus, similar to chronic cold stress, CIH sensitized acute HPA and noradrenergic stress reactivity. Plasticity in the acute stress response is important for long-term adaptation, but may also contribute to pathophysiological conditions associated with states of chronic or repeated stress, such as OSA

  13. Individual differences in delay discounting under acute stress: the role of trait perceived stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina M. Lempert

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Delay discounting refers to the reduction of the value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. The rate at which individuals discount future rewards varies as a function of both individual and contextual differences, and high delay discounting rates have been linked with problematic behaviors, including drug abuse and gambling. The current study investigated the effects of acute anticipatory stress on delay discounting, while considering two important factors: individual perceptions of stress and whether the stressful situation is future-focused or present-focused. Half of the participants experienced acute stress by anticipating giving a videotaped speech. This stress was either future-oriented (speech about future job or present-oriented (speech about physical appearance. They then performed a delay discounting task, in which they chose between smaller, immediate rewards and larger, delayed rewards. Their scores on the Perceived Stress Scale were also collected. The way in which one appraises a stressful situation interacts with acute stress to influence choices; under stressful conditions, delay discounting rate was highest in individuals with low perceived stress and lowest for individuals with high perceived stress. This result might be related to individual variation in reward responsiveness under stress. Furthermore, the time orientation of the task interacted with its stressfulness to affect the individual’s propensity to choose immediate rewards. These findings add to our understanding of the intermediary factors between stress and decision making.

  14. Acute stress selectively impairs learning to act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Berker, Archy O; Tirole, Margot; Rutledge, Robb B; Cross, Gemma F; Dolan, Raymond J; Bestmann, Sven

    2016-07-20

    Stress interferes with instrumental learning. However, choice is also influenced by non-instrumental factors, most strikingly by biases arising from Pavlovian associations that facilitate action in pursuit of rewards and inaction in the face of punishment. Whether stress impacts on instrumental learning via these Pavlovian associations is unknown. Here, in a task where valence (reward or punishment) and action (go or no-go) were orthogonalised, we asked whether the impact of stress on learning was action or valence specific. We exposed 60 human participants either to stress (socially-evaluated cold pressor test) or a control condition (room temperature water). We contrasted two hypotheses: that stress would lead to a non-selective increase in the expression of Pavlovian biases; or that stress, as an aversive state, might specifically impact action production due to the Pavlovian linkage between inaction and aversive states. We found support for the second of these hypotheses. Stress specifically impaired learning to produce an action, irrespective of the valence of the outcome, an effect consistent with a Pavlovian linkage between punishment and inaction. This deficit in action-learning was also reflected in pupillary responses; stressed individuals showed attenuated pupillary responses to action, hinting at a noradrenergic contribution to impaired action-learning under stress.

  15. Acute stress impairs set-shifting but not reversal learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, K A; Floresco, S B; Phillips, A G

    2013-09-01

    The ability to update and modify previously learned behavioral responses in a changing environment is essential for successful utilization of promising opportunities and for coping with adverse events. Valid models of cognitive flexibility that contribute to behavioral flexibility include set-shifting and reversal learning. One immediate effect of acute stress is the selective impairment of performance on higher-order cognitive control tasks mediated by the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) but not the hippocampus. Previous studies show that the mPFC is required for set-shifting but not for reversal learning, therefore the aim of the present experiment is to assess whether exposure to acute stress (15 min of mild tail-pinch stress) given immediately before testing on either a set-shifting or reversal learning tasks would impair performance selectively on the set-shifting task. An automated operant chamber-based task, confirmed that exposure to acute stress significantly disrupts set-shifting but has no effect on reversal learning. Rats exposed to an acute stressor require significantly more trials to reach criterion and make significantly more perseverative errors. Thus, these data reveal that an immediate effect of acute stress is to impair mPFC-dependent cognition selectively by disrupting the ability to inhibit the use of a previously relevant cognitive strategy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Alterations in plasma lecithin : cholesterol acyltransferase and myeloperoxidase in acute myocardial infarction: Implications for cardiac outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.; Kwakernaak, Arjan J.; Dikkeschei, Bert D.; Perton, Frank; Tio, Rene A.

    Background: The cholesterol esterifying enzyme, lecithin: cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), plays a key role in HDL maturation and remodeling. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) may compromise LCAT enzymatic activity. We tested the extent to which plasma LCAT activity is altered in acute myocardial infarction

  17. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predicts post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Kosugi, Sakurako; Lin, Ziqiao; Nishikawa, Hiromi; Minabe, Yoshio; Toda, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD), but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits. To address this issue, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess these traits in experimentally naïve Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on four distinct traits that were identified by hierarchical cluster analysis, the animals were classified into the corresponding four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hypermotivation), and exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) before monitoring their post-stress responses for 4 weeks. The four subgroups represented the following distinct behavioral phenotypes after CUS: the Low Motivation subgroup demonstrated weight loss and a late-developing paradoxical enhancement in PR performance that may be related to inappropriate decision-making in human MDD. The Quick Learner subgroup exhibited a transient loss of motivation and the habituation of serum corticosterone (CORT) response to repeated stress. The Slow Learner subgroup displayed resistance to demotivation and a suppressed CORT response to acute stress. Finally, the Hypermotivation subgroup exhibited resistance to weight loss, habituated CORT response to an acute stress, and a long-lasting amotivation. Overall, we identified causal relationships between pre-stress traits in the performance of the instrumental training and post-stress phenotypes in each subgroup. In addition, many of the CUS-induced phenotypes in rats corresponded to or had putative relationships with representative symptoms in human MDD. We concluded that the consequences of stress may be predictable before stress exposure by determining the pre-stress behavioral or cognitive traits of each individual in rats.

  18. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predicts post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iguchi, Yoshio; Kosugi, Sakurako; Lin, Ziqiao; Nishikawa, Hiromi; Minabe, Yoshio; Toda, Shigenobu

    2015-01-01

    Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD), but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits. To address this issue, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio (PR) schedule to assess these traits in experimentally naïve Sprague-Dawley rats. Based on four distinct traits that were identified by hierarchical cluster analysis, the animals were classified into the corresponding four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hypermotivation), and exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) before monitoring their post-stress responses for 4 weeks. The four subgroups represented the following distinct behavioral phenotypes after CUS: the Low Motivation subgroup demonstrated weight loss and a late-developing paradoxical enhancement in PR performance that may be related to inappropriate decision-making in human MDD. The Quick Learner subgroup exhibited a transient loss of motivation and the habituation of serum corticosterone (CORT) response to repeated stress. The Slow Learner subgroup displayed resistance to demotivation and a suppressed CORT response to acute stress. Finally, the Hypermotivation subgroup exhibited resistance to weight loss, habituated CORT response to an acute stress, and a long-lasting amotivation. Overall, we identified causal relationships between pre-stress traits in the performance of the instrumental training and post-stress phenotypes in each subgroup. In addition, many of the CUS-induced phenotypes in rats corresponded to or had putative relationships with representative symptoms in human MDD. We concluded that the consequences of stress may be predictable before stress exposure by determining the pre-stress behavioral or cognitive traits of each individual in rats. PMID:26029067

  19. Acute stress-induced antinociception is cGMP-dependent but heme oxygenase-independent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho-Costa, P.G. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Branco, L.G.S. [Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Leite-Panissi, C.R.A. [Programa de Graduação em Psicobiologia, Faculdade de Filosofia, Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Morfologia, Fisiologia e Patologia Básica, Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-19

    Endogenous carbon monoxide (CO), which is produced by the enzyme heme oxygenase (HO), participates as a neuromodulator in physiological processes such as thermoregulation and nociception by stimulating the formation of 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In particular, the acute physical restraint-induced fever of rats can be blocked by inhibiting the enzyme HO. A previous study reported that the HO-CO-cGMP pathway plays a key phasic antinociceptive role in modulating noninflammatory acute pain. Thus, this study evaluated the involvement of the HO-CO-cGMP pathway in antinociception induced by acute stress in male Wistar rats (250-300 g; n=8/group) using the analgesia index (AI) in the tail flick test. The results showed that antinociception induced by acute stress was not dependent on the HO-CO-cGMP pathway, as neither treatment with the HO inhibitor ZnDBPG nor heme-lysinate altered the AI. However, antinociception was dependent on cGMP activity because pretreatment with the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo [4,3-a] quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ) blocked the increase in the AI induced by acute stress.

  20. Stress and Alterations in Bones: An Interdisciplinary Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia-Maria Wippert

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Decades of research have demonstrated that physical stress (PS stimulates bone remodeling and affects bone structure and function through complex mechanotransduction mechanisms. Recent research has laid ground to the hypothesis that mental stress (MS also influences bone biology, eventually leading to osteoporosis and increased bone fracture risk. These effects are likely exerted by modulation of hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis activity, resulting in an altered release of growth hormones, glucocorticoids and cytokines, as demonstrated in human and animal studies. Furthermore, molecular cross talk between mental and PS is thought to exist, with either synergistic or preventative effects on bone disease progression depending on the characteristics of the applied stressor. This mini review will explain the emerging concept of MS as an important player in bone adaptation and its potential cross talk with PS by summarizing the current state of knowledge, highlighting newly evolving notions (such as intergenerational transmission of stress and its epigenetic modifications affecting bone and proposing new research directions.

  1. Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa H Berghorst

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task enabling comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go and punishment-driven (NoGo learning under either ‘no stress’ or ‘stress’ (threat-of-shock conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under ‘stress’ who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the ‘no stress’ condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward but not punishment under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture.

  2. Acute stress selectively reduces reward sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghorst, Lisa H.; Bogdan, Ryan; Frank, Michael J.; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2013-01-01

    Stress may promote the onset of psychopathology by disrupting reward processing. However, the extent to which stress impairs reward processing, rather than incentive processing more generally, is unclear. To evaluate the specificity of stress-induced reward processing disruption, 100 psychiatrically healthy females were administered a probabilistic stimulus selection task (PSST) that enabled comparison of sensitivity to reward-driven (Go) and punishment-driven (NoGo) learning under either “no stress” or “stress” (threat-of-shock) conditions. Cortisol samples and self-report measures were collected. Contrary to hypotheses, the groups did not differ significantly in task performance or cortisol reactivity. However, further analyses focusing only on individuals under “stress” who were high responders with regard to both cortisol reactivity and self-reported negative affect revealed reduced reward sensitivity relative to individuals tested in the “no stress” condition; importantly, these deficits were reward-specific. Overall, findings provide preliminary evidence that stress-reactive individuals show diminished sensitivity to reward, but not punishment, under stress. While such results highlight the possibility that stress-induced anhedonia might be an important mechanism linking stress to affective disorders, future studies are necessary to confirm this conjecture. PMID:23596406

  3. Social media as a shield: Facebook buffers acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2018-03-01

    Facebook remains the most widely used social media platform. Research suggests that Facebook may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being, and that it may impair physiological stress recovery. However, little is known about its influence on stress reactivity. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined how Facebook influences reactivity to an acute social stressor. Facebook users (n=104, 53 males, mean age 19.50, SD=1.73) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook account or sit quietly with the option of reading electronic magazines before experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers in response to the stressor. However, participants who used Facebook experienced lower levels of psychosocial stress, physiological stress, and rated the stressor as less threatening (p'sFacebook use may buffer stress-in particular psychosocial stress-if used before experiencing an acute social stressor. This study is among the first to incorporate both objective and subjective measures in investigating the complex relationship between Facebook use and well-being. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute aerobic exercise alters executive control network in preadolescent children

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ai-Guo

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise on executive function (EF) and executive control network (ECN) in preadolescent children, and further explored the neural basis of acute aerobic exercise on EF in these children. We used a within-subjects design with a counterbalanced order. Nine healthy, right-handed children were scanned with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and performed an EF task both in baseline session and exercise session. T...

  5. Acute stress and working memory in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulopulos, Matias M; Hidalgo, Vanesa; Almela, Mercedes; Puig-Perez, Sara; Villada, Carolina; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have shown that acute stress affects working memory (WM) in young adults, but the effect in older people is understudied. As observed in other types of memory, older people may be less sensitive to acute effects of stress on WM. We performed two independent studies with healthy older men and women (from 55 to 77 years old) to investigate the effects of acute stress (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST) and cortisol on WM. In study 1 (n = 63), after the TSST women (but not men) improved their performance on Digit Span Forward (a measure of the memory span component of WM) but not on Digit Span Backward (a measure of both memory span and the executive component of WM). Furthermore, in women, cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing showed a positive association with the memory span component of WM before and after the TSST, and with the executive component of WM only before the stress task. In study 2 (n = 76), although participants showed a cortisol and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) response to the TSST, stress did not affect performance on Letter-Number Sequencing (LNS; a task that places a high demand on the executive component of WM). Cortisol and sAA were not associated with WM. The results indicate that circulating cortisol levels at the moment of memory testing, and not the stress response, affect memory span in older women, and that stress and the increase in cortisol levels after stress do not affect the executive component of WM in older men and women. This study provides further evidence that older people may be less sensitive to stress and stress-induced cortisol response effects on memory processes.

  6. Acute psychosocial stress and children's memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Veld, Danielle M J; Riksen-Walraven, J Marianne; de Weerth, Carolina

    2014-07-01

    We investigated whether children's performance on working memory (WM) and delayed retrieval (DR) tasks decreased after stress exposure, and how physiological stress responses related to performance under stress. About 158 children (83 girls; Mage = 10.61 years, SD = 0.52) performed two WM tasks (WM forward and WM backward) and a DR memory task first during a control condition, and 1 week later during a stress challenge. Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) and cortisol were assessed during the challenge. Only WM backward performance declined over conditions. Correlations between physiological stress responses and performance within the stress challenge were present only for WM forward and DR. For WM forward, higher cortisol responses were related to better performance. For DR, there was an inverted U-shape relation between cortisol responses and performance, as well as a cortisol × sAA interaction, with concurrent high or low responses related to optimal performance. This emphasizes the importance of including curvilinear and interaction effects when relating physiology to memory.

  7. Crosstalk between endoplasmic reticulum stress, oxidative stress and autophagy: Potential therapeutic targets for acute CNS injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakka, Venkata Prasuja; Prakash-babu, Phanithi; Vemuganti, Raghu

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induces a variety of neuronal cell death pathways that play a critical role in the pathophysiology of Stroke. ER stress occurs when unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulate and the folding capacity of ER chaperones exceeds the capacity of ER lumen to facilitate their disposal. As a consequence, a complex set of signaling pathways will be induced that transmit from ER to cytosol and nucleus to compensate damage and to restore the normal cellular homeostasis, collectively known as unfolded protein response (UPR). However, failure of UPR due to severe or prolonged stress leads to cell death. Following acute CNS injuries, chronic disturbances in protein folding and oxidative stress prolong ER stress leading to sustained ER dysfunction and neuronal cell death. While ER stress responses have been well studied after stroke, there is an emerging need to study the association of ER stress with other cell pathways that exacerbate neuronal death after an injury. In this review we summarize the current understanding of the role for ER stress in acute brain injuries, highlighting the diverse molecular mechanisms associated with ER stress and its relation to oxidative stress and autophagy. We also discussed the existing and developing therapeutic options aimed to reduce ER stress to protect the CNS after acute injuries. PMID:25482050

  8. Stress Leukogram Induced by Acute and Chronic Stress in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzelak, Agata K; Davis, Daniel J; Caraker, Susan M; Crim, Marcus J; Spitsbergen, Jan M; Wiedmeyer, Charles E

    2017-06-01

    The use of zebrafish (Danio rerio) as an animal model for experimental studies of stress has increased rapidly over the years. Although many physiologic and behavioral characteristics associated with stress have been defined in zebrafish, the effects of stress on hematologic parameters have not been described. The purpose of our study was to induce a rise in endogenous cortisol through various acute and chronic stressors and compare the effects of these stressors on peripheral WBC populations. Acutely stressed fish underwent dorsal or full-body exposure to air for 3 min, repeated every 30 min over the course of 90 min. Chronically stressed fish underwent exposure to stressors twice daily over a period of 5 d. After the last stressful event, fish were euthanized, and whole blood and plasma were obtained. A drop of whole blood was used to create a blood smear, which was subsequently stained with a modified Wright-Giemsa stain and a 50-WBC differential count determined. Plasma cortisol levels were determined by using a commercially available ELISA. Endogenous cortisol concentrations were significantly higher in both stressed groups as compared with control fish. Acutely stressed fish demonstrated significant lymphopenia, monocytosis, and neutrophilia, compared with unstressed, control fish. Chronic stress induced lymphopenia and monocytosis but no significant changes in relative neutrophil populations in zebrafish. The changes in both stressed groups most likely are due to increases in endogenous cortisol concentrations and represent the first description of a stress leukogram in zebrafish.

  9. Altered oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Jayasri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Mammary tumors are the most prevalent type of neoplasms in canines. Even though cancer induced metabolic alterations are well established, the clinical data describing the metabolic profiles of animal tumors is not available. Hence, our present investigation was carried out with the aim of studying changes in carbohydrate metabolism along with the level of oxidative stress in canine mammary tumors. Materials and Methods: Fresh mammary tumor tissues along with the adjacent healthy tissues were collected from the college surgical ward. The levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, glutathione, protein, hexose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD were analyzed in all the tissues. The results were analyzed statistically. Results: More than two-fold increase in TBARS and three-fold increase in glutathione levels were observed in neoplastic tissues. Hexokinase activity and hexose concentration (175% was found to be increased, whereas glucose-6-phosphatase (33%, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase (42%, and G6PD (5 fold activities were reduced in tumor mass compared to control. Conclusion: Finally, it was revealed that lipid peroxidation was increased with differentially altered carbohydrate metabolism in canine mammary tumors.

  10. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemm, Stephanie E; Wulfert, Edelgard

    2017-03-01

    The study examined the effects of a social stressor (Trier Social Stress Test) on 24 male and 32 female college students' affective and physiological reactivity and their subsequent performance on a decision-making task (Iowa Gambling Task). The 56 participants were randomly assigned to a social stressor or a control condition. Compared to controls, participants in the stress condition responded with higher heart rates and skin conductance responses, reported more negative affect, and on the decision-making task made less advantageous choices. An exploratory regression analysis revealed that among men higher levels of heart rate were positively correlated with riskier choices on the Iowa Gambling Task, whereas for women this relationship was curvilinear. Exploratory correlational analyses showed that lower levels of skin conductance within the stress condition were associated with greater levels of substance use and gambling. The results suggest that the presence of a stressor may generally result in failure to attend to the full range of possible consequences of a decision. The relationship pattern between the degree of stress responding and successful decision making may be different for men and women.

  11. Does acute stress disorder predict posttraumatic stress disorder following bank robbery?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, M.; Elklit, A.

    2013-01-01

    Unfortunately, the number of bank robberies is increasing and little is known about the subsequent risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Several studies have investigated the prediction of PTSD through the presence of acute stress disorder (ASD). However, there have only been a few studie...

  12. Effect of smoking on acute phase reactants, stress hormone ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, the mechanisms which underpin these harmful inflammatory responses, have not been well documented. Objectives: The current study was undertaken to determine possible associations between systemic biomarkers of inflammation (acute phase reactants, stress hormones, leukocyte vitamin C) and smoking ...

  13. Acute stress enhances emotional face processing in the aging brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaerd, D.S.; Klumpers, F.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Tendolkar, I.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Healthy aging has been associated with stable emotional wellbeing and attenuated brain responses to negative stimuli. At the same time, depressive symptoms are common in older adults. The neural mechanisms behind this paradox remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that acute stress

  14. Predicting Performance Under Acute Stress : The Role of Individual Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delahaij, R.; Dam, K. van; Gaillard, A.W.K.; Soeters, J.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective study examined how differences in coping style, coping self-efficacy, and metacognitive awareness influence coping behavior and performance during a realistic acute stressful exercise in 2 military samples (n = 122 and n = 132). Results showed that coping self-efficacy and coping

  15. Alterations in acute-phase reactants (CRP, rheumatoid factor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    regard to inflammation, healing and adaptation to training stimuli. Whilst numerous studies have shown the APP C-reactive protein (CRP) to be significantly elevated following exer- cise,18,21,26,27 there still remain a large number of acute phase reactants that have not been thoroughly investigated. ORIGINAL RESEARCH ...

  16. Biochemical alteration in Nigerian children with acute falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREGO

    2007-04-02

    Apr 2, 2007 ... mosby London 518-521. Egwunyenga Andy Ogochukwu, Gabriel Isamahand Onyebiguwa Patric. Nmorsi (2004). Lipid peroxidtion and ascorbic acid levels in Nigeria. Adeosun et al. 885 children with acute falciparum malaria. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 3: 560-563. Gochman N, Schmitz JM (1972). Application of a ...

  17. Biochemical alteration in Nigerian children with acute falciparum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to establish data on the effect of acute falciparum malaria on plasma levels some biochemical parameters in the pathology of malaria in Nigeria children. We estimated the levels of. Na+, K+, HCO3, Ca++ , inorganic PO4 =, bilirubin, total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine and glucose in the plasma ...

  18. Acute stress in adulthood impoverishes social choices and triggers aggressiveness in preclinical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosjean, Anne; Cressant, Arnaud; de Chaumont, Fabrice; Olivo-Marin, Jean-Christophe; Chauveau, Frédéric; Granon, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Adult C57BL/6J mice are known to exhibit high level of social flexibility while mice lacking the β2 subunit of nicotinic receptors (β2(-/-) mice) present social rigidity. We asked ourselves what would be the consequences of a restraint acute stress (45 min) on social interactions in adult mice of both genotypes, hence the contribution of neuronal nicotinic receptors in this process. We therefore dissected social interaction complexity of stressed and not stressed dyads of mice in a social interaction task. We also measured plasma corticosterone levels in our experimental conditions. We showed that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood reduced and disorganized social interaction complexity in both C57BL/6J and β2(-/-) mice. These stress-induced maladaptive social interactions involved alteration of distinct social categories and strategies in both genotypes, suggesting a dissociable impact of stress depending on the functioning of the cholinergic nicotinic system. In both genotypes, social behaviors under stress were coupled to aggressive reactions with no plasma corticosterone changes. Thus, aggressiveness appeared a general response independent of nicotinic function. We demonstrate here that a single stress exposure occurring in adulthood is sufficient to impoverish social interactions: stress impaired social flexibility in C57BL/6J mice whereas it reinforced β2(-/-) mice behavioral rigidity.

  19. Enhanced memory performance on an internal-internal source monitoring test following acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, T; Jelicic, M; Merckelbach, H; Peters, M; Fett, A; Taverniers, J; Henquet, C; Dautzenberg, J

    2006-12-01

    Research on the effect of acute stress and high levels of glucocorticoids on memory has largely focused on memory tasks involving the medial temporal lobe (e.g., declarative memory). Less is known, however, about the effects of stress and glucocorticoids on more strategic memory processes regulated by the prefrontal cortex (e.g., source monitoring). In the current study, the authors investigated whether exposure to acute psychosocial stress would result in altered source monitoring performance relative to the performance of a nonstressed control group. To this end, the authors assigned nonsmoking, healthy, young men to either a stress (n = 22) or a control (n = 18) condition, after which the men were given an internal source monitoring test. Results show that relative to control participants, stressed participants made fewer source monitoring errors. This study suggests that stress may have differential effects on memory, depending on whether the memory test is regulated by the prefrontal cortex or the medial temporal lobe. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  20. Acute myocardial infarction and stress cardiomyopathy following the Christchurch earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christina; Elliott, John; Troughton, Richard; Frampton, Christopher; Smyth, David; Crozier, Ian; Bridgman, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Christchurch, New Zealand, was struck by 2 major earthquakes at 4:36 am on 4 September 2010, magnitude 7.1 and at 12:51 pm on 22 February 2011, magnitude 6.3. Both events caused widespread destruction. Christchurch Hospital was the region's only acute care hospital. It remained functional following both earthquakes. We were able to examine the effects of the 2 earthquakes on acute cardiac presentations. Patients admitted under Cardiology in Christchurch Hospital 3 week prior to and 5 weeks following both earthquakes were analysed, with corresponding control periods in September 2009 and February 2010. Patients were categorised based on diagnosis: ST elevation myocardial infarction, Non ST elevation myocardial infarction, stress cardiomyopathy, unstable angina, stable angina, non cardiac chest pain, arrhythmia and others. There was a significant increase in overall admissions (pearthquake. This pattern was not seen after the early afternoon February earthquake. Instead, there was a very large number of stress cardiomyopathy admissions with 21 cases (95% CI 2.6-6.4) in 4 days. There had been 6 stress cardiomyopathy cases after the first earthquake (95% CI 0.44-2.62). Statistical analysis showed this to be a significant difference between the earthquakes (pearthquake triggered a large increase in ST elevation myocardial infarction and a few stress cardiomyopathy cases. The early afternoon February earthquake caused significantly more stress cardiomyopathy. Two major earthquakes occurring at different times of day differed in their effect on acute cardiac events.

  1. Cortisol modulates men's affiliative responses to acute social stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Justus; Heinrichs, Markus; von Dawans, Bernadette; Way, Baldwin M; Chen, Frances S

    2016-01-01

    The dominant characterization of the physiological and behavioral human stress reaction is the fight-or-flight response. On the other hand, it has been suggested that social affiliation during stressful times ("tend-and-befriend") also represents a common adaptive response to stress, particularly for women. In the current study, we investigate the extent to which men may also show affiliative responses following acute stress. In addition, we examine a potential neuroendocrine modulator of the hypothesized affiliative response. Eighty male students (forty dyads) were recruited to undergo either the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) or a non-stressful control situation. Subsequently, participants completed a dyadic interaction task and were then asked to report their feelings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner. Although participants assigned to the stress condition did not differ overall on psychological closeness from participants assigned to the control condition, participants with high cortisol responses to the stressor showed significantly higher ratings of psychological closeness to their interaction partner than participants with low cortisol responses. Our findings suggest that men may form closer temporary bonds following stressful situations that are accompanied by a significant cortisol response. We suggest that the traditional characterization of the male stress response in terms of "fight-or-flight" may be incomplete, and that social affiliation may in fact represent a common, adaptive response to stress in men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The experience of posttraumatic stress disorder in patients after acute myocardial infraction: A qualitative research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Staikos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute myocardial infarction (AMI is one of the most frequent causes of death worldwide, which may result in post-traumatic stress (acute or chronic, as well as in psychological distress, both of which change to a decisive extent the life and daily routine of the patient. Purpose: To investigate the experience of post-traumatic stress disorder in patients who suffered an AMI and its effect on their quality of life. Methodology: This qualitative research was conducted using the hermeneutic/phenomenological approach. Using with the method of semi-structured interviews, 20 (15 men, 5 women patients described their experiences. The data were analyzed using the empirically grounded theory. Results: Patients who suffered an AMI exhibited a series of acute post-traumatic stress symptoms during the first hours after the onset of the disease, which sometimes may be evident for up to two years. The daily presence of psychological distress and the evident manifestation of the concept of spiritual maturation significantly altered their daily habits. Conclusions: Patients with AMI experience post-traumatic stress which starts in the first hours after the event and may last for up to two years, which significantly affect their quality of life.

  3. Stress-induced alterations in large-scale functional networks of the rodent brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, Marloes J A G; van der Marel, Kajo; van der Toorn, A|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/138484821; Pillai, Anup G.; Fernández, Guillén; Dijkhuizen, Rick M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/174680058; Joëls, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related psychopathology is associated with altered functioning of large-scale brain networks. Animal research into chronic stress, one of the most prominent environmental risk factors for development of psychopathology, has revealed molecular and cellular mechanisms potentially contributing

  4. Prenatal stress alters Fos protein expression in hippocampus and locus coeruleus stress-related brain structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viltart, Odile; Mairesse, Jérôme; Darnaudéry, Muriel; Louvart, Hélène; Vanbesien-Mailliot, Christel; Catalani, Assia; Maccari, Stefania

    2006-07-01

    Prenatal stress (PS) durably influences responses of rats from birth throughout life by inducing deficits of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis feedback. The neuronal mechanisms sustaining such alterations are still unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether in PS and control rats, the exposure to a mild stressor differentially induces Fos protein in hippocampus and locus coeruleus, brain areas involved in the feedback control of the HPA axis. Moreover, Fos protein expression was also evaluated in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) that reflect the magnitude of the hormonal response to stress. Basal plasma corticosterone levels were not different between the groups, while, PS rats exhibited higher number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons than controls, in the hippocampus and locus coeruleus in basal condition. A higher basal expression of a marker of GABAergic synapses, the vGAT, was also observed in the hypothalamus of PS rats. Fifteen minutes after the end of the exposure to the open arm of the elevated plus-maze (mild stress) a similar increased plasma corticosterone levels was observed in both groups in parallel with an increased number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the PVN. Return to basal plasma corticosterone values was delayed only in the PS rats. On the contrary, after stress, no changes in Fos-immunoreactivity were observed in the hippocampus and locus coeruleus of PS rats compared to basal condition. After stress, only PS rats presented an elevation of the number of activated catecholaminergic neurons in the locus coeruleus. In conclusion, these results suggest for the first time that PS alters the neuronal activation of hippocampus and locus coeruleus implicated in the feedback mechanism of the HPA axis. These data give anatomical substrates to sustain the HPA axis hyperactivity classically described in PS rats after stress exposure.

  5. Brief daily postpartum separations from the litter alter dam response to psychostimulants and to stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.P. Silveira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal handling induces several behavioral and neurochemical alterations in pups, including decreased responses to stress and reduced fear in new environments. However, there are few reports in the literature concerning the behavioral effects of this neonatal intervention on the dams during the postpartum period. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to determine if brief postpartum separation from pups has a persistent impact on the dam's stress response and behavior. Litters were divided into two neonatal groups: 1 non-handled and 2 handled [10 min/day, from postnatal day (PND 1 to 10]. Weaning occurred at PND 21 when behavioral tasks started to be applied to the dams, including sweet food ingestion (PND 21, forced swimming test (PND 28, and locomotor response to a psychostimulant (PND 28. On postpartum day 40, plasma was collected at baseline for leptin assays and after 1 h of restraint for corticosterone assay. Regarding sweet food consumption, behavior during the forced swimming test or plasma leptin levels did not differ between dams briefly separated and non-separated from their pups during the postpartum period. On the other hand, both increased locomotion in response to diethylpropion and increased corticosterone secretion in response to acute stress were detected in dams briefly separated from their pups during the first 10 postnatal days. Taken together, these findings suggest that brief, repeated separations from the pups during the neonatal period persistently impact the behavior and induce signs of dopaminergic sensitization in the dam.

  6. Acute Stress Modulates Feedback Processing in Men and Women : Differential Effects on the Feedback-Related Negativity and Theta and Beta Power

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.; Banis, Hendrika

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters

  7. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is an acute cardiac syndrome induced by stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuchs, Annette Maria; Bang, Lia E; Holmvang, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is an acute cardiac syndrome, characterized by transient left ventricular dysfunction often following a stressful event in post-menopausal women. Symptoms are indistinguishable from myocardial infarction. However, TTC patients do not have a culprit lesion on acute...... angiography, and regional akinesia is not limited to a single vascular territory. As opposed to other cardiomyopathies TTC is completely reversible, albeit with a 5% mortality rate as well as a 10% re-occurrence rate. This article summarizes the current knowledge about aetiology, diagnostics and treatment....

  8. Acute Testosterone Deficiency Alters Adipose Tissue Fatty Acid Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santosa, Sylvia; Bush, Nikki C; Jensen, Michael D

    2017-08-01

    Although the long-term effects of testosterone on adipose tissue lipid metabolism in men have been defined, the short-term regulation of these effects is not well understood. We examined the effects of acute testosterone withdrawal on subcutaneous abdominal and femoral adipose tissue fatty acid (FA) storage and cellular mechanisms. This was a prospective, randomized trial. Mayo Clinic Clinical Research Unit. Thirty-two male volunteers ages 18 to 50 participated in these studies. Volunteers were randomized to receive (1) no treatment (control), (2) injections (7.5 mg) of Lupron®, or (3) Lupron and testosterone (L+T) replacement for 49 days, resulting in 4 weeks of sex steroid suppression in the Lupron group. We measured body composition, fat cell size, adipose tissue meal FA and direct free FA storage, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), acyl coenzyme A synthetase (ACS), diacylglycerol acyltransferase activities, and CD36 content. Compared with control and L+T groups, acute testosterone deficiency resulted in greater femoral adipose tissue meal FA storage rates, fasting and fed LPL activity, and ACS activity. These results suggest that in men, testosterone plays a tonic role in restraining FA storage in femoral adipose tissue via suppression of LPL and ACS activities. FA storage mechanisms in men appear sensitive to short-term changes in testosterone concentrations.

  9. Surfactant alteration and replacement in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walmrath Dieter

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is a frequent, life-threatening disease in which a marked increase in alveolar surface tension has been repeatedly observed. It is caused by factors including a lack of surface-active compounds, changes in the phospholipid, fatty acid, neutral lipid, and surfactant apoprotein composition, imbalance of the extracellular surfactant subtype distribution, inhibition of surfactant function by plasma protein leakage, incorporation of surfactant phospholipids and apoproteins into polymerizing fibrin, and damage/inhibition of surfactant compounds by inflammatory mediators. There is now good evidence that these surfactant abnormalities promote alveolar instability and collapse and, consequently, loss of compliance and the profound gas exchange abnormalities seen in ARDS. An acute improvement of gas exchange properties together with a far-reaching restoration of surfactant properties was encountered in recently performed pilot studies. Here we summarize what is known about the kind and severity of surfactant changes occuring in ARDS, the contribution of these changes to lung failure, and the role of surfactant administration for therapy of ARDS.

  10. Acute stress potentiates brain response to milkshake as a function of body weight and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenga, K J; Sinha, R; Small, D M

    2013-02-01

    Stress is associated with an increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to affect amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. A total of 14 overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as they consumed a palatable milkshake during script-driven, autobiographical, guided imagery of stressful and neutral-relaxing scenarios. We report that a network including insula, somatomotor mouth area, ventral striatum and thalamus responds to milkshake receipt, but none of these areas are affected by stress. In contrast, whereas the left amygdala responds to milkshake irrespective of condition, the right amygdala responds to milkshake only under stressful conditions. Moreover, this right amygdala response is positively associated with basal cortisol levels, an objective measure of chronic stress. We also found a positive relationship between BMI and stress-related increased response to milkshake in the orbitofrontal cortex(OFC). These results demonstrate that acute stress potentiates response to food in the right amygdala and OFC as a function of chronic stress and body weight, respectively. This suggests that the influence of acute stress in potentiating amygdala and OFC responses to food is dependent upon individual factors like BMI and chronic stress. We conclude that BMI and chronic stress play a significant role in brain response to food and in stress-related eating.

  11. Mate Tea Prevents Oxidative Stress in the Blood and Hippocampus of Rats with Acute or Chronic Ethanol Administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Scolaro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic intake of mate tea on the effects elicited by acute and chronic administration of ethanol. Methods. Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS, as well as the activities of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (CAT, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, and superoxide dismutase (SOD in the hippocampus and blood of rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups, for both acute and chronic treatment: (1 control group, (2 treated group, (3 intoxicated group, (4 and intoxicated group treated with mate tea. Results. Both ethanol administrations significantly increased TBARS in plasma and hippocampus of rats and altered antioxidant enzyme activities, changes which were reverted by mate tea administration. Conclusions. Data indicate that acute and chronic ethanol administration induced oxidative stress in hippocampus and blood and that mate tea treatment was able to prevent this situation.

  12. Oxidative stress status in patients with acute urticaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Göknur; Seçkin, Havva Yıldız; Duygu, Fazilet; Akbaş, Ali; Ozyurt, Hüseyin; Sahin, Mehmet

    2014-06-01

    The conflicting information related to oxidative stress status in patients with chronic idiopathic urticaria has been reported in several studies. However, the association between acute urticaria (AU) and oxidative stress has not been investigated exhaustively. To evaluate the role of the oxidative stress in the patients with AU by determining the oxidant/antioxidant activity in AU and to establish its clinical significance. About 50 patients with AU, (10 males, 40 females) and 30 unrelated healthy controls (4 males, 26 females) were enrolled into the study. The activity of the antioxidant enzymes copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and catalase, and the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), serum NO and protein carbonyls levels in the plasma were measured spectrophotometrically at samples. A statistically significant increase was observed in serum Cu-ZnSOD activities of the patients when compared with that of the controls (p stress may play a role in pathogenesis of the disease.

  13. Altered Mental Status: Epilepsy, Acute Psychosis, Intoxication or Delirium Tremens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Toohey

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This simulation session can be used for emergency medicine residents or medical students, but it may be more appropriate for senior residents. Junior residents and medical students may also misdiagnose delirium tremens as a seizure disorder. Introduction: Delirium tremens (DT is a rare, severe form of withdrawal that includes tremors, seizures, fever and delirium and occurs in approximately 5% of patients with alcohol withdrawal. Early identification and prompt treatment is essential as DT has a 5%-20% mortality rate which can be reduced to 1%-5% with appropriate therapy. Objectives: At the end of this simulation session the learner will: 1 Recognize signs and symptoms of delirium tremens (DT; 2 promptly treat DT with benzodiazepines and supportive care; 3 appropriately manage a patient with DT and effectively communicate with nurses and other team members during the resuscitation of an acutely ill patient. Method: This educational session is a high-fidelity simulation.

  14. Acute stress increases voluntary consumption of alcohol in undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrys, S A; Olmstead, M C

    2015-03-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess whether an acute stressor directly increases alcohol intake among undergraduates. A secondary aim was to examine whether individual differences in state anxiety predict alcohol intake. Following random assignment, undergraduate students (n = 75; 47% males; mean age = 20.1 ± 2.8) completed the Trier Social Stress Test or no-stress protocol, and then engaged in a 30-min free-drinking session (alcohol, placebo, or non-alcoholic beverage). The State-Trait Anxiety Inventory was completed upon arrival, post-stressor, and after drinking. Planned comparisons demonstrated that psychosocial stress increased voluntary intake of alcohol, but not placebo or non-alcoholic beverages. In linear regression analyses, individual differences in anxiety did not predict voluntary alcohol consumption. A proximal relationship exists between acute stress and single-session alcohol intake in undergraduates, which may explain the relationship between life stressors and increased drinking in this group. These findings demonstrate that stress management is an important target for reducing heavy episodic drinking on university campuses. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress in individuals with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoling; Zhong, Wen; An, Haiyan; Fu, Mingyu; Chen, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Zhenggang; Xiao, Zhongju

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, a relationship between depression and basal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) levels has frequently been suggested, but responses of these adrenal steroids to psychosocial stress have not been examined in individuals with depressive disorders. In this study, we examined salivary DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA response to the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) in individuals with depressive disorders and in healthy controls to discover whether the responses of DHEA and DHEA-S to acute psychosocial stress could be a more sensitive marker of HPA dysfunction in depressive disorders. We compared salivary cortisol, DHEA, DHEA-S, and cortisol/DHEA levels to the TSST tests between 38 individuals with depression and 43 healthy controls aged 18.4-25.9 years. Depression severity was assessed by the self-reported Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Salivary samples were evaluated at four time points: the baseline (-10 time point), before the TSST started (0 time point), the end of the TSST (+20 time point), and the recovery (+50 time points). No significant differences existed in the basal adrenal hormonal levels between subjects with depressive disorders and controls; however, at the end of TSST, attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response was identified in subjects with depressive disorders compared to that found in healthy subjects. The differences in the DHEA and DHEA-S levels at the +20 time point, as well as the differences in the cortisol/DHEA at the +50 time point, exhibited negative correlations with depression severity. Attenuated DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress was identified in subjects with depressive disorders. These findings help us to discover the bi-directional relationship between depression and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, hence furthering our understanding of whether altered DHEA and DHEA-S response to psychosocial stress may be a more sensitive method than

  16. Hematological responses of Tilapia guineensis to acute stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of acute stress due to handling and transportation on the hematology of Tilapia guineensis was investigated. A total of sixty T. guineensis consisting of thirty juvenile fish (mean length 15.68m±322SD; mean weight 90.36g ±4.81SD) and thirty adult fish (mean length 22.74cm ± 4.78; mean weight 412.92g ± 6.23) ...

  17. [Acute Stress and Broken Heart Syndrome. A Case Report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergel, Juliana; Tamayo-Orozco, Sebastián; Vallejo-Gómez, Andrés Felipe; Posada, María Teresa; Restrepo, Diana

    Stress has been associated with an acute heart failure syndrome of important morbidity and mortality. Case report and non-systematic review of the relevant literature. A 65-year-old woman with a history of an untreated generalized anxiety disorder, whom after the violent death of her son presented with oppressive chest pain irradiated to neck and left superior extremity, lasting for more than 30minutes, initial clinical suspect suggests acute coronary syndrome. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by a reversible left ventricular dysfunction and wall movement abnormalities, without any compromise of the coronary arteries, associated to high plasma levels of catecholamines which in most cases correlates with an acute stress of emotional or physical type. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy has to be considered by physicians among the differential diagnosis when facing a patient with suspected acute coronary syndrome, especially in post-menopausal women with a history of psychiatric comorbidities such as a generalized anxiety disorder. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  18. The Effect of Acute and Chronic Social Stress on the Hippocampal Transcriptome in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian M Stankiewicz

    Full Text Available Psychogenic stress contributes to the formation of brain pathology. Using gene expression microarrays, we analyzed the hippocampal transcriptome of mice subjected to acute and chronic social stress of different duration. The longest period of social stress altered the expression of the highest number of genes and most of the stress-induced changes in transcription were reversible after 5 days of rest. Chronic stress affected genes involved in the functioning of the vascular system (Alas2, Hbb-b1, Hba-a2, Hba-a1, injury response (Vwf, Mgp, Cfh, Fbln5, Col3a1, Ctgf and inflammation (S100a8, S100a9, Ctla2a, Ctla2b, Lcn2, Lrg1, Rsad2, Isg20. The results suggest that stress may affect brain functions through the stress-induced dysfunction of the vascular system. An important issue raised in our work is also the risk of the contamination of brain tissue samples with choroid plexus. Such contamination would result in a consistent up- or down-regulation of genes, such as Ttr, Igf2, Igfbp2, Prlr, Enpp2, Sostdc1, 1500015O10RIK (Ecrg4, Kl, Clic6, Kcne2, F5, Slc4a5, and Aqp1. Our study suggests that some of the previously reported, supposedly specific changes in hippocampal gene expression, may be a result of the inclusion of choroid plexus in the hippocampal samples.

  19. The effects of acute stress on the calibration of persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, Karolina M; McGuire, Joseph T; Hazeltine, Danielle B; Phelps, Elizabeth A; Kable, Joseph W

    2018-02-01

    People frequently fail to wait for delayed rewards after choosing them. These preference reversals are sometimes thought to reflect self-control failure. Other times, however, continuing to wait for a delayed reward may be counterproductive (e.g., when reward timing uncertainty is high). Research has demonstrated that people can calibrate how long to wait for rewards in a given environment. Thus, the role of self-control might be to integrate information about the environment to flexibly adapt behavior, not merely to promote waiting. Here we tested effects of acute stress, which has been shown to tax control processes, on persistence, and the calibration of persistence, in young adult human participants. Half the participants (n = 60) performed a task in which persistence was optimal, and the other half (n = 60) performed a task in which it was optimal to quit waiting for reward soon after each trial began. Each participant completed the task either after cold pressor stress or no stress. Stress did not influence persistence or optimal calibration of persistence. Nevertheless, an exploratory analysis revealed an "inverted-U" relationship between cortisol increase and performance in the stress groups, suggesting that choosing the adaptive waiting policy may be facilitated with some stress and impaired with severe stress.

  20. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  1. Thermal stress alters expression of genes involved in one carbon and DNA methylation pathways in Atlantic cod embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjærven, Kaja H; Hamre, Kristin; Penglase, Samuel; Finn, Roderick Nigel; Olsvik, Pål A

    2014-03-16

    One-carbon (1-C) metabolism is essential for normal embryonic development through its regulation of DNA methylation and cell proliferation. With consideration to the potential future anthropogenic oceanic warming, we studied the effects of both acute thermal stress and continuous thermal stress (10°C) during Atlantic cod embryo development on the expression levels of genes associated with the 1-C metabolism, including DNA methyltransferases. We conducted a phylogenetic analysis of vertebrate DNA methyltransferases to determine the number and similarity of DNMT found in Atlantic cod. This analysis revealed that Atlantic cod have one maintenance dnmt (dnmt1) and five de novo DNMTs (dnmt4, dnmt3, dnmt3b, dnmt3aa, dnmt3ab). Stage specific changes in expression levels occurred for all genes analyzed. The effect of acute thermal stress was evaluated during early development. Compared to controls these experiments showed significant alterations in expression levels of several genes, that in some instances were reversed at later stages of development. A significant effect of continuous thermal stress was found in gastrula embryos where lower mRNA expression levels of 1-C metabolism, de novo DNMTs and cell proliferation genes were detected. One exception was the maintenance DNMT, which was only sensitive to acute and not continuous thermal stress. DNA methylation status indicated that blastula embryos were hypomethylated compared to spermatozoa and late gastrula stages. In post-gastrula stage, however, continuous thermal stress resulted in a higher degree of DNA methylation compared to controls. These data reveal that the regulation of epigenetically important transcripts in the 1-C metabolism of Atlantic cod embryos is sensitive to thermal stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Prenatal SSRI alters the hormonal and behavioral responses to stress in female mice: Possible role for glucocorticoid resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avitsur, Ronit; Grinshpahet, Rachel; Goren, Naama; Weinstein, Ido; Kirshenboim, Or; Chlebowski, Noa

    2016-08-01

    Life time prevalence of major depression disorder (MDD) is higher in women compared to men especially during the period surrounding childbirth. Women suffering from MDD during pregnancy use antidepressant medications, particularly Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI). These drugs readily cross the placental barrier and impact the developing fetal brain. The present study assessed the effects of prenatal exposure to fluoxetine (FLX), an SSRI antidepressant drug, on corticosterone and behavioral responses to stress in female mice. In young females, prenatal FLX significantly elevated corticosterone response to continuous stress. In adults, prenatal FLX augmented corticosterone response to acute stress and suppressed the response to continuous stress. Additionally, prenatal FLX significantly augmented stress-induced increase in locomotion and reduced anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors in adult, but not young mice. The dexamethasone suppression test revealed that prenatal FLX induced a state of glucocorticoid resistance in adult females, indicating that the negative feedback control of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis response to stress was disrupted. These findings provide the first indication of altered hormonal and behavioral responses to continuous stress and suggest a role for the development of glucocorticoid resistance in these effects. According to these findings, prenatal environment may have implications for stress sensitivity and responsiveness to life challenges. Furthermore, this study may assist in understanding the limitations and precautions that should be taken in the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute stress impairs recognition for positive words--association with stress-induced cortisol secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Rimmele, Ulrike; Reichwald, Ursula; Hautzinger, Martin

    2004-09-01

    Some studies suggest that stress-induced effects of cortisol on memory are modulated by the valence of the stimuli to be learned and retrieved. The present study investigated the effect of acute stress-induced cortisol secretion on acquisition and retrieval of pleasant, unpleasant and neutral words. Sixty healthy men were randomly assigned to one of the three experimental groups. Participants were either exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor (the Trier Social Stress Test) before learning a wordlist, or before retrieval, or were not stressed. Free recall and recognition were tested 24 h later. Free recall was not affected by stress exposure. For recognition, there was no main effect of the stressor, but a main effect of valence and a valence by group interaction emerged: recognition for positive words was significantly impaired when subjects were stressed before retrieval. In addition, a positive correlation between the cortisol response and errors of commission was found. The results suggest that acute stress impairs memory for positive stimuli and that stress-induced cortisol secretion interferes with accuracy of memory retrieval, i.e. the ability to discriminate true memories from false ones.

  4. Alteration of hepatic structure and oxidative stress induced by intravenous nanoceria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Michael T., E-mail: mttsen01@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Lu, Xiaoqin, E-mail: x0lu0003@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Duan, Xiaoxian, E-mail: x0duan02@louisville.edu [Dept of Anatomical Sciences and Neurobiology, University of Louisville, Louisville, Kentucky (United States); Hardas, Sarita S., E-mail: sarita.hardas@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Sultana, Rukhsana, E-mail: rsult2@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Wu, Peng, E-mail: peng.wu@uky.edu [Dept of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Unrine, Jason M., E-mail: jason.unrine@uky.edu [Dept of Plant and Soil Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Graham, Uschi, E-mail: graham@caer.uky.edu [Center for Applied Energy Research, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Butterfield, D. Allan, E-mail: dabcns@uky.edu [Dept. of Chemistry, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Grulke, Eric A., E-mail: eric.grulke@uky.edu [Dept of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States); Yokel, Robert A., E-mail: ryokel@email.uky.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky (United States)

    2012-04-15

    Beyond the traditional use of ceria as an abrasive, the scope of nanoceria applications now extends into fuel cell manufacturing, diesel fuel additives, and for therapeutic intervention as a putative antioxidant. However, the biological effects of nanoceria exposure have yet to be fully defined, which gave us the impetus to examine its systemic biodistribution and biological responses. An extensively characterized nanoceria (5 nm) dispersion was vascularly infused into rats, which were terminated 1 h, 20 h or 30 days later. Light and electron microscopic tissue characterization was conducted and hepatic oxidative stress parameters determined. We observed acute ceria nanoparticle sequestration by Kupffer cells with subsequent bioretention in parenchymal cells as well. The internalized ceria nanoparticles appeared as spherical agglomerates of varying dimension without specific organelle penetration. In hepatocytes, the agglomerated nanoceria frequently localized to the plasma membrane facing bile canaliculi. Hepatic stellate cells also sequestered nanoceria. Within the sinusoids, sustained nanoceria bioretention was associated with granuloma formations comprised of Kupffer cells and intermingling CD3{sup +} T cells. A statistically significant elevation of serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) level was seen at 1 and 20 h, but subsided by 30 days after ceria administration. Further, elevated apoptosis was observed on day 30. These findings, together with increased hepatic protein carbonyl levels on day 30, indicate ceria-induced hepatic injury and oxidative stress, respectively. Such observations suggest a single vascular infusion of nanoceria can lead to persistent hepatic retention of particles with possible implications for occupational and therapeutic exposures. -- Highlights: ► Time course study on nanoceria induced hepatic alterations in rats. ► Serum AST elevation indicated acute hepatotoxicity. ► Ceria is retained for up to 30 days in Kupffer cells

  5. Social identity influences stress appraisals and cardiovascular reactions to acute stress exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Stephen; Meaney, Sarah; Muldoon, Orla T

    2014-09-01

    This study tested a recent theoretical development in stress research to see whether group membership influenced cardiovascular reactions following exposure to acute stress. Participants (N = 104) were exposed to a message in which a maths test was described as stressful or challenging by an ingroup member (a student) or outgroup member (a stress disorder sufferer). Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure(DBP) and heart rate (HR) were monitored throughout a standard reactivity study. As expected, a significant interaction was found; relative to those who were told that the task was challenging, ingroup members reported more stress and had higher DBP and HR reactivity when told by an ingroup member that the maths task was stressful; task information did not have the same effect for outgroup members. These results indicate that informational support is not constant but varies as a function of group membership. Finally, this recent development in stress research may prove useful for those interested in investigating the interactions between social, psychological and physiological processes underlying health disparities. What is already known on this subject? Stress is a common risk factor for hypertension and coronary heart disease. Social support has been found to reduce cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress. The influence of social support on stress varies as a consequence of social identity. What does this study add? The social group that one belongs to influences how one appraises and responds to stress. Social identity provides a useful framework for understanding how social processes are associated with health disparities. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Acute Stress Reactions in Couples after a Burn Event to Their Young Child

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, A.; Van Loey, N.E.; Van der Heijden, P.G.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073087998; Van Son, M.J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068440340

    2012-01-01

    Objective This multicenter study examines acute stress reactions in couples following a burn event to their preschool child. Methods Participants were 182 mothers and 154 fathers, including 143 couples, of 193 children (0–4 years) with acute burns. Parents’ self-reported acute stress reactions and

  7. Altered stress system reactivity after pediatric injury: Relation with post-traumatic stress symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Prasad, Mary R; Cox, Charles S; Granger, Douglas A; Duque, Gerardo; Swank, Paul R

    2017-10-01

    Injury is the leading cause of death and disability in childhood. Injured children are at high risk for developing alterations in stress response systems and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) that may compromise long-term physical and psychological health. In a prospective, observational cohort study, we examined individual differences in, and correlates of, stress-reactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA; salivary cortisol) and autonomic nervous system (ANS; salivary alpha amylase, sAA) following pediatric injury. Participants were 8-15 years of age and hospitalized for traumatic brain injury (TBI; n=55; M age=13.9 yrs; 40 males) or extracranial injury (EI; n=29; M age 12.3 yrs, 20 males) following vehicular accidents. Six months post-injury, saliva was collected before and after the Trier Social Stress Test and later assayed for cortisol and sAA. Relative to a healthy non-injured comparison group (n=33; M age=12.5 yrs, 16 males), injured children (ages 8-12 years), but not adolescents (ages 13-15 yrs), had higher cortisol levels; regardless of age, injured participants showed dampened cortisol reactivity to social evaluative threat. Compared to participants with EI, children with TBI had elevated cortisol and adolescents had elevated sAA. With respect to PTSS, individual differences in sAA were negatively correlated with avoidance in the TBI group and positively correlated with emotional numbing within the EI group. Importantly, psychological and neurobiological sequelae were weakly related to injury severity. Given the high prevalence of pediatric injury, these sequelae affect many children and represent a significant public health concern. Consequently, surveillance of post-traumatic sequelae should include the full spectrum of injury severity. Monitoring the activity, reactivity, and regulation of biological systems sensitive to environmental insults may advance our understanding of individual differences in sequelae and adaptation

  8. Does Furosemide Increase Oxidative Stress in Acute Kidney Injury?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbert, Benjamin I; Ho, Kwok M; Lipman, Jeffrey; Roberts, Jason A; Corcoran, Tomas B; Morgan, David J; Pavey, Warren; Mas, Emilie; Barden, Anne E; Mori, Trevor A

    2017-02-10

    Furosemide, a loop diuretic, is used to increase urine output in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). It remains uncertain whether the benefits of furosemide in AKI outweigh its potential harms. We investigated if furosemide influenced oxidative stress in 30 critically ill patients with AKI by measuring changes in F 2 -isoprostanes (F 2 -IsoPs), markers of in vivo oxidative stress, in plasma and urine following intravenous furosemide. Urine F 2 -IsoPs were higher in sepsis (p = 0.001) and increased in proportion to urine furosemide (p = 0.001). The furosemide-induced increase in urine F 2 -IsoPs differed depending on AKI severity (p Furosemide had no effect on plasma F 2 -IsoPs. We demonstrate for the first time that furosemide increases renal oxidative stress in AKI and find that patients with the most severe AKI-to whom the largest doses are likely to be administered-showed the greatest increase in oxidative stress. These findings lead to the hypothesis that the common practice of administering high-dose furosemide to convert oliguric to nonoliguric AKI may induce harmful oxidative stress in the kidneys, and an adequately powered, randomized controlled trial is required to determine if clinical benefits of this dosing strategy justify its potential harms. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 26, 221-226.

  9. The war within : Neurobiological alterations in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geuze, E.

    2006-01-01

    For a large number of veterans, war does not end after they are removed from a combat zone. Traumatic stress affects nearly all veterans, but while the majority of veterans learn to live with their experiences, for some veterans traumatic stress seethes inside. In this dissertation posttraumatic

  10. DeltaPKC mediates microcerebrovascular dysfunction in acute ischemia and in chronic hypertensive stress in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Rachel; Steinberg, Gary K; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2007-05-04

    Maintaining cerebrovascular function is a priority for reducing damage following acute ischemic events such as stroke, and under chronic stress in diseases such as hypertension. Ischemic episodes lead to endothelial cell damage, deleterious inflammatory responses, and altered neuronal and astrocyte regulation of vascular function. These, in turn, can lead to impaired cerebral blood flow and compromised blood-brain barrier function, promoting microvascular collapse, edema, hemorrhagic transformation, and worsened neurological recovery. Multiple studies demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC), a widely expressed serine/threonine kinase, is involved in mediating arterial tone and microvascular function. However, there is no clear understanding about the role of individual PKC isozymes. We show that intraperitoneal injection of deltaV1-1-TAT(47-57) (0.2 mg/kg in 1 mL), an isozyme-specific peptide inhibitor of deltaPKC, improved microvascular pathology, increased the number of patent microvessels by 92% compared to control-treated animals, and increased cerebral blood flow by 26% following acute focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in normotensive rats. In addition, acute delivery of deltaV1-1-TAT(47-57) in hypertensive Dahl rats increased cerebral blood flow by 12%, and sustained delivery deltaV1-1-TAT(47-57) (5 uL/h, 1 mM), reduced infarct size by 25% following an acute stroke induced by MCA occlusion for 90 min. Together, these findings demonstrate that deltaPKC is an important therapeutic target for protection of microvascular structure and function under both acute and chronic conditions of cerebrovascular stress.

  11. δPKC mediates microcerebrovascular dysfunction in acute ischemia and in chronic hypertensive stress in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Rachel; Steinberg, Gary K.; Mochly-Rosen, Daria

    2013-01-01

    Maintaining cerebrovascular function is a priority for reducing damage following acute ischemic events such as stroke, and under chronic stress in diseases such as hypertension. Ischemic episodes lead to endothelial cell damage, deleterious inflammatory responses, and altered neuronal and astrocyte regulation of vascular function. These, in turn, can lead to impaired cerebral blood flow and compromised blood–brain barrier function, promoting microvascular collapse, edema, hemorrhagic transformation, and worsened neurological recovery. Multiple studies demonstrate that protein kinase C (PKC), a widely expressed serine/threonine kinase, is involved in mediating arterial tone and microvascular function. However, there is no clear understanding about the role of individual PKC isozymes. We show that intraperitoneal injection of δV1-1–TAT47–57 (0.2 mg/kg in 1 mL), an isozymespecific peptide inhibitor of δPKC, improved microvascular pathology, increased the number of patent microvessels by 92% compared to control-treated animals, and increased cerebral blood flow by 26% following acute focal ischemia induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in normotensive rats. In addition, acute delivery of δV1-1–TAT47–57 in hypertensive Dahl rats increased cerebral blood flow by 12%, and sustained delivery δV1-1–TAT47–57 (5 uL/h, 1 mM), reduced infarct size by 25% following an acute stroke induced by MCA occlusion for 90 min. Together, these findings demonstrate that δPKC is an important therapeutic target for protection of microvascular structure and function under both acute and chronic conditions of cerebrovascular stress. PMID:17350602

  12. Altered neutrophil immunophenotypes in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Elen; Bacelar, Thiago S.; Ciudad, Juana; Ribeiro, Maria Cecília M.; Garcia, Daniela R.N.; Sedek, Lukasz; Maia, Simone F.; Aranha, Daniel B.; Machado, Indyara C.; Ikeda, Arissa; Baglioli, Bianca F.; Lopez-Duarte, Nathalia; Teixeira, Lisandra A. C.; Szczepanski, Tomasz; Silva, Maria Luiza M.; Land, Marcelo G.P.

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of evidences suggest a genetic predisposition in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) that might favor the occurrence of the driver genetic alterations. Such genetic background might also translate into phenotypic alterations of residual hematopoietic cells. Whether such phenotypic alterations are present in bone marrow (BM) cells from childhood B-cell precursor (BCP)-ALL remains to be investigated. Here we analyzed the immunophenotypic profile of BM and peripheral blood (PB) maturing/matured neutrophils from 118 children with BCP-ALL and their relationship with the features of the disease. Our results showed altered neutrophil phenotypes in most (77%) BCP-ALL cases. The most frequently altered marker was CD10 (53%), followed by CD33 (34%), CD13 (15%), CD15/CD65 (10%) and CD123 (7%). Of note, patients with altered neutrophil phenotypes had younger age (p = 0.03) and lower percentages of BM maturing neutrophils (p = 0.004) together with greater BM lymphocyte (p = 0.04), and mature B-cell (p = 0.03) counts. No significant association was found between an altered neutrophil phenotype and other disease features. These findings point out the potential existence of an altered residual hematopoiesis in most childhood BCP-ALL cases. PMID:27028865

  13. Relationship between antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A

    OpenAIRE

    Cemek, Mustafa; Dede, Semiha; BAYIROĞLU, Fahri; Çaksen, Hüseyin; Cemek, Fatma; MERT, Nihat

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in children with acute hepatitis A. According to our knowledge, there are no data about the blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of oxidative stress) and nonenzymic antioxidants in children with acute hepatitis A.

  14. Acute phase proteins in cattle after exposure to complex stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomborg, S. R.; Nielsen, L. R.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Stressors such as weaning, mixing and transportation have been shown to lead to increased blood concentrations of acute phase proteins (APP), including serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin, in calves. This study was therefore undertaken to assess whether SAA and haptoglobin levels...... concentrations of SAA and haptoglobin increased significantly in response to the stressors (P...... in blood mirror stress in adult cattle. Six clinically healthy Holstein cows and two Holstein heifers were transported for four to six hours to a research facility, where each animal was housed in solitary tie stalls. Blood samples for evaluation of leukocyte counts and serum SAA and haptoglobin...

  15. Stress transgenerationally programs metabolic pathways linked to altered mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Douglas; Ambeskovic, Mirela; Montina, Tony; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-12-01

    Stress is among the primary causes of mental health disorders, which are the most common reason for disability worldwide. The ubiquity of these disorders, and the costs associated with them, lends a sense of urgency to the efforts to improve prediction and prevention. Down-stream metabolic changes are highly feasible and accessible indicators of pathophysiological processes underlying mental health disorders. Here, we show that remote and cumulative ancestral stress programs central metabolic pathways linked to mental health disorders. The studies used a rat model consisting of a multigenerational stress lineage (the great-great-grandmother and each subsequent generation experienced stress during pregnancy) and a transgenerational stress lineage (only the great-great-grandmother was stressed during pregnancy). Urine samples were collected from adult male F4 offspring and analyzed using (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The results of variable importance analysis based on random variable combination were used for unsupervised multivariate principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, as well as metabolite set enrichment analysis (MSEA) and pathway analysis. We identified distinct metabolic profiles associated with the multigenerational and transgenerational stress phenotype, with consistent upregulation of hippurate and downregulation of tyrosine, threonine, and histamine. MSEA and pathway analysis showed that these metabolites are involved in catecholamine biosynthesis, immune responses, and microbial host interactions. The identification of metabolic signatures linked to ancestral programming assists in the discovery of gene targets for future studies of epigenetic regulation in pathogenic processes. Ultimately, this research can lead to biomarker discovery for better prediction and prevention of mental health disorders.

  16. Urinary 1-Hydroxypyrene is Associated with Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Freitas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have associated exposure to environmental pollutants, especially polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, with the development of cardiovascular diseases. Considering that 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP is the major biomarker of exposure to pyrenes, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the potential association between 1-OHP and oxidative stress/inflammatory biomarkers in patients who had suffered an acute myocardial infarction (AMI. After adopting the exclusion criteria, 58 post-infarction patients and 41 controls were sub-divided into smokers and non-smokers. Urinary 1-OHP, hematological and biochemical parameters, oxidative stress biomarkers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GPx and exogenous antioxidants and the inflammatory biomarker (hs-CRP were analyzed. 1-OHP levels were increased in post-infarct patients compared to controls (p < 0.05 and were correlated to MDA (r = 0.426, p < 0.01, CAT (r = 0.474, p < 0.001 and β-carotene (r = −0.309; p < 0.05 in non-smokers. Furthermore, post-infarction patients had elevated hs-CRP, MDA, CAT and GPx levels compared to controls for both smokers and non-smokers. Besides, β-carotene levels and SOD activity were decreased in post-infarction patients. In summary, our findings indicate that the exposure to pyrenes was associated to lipid damage and alterations of endogenous and exogenous antioxidants, demonstrating that PAHs contribute to oxidative stress and are associated to acute myocardial infarction.

  17. Domestication effects on behavioural and hormonal responses to acute stress in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Maria; Fallahsharoudi, Amir; Bergquist, Jonas; Kushnir, Mark M; Jensen, Per

    2014-06-22

    Comparative studies have shown that alterations in physiology, morphology and behaviour have arisen due to the domestication. A driving factor behind many of the changes could be a shift in stress responses, with modified endocrine and behavioural profiles. In the present study we compared two breeds of chicken (Gallus gallus), the domestic White Leghorn (WL) egg laying breed and its ancestor, the Red Junglefowl (RJF). Birds were exposed to an acute stress event, invoked by 3 or 10 min of physical restraint. They were then continuously monitored for the effects on a wide range of behaviours during a 60 min recovery phase. Blood samples were collected from the chicken at baseline, and after 10 and 60 min following a similar restraint stress, and the samples were analyzed for nine endogenous steroids of the HPA and HPG axes. Concentration of the steroids was determined using validated liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry methods. In RJF, an immediate behavioural response was observed after release from restraint in several behaviours, with a relatively fast return to baseline within 1h. In WL, some behaviours were affected for a longer period of time, and others not at all. Concentrations of corticosterone increased more in RJF, but returned faster to baseline compared to WL. A range of baseline levels for HPG-related steroids differed between the breeds, and they were generally more affected by the stress in WL than in RJF. In conclusion, RJF reacted stronger both behaviourally and physiologically to the restraint stress, but also recovered faster. This would appear to be adaptive under natural conditions, whereas the stress recovery of domesticated birds has been altered by domestication and breeding for increased reproductive output. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparison of three acute stress models for simulating the pathophysiology of stress-related mucosal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Bhagawati; Singh, Sanjay

    2017-05-30

    Stress-related mucosal disease (SRMD) is highly prevalent in intensive care patients leading to increasing treatment cost and mortality. SRMD is a disease elusive of ideal treatment. Evaluation of drugs is very pertinent for the efficient and safe treatment of SRMD. It relies mainly on in vivo screening models. There are various stress models, and till date, none of them is validated for simulating the SRMD pathophysiology. The present study aims to choose the best model, which reproduce pathophysiology of SRMD, among previously established stress models. This study evaluates ulcer index, hexosamine content, microvascular permeability, and gastric content in three acute stress models (cold-restraint, restraint, and water immersion restraint). Macroscopic pictures of the ulcerogenic stomach explain that in contrast to other models, cold-restraint stress (CRS) exposure produced marked ulcers on the fundic area of the stomach. Results of the present study depicted that each stress model significantly increased ulcer index, microvascular permeability and decreased hexosamine level, however, the maximum in the case of CRS-exposed rats. Total acidity and pH of the gastric content remains unchanged in all the stress models. On the contrary, the gastric volume significantly decreased only in case of CRS, while unchanged in other stress models. The overall results revealed that the CRS resembles the pathophysiology of SRMD closely. It is the best and feasible model among all the models to evaluate drugs for the treatment of SRMD.

  19. Social isolation alters central nervous system monoamine content in prairie voles following acute restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, Neal; Anderson, Eden M; Moenk, Deirdre; Trahanas, Diane; Matuszewich, Leslie; Grippo, Angela J

    2018-04-01

    Animal models have shown that social isolation and other forms of social stress lead to depressive- and anxiety-relevant behaviors, as well as neuroendocrine and physiological dysfunction. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of prior social isolation on neurotransmitter content following acute restraint in prairie voles. Animals were either paired with a same-sex sibling or isolated for 4 weeks. Plasma adrenal hormones and ex vivo tissue concentrations of monoamine neurotransmitters and their metabolites were measured following an acute restraint stressor in all animals. Isolated prairie voles displayed significantly increased circulating adrenocorticotropic hormone levels, as well as elevated serotonin and dopamine levels in the hypothalamus, and potentially decreased levels of serotonin in the frontal cortex. However, no group differences in monoamine levels were observed in the hippocampus or raphe. The results suggest that social stress may bias monoamine neurotransmission and stress hormone function to subsequent acute stressors, such as restraint. These findings improve our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the consequences of social stress.

  20. Financial stress and outcomes after acute myocardial infarction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin J Shah

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between financial stress and health care outcomes. Our objective was to examine the association between self-reported financial stress during initial hospitalization and long-term outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI.We used prospective registry evaluating myocardial infarction: Event and Recovery (PREMIER data, an observational, multicenter US study of AMI patients discharged between January 2003 and June 2004. Primary outcomes were disease-specific and generic health status outcomes at 1 year (symptoms, function, and quality of life (QoL, assessed by the Seattle Angina Questionnaire [SAQ] and Short Form [SF]-12. Secondary outcomes included 1-year rehospitalization and 4-year mortality. Hierarchical regression models accounted for patient socio-demographic, clinical, and quality of care characteristics, and access and barriers to care.Among 2344 AMI patients, 1241 (52.9% reported no financial stress, 735 (31.4% reported low financial stress, and 368 (15.7% reported high financial stress. When comparing individuals reporting low financial stress to no financial stress, there were no significant differences in post-AMI outcomes. In contrast, individuals reporting high financial stress were more likely to have worse physical health (SF-12 PCS mean difference -3.24, 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -4.82, -1.66, mental health (SF-12 MCS mean difference: -2.44, 95% CI: -3.83, -1.05, disease-specific QoL (SAQ QoL mean difference: -6.99, 95% CI: -9.59, -4.40, and be experiencing angina (SAQ Angina Relative Risk = 1.66, 95%CI: 1.19, 2.32 at 1 year post-AMI. While 1-year readmission rates were increased (Hazard Ratio = 1.50; 95%CI: 1.20, 1.86, 4-year mortality was no different.High financial stress is common and an important risk factor for worse long-term outcomes post-AMI, independent of access and barriers to care.

  1. Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals molecular strategies of oriental river prawn Macrobrachium nipponense in response to acute and chronic nitrite stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhixin; Li, Tongyu; Li, Erchao; Chen, Ke; Ding, Zhili; Qin, Jian G; Chen, Liqiao; Ye, Jinyun

    2016-01-01

    Macrobrachium nipponense is an economically and nutritionally important species threatened by ambient superfluous nitrite. De novo RNA-Seq was used to explore the molecular mechanism in M. nipponense exposed to the acute nitrite stress (26.05 mg/L nitrite-N) for 24 h and the chronic nitrite stress (1.38 mg/L nitrite-N) for 28 d A total of 175.13 million reads were obtained and assembled into 58,871 unigenes with an average length of 1028.7 bp and N50 of 1294 bp. Under the acute and chronic nitrite stress trials, 2824 and 2610 unigenes were significantly expressed. In GO analysis and KEGG pathway analysis, 30 pathways were significantly different between the two treatments while four pathways were in common and the markedly altered pathways were divided into four sections as immunity, metabolism, cell and others. The immunity section revealing the different depth of immunity provoked by nitrite stress contained the most pathways including the important pathways as phagosome, folate biosynthesis, glycerolipid metabolism, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism under the acute nitrite stress, and lysosome, alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism, arginine and proline metabolism under the chronic nitrite stress. This is the first report of responses of M. nipponense under acute and chronic nitrite stress through de novo transcriptome sequencing on the transcriptome level. The results of transcriptome analysis improve our understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms coping with nitrite stress in crustacean species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an ...

  3. Altered one-carbon metabolism in posttraumatic stress disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, G.J. de; Lok, A.; Mocking, R.; Assies, J.; Schene, A.H.; Olff, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality through somatic conditions, particularly cardiovascular disease. The one-carbon metabolism in connection with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis may be an important mediator of this

  4. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-03-13

    Mar 13, 2013 ... Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA) ...

  5. Mechanical Alterations Associated with Repeated Treadmill Sprinting under Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Olivier; Brocherie, Franck; Morin, Jean-Benoit; Racinais, Sébastien; Millet, Grégoire P; Périard, Julien D

    2017-01-01

    Examine the mechanical alterations associated with repeated treadmill sprinting performed in HOT (38°C) and CON (25°C) conditions. Eleven recreationally active males performed a 30-min warm-up followed by three sets of five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery and 3-min between sets in each environment. Constant-velocity running for 1-min at 10 and 20 km.h-1 was also performed prior to and following sprinting. Mean skin (37.2±0.7 vs. 32.7±0.8°C; Pvertical stiffness were lower (-2.6±1.6% and -5.5±5.5%; both Pvertical (-2.6±5.5%; Pvertical stiffness (-12.9±2.3%; Pvertical stiffness during repeated sprinting; however without exacerbating mechanical alterations. The absence of changes in constant-velocity running patterns suggests a strong link between fatigue-induced velocity decrements during sprinting and mechanical alterations.

  6. Acute stress responses: A review and synthesis of ASD, ASR, and CSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isserlin, Leanna; Zerach, Gadi; Solomon, Zahava

    2008-10-01

    Toward the development of a unifying diagnosis for acute stress responses this article attempts to find a place for combat stress reaction (CSR) within the spectrum of other defined acute stress responses. This article critically compares the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder (ASD), acute stress reaction (ASR), and CSR. Prospective studies concerning the predictive value of ASD, ASR, and CSR are reviewed. Questions, recommendations, and implications for clinical practice are raised concerning the completeness of the current acute stress response diagnoses, the heterogeneity of different stressors, the scope of expected outcomes, and the importance of decline in function as an indicator of future psychological, psychiatric, and somatic distress. PsycINFO Database Record 2009 APA.

  7. Genetic alterations activating kinase and cytokine receptor signaling in high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Kathryn G.; Morin, Ryan D.; Zhang, Jinghui; Hirst, Martin; Zhao, Yongjun; Su, Xiaoping; Chen, Shann-Ching; Payne-Turner, Debbie; Churchman, Michelle; Harvey, Richard C.; Chen, Xiang; Kasap, Corynn; Yan, Chunhua; Becksfort, Jared; Finney, Richard P.; Teachey, David T.; Maude, Shannon L.; Tse, Kane; Moore, Richard; Jones, Steven; Mungall, Karen; Birol, Inanc; Edmonson, Michael N.; Hu, Ying; Buetow, Kenneth E.; Chen, I-Ming; Carroll, William L.; Wei, Lei; Ma, Jing; Kleppe, Maria; Levine, Ross L.; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Larsen, Eric; Shah, Neil P.; Devidas, Meenakshi; Reaman, Gregory; Smith, Malcolm; Paugh, Steven W.; Evans, William E.; Grupp, Stephan A.; Jeha, Sima; Pui, Ching-Hon; Gerhard, Daniela S.; Downing, James R.; Willman, Cheryl L.; Loh, Mignon; Hunger, Stephen P.; Marra, Marco; Mullighan, Charles G.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Genomic profiling has identified a subtype of high-risk B-progenitor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) with alteration of IKZF1, a gene expression profile similar to BCR-ABL1-positive ALL and poor outcome (Ph-like ALL). The genetic alterations that activate kinase signaling in Ph-like ALL are poorly understood. We performed transcriptome and whole genome sequencing on 15 cases of Ph-like ALL, and identified rearrangements involving ABL1, JAK2, PDGFRB, CRLF2 and EPOR, activating mutations of IL7R and FLT3, and deletion of SH2B3, which encodes the JAK2 negative regulator LNK. Importantly, several of these alterations induce transformation that is attenuated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting the treatment outcome of these patients may be improved with targeted therapy. PMID:22897847

  8. Impairments of spatial working memory and attention following acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olver, James S; Pinney, Myra; Maruff, Paul; Norman, Trevor R

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have investigated the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm on impaired attention and working memory in humans. Further, the duration of any stress-related cognitive impairment remains unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of an acute psychosocial stress paradigm, the Trier Social Stress, on cognitive function in healthy volunteers. Twenty-three healthy male and female subjects were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task. Physiological measures (salivary cortisol, heart rate and blood pressure) and subjective stress ratings were measured at baseline, in anticipation of stress, immediately post-stress and after a period of rest. A neuropsychological test battery including spatial working memory and verbal memory was administered at each time point. Acute psychosocial stress produced significant increases in cardiovascular and subjective measures in the anticipatory and post-stress period, which recovered to baseline after rest. Salivary cortisol steadily declined over the testing period. Acute psychosocial stress impaired delayed verbal recall, attention and spatial working memory. Attention remained impaired, and delayed verbal recall continued to decline after rest. Acute psychosocial stress is associated with an impairment of a broad range of cognitive functions in humans and with prolonged abnormalities in attention and memory. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Surviving endoplasmic reticulum stress is coupled to altered chondrocyte differentiation and function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Yeung Tsang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available In protein folding and secretion disorders, activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling (ERSS protects cells, alleviating stress that would otherwise trigger apoptosis. Whether the stress-surviving cells resume normal function is not known. We studied the in vivo impact of ER stress in terminally differentiating hypertrophic chondrocytes (HCs during endochondral bone formation. In transgenic mice expressing mutant collagen X as a consequence of a 13-base pair deletion in Col10a1 (13del, misfolded alpha1(X chains accumulate in HCs and elicit ERSS. Histological and gene expression analyses showed that these chondrocytes survived ER stress, but terminal differentiation is interrupted, and endochondral bone formation is delayed, producing a chondrodysplasia phenotype. This altered differentiation involves cell-cycle re-entry, the re-expression of genes characteristic of a prehypertrophic-like state, and is cell-autonomous. Concomitantly, expression of Col10a1 and 13del mRNAs are reduced, and ER stress is alleviated. ERSS, abnormal chondrocyte differentiation, and altered growth plate architecture also occur in mice expressing mutant collagen II and aggrecan. Alteration of the differentiation program in chondrocytes expressing unfolded or misfolded proteins may be part of an adaptive response that facilitates survival and recovery from the ensuing ER stress. However, the altered differentiation disrupts the highly coordinated events of endochondral ossification culminating in chondrodysplasia.

  10. Mechanical Alterations Associated with Repeated Treadmill Sprinting under Heat Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Girard

    Full Text Available Examine the mechanical alterations associated with repeated treadmill sprinting performed in HOT (38°C and CON (25°C conditions.Eleven recreationally active males performed a 30-min warm-up followed by three sets of five 5-s sprints with 25-s recovery and 3-min between sets in each environment. Constant-velocity running for 1-min at 10 and 20 km.h-1 was also performed prior to and following sprinting.Mean skin (37.2±0.7 vs. 32.7±0.8°C; P<0.001 and core (38.9±0.2 vs. 38.8±0.3°C; P<0.05 temperatures, together with thermal comfort (P<0.001 were higher following repeated sprinting in HOT vs. CON. Step frequency and vertical stiffness were lower (-2.6±1.6% and -5.5±5.5%; both P<0.001 and contact time (+3.2±2.4%; P<0.01 higher in HOT for the mean of sets 1-3 compared to CON. Running distance per sprint decreased from set 1 to 3 (-7.0±6.4%; P<0.001, with a tendency for shorter distance covered in HOT vs. CON (-2.7±3.4%; P = 0.06. Mean vertical (-2.6±5.5%; P<0.01, horizontal (-9.1±4.4%; P<0.001 and resultant ground reaction forces (-3.0±2.8%; P<0.01 along with vertical stiffness (-12.9±2.3%; P<0.001 and leg stiffness (-8.4±2.7%; P<0.01 decreased from set 1 to 3, independently of conditions. Propulsive power decreased from set 1 to 3 (-16.9±2.4%; P<0.001, with lower propulsive power values in set 2 (-6.6%; P<0.05 in HOT vs. CON. No changes in constant-velocity running patterns occurred between conditions, or from pre-to-post repeated-sprint exercise.Thermal strain alters step frequency and vertical stiffness during repeated sprinting; however without exacerbating mechanical alterations. The absence of changes in constant-velocity running patterns suggests a strong link between fatigue-induced velocity decrements during sprinting and mechanical alterations.

  11. Alterations of consciousness and mystical-type experiences after acute LSD in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liechti, Matthias E; Dolder, Patrick C; Schmid, Yasmin

    2017-05-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is used recreationally and in clinical research. Acute mystical-type experiences that are acutely induced by hallucinogens are thought to contribute to their potential therapeutic effects. However, no data have been reported on LSD-induced mystical experiences and their relationship to alterations of consciousness. Additionally, LSD dose- and concentration-response functions with regard to alterations of consciousness are lacking. We conducted two placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies using oral administration of 100 and 200 μg LSD in 24 and 16 subjects, respectively. Acute effects of LSD were assessed using the 5 Dimensions of Altered States of Consciousness (5D-ASC) scale after both doses and the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ) after 200 μg. On the MEQ, 200 μg LSD induced mystical experiences that were comparable to those in patients who underwent LSD-assisted psychotherapy but were fewer than those reported for psilocybin in healthy subjects or patients. On the 5D-ASC scale, LSD produced higher ratings of blissful state, insightfulness, and changed meaning of percepts after 200 μg compared with 100 μg. Plasma levels of LSD were not positively correlated with its effects, with the exception of ego dissolution at 100 μg. Mystical-type experiences were infrequent after LSD, possibly because of the set and setting used in the present study. LSD may produce greater or different alterations of consciousness at 200 μg (i.e., a dose that is currently used in psychotherapy in Switzerland) compared with 100 μg (i.e., a dose used in imaging studies). Ego dissolution may reflect plasma levels of LSD, whereas more robustly induced effects of LSD may not result in such associations.

  12. Neurocognitive function and state cognitive stress appraisal predict cortisol reactivity to an acute psychosocial stressor in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Marcia J; Grieve, Adam J; Ames, Michelle E; Armstrong, Jeffrey M; Essex, Marilyn J

    2013-08-01

    Stress and associated alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function have deleterious influence on the development of multiple mental and physical health problems. Prior research has aimed to identify individuals most at risk for the development of these stress-related maladies by examining factors that may contribute to inter-individual differences in HPA responses to acute stress. The objectives of this study were to investigate, in adolescents, (1) whether differences in neurocognitive abilities influenced cortisol reactivity to an acute stressor, (2) whether internalizing psychiatric disorders influenced this relationship, and (3) whether acute cognitive stress-appraisal mechanisms mediated an association between neurocognitive function and cortisol reactivity. Subjects were 70 adolescents from a community sample who underwent standardized neurocognitive assessments of IQ, achievement, and declarative memory measures at mean age 14 and whose physiological and behavioral responses to a standardized psychosocial stress paradigm (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST) were assessed at mean age 18. Results showed that, among all adolescents, lower nonverbal memory performance predicted lower cortisol reactivity. In addition, internalizing disorders interacted with verbal memory such that the association with cortisol reactivity was strongest for adolescents with internalizing disorders. Finally, lower secondary cognitive appraisal of coping in anticipation of the TSST independently predicted lower cortisol reactivity but did not mediate the neurocognitive-cortisol relationship. Findings suggest that declarative memory may contribute to inter-individual differences in acute cortisol reactivity in adolescents, internalizing disorders may influence this relationship, and cognitive stress appraisal also predicts cortisol reactivity. Developmental, research, and clinical implications are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Increases in anxiety-like behavior induced by acute stress are reversed by ethanol in adolescent but not adult rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlinskaya, Elena I; Spear, Linda P

    2012-01-01

    Repeated exposure to stressors has been found to increase anxiety-like behavior in laboratory rodents, with the social anxiety induced by repeated restraint being extremely sensitive to anxiolytic effects of ethanol in both adolescent and adult rats. No studies, however, have compared social anxiogenic effects of acute stress or the capacity of ethanol to reverse this anxiety in adolescent and adult animals. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate whether adolescent [postnatal day (P35)] Sprague-Dawley rats differ from their adult counterparts (P70) in the impact of acute restraint stress on social anxiety and in their sensitivity to the social anxiolytic effects of ethanol. Animals were restrained for 90 min, followed by examination of stress- and ethanol-induced (0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1 g/kg) alterations in social behavior using a modified social interaction test in a familiar environment. Acute restraint stress increased anxiety, as indexed by reduced levels of social investigation at both ages, and decreased social preference among adolescents. These increases in anxiety were dramatically reversed among adolescents by acute ethanol. No anxiolytic-like effects of ethanol emerged following restraint stress in adults. The social suppression seen in response to higher doses of ethanol was reversed by restraint stress in animals of both ages. To the extent that these data are applicable to humans, the results of the present study provide some experimental evidence that stressful life events may increase the attractiveness of alcohol as an anxiolytic agent for adolescents. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among pediatric acute care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czaja, Angela S; Moss, Marc; Mealer, Meredith

    2012-08-01

    In their work, pediatric acute care nurses may encounter traumatic events and be at risk for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This survey-based study examines the potential diagnosis of PTSD among nurses at a tertiary children's hospital with a Level 1 trauma center. Twenty-one percent of respondents had strong PTSD symptoms without significant difference between units. Nurses with potential PTSD had more comorbid symptoms of anxiety, depression, and burnout and were more often considering a career change. Furthermore, symptoms affected not only their work but also their personal lives. Future research should focus upon identifying pediatric nurses with PTSD to provide therapeutic interventions and reducing high-risk events and their potential impact. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Acute short-term mental stress does not influence salivary flow rate dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ella A Naumova

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Results of studies that address the influence of stress on salivary flow rate and composition are controversial. The aim of this study was to reveal the influence of stress vulnerability and different phases of stress reactivity on the unstimulated and stimulated salivary flow rate. We examined that acute mental stress does not change the salivary flow rate. In addition, we also examined the salivary cortisol and protein level in relation to acute mental stress stimuli. METHODS: Saliva of male subjects was collected for five minutes before, immediately, 10, 30 and 120 min after toothbrushing. Before toothbrushing, the subjects were exposed to acute stress in the form of a 2 min public speech. Salivary flow rate and total protein was measured. The physiological stress marker cortisol was analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To determine the subjects' psychological stress reaction, the State-Trait-Anxiety Inventory State questionnaire (STAI data were obtained. The subjects were divided into stress subgroup (S1 (psychological reactivity, stress subgroup (S2 (psychological and physiological reactivity and a control group. The area under the curve for salivarycortisol concentration and STAI-State scores were calculated. All data underwent statistical analysis using one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS: Immediately after stress exposure, all participants exhibited a psychological stress reaction. Stress exposure did not change the salivary flow rate. Only 69% of the subjects continued to display a physiological stress reaction 20 minutes after the public talk. There was no significant change in the salivary flow rate during the psychological and the physiological stress reaction phases relative to the baseline. CONCLUSIONS: Acute stress has no impact on the salivary flow rate; however, there may be other responses through salivary proteins that are increased with the acute stress stimuli. Future studies are needed to examine

  16. Factor Structure of the Acute Stress Disorder Scale in a Sample of Hurricane Katrina Evacuees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmondson, Donald; Mills, Mary Alice; Park, Crystal L.

    2010-01-01

    Acute stress disorder (ASD) is a poorly understood and controversial diagnosis (A. G. Harvey & R. A. Bryant, 2002). The present study used confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to test the factor structure of the most widely used self-report measure of ASD, the Acute Stress Disorder Scale (R. A. Bryant, M. L. Moulds, & R. M. Guthrie, 2000),…

  17. Can Architectural Design alter the Physiological reaction to Psychosocial Stress ?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson Fich, Lars; Jönsson, Peter; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2014-01-01

    Is has long been established, that views to natural scenes can a have a dampening effect on physiological stress responses. However, as people in Europe, Canada and North America today spent 50-85% of their time indoors, attention might also be paid to how the artificial man-made indoor environment...... is computer generated and properties of the space therefore can be systematically varied, we measured saliva cortisol and heart rate variability in participants in a closed room versus a room with openings. As shown by a significant linear contrast interaction between groups and TSST conditions, participants...

  18. Plant Abiotic Stress Proteomics: The Major Factors Determining Alterations in Cellular Proteome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosová, Klára; Vítámvás, Pavel; Urban, Milan O.; Prášil, Ilja T.; Renaut, Jenny

    2018-01-01

    HIGHLIGHTS: Major environmental and genetic factors determining stress-related protein abundance are discussed.Major aspects of protein biological function including protein isoforms and PTMs, cellular localization and protein interactions are discussed.Functional diversity of protein isoforms and PTMs is discussed. Abiotic stresses reveal profound impacts on plant proteomes including alterations in protein relative abundance, cellular localization, post-transcriptional and post-translational modifications (PTMs), protein interactions with other protein partners, and, finally, protein biological functions. The main aim of the present review is to discuss the major factors determining stress-related protein accumulation and their final biological functions. A dynamics of stress response including stress acclimation to altered ambient conditions and recovery after the stress treatment is discussed. The results of proteomic studies aimed at a comparison of stress response in plant genotypes differing in stress adaptability reveal constitutively enhanced levels of several stress-related proteins (protective proteins, chaperones, ROS scavenging- and detoxification-related enzymes) in the tolerant genotypes with respect to the susceptible ones. Tolerant genotypes can efficiently adjust energy metabolism to enhanced needs during stress acclimation. Stress tolerance vs. stress susceptibility are relative terms which can reflect different stress-coping strategies depending on the given stress treatment. The role of differential protein isoforms and PTMs with respect to their biological functions in different physiological constraints (cellular compartments and interacting partners) is discussed. The importance of protein functional studies following high-throughput proteome analyses is presented in a broader context of plant biology. In summary, the manuscript tries to provide an overview of the major factors which have to be considered when interpreting data from proteomic

  19. Stress in Broiler Chickens Due to Acute Noise Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr Chloupek

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress effects from acute noise exposure were monitored in a group of ROSS 308 broiler chickens (n = 80, aged 42 days. The experiment simulated slaughterhouse sounds to which the broilers were exposed for 10 min in the test enclosure. Effects of acute noise exposure at two different levels (80 dB and 100 dB were evaluated on the basis of examinations of selected biochemical plasma indicators and tonic immobility tests. Noise stimuli of both 80 dB and 100 dB intensities for 10 min induced a significant elevation in plasma corticosterone levels. Broilers that were exposed to noise stimuli of 100 dB also exhibited a significant increase in the cholesterol level and total protein level. Exposure to noise stimuli did not influence the glucose level and triglyceride concentrations. The duration of tonic immobility was not affected by noise stimuli in our experiment. However, noise exposure at a 100 dB level decreased the number of attempts to induce tonic immobility in broilers.

  20. Effects of thermal acclimation on transcriptional responses to acute heat stress in the eurythermal fish Gillichthys mirabilis (Cooper)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Logan, Cheryl A; Somero, George N

    2011-01-01

    ... proteins of the cellular stress response. Here, using a complementary DNA microarray, we investigated the sequence in which cellular stress response-linked genes are expressed during acute heat stress, to elucidate how severity of stress...

  1. Acute stress disorder in hospitalised victims of 26/11-terror attack on Mumbai, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasinorwala, Vanshree Patil; Shah, Nilesh

    2010-11-01

    The 26/11 terror attacks on Mumbai have been internationally denounced. Acute stress disorder is common in victims of terror. To find out the prevalence and to correlate acute stress disorder, 70 hospitalised victims of terror were assessed for presence of the same using DSM-IV TR criteria. Demographic data and clinical variables were also collected. Acute stress disorder was found in 30% patients. On demographic profile and severity of injury, there were some interesting observations and differences between the victims who developed acute stress disorder and those who did not; though none of the differences reached the level of statistical significance. This study documents the occurrence of acute stress disorder in the victims of 26/11 terror attack.

  2. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  3. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doonan, Robert J; Scheffler, Patrick; Yu, Alice; Egiziano, Giordano; Mutter, Andrew; Bacon, Simon; Carli, Franco; Daskalopoulos, Marios E; Daskalopoulou, Stella S

    2011-01-01

    Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress) has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals. Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9) and non-smokers (n = 53) underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1) after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition) and 2) immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition). At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions. Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular function

  4. Association of altered hemorheology with oxidative stress and inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawali, Prajwal; Richards, Ross S

    2015-05-01

    We have shown increased whole blood viscosity (WBV), decreased erythrocyte deformability, and increased erythrocyte aggregation in metabolic syndrome (MetS) in our previous study. The objective of the study was to find out if the altered hemorheology shown in MetS in our previous study is associated with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in the same subjects. One hundred recruited participants were classified into three groups based on the number of the MetS components present following National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III definitions. WBV, erythrocyte aggregation, erythrocyte deformability, oxidative stress markers (erythrocyte reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and urinary isoprostanes), inflammatory markers high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), and thrombotic marker D-dimer were measured. Data were analyzed by IBM SPSS 20 software. We found a significant association of altered hemorheology with chronic inflammation and oxidative stress in MetS. There was a linear increase in the level of hsCRP and a linear decrease in the level of SOD and GSH across the quartiles of erythrocyte aggregation. Similarly, the thrombotic marker D-dimer showed a linear increase and oxidative stress marker GSH showed a linear decrease trend across the quartiles of WBV. Alterations of hemorheology in MetS are probably due to the effect of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress. The negative effects of chronic inflammation and oxidative stress on the cardiovascular system could be due to the resulting altered hemorheology.

  5. Salt stress alters physiological indicators in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.

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    Basel Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate performance of four upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. varieties, Deir-Ezzor22, Niab78, Aleppo118 and Deltapine50 grown under non-saline conditions (control and salt stress (200 mol m-3 NaCl for 7 weeks. Results showed that seedling height, root length, leaf number, leaf area, leaf chlorophyll a and b, osmotic potential, chlorophyll content index (CCI, dry biomass and root/shoot weight ratio were significantly reduced with salinity treatment. This reduction was more pronounced in Deltapine50 and Aleppo118 than Niab78 and Deir-Ezzor22. Leaf relative water content (RWC was strongly reduced for Deltapine50 and Aleppo118, while, it was slightly increased for Niab78 and Deir-Ezzor22. In conclusion, osmotic potential, RWC, CCI, dry biomass and root/shoot weight ratio could be considered as useful indictors for salt tolerance screening among cotton varieties.

  6. Effect of gender and menstrual cycle on immune system response to acute mental stress: apoptosis as a mediator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoglu, Bilge; Bayrak, Sibel; Gurel, Esin Ileri; Balkanci, Zeynep Dicle

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to explore the immunological outcomes of short-term mental stress in apoptosis in peripheral lymphocytes and variations by gender and hormonal status of the individuals together with possible mediators of this interaction. Acute mental stress (computerized Stroop color-word interference and cold pressor tests) was applied to men (n = 17) and women (n = 16, in both follicular and luteal phases). Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored throughout the test and after the test until baseline values were recorded. Blood samples were drawn for measuring cortisol and nitric oxide (NO) levels and flow-cytometric cell counting before and after the test. Activation of the stress system was ascertained by increased heart rate, blood pressure and serum cortisol levels after the test. Relative to baseline values, acute mental stress altered the distribution of T and natural killer cells. There was a significant decrease in T helper/T cytotoxic-suppressor cell ratio and an increase in apoptotic T helper cell percentage irrespective of gender or menstrual cycle phase. An increased number of natural killer cells was detected in women, whereas it was decreased in men. After stress induction, serum NO levels remained the same in women and increased in men. Although a correlation was not found between immune system changes and NO levels, glucocorticoids seem to have a role in the observed differences. Acute mental stress triggers apoptotic T helper cell loss which was associated with stress system activation, and sex steroids affect the pattern of stress-related immune cell distribution. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Acute social stress-induced immunomodulation in pigs high and low responders to ACTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacou, Elodie; Haurogné, Karine; Mignot, Grégoire; Allard, Marie; De Beaurepaire, Laurence; Marchand, Jordan; Terenina, Elena; Billon, Yvon; Jacques, Julien; Bach, Jean-Marie; Mormède, Pierre; Hervé, Julie; Lieubeau, Blandine

    2017-02-01

    Pig husbandry is known as an intensive breeding system, piglets being submitted to multiple stressful events such as early weaning, successive mixing, crowding and shipping. These stressors are thought to impair immune defences and might contribute, at least partly, to the prophylactic use of antibiotics. Robustness was recently defined as the ability of an individual to express a high-production potential in a wide variety of environmental conditions. Increasing robustness thus appears as a valuable option to improve resilience to stressors and could be obtained by selecting piglets upon their adrenocortical activity. In this study, we aimed at depicting the consequences of an acute social stress on the immune capacity of piglets genetically selected upon divergent hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. For this purpose, we monitored neuroendocrine and immune parameters, in high- (HPAhi) and low- (HPAlo) responders to ACTH, just before and immediately after a one-hour mixing with unfamiliar conspecifics. As expected, stressed piglets displayed higher levels of circulating cortisol and norepinephrine. Blood cell count analysis combined to flow cytometry revealed a stress-induced leukocyte mobilization in the bloodstream with a specific recruitment of CD8α+ lymphocytes. Besides, one-hour mixing decreased LPS-induced IL-8 and TNFα secretions in whole-blood assays (WBA) and reduced mononuclear cell phagocytosis. Altogether, our data demonstrate that acute social stress alters immune competence of piglets from both groups, and bring new insights in favour of good farming practices. While for most parameters high- and low-responders to ACTH behaved similarly, HPAhi piglets displayed higher number of CD4+ CD8α- T cells, as well as increased cytokine production in WBA (LPS-induced TNFα and PIL-induced IL-8), which could confer them increased resistance to pathogens. Finally, a principal component analysis including all parameters highlighted that

  8. TNF-α from hippocampal microglia induces working memory deficits by acute stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohgidani, Masahiro; Kato, Takahiro A; Sagata, Noriaki; Hayakawa, Kohei; Shimokawa, Norihiro; Sato-Kasai, Mina; Kanba, Shigenobu

    2016-07-01

    The role of microglia in stress responses has recently been highlighted, yet the underlying mechanisms of action remain unresolved. The present study examined disruption in working memory due to acute stress using the water-immersion resistant stress (WIRS) test in mice. Mice were subjected to acute WIRS, and biochemical, immunohistochemical, and behavioral assessments were conducted. Spontaneous alternations (working memory) significantly decreased after exposure to acute WIRS for 2h. We employed a 3D morphological analysis and site- and microglia-specific gene analysis techniques to detect microglial activity. Morphological changes in hippocampal microglia were not observed after acute stress, even when assessing ramification ratios and cell somata volumes. Interestingly, hippocampal tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels were significantly elevated after acute stress, and acute stress-induced TNF-α was produced by hippocampal-ramified microglia. Conversely, plasma concentrations of TNF-α were not elevated after acute stress. Etanercept (TNF-α inhibitor) recovered working memory deficits in accordance with hippocampal TNF-α reductions. Overall, results suggest that TNF-α from hippocampal microglia is a key contributor to early-stage stress-to-mental responses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Stress habituation and alterations in perceived stress predict BMI percentile changes across a school year

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolescents experience stressful situations at a high rate during school. Indeed, school is the most common source of stress for teens. This high rate of stress may promote increases in adiposity during a developmental period important for establishing the adult physique. Adiposity gains may be th...

  10. Genetic alterations of m6A regulators predict poorer survival in acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Chau-To; Marshall, Amy D; Rasko, John E J; Wong, Justin J L

    2017-02-02

    Methylation of N6 adenosine (m6A) is known to be important for diverse biological processes including gene expression control, translation of protein, and messenger RNA (mRNA) splicing. However, its role in the development of human cancers is poorly understood. By analyzing datasets from the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) study, we discover that mutations and/or copy number variations of m6A regulatory genes are strongly associated with the presence of TP53 mutations in AML patients. Further, our analyses reveal that alterations in m6A regulatory genes confer a worse survival in AML. Our work indicates that genetic alterations of m6A regulatory genes may cooperate with TP53 and/or its regulator/downstream targets in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of AML.

  11. Genetic alterations of m6A regulators predict poorer survival in acute myeloid leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chau-To Kwok

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Methylation of N6 adenosine (m6A is known to be important for diverse biological processes including gene expression control, translation of protein, and messenger RNA (mRNA splicing. However, its role in the development of human cancers is poorly understood. By analyzing datasets from the Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network (TCGA acute myeloid leukemia (AML study, we discover that mutations and/or copy number variations of m6A regulatory genes are strongly associated with the presence of TP53 mutations in AML patients. Further, our analyses reveal that alterations in m6A regulatory genes confer a worse survival in AML. Our work indicates that genetic alterations of m6A regulatory genes may cooperate with TP53 and/or its regulator/downstream targets in the pathogenesis and/or maintenance of AML.

  12. Cell proliferation alterations in Chlorella cells under stress conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rioboo, Carmen [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); O' Connor, Jose Enrique [Laboratorio de Citomica, Unidad Mixta de Investigacion CIPF-UVEG, Centro de Investigacion Principe Felipe, Avda. Autopista del Saler, 16, 46013 Valencia (Spain); Prado, Raquel; Herrero, Concepcion [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain); Cid, Angeles, E-mail: cid@udc.es [Laboratorio de Microbiologia, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, 15008 A Coruna (Spain)

    2009-09-14

    Very little is known about growth and proliferation in relation to the cell cycle regulation of algae. The lack of knowledge is even greater when referring to the potential toxic effects of pollutants on microalgal cell division. To assess the effect of terbutryn, a triazine herbicide, on the proliferation of the freshwater microalga Chlorella vulgaris three flow cytometric approaches were used: (1) in vivo cell division using 5-,6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) staining was measured, (2) the growth kinetics were determined by cytometric cell counting and (3) cell viability was evaluated with the membrane-impermeable double-stranded nucleic acid stain propidium iodide (PI). The results obtained in the growth kinetics study using CFSE to identify the microalgal cell progeny were consistent with those determined by cytometric cell counting. In all C. vulgaris cultures, each mother cell had undergone only one round of division through the 96 h of assay and the cell division occurred during the dark period. Cell division of the cultures exposed to the herbicide was asynchronous. Terbutryn altered the normal number of daughter cells (4 autospores) obtained from each mother cell. The number was only two in the cultures treated with 250 nM. The duration of the lag phase after the exposure to terbutryn could be dependent on the existence of a critical cell size to activate cytoplasmic division. Cell size, complexity and fluorescence of chlorophyll a of the microalgal cells presented a marked light/dark (day/night) cycle, except in the non-dividing 500 nM cultures, where terbutryn arrested cell division at the beginning of the cycle. Viability results showed that terbutryn has an algastatic effect in C. vulgaris cells at this concentration. The rapid and precise determination of cell proliferation by CFSE staining has allowed us to develop a model for assessing both the cell cycle of C. vulgaris and the in vivo effects of pollutants on growth and

  13. Repeated exposure of adult rats to transient oxidative stress induces various long-lasting alterations in cognitive and behavioral functions.

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    Yoshio Iguchi

    Full Text Available Exposure of neonates to oxidative stress may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia in adulthood. However, the effects of moderate oxidative stress on the adult brain are not completely understood. To address this issue, we systemically administrated 2-cyclohexen-1-one (CHX to adult rats to transiently reduce glutathione levels. Repeated administration of CHX did not affect the acquisition or motivation of an appetitive instrumental behavior (lever pressing rewarded by a food outcome under a progressive ratio schedule. In addition, response discrimination and reversal learning were not affected. However, acute CHX administration blunted the sensitivity of the instrumental performance to outcome devaluation, and this effect was prolonged in rats with a history of repeated CHX exposure, representing pro-depression-like phenotypes. On the other hand, repeated CHX administration reduced immobility in forced swimming tests and blunted acute cocaine-induced behaviors, implicating antidepressant-like effects. Multivariate analyses segregated a characteristic group of behavioral variables influenced by repeated CHX administration. Taken together, these findings suggest that repeated administration of CHX to adult rats did not cause a specific mental disorder, but it induced long-term alterations in behavioral and cognitive functions, possibly related to specific neural correlates.

  14. Bone alterations by stress in athletes. Schaedigung des Knochens durch Ueberlastung bei Leistungssportlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doege, H. (Bezirkskrankenhaus ' Friedrich Wolf' , Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin, Chemnitz (Germany))

    1990-01-01

    This report describes our experiences with the bone imaging in athletes. We studied 10 athletes and 10 other patients with spondylolisthesis of the lumbar spine and 16 athletes with suspicion of alterations of extremities. An increased uptake of this radiopharmaceutical was detected in six of 10 athletes with spondylolisthesis caused probably by stress fracture. Bone scans were negative in seven of 16 athletes with suspicion of lesion of extremities. In the remaining 9 patients scans were abnormal and showed periosteal injuries, epiphyseal alteration, joint abnormalities, tibial stress fractures and couvert fracture. It was also abnormal in bone injuries not evident in radiography. (orig.).

  15. Role of nitric oxide in altered nociception and memory following chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeri, Masoud; Razavinasab, Moazamehosadat; Abareghi, Fatemeh; Shabani, Mohammad

    2014-04-22

    Chronic stress alters sensory and cognitive function of mankind and animals. Sub-chronic swim stress is known to induce a prolonged hyperalgesia which is mediated through the NMDA and opioid systems. Nitric oxide is a soluble gas which acts as a retrograde messenger that modulates the release of the mentioned neurotransmitters. It is also involved in nociception and memory. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the role of NO pathway in nociception and memory impairments induced by sub-chronic swim stress. A three session forced swimming stress protocol was administered to the rats. Pretreatment with l-NAME (10mg/kg, i.p.), l-Arginine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was made before each swimming session. Anxiety-like behavior, nociception and passive avoidance (PA) learning were evaluated 24h after the last swim stress session. Swim stress altered locomotion and anxiety-like behaviors in the open field test. Reduced thermal threshold was observed in the nociceptive measurement after swim stress. Pretreatment with l-NAME could reverse the reduced threshold. A decreased step through latency was observed in the PA paradigm after swim stress, which could be inhibited by pretreatment with l-NAME. The results of this study indicate that sub-chronic swim stress impairs nociception and PA learning. NO pathway seems to have a modulatory role in these alterations. Further studies are suggested to examine the protective effect of NOS inhibitors on stress-induced impairments in sensory and cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced hypomyelination, synaptic alterations, and learning impairment in mouse offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Ayumi; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Hayashi, Sakurako; Sato, Yuichi; Azuma, Kagaku; Kubo, Kin-Ya

    2016-11-15

    Maternal chewing during prenatal stress attenuates both the development of stress-induced learning deficits and decreased cell proliferation in mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus. Hippocampal myelination affects spatial memory and the synaptic structure is a key mediator of neuronal communication. We investigated whether maternal chewing during prenatal stress ameliorates stress-induced alterations of hippocampal myelin and synapses, and impaired development of spatial memory in adult offspring. Pregnant mice were divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Stress was induced by placing mice in a ventilated restraint tube, and was initiated on day 12 of pregnancy and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were given a wooden stick to chew during restraint. In 1-month-old pups, spatial memory was assessed in the Morris water maze, and hippocampal oligodendrocytes and synapses in CA1 were assayed by immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy. Prenatal stress led to impaired learning ability, and decreased immunoreactivity of myelin basic protein (MBP) and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) in the hippocampal CA1 in adult offspring. Numerous myelin sheath abnormalities were observed. The G-ratio [axonal diameter to axonal fiber diameter (axon plus myelin sheath)] was increased and postsynaptic density length was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 region. Maternal chewing during stress attenuated the prenatal stress-induced impairment of spatial memory, and the decreased MBP and CNPase immunoreactivity, increased G-ratios, and decreased postsynaptic-density length in the hippocampal CA1 region. These findings suggest that chewing during prenatal stress in dams could be an effective coping strategy to prevent hippocampal behavioral and morphologic impairments in their offspring. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Roles of dopamine and inflammation-related molecules in behavioral alterations caused by repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuyashiki, Tomoyuki

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged or intensive stress results in emotional and cognitive deficits and is a major risk factor for psychiatric disorders such as depression. Since the molecular mechanisms of how biological adaptations to stress go awry remains elusive, pharmaceutical development targeting stress has not been established. In rodents, repeated stress alters functions of multiple brain areas including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) that confers stress resilience, thereby causing depression, anxiety, and working memory deficit. The mesocortical dopaminergic pathway that regulates such stress-coping functions is attenuated with repetition of stress via prostaglandin (PG) E(2), a bioactive lipid derived from arachidonic acid, and its receptor EP1. Several findings suggest that microglia activated by repeated stress are involved in emotional and cognitive changes as a source of inflammation-related molecules such as PGE(2) and IL-1β. IL-1 signaling is critical not only for emotional changes but also for microglial activation induced by repeated stress. Furthermore, purinergic signaling via the P2X7 receptor that can trigger PGE(2) and IL-1β production in microglia has been implicated in the pro-depressive effect of repeated stress as well as depressive disorders. Collectively, inflammation-related molecules that link repeated stress to mPFC dysfunction are potential targets of pharmaceutical development for psychiatric disorders.

  18. Acute Exposure to Fluoxetine Alters Aggressive Behavior of Zebrafish and Expression of Genes Involved in Serotonergic System Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Pavlidis

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Zebrafish, Danio rerio, is an emerging model organism in stress and neurobehavioral studies. In nature, the species forms shoals, yet when kept in pairs it exhibits an agonistic and anxiety-like behavior that leads to the establishment of dominant-subordinate relationships. Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is used as an anxiolytic tool to alter aggressive behavior in several vertebrates and as an antidepressant drug in humans. Pairs of male zebrafish were held overnight to develop dominant—subordinate behavior, either treated or non-treated for 2 h with fluoxetine (5 mg L−1, and allowed to interact once more for 1 h. Behavior was recorded both prior and after fluoxetine administration. At the end of the experiment, trunk and brain samples were also taken for cortisol determination and mRNA expression studies, respectively. Fluoxetine treatment significantly affected zebrafish behavior and the expression levels of several genes, by decreasing offensive aggression in dominants and by eliminating freezing in the subordinates. There was no statistically significant difference in whole-trunk cortisol concentrations between dominant and subordinate fish, while fluoxetine treatment resulted in higher (P = 0.004 cortisol concentrations in both groups. There were statistically significant differences between dominant and subordinate fish in brain mRNA expression levels of genes involved in stress axis (gr, mr, neural activity (bdnf, c-fos, and the serotonergic system (htr2b, slc6a4b. The significant decrease in the offensive and defensive aggression following fluoxetine treatment was concomitant with a reversed pattern in c-fos expression levels. Overall, an acute administration of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor alters aggressive behavior in male zebrafish in association with changes in the neuroendocrine mediators of coping styles.

  19. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  20. Hyper-responsiveness to acute stress, emotional problems and poorer memory in former preterm children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, Andrea A; Tristão, Rosana M; Pratesi, Riccardo; Wolf, Oliver T

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of preterm birth (PTB) is high worldwide, especially in developing countries like Brazil. PTB is marked by a stressful environment in intra- as well as extrauterine life, which can affect neurodevelopment and hormonal and physiological systems and lead to long-term negative outcomes. Nevertheless, little is known about PTB and related outcomes later on in childhood. Thus, the goals of the current study were threefold: (1) comparing cortisol and alpha-amylase (sAA) profiles, including cortisol awakening response (CAR), between preterm and full-term children; (2) evaluating whether preterm children are more responsive to acute stress and (3) assessing their memory skills and emotional and behavioral profiles. Basal cortisol and sAA profiles, including CAR of 30 preterm children, aged 6 to 10 years, were evaluated. Further, we assessed memory functions using the Wide Range Assessment of Memory and Learning, and we screened behavior/emotion using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. The results of preterm children were compared to an age- and sex-matched control group. One week later, participants were exposed to a standardized laboratory stressor [Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C)], in which cortisol and sAA were measured at baseline, 1, 10 and 25 min after stressor exposure. Preterm children had higher cortisol concentrations at awakening, a flattened CAR and an exaggerated response to TSST-C compared to full-term children. These alterations were more pronounced in girls. In addition, preterm children were characterized by more emotional problems and poorer memory performance. Our findings illustrate the long-lasting and in part sex-dependent effects of PTB on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, internalizing behavior and memory. The findings are in line with the idea that early adversity alters the set-point of the HPA axis, thereby creating a more vulnerable phenotype.

  1. Impact of Membrane Phospholipid Alterations in Escherichia coli on Cellular Function and Bacterial Stress Adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlett, Veronica W; Mallampalli, Venkata K P S; Karlstaedt, Anja; Dowhan, William; Taegtmeyer, Heinrich; Margolin, William; Vitrac, Heidi

    2017-07-01

    Bacteria have evolved multiple strategies to sense and rapidly adapt to challenging and ever-changing environmental conditions. The ability to alter membrane lipid composition, a key component of the cellular envelope, is crucial for bacterial survival and adaptation in response to environmental stress. However, the precise roles played by membrane phospholipids in bacterial physiology and stress adaptation are not fully elucidated. The goal of this study was to define the role of membrane phospholipids in adaptation to stress and maintenance of bacterial cell fitness. By using genetically modified strains in which the membrane phospholipid composition can be systematically manipulated, we show that alterations in major Escherichia coli phospholipids transform these cells globally. We found that alterations in phospholipids impair the cellular envelope structure and function, the ability to form biofilms, and bacterial fitness and cause phospholipid-dependent susceptibility to environmental stresses. This study provides an unprecedented view of the structural, signaling, and metabolic pathways in which bacterial phospholipids participate, allowing the design of new approaches in the investigation of lipid-dependent processes involved in bacterial physiology and adaptation. IMPORTANCE In order to cope with and adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, bacteria have to sense and quickly respond to fluctuating conditions. In this study, we investigated the effects of systematic and controlled alterations in bacterial phospholipids on cell shape, physiology, and stress adaptation. We provide new evidence that alterations of specific phospholipids in Escherichia coli have detrimental effects on cellular shape, envelope integrity, and cell physiology that impair biofilm formation, cellular envelope remodeling, and adaptability to environmental stresses. These findings hold promise for future antibacterial therapies that target bacterial lipid biosynthesis

  2. Acute stress modulates feedback processing in men and women: differential effects on the feedback-related negativity and theta and beta power.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Banis

    Full Text Available Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses.

  3. Acute Stress Modulates Feedback Processing in Men and Women: Differential Effects on the Feedback-Related Negativity and Theta and Beta Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banis, Stella; Geerligs, Linda; Lorist, Monicque M.

    2014-01-01

    Sex-specific prevalence rates in mental and physical disorders may be partly explained by sex differences in physiological stress responses. Neural networks that might be involved are those underlying feedback processing. Aim of the present EEG study was to investigate whether acute stress alters feedback processing, and whether stress effects differ between men and women. Male and female participants performed a gambling task, in a control and a stress condition. Stress was induced by exposing participants to a noise stressor. Brain activity was analyzed using both event-related potential and time-frequency analyses, measuring the feedback-related negativity (FRN) and feedback-related changes in theta and beta oscillatory power, respectively. While the FRN and feedback-related theta power were similarly affected by stress induction in both sexes, feedback-related beta power depended on the combination of stress induction condition and sex. FRN amplitude and theta power increases were smaller in the stress relative to the control condition in both sexes, demonstrating that acute noise stress impairs performance monitoring irrespective of sex. However, in the stress but not in the control condition, early lower beta-band power increases were larger for men than women, indicating that stress effects on feedback processing are partly sex-dependent. Our findings suggest that sex-specific effects on feedback processing may comprise a factor underlying sex-specific stress responses. PMID:24755943

  4. Restraint stress alters immune parameters and induces oxidative stress in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guanhui; Dong, Yulan; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing

    2014-12-01

    The influence of stress on embryo implantation is not well understood. Prior studies have focused on later gestational stages and the long-term impact of stress on immune function. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of restraint stress on the immune parameters and the oxidative states of the uterus during implantation. In this study, pregnant CD1 mice were subjected to restraint stress (4 h/d) on embryonic day 1 (E1) and sacrificed on E3, E5, and E7. Maternal plasma corticosterone (CORT) secretion and implantation sites in the uterus were examined. The uterine (excluding embryos) homogenate and uterine lymphocytes were collected to examine oxidative stress states and associated immune parameters. The results demonstrated that restraint stress increased maternal plasma CORT secretion and reduced the number of implantation sites by 15.3% on E5 and by 26.1% on E7. Moreover, restraint stress decreased the density of uterine natural killer (uNK) cells in the endometrium by 22.1-47.9% and increased the density of mast cells in the myometrium by 55.6-76.9%. Restraint stress remarkably decreased the CD3(+)CD4(+) T/CD3(+)CD8(+) T cell ratio (by 26.2-28.9%) and attenuated uterine lymphocyte proliferation and secretion of cytokines. In addition, restraint stress threatened the intracellular equilibrium between oxidants and antioxidants, resulting in decreased glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) (32.2% and 45.7%), superoxide dismutase (SOD) (15.5% and 26.1%), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) (18.4% and 18.2%) activities and increased malondialdehyde (MDA) (34.4% and 43.0%) contents on E5 and E7. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that restraint stress causes abnormal implantation and negatively impacts immune parameters in association with oxidative stress in mice.

  5. Stress-related alterations of acyl and desacyl ghrelin circulating levels: mechanisms and functional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stengel, Andreas; Wang, Lixin; Taché, Yvette

    2011-01-01

    Ghrelin is the only known peripherally produced and centrally acting peptide hormone that stimulates food intake and digestive functions. Ghrelin circulates as acylated and desacylated forms and recently the acylating enzyme, ghrelin-O-acyltransferase (GOAT) and the de-acylating enzyme, thioesterase 1/lysophospholipase 1 have been identified adding new layers of complexity to the regulation of ghrelin. Stress is known to alter gastrointestinal motility and food intake and was recently shown to modify circulating ghrelin and GOAT levels with differential responses related to the type of stressors including a reduction induced by physical stressors (abdominal surgery and immunological/endotoxin injection, exercise) and elevation by metabolic (cold exposure, fasting and caloric restriction) and psychological stressors. However, the pathways underlying the alterations of ghrelin under these various stress conditions are still largely to be defined and may relate to stress-associated autonomic changes. There is evidence that alterations of circulating ghrelin may contribute to the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses along with sustaining the energetic requirement needed upon repeated exposure to stressors. A better understanding of these mechanisms will allow targeting components of ghrelin signaling that may improve food intake and gastric motility alterations induced by stress. PMID:21782868

  6. Stress-induced alteration of left ventricular eccentricity: An additional marker of multivessel CAD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimelli, Alessia; Liga, Riccardo; Giorgetti, Assuero; Casagranda, Mirta; Marzullo, Paolo

    2017-03-28

    Abnormal left ventricular (LV) eccentricity index (EI) is a marker of adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the interaction between stress-induced alterations of EI and major cardiac parameters has not been explored. We sought to evaluate the relationship between LV EI and coronary artery disease (CAD) burden in patients submitted to myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Three-hundred and forty-three patients underwent MPI and coronary angiography. LV ejection fraction (EF) and EI were computed from gated stress images as measures of stress-induced functional impairment. One-hundred and thirty-six (40%), 122 (35%), and 85 (25%) patients had normal coronary arteries, single-vessel CAD, and multivessel CAD, respectively. Post-stress EI was lower in patients with multivessel CAD than in those with normal coronary arteries and single-vessel CAD (P = 0.001). This relationship was confirmed only in patients undergoing exercise stress test, where a lower post-stress EI predicted the presence of multivessel CAD (P = 0.039). Post-stress alterations of LV EI on MPI may unmask the presence of multivessel CAD.

  7. Early life stress alters pituitary growth during adolescence-a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganella, Despina E; Allen, Nicholas B; Simmons, Julian G; Schwartz, Orli; Kim, Jee Hyun; Sheeber, Lisa; Whittle, Sarah

    2015-03-01

    The pituitary gland is integral in mediating the stress-response via its role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function. Pituitary gland volume (PGV) is altered in stress-related psychopathology, and one study to date has shown stress to be associated with age-related PGV change during adolescence. The current study investigated the effects of a number of different types of early life (i.e., childhood and adolescent) stress (including childhood maltreatment, stressful life events, and maternal affective behavior) on PGV development from mid- to late adolescence using a longitudinal design. The influence of PGV development on depressive and anxiety symptoms was also investigated. Ninety one (49 male) adolescents took part in mother-child dyadic interaction tasks when they were approximately 12 years old, reported on childhood maltreatment and stressful life events when they were approximately 15 years old, and underwent two waves of structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans, when they were approximately 16 and 19 years old. Results revealed that childhood maltreatment predicted accelerated PGV development in females, and maternal dysphoric behavior predicted accelerated PGV development in the whole sample. PGV development was not associated with depressive or anxiety symptoms. These results suggest an effect of early life stress on altered HPA axis function across mid- to late adolescence. Further research is required to assess functional implications and whether these changes might be associated with risk for subsequent psychopathology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Child anxiety symptoms related to longitudinal cortisol trajectories and acute stress responses: evidence of developmental stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K; Gilliam, Kathryn S; Wright, Dorianne B; Fisher, Philip A

    2015-02-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children's (n = 107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9-10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress-reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure-may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Propolis reverses acetaminophen induced acute hepatorenal alterations: a biochemical and histopathological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirala, Satendra Kumar; Bhadauria, Monika

    2008-04-01

    The present study has been conducted to evaluate the curative effect of propolis extract, a honey bee-hive product, against acetaminophen (APAP) induced oxidative stress and dysfunction in liver and kidney. Animals were challenged with APAP (2 g/kg, p.o.) followed by treatment of propolis extract (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) once only after 24 h. Release of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, and serum bilirubin were increased, whereas hemoglobin and blood sugar were decreased after APAP administration. Antioxidant status in both the liver and kidney tissues were estimated by determining the glutathione, malondialdehyde content and activities of the CYP enzymes, which showed significant alterations after APAP intoxication. In addition, activities of adenosine triphosphatase, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and major cell contents (total protein, glycogen and cholesterol) were also altered due to APAP poisoning. Propolis extract successfully reversed the alterations of these biochemical variables at higher dose. Improvements in hepatorenal histoarchitecture were also consistent with biochemical observations. The results indicated that ethanolic extract of propolis has ability to reverse APAP-induced hepatorenal biochemical and histopathological alterations probably by increasing the antioxidative defense activities due to various phenolic compounds present in it.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA alterations of peripheral lymphocytes in acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients undergoing total body irradiation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Fuyun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA alterations, including mtDNA copy number and mtDNA 4977 bp common deletion (CD, are key indicators of irradiation-induced damage. The relationship between total body irradiation (TBI treatment and mtDNA alterations in vivo, however, has not been postulated yet. The aim of this study is to analyze mtDNA alterations in irradiated human peripheral lymphocytes from acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL patients as well as to take them as predictors for radiation toxicity. Methods Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated from 26 ALL patients 24 hours after TBI preconditioning (4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Extracted DNA was analyzed by real-time PCR method. Results Average 2.31 times mtDNA and 0.53 fold CD levels were observed after 4.5 Gy exposure compared to their basal levels. 9 Gy TBI produced a greater response of both mtDNA and CD levels than 4.5 Gy. Significant inverse correlation was found between mtDNA content and CD level at 4.5 and 9 Gy (P = 0.037 and 0.048. Moreover, mtDNA content of lymphocytes without irradiation was found to be correlated to age. Conclusions mtDNA and CD content may be considered as predictive factors to radiation toxicity.

  11. [Copy number alterations in adult patients with mature B acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with specific immunochemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribera, Jordi; Zamora, Lurdes; García, Olga; Hernández-Rivas, Jesús-María; Genescà, Eulàlia; Ribera, Josep-Maria

    2016-12-02

    Unlike Burkitt lymphoma, molecular abnormalities other than C-MYC rearrangements have scarcely been studied in patients with mature B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and prognostic significance of copy number alterations (CNA) in genes involved in lymphoid differentiation, cell cycle and tumor suppression in adult patients with B-ALL. We have analyzed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification the genetic material from bone marrow at diagnosis from 25 adult B-ALL patients treated with rituximab and specific chemotherapy. The most frequent CNA were alterations in the 14q32.33 region (11 cases, 44%) followed by alterations in the cell cycle regulator genes CDKN2A/B and RB1 (16%). No correlation between the presence of specific CNA and the clinical-biologic features or the response to therapy was found. The high frequency of CNA in the 14q32.33 region, CDKN2A/B and RB1 found in our study could contribute to the aggressiveness and invasiveness of mature B-ALL. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of acute and chronic heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones and oxidant status in restrictedly fed broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jingjing; Tang, Li; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Liyang; Lin, Xi; Liu, Hsiao-Ching; Odle, Jack; Luo, Xugang

    2015-07-01

    Heat tolerance can be improved by feed restriction in broiler chickens. It is unknown whether the same is true for broiler breeders, which are restrictedly fed. Therefore, the current study was conducted to study the effects of heat stress on plasma metabolites, hormones, and oxidative status of restricted fed broiler breeders with special emphases on the temperature and latency of heat exposure. In trial 1, 12 broiler breeders were kept either in a thermoneutral chamber (21°C, control, n = 6) or in a chamber with a step-wise increased environmental temperature from 21 to 33°C (21, 25, 29, 33°C, heat-stressed, n = 6). Changes in plasma total cholesterol, glucose, and triiodothyronine (T3) were closely related to the environmental temperature. When the temperature reached 29°C, plasma T3 (P broiler breeders were divided into 2 groups and raised under 21°C and 32°C for 8 weeks, respectively. Total cholesterol was increased in chronic heat-stressed broiler breeders after 4 weeks. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, P = 0.047) and glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, P = 0.036) was up-regulated after 6 weeks of thermal treatment, whereas plasma CK (P = 0.009) was increased at the end of thermal treatment. Plasma malonaldehyde, protein carbonyl content, activity of total superoxide dismutase (SOD), and corticosterone content were not altered after acute and prolonged heat challenges. Taken together, acute heat stress primarily resulted in disturbance of plasma metabolites, whereas chronic heat stress caused tissue damage reflected by increased plasma LDA, GOT, and CK. During acute heat stress, plasma metabolites were minimally disturbed in broiler breeders until the environmental temperature reached 33°C. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  13. Acute stress differentially affects spatial configuration learning in high and low cortisol-responding healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Meyer

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stress and stress hormones modulate memory formation in various ways that are relevant to our understanding of stress-related psychopathology, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Particular relevance is attributed to efficient memory formation sustained by the hippocampus and parahippocampus. This process is thought to reduce the occurrence of intrusions and flashbacks following trauma, but may be negatively affected by acute stress. Moreover, recent evidence suggests that the efficiency of visuo-spatial processing and learning based on the hippocampal area is related to PTSD symptoms. Objective: The current study investigated the effect of acute stress on spatial configuration learning using a spatial contextual cueing task (SCCT known to heavily rely on structures in the parahippocampus. Method: Acute stress was induced by subjecting participants (N = 34 to the Maastricht Acute Stress Test (MAST. Following a counterbalanced within-subject approach, the effects of stress and the ensuing hormonal (i.e., cortisol activity on subsequent SCCT performance were compared to SCCT performance following a no-stress control condition. Results: Acute stress did not impact SCCT learning overall, but opposing effects emerged for high versus low cortisol responders to the MAST. Learning scores following stress were reduced in low cortisol responders, while high cortisol-responding participants showed improved learning. Conclusions: The effects of stress on spatial configuration learning were moderated by the magnitude of endogenous cortisol secretion. These findings suggest a possible mechanism by which cortisol responses serve an adaptive function during stress and trauma, and this may prove to be a promising route for future research in this area.

  14. Cytosine methylation alteration in natural populations of Leymus chinensis induced by multiple abiotic stresses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingjie Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human activity has a profound effect on the global environment and caused frequent occurrence of climatic fluctuations. To survive, plants need to adapt to the changing environmental conditions through altering their morphological and physiological traits. One known mechanism for phenotypic innovation to be achieved is environment-induced rapid yet inheritable epigenetic changes. Therefore, the use of molecular techniques to address the epigenetic mechanisms underpinning stress adaptation in plants is an important and challenging topic in biological research. In this study, we investigated the impact of warming, nitrogen (N addition, and warming+nitrogen (N addition stresses on the cytosine methylation status of Leymus chinensis Tzvel. at the population level by using the amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP, methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP and retrotransposon based sequence-specific amplification polymorphism (SSAP techniques. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results showed that, although the percentages of cytosine methylation changes in SSAP are significantly higher than those in MSAP, all the treatment groups showed similar alteration patterns of hypermethylation and hypomethylation. It meant that the abiotic stresses have induced the alterations in cytosine methylation patterns, and the levels of cytosine methylation changes around the transposable element are higher than the other genomic regions. In addition, the identification and analysis of differentially methylated loci (DML indicated that the abiotic stresses have also caused targeted methylation changes at specific loci and these DML might have contributed to the capability of plants in adaptation to the abiotic stresses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrated that abiotic stresses related to global warming and nitrogen deposition readily evoke alterations of cytosine methylation, and which may provide a molecular basis for rapid

  15. Cortisol and subjective stress responses to acute psychosocial stress in fibromyalgia patients and control participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppens, Eline; Kempke, Stefan; Van Wambeke, Peter; Claes, Stephan; Morlion, Bart; Luyten, Patrick; Van Oudenhove, Lukas

    2017-12-11

    Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may play a role in fibromyalgia (FM) pathogenesis, but remains understudied in this disorder. Furthermore, early childhood adversities (ECA) are common in FM, but whether they moderate stress reactivity is unknown. Hence, we investigated cortisol and subjective responses to acute psychosocial stress in FM and controls, while adjusting for ECA. Twenty-seven female FM patients and 24 age-matched female controls were recruited in a tertiary care center and through advertisements, respectively. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to measure ECA history. Salivary cortisol levels and subjective stress ratings were measured at multiple time points before and after the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) was administered. Significant main effects of group [F(1,43)=7.04, p=0.011, lower in FM] and ECA [F(1,43)=5.18, p=0.028, higher in participants with ECA] were found for cortisol responses. When excluding controls with ECA (n=5), a significant group-by-time interaction was found [F(6,39)=2.60, p=0.032], driven by a blunted response to the stressor in FM compared with controls (p=0.037). For subjective stress responses, a significant main effect of group [F(1,45)=10.69, p=0.002, higher in FM] and a trend towards a group-by-time interaction effect [F(6,45)=2.05, p=0.078, higher in FM 30 minutes before and 30 and 75 minutes after the TSST, and impaired recovery (difference immediately after - 30 minutes after the TSST) in FM] were found. Blunted cortisol responsivity to the TSST was observed in FM patients compared with controls without ECA. FM patients had higher subjective stress levels compared with controls, particularly at baseline and during recovery from the TSST. In FM patients, ECA history was not associated with cortisol or subjective stress levels, or with responsivity to the TSST. Future research should investigate the mechanisms underlying HPA axis dysregulation in FM.

  16. Neonatal stress tempers vulnerability of acute stress response in adult socially isolated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Serra

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse experiences occurred in early life and especially during childhood and adolescence can have negative impact on behavior later in life and the quality of maternal care is considered a critical moment that can considerably influence the development and the stress responsiveness in offspring. This review will assess how the association between neonatal and adolescence stressful experiences such as maternal separation and social isolation, at weaning, may influence the stress responsiveness and brain plasticity in adult rats. Three hours of separation from the pups (3-14 postnatal days significantly increased frequencies of maternal arched-back nursing and licking-grooming by dams across the first 14 days postpartum and induced a long-lasting increase in their blood levels of corticosterone. Maternal separation, which per sedid not modified brain and plasma allopregnanolone and corticosterone levels in adult rats, significantly reduced social isolation-induced decrease of the levels of these hormones. Moreover, the enhancement of corticosterone and allopregnanolone levels induced by foot shock stress in socially isolated animals that were exposed to maternal separation was markedly reduced respect to that observed in socially isolated animals. Our results suggest that in rats a daily brief separation from the mother during the first weeks of life, which per se did not substantially alter adult function and reactivity of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis, elicited a significant protection versus the subsequent long-term stressful experience such that induced by social isolation from weaning. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in NeonatologyGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos, Michele Mussap, Gavino Faa, Apostolos Papageorgiou

  17. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, S., E-mail: up201208875@fc.up.pt [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Antunes, S.C. [Departamento de Biologia da Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169–007 Porto (Portugal); Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Correia, A.T. [Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigação Marinha e Ambiental (CIIMAR/CIMAR), Rua dos Bragas 289, 4050–123 Porto (Portugal); Faculdade de Ciências da Saúde da Universidade Fernando Pessoa (FCS-UFP), Rua Carlos da Maia, 296, 4200–150, Porto (Portugal); Nunes, B. [Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Campus de Santiago, Universidade de Aveiro, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal); Departamento de Biologia, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus de Santiago, 3810–193 Aveiro (Portugal)

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  18. Child Anxiety Symptoms Related to Longitudinal Cortisol Trajectories and Acute Stress Responses: Evidence of Developmental Stress Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Heidemarie K.; Gilliam, Kathryn S.; Wright, Dorianne B.; Fisher, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-sectional research suggests that individuals at risk for internalizing disorders show differential activation levels and/or dynamics of stress-sensitive physiological systems, possibly reflecting a process of stress sensitization. However, there is little longitudinal research to clarify how the development of these systems over time relates to activation during acute stress, and how aspects of such activation map onto internalizing symptoms. We investigated children’s (n=107) diurnal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity via salivary cortisol (morning and evening levels) across 29 assessments spanning 6+ years, and related longitudinal patterns to acute stress responses at the end of this period (age 9–10). Associations with child psychiatric symptoms at age 10 were also examined to determine internalizing risk profiles. Increasing morning cortisol levels across assessments predicted less of a cortisol decline following interpersonal stress at age 9, and higher cortisol levels during performance stress at age 10. These same profiles of high and/or sustained cortisol elevation during psychosocial stress were associated with child anxiety symptoms. Results suggest developmental sensitization to stress—reflected in rising morning cortisol and eventual hyperactivation during acute stress exposure—may distinguish children at risk for internalizing disorders. PMID:25688433

  19. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Reactivity to Acute Stress: an Investigation into the Roles of Perceived Stress and Family Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obasi, Ezemenari M; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Cavanagh, Lucia; Ratliff, Kristen L; Pittman, Delishia M; Brooks, Jessica J

    2017-02-08

    Rurally situated African Americans suffer from chronic exposure to stress that may have a deleterious effect on health outcomes. Unfortunately, research on potential mechanisms that underlie health disparities affecting the African American community has received limited focus in the scientific literature. This study investigated the relationship between perceived stress, family resources, and cortisol reactivity to acute stress. A rural sample of African American emerging adults (N = 60) completed a battery of assessments, the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and provided four samples of salivary cortisol: prior to receiving TSST instructions, prior to conducting the speech task, immediately following the TSST, and 15-20 min following the TSST. As predicted, cortisol levels increased in response to a controlled laboratory inducement of acute stress. Moreover, diminished levels of family resources were associated with blunted cortisol reactivity to acute stress. Of note, higher levels of perceived stress over the past month and being male were independently associated with lower levels of cortisol at baseline. Lack of family resources had a blunting relationship on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reactivity. These findings provide biomarker support for the relationship between family resources-an indicator associated with social determinants of health-and stress physiology within a controlled laboratory experiment. Identifying mechanisms that work toward explanation of within-group differences in African American health disparities is both needed and informative for culturally informed prevention and intervention efforts.

  20. Adolescent chronic mild stress alters hippocampal CB1 receptor-mediated excitatory neurotransmission and plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, C G; Mihalik, G R; Iskander, A N; Seckler, J C; Weiss, M S

    2013-12-03

    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are involved in the stress response and alterations in eCB signaling may contribute to the etiology of mood disorders. Exposure to chronic mild stress (CMS), a model of depression, produces downregulation of the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor in the hippocampus of male rats. However, it is unknown how this stress-induced change in CB1 levels affects eCB-mediated neurotransmission. In vitro, field potential recordings from CMS-exposed (21-days) rats were performed to assess the effects of stress on eCB-regulated glutamatergic neurotransmission in/on hippocampal area CA1. We observed that application of the CB1 agonist, WIN 55,212-5 (1 μM), in stress animals resulted in a ∼135% increase in excitatory neurotransmission, whereas CB1 activation in non-stress animals leads to a ∼30% decrease. However, during blockade of GABA(A) neurotransmission with picrotoxin, CB1 activation yielded a ∼35% decrease in stress animals. These findings indicate that CMS does not directly affect glutamatergic neurotransmission. Rather, CMS sensitizes CB1 function on GABAergic terminals, leading to less inhibition and an increase in excitatory neurotransmission. This finding is reinforced in that induction of weak long-term-potentiation (LTP) is enhanced in CMS-exposed animals compared to controls and this enhancement is CB1-dependent. Lastly, we observed that the LTP-blocking property of WIN 55,212-5 shifts from being glutamate-dependent in non-stress animals to being GABA-dependent in stress animals. These results effectively demonstrate that CMS significantly alters hippocampal eCB-mediated neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute effects of cigarette smoke on inflammation and oxidative stress : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vaart, H; Postma, DS; Timens, W; Ten Hacken, NHT

    Compared with the effects of chronic smoke exposure on lung function and airway inflammation, there are few data on the acute effects of smoking. A review of the literature identified 123 studies investigating the acute effects of cigarette smoking on inflammation and oxidative stress in human,

  2. Treatment of acute posttraumatic stress disorder with brief cognitive behavioral therapy: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijbrandij, Marit; Olff, Miranda; Reitsma, Johannes B.; Carlier, Ingrid V. E.; de Vries, Mirjam H.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of brief cognitive behavioral therapy for patients with acute posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) resulting from various types of psychological trauma. METHOD: The authors randomly assigned 143 patients with acute PTSD (irrespective

  3. Acute fluoxetine exposure alters crab anxiety-like behaviour, but not aggressiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trevor James; Kwan, Garfield T; Gallup, Joshua; Tresguerres, Martin

    2016-01-25

    Aggression and responsiveness to noxious stimuli are adaptable traits that are ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. Like vertebrate animals, some invertebrates have been shown to exhibit anxiety-like behaviour and altered levels of aggression that are modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin. To investigate whether this influence of serotonin is conserved in crabs and whether these behaviours are sensitive to human antidepressant drugs; the striped shore crab, Pachygrapsus crassipes, was studied using anxiety (light/dark test) and aggression (mirror test) paradigms. Crabs were individually exposed to acute doses of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, fluoxetine (5 or 25 mg/L), commonly known as Prozac®, followed by behavioural testing. The high dose of fluoxetine significantly decreased anxiety-like behaviour but had no impact on mobility or aggression. These results suggest that anxiety-like behaviour is more sensitive to modulation of serotonin than is aggressiveness in the shore crab.

  4. Rapid changes in cell physiology as a result of acute thermal stress house sparrows, Passer domesticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Ana G; Williams, Joseph B

    2014-12-01

    Given that our climate is rapidly changing, Physiological Ecologists have the critical task of identifying characteristics of species that make them either resilient or susceptible to changes in their natural air temperature regime. Because climate change models suggest that heat events will become more common, and in some places more extreme, it is important to consider how extreme heat events might affect the physiology of a species. The implications of more frequent heat wave events for birds have only recently begun to be addressed, however, the impact of these events on the cellular physiology of a species is difficult to assess. We have developed a novel approach using dermal fibroblasts to explore how short-term thermal stress at the whole animal level might affect cellular rates of metabolism. House sparrows, Passer domesticus were separated into a "control group" and a "heat shocked" group, the latter acclimated to 43°C for 24h. We determined the plasticity of cellular thermal responses by assigning a "recovery group" that was heat shocked as above, but then returned to room temperature for 24h. Primary dermal fibroblasts were grown from skin of all treatment groups and the pectoralis muscle was collected. We found that glycolysis (ECAR) and oxygen consumption rates (OCR), measured using a Seahorse XF 96 analyzer, were significantly higher in the fibroblasts from the heat shocked group of House sparrows compared with their control counterparts. Additionally, muscle fiber diameters decreased and, in turn, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase maximal activity in the muscle significantly increased in heat shocked sparrows compared with birds in the control group. All of these physiological alterations due to short-term heat exposure were reversible within 24h of recovery at room temperature. These results show that acute exposure to heat stress significantly alters the cellular physiology of sparrows, but that this species is plastic enough to recover from such a thermal

  5. Structural and functional alterations to rat medial prefrontal cortex following chronic restraint stress and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwater, D S; Pavlides, C; Hunter, R G; Bloss, E B; Hof, P R; McEwen, B S; Morrison, J H

    2009-12-01

    Chronic stress has been shown in animal models to result in altered dendritic morphology of pyramidal neurons of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). It has been hypothesized that the stress-induced dendritic retractions and spine loss lead to disrupted connectivity that results in stress-induced functional impairment of mPFC. While these alterations were initially viewed as a neurodegenerative event, it has recently been established that stress induced dendritic alterations are reversible if animals are given time to recover from chronic stress. However, whether spine growth accompanies dendritic extension remains to be demonstrated. It is also not known if recovery-phase dendritic extension allows for re-establishment of functional capacity. The goal of this study, therefore, was to characterize the structural and functional effects of chronic stress and recovery on the infralimbic (IL) region of the rat mPFC. We compared neuronal morphology of IL layer V pyramidal neurons from male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to 21 days of chronic restraint stress (CRS) to those that experienced CRS followed by a 21 day recovery period. Layer V pyramidal cell functional capacity was assessed by intra-IL long-term potentiation (LTP) both in the absence and presence of SKF38393, a dopamine receptor partial agonist and a known PFC LTP modulator. We found that stress-induced IL apical dendritic retraction and spine loss co-occur with receptor-mediated impairments to catecholaminergic facilitation of synaptic plasticity. We also found that while post-stress recovery did not reverse distal dendritic retraction, it did result in over extension of proximal dendritic arbors and spine growth as well as a full reversal of CRS-induced impairments to catecholaminergic-mediated synaptic plasticity. Our results support the hypothesis that disease-related PFC dysfunction is a consequence of network disruption secondary to altered structural and functional plasticity and that circuitry

  6. Acute stress disorder and the transition to posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents: Prevalence, course, prognosis, diagnostic suitability, and risk markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meiser-Stedman, Richard; McKinnon, Anna; Dixon, Clare; Boyle, Adrian; Smith, Patrick; Dalgleish, Tim

    2017-04-01

    Early recovery from trauma exposure in youth is poorly understood. This prospective longitudinal study examined the early course of traumatic stress responses in recently trauma-exposed youth, evaluated the revised DSM-5 acute stress disorder (ASD) and PTSD diagnoses and alternative diagnoses, and identified risk factors for persistent traumatic stress. Participants were 8- to 17-year-old emergency departments attendees exposed to single incident traumas. Structured clinical interviews were undertaken at 2 (n = 226) and 9 weeks (n = 208) posttrauma. Using the revised criteria in DSM-5, 14.2% met criteria for ASD at week 2 and 9.6% met criteria for PTSD at week 9. These prevalences were similar to the corresponding DSM-IV diagnoses (18.6% ASD at week 2; 8.7% PTSD at week 9). Using the same diagnostic criteria (DSM-IV or DSM-5) across assessments (i.e., "2-week PTSD") suggested that caseness declined in prevalence by approximately half. Overlap between DSM-IV and DSM-5 ASD and DSM-5 preschool child PTSD diagnoses was considerable. Two diagnoses were strongly predictive of corresponding week 9 diagnoses. Youth with ASD who subsequently had PTSD reported more negative alterations in cognition and mood at 2 weeks than those youth who did not develop PTSD. Youth exposed to single-event traumas experience considerable natural recovery in the first months posttrauma. Using DSM-5 criteria, ASD may not capture all clinically significant traumatic stress in the acute phase and is only moderately sensitive for later PTSD. Future research needs to address the role and etiology of negative alterations in cognition and mood symptoms. © 2017 The Authors. Depression and Anxiety published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Impact of acute psychological stress on cardiovascular risk factors in face of insulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kristian T; Shelton, Richard C; Wan, Jun; Li, Li

    2016-11-01

    Individuals with insulin resistance (IR) are at greater risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Psychological stress may contribute to develop CVD in IR, although mechanisms are poorly understood. Our aim was to test the hypothesis that individuals with IR have enhanced emotional and physiological responses to acute psychological stress, leading to increased CVD risk. Sixty participants were enrolled into the study, and classified into IR group (n = 31) and insulin sensitive group (n = 29) according to the Quantitative insulin sensitivity check index, which was calculated based on an oral glucose tolerance test. The Trier social stress test, a standardized experimental stress paradigm, was performed on each participant, and emotional and physiological responses were examined. Blood was collected from each subject for insulin, cytokines, and cortisol measurements. Compared with the insulin-sensitive group, individuals with IR had significantly lower ratings of energy and calm, but higher fatigue levels in response to acute stressors. Individuals with IR also showed blunted heart rate reactivity following stress. In addition, the IR status was worsened by acute psychological stress as demonstrated by further increased insulin secretion. Furthermore, individuals with IR showed significantly increased levels of leptin and interleukin-6, but decreased levels of adiponectin, at baseline, stress test, and post-stress period. Our findings in individuals with IR under acute stress would allow a better understanding of the risks for developing CVD and to tailor the interventions for better outcomes.

  8. Trauma exposure relates to heightened stress, altered amygdala morphology and deficient extinction learning: Implications for psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciaglia, Raffaele; Nees, Frauke; Grimm, Oliver; Ridder, Stephanie; Pohlack, Sebastian T; Diener, Slawomira J; Liebscher, Claudia; Flor, Herta

    2017-02-01

    Stress exposure causes a structural reorganization in neurons of the amygdala. In particular, animal models have repeatedly shown that both acute and chronic stress induce neuronal hypertrophy and volumetric increase in the lateral and basolateral nuclei of amygdala. These effects are visible on the behavioral level, where stress enhances anxiety behaviors and provokes greater fear learning. We assessed stress and anxiety levels in a group of 18 healthy human trauma-exposed individuals (TR group) compared to 18 non-exposed matched controls (HC group), and related these measurements to amygdala volume. Traumas included unexpected adverse experiences such as vehicle accidents or sudden loss of a loved one. As a measure of aversive learning, we implemented a cued fear conditioning paradigm. Additionally, to provide a biological marker of chronic stress, we measured the sensitivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis using a dexamethasone suppression test. Compared to the HC, the TR group showed significantly higher levels of chronic stress, current stress and trait anxiety, as well as increased volume of the left amygdala. Specifically, we observed a focal enlargement in its lateral portion, in line with previous animal data. Compared to HC, the TR group also showed enhanced late acquisition of conditioned fear and deficient extinction learning, as well as salivary cortisol hypo-suppression to dexamethasone. Left amygdala volumes positively correlated with suppressed morning salivary cortisol. Our results indicate differences in trauma-exposed individuals which resemble those previously reported in animals exposed to stress and in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms through which traumatic stress might prompt vulnerability for psychopathology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Pre-stress performance in an instrumental training predict post-stress behavioral alterations in chronically stressed rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio eIguchi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a major factor in the development of major depressive disorder (MDD, but few studies have assessed individual risk based on pre-stress traits. In this study, we employed appetitive instrumental lever pressing with a progressive ratio schedule to assess the individual pre-stress behavioral and cognitive traits in experimentally naïve Sprague–Dawley rats. Based on the behavioral data, the animals were classified into four subgroups (Low Motivation, Quick Learner, Slow Learner, and Hypermotivation, and exposed to chronic unpredictable stress (CUS before monitoring their post-stress responses once each week for 4 weeks to identify early- and late-appearing CUS-induced behavioral phenotypes. The four subgroups exhibited different behavioral phenotypes after CUS. Therefore, we identified distinct relationships between pre-stress traits and the post-stress phenotypes in each subgroup. In addition, many of the CUS-induced phenotypes in rats corresponded to symptoms in human MDD or they had putative relationships with them. We concluded that the consequences of stress may be predicted before stress exposure by determining the pre-stress traits of each individual.

  10. Altered benzodiazepine receptor sensitivity in alcoholism: a study with fMRI and acute lorazepam challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlösser, Ralf G M; Gesierich, Thomas; Wagner, Gerd; Bolz, Matthias; Gründer, Gerhard; Dielentheis, Thomas F; Scherb, Claudius; Stoeter, Peter

    2007-04-15

    Previous studies suggested altered sensitivity of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor system in alcoholic patients. Expanding on these findings, the present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed to assess whether a differential modulation of cognitive brain activation by an acute GABAergic drug challenge could be detected in patients with alcoholism. Eight detoxified male patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol dependence and nine healthy male control subjects were studied with fMRI while performing a 2-back working memory task. The fMRI scans were performed 1 h after intravenous administration of saline and again 1 h after 0.03 mg/kg lorazepam I.V. After saline, a task x group interaction effect with higher task activation in alcoholic patients in the left cerebellum and the right prefrontal cortex emerged. Additionally, a differential task x drug x group interaction was identified in the right cerebellum with more pronounced reduction in cognitive activation after lorazepam in the patient group. A significant correlation between lorazepam sensitivity and duration of alcohol dependence was detected. The present findings are in line with previous studies suggesting disrupted prefrontal-cerebellar activation with potential compensatory hyperactivation of the compromised brain networks in alcoholism. Moreover, the results suggest enhanced responsivity to an acute GABAergic challenge in the right cerebellum with disease-related disruption of cerebellar functional integrity.

  11. Genetic and metabolic signals during acute enteric bacterial infection alter the microbiota and drive progression to chronic inflammatory disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamdar, Karishma; Khakpour, Samira; Chen, Jingyu; Leone, Vanessa; Brulc, Jennifer; Mangatu, Thomas; Antonopoulos, Dionysios A.; Chang, Eugene B; Kahn, Stacy A.; Kirschner, Barbara S; Young, Glenn; DePaolo, R. William

    2016-01-13

    Chronic inflammatory disorders are thought to arise due to an interplay between predisposing host genetics and environmental factors. For example, the onset of inflammatory bowel disease is associated with enteric proteobacterial infection, yet the mechanistic basis for this association is unclear. We have shown previously that genetic defiency in TLR1 promotes acute enteric infection by the proteobacteria Yersinia enterocolitica. Examining that model further, we uncovered an altered cellular immune response that promotes the recruitment of neutrophils which in turn increases metabolism of the respiratory electron acceptor tetrathionate by Yersinia. These events drive permanent alterations in anti-commensal immunity, microbiota composition, and chronic inflammation, which persist long after Yersinia clearence. Deletion of the bacterial genes involved in tetrathionate respiration or treatment using targeted probiotics could prevent microbiota alterations and inflammation. Thus, acute infection can drive long term immune and microbiota alterations leading to chronic inflammatory disease in genetically predisposed individuals.

  12. Acute Estrogen Surge Enhances Inflammatory Nociception Without Altering Spinal Fos Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralya, Andrew; McCarson, Kenneth E.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain is a major neurological disorder that can manifest differently between genders or sexes. The complex actions of sex hormones may underlie these differences; previous studies have suggested that elevated estrogen levels can enhance pain perception. The purpose of this study was to investigate the hypothesis that acute, activational effects of estradiol (E2) increase persistent inflammatory nociception, and anatomically where this modulation occurs. Spinal expression of Fos is widely used as a marker of nociceptive activation. This study used formalin-evoked nociception in ovariectomized (OVX) adult female rats and measured late-phase hindlimb flinching and Fos expression in the spinal cord, and their modification by acute estrogen supplementation similar to a proestrus surge. Six days after ovariectomy, female rats were injected subcutaneously (s.c.) with 10μg/kg E2 or vehicle. Twenty-four hours later, 50 μL of 1.25% or 100 μL of 5% formalin was injected into the right hindpaw; hindlimb flinches were counted, and spinal cords removed two hours after formalin injection. The numbers of Fos-expressing neurons in sections of the lumbar spinal cord were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Formalin-induced inflammation produced a dose-dependent increase in late-phase hindlimb flinching, and E2 pretreatment increased flinching following 5%, but not 1.25% formalin injection. Despite the modification of behavior by E2, the number of spinal Fos-positive neurons was not altered by E2 pretreatment. These findings demonstrate that an acute proestrus-like surge in serum estrogen can produce a stimulus-intensity-dependent increase in inflammation-evoked nociceptive behavior. However, the lack of effect on spinal Fos expression suggests that this enhancement of nociceptive signaling by estrogen is independent of changes in peripheral activation of, expression of the immediate early gene Fos by, or signal throughput of spinal nociceptive neurons. PMID:24861514

  13. [Markers for early detection of alterations in carbohydrate metabolism after acute myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gea-García, J H; Benali, L; Galcerá-Tomás, J; Padilla-Serrano, A; Andreu-Soler, E; Melgarejo-Moreno, A; Alonso-Fernández, N

    2014-03-01

    Undiagnosed abnormal glucose metabolism is often seen in patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction, although there is no consensus on which patients should be studied with a view to establishing an early diagnosis. The present study examines the potential of certain variables obtained upon admission to diagnose abnormal glucose metabolism. A prospective cohort study was carried out. The Intensive Care Unit of Arrixaca University Hospital (Murcia), Spain. A total of 138 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit with acute myocardial infarction and without known or de novo diabetes mellitus. After one year, oral glucose tolerance testing was performed. Clinical and laboratory test parameters were recorded upon admission and one year after discharge. Additionally, after one year, oral glucose tolerance tests were made, and a study was made of the capacity of the variables obtained at admission to diagnose diabetes, based on the ROC curves and multivariate analysis. Of the 138 patients, 112 (72.5%) had glucose metabolic alteration, including 16.7% with diabetes. HbA1c was independently associated with a diagnosis of diabetes (RR: 7.28, 95%CI 1.65 to 32.05, P = .009), and showed the largest area under the ROC curve for diabetes (0.81, 95%CI 0.69 to 0.92, P = .001). In patients with acute myocardial infarction, HbA1c helps identify those individuals with abnormal glucose metabolism after one year. Thus, its determination in this group of patients could be used to identify those subjects requiring a more exhaustive study in order to establish an early diagnosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  14. Prenatal stress is a vulnerability factor for altered morphology and biological activity of microglia cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna eŚlusarczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Several lines of evidence suggest that the dysregulation of the immune system is an important factor in the development of depression. Microglia are the resident macrophages of the central nervous system and a key player in innate immunity of the brain. We hypothesized that prenatal stress (an animal model of depression as a priming factor could affect microglial cells and might lead to depressive-like disturbances in adult male rat offspring. We investigated the behavioral changes (sucrose preference test, Porsolt test, the expression of C1q and CD40 mRNA and the level of microglia (Iba1 positive in 3 month old control and prenatally stressed male offspring rats. In addition, we characterized the morphological and biochemical parameters of potentially harmful (NO, iNOS, IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL12, CCR2, CXCR4 and beneficial (IGF-1, BDNF phenotypes in cultures of microglia obtained from the cortices of 1-2 days old control and prenatally stressed pups. The adult prenatally stressed rats showed behavioral (anhedonic- and depression-like disturbances, enhanced expression of microglial activation markers and an increased number of Iba1-immunopositive cells in the hippocampus and frontal cortex. The morphology of glia was altered in cultures from prenatally stressed rats, as demonstrated by immunofluorescence microscopy. Moreover, in these cultures, we observed enhanced expression of CD40 and MHC II and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β, IL-18, TNF-α and IL-6. Prenatal stress significantly up-regulated levels of the chemokines CCL2, CXCL12 and altered expression of their receptors, CCR2 and CXCR4 while IGF-1 production was suppressed in cultures of microglia from prenatally stressed rats.Our results suggest that prenatal stress may lead to excessive microglia activation and contribute to the behavioral changes observed in depression in adulthood.

  15. Acute immobilization stress following contextual fear conditioning reduces fear memory: timing is essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwaya, Akemi; Lee, Hyunjin; Park, Jonghyuk; Lee, Hosung; Muto, Junko; Nakajima, Sanae; Ohta, Shigeo; Mikami, Toshio

    2016-02-24

    Histone acetylation is regulated in response to stress and plays an important role in learning and memory. Chronic stress is known to deteriorate cognition, whereas acute stress facilitates memory formation. However, whether acute stress facilitates memory formation when it is applied after fear stimulation is not yet known. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of acute stress applied after fear training on memory formation, mRNA expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), epigenetic regulation of BDNF expression, and corticosterone level in mice in vivo. Mice were subjected to acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 or 90 min after contextual fear conditioning training, and acetylation of histone 3 at lysine 14 (H3K14) and level of corticosterone were measured using western blot analysis and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. A freezing behavior test was performed 24 h after training, and mRNA expression of BDNF was measured using real-time polymerase chain reactions. Different groups of mice were used for each test. Freezing behavior significantly decreased with the down-regulation of BDNF mRNA expression caused by acute immobilization stress at 60 min after fear conditioning training owing to the reduction of H3K14 acetylation. However, BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation were not reduced in animals subjected to immobilization stress at 90 min after the training. Further, the corticosterone level was significantly high in mice subjected to immobilization stress at 60 min after the training. Acute immobilization stress for 30 min at 60 min after fear conditioning training impaired memory formation and reduced BDNF mRNA expression and H3K14 acetylation in the hippocampus of mice owing to the high level of corticosterone.

  16. Loneliness and acute stress reactivity: A systematic review of psychophysiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eoin G; Gallagher, Stephen; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-11-20

    Physiological reactivity to acute stress has been proposed as a potential biological mechanism by which loneliness may lead to negative health outcomes such as cardiovascular disease. This review was conducted to investigate the association between loneliness and physiological responses to acute stress. A series of electronic databases were systematically searched (PsycARTICLES, PsycINFO, Medline, CINAHL Plus, EBSCOhost, PubMed, SCOPUS, Web of Science, Science Direct) for relevant studies, published up to October 2016. Eleven studies were included in the review. Overall, the majority of studies reported positive associations between loneliness and acute stress responses, such that higher levels of loneliness were predictive of exaggerated physiological reactions. However, in a few studies, loneliness was also linked with decreased stress responses for particular physiological outcomes, indicating the possible existence of blunted relationships. There was no clear pattern suggesting any sex- or stressor-based differences in these associations. The available evidence supports a link between loneliness and atypical physiological reactivity to acute stress. A key finding of this review was that greater levels of loneliness are associated with exaggerated blood pressure and inflammatory reactivity to acute stress. However, there was some indication that loneliness may also be related to blunted cardiac, cortisol, and immune responses. Overall, this suggests that stress reactivity could be one of the biological mechanisms through which loneliness impacts upon health. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Acute stress in residents during emergency care: a study of personal and situational factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Roger Daglius; Scalabrini Neto, Augusto

    2017-05-01

    Providing care for simulated emergency patients may induce considerable acute stress in physicians. However, the acute stress provoked in a real-life emergency room (ER) is not well known. Our aim was to assess acute stress responses in residents during real emergency care and investigate the related personal and situational factors. A cross-sectional observational study was carried out at an emergency department of a tertiary teaching hospital. All second-year internal medicine residents were invited to voluntarily participate in this study. Acute stress markers were assessed at baseline (T1), before residents started their ER shift, and immediately after an emergency situation (T2), using heart rate, systolic, and diastolic blood pressure, salivary α-amylase activity, salivary interleukin-1 β, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-s and STAI-t). Twenty-four residents were assessed during 40 emergency situations. All stress markers presented a statistically significant increase between T1 and T2. IL-1 β presented the highest percent increase (141.0%, p stress in residents. Resident experience, trait anxiety, and number of emergency procedures were independently associated with acute stress response.

  18. Ionizing radiation-induced oxidative stress alters miRNA expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Simone

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small, highly conserved, non-coding RNA that alter protein expression and regulate multiple intracellular processes, including those involved in the response to cellular stress. Alterations in miRNA expression may occur following exposure to several stress-inducing anticancer agents including ionizing radiation, etoposide, and hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Normal human fibroblasts were exposed to radiation, H(2O(2, or etoposide at doses determined by clonogenic cell survival curves. Total RNA was extracted and miRNA expression was determined by microarray. Time course and radiation dose responses were determined using RT-PCR for individual miRNA species. Changes in miRNA expression were observed for 17 miRNA species following exposure to radiation, 23 after H(2O(2 treatment, and 45 after etoposide treatment. Substantial overlap between the miRNA expression changes between agents was observed suggesting a signature miRNA response to cell stress. Changes in the expression of selected miRNA species varied in response to radiation dose and time. Finally, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS increased with increasing doses of radiation and pre-treatment with the thiol antioxidant cysteine decreased both ROS production and the miRNA response to radiation. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a common miRNA expression signature in response to exogenous genotoxic agents including radiation, H(2O(2, and etoposide. Additionally, pre-treatment with cysteine prevented radiation-induced alterations in miRNA expression which suggests that miRNAs are responsive to oxidative stress. Taken together, these results imply that miRNAs play a role in cellular defense against exogenous stress and are involved in the generalized cellular response to genotoxic oxidative stress.

  19. Microbiota alterations in acute and chronic gastrointestinal inflammation of cats and dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honneffer, Julia B; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S

    2014-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is the collection of the living microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses) inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract. Novel bacterial identification approaches have revealed that the gastrointestinal microbiota of dogs and cats is, similarly to humans, a highly complex ecosystem. Studies in dogs and cats have demonstrated that acute and chronic gastrointestinal diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are associated with alterations in the small intestinal and fecal microbial communities. Of interest is that these alterations are generally similar to the dysbiosis observed in humans with IBD or animal models of intestinal inflammation, suggesting that microbial responses to inflammatory conditions of the gut are conserved across mammalian host types. Studies have also revealed possible underlying susceptibilities in the innate immune system of dogs and cats with IBD, which further demonstrate the intricate relationship between gut microbiota and host health. Commonly identified microbiome changes in IBD are decreases in bacterial groups within the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and increases within Proteobacteia. Furthermore, a reduction in the diversity of Clostridium clusters XIVa and IV (i.e., Lachnospiraceae and Clostridium coccoides subgroups) are associated with IBD, suggesting that these bacterial groups may play an important role in maintenance of gastrointestinal health. Future studies are warranted to evaluate the functional changes associated with intestinal dysbiosis in dogs and cats. PMID:25469017

  20. Inclusion of biotic stress (consumer pressure) alters predictions from the stress gradient hypothesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Rietkerk, Max; Wassen, Martin J.

    2009-01-01

    The stress gradient hypothesis (SGH) predicts a shift from net negative interactions in benign environments towards net positive in harsh environments in ecological communities. While several studies found support for the SGH, others found evidence against it, leading to a debate on how nature and

  1. STRESS AND DIFFERENTIAL ALTERATIONS IN IMMUNE-SYSTEM FUNCTIONS - CONCLUSIONS FROM SOCIAL STRESS STUDIES IN ANIMALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BOHUS, B; KOOLHAAS, JM; DERUITER, AJH; HEIJNEN, CJ

    1991-01-01

    Psychosocial factors are implicated in the development, in the course of, and in the recovery from disease. The immune system may be a mediator of the disease. Studies with animal models using social interactions in rodents suggest that short- and long-term social stress does not invariably suppress

  2. Chronic caregiving stress alters peripheral blood immune parameters: the role of age and severity of stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pariante, C M; Carpiniello, B; Orrù, M G; Sitzia, R; Piras, A; Farci, A M; Del Giacco, G S; Piludu, G; Miller, A H

    1997-01-01

    To examine the impact of chronic psychological stress on the immune system, a series of cellular and humoral immunological parameters was compared in 18 female caregivers of handicapped people and 18 age- and sexmatched controls. The immunological parameters included assessment of T cell number (T cells, T helper, and T suppressor/cytotoxic) and function (delayed-type cutaneous hypersensitivity), antibody titers for latent herpesviruses (cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2), and markers of inflammation (complement C3 and C4 factors and c-reactive protein). Serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE) and titers for the nonlatent virus roseola were used to control for nonspecific elevations in serum proteins. Results were associated with the age of the investigated subjects, the severity of stress (family burden) and the degree of disability of the handicapped people. Caregivers had a significantly lower percentage of T cells, a significantly higher percentage of T suppressor/cytotoxic cells and a significantly lower T helper:suppressor ratio. Subjects were also analyzed after division into two groups according to the median age (45 years). Compared to their matched controls, older caregivers (mean age = 50.3) also had lower numbers of T cells and T helper cells and higher antibody titers for cytomegalovirus. In addition, in the caregiver population severity of stress was significantly positively correlated with T suppressor/cytotoxic cells and negatively correlated with T helper:suppressor ratio. No other differneces in the immune parameters were found between caregivers and controls. The results indicate that psychological stress differentially affects various aspects of the immune system and confirm the relevant role of age and severity of stress in modulating these influences.

  3. Neuroendocrine and cardiovascular reactions to acute psychological stress are attenuated in smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginty, Annie T; Jones, Alexander; Carroll, Douglas; Roseboom, Tessa J; Phillips, Anna C; Painter, Rebecca; de Rooij, Susanne R

    2014-01-01

    A number of studies have now examined the association between smoking and the magnitude of physiological reactions to acute psychological stress. However, no large-scale study has demonstrated this association incorporating neuroendocrine in addition to cardiovascular reactions to stress. The

  4. The combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banis, Stella; Lorist, Monicque M.

    We investigated the combined effects of menstrual cycle phase and acute stress on reward-related processing, employing a monetary incentive delay task in combination with EEG. Females participated during late follicular and late luteal phases, performing in both control and stress conditions. We

  5. Previous stress and acute psychological defence as predictors of perinatal grief - An exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A.M. Hunfeld (Joke); J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); F. Verhage; J. Passchier (Jan)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractWe evaluated whether the emotional reactions of women at 2–6 weeks after the prenatal diagnosis of a lethal anomaly and at 3 months after perinatal loss might be predicted by previous stress and acute psychological defence reactions to the diagnosis. Previous stress was defined

  6. The course, prediction, and treatment of acute and posttraumatic stress in trauma patients : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.; Gosens, T.; den Oudsten, B.L.; de Vries, J.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Trauma patients suffer from acute stress disorder (ASD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but it is unknown how these disorders develop over time and when treatment is effective. Our aim was to systematically review (1) the course and predictors of ASD and PTSD after trauma and

  7. Changes in masculine sexual behavior, corticosterone and testosterone in response to acute and chronic stress in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retana-Márquez, S; Bonilla-Jaime, H; Vázquez-Palacios, G; Martínez-García, R; Velázquez-Moctezuma, J

    2003-11-01

    Chronic exposure to stressors increases HPA axis activity and concomitantly reduces HPG axis activity. This antagonistic relationship between both these axes has been proposed to underlie the inhibition of reproductive function due to stress. Sexual behavior in males may be the most vulnerable aspect of male reproduction to acute and chronic stress and it has been suggested that alterations in sexual behavior during stress are due to the antagonistic relationship between testosterone and corticosteroids. However, only in a few studies has a correlation between the levels of testosterone and corticosterone, and sexual behavior been made. In this study, we evaluated the effects of different stressors, applied both acute and chronically, on masculine sexual behavior and whether or not these effects on sexual behavior are accompanied by changes in plasma levels of corticosterone and testosterone. Additionally, we evaluated the effect of testosterone treatment on the effects of stress on sexual behavior. Sexually experienced male rats were exposed to one of the following stressors: immobilization (IMB), electric foot shocks (EFS) or immersion in cold water (ICW). Sexual behavior and plasma levels of testosterone and corticosterone were assessed on days 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 of stress. In a second experiment, males were castrated, treated with 3 different doses of testosterone propionate (TP) and exposed to ICW for 20 consecutive days. Sexual behavior was assessed on days 1, 5, 10, 15, and 20 and steroids were evaluated on day 20. Parameters of masculine sexual behavior were modified depending on the characteristics of each stressor. Mount, intromission and ejaculation latencies increased significantly, the number of mounts increased, and ejaculations decreased significantly in males exposed to EFS and to ICW but not in males exposed to IMB. Associated with these effects, testosterone decreased in the EFS and ICW groups on days 1, 15, and 20. However, corticosterone

  8. Caffeine impacts in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum: Alterations on energy reserves, metabolic activity and oxidative stress biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Diogo; Almeida, Ângela; Calisto, Vânia; Esteves, Valdemar I; Schneider, Rudolf J; Wrona, Frederick J; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Figueira, Etelvina; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-10-01

    Caffeine is known to be one of the most consumed psychoactive drugs. For this reason, caffeine is continuously released into the environment with potential impacts on inhabiting organisms. The current study evaluated the biochemical alterations induced in the clam species Ruditapes philippinarum after exposure for 28 days to caffeine (0.5, 3.0 and 18.0 μg/L). The results obtained showed that, with the increasing caffeine concentrations, an increase in clams defense mechanisms (such as antioxidant and biotransformation enzymes activity) was induced which was accompanied by an increase in protein content. Nevertheless, although an increase on defense mechanisms was observed, clams were not able to prevent cells from lipid peroxidation that increased with the increase of caffeine concentration. Furthermore, with the increase of exposure concentrations, clams increased their metabolic activity (measured by electron transport activity), reducing their energy reserves (glycogen content), to fight against oxidative stress. Overall, the present study demonstrated that caffeine may impact bivalves, even at environmentally relevant concentrations, inducing oxidative stress in organisms. The present study is an important contribution to address knowledge gaps regarding the impacts of long-term exposures to pharmaceuticals since most of the studies assessed the effects after acute exposures, most of them up to 96 h. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Stress-induced alterations in estradiol sensitivity increase risk for obesity in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki

    2016-11-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the United States continues to rise, increasing individual vulnerability to an array of adverse health outcomes. One factor that has been implicated causally in the increased accumulation of fat and excess food intake is the activity of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) axis in the face of relentless stressor exposure. However, translational and clinical research continues to understudy the effects sex and gonadal hormones and LHPA axis dysfunction in the etiology of obesity even though women continue to be at greater risk than men for stress-induced disorders, including depression, emotional feeding and obesity. The current review will emphasize the need for sex-specific evaluation of the relationship between stress exposure and LHPA axis activity on individual risk for obesity by summarizing data generated by animal models currently being leveraged to determine the etiology of stress-induced alterations in feeding behavior and metabolism. There exists a clear lack of translational models that have been used to study female-specific risk. One translational model of psychosocial stress exposure that has proven fruitful in elucidating potential mechanisms by which females are at increased risk for stress-induced adverse health outcomes is that of social subordination in socially housed female macaque monkeys. Data from subordinate female monkeys suggest that increased risk for emotional eating and the development of obesity in females may be due to LHPA axis-induced changes in the behavioral and physiological sensitivity of estradiol. The lack in understanding of the mechanisms underlying these alterations necessitate the need to account for the effects of sex and gonadal hormones in the rationale, design, implementation, analysis and interpretation of results in our studies of stress axis function in obesity. Doing so may lead to the identification of novel therapeutic targets with which to combat stress-induced obesity

  10. Acute stress, depression, and anxiety symptoms among English and Spanish speaking children with recent trauma exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Beth A; Kohl, Krista L; Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Gold, Jeffrey I

    2014-03-01

    A growing literature suggests the clinical importance of acute stress disorder symptoms in youth following potentially traumatic events. A multisite sample of English and Spanish speaking children and adolescents (N = 479) between the ages of 8-17, along with their caregivers completed interviews and self-report questionnaires between 2 days and 1 month following the event. The results indicate that children with greater total acute stress symptoms reported greater depressive (r = .41, p importance of screening acute stress symptoms and other mental health outcomes following a potentially traumatic event in children and adolescents. Early screening may enable clinicians to identify and acutely intervene to support children's psychological and physical recovery.

  11. Acute Immobilization Stress Modulate GABA Release from Rat Olfactory Bulb: Involvement of Endocannabinoids—Cannabinoids and Acute Stress Modulate GABA Release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Delgado

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of cannabinoids and acute immobilization stress on the regulation of GABA release in the olfactory bulb. Glutamate-stimulated 3H-GABA release was measured in superfused slices. We report that cannabinoids as WIN55, 212-2, methanandamide, and 2-arachidonoylglycerol were able to inhibit glutamate- and KCl-stimulated 3H-GABA release. This effect was blocked by the CB1 antagonist AM281. On the other hand, acute stress was able per se to increase endocannabinoid activity. This effect was evident since the inhibition of stimulated GABA release by acute stress was reversed with AM281 and tetrahydrolipstatin. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid transport or its catabolism showed reduction of GABA release, antagonized by AM281 in control and stressed animals. These results point to endocannabinoids as inhibitory modulators of GABA release in the olfactory bulb acting through an autocrine mechanism. Apparently, stress increases the endocannabinoid system, modulating GABAergic synaptic function in a primary sensory organ.

  12. How acute sport influences the response to a social stress test

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    The high level of both chronic and acute stress in daily life can endanger our health. Therefore it is important to develop strategies to cope with the stress one cannot evade. In this thesis we investigate whether acute sport changes the response of healthy individuals to a social stress test. To answer this question 34 healthy individuals were placed in either the placebo or verum group by chance. The verum group had to exercise for 30 minutes on a treadmill. After this treatment both group...

  13. Effects of Acute Stress on Decision Making under Ambiguous and Risky Conditions in Healthy Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-López, Irene; Cano-López, Beatriz; Hidalgo, Vanesa; González-Bono, Esperanza

    2016-09-20

    Acute stress and decision making (DM) interact in life - although little is known about the role of ambiguity and risk in this interaction. The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of acute stress on DM under various conditions. Thirty-one young healthy men were randomly distributed into two groups: experimental and control. DM processes were evaluated before and after an experimental session. For the experimental group, the session consisted of an acute stress battery; and the protocol was similar for the control group but the instructions were designed to minimize acute stress. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded 30 minutes before the DM tasks and during the experimental session. Cortisol, glucose, mood responses, and personality factors were also assessed. Acute stress was found to enhance disadvantageous decisions under ambiguous conditions (F(1, 29) = 4.16, p = .05, η2 p = .13), and this was mainly explained by the stress induced cortisol response (26.1% of variance, F(1, 30) = 11.59, p = .002). While there were no significant effects under risky conditions, inhibition responses differed between groups (F(1, 29) = 4.21, p = .05, η2 p = .13) and these differences were explained by cardiovascular and psychological responses (39.1% of variance, F(3, 30) = 7.42, p effects on DM in contexts such as addiction or eating disorders.

  14. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially alters alcohol dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity in the zebrafish liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Steven; Nowicki, Magda; Chatterjee, Diptendu; Gerlai, Robert

    2015-01-02

    Chronic ethanol exposure paradigms have been successfully used in the past to induce behavioral and central nervous system related changes in zebrafish. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic ethanol exposure alters ethanol metabolism in adult zebrafish. In the current study we examine the effect of acute ethanol exposure on adult zebrafish behavioral responses, as well as alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity in the liver. We then examine how two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms (continuous and repeated ethanol exposure) alter behavioral responses and liver enzyme activity during a subsequent acute ethanol challenge. Acute ethanol exposure increased locomotor activity in a dose-dependent manner. ADH activity was shown to exhibit an inverted U-shaped curve and ALDH activity was decreased by ethanol exposure at all doses. During the acute ethanol challenge, animals that were continuously housed in ethanol exhibited a significantly reduced locomotor response and increased ADH activity, however, ALDH activity did not change. Zebrafish that were repeatedly exposed to ethanol demonstrated a small but significant attenuation of the locomotor response during the acute ethanol challenge but ADH and ALDH activity was similar to controls. Overall, we identified two different chronic ethanol exposure paradigms that differentially alter behavioral and physiological responses in zebrafish. We speculate that these two paradigms may allow dissociation of central nervous system-related and liver enzyme-dependent ethanol induced changes in zebrafish. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Altered free radical metabolism in acute mountain sickness: implications for dynamic cerebral autoregulation and blood-brain barrier function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bailey, D M; Evans, K A; James, P E

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function would be compromised in acute mountain sickness (AMS) subsequent to a hypoxia-mediated alteration in systemic free radical metabolism. Eighteen male lowlanders were examined in normoxia (21% O...

  16. [Features of lung tissue cell membrane lipid composition under acute emotional stress in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netiukhaĭlo, L G; Tarasenko, L M

    2001-01-01

    The lipid composition of the lung plasmatic membrane in rats which have been under the acute emotional pain stress action is studied. These results are compared with the control group of animals. It is shown that at acute stress the changes of lipid composition of the lung plasmatic membranes are manifested in decrease the phospholipids and increase of cholesterol levels. The correlation of phospholipids/cholesterol in plasmic membranes in the lungs decreases at stress. At the same time the decrease of triglyceroles and diglyceroles contents is observed as well as the increase of fat acids' number. The changes that take place in the lipid contents of the lung plasmatic membranes at acute stress can play an essential role in the mechanism of cell damage development.

  17. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods

    OpenAIRE

    Tomiyama, AJ; Schamarek, I; Lustig, RH; Kirschbaum, C; Puterman, E; Havel, PJ; Epel, ES

    2012-01-01

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating...

  18. Influence of acute stress on decision outcomes and heuristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepler, Teri J; Kovacs, Attila J

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the take-the-first (TTF) heuristic and decision outcomes in sports under conditions of no, mental, and physical stress. Participants (N.=68) performed 8 video decision-making trials under each of 3 stress conditions: no stress (counting backwards), mental stress (mental serial subtraction), and physical stress (running on treadmill at 13 RPE). Prior to each decision-making trial, participants were exposed to 30 seconds of stress. The decision-making task required participants to watch a video depicting an offensive situation in basketball and then decide what the player with the ball should do next. No differences were found between the 3 stress conditions on TTF frequency, number of options generated, quality of first generated option, or final decision quality. However, participants performing under conditions of no stress and physical stress generated their first option and made their final decision faster than they did when making decisions under mental stress. Overall, results suggest that mental stress impairs decision speed and that TTF is an ecologically rationale heuristic in dynamic, time-pressured situations.

  19. Acute alcohol exposure during mouse gastrulation alters lipid metabolism in placental and heart development: Folate prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linask, Kersti K; Han, Mingda

    2016-09-01

    Embryonic acute exposure to ethanol (EtOH), lithium, and homocysteine (HCy) induces cardiac defects at the time of exposure; folic acid (FA) supplementation protects normal cardiogenesis (Han et al., , ; Serrano et al., ). Our hypothesis is that EtOH exposure and FA protection relate to lipid and FA metabolism during mouse cardiogenesis and placentation. On the morning of conception, pregnant C57BL/6J mice were placed on either of two FA-containing diets: a 3.3 mg health maintenance diet or a high FA diet of 10.5 mg/kg. Mice were injected a binge level of EtOH, HCy, or saline on embryonic day (E) 6.75, targeting gastrulation. On E15.5, cardiac and umbilical blood flow were examined by ultrasound. Embryonic cardiac tissues were processed for gene expression of lipid and FA metabolism; the placenta and heart tissues for neutral lipid droplets, or for medium chain acyl-dehydrogenase (MCAD) protein. EtOH exposure altered lipid-related gene expression on E7.5 in comparison to control or FA-supplemented groups and remained altered on E15.5 similarly to changes with HCy, signifying FA deficiency. In comparison to control tissues, the lipid-related acyl CoA dehydrogenase medium length chain gene and its protein MCAD were altered with EtOH exposure, as were neutral lipid droplet localization in the heart and placenta. EtOH altered gene expression associated with lipid and folate metabolism, as well as neutral lipids, in the E15.5 abnormally functioning heart and placenta. In comparison to controls, the high FA diet protected the embryo and placenta from these effects allowing normal development. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:749-760, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 The Authors Birth Defects Research Part A: Clinical and Molecular Teratology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Vipera russelli venom-induced oxidative stress and hematological alterations: amelioration by crocin a dietary colorant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebastin Santhosh, M; Hemshekhar, M; Thushara, R M; Devaraja, S; Kemparaju, K; Girish, K S

    2013-01-01

    Snakebite is a serious medical and socio-economic problem affecting the healthy individuals and agricultural and farming populations worldwide. In India, Vipera russelli snakebite is common, ensuing high morbidity and mortality. The venom components persuade multifactorial stress phenomenon and alter the physiological setting by causing disruption of the blood cells and vital organs. The present study demonstrates the anti-ophidian property of Crocin (Crocus sativus), a potent antioxidant against viper venom-induced oxidative stress. The in vivo oxidative damage induced by venom was clearly evidenced by the increased oxidative stress markers and antioxidant enzymes/molecules along with the proinflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, venom depleted the hemoglobin, hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume and platelet count in experimental animals. Crocin ameliorated the venom-induced oxidative stress, hematological alteration and proinflammatory cytokine levels. At present, administration of antivenom is an effective therapy against systemic toxicity, but it offers no protection against the rapidly spreading oxidative damage and infiltration of pro-inflammatory mediators. These pathologies will continue even after antivenom administration. Hence, a long-term auxiliary therapy is required to treat secondary as well as neglected complications of snakebite. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress alters placental morphology and causes low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawakami, Takashige, E-mail: tkawakami@ph.bunri-u.ac.jp; Yoshimi, Masaki; Kadota, Yoshito; Inoue, Masahisa; Sato, Masao; Suzuki, Shinya

    2014-03-01

    The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in pregnancy remains largely unknown. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered tunicamycin (Tun), an ER stressor, as a single dose [0, 50, and 100 μg Tun/kg/body weight (BW)] on gestation days (GDs) 8.5, 12.5, and 15.5. A high incidence (75%) of preterm delivery was observed only in the group treated with Tun 100 μg/kg BW at GD 15.5, indicating that pregnant mice during late gestation are more susceptible to ER stress on preterm delivery. We further examined whether prolonged in utero exposure to ER stress affects fetal development. Pregnant mice were subcutaneously administered a dose of 0, 20, 40, and 60 μg Tun/kg from GD 12.5 to 16.5. Tun treatment decreased the placental and fetal weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histological evaluation showed the formation of a cluster of spongiotrophoblast cells in the labyrinth zone of the placenta of Tun-treated mice. The glycogen content of the fetal liver and placenta from Tun-treated mice was lower than that from control mice. Tun treatment decreased mRNA expression of Slc2a1/glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1), which is a major transporter for glucose, but increased placental mRNA levels of Slc2a3/GLUT3. Moreover, maternal exposure to Tun resulted in a decrease in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), VEGFR-2, and placental growth factor. These results suggest that excessive and exogenous ER stress may induce functional abnormalities in the placenta, at least in part, with altered GLUT and vascular-related gene expression, resulting in low infant birth weight. - Highlights: • Maternal exposure to excessive ER stress induced preterm birth and IUGR. • Prolonged excessive ER stress altered the formation of the placental labyrinth. • ER stress decreased GLUT1 mRNA expression in the placenta, but increased GLUT3. • ER stress-induced IUGR causes decreased glycogen and altered glucose transport.

  2. Low dose effects of a Withania somnifera extract on altered marble burying behavior in stressed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Amitabha; Chatterjee, Shyam Sunder; Kumar, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Withania somnifera root (WSR) extracts are often used in traditionally known Indian systems of medicine for prevention and cure of psychosomatic disorders. The reported experiment was designed to test whether low daily oral doses of such extracts are also effective in suppressing marble burying behavior in stressed mice or not. Groups of mice treated with 10, 20, or 40 mg/kg daily oral doses of WSR were subjected to a foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia test on the 1(st), 5(th), 7(th), and 10(th) day of the experiment. On the 11(th) and 12(th) treatment days, they were subjected to marble burying tests. Stress response suppressing effects of low dose WSR were estimated by its effects on body weight and basal core temperature of animals during the course of the experiment. Alterations in bodyweight and basal core temperature triggered by repeated exposures to foot shock stress were absent even in the 10 mg/kg/day WSR treated group, whereas the effectiveness of the extract in foot shock stress-induced hyperthermia and marble burying tests increased with its increasing daily dose. Marble burying test in stressed mice is well suited for identifying bioactive constituents of W. somnifera like medicinal plants with adaptogenic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities, or for quantifying pharmacological interactions between them.

  3. Microbiota alteration is associated with the development of stress-induced despair behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Ioana A; Goertz, Jennifer E; Ren, Tiantian; Rich, Stephen S; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Farber, Emily; Wu, Martin; Overall, Christopher C; Kipnis, Jonathan; Gaultier, Alban

    2017-03-07

    Depressive disorders often run in families, which, in addition to the genetic component, may point to the microbiome as a causative agent. Here, we employed a combination of behavioral, molecular and computational techniques to test the role of the microbiota in mediating despair behavior. In chronically stressed mice displaying despair behavior, we found that the microbiota composition and the metabolic signature dramatically change. Specifically, we observed reduced Lactobacillus and increased circulating kynurenine levels as the most prominent changes in stressed mice. Restoring intestinal Lactobacillus levels was sufficient to improve the metabolic alterations and behavioral abnormalities. Mechanistically, we identified that Lactobacillus-derived reactive oxygen species may suppress host kynurenine metabolism, by inhibiting the expression of the metabolizing enzyme, IDO1, in the intestine. Moreover, maintaining elevated kynurenine levels during Lactobacillus supplementation diminished the treatment benefits. Collectively, our data provide a mechanistic scenario for how a microbiota player (Lactobacillus) may contribute to regulating metabolism and resilience during stress.

  4. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-07

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  5. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2014-01-01

    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  6. Working memory performance impaired after exposure to acute social stress: The evidence comes from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Caihong; Rau, Pei-Luen Patrick

    2017-09-29

    Using event-related potentials (ERPs), we examined the time course of 39 healthy novice drivers during a blocked working memory task (numerical N-back) under acute social stress or control conditions, which were induced by the Trier Social Stress Task (TSST) or control procedure. Subjective measures were used to assess stress manipulation throughout the experiment. An elevated negative effect in response to a stress condition indicated a successful stress induction. The behavioral results showed that the stress group had a longer response time and larger differences in accuracy than the control group. On a neural level, the control group had larger P3 amplitude in the 1-back condition than in the 2-back condition; this load effect, however, disappeared in the stress group. These results revealed that acute social stress had a disruptive effect on both working memory behavioral performance and cognitive neural process. These findings provide us with a basis to understand the correlation between acute stress and cognitive processes of working memory at a cognitive neural level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of a synthetic appeasing pheromone on behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siracusa, Carlo; Manteca, Xavier; Cuenca, Rafaela; del Mar Alcalá, Maria; Alba, Aurora; Lavín, Santiago; Pastor, Josep

    2010-09-15

    To study the effects of a synthetic, dog-appeasing pheromone (sDAP) on the behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase perioperative stress responses in dogs undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Randomized, controlled clinical trial. 46 dogs housed in animal shelters and undergoing elective orchiectomy or ovariohysterectomy. Intensive care unit cages were sprayed with sDAP solution or sham treated with the carrier used in the solution 20 minutes prior to use. Dogs (n = 24 and 22 in the sDAP and sham treatment exposure groups, respectively) were placed in treated cages for 30 minutes before and after surgery. Indicators of stress (ie, alterations in behavioral, neuroendocrine, immune, and acute-phase responses) were evaluated perioperatively. Behavioral response variables, salivary cortisol concentration, WBC count, and serum concentrations of glucose, prolactin, haptoglobin, and C-reactive protein were analyzed. Behavioral response variables and serum prolactin concentration were influenced by sDAP exposure. Dogs exposed to sDAP were more likely to have alertness and visual exploration behaviors after surgery than were dogs exposed to sham treatment. Decreases in serum prolactin concentrations in response to perioperative stress were significantly smaller in dogs exposed to sDAP, compared with findings in dogs exposed to the sham treatment. Variables examined to evaluate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, immune system, and acute-phase responses were unaffected by treatment. sDAP appeared to affect behavioral and neuroendocrine perioperative stress responses by modification of lactotropic axis activity. Use of sDAP in a clinical setting may improve the recovery and welfare of dogs undergoing surgery.

  8. Comprehensive transcriptome analysis of fluid shear stress altered gene expression in renal epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnen, Steven J.; Malas, Tareq B.; Semeins, Cornelis M.; Bakker, Astrid D.

    2017-01-01

    Renal epithelial cells are exposed to mechanical forces due to flow‐induced shear stress within the nephrons. Shear stress is altered in renal diseases caused by tubular dilation, obstruction, and hyperfiltration, which occur to compensate for lost nephrons. Fundamental in regulation of shear stress are primary cilia and other mechano‐sensors, and defects in cilia formation and function have profound effects on development and physiology of kidneys and other organs. We applied RNA sequencing to get a comprehensive overview of fluid‐shear regulated genes and pathways in renal epithelial cells. Functional enrichment‐analysis revealed TGF‐β, MAPK, and Wnt signaling as core signaling pathways up‐regulated by shear. Inhibitors of TGF‐β and MAPK/ERK signaling modulate a wide range of mechanosensitive genes, identifying these pathways as master regulators of shear‐induced gene expression. However, the main down‐regulated pathway, that is, JAK/STAT, is independent of TGF‐β and MAPK/ERK. Other up‐regulated cytokine pathways include FGF, HB‐EGF, PDGF, and CXC. Cellular responses to shear are modified at several levels, indicated by altered expression of genes involved in cell‐matrix, cytoskeleton, and glycocalyx remodeling, as well as glycolysis and cholesterol metabolism. Cilia ablation abolished shear induced expression of a subset of genes, but genes involved in TGF‐β, MAPK, and Wnt signaling were hardly affected, suggesting that other mechano‐sensors play a prominent role in the shear stress response of renal epithelial cells. Modulations in signaling due to variations in fluid shear stress are relevant for renal physiology and pathology, as suggested by elevated gene expression at pathological levels of shear stress compared to physiological shear. PMID:29044509

  9. Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogenkamp, P S; Nilsson, E; Chapman, C D; Cedernaes, J; Vogel, H; Dickson, S L; Broman, J-E; Schiöth, H B; Benedict, C

    2013-06-01

    We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans. A total of 16 healthy normal-weight men participated in 2 conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30 h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning after regular sleep and TSD, circulating concentrations of ghrelin and glucose were measured. In addition, participants hunger level was assessed by means of visual analogue scales, both before and after a caloric preload. Finally, following the preload, participants rated both intensity and pleasantness of six orally presented yogurt probes with varying sucrose concentrations (2-29 %). Feelings of hunger were significantly more intense under both fasted and sated conditions when subjects were sleep-deprived. In contrast, the change in hunger induced by the preload was similar between the sleep and TSD conditions. Plasma concentrations of ghrelin were significantly higher under conditions of TSD, whereas plasma glucose did not differ between the conditions. No effects were found either on sweet taste intensity or on pleasantness after TSD. One night of TSD increases morning plasma concentrations of the hunger-promoting hormone ghrelin in healthy young men. In contrast, sweet taste perception was not affected by nocturnal wakefulness. This suggests that an altered sweet taste perception is an unlikely mechanism by which TSD enhances food intake.

  10. Microdissection studies of the structural alterations induced in rat kidneys by experimental postischemic acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, G H; Studnicki, F M; Hashida, Y

    1987-01-01

    A unique opportunity presented itself for a morphologic study of experimental unilateral acute renal failure (ARF) in male rats. The ARF had been induced in the rats by temporary occlusion (1h) of the left renal artery. Twenty-nine rats were divided into subsets as follows: 2-3 h, 24 h, 1 week, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks following release of occlusion. Microdissection showed a heterogeneous population of abnormally structured proximal tubules in which the regressive lesions of tubular necrosis were combined with the progressive reaction of repair. The lesions demonstrated are reminiscent of those which have been described in ARF in the human and in experimental animals. Many proximal tubules in the 2- to 3-hour subset presented 1-3 disruptive lesions (DLs) while greater numbers of proximal tubules from the 24-hour group presented 1-5 DLs. Many proximal tubules presented no DLs, but nearly all from the 24-hour subset (97-100%) displayed a squamate appearance which paralleled and was caused by acute tubular necrosis. At 1 week, a dilated pars recta was common, but by this time, the squamate pattern had disappeared. Many casts were present. At 2 weeks, many fewer casts were present in proximal tubules and none were seen at 4, 8 or 12 weeks. The nephrons, particularly the proximal tubules, presented a variety of structural alterations at 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Changes of special interest include (1) the presence of swan-necks; (2) a distinctive squamate appearance of the proximal tubules in the animals killed at 24 h; (3) a spiral, curled appearance caused by differential hyperplasia in animals at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, and (4) a tendency for ischemic lesions to involve all layers of the renal cortex.

  11. Acute and sub-lethal exposure to copper oxide nanoparticles causes oxidative stress and teratogenicity in zebrafish embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Santhanamari; Anaimalai Thirumurthi, Naveenkumar; Raghunath, Azhwar; Vijayakumar, Savitha; Perumal, Ekambaram

    2016-04-01

    Nano-copper oxides are a versatile inorganic material. As a result of their versatility, the immense applications and usage end up in the environment causing a concern for the lifespan of various beings. The ambiguities surround globally on the toxic effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO-NPs). Hence, the present study endeavored to study the sub-lethal acute exposure effects on the developing zebrafish embryos. The 48 hpf LC50 value was about 64 ppm. Therefore, we have chosen the sub-lethal dose of 40 and 60 ppm for the study. Accumulation of CuO-NPs was evidenced from the SEM-EDS and AAS analyzes. The alterations in the AChE and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activities disrupted the development process. An increment in the levels of oxidants with a concomitant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes confirmed the induction of oxidative stress. Oxidative stress triggered apoptosis in the exposed embryos. Developmental anomalies were observed with CuO-NPs exposure in addition to oxidative stress in the developing embryos. Decreased heart rate and hatching delay hindered the normal developmental processes. Our work has offered valuable data on the connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity leading to lethality caused by CuO-NPs. A further molecular mechanism unraveling the uncharted connection between oxidative stress and teratogenicity will aid in the safe use of CuO-NPs. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Acute stress among adolescents and female rape victims measured by ASC-Kids: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Doris; Nordenstam, Carin; Green, Sara; Wetterhall, Annika; Lundin, Tom; Svedin, Carl Göran

    2015-01-01

    Rape is considered a stressful trauma and often with durable consequences. How the aftermath of rape is for young adolescents' girls considering acute stress is an overlooked field and remains to be studied. In this study, we wanted to investigate acute stress among adolescent victims of rape and the psychometric properties of the Acute Stress Checklist for Children (ASC-Kids). A clinical sample (n = 79) of raped girls, 13-17 years old who had turned to a special rape victim unit for treatment, answered the ASC-Kids. ASC-Kids was also given to a group of minor stressed, non-raped adolescents in the same age range (n = 154) together with the University of California at Los Angeles Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index (UCLA PTSD RI), and the Sense of Coherence Scale 13 (SOC-13). The scores from the groups were compared and showed significant differences in mean values on all the diagnostic criteria of acute stress disorder. In the clinical group, 36.7% obtained full ASD criteria. ASC-Kids could discriminate well between groups. Cronbach's alpha was found to be excellent, and the correlation between the UCLA PTSD RI and ASC-Kids found to be good; both ASC-Kids and UCLA PTSD RI had a good and moderate negative correlation with SOC-13. Adolescent female rape victims were shown to have a very high level of acute stress, and the ASC-Kids was found to have sound psychometrics and can be a valuable screening instrument to support clinicians in their assessments of an indication of adolescents after potentially stressful events such as rape.

  13. FKBP5 polymorphisms influence pre-learning stress-induced alterations of learning and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Dailey, Alison M; Nagle, Hannah E; Fiely, Miranda K; Mosley, Brianne E; Brown, Callie M; Duffy, Tessa J; Scharf, Amanda R; Earley, McKenna B; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2017-03-01

    FK506 binding protein 51 (FKBP5) is a co-chaperone of heat shock protein 90 and significantly influences glucocorticoid receptor sensitivity. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene are associated with altered hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, changes in the structure and function of several cognitive brain areas, and increased susceptibility to post-traumatic stress disorder, major depression, bipolar disorder and suicidal events. The mechanisms underlying these associations are largely unknown, but it has been speculated that the influence of these SNPs on emotional memory systems may play a role. In the present study, 112 participants were exposed to the socially evaluated cold pressor test (stress) or control (no stress) conditions immediately prior to learning a list of 42 words. Participant memory was assessed immediately after learning (free recall) and 24 h later (free recall and recognition). Participants provided a saliva sample that enabled the genotyping of three FKBP5 polymorphisms: rs1360780, rs3800373 and rs9296158. Results showed that stress impaired immediate recall in risk allele carriers. More importantly, stress enhanced long-term recall and recognition memory in non-carriers of the risk alleles, effects that were completely absent in risk allele carriers. Follow-up analyses revealed that memory performance was correlated with salivary cortisol levels in non-carriers, but not in carriers. These findings suggest that FKBP5 risk allele carriers may possess a sensitized stress response system, perhaps specifically for stress-induced changes in corticosteroid levels, which might aid our understanding of how SNPs in the FKBP5 gene confer increased risk for stress-related psychological disorders and their related phenotypes. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference and the alterations of p-ERK, p-CREB and c-fos levels in hypothalamus and hippocampus: the effects of physical stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahlevani, P; Fatahi, Z; Moradi, M; Haghparast, A

    2014-12-08

    The hypothalamus and hippocampus are important areas involved in stress responses and reward processing. In addition, ERK/CREB pathway plays a critical role in the control of cellular responses to stress and reward. In the current study, effects of acute and subchronic stress on the alteration of p-ERK, p-CREB and c-fos levels in the hypothalamus and hippocampus of saline- or morphine-treated animals during morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure were investigated. Male Wistar rats were divided into two saline- and morphine-treated supergroups. Each supergroup includes of control, acute stress and subchronic stress groups. In all of groups, the CPP procedure was done, afterward the alternation of p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus were estimated by Western blot analysis. The results indicated that in saline- or morphine-treated animals, p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level increased after application of acute and subchronic stress (except for p-ERK/ERK ratio in morphine-control group). Our findings revealed that in saline- or morphine-treated animals, acute and subcronic stress increased the p-ERK/ERK ratio, p-CREB/CREB ratio and c-fos level in the hypothalamus and hippocampus and this enhancement in morphine-treated animals, was more considerable than that in saline-treated animals.

  15. An altered redox balance mediates the hypersensitivity of Cockayne syndrome primary fibroblasts to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascucci, Barbara; Lemma, Tiziana; Iorio, Egidio; Giovannini, Sara; Vaz, Bruno; Iavarone, Ivano; Calcagnile, Angelo; Narciso, Laura; Degan, Paolo; Podo, Franca; Roginskya, Vera; Janjic, Bratislav M; Van Houten, Bennett; Stefanini, Miria; Dogliotti, Eugenia; D'Errico, Mariarosaria

    2012-06-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare hereditary multisystem disease characterized by neurological and development impairment, and premature aging. Cockayne syndrome cells are hypersensitive to oxidative stress, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain unresolved. Here we provide the first evidence that primary fibroblasts derived from patients with CS-A and CS-B present an altered redox balance with increased steady-state levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and basal and induced DNA oxidative damage, loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential, and a significant decrease in the rate of basal oxidative phosphorylation. The Na/K-ATPase, a relevant target of oxidative stress, is also affected with reduced transcription in CS fibroblasts and normal protein levels restored upon complementation with wild-type genes. High-resolution magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed a significantly perturbed metabolic profile in CS-A and CS-B primary fibroblasts compared with normal cells in agreement with increased oxidative stress and alterations in cell bioenergetics. The affected processes include oxidative metabolism, glycolysis, choline phospholipid metabolism, and osmoregulation. The alterations in intracellular ROS content, oxidative DNA damage, and metabolic profile were partially rescued by the addition of an antioxidant in the culture medium suggesting that the continuous oxidative stress that characterizes CS cells plays a causative role in the underlying pathophysiology. The changes of oxidative and energy metabolism offer a clue for the clinical features of patients with CS and provide novel tools valuable for both diagnosis and therapy. © 2012 The Authors. Aging Cell © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  16. Acute stress disorder, depression, and tobacco use in disaster workers following 9/11.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biggs, Quinn M; Fullerton, Carol S; Reeves, James J; Grieger, Thomas A; Reissman, Dori; Ursano, Robert J

    2010-10-01

    Early posttraumatic psychiatric disorders have not been well studied in disaster workers. This study examined the rates of probable acute stress disorder (ASD), probable depression, increased tobacco use, and their associated risk factors in 9/11 World Trade Center disaster workers. Surveys were obtained from 90 disaster workers (e.g., medical personnel, police, firefighters, search and rescue) 2-3 weeks after 9/11. Nearly 15% of disaster workers had probable ASD and 26% had probable depression. Probable ASD and depression were highly related to functional impairment. The risk for ASD was increased for those with 9/11-specific disaster exposures, more pre-9/11 trauma exposures, and the peritraumatic dissociative symptom of altered sense of time. Disaster workers who were younger, non-White, or who had increasing numbers of peritraumatic dissociative symptoms were more likely to have probable depression. More than half of tobacco users increased their tobacco use after 9/11. Additionally, all tobacco users with probable ASD and almost all tobacco users with probable depression increased tobacco use. Rapid mobilization of resources for early screening and intervention and health promotion campaigns aimed at improving adverse health-related behaviors may be helpful for this high-risk group. © 2010 American Orthopsychiatric Association.

  17. Having your cake and eating it too: a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tryon, M S; DeCant, Rashel; Laugero, K D

    2013-04-10

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases visceral fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of chronic stress on eating behavior in humans is less understood, but it may be linked to HPA responsivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of chronic social stress and acute stress reactivity on food choice and food intake. Forty-one women (BMI=25.9±5.1 kg/m(2), age range=41 to 52 years) were subjected to the Trier Social Stress Test or a control task (nature movie) to examine HPA responses to an acute laboratory stressor and then invited to eat from a buffet containing low- and high-calorie snacks. Women were also categorized as high chronic stress or low chronic stress based on Wheaton Chronic Stress Inventory scores. Women reporting higher chronic stress and exhibiting low cortisol reactivity to the acute stress task consumed significantly more calories from chocolate cake on both stress and control visits. Chronic stress in the low cortisol reactor group was also positively related to total fat mass, body fat percentage, and stress-induced negative mood. Further, women reporting high chronic stress consumed significantly less vegetables, but only in those aged 45 years and older. Chronic stress in women within the higher age category was positively related to total calories consumed at the buffet, stress-induced negative mood and food craving. Our results suggest an increased risk for stress eating in persons with a specific chronic stress signature and imply that a habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Influence of trait anxiety on the effects of acute stress on learning and retention of the passive avoidance task in male and female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Francés, Concepción I; Arenas, M Carmen

    2014-06-01

    The influence of anxiety on the effects of acute stress for the acquisition and retention of passive avoidance conditioned task was evaluated in male and female mice. Animals were categorized as high-, medium-, and low-anxiety according to their performance in the elevated plus-maze test. Subsequently, half of the mice in each group were exposed to an acute stressor and assayed in an aversive conditioning test two days later. Exposure to restraint stress before inhibitory avoidance conditioning had a differential impact on the conditioned response of males and females according to their trait anxiety. The acute stressor significantly altered the conditioned response of mice with a high-anxiety level. The long-term effect of the stressor varied for each sex; high-anxiety stressed males showed an enhanced conditioned response with respect to their controls, whereas high-anxiety stressed females presented an impaired performance. These results lead us to believe that the characterization of individuality is an important factor in understanding the interaction between stress and memory for each sex; the trait anxiety of our animals modulated the effects of stress on the conditioned response so that males and females performed in contrasting manners to the same environmental stimuli and experimental conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute physical and psychological stress effects on visceral hypersensitivity in male rat: role of central nucleus of the amygdala

    OpenAIRE

    Afzali,Hamideh; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Karimian,Seyed Morteza; Sohanaki, Hamid; Vahedian, Jalal; Mohamadi, Seyed Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute physical and psychological stress and temporary central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) block on stress-induced visceral hypersensitivity. Methods: Forty two male Wistar rats were used in this study. Animals were divided into 7 groups (n = 6); 1 - Control, 2 - physical stress, 3 - psychological stress, 4 - sham, 5 - lidocaine, 6 - lidocaine + physical stress and 7 - lidocaine + psychological stress. Stress induc...

  20. Rigid patterns of effortful choice behavior after acute stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Evan E; Stolyarova, Alexandra; Conoscenti, Michael A; Minor, Thomas R; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2017-01-01

    Physical effort is a common cost of acquiring rewards, and decreased effort is a feature of many neuropsychiatric disorders. Stress affects performance on several tests of cognition and decision making in both humans and nonhumans. Only a few recent reports show impairing effects of stress in operant tasks involving effort and cognitive flexibility. Brain regions affected by stress, such as the medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala, are also implicated in mediating effortful choices. Here, we assessed effort-based decision making after an acute stress procedure known to induce persistent impairment in shuttle escape and elevated plasma corticosterone. In these animals, we also probed levels of polysialyted neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a marker of structural plasticity, in medial frontal cortex and amygdala. We found that animals that consistently worked for high magnitude rewards continued to do so, even after acute shock stress. We also found that PSA-NCAM was increased in both regions after effortful choice experience but not after shock stress alone. These findings are discussed with reference to the existing broad literature on cognitive effects of stress and in the context of how acute stress may bias effortful decisions to a rigid pattern of responding.

  1. Acute blood glucose fluctuation enhances rat aorta endothelial cell apoptosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wu, Na; Shen, Haitao; Liu, Henan; Wang, Yanjun; Bai, Yu; Han, Ping

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present study, the influence of acute fluctuant hyperglycemia and persistent hyperglycemia on vascular endothelial cell apoptosis, function, oxidative stress and inflammation was examined in vivo...

  2. Environmental enrichment reduces behavioural alterations induced by chronic stress in Japanese quail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, A; Houdelier, C; Calandreau, L; Arnould, C; Favreau-Peigné, A; Leterrier, C; Boissy, A; Lumineau, S

    2015-02-01

    Animals perceiving repeated aversive events can become chronically stressed. Chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can have deleterious consequences on physiological parameters (e.g. BW, blood chemistry) and behaviour (e.g. emotional reactivity, stereotypies, cognition). Environmental enrichment (EE) can be a mean to reduce animal stress and to improve welfare. The aim of this study was first, to assess the effects of EE in battery cages on the behaviour of young Japanese quail and second, to evaluate the impact of EE on quail exposed to chronic stress. The experiment involved quail housed in EE cages and submitted or not to a chronic stress procedure (CSP) (EE cages, control quail: n=16, CSP quail: n=14) and quail housed in standard cages and exposed or not to the CSP (standard non-EE cages, control quail: n=12, CSP quail: n=16). Our procedure consisted of repeated aversive events (e.g. ventilators, delaying access to food, physical restraint, noise) presented two to five times per 24 h, randomly, for 15 days. During CSP, EE improved quail's welfare as their stereotypic pacing decreased and they rested more. CSP decreased exploration in all quail. After the end of CSP, quail presented increased emotional reactivity in emergence test. However, the effect of EE varied with test. Finally, chronic stress effects on comfort behaviours in the emergence test were alleviated by EE. These results indicate that EE can alleviate some aspects of behavioural alterations induced by CSP.

  3. Mice lacking integrin β3 expression exhibit altered response to chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Varney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies indicate multiple roles for integrin αvβ3 in adult neurons, including response to pharmacological agents such as cocaine and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. In this study, we examined the role of the integrin β3 gene (Itgb3 in the response to environmental stimuli by subjecting Itgb3+/+ and Itgb3−/− mice to unpredictable chronic mild stressors. We found that genetic abrogation of integrin β3 expression elicits an exaggerated vulnerability to chronic unpredictable stress in the open field test. In this test, chronic stress elicited significant decreases in stereotypic behavior and horizontal locomotor activity, including increases in anxiety behaviors. Mild chronic stress led to reductions in dopamine turnover in midbrains of Itgb3+/+, but not Itgb3−/− mice, suggesting a disruption of stress-dependent regulation of DA homeostasis. Chronic stress elicited altered synaptic expression of syntaxin and synaptophysin in midbrains of Itgb3−/− mice, when compared to Itgb3+/+. Semi-quantitative Western blot studies revealed that the synaptic expression, but not total tissue expression, of multiple signaling proteins is correlated with integrin αv levels in the midbrain. Moreover, loss of integrin β3 expression modifies this correlation network. Together, these findings demonstrate that Itgb3−/− mice display a pattern of changes indicating disrupted regulation of midbrain synaptic systems involved in conferring resilience to mild stressors.

  4. Overcoming the effects of acute stress through good teamwork practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrington, D.K. (Team Foundation, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)); Gaddy, C.D. (General Physics Corp., Columbia, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Two recent industry studies have taken a look at operators in stressful situations. In the context of severe-accident management, Mumaw et al. discussed four approaches to training operators for severe accidents: (1) training for knowledge or procedural skills; (2) training decision makers about goals and plans; (3) training to avoid cognitive biases; and (4) training within a realistic setting. These four approaches address directly the cognitive skills important for decision making. These types of training can also address indirectly the effects of stress on performance. First, effects of stress on decision making, such as reduced working memory, can be addressed by training cognitive skills. Second, exposure to realistically stressful situations can reduce the novelty and uncertainty, which is a primary cause of stress reactions. In a second study reported by Desaulniers, the stress of requalification exams was the focus. Desaulniers concluded that repeated changes in the exam process, inconsistency in interpretation of examiner guidelines, and some content and grading practices resulted in undue stress for the operators. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff actions to remedy these sources of undue stress were described.

  5. Vitamin A deficiency alters airway resistance in children with acute upper respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Cleia T; Pontes, Núbia N; Maciel, Bruna L L; Bezerra, Hugo S M; Triesta, Ana Nataly A B; Jeronimo, Selma M B; McGowan, Stephen E; Dantas, Vera M

    2013-05-01

    To assess whether vitamin A deficiency alters the recovery of total respiratory resistance (TRR) following acute upper respiratory tract infection (URI). This is a case control study of children, age 4-6 years and grouped as: URI, (n = 74), URI and wheezing, (URI-wheezing, n = 52), and healthy controls (n = 51). Vitamin A and total respiratory resistance (TRR) were assessed using the modified relative dose response (MRDR) and forced oscillometry, respectively. Children with URI and URI-wheezing had lower retinol, 32.4 ± 13.12 and 18.3 ± 6.83 µg/dl respectively, compared to controls, 56.9 ± 29.82 µg/dl (ANOVA, P 0.06. In the URI-wheezing group, TRR declined independently of retinol and MRDR. Vitamin A contributes to preservation of airway function during and in recovery after upper respiratory infection in children. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Autophagy Limits Endotoxemic Acute Kidney Injury and Alters Renal Tubular Epithelial Cell Cytokine Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Leventhal

    Full Text Available Sepsis related acute kidney injury (AKI is a common in-hospital complication with a dismal prognosis. Our incomplete understanding of disease pathogenesis has prevented the identification of hypothesis-driven preventive or therapeutic interventions. Increasing evidence in ischemia-reperfusion and nephrotoxic mouse models of AKI support the theory that autophagy protects renal tubular epithelial cells (RTEC from injury. However, the role of RTEC autophagy in septic AKI remains unclear. We observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS, a mediator of gram-negative bacterial sepsis, induces RTEC autophagy in vivo and in vitro through TLR4-initiated signaling. We modeled septic AKI through intraperitoneal LPS injection in mice in which autophagy-related protein 7 was specifically knocked out in the renal proximal tubules (ATG7KO. Compared to control littermates, ATG7KO mice developed more severe renal dysfunction (24hr BUN 100.1mg/dl +/- 14.8 vs 54.6mg/dl +/- 11.3 and parenchymal injury. After injection with LPS, analysis of kidney lysates identified higher IL-6 expression and increased STAT3 activation in kidney lysates from ATG7KO mice compared to controls. In vitro experiments confirmed an altered response to LPS in RTEC with genetic or pharmacological impairment of autophagy. In conclusion, RTEC autophagy protects against endotoxin induced injury and regulates downstream effects of RTEC TLR4 signaling.

  7. An unexpected increase in restraint duration alters the expression of stress response habituation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Rachael R.; Spencer, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    While habituation develops to a repeated psychological stressor, manipulating certain parameters of the stress challenge experience may lead to dishabituation of the stress response. In this experiment, we investigated whether the behavioral, endocrine, and neural responses (c-fos mRNA immediate early gene expression) to a psychological stressor (restraint) differ when the duration of the stressor given on the test day violates expectations based on prior stress experience. Rats experienced 10 min of daily restraint on Days 1-4 followed by challenge with either the same duration (10 min) or a longer duration (30 min) of restraint on Day 5. Rats’ behavior was video recorded during the Day 5 restraint episode, and trunk blood and brain tissue were collected 30 min following restraint onset. Struggling behavior was manually scored as active attempts to escape the restraint device. Rats who experienced the same duration of repeated restraint showed a significant decrease of plasma corticosterone (CORT) compared to the 10 min acute restraint group (habituation). In addition, these rats showed decreased active struggling over repeated restraint trials. Conversely, the rats showed an increased CORT response (dishabituation) when they experienced a longer duration of restraint on Day 5 than they had previously. These rats showed a habituated behavioral response during the first 10 min of restraint, however struggling behavior increased once the duration of restraint exceeded the expected duration (with a peak at 12 min). This peak in struggling behavior did not occur during 30 min acute restraint, indicating that the effect was related to memory of previous restraint experience and not due to a longer duration of restraint. In contrast, these animals showed habituated c-fos mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), lateral septum (LS), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in response to the increased stressor duration. Thus, there was dissociation between c

  8. Systemic apomorphine alters HPA axis responses to interleukin-1 beta administration but not sound stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buller, K M; Crane, J W; Spencer, S J; Day, T A

    2003-08-01

    Apomorphine is a dopamine receptor agonist that was recently licensed for the treatment of erectile dysfunction. However, although sexual activity can be stressful, there has been little investigation into whether treatments for erectile dysfunction affect stress responses. We have examined whether a single dose of apomorphine, sufficient to produce penile erections (50 microg/kg, i.a.), can alter basal or stress-induced plasma ACTH levels, or activity of central pathways thought to control the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in rats. An immune challenge (interleukin-1 beta, 1 microg/kg, i.a.) was used as a physical stressor while sound stress (100 dB white noise, 30 min) was used as a psychological stressor. Intravascular administration of apomorphine had no effect on basal ACTH levels but did substantially increase the number of Fos-positive amygdala and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. Administration of apomorphine prior to immune challenge augmented the normal ACTH response to this stressor at 90 min and there was a corresponding increase in the number of Fos-positive paraventricular nucleus corticotropin-releasing factor cells, paraventricular nucleus oxytocin cells and nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cells. However, apomorphine treatment did not alter ACTH or Fos responses to sound stress. These data suggest that erection-inducing levels of apomorphine interfere with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis inhibitory feedback mechanisms in response to a physical stressor, but have no effect on the response to a psychological stressor. Consequently, it is likely that apomorphine acts on a hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis control pathway that is unique to physical stressors. A candidate for this site of action is the nucleus tractus solitarius catecholamine cell population and, in particular, A2 noradrenergic neurons.

  9. Alterations of postawakening cortisol parameters during a prolonged stress period: Results of a prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weik, Ulrike; Deinzer, Renate

    2010-08-01

    Though postawakening cortisol is considered to be altered under chronic stress prospective studies proving this assumption is missing, so far. Furthermore, there is some uncertainty which aspects of postawakening cortisol alterations are strongest related to stress. The present study thus analyzed the cortisol concentration at awakening itself (0 min), the cortisol awakening response (CAR; i.e. the increase within 30 min after awakening), the area under the curve of the first hour after awakening (AUC(G)60) and the mean of samples taken 0 min and 30 min after awakening (AUC(G)30) in 12 exam students, participating in a major exam and 12 matched control students not participating in any exam. Saliva samples were taken on two consecutive days at 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening, respectively, at four time points (T1-T4): on the verge of exams, when students anticipated and prepared the exam (T1), in the middle of exams (T2), and shortly after (T3). T4 (weeks after exams) represents a reference measure. Repeated measures analyses of covariance revealed a significantly higher AUC(G)30 (p=0.007) and AUC(G)60 (p=0.011) and higher cortisol concentrations at awakening (p=0.016) in exam students and a significant time by group interaction for concentration at awakening (p=0.031). No effects were found for the CAR. The results of this prospective controlled study support notions that chronic stress induces increases of overall postawakening cortisol. They further indicate that the CAR is not affected by chronic stress and that the awakening concentration responds later than the AUC(G) to conditions of chronic stress as analyzed here. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Exposure to acute stress enhances decision-making competence: Evidence for the role of DHEA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Lam, Jovian C W; Trainor, Brian C; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to acute stress can impact performance on numerous cognitive abilities, but little is known about how acute stress affects real-world decision-making ability. In the present study, we induced acute stress with a standard laboratory task involving uncontrollable socio-evaluative stress and subsequently assessed decision-making ability using the Adult Decision Making Competence index. In addition, we took baseline and post-test saliva samples from participants to examine associations between decision-making competence and adrenal hormones. Participants in the stress induction group showed enhanced decision-making competence, relative to controls. Further, although both cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) reactivity predicted decision-making competence when considered in isolation, DHEA was a significantly better predictor than cortisol when both hormones were considered simultaneously. Thus, our results show that exposure to acute stress can have beneficial effects on the cognitive ability underpinning real-world decision-making and that this effect relates to DHEA reactivity more than cortisol. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of obesity on inflammatory cytokine and leptin production following acute mental stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caslin, H L; Franco, R L; Crabb, E B; Huang, C J; Bowen, M K; Acevedo, E O

    2016-02-01

    Obesity may contribute to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk by eliciting chronic systemic inflammation and impairing the immune response to additional stressors. There has been little assessment of the effect of obesity on psychological stress, an independent risk factor for CVD. Therefore, it was of interest to examine interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), and leptin following an acute mental stress task in nonobese and obese males. Twenty college-aged males (21.3 ± 0.56 years) volunteered to participate in a 20-min Stroop color-word and mirror-tracing task. Subjects were recruited for obese (body mass index: BMI > 30) and nonobese (BMI stress task elicited an increase in heart rate, catecholamines, and IL-1β in all subjects. Additionally, acute mental stress increased cortisol concentrations in the nonobese group. There was a significant reduction in leptin in obese subjects 30 min posttask compared with a decrease in nonobese subjects 120 min posttask. Interestingly, the relationship between the percent change in leptin and IL-1Ra at 120 min posttask in response to an acute mental stress task was only observed in nonobese individuals. This is the first study to suggest that adiposity in males may impact leptin and inflammatory signaling mechanisms following acute mental stress. © 2015 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  12. Hypohydration and acute thermal stress affect mood state but not cognition or dynamic postural balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, Brett R; Sollanek, Kurt J; Cheuvront, Samuel N; Lieberman, Harris R; Kenefick, Robert W

    2013-04-01

    Equivocal findings have been reported in the few studies that examined the impact of ambient temperature (T a) and hypohydration on cognition and dynamic balance. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of acute exposure to a range of ambient temperatures (T(a) 10-40 °C) in euhydration (EUH) and hypohydration (HYP) states on cognition, mood and dynamic balance. Thirty-two men (age 22 ± 4 years, height 1.80 ± 0.05 m, body mass 85.4 ± 10.8 kg) were grouped into four matched cohorts (n = 8), and tested in one of the four T(a) (10, 20, 30, 40 °C) when EUH and HYP (-4 % body mass via exercise-heat exposure). Cognition was assessed using psychomotor vigilance, 4-choice reaction time, matching to sample, and grammatical reasoning. Mood was evaluated by profile of mood states and dynamic postural balance was tested using a Biodex Balance System. Thermal sensation (TS), core (T core) and skin temperature (T(sk)) were obtained throughout testing. Volunteers lost -4.1 ± 0.4 % body mass during HYP. T sk and TS increased with increasing T(a), with no effect of hydration. Cognitive performance was not altered by HYP or thermal stress. Total mood disturbance (TMD), fatigue, confusion, anger, and depression increased during HYP at all T(a). Dynamic balance was unaffected by HYP, but 10 °C exposure impaired balance compared to all other T(a). Despite an increase in TMD during HYP, cognitive function was maintained in all testing environments, demonstrating cognitive resiliency in response to body fluid deficits. Dynamic postural stability at 10 °C appeared to be hampered by low-grade shivering, but was otherwise maintained during HYP and thermal stress.

  13. Prenatal Cortisol Exposure Predicts Infant Cortisol Response to Acute Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Thomas G; Bergman, Kristin; Sarkar, Pampa; Glover, Vivette

    2012-01-01

    Summary Experimental animal findings suggest that early stress and glucocorticoid exposure may program the function of the Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in the offspring. The extension of these findings to human development is not yet clear. A prospective longitudinal study was conducted on 125 mothers and their normally developing children. Amniotic fluid was obtained at, on average, 17.2 weeks gestation; infant behavior and cortisol response to a separation-reunion stress was assessed at 17 months. Amniotic fluid cortisol predicted infant cortisol response to separation-reunion stress: infants who were exposed to higher levels of cortisol in utero showed higher pre-stress cortisol values and blunted response to stress exposure. The association was independent of prenatal, obstetric, and socioeconomic factors and child-parent attachment. The findings provide some of the strongest data in humans that HPA axis functioning in the child may be predicted from prenatal cortisol exposure. PMID:22315044

  14. Acute psychological stress as a precipitant of acute coronary syndromes in patients with undiagnosed ischemic heart disease: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupancic, Melanie L

    2009-01-01

    Acute psychological stress causes a number of physiologic responses that can trigger acute coronary syndromes in individuals with silent coronary artery disease. The mechanisms behind this phenomena have been the subject of much speculation. The following is a case report and brief review of the literature. A PubMed search was undertaken using the key words stress and myocardial infarction, stress and ischemia, mental stress and coronary artery disease, psychological stress and acute coronary syndrome, and mental stress and plaque destabilization. Articles were restricted to the English language and those dating through December 2007. Acute coronary syndrome is thought to be the end result of a complex mechanism involving platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. Several studies have shown that acute mental stress leads to enhanced platelet activation and endothelial dysfunction. The mechanism behind this involves both the autonomic nervous system and the neuroendocrine response. Acute psychological stress may lead to acute coronary syndromes in patients with previously silent disease. Physicians should inquire about cardiac symptoms in patients with cardiac risk factors who are experiencing psychological distress. Further research will hopefully lead to an improved understanding of the mechanism behind this process to improve therapeutic interventions.

  15. Ropivacaine and Bupivacaine prevent increased pain sensitivity without altering neuroimmune activation following repeated social defeat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawicki, Caroline M; Kim, January K; Weber, Michael D; Jarrett, Brant L; Godbout, Jonathan P; Sheridan, John F; Humeidan, Michelle

    2017-11-08

    Mounting evidence indicates that stress influences the experience of pain. Exposure to psychosocial stress disrupts bi-directional communication pathways between the central nervous system and peripheral immune system, and can exacerbate the frequency and severity of pain experienced by stressed subjects. Repeated social defeat (RSD) is a murine model of psychosocial stress that recapitulates the immune and behavioral responses to stress observed in humans, including activation of stress-reactive neurocircuitry and increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production. It is unclear, however, how these stress-induced neuroimmune responses contribute to increased pain sensitivity in mice exposed to RSD. Here we used a technique of regional analgesia with local anesthetics in mice to block the development of mechanical allodynia during RSD. We next investigated the degree to which pain blockade altered stress-induced neuroimmune activation and depressive-like behavior. Following development of a mouse model of regional analgesia with discrete sensory blockade over the dorsal-caudal aspect of the spine, C57BL/6 mice were divided into experimental groups and treated with Ropivacaine (0.08%), Liposomal Bupivacaine (0.08%), or Vehicle (0.9% NaCl) prior to exposure to stress. This specific region was selected for analgesia because it is the most frequent location for aggression-associated pain due to biting during RSD. Mechanical allodynia was assessed 12 h after the first, third, and sixth day of RSD after resolution of the sensory blockade. In a separate experiment, social avoidance behavior was determined after the sixth day of RSD. Blood, bone marrow, brain, and spinal cord were collected for immunological analyses after the last day of RSD in both experiments following behavioral assessments. RSD increased mechanical allodynia in an exposure-dependent manner that persisted for at least one week following cessation of the stressor. Mice treated with either Ropivacaine or

  16. Relationship between antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress in children with acute hepatitis A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cemek, Mustafa; Dede, Semiha; Bayiroglu, Fahri; Caksen, Huseyin; Cemek, Fatma; Mert, Nihat

    2006-10-14

    To investigate in children with acute hepatitis A. According to our knowledge, there are no data about the blood levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, an indicator of oxidative stress) and nonenzymic antioxidants in children with acute hepatitis A. Whole blood MDA and reduced glutathione (GSH), serum beta-carotene, retinol, vitamin E and vitamin C levels were studied in 19 (10 females, 9 males) children with acute hepatitis A and in 29 (13 females, 16 males) healthy control subjects. There was a statistically significant difference between patients and controls for all parameters (P hepatitis A virus induces oxidative stress in children with hepatitis A. This finding could be taken into consideration to improve the therapeutic approach in acute hepatitis A.

  17. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA’s but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression. PMID:24946016

  18. Increased endoplasmic reticulum stress in mouse osteocytes with aging alters Cox-2 response to mechanical stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalil, Sreeda; Jaspers, Richard T; Manders, Ralph J; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke; Bakker, Astrid D; Deldicque, Louise

    2015-02-01

    Aging reduces bone mass as well as the anabolic response of bone to mechanical stimuli, resulting in osteopenia. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress impairs the response of myogenic cells to anabolic stimuli, and is involved in sarcopenia, but whether ER stress also contributes to osteopenia is unknown. Therefore, we tested whether ER stress exists in bones of aged mice, and whether this impairs the osteocyte response to mechanical stimulation. Primary osteocytes were obtained from long bones of adult (8 months) and old (24-26 months) mice, treated with or without the pharmacological ER stress inducer tunicamycin, and either or not subjected to mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow (PFF). The osteocyte response to PFF was assessed by measuring cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) mRNA levels and nitric oxide (NO) production. mRNA levels of ER stress markers were higher in old versus adult osteocytes (+40% for activating transcription factor-4, +120% for C/EBP homologous protein, and +120% for spliced X-box binding protein-1, p Cox-2 response to PFF was fourfold decreased in cells from old bones (p Cox-2 expression by threefold in cells from adult bones (p < 0.01). PFF increased NO production by 50% at 60 min in osteocytes from old versus adult bones (p < 0.01). In conclusion, our data indicate that the expression of several ER stress markers was higher in osteocytes from bones of old compared to adult mice. Since ER stress altered the response of osteocytes to mechanical loading, it could be a novel factor contributing to osteopenia.

  19. Effect of erythrina indica on stress induced alteration on lipid profile in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Kamalraj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of stress induced alteration on lipid profile in rats by different fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform of ethanolic extract of Erythrina Indica an indigenous plant used in ayurvedic medicine in India. Methods: The study was carried on albino rats (150-200g of either sex, divided into four groups of 6 each. Group I served as control, Groups II, III and IV was treated with different fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform of ethanolic extract of Erythrina Indica 150mg/kg, p.o. in a single daily dose from day 1 to day 22. Physical stress of 5 hours swimming was given to all the groups on day 22. Blood samples were withdrawn in group I on day O (blank control and on day 22 after stress (positive control. Blood samples were withdrawn in group II, III and IV on days 3,7,14 and 21 and on day 22 after stress. Results: All the blood samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (TC HDL, cholesterol (HDLC triglyceride (TG by enzymatic method and LDL & VLDL cholesterol was calculated by on the basis of Friedwalds equation. After 21 days of treatment changes the serum lipid levels in rats insignificantly. In control group stress increased the lipid levels in rats significantly except HDL cholesterol which reduced insignificantly. When Erythrina indica treated rats were subjected to stress on day 22, their serum lipid levels increased significantly except HDL cholesterol which reduced insignificantly. Conclusions: study indicates that various fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform of the ethanolic extract of Erythrina Indica is effective in attenuating stress induced dislipidemia in rats.

  20. Stress-induced alterations in 5-HT1A receptor transcriptional modulators NUDR and Freud-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk, Bernadeta; Kotarska, Katarzyna; Daigle, Mireille; Misztak, Paulina; Sowa-Kucma, Magdalena; Rafalo, Anna; Curzytek, Katarzyna; Kubera, Marta; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Nowak, Gabriel; Albert, Paul R

    2014-11-01

    The effect of stress on the mRNA and protein level of the 5-HT1A receptor and two of its key transcriptional modulators, NUDR and Freud-1, was examined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (Hp) using rodent models: olfactory bulbectomy (OB) and prenatal stress (PS) in male and female rats; chronic mild stress in male rats (CMS) and pregnancy stress. In PFC, CMS induced the most widespread changes, with significant reduction in both mRNA and protein levels of NUDR, 5-HT1A receptor and in Freud-1 mRNA; while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor and Freud-1 protein levels were also decreased. In male, but not female OB rats PFC Freud-1 and 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were reduced, while in Hp 5-HT1A receptor, Freud-1 and NUDR mRNA's but not protein were reduced. In PS rats PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein was reduced more in females than males; while in Hp Freud-1 protein was increased in females. In pregnancy stress, PFC NUDR, Freud-1 and 5-HT1A protein receptor levels were reduced, and in HP 5-HT1A receptor protein levels were also reduced; in HP only NUDR and Freud-1 mRNA levels were reduced. Overall, CMS and stress during pregnancy produced the most salient changes in 5-HT1A receptor and transcription factor expression, suggesting a primary role for altered transcription factor expression in chronic regulation of 5-HT1A receptor expression. By contrast, OB (in males) and PS (in females) produced gender-specific reductions in PFC 5-HT1A receptor protein levels, suggesting a role for post-transcriptional regulation. These and previous data suggest that chronic stress might be a key regulator of NUDR/Freud-1 gene expression.

  1. Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Psychopathology Course Lecture on Professional Burnout & Suicide – Medical Psychology Course Lecture on Suicide Risk Assessment & Management...TITLE: Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or Post-Traumatic...Pilot Trial of Inpatient Cognitive Therapy for the Prevention 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER of Suicide in Military Personnel with Acute Stress Disorder or

  2. Alterations in cytokines and haematological parameters during the acute and convalescent phases of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Nunes Rodrigues-da-Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Haematological and cytokine alterations in malaria are a broad and controversial subject in the literature. However, few studies have simultaneously evaluated various cytokines in a single patient group during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. The aim of this study was to sequentially characterise alterations in haematological patters and circulating plasma cytokine and chemokine levels in patients infected with Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum from a Brazilian endemic area during the acute and convalescent phases of infection. During the acute phase, thrombocytopaenia, eosinopaenia, lymphopaenia and an increased number of band cells were observed in the majority of the patients. During the convalescent phase, the haematologic parameters returned to normal. During the acute phase, P. vivax and P. falciparum patients had significantly higher interleukin (IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, interferon-γ, tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-1β and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor levels than controls and maintained high levels during the convalescent phase. IL-10 was detected at high concentrations during the acute phase, but returned to normal levels during the convalescent phase. Plasma IL-10 concentration was positively correlated with parasitaemia in P. vivax and P. falciparum-infected patients. The same was true for the TNF-α concentration in P. falciparum-infected patients. Finally, the haematological and cytokine profiles were similar between uncomplicated P. falciparum and P. vivax infections.

  3. Effects of acute laboratory stress on executive functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin eStarcke

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent research indicates that stress can affect executive functioning. However, previous results are mixed with respect to the direction and size of effects, especially when considering different subcomponents of executive functions. The current study systematically investigates the effects of stress on the five components of executive functions proposed by Smith and Jonides (1999: Attention and inhibition; task management; planning; monitoring; and coding. Healthy participants (N = 40 were either exposed to the computerized version of the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test as a stressor (N = 20, or to a rest condition (N = 20. Stress reactions were assessed with heart rate and subjective measures. After the experimental manipulation, all participants performed tasks that measure the different executive functions. The manipulation check indicates that stress induction was successful (i.e., the stress group showed a higher heart rate and higher subjective responses than the control group. The main results demonstrate that stressed participants show a poorer performance compared with unstressed participants in all executive subcomponents, with the exception of monitoring. Effect sizes for the tasks that reveal differences between stressed and unstressed participants are high. We conclude that the laboratory stressor used here overall reduced executive functioning.

  4. Dynamic glucocorticoid-dependent regulation of Sgk1 expression in oligodendrocytes of adult male rat brain by acute stress and time of day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinds, Laura R; Chun, Lauren E; Woodruff, Elizabeth R; Christensen, Jennifer A; Hartsock, Matthew J; Spencer, Robert L

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies support plasticity in adult brain white matter structure and myelination in response to various experiential factors. One possible contributor to this plasticity may be activity-dependent modulation of serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 (Sgk1) expression in oligodendrocytes. We examined whether Sgk1 expression in adult rat brain white matter is increased by acute stress-induced elevations in endogenous corticosterone and whether it fluctuates with diurnal variations in corticosterone. We observed rapid increases (within 30 min) in Sgk1 mRNA in the corpus callosum in response to acute stress, as well as large increases at the beginning of the rat's active period (the time of peak corticosterone secretion). These increases were absent in adrenalectomized rats. Corticosterone treatment of adrenalectomized rats also rapidly increased corpus callosum Sgk1 mRNA. The majority of Sgk1 mRNA in corpus callosum was co-localized with myelin basic protein mRNA, suggesting that mature oligodendrocytes respond dynamically to acute stress and circadian rhythms. The regulation of Sgk1 expression by acute stress and time of day was selective for white matter, with limited alteration of Sgk1 expression by these factors in hippocampus and somatosensory cortex. These results indicate a unique sensitivity of oligodendrocyte Sgk1 expression to activity-dependent fluctuations in corticosterone hormone secretion, and raises the prospect that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation or glucocorticoid pharmacotherapy may compromise the normal activity-dependent interactions between oligodendrocytes and neurons.

  5. Evidence for Stress-like Alterations in the HPA-Axis in Women Taking Oral Contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Johannes; König, Johanna; Homuth, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Using oral contraceptives has been implicated in the aetiology of stress-related disorders like depression. Here, we followed the hypothesis that oral contraceptives deregulate the HPA-axis by elevating circulating cortisol levels. We report for a sample of 233 pre-menopausal women increased...... circulating cortisol levels in those using oral contraceptives. For women taking oral contraceptives, we observed alterations in circulating phospholipid levels and elevated triglycerides and found evidence for increased glucocorticoid signalling as the transcript levels of the glucocorticoid-regulated genes...... DDIT4 and FKBP5 were increased in whole blood. The effects were statistically mediated by cortisol. The associations of oral contraceptives with higher FKBP5 mRNA and altered phospholipid levels were modified by rs1360780, a genetic variance implicated in psychiatric diseases. Accordingly...

  6. In vitro stressing factors altering the TCA cycle and morphology of Taenia crassiceps cysticerci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Clare Vinaud

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the morphological and biochemical alterations of in vitro induced Taenia crassiceps cysticerci by the presence of glucose, insulin and praziquantel isolated and in association. Methods: The cysticerci were cultured for 24 h in supplemented Roswell Park Memorial Institute culture medium and added to two different concentrations of glucose, insulin and praziquantel. The morphometrical analysis was performed through the ImageJ programme, and the biochemical one through high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: The exposure to the stressing factors led to alterations in the morphology and decrease in the growth rate of the parasite. Conclusions: The metabolic effects are related to a decrease in the tricarboxylic acid cycle and fatty acids oxidation metabolites due to the drug’s mode of action. Interestingly, the praziquantel, insulin and glucose association enhanced the drug’s mode of action with a greater decrease of the tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites.

  7. Myocardial stress in patients with acute cerebrovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Christian M; Fischer Hansen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    Signs of myocardial involvement are common in patients with acute cerebrovascular events. ST segment deviations, abnormal left ventricular function, increased N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), prolonged QT interval, and/or raised troponins are observed in up to one third of th...

  8. Oxidative Stress Alters miRNA and Gene Expression Profiles in Villous First Trimester Trophoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney E. Cross

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between oxidative stress and miRNA changes in placenta as a potential mechanism involved in preeclampsia (PE is not fully elucidated. We investigated the impact of oxidative stress on miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles of genes associated with PE in villous 3A first trimester trophoblast cells exposed to H2O2 at 12 different concentrations (0-1 mM for 0.5, 4, 24, and 48 h. Cytotoxicity, determined using the SRB assay, was used to calculate the IC50 of H2O2. RNA was extracted after 4 h exposure to H2O2 for miRNA and gene expression profiling. H2O2 exerted a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity on 3A trophoblast cells. Short-term exposure of 3A cells to low concentration of H2O2 (5% of IC50 significantly altered miRNA profile as evidenced by significant changes in 195 out of 595 evaluable miRNAs. Tool for annotations of microRNAs (TAM analysis indicated that these altered miRNAs fall into 43 clusters and 34 families, with 41 functions identified. Exposure to H2O2 altered mRNA expression of 22 out of 84 key genes involved in dysregulation of placental development. In conclusion, short-term exposure of villous first trimester trophoblasts to low concentrations of H2O2 significantly alters miRNA profile and expression of genes implicated in placental development.

  9. Effect of moderate or high intensity exercise on hypothyroid rats exposed to acute stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasimay Çakir, Özgür; Özbeyli, Dilek; Şenel, Ebru; Contuk, Gazi; Velioğlu Öğünç, Ayliz; Çetinel, Şule; Yeğen, Berrak Ç

    2017-12-01

    There are contradictory results about stress response in hypothyroidism and in exercising with variant intensities. We aimed to investigate the potential anxiolytic and protective effects of different intensities of exercise on acute psychological stress in hypothyroidism. Rats (N.=48) were divided as sedentary, moderate intensity (MIE) and high intensity exercise (HIE) groups. Rats were administered intraperitoneally with 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU, 10 mg/kg) for 15 days to induce hypothyroidism. Starting by the 3rd week, treadmill exercise was performed moderately (30 min/day) or at high intensity (60 min/day) for 6 weeks, 5 days/week. At the end of the 8th week, exposure to water avoidance stress was used for induction of acute stress. Anxiety-like behavior was determined by holeboard test before and after stress inductions. Serum IL-1β and IL-6 assays, and myeloperoxidase activity (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione (GSH) measurements, and histological analysis of heart, liver, stomach and small intestine were made. All groups showed increased anxiety-like behavior following acute stress induction. After acute stress induction, increased MPO and MDA levels in heart and elevated MPO activity in liver were inhibited in PTU-treated HIE group. In MIE rats, increased MPO and declined GSH levels of the gastric tissue and small intestine, and elevated MDA levels of gastric tissue were reversed in PTU-treated MIE group. Major histological changes that occurred by both intensities of exercise under stress condition were improved by PTU. Our results indicate that hypothyroid state may be protective against stress- and exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative damage.

  10. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J; Epel, Elissa S

    2012-08-20

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more "comfort food" (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to regulate satiety. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Some physiological and biochemical methods for acute and chronic stress evaluation in dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bertoni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress factors are so numerous and so diverse in their strength and duration that the consequences on animal welfare can be quite varied. The first important distinction concerns the characterization of acute and chronic stress conditions. Acute stress is a short-lived negative situation that allows a quick and quite complete recovery of the physiological balance (adaptation, while chronic stress is a long lasting condition from which the subject cannot fully recover (maladaptation. In the latter case, the direct effects of the stress factors (heat, low energy, anxiety, suffering etc., as well as the indirect ones (changes occurring at endocrinological, immune system or function level can be responsible for pre-pathological or pathological consequences which reduce animal welfare. To evaluate the possible chronic stress conditions in single animals or on a farm (in particular a farm of dairy cows, some parameters of the direct or indirect effects can be utilised. They are physiological (mainly hormone changes: cortisol, β-endorphin, behavioural (depression, biochemical (metabolites, acute phase proteins, glycated proteins etc., as well as performance parameters (growing rate, milk yield, fertility, etc.. Special attention has been paid to the interpretation of cortisol levels and to its changes after an ACTH challenge. Despite fervent efforts, well established and accepted indices of chronic stress (distress are currently lacking; but without this objective evaluation, the assessment of animal welfare and, therefore, the optimization of the livestock production, could prove more difficult.

  12. Acute Psychosocial Stress and Emotion Regulation Skills Modulate Empathic Reactions to Pain in Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele eBuruck

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Psychosocial stress affects resources for adequate coping with environmental demands. A crucial question in this context is the extent to which acute psychosocial stressors impact empathy and emotion regulation. In the present study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to a control group vs. a group confronted with the Trier Social Stress Test, an established paradigm for the induction of acute psychosocial stress. Empathy for pain as a specific subgroup of empathy was assessed via pain intensity ratings during a pain-picture task. Self-reported emotion regulation skills were measured as predictors using an established questionnaire. Stressed individuals scored significantly lower on the appraisal of pain pictures. A regression model was chosen to find variables that further predict the pain ratings. These findings implicate that acute psychosocial stress might impair empathic processes to observed pain in another person and the ability to accept one’s emotion additionally predicts the empathic reaction. Furthermore, the ability to tolerate negative emotions modulated the relation between stress and pain judgments, and thus influenced core cognitive-affective functions relevant for coping with environmental challenges. In conclusion, our study emphasizes the necessity of reducing negative emotions in terms of empathic distress when confronted with pain of another person under psychosocial stress, in order to be able to retain pro-social behavior.

  13. Acute stress and episodic memory retrieval: neurobiological mechanisms and behavioral consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Stephanie A; Wagner, Anthony D

    2016-04-01

    Episodic retrieval allows people to access memories from the past to guide current thoughts and decisions. In many real-world situations, retrieval occurs under conditions of acute stress, either elicited by the retrieval task or driven by other, unrelated concerns. Memory under such conditions may be hindered, as acute stress initiates a cascade of neuromodulatory changes that can impair episodic retrieval. Here, we review emerging evidence showing that dissociable stress systems interact over time, influencing neural function. In addition to the adverse effects of stress on hippocampal-dependent retrieval, we consider how stress biases attention and prefrontal cortical function, which could further affect controlled retrieval processes. Finally, we consider recent data indicating that stress at retrieval increases activity in a network of brain regions that enable reflexive, rapid responding to upcoming threats, while transiently taking offline regions supporting flexible, goal-directed thinking. Given the ubiquity of episodic memory retrieval in everyday life, it is critical to understand the theoretical and applied implications of acute stress. The present review highlights the progress that has been made, along with important open questions. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Leptin concentrations in response to acute stress predict subsequent intake of comfort foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, A. Janet; Schamarek, Imke; Lustig, Robert H.; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Puterman, Eli; Havel, Peter J.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2012-01-01

    Both animals and humans show a tendency toward eating more “comfort food” (high fat, sweet food) after acute stress. Such stress eating may be contributing to the obesity epidemic, and it is important to understand the underlying psychobiological mechanisms. Prior investigations have studied what makes individuals eat more after stress; this study investigates what might make individuals eat less. Leptin has been shown to increase following a laboratory stressor, and is known to affect eating behavior. This study examined whether leptin reactivity accounts for individual differences in stress eating. To test this, we exposed forty women to standardized acute psychological laboratory stress (Trier Social Stress Test) while blood was sampled repeatedly for measurements of plasma leptin. We then measured food intake after the stressor in 29 of these women. Increasing leptin during the stressor predicted lower intake of comfort food. These initial findings suggest that acute changes in leptin may be one of the factors modulating down the consumption of comfort food following stress. PMID:22579988

  15. Stress among nurses working in an acute hospital in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donnelly, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Stress among nurses leads to absenteeism, reduced efficiency, long-term health problems and a decrease in the quality of patient care delivered. A quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted. The study\\'s aim was to identify perceived stressors and influencing factors among nurses working in the critical and non-critical care practice areas. A convenience sample of 200 nurses were invited to complete the Bianchi Stress Questionnaire. Information was collected on demographics and daily nursing practice. Findings indicated that perceived stressors were similar in both groups. The most severe stressors included redeployment to work in other areas and staffing levels. Results from this study suggest that age, job title, professional experience and formal post-registration qualifications had no influence on stress perception. These results will increase awareness of nurses\\' occupational stress in Ireland.

  16. Altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with acute spinal cord injury revealed by resting-state functional MRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhu

    Full Text Available Previous neuroimaging studies have provided evidence of structural and functional reorganization of brain in patients with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI. However, it remains unknown whether the spontaneous brain activity changes in acute SCI. In this study, we investigated intrinsic brain activity in acute SCI patients using a regional homogeneity (ReHo analysis based on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging.A total of 15 patients with acute SCI and 16 healthy controls participated in the study. The ReHo value was used to evaluate spontaneous brain activity, and voxel-wise comparisons of ReHo were performed to identify brain regions with altered spontaneous brain activity between groups. We also assessed the associations between ReHo and the clinical scores in brain regions showing changed spontaneous brain activity.Compared with the controls, the acute SCI patients showed decreased ReHo in the bilateral primary motor cortex/primary somatosensory cortex, bilateral supplementary motor area/dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex, right inferior frontal gyrus, bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral caudate; and increased ReHo in bilateral precuneus, the left inferior parietal lobe, the left brainstem/hippocampus, the left cingulate motor area, bilateral insula, bilateral thalamus and bilateral cerebellum. The average ReHo values of the left thalamus and right insula were negatively correlated with the international standards for the neurological classification of spinal cord injury motor scores.Our findings indicate that acute distant neuronal damage has an immediate impact on spontaneous brain activity. In acute SCI patients, the ReHo was prominently altered in brain regions involved in motor execution and cognitive control, default mode network, and which are associated with sensorimotor compensatory reorganization. Abnormal ReHo values in the left thalamus and right insula could serve as potential biomarkers for

  17. Acute exercise induced oxidative stress is prevented in erythrocytes of male long distance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Gunal; F Akcay; Gul, M.; S Taysi; Dane, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the redox status in blood of long distance running athletes if it is favourably affected, and help to prevent acute exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen sedentary males and 20 male long distance runners, volunteered to participate in this study. Acute exercise was applied as treadmill run, which was continued until the heart rate of the subject has reached 80-90% of the maximum and stopped after 5 min. Acute exercise increased the hematocrit per...

  18. Acute psychosocial stress differentially influences salivary endocrine and immune measures in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Jay; Bravo, Yesika; Cole, Jennifer; Gobeil, Kyle

    2012-10-10

    Undergraduate students routinely experience acute psychosocial stress when interviewing for post-collegiate employment. While numerous studies have demonstrated that acute stress can increase release of immune-relevant molecules in blood, fewer studies have examined if acute stress also increases immune-relevant molecules into saliva. Saliva, and the biomolecules found in saliva often serve important immune defense roles and can be used to non-invasively screen for many systemic diseases. Therefore, the current study examined saliva concentrations of endocrine and immune molecules following exposure to an acute psychosocial stressor (mock job interview) in undergraduates. Heart rate, blood pressure, salivary cortisol, salivary immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA), and salivary C-reactive protein (S-CRP) were compared in healthy college undergraduates (n=15) before and after completion of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). The TSST induced significant increases in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and salivary cortisol. Additional analyses revealed a non-significant (p=0.1) increase in the level of S-IgA following the TSST. A significant decrease in S-IgA was observed during the recovery period. No change in S-CRP was observed following the TSST. These results suggest that acute stress experienced by undergraduates when interviewing for a job activates the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and that cortisol levels increase in saliva. Stress-induced elevations in cortisol might be responsible for the decreased S-IgA observed following the recovery period. Collectively, these data provide further insight into the interaction between psychosocial stress, endocrine, and immune functioning. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Does airway pressure release ventilation alter lung function after acute lung injury?

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    Smith, R A; Smith, D B

    1995-03-01

    During airway pressure release ventilation (APRV), tidal ventilation occurs between the increased lung volume established by the application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and the relaxation volume of the respiratory system. Concern has been expressed that release of CPAP may cause unstable alveoli to collapse and not reinflate when airway pressure is restored. To compare pulmonary mechanics and oxygenation in animals with acute lung injury during CPAP with and without APRV. Experimental, subject-controlled, randomized crossover investigation. Anesthesiology research laboratory, University of South Florida College of Medicine Health Sciences Center. Ten pigs of either sex. Acute lung injury was induced with an intravenous infusion of oleic acid (72 micrograms/kg) followed by randomly alternated 60-min trials of CPAP with and without APRV. Continuous positive airway pressure was titrated to produce an arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation of at least 95% (FIO2 = 0.21). Airway pressure release ventilation was arbitrarily cycled to atmospheric pressure 10 times per minute with a release time titrated to coincide with attainment of respiratory system relaxation volume. Cardiac output, arterial and mixed venous pH, blood gas tensions, hemoglobin concentration and oxyhemoglobin saturation, central venous pressure, pulmonary and systemic artery pressures, pulmonary artery occlusion pressure, airway gas flow, airway pressure, and pleural pressure were measured. Tidal volume (VT), dynamic lung compliance, intrapulmonary venous admixture, pulmonary vascular resistance, systemic vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, oxygen consumption, and oxygen extraction ratio were calculated. Central venous infusion of oleic acid reduced PaO2 from 94 +/- 4 mm Hg to 52 +/- 9 mm Hg (mean +/- 1 SD) (p arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (96.6 +/- 1.4% vs 96.9 +/- 1.3%) did not. Intrapulmonary venous admixture (9 +/- 3% vs 11 +/- 5%) and oxygen delivery (469 +/- 67 mL/min vs 479

  20. Indication of attenuated DHEA-s response during acute psychosocial stress in patients with clinical burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Sjörs, Anna; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2015-08-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-s) is an anabolic protective hormone. We have previously reported that DHEA-s production capacity is attenuated in stressed individuals. The aim of the present study was to investigate the DHEA-s response during acute psychosocial stress in patients with clinical burnout. Seventeen patients with clinical burnout were compared to 13 non-chronically stressed healthy controls, aged 31-50 years (mean age 41 years, SD 6 years), as they underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). All patients fulfilled diagnostic criteria for stress-related exhaustion disorder, which is a criteria-based diagnosis that has been used in Sweden since 2005 to define patients seeking health-care for clinical burnout. Blood samples were collected before, directly after the stress test, and after 30 min of recovery. DHEA-s levels were measured and delta values (peak levels minus baseline levels) plus area under the curve with respect to increase (AUCI) were calculated. The patients had 43% smaller AUCI DHEA-s (p=0.041) during the stress test. The delta DHEA-s was 34% lower in the patients, however, this difference was not statistically significant (p=0.054). The study indicates that DHEA-s production capacity during acute stress may be attenuated in patients with clinical burnout. Reduced DHEA-s production may constitute one of the links between stress, burnout and the associated adverse health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute stress blocks the caffeine-induced enhancement of contextual memory retrieval in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierard, Chistophe; Krazem, Ali; Henkous, Nadia; Decorte, Laurence; Béracochéa, Daniel

    2015-08-15

    This study investigated in mice the dose-effect of caffeine on memory retrieval in non-stress and stress conditions. C57 Bl/6 Jico mice learned two consecutive discriminations (D1 and D2) in a four-hole board which involved either distinct contextual (CSD) or similar contextual (SSD) cues. All mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or caffeine (8, 16 or 32mg/kg) 30min before the test session. Results showed that in non-stress conditions, the 16mg/kg caffeine dose induced a significant enhancement of D1 performance in CSD but not in SSD. Hence, we studied the effect of an acute stress (electric footshocks) administered 15min before the test session on D1 performance in caffeine-treated mice. Results showed that stress significantly decreased D1 performance in vehicle-treated controls and the memory-enhancing effect induced by the 16mg/kg caffeine dose in non-stress condition is no longer observed. Interestingly, whereas caffeine-treated mice exhibited weaker concentrations of plasma corticosterone as compared to vehicles in non-stress condition, stress significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentrations in caffeine-treated mice which reached similar level to that of controls. Overall, the acute stress blocked both the endocrinological and memory retrieval enhancing effects of caffeine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Oxidative Stress and Erythrocyte Membrane Alterations in Children with Autism: Correlation with Clinical Features.

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    Alessandro Ghezzo

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathogenesis of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD, but the literature reports somewhat contradictory results. To further investigate the issue, we evaluated a high number of peripheral oxidative stress parameters, and some related issues such as erythrocyte membrane functional features and lipid composition. Twenty-one autistic children (Au aged 5 to 12 years, were gender and age-matched with 20 typically developing children (TD. Erythrocyte thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, urinary isoprostane and hexanoyl-lysine adduct levels were elevated in Au, thus confirming the occurrence of an imbalance of the redox status of Au, whilst other oxidative stress markers or associated parameters (urinary 8-oxo-dG, plasma radical absorbance capacity and carbonyl groups, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were unchanged. A very significant reduction of Na(+/K(+-ATPase activity (-66%, p<0.0001, a reduction of erythrocyte membrane fluidity and alteration in erythrocyte fatty acid membrane profile (increase in monounsaturated fatty acids, decrease in EPA and DHA-ω3 with a consequent increase in ω6/ω3 ratio were found in Au compared to TD, without change in membrane sialic acid content. Some Au clinical features appear to be correlated with these findings; in particular, hyperactivity score appears to be related with some parameters of the lipidomic profile and membrane fluidity. Oxidative stress and erythrocyte membrane alterations may play a role in the pathogenesis of ASD and prompt the development of palliative therapeutic protocols. Moreover, the marked decrease in NKA could be potentially utilized as a peripheral biomarker of ASD.

  3. ABA pretreatment can alter the distribution of polysomes in salt-stressed barley sprouts

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    Szypulska Ewa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed caryopses of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Stratus. Caryopses were germinated in darkness at 20°C in three experimental setups: (a in distilled water for 24 hours, followed by 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (salinity stress, SS, (b in 100 μM of abscisic acid for the first 24 hours, followed by rinsing with distilled water to remove residual ABA, and in 100 mM NaCl for another 24 hours (ABA pretreatment + salinity stress, ABAS, (c in distilled water only (control, C. Changes in the content of free polysomes (FP, membrane-bound polysomes (MBP, cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (CBP and cytomatrix-bound polysomes (CMBP were examined in barley sprouts germinated in SS and ABAS treatments for 48 hours. In salt-stressed barley sprouts, the concentrations of membrane-bound and cytoskeleton-bound polysomes (MBP, CBP and CMBP decreased significantly, whereas an increase was noted only in the free polysome (FP fraction. ABA pretreatment altered the distribution of polysomes in stressed plants. The content of cytoskeletonbound polysomes (CBP and CMBP increased, FP levels decreased, whereas no changes in MBP content were observed in response to ABA treatment. Our results suggest that plants respond to salt stress by increasing the concentrations of free polysomes that are probably released from damaged cell structures, mainly membranes. Our present and previous findings indicate that ABA could inhibit the release of FP in stressed plants by enhancing polysome binding to the cytoskeleton.

  4. Dynamic microglial alterations underlie stress-induced depressive-like behavior and suppressed neurogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreisel, T; Frank, M G; Licht, T; Reshef, R; Ben-Menachem-Zidon, O; Baratta, M V; Maier, S F; Yirmiya, R

    2014-06-01

    The limited success in understanding the pathophysiology of major depression may result from excessive focus on the dysfunctioning of neurons, as compared with other types of brain cells. Therefore, we examined the role of dynamic alterations in microglia activation status in the development of chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced depressive-like condition in rodents. We report that following an initial period (2-3 days) of stress-induced microglial proliferation and activation, some microglia underwent apoptosis, leading to reductions in their numbers within the hippocampus, but not in other brain regions, following 5 weeks of CUS exposure. At that time, microglia displayed reduced expression of activation markers as well as dystrophic morphology. Blockade of the initial stress-induced microglial activation by minocycline or by transgenic interleukin-1 receptor antagonist overexpression rescued the subsequent microglial apoptosis and decline, as well as the CUS-induced depressive-like behavior and suppressed neurogenesis. Similarly, the antidepressant drug imipramine blocked the initial stress-induced microglial activation as well as the CUS-induced microglial decline and depressive-like behavior. Treatment of CUS-exposed mice with either endotoxin, macrophage colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, all of which stimulated hippocampal microglial proliferation, partially or completely reversed the depressive-like behavior and dramatically increased hippocampal neurogenesis, whereas treatment with imipramine or minocycline had minimal or no anti-depressive effects, respectively, in these mice. These findings provide direct causal evidence that disturbances in microglial functioning has an etiological role in chronic stress-induced depression, suggesting that microglia stimulators could serve as fast-acting anti-depressants in some forms of depressive and stress-related conditions.

  5. Protective effect of Habenaria intermedia tubers against acute and chronic physical and psychological stress paradigms in rats

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    PV Habbu

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic activity of ethanol (EtHI, ethyl acetate (EAHI fractions of Habenaria intermedia D. Don, Orchidaceae (HI, tubers using immobilization induced acute stress (AS, chronic stress (CS and swimming induced stress in experimental animals. The tested doses of EtHI (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. and higher dose of EAHI (200 mg/kg, p.o. normalized altered serum biochemical parameters and the severity of ulcers in both AS and CS. EAHI and EtHI restored the hyperthrophy of adrenal gland and atrophy of spleen and thymus gland in AS and CS. Greater swimming time was noted in the mice pretreated with EtHI and EAHI. Levels of adrenal ascorbic acid and cortisol were restored significantly. EAHI exhibited prominent scavenging effect of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation in vitro. Phytochemical studies resulted in the isolation of scopoletin and gallic acid as marker compounds. Our results proved the traditional claim of HI as anti-stress/adaptogen in Ayurvdea.

  6. Protective effect of Habenaria intermedia tubers against acute and chronic physical and psychological stress paradigms in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PV Habbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the adaptogenic activity of ethanol (EtHI, ethyl acetate (EAHI fractions of Habenaria intermedia D. Don, Orchidaceae (HI, tubers using immobilization induced acute stress (AS, chronic stress (CS and swimming induced stress in experimental animals. The tested doses of EtHI (100 and 200 mg/kg, p.o. and higher dose of EAHI (200 mg/kg, p.o. normalized altered serum biochemical parameters and the severity of ulcers in both AS and CS. EAHI and EtHI restored the hyperthrophy of adrenal gland and atrophy of spleen and thymus gland in AS and CS. Greater swimming time was noted in the mice pretreated with EtHI and EAHI. Levels of adrenal ascorbic acid and cortisol were restored significantly. EAHI exhibited prominent scavenging effect of DPPH, hydroxyl radical and lipid peroxidation in vitro. Phytochemical studies resulted in the isolation of scopoletin and gallic acid as marker compounds. Our results proved the traditional claim of HI as anti-stress/adaptogen in Ayurvdea.

  7. Carbamazepine normalizes the altered behavioral and neurochemical response to stress in benzodiazepine-withdrawn rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martijena, I D; Lacerra, C; Molina, V A

    1997-07-09

    Rats chronically treated with diazepam (2 mg/kg per day, i.p.) for 21 days were tested 96 h after the last injection in both the forced swim test (inescapable stress) and in an active avoidance test (escapable stress). The influence of carbamazepine (7.5 mg/kg, i.p.) administered 25 min prior to each behavioral task was investigated. Withdrawn animals showed a reduced time spent in immobility in the forced swim test and an enhanced latency to escape in the active avoidance test. Both behavioral effects were normalized by a single carbamazepine administration. An additional experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a forced swim experience on cortical chloride uptake following GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) stimulation 96 h after diazepam withdrawal, and the influence of a single administration of carbamazepine on these effects. An increased chloride uptake was observed in vehicle-treated rats but not in diazepam-withdrawn animals following the swimming experience. Carbamazepine pretreatment enhanced chloride uptake after diazepam withdrawal but did not modify chloride flux in stressed or unstressed vehicle-treated rats. These results support the hypothesis that diazepam withdrawal affects the ability to develop adaptive responses to stress and that carbamazepine can normalize such an alteration.

  8. Alteration in Bone Mineral Metabolism in Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL: A Review

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    Chowdhury Yakub Jamal

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a significant increase in event free survival (EFS and overall survival in children with cancer. As survival rates for childhood cancer have radically improved, late effects associated with the successful but highly intensive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy have dramatically increased. Many possible late effects of cancer treatment are recognized in pediatric cancer patients as infertility, endocrine deficiency, renal failure, pulmonary and cardiac toxicity, obesity and osteopenia/osteoporosis. Decreased bone mineral density (BMD and bone metabolism disturbances have been recognized and reported in literature. Osteopenia/osteoporosis skeletal abnormalities, osteonecrosis and pathological fractures are known to occur frequently in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at diagnosis, during and after treatment with chemotherapy. Various studies have revealed different metabolic alterations related to ALL. Some suggestions have been made about their relationship with the disease process. Various metabolic abnormalities may be encountered in the newly diagnosed ALL patients. It includes decreased and increased serum levels of calcium and phosphate. Hypercalcemia may result from leukemic infiltrations of bone and release of parathormone like substance from lymphoblast. Elevated serum phosphate can occur as a result of leukemic cell lysis and may induce hypocalcemia. It has been postulated by other authors that leukemic cells may directly infiltrate bone and produce parathroid hormone related peptides, prostaglandin E and osteoblast inhibiting factors. Hypomagnesemia, hypocalcaemia and hypothyroidisum have been demonstrated in patients with ALL. Some patients may have poor nutrition and decreased physical activities during treatment. However postulations have also been made that chemotherapy may play a role in creating metabolic alterations in children with ALL. Corticosteroid, methotraxate and cranial irradiations

  9. Alterations in transmural strains adjacent to ischemic myocardium during acute midcircumflex occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Filiberto; Langer, Frank; Harrington, Katherine B; Cheng, Allen; Daughters, George T; Criscione, John C; Ingels, Neil B; Miller, D Craig

    2005-04-01

    Helically oriented left ventricular fibers assemble into transmural sheets, which are important for wall-thickening mechanics: 15% fiber shortening results in 40% cross-fiber left ventricular wall thickening and a 60% ejection fraction through sheet extension, thickening, and shear. Normal cardiac microstructure and strains are optimized; deviations could result in apoptosis and deleterious matrix remodeling, which degenerates into global cardiomyopathy. We studied alterations in transmural strains adjacent to ischemic myocardium during acute midcircumflex occlusion. Nine sheep had radiopaque markers implanted to measure left ventricular systolic fractional area shortening; 3 transmural bead columns were inserted into the midlateral wall for strain analysis. Three-dimensional marker coordinates were obtained with biplane videofluoroscopy before and during 70 seconds of ischemia. Systolic strains were quantified along circumferential, longitudinal, and radial axes (n = 9) and were transformed into fiber-sheet coordinates by using quantitative microstructural measurements (n = 5). A functional border was defined in the midlateral left ventricle; ischemia decreased posterolateral fractional area shortening, and anterolateral fractional area shortening increased. In this demarcation junction, subepicardial end-systolic radial wall thickening decreased (0.16 +/- 0.08 vs 0.11 +/- 0.06) and sheet-normal shear was abolished (0.08 +/- 0.04 vs -0.01 +/- 0.03). Longitudinal shortening decreased in the subepicardium and midwall (-0.05 +/- 0.04 vs +/- -0.01 +/- 0.06), but circumferential-radial shear increased at these depths (0.04 +/- 0.04 vs 0.11 +/- 0.05). Subendocardial fiber stretch occurred during early systole (-0.01 +/- 0.03 vs 0.02 +/- 0.03), and end-systolic fiber-sheet shear increased (0.07 +/- 0.01 vs 0.11 +/- 0.04, all P < .05). Increased circumferential-radial shear and altered fiber-sheet strains reflect mechanical interactions between ischemic and nonischemic

  10. DHEA and DHEA-S response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, Anna-Karin; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H

    2012-05-01

    This study investigates the effect of acute psychosocial stress on serum concentrations of DHEA and DHEA-S in healthy men and women. Twenty men and 19 women (age 30-50 years) underwent Trier Social Stress Test (TSST). Physiological measurements were performed before, directly after the stress test and after 30 mins of recovery. In both men and women, significantly elevated DHEA and DHEA-S levels were observed in response to the stressor. There was a large inter-individual variation in the magnitude of the response, especially for DHEA but no statistical difference between men and women. Magnitude of the change in the levels of DHEA was found to be positively associated with the magnitude of the changes in ACTH, cortisol and heart rate. Furthermore, the results of this study suggest that the capacity to secrete DHEA and DHEA-S during acute psychosocial stress declines with age. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effects of cortisol increase on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.T.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    In this study the effects of stress-induced cortisol increases on long-term memory retrieval during and after acute psychosocial stress were examined. Seventy male students were exposed to either a psychosocial stress task or to a non-stressful control task. During and after this task, retrieval was

  12. Low-Grade Inflammation and Ambulatory Cortisol in Adolescents: Interaction Between Interviewer-Rated Versus Self-Rated Acute Stress and Chronic Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Hannah M C; Chen, Edith

    To determine whether the association between self-rated or interviewer-rated recent acute stress exposures and low-grade inflammation and daily cortisol production in adolescents is moderated by chronic stress ratings. Acute and chronic stress exposures were assessed in 261 adolescents aged 13 to 16 years using a semistructured life stress interview. The negative impact of acute stressors was independently rated by both adolescents (self-rated) and interviewers (interviewer-rated). Markers of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1ra, C-reactive protein) were measured from peripheral blood samples obtained via antecubital venipuncture. Participants collected 4 saliva samples at home on each of 6 consecutive days for the analysis of diurnal salivary cortisol profiles. There were no main effects of acute stressors (self- and interviewer-rated) and chronic family or peer stress on adolescent inflammation markers and cortisol (p values > .10). However, the interaction between interviewer-rated acute stress and chronic family stress was significantly associated with adolescent inflammation markers (IL-6, IL-1ra). Specifically, as chronic family stress increased, the association between acute stressor impact (interviewer-rated) and inflammation markers became more positive (IL-6 (B = .054, SE = .023, p = .022); IL-1ra (B = .030, SE = .014, p = .034)). Interactions between self-rated acute stress and chronic family stress were not associated with any biological measures (p values > .10). Interactions between acute stressor impact (both self- and interviewer-rated) and chronic peer stress were also not significantly associated with any biological measures (p values > .05). Among adolescents, interviewer-based ratings of acute stressor impact may allow for better prediction of health-relevant inflammation markers than adolescents' own ratings.

  13. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

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    Homa Sheikhani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group or body building (resistance group volunteered to participate in the present study. Track and field athletes (n = 20 were requested to run 8 km at 60% to 70% of maximum heart rate. Body building athletes (n = 20 performed a resistance training session of 5 exercises in 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1 RM (bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl, and leg press. Before and immediately after the exercise, plasma BNP levels of both groups of athletes were measured by PATHFASTTM NT-proBNP assay, an immunochemiluminescent assay using two polyclonal antibodies in sandwich test format, on a PATHFASTTM automated analyzer. Results: Plasma BNP levels immediately following exercise increased significantly as compared with baseline values. Plasma BNP concentrations in the aerobic group were significantly higher than in the resistance group before and after exercise. Moreover, the increase in mean BNP concentrations in aerobic athletes was 7 times more than in resistance athletes. Conclusions: BNP levels in athlete who performed distance exercises increased significantly compared with resistance training. Possibly exercise program type, intensity of exercise, volume of exercise program, and field sport can be factors of changes in BNP levels

  14. Tryptophan pathway alterations in the postpartum period and in acute postpartum psychosis and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veen, Cato; Myint, Aye Mu; Burgerhout, Karin M; Schwarz, Markus J; Schütze, Gregor; Kushner, Steven A; Hoogendijk, Witte J; Drexhage, Hemmo A; Bergink, Veerle

    2016-01-01

    Women are at very high risk for the first onset of acute and severe mood disorders the first weeks after delivery. Tryptophan breakdown is increased as a physiological phenomenon of the postpartum period and might lead to vulnerability for affective psychosis (PP) and severe depression (PD). The aim of the current study was to investigate alterations in tryptophan breakdown in the physiological postpartum period compared to patients with severe postpartum mood disorders. We included 52 patients (29 with PP, 23 with PD), 52 matched healthy postpartum women and 29 healthy non-postpartum women. Analyzes of serum tryptophan metabolites were performed using LC-MS/MS system for tryptophan, kynurenine, 3-hydroxykynurenine, kynurenic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. The first two months of the physiological postpartum period were characterized by low tryptophan levels, increased breakdown towards kynurenine and a downstream shift toward the 3-OH-kynurenine arm, away from the kynurenic acid arm. Kynurenine was significantly lower in patients with PP and PD as compared to healthy postpartum women (p=0.011 and p=0.001); the remaining tryptophan metabolites demonstrated few differences between patients and healthy postpartum women. Low prevalence of the investigated disorders and strict exclusion criteria to obtain homogenous groups, resulted in relatively small sample sizes. The high kynurenine levels and increased tryptophan breakdown as a phenomenon of the physiological postpartum period was not present in patients with severe postpartum mood disorders. No differences were observed in the levels of the 'neurotoxic' 3-OH-kynurenine and the 'neuroprotective' kynurenic acid arms between patients and healthy postpartum women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Landolt, Markus A; Zehnder, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined.Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traff...

  16. Graded stress radiography in acute injury to the lateral ligaments of the ankle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rijke, A.M.; Vierhout, P.A. (Virginia Univ., Charlottesville (USA). Dept. of Radiology Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Dept. of Surgery)

    1990-03-01

    The diagnostic accuracy of graded stress radiography in 26 patients with acute injury to the lateral ankle ligaments has been compared with findings at arthrography and surgery. Measuring talar tilt angles and anterior talar displacement over a range of pressures applied to the distal tibia using a commercially available stress device allows diagnostic distinction between isolated anterior talofibular ligament injury and a combined lesion that involves the calcaneofibular ligament. The results compare well with arthrographic and surgical findings. (orig.).

  17. Aerobic Fitness Level Affects Cardiovascular and Salivary Alpha Amylase Responses to Acute Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Thomas; Boesch, Maria; Roos, Lilian; Tschopp, Céline; Frei, Klaus M; Annen, Hubert; La Marca, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    Good physical fitness seems to help the individual to buffer the potential harmful impact of psychosocial stress on somatic and mental health. The aim of the present study is to investigate the role of physical fitness levels on the autonomic nervous system (ANS; i.e. heart rate and salivary alpha amylase) responses to acute psychosocial stress, while controlling for established factors influencing individual stress reactions. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G) was executed with 302 male recruits during their first week of Swiss Army basic training. Heart rate was measured continuously, and salivary alpha amylase was measured twice, before and after the stress intervention. In the same week, all volunteers participated in a physical fitness test and they responded to questionnaires on lifestyle factors and personal traits. A multiple linear regression analysis was conducted to determine ANS responses to acute psychosocial stress from physical fitness test performances, controlling for personal traits, behavioural factors, and socioeconomic data. Multiple linear regression revealed three variables predicting 15 % of the variance in heart rate response (area under the individual heart rate response curve during TSST-G) and four variables predicting 12 % of the variance in salivary alpha amylase response (salivary alpha amylase level immediately after the TSST-G) to acute psychosocial stress. A strong performance at the progressive endurance run (high maximal oxygen consumption) was a significant predictor of ANS response in both models: low area under the heart rate response curve during TSST-G as well as low salivary alpha amylase level after TSST-G. Further, high muscle power, non-smoking, high extraversion, and low agreeableness were predictors of a favourable ANS response in either one of the two dependent variables. Good physical fitness, especially good aerobic endurance capacity, is an important protective factor against health

  18. Acute pulmonary edema due to stress cardiomyopathy in a patient with aortic stenosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayer, Monika F

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Stress cardiomyopathy is a condition of chest pain, breathlessness, abnormal heart rhythms and sometimes congestive heart failure or shock precipitated by intense mental or physical stress. Case presentation A 64-year-old male with a known diagnosis of moderate-to-severe aortic stenosis and advised that valve replacement was not urgent, presented with acute pulmonary edema following extraordinary mental distress. The patient was misdiagnosed as having a "massive heart attack" and...

  19. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Wetherell, Mark; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-01-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework ...

  20. The effect of acute moderate psychological stress on working memory-related neural activity is modulated by a genetic variation in catecholaminergic function in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaozheng eQin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute stress has an important impact on higher-order cognitive functions supported by the prefrontal cortex (PFC such as working memory (WM. In rodents, such effects are mediated by stress-induced alterations in catecholaminergic signaling, but human data in support of this notion is lacking. A common variation in the gene encoding Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT is known to affect basal catecholaminergic availability and PFC functions. Here, we investigated whether this genetic variation (Val158Met modulates effects of stress on WM-related prefrontal activity in humans. In a counterbalanced crossover design, 41 healthy young men underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI while performing a numerical N-back WM task embedded in a stressful or neutral context. Moderate psychological stress was induced by a well-controlled procedure involving viewing strongly aversive (versus emotionally neutral movie material in combination with a self-referencing instruction. Acute stress resulted in genotype-dependent effects on WM performance and WM-related activation in the dorsolateral PFC, with a relatively negative impact of stress in COMT Met-homozygotes as opposed to a relatively positive effect in Val-carriers. A parallel interaction was found for WM-related deactivation in the anterior medial temporal lobe. Our findings suggest that individuals with higher baseline catecholaminergic availability (COMT Met-homozygotes appear to reach a supraoptimal state under moderate levels of stress. In contrast, individuals with lower baselines (Val-carriers may reach an optimal state. Thus, our data show that effects of acute stress on higher-order cognitive functions vary depending on catecholaminergic availability at baseline, and thereby corroborate animal models of catecholaminergic signaling that propose a non-linear relationship between catecholaminergic activity and prefrontal functions.

  1. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  2. Dissociating effects of acute photic stress on spatial, episodic-like and working memory in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passecker, Johannes; Barlow, Sally; O'Mara, Shane M

    2014-10-01

    Adaptively responding to acute stress has been of great importance for human and animal survival. However, for our species, stress-related disorders are putting an ever-increasing burden on healthcare systems. It is thus crucial to understand the basic processes and cognitive changes associated with acute stress. Here, we examined the effects of acute stress exposure on spatial (water maze) and memory (delayed match to sample and episodic-memory-like tasks) performance. We found striking performance deficits in stressed animals navigating in the water maze. We also found, in an episodic-like memory task, striking object-location deficits, but not in temporal-object association learning in stressed animals. Finally, no differences were apparent for any delay periods (up to 30s) in a delayed match to sample task. Taken together, these results show a strong differential effect of acute stress on differing memory processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Psychobiology of the acute stress response and its relationship to the psychobiology of post-traumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Randall D; Garakani, Amir

    2002-06-01

    The literature to date that examines the biology of the acute stress reactions suggests that relatively lower baseline cortisol is associated with the development of PTSD. This is particularly informative because of the ongoing controversy surrounding baseline cortisol in PTSD. Studies have found low baseline cortisol, normal range, and elevated baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD, and it has been unclear whether this reflects methodologic differences across studies or true heterogeneity within the disorder. Thus, the few studies to date support the finding of low-normal baseline cortisol in chronic PTSD and suggest that it is a pre-existing functional trait. Whether it plays an etiologic role or is an epiphenomenon of some other process is unclear. What does seem clear, however, is that this characteristic is relatively nonspecific to PTSD, given the fact that low cortisol has been observed in multiple subject populations, including normal individuals under chronic stress as well as chronic medical conditions (for review see [23]). For example, it is possible that reduced baseline cortisol reflects the net result of input to the hypothalamus from cortical and subcortical regions of the brain linked to increased vigilance, sensitization to trauma because of prior traumatic experiences, or genetic factors. For example, primate studies have demonstrated persistent alterations in HPA axis functioning in animals reared by mothers living in moderately stressful conditions [24]. The development of PTSD is associated with sensitization of the startle response. Because the neurobiology of startle is well characterized, this finding implicates a role for specific neurocircuitry in PTSD [25]. Non-habituation of the startle response in PTSD appears related to sensitization specifically to contextual cues (i.e., the environment) that signal the presence of potential threat of danger-related fears [26]. This may be the neurobiological correlate to the over-generalization seen in

  4. Oxidative stress and Kawasaki disease: how is oxidative stress involved from the acute stage to the chronic stage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahata, Tomoyo; Hamaoka, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely related. Further, oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathology of inflammation-based Kawasaki disease. An excessive in vivo production of reactive oxygen species increases oxidative stress in the body, which triggers an endless vicious spiral of inflammation reactions and reactive oxygen metabolites. This presumably forms diffuse vasculitis in the acute phase. Acute inflammation and oxidative stress can be rapidly controlled by treatments; however, they may remain for a long time. This has recently been identified as a problem in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease. Generally, the presence of vascular inflammation and oxidative stress impairs blood vessels, leading to the onset of atherosclerosis, which is a widely recognized risk. The current discussion focuses on whether the same is valid for blood vessels in the chronic phase of Kawasaki disease. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Genetic associations with acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Bouwman, Freek; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Mariman, Edwin; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2010-06-01

    Acute psychological stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger. To investigate if BclI and FTO polymorphisms are associated with eating in the absence of hunger as a result of acute psychological stress. FTO (rs9939609) and BclI were genotyped in 98 subjects (BMI=23.9+/-3.3kg/m(2)). In a randomized crossover design, the 'eating in absence of hunger' protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of STAI (State Trait Anxiety Index) state scores. In comparison with the FTO T allele, the A allele was associated with an increased feelings of hunger after food intake in the stress (11+/-10 vs. 18+/-15, pstress condition (30.8+/-6.4 vs. 36.3+/-8.2; 28.3+/-5.5 vs. 32.3+/-7.5; 27.7+/-6.1 vs. 31.2+/-7.5, pstress and control condition, in comparison with the BclI C/C genotype (136.6+/-220.4 vs. 29.4+/-176.3kJ, phunger after a standardized meal. For the first time, the BclI G/G genotype is shown to be associated with increased sensitivity to psychological stress, and increased eating in the absence of hunger after stress. Interventions to reduce body weight should consider the subjects' genetic background. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute Stress Fracture of the Pelvis after Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinbo, Oluwaseun; Tyagi, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acute hip pain following total hip arthroplasty (THA) could have numerous causes to include stress fracture of the pelvis. Stress fractures of the pelvis are rare and have been reported to involve the medial wall and the pubic ramus. A unique case is presented demonstrating the clinical presentation and management of an acute stress fracture of ilium and anterior column following a THA. A 72-year-old man underwent an uncomplicated right THA. He was noted to have femoral head resorption and thin osteoporotic bone intraoperatively. He initially did well postoperatively and ambulating without pain or assistive devices. Within 1 month of surgery, he returned with acute right hip pain without any traumatic event. Radiographs showed migration of the acetabular component and computed tomography scan confirmed a fracture through the ilium. The patient underwent revision surgery, where the fracture was reduced and internal fixation was achieved with a reconstruction plate and acetabular cage construct. At 9 months postoperatively, the patient remained pain-free with full weight bearing and with stable radiographs. Elderly patients who undergo THA may have low bone mineral density. These patients can develop stress fractures in their pelvis after surgery. These fractures may involve the medial wall, posterior column, or posterior wall. In patients who develop atraumatic pain postoperatively, it is important to consider for potential stress fractures of the ilium and evaluate appropriately with imaging. In these cases, revision surgery can be necessary to provide fixation of the stress fracture.

  7. High glucose alters retinal astrocytes phenotype through increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eui Seok Shin

    Full Text Available Astrocytes are macroglial cells that have a crucial role in development of the retinal vasculature and maintenance of the blood-retina-barrier (BRB. Diabetes affects the physiology and function of retinal vascular cells including astrocytes (AC leading to breakdown of BRB. However, the detailed cellular mechanisms leading to retinal AC dysfunction under high glucose conditions remain unclear. Here we show that high glucose conditions did not induce the apoptosis of retinal AC, but instead increased their rate of DNA synthesis and adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. These alterations were associated with changes in intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell survival, migration and proliferation. High glucose conditions also affected the expression of inflammatory cytokines in retinal AC, activated NF-κB, and prevented their network formation on Matrigel. In addition, we showed that the attenuation of retinal AC migration under high glucose conditions, and capillary morphogenesis of retinal endothelial cells on Matrigel, was mediated through increased oxidative stress. Antioxidant proteins including heme oxygenase-1 and peroxiredoxin-2 levels were also increased in retinal AC under high glucose conditions through nuclear localization of transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2. Together our results demonstrated that high glucose conditions alter the function of retinal AC by increased production of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress with significant impact on their proliferation, adhesion, and migration.

  8. Embryo-larval exposure to atrazine reduces viability and alters oxidative stress parameters in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Aguiar, Lais Mattos de; Rosa, Carlos Eduardo da

    2017-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine has been used worldwide with subsequent residual contamination of water and food, which may cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Animal exposure to this herbicide may affect development, reproduction and energy metabolism. Here, the effects of atrazine regarding survival and redox metabolism were assessed in the fruit fly D. melanogaster exposed during embryonic and larval development. The embryos (newly fertilized eggs) were exposed to different atrazine concentrations (10μM and 100μM) in the diet until the adult fly emerged. Pupation and emergence rates, developmental time and sex ratio were determined as well as oxidative stress parameters and gene expression of the antioxidant defence system were evaluated in newly emerged male and female flies. Atrazine exposure reduced pupation and emergence rates in fruit flies without alterations to developmental time and sex ratio. Different redox imbalance patterns were observed between males and females exposed to atrazine. Atrazine caused an increase in oxidative damage, reactive oxygen species generation and antioxidant capacity and decreased thiol-containing molecules. Further, atrazine exposure altered the mRNA expression of antioxidant genes (keap1, sod, sod2, cat, irc, gss, gclm, gclc, trxt, trxr-1 and trxr-2). Reductions in fruit fly larval and pupal viability observed here are likely consequences of the oxidative stress induced by atrazine exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Time course of systemic oxidative stress and inflammatory response induced by an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchini, T.; Magnani, N.D. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Paz, M.L. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Vanasco, V. [Cátedra de Química General e Inorgánica, Instituto de Bioquímica y Medicina Molecular (IBIMOL UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); Tasat, D. [CESyMA, Facultad de Ciencia Tecnología, Universidad Nacional de General San Martín, Martín de Irigoyen 3100, 1650 San Martín, Buenos Aires (Argentina); González Maglio, D.H. [Cátedra de Inmunología, Instituto de Estudios de la Inmunidad Humoral (IDEHU UBA-CONICET), Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Junín 954, C1113AAB Buenos Aires (Argentina); and others

    2014-01-15

    It is suggested that systemic oxidative stress and inflammation play a central role in the onset and progression of cardiovascular diseases associated with the exposure to particulate matter (PM). The aim of this work was to evaluate the time changes of systemic markers of oxidative stress and inflammation, after an acute exposure to Residual Oil Fly Ash (ROFA). Female Swiss mice were intranasally instilled with a ROFA suspension (1.0 mg/kg body weight) or saline solution, and plasma levels of oxidative damage markers [thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARSs) and protein carbonyls], antioxidant status [reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione, ascorbic acid levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity], cytokines levels, and intravascular leukocyte activation were evaluated after 1, 3 or 5 h of exposure. Oxidative damage to lipids and decreased GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in ROFA-exposed mice as early as 1 h. Afterwards, increased protein oxidation, decreased ascorbic acid content and SOD activity were found in this group at 3 h. The onset of an adaptive response was observed at 5 h after the ROFA exposure, as indicated by decreased TBARS plasma content and increased SOD activity. The observed increase in oxidative damage to plasma macromolecules, together with systemic antioxidants depletion, may be a consequence of a systemic inflammatory response triggered by the ROFA exposure, since increased TNF-α and IL-6 plasma levels and polymorphonuclear leukocytes activation was found at every evaluated time point. These findings contribute to the understanding of the increase in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, in association with environmental PM inhalation. - Highlights: • An acute exposure to ROFA triggers the occurrence of systemic oxidative stress. • Changes in plasmatic oxidative stress markers appear as early as 1 h after exposure. • ROFA induces proinflammatory cytokines release and intravascular leukocyte activation. • PMN

  10. Impact of acute psychosocial stress on peripheral blood gene expression pathways in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nater, Urs M; Whistler, Toni; Lonergan, William; Mletzko, Tanja; Vernon, Suzanne D; Heim, Christine

    2009-10-01

    We investigated peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression responses to acute psychosocial stress to identify molecular pathways relevant to the stress response. Blood samples were obtained from 10 healthy male subjects before, during and after (at 0, 30, and 60 min) a standardized psychosocial laboratory stressor. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted and gene expression measured by hybridization to a 20,000-gene microarray. Gene Set Expression Comparisons (GSEC) using defined pathways were used for the analysis. Forty-nine pathways were significantly changed from baseline to immediately after the stressor (p<0.05), implicating cell cycle, cell signaling, adhesion and immune responses. The comparison between stress and recovery (measured 30 min later) identified 36 pathways, several involving stress-responsive signaling cascades and cellular defense mechanisms. These results have relevance for understanding molecular mechanisms of the physiological stress response, and might be used to further study adverse health outcomes of psychosocial stress.

  11. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  12. Relationship between cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers: Exploring multiple mediation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wen-Peng; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Shui-Miao; Wei, Cun; Dong, Wei; Deng, Guang-Hui

    2017-10-01

    The current study aimed to explore the association of cognitive emotion regulation, social support, resilience and acute stress responses in Chinese soldiers and to understand the multiple mediation effects of social support and resilience on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. A total of 1477 male soldiers completed mental scales, including the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire-Chinese version, the perceived social support scale, the Chinese version of the Connor-Davidson resilience scale, and the military acute stress scale. As hypothesized, physiological responses, psychological responses, and acute stress were associated with negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation, and negatively associated with positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social supports and resilience. Besides, positive-focused cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience were significantly associated with one another, and negative-focused cognitive emotion regulation was negatively associated with social support. Regression analysis and bootstrap analysis showed that social support and resilience had partly mediating effects on negative strategies and acute stress, and fully mediating effects on positive strategies and acute stress. These results thus indicate that military acute stress is significantly associated with cognitive emotion regulation, social support, and resilience, and that social support and resilience have multiple mediation effects on the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation and acute stress responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute stress-related changes in eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutters, Femke; Nieuwenhuizen, Arie G; Lemmens, Sofie G T; Born, Jurriaan M; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2009-01-01

    Obesity results from chronic deregulation of energy balance, which may in part be caused by stress. Our objective was to investigate the effect of acute and psychological stress on food intake, using the eating in the absence of hunger paradigm, in normal and overweight men and women (while taking dietary restraint and disinhibition into account). In 129 subjects (BMI = 24.5 +/- 3.4 kg/m(2) and age = 27.6 +/- 8.8 years), scores were determined on the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (dietary restraint = 7.2 +/- 4.4; disinhibition = 4.5 +/- 2.6; feeling of hunger = 3.9 +/- 2.6) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (trait score = 31.7 +/- 24.2). In a randomized crossover design, the "eating in absence of hunger" protocol was measured as a function of acute stress vs. a control task and of state anxiety scores. Energy intake from sweet foods (708.1 kJ vs. 599.4 kJ, P stress condition compared to the control condition. Differences in energy intake between the stress and control condition were a function of increase in state anxiety scores during the stress task (Delta state anxiety scores) (R(2) = 0.05, P stress is associated with eating in the absence of hunger, especially in vulnerable individuals characterized by disinhibited eating behavior and sensitivity to chronic stress.

  14. Alterations in Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitophagy in Subjects with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhansali, Shipra; Bhansali, Anil; Walia, Rama; Saikia, Uma Nahar; Dhawan, Veena

    2017-01-01

    Hyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress impedes cell-reparative process like autophagy, which has been implicated in impairment of β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, the role of mitophagy (selective mitochondrial autophagy) in progression of hyperglycemia remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the impact of increasing severity of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial stress and mitophagy. A case-control study included healthy controls, subjects with prediabetes, newly diagnosed T2DM (NDT2DM) and advanced duration of T2DM (ADT2DM) (n = 20 each). Mitochondrial stress indices, transcriptional and translational expression of mitophagy markers (PINK1, PARKIN, MFN2, NIX, LC3-II, and LAMP-2) and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies were performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. With mild hyperglycemia in subjects with prediabetes, to moderate to severe hyperglycemia in NDT2DM and ADT2DM, a progressive rise in mitochondrial oxidative stress was observed. Prediabetic subjects exhibited significantly increased expression of mitophagy-related markers and showed a positive association with HOMA-β, whereas, patients with NDT2DM and ADT2DM demonstrated decreased expression, with a greater decline in ADT2DM subjects. TEM studies revealed significantly reduced number of distorted mitochondria in prediabetics, as compared to the T2DM patients. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed HbA1C > 7% (53 mmol/mol) was associated with attenuated mitophagy. Increasing hyperglycemia is associated with progressive rise in oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial morphology. Sustenance of mitophagy at HbA1C < 7% (53 mmol/mol) strengthens the rationale of achieving HbA1C below this cutoff for good glycemic control. An "adaptive" increase in mitophagy may delay progression to T2DM by preserving the β-cell function in subjects with prediabetes.

  15. Alterations in Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress and Mitophagy in Subjects with Prediabetes and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shipra Bhansali

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimHyperglycemia-mediated oxidative stress impedes cell-reparative process like autophagy, which has been implicated in impairment of β-cell function in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, the role of mitophagy (selective mitochondrial autophagy in progression of hyperglycemia remains elusive. This study aimed to assess the impact of increasing severity of hyperglycemia on mitochondrial stress and mitophagy.Design and methodsA case–control study included healthy controls, subjects with prediabetes, newly diagnosed T2DM (NDT2DM and advanced duration of T2DM (ADT2DM (n = 20 each. Mitochondrial stress indices, transcriptional and translational expression of mitophagy markers (PINK1, PARKIN, MFN2, NIX, LC3-II, and LAMP-2 and transmission electron microscopic (TEM studies were performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.ResultsWith mild hyperglycemia in subjects with prediabetes, to moderate to severe hyperglycemia in NDT2DM and ADT2DM, a progressive rise in mitochondrial oxidative stress was observed. Prediabetic subjects exhibited significantly increased expression of mitophagy-related markers and showed a positive association with HOMA-β, whereas, patients with NDT2DM and ADT2DM demonstrated decreased expression, with a greater decline in ADT2DM subjects. TEM studies revealed significantly reduced number of distorted mitochondria in prediabetics, as compared to the T2DM patients. In addition, receiver operating characteristic analysis showed HbA1C > 7% (53 mmol/mol was associated with attenuated mitophagy.ConclusionIncreasing hyperglycemia is associated with progressive rise in oxidative stress and altered mitochondrial morphology. Sustenance of mitophagy at HbA1C < 7% (53 mmol/mol strengthens the rationale of achieving HbA1C below this cutoff for good glycemic control. An “adaptive” increase in mitophagy may delay progression to T2DM by preserving the β-cell function in subjects with prediabetes.

  16. Sleep restriction alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerlo, P.; Koehl, M.; van der Borght, K.; Turek, F. W.

    2002-01-01

    Chronic sleep restriction is an increasing problem in many countries and may have many, as yet unknown, consequences for health and well being. Studies in both humans and rats suggest that sleep deprivation may activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, one of the main neuroendocrine stress systems. However, few attempts have been made to examine how sleep loss affects the HPA axis response to subsequent stressors. Furthermore, most studies applied short-lasting total sleep deprivation and not restriction of sleep over a longer period of time, as often occurs in human society. Using the rat as our model species, we investigated: (i) the HPA axis activity during and after sleep deprivation and (ii) the effect of sleep loss on the subsequent HPA response to a novel stressor. In one experiment, rats were subjected to 48 h of sleep deprivation by placing them in slowly rotating wheels. Control rats were placed in nonrotating wheels. In a second experiment, rats were subjected to an 8-day sleep restriction protocol allowing 4 h of sleep each day. To test the effects of sleep loss on subsequent stress reactivity, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress. Blood samples were taken at several time points and analysed for adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone. The results show that ACTH and corticosterone concentrations were elevated during sleep deprivation but returned to baseline within 4 h of recovery. After 1 day of sleep restriction, the ACTH and corticosterone response to restraint stress did not differ between control and sleep deprived rats. However, after 48 h of total sleep deprivation and after 8 days of restricted sleep, the ACTH response to restraint was significantly reduced whereas the corticosterone response was unaffected. These results show that sleep loss not only is a mild activator of the HPA axis itself, but also affects the subsequent response to stress. Alterations in HPA axis regulation may gradually appear under

  17. Acute restraint stress induces hyperalgesia via non-adrenergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... the non-involvement of adrenergic mechanisms. The hyperalgesia may however result from a change in the affective state of the animal and not from a change in sensory processing of noxious stimulus. Keywords: stress, hyperalgesia, tail-flick test, sympathetic nervous system. African Journal of Biomedical Research Vol.

  18. Autobiographical memory after acute stress in healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, M.S.; Elzinga, B.M.; Spinhoven, P.; Everaerd, W.

    2009-01-01

    Autobiographical memories have been found to be less specific after hydrocortisone administration in healthy men, resembling memory deficits in, for example, depression. This is the first study to investigate the effects of stress-induced elevated cortisol levels on autobiographic memory specificity

  19. Sex differences in subcellular distribution of delta opioid receptors in the rat hippocampus in response to acute and chronic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanoara Mazid

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Drug addiction requires associative learning processes that critically involve hippocampal circuits, including the opioid system. We recently found that acute and chronic stress, important regulators of addictive processes, affect hippocampal opioid levels and mu opioid receptor trafficking in a sexually dimorphic manner. Here, we examined whether acute and chronic stress similarly alters the levels and trafficking of hippocampal delta opioid receptors (DORs. Immediately after acute immobilization stress (AIS or one-day after chronic immobilization stress (CIS, the brains of adult female and male rats were perfusion-fixed with aldehydes. The CA3b region and the dentate hilus of the dorsal hippocampus were quantitatively analyzed by light microscopy using DOR immunoperoxidase or dual label electron microscopy for DOR using silver intensified immunogold particles (SIG and GABA using immunoperoxidase. At baseline, females compared to males had more DORs near the plasmalemma of pyramidal cell dendrites and about 3 times more DOR-labeled CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers. In AIS females, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in GABAergic hilar dendrites. However, in AIS males, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in CA3 pyramidal cell and hilar GABAergic dendrites and the percentage of CA3 dendritic spines contacted by mossy fibers increased to about half that seen in unstressed females. Conversely, after CIS, near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs increased in hilar GABA-labeled dendrites of females whereas in males plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased in CA3 pyramidal cell dendrites and near-plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs decreased hilar GABA-labeled dendrites. As CIS in females, but not males, redistributed DOR-SIGs near the plasmalemmal of hilar GABAergic dendrites, a subsequent experiment examined the acute affect of oxycodone on the redistribution of DOR-SIGs in a separate cohort of CIS females. Plasmalemmal DOR-SIGs were significantly elevated on hilar

  20. Transgenerational Social Stress Alters Immune-Behavior Associations and the Response to Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks-Nelson, Alexandria; Beamer, Gillian; Gurel, Kursat; Cooper, Rachel; Nephew, Benjamin C

    2017-07-21

    Similar to the multi-hit theory of schizophrenia, social behavior pathologies are mediated by multiple factors across generations, likely acting additively, synergistically, or antagonistically. Exposure to social adversity, especially during early life, has been proposed to induce depression symptoms through immune mediated mechanisms. Basal immune factors are altered in a variety of neurobehavioral models. In the current study, we assessed two aspects of a transgenerational chronic social stress (CSS) rat model and its effects on the immune system. First, we asked whether exposure of F0 dams and their F1 litters to CSS changes basal levels of IL-6, TNF, IFN-γ, and social behavior in CSS F1 female juvenile rats. Second, we asked whether the F2 generation could generate normal immunological responses following vaccination with Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). We report several changes in the associations between social behaviors and cytokines in the F1 juvenile offspring of the CSS model. It is suggested that changes in the immune-behavior relationships in F1 juveniles indicate the early stages of immune mediated disruption of social behavior that becomes more apparent in F1 dams and the F2 generation. We also report preliminary evidence of elevated IL-6 and impaired interferon-gamma responses in BCG-vaccinated F2 females. In conclusion, transgenerational social stress alters both immune-behavior associations and responses to vaccination. It is hypothesized that the effects of social stress may accumulate over generations through changes in the immune system, establishing the immune system as an effective preventative or treatment target for social behavior pathologies.

  1. Acute stress affects free recall and recognition of pictures differently depending on age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Vanesa; Pulopulos, Matias M; Puig-Perez, Sara; Espin, Laura; Gomez-Amor, Jesus; Salvador, Alicia

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about age differences in the effects of stress on memory retrieval. Our aim was to perform an in-depth examination of acute psychosocial stress effects on memory retrieval, depending on age and sex. For this purpose, data from 52 older subjects (27 men and 25 women) were reanalyzed along with data from a novel group of 50 young subjects (26 men and 24 women). Participants were exposed to an acute psychosocial stress task (Trier Social Stress Test) or a control task. After the experimental manipulation, the retrieval of positive, negative and neutral pictures learned the previous day was tested. As expected, there was a significant response to the exposure to the stress task, but the older participants had a lower cortisol response to TSST than the younger ones. Stress impaired free recall of emotional (positive and negative) and neutral pictures only in the group of young men. Also in this group, correlation analyses showed a marginally significant association between cortisol and free recall. However, exploratory analyses revealed only a negative relationship between the stress-induced cortisol response and free recall of negative pictures. Moreover, stress impaired recognition memory of positive pictures in all participants, although this effect was not related to the cortisol or alpha-amylase response. These results indicate that both age and sex are critical factors in acute stress effects on specific aspects of long-term memory retrieval of emotional and neutral material. They also point out that more research is needed to better understand their specific role. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A review of oxidative stress in acute kidney injury: protective role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the common clinical syndrome which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The severity extends from less to more advanced spectrums which link to biological, physical and chemical agents. Oxidative stress (OS)-related AKI has demonstrated the increasing of reactive oxygen ...

  3. Effects of hyperflexion on acute stress responses in ridden dressage horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Christensen, J.W.; Beekmans, M; van Dalum, M; van Dierendonck, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min

  4. Glucose intolerance induced by blockade of central FGF receptors is linked to an acute stress response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M. Rojas

    2015-08-01

    Conclusions: The effect of acute inhibition of central FGFR signaling to impair glucose tolerance likely involves a stress response associated with pronounced, but transient, sympathoadrenal activation and an associated reduction of insulin secretion. Whether this effect is a true consequence of FGFR blockade or involves an off-target effect of the FGFR inhibitor requires additional study.

  5. Preliminary evidence that acute and chronic daily psychological stress affect sexual arousal in sexually functional women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Kuile, Moniek M.; Vigeveno, Daan; Laan, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that psychological stress may inhibit sexual arousal in women. Research on the effect of (acute and chronic) psychological stressors on genital and subjective sexual arousal, however, is scarce. To investigate whether psychological stressors indeed inhibit sexual responding, sexually

  6. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen

    2015-06-01

    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. The Additive Benefit of Hypnosis and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Treating Acute Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Richard A.; Moulds, Michelle L.; Guthrie, Rachel M.; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2005-01-01

    This research represents the first controlled treatment study of hypnosis and cognitive- behavioral therapy (CBT) of acute stress disorder (ASD). Civilian trauma survivors (N = 87) who met criteria for ASD were randomly allocated to 6 sessions of CBT, CBT combined with hypnosis (CBT-hypnosis), or supportive counseling (SC). CBT comprised exposure,…

  8. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  9. Acute exercise induced oxidative stress is prevented in erythrocytes of male long distance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gunal

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the redox status in blood of long distance running athletes if it is favourably affected, and help to prevent acute exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen sedentary males and 20 male long distance runners, volunteered to participate in this study. Acute exercise was applied as treadmill run, which was continued until the heart rate of the subject has reached 80-90% of the maximum and stopped after 5 min. Acute exercise increased the hematocrit percentage in sedentary males but not in male athletes. It decreased the number of erythrocytes and also Hb level in sedentary males, but not in male athletes when they were adjusted to the changes in hematocrit level. There was no difference in erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels between sedentary males and male athletes at rest. Acute treadmill run increased the erythrocyte malondialdehyde level in sedentary males, however, it did not affect it in male athletes. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were not affected by acute exercise in both groups. Our results show that erythrocytes in long distance male athletes are better protected against acute exercise-induced oxidative stress compared with the ones from sedentary counterparts.

  10. Acute stress potentiates brain response to milkshake as a function of body weight and chronic stress

    OpenAIRE

    Rudenga, KJ; Sinha, R.; Small, DM

    2012-01-01

    Objective Stress is associated with increased intake of palatable foods and with weight gain, particularly in overweight women. Stress, food, and body mass index (BMI) have been separately shown to impact amygdala activity. However, it is not known whether stress influences amygdala responses to palatable foods, and whether this response is associated with chronic stress or BMI. Design Fourteen overweight and obese women participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan as t...

  11. Proteomic Characterization of Armillaria mellea Reveals Oxidative Stress Response Mechanisms and Altered Secondary Metabolism Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra Collins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Armillaria mellea is a major plant pathogen. Yet, the strategies the organism uses to infect susceptible species, degrade lignocellulose and other plant material and protect itself against plant defences and its own glycodegradative arsenal are largely unknown. Here, we use a combination of gel and MS-based proteomics to profile A. mellea under conditions of oxidative stress and changes in growth matrix. 2-DE and LC-MS/MS were used to investigate the response of A. mellea to H2O2 and menadione/FeCl3 exposure, respectively. Several proteins were detected with altered abundance in response to H2O2, but not menadione/FeCl3 (i.e., valosin-containing protein, indicating distinct responses to these different forms of oxidative stress. One protein, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, demonstrated a common response in both conditions, which may be a marker for a more general stress response mechanism. Further changes to the A. mellea proteome were investigated using MS-based proteomics, which identified changes to putative secondary metabolism (SM enzymes upon growth in agar compared to liquid cultures. Metabolomic analyses revealed distinct profiles, highlighting the effect of growth matrix on SM production. This establishes robust methods by which to utilize comparative proteomics to characterize this important phytopathogen.

  12. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M.; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p Facebook use may negatively impact well-being. PMID:28974938

  13. Having your cake and eating it too: A habit of comfort food may link chronic social stress exposure and acute stress-induced cortisol hyporesponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress has been tied to changes in eating behavior and food choice. Previous studies in rodents have shown that chronic stress increases palatable food intake which, in turn, increases mesenteric fat and inhibits acute stress-induced hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The effect of...

  14. Depersonalization/derealization during acute social stress in social phobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyer, Juergen; Braeuer, David; Crawcour, Stephen; Klumbies, Elisabeth; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2013-03-01

    The present study aimed at investigating how frequently and intensely depersonalization/derealization symptoms occur during a stressful performance situation in social phobia patients vs. healthy controls, as well as testing hypotheses about the psychological predictors and consequences of such symptoms. N=54 patients with social phobia and N=34 control participants without mental disorders were examined prior to, during, and after a standardized social performance situation (Trier Social Stress Test, TSST). An adapted version of the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale was applied along with measures of social anxiety, depression, personality, participants' subjective appraisal, safety behaviours, and post-event processing. Depersonalization symptoms were more frequent in social phobia patients (92%) than in controls (52%). Specifically in patients, they were highly positively correlated with safety behaviours and post-event-processing, even after controlling for social anxiety. The role of depersonalization/derealization in the maintenance of social anxiety should be more thoroughly recognized and explored. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rare cytogenetic abnormalities and alteration of microRNAs in acute myeloid leukemia and response to therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shahjahani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute myeloid leukemia (AML is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with.

  16. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Alteration of microRNAs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Response to Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahani, Mohammad; Khodadi, Elahe; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Asl, Javad Mohammadi; Golchin, Neda; Zaieri, Zeynab Deris

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with. PMID:26779308

  17. Rare Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Alteration of microRNAs in Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Response to Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahjahani, Mohammad; Khodadi, Elahe; Seghatoleslami, Mohammad; Asl, Javad Mohammadi; Golchin, Neda; Zaieri, Zeynab Deris; Saki, Najmaldin

    2015-02-10

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common acute leukemia in adults, which is heterogeneous in terms of morphological, cytogenetic and clinical features. Cytogenetic abnormalities, including karyotype aberrations, gene mutations and gene expression abnormalities are the most important diagnostic tools in diagnosis, classification and prognosis in acute myeloid leukemias. Based on World Health Organization (WHO) classification, acute myeloid leukemias can be divided to four groups. Due to the heterogeneous nature of AML and since most therapeutic protocols in AML are based on genetic alterations, gathering further information in the field of rare disorders as well as common cytogenetic abnormalities would be helpful in determining the prognosis and treatment in this group of diseases. Recently, the role of microRNAs (miRNAs) in both normal hematopoiesis and myeloid leukemic cell differentiation in myeloid lineage has been specified. miRNAs can be used instead of genes for AML diagnosis and classification in the future, and can also play a decisive role in the evaluation of relapse as well as response to treatment in the patients. Therefore, their use in clinical trials can affect treatment protocols and play a role in therapeutic strategies for these patients. In this review, we have examined rare cytogenetic abnormalities in different groups of acute myeloid leukemias according to WHO classification, and the role of miRNA expression in classification, diagnosis and response to treatment of these disorders has also been dealt with.

  18. Acute Heat Stress Induces Differential Gene Expressions in the Testes of a Broiler-Type Strain of Taiwan Country Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shih-Han; Cheng, Chuen-Yu; Tang, Pin-Chi; Chen, Chih-Feng; Chen, Hsin-Hsin; Lee, Yen-Pai; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    The expression of testicular genes following acute heat stress has been reported in layer-type roosters, but few similar studies have been conducted on broilers. This study investigated the effect of acute heat stress on the gene expression in the testes of a broiler-type strain of Taiwan country chickens. Roosters were subjected to acute heat stress (38°C) for 4 h, and then exposed to 25°C, with testes collected 0, 2, and 6 h after the cessation of heat stress, using non-heat-stressed roosters as controls (n = 3 roosters per group). The body temperature and respiratory rate increased significantly (pbroiler-type and layer-type chickens. We concluded that the transcriptional responses of testes to acute heat stress may differ between the broiler-type and layer-type roosters. Whether the differential expression patterns associate with the heat-tolerance in the strains require a further exploration. PMID:25932638

  19. The implicit affiliation motive moderates cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress in high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Mirko; Schüler, Julia; Budde, Henning

    2014-10-01

    It has been previously shown that the implicit affiliation motive - the need to establish and maintain friendly relationships with others - leads to chronic health benefits. The underlying assumption for the present research was that the implicit affiliation motive also moderates the salivary cortisol response to acute psychological stress when some aspects of social evaluation and uncontrollability are involved. By contrast we did not expect similar effects in response to exercise as a physical stressor. Fifty-nine high school students aged M=14.8 years were randomly assigned to a psychosocial stress (publishing the results of an intelligence test performed), a physical stress (exercise intensity of 65-75% of HRmax), and a control condition (normal school lesson) each lasting 15min. Participants' affiliation motives were assessed using the Operant Motive Test and salivary cortisol samples were taken pre and post stressor. We found that the strength of the affiliation motive negatively predicted cortisol reactions to acute psychosocial but not to physical stress when compared to a control group. The results suggest that the affiliation motive buffers the effect of acute psychosocial stress on the HPA axis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haag, Ann-Christin; Zehnder, Daniel; Landolt, Markus A

    2015-01-01

    Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD) in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs). Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES), injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7-16 years) were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Three participants (3.0%) met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8%) for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention.

  1. Guilt is associated with acute stress symptoms in children after road traffic accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Christin Haag

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although previous research has consistently found considerable rates of acute stress disorder (ASD in children with accidental injuries, knowledge about determinants of ASD remains incomplete. Guilt is a common reaction among children after a traumatic event and has been shown to contribute to posttraumatic stress disorder. However, its relationship to ASD has never been examined. Objective: This study assessed the prevalence of ASD in children and adolescents following road traffic accidents (RTAs. Moreover, the association between peritraumatic guilt and ASD was investigated relying on current cognitive theories of posttraumatic stress and controlling for female sex, age, socioeconomic status (SES, injury severity, inpatient treatment, pretrauma psychopathology, and maternal posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS. Methods: One hundred and one children and adolescents (aged 7–16 years were assessed by means of a clinical interview approximately 10 days after an RTA. Mothers were assessed by questionnaires. Results: Three participants (3.0% met diagnostic criteria for full ASD according to DSM-IV, and 17 (16.8% for subsyndromal ASD. In a multivariate regression model, guilt was found to be a significant predictor of ASD severity. Female sex, outpatient treatment, and maternal PTSS also predicted ASD severity. Child age, SES, injury severity, and pretraumatic child psychopathology were not related to ASD severity. Conclusions: Future research should examine the association between peritraumatic guilt and acute stress symptoms in more detail. Moreover, guilt appraisals in the acute phase after an accident might be a relevant target for clinical attention.

  2. Predictive modeling of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to acute and chronic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Vladimir M; Čupić, Željko; Vukojević, Vladana; Kolar-Anić, Ljiljana

    2011-01-01

    Detailed dynamics of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is complex, depending on the individual metabolic load of an organism, its current status (healthy/ill, circadian phase (day/night), ultradian phase) and environmental impact. Therefore, it is difficult to compare the HPA axis activity between different individuals or draw unequivocal conclusions about the overall status of the HPA axis in an individual using single time-point measurements of cortisol levels. The aim of this study is to identify parameters that enable us to compare different dynamic states of the HPA axis and use them to investigate self-regulation mechanisms in the HPA axis under acute and chronic stress. In this regard, a four-dimensional stoichiometric model of the HPA axis was used. Acute stress was modeled by inducing an abrupt change in cortisol level during the course of numerical integration, whereas chronic stress was modeled by changing the mean stationary state concentrations of CRH. Effects of acute stress intensity, duration and time of onset with respect to the ultradian amplitude, ultradian phase and the circadian phase of the perturbed oscillation were studied in detail. Bifurcation analysis was used to predict the response of the HPA axis to chronic stress. Model predictions were compared with experimental findings reported in the literature and relevance for pharmacotherapy with glucocorticoids was discussed.

  3. Altered brain function in new onset childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy: A resting-state fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhanqi; Zou, Dongfang; Mai, Huirong; Yuan, Xiuli; Wang, Lihong; Li, Yue; Liao, Jianxiang; Liu, Liwei; Liu, Guosheng; Zeng, Hongwu; Wen, Feiqiu

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive impairments had been reported in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, what caused the impairments needed to be demonstrated, chemotherapy-related or the disease itself. The primary aim of this exploratory investigation was to determine if there were changes in brain function of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy. In this study, we advanced a measure named regional homogeneity to evaluate the resting-state brain activities, intelligence quotient test was performed at same time. Using regional homogeneity, we first investigated the resting state brain function in patients with new onset childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia before chemotherapy, healthy children as control. The decreased ReHo values were mainly founded in the default mode network and left frontal lobe, bilateral inferior parietal lobule, bilateral temporal lobe, bilateral occipital lobe, precentral gyrus, bilateral cerebellum in the newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients compared with the healthy control. While in contrast, increased ReHo values were mainly shown in the right frontal lobe (language area), superior frontal gyrus-R, middle frontal gyrus-R and inferior parietal lobule-R for acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients group. There were no significant differences for intelligence quotient measurements between the acute lymphoblastic leukemia patient group and the healthy control in performance intelligence quotient, verbal intelligence quotient, total intelligence quotient. The altered brain functions are associated with cognitive change and language, it is suggested that there may be cognition impairment before the chemotherapy. Regional homogeneity by functional magnetic resonance image is a sensitive way for early detection on brain damage in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly M. Rus

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users (n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63 were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration (p < 0.05 when controlling for gender and emotional investment in the website compared to controls. Results suggest that social media use may delay or impair recovery after experiencing an acute social stressor. This novel study incorporated objective physiological markers with subjective psychosocial measures to show that Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.

  5. Social Media under the Skin: Facebook Use after Acute Stress Impairs Cortisol Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rus, Holly M; Tiemensma, Jitske

    2017-01-01

    Social media's influence on stress remains largely unknown. Conflicting research suggests that Facebook use may both enhance and undermine psychosocial constructs related to well-being. Using novel experimental methods, this study examined the impact of social media use on stress recovery. Facebook users ( n = 92, 49 males, mean age 19.55 SD = 1.63) were randomly assigned to use their own Facebook profile or quietly read after experiencing an acute social stressor. All participants showed significant changes in subjective and physiological stress markers during recovery. Participants who used Facebook experienced greater sustained cortisol concentration ( p social media use may delay or impair recovery after experiencing an acute social stressor. This novel study incorporated objective physiological markers with subjective psychosocial measures to show that Facebook use may negatively impact well-being.

  6. Effects of prenatal restraint stress on the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and related behavioural and neurobiological alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccari, Stefania; Morley-Fletcher, Sara

    2007-08-01

    Chronic hyper-activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary axis is associated with the suppression of reproductive, growth, thyroid and immune functions that may lead to various pathological states. Although many individuals experiencing stressful events do not develop pathologies, stress seems to be a provoking factor in those individuals with particular vulnerability, determined by genetic factors or earlier experience. Exposure of the developing brain to severe and/or prolonged stress may result in hyper-activity of the stress system, defective glucocorticoids-negative feedback, altered cognition, novelty seeking, increased vulnerability to addictive behaviour, and mood-related disorders. Therefore, stress-related events that occur in the perinatal period can permanently change brain and behaviour of the developing individual. Prenatal restraint stress (PRS) in rats is a well-documented model of early stress known to induce long-lasting neurobiological and behavioural alterations including impaired feedback mechanisms of the HPA axis, disruption of circadian rhythms and altered neuroplasticity. Chronic treatments with antidepressants at adulthood have proven high predictive validity of the PRS rat as animal model of depression and, reinforce the idea of the usefulness of the PRS rat as an interesting animal model for the design and testing of new pharmacologic strategies in the treatment of stress-related disorders.

  7. Melatonin Supplementation Ameliorates Energy Charge and Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exercise in Rat Heart Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimen, Behzat; Uz, Ali; Cetin, Ihsan; Cimen, Leyla; Cetin, Aysun

    2017-09-01

    Regular physical exercises may help people to be more resistant to everyday problems; however, how acute and intense exercises affect the heart tissues functioning with maximum capacity and how melatonin changes the effect of acute and intense exercises are still not obvious. We aimed to comprehend whether melatonin intravenous injection supports the oxidative/antioxidative conditions and energy charge in heart tissues of rats exposed to acute swimming exercise. Thirty Wistar-albino male rats were categorized into 3 groups with equal number of subjects. Control group performed no application, and acute intensive swimming exercise group were subjected to acute intensive swimming exercise for 30 minutes, and melatonin group were applied 25 mg/kg single dose melatonin administration prior to 30 minutes acute intensive swimming exercise. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured by spectrophotometric method; and the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and energy charge were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography. Tissue MDA and 3-NT levels of the acute intensive exercise group were found to be higher than the control group. It was also found that the melatonin administration increased the energy charge and antioxidant activities, while decreased tissue MDA and 3-NT levels in heart tissues. Our results provide evidence for melatonin that can exert potent protective effects on oxidative stress and energy charge for heart tissues in acute swimming exercise. These findings suggest that the direct beneficial effects of melatonin could be potentially applied on prevention of oxidative stress and energy deficit.

  8. Expression of Serum microRNAs is Altered During Acute Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossland, Rachel E; Norden, Jean; Juric, Mateja Kralj; Green, Kile; Pearce, Kim F; Lendrem, Clare; Greinix, Hildegard T; Dickinson, Anne M

    2017-01-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGvHD) is the most frequent and serious complication following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), with a high mortality rate. A clearer understanding of the molecular pathogenesis may allow for improved therapeutic options or guide personalized prophylactic protocols. Circulating microRNAs are expressed in body fluids and have recently been associated with the etiology of aGvHD, but global expression profiling in a HSCT setting is lacking. This study profiled expression of n  = 799 mature microRNAs in patient serum, using the NanoString platform, to identify microRNAs that showed altered expression at aGvHD diagnosis. Selected microRNAs ( n  = 10) were replicated in independent cohorts of serum samples taken at aGvHD diagnosis ( n  = 42) and prior to disease onset (day 14 post-HSCT, n  = 47) to assess their prognostic potential. Sera from patients without aGvHD were used as controls. Differential microRNAs were investigated in silico for predicted networks and mRNA targets. Expression analysis identified 61 microRNAs that were differentially expressed at aGvHD diagnosis. miR-146a ( p  = 0.03), miR-30b-5p ( p  = 0.007), miR-374-5p ( p  = 0.02), miR-181a ( p  = 0.03), miR-20a ( p  = 0.03), and miR-15a ( p  = 0.03) were significantly verified in an independent cohort ( n  = 42). miR-146a ( p  = 0.01), miR-20a ( p  = 0.03), miR-18 ( p  = 0.03), miR-19a ( p  = 0.03), miR-19b ( p  = 0.01), and miR-451 ( p  = 0.01) were differentially expressed 14 days post-HSCT in patients who later developed aGvHD ( n  = 47). High miR-19b expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) ( p  = 0.008), whereas high miR-20a and miR-30b-5p were associated with lower rates of non-relapse mortality ( p  = 0.05 and p  = 0.008) and improved OS ( p  = 0.016 and p  = 0.021). Pathway analysis associated the candidate microRNAs with hematological

  9. Global metabolomic responses of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to cold stress and altered ammonia feeding patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Lu, Huijie

    2015-11-05

    © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg The model ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea represents one of the environmentally and biotechnologically significant microorganisms. Genome-based studies over the last decade have led to many intriguing discoveries about its cellular biochemistry and physiology. However, knowledge regarding the regulation of overall metabolic routes in response to various environmental stresses is limited due to a lack of comprehensive, time-resolved metabolomic analyses. In this study, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based metabolic profiling was performed to characterize the temporal variations of N. europaea 19718 intercellular metabolites in response to varied temperature (23 and 10 °C) and ammonia feeding patterns (shock loading and continuous feeding of 20 mg N/L). Approximately 87 metabolites were successfully identified and mapped to the existing pathways of N. europaea 19718, allowing interpretation of the influence of temperature and feeding pattern on metabolite levels. In general, varied temperature had a more profound influence on the overall metabolism than varied feeding patterns. Total extracellular metabolite concentrations (relative to internal standards and normalized to biomass weight) were lower under cold stress and shock loading conditions compared with the control (continuous feeding at 23 °C). Cold stress caused the widespread downregulation of metabolites involved in central carbon metabolism, amino acid, and lipid synthesis (e.g., malonic acid, succinic acid, putrescine, and phosphonolpyruvate). Metabolites that showed differences under varied feeding patterns were mainly involved in nucleotide acid, amino acid, and lipid metabolism (e.g., adenine, uracil, and spermidine). This study highlighted the roles of central carbon and nitrogen metabolism in countering cold stress and altered ammonia availability. In addition, transcriptomic, proteomic, and metabolomic data from three

  10. Stress response and humoral immune system alterations related to chronic hypergravity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guéguinou, Nathan; Bojados, Mickaël; Jamon, Marc; Derradji, Hanane; Baatout, Sarah; Tschirhart, Eric; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Legrand-Frossi, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Spaceflights are known to induce stress and immune dysregulation. Centrifugation, as hindlimb unloading, is a good ground based-model to simulate altered gravity which occurs during space missions. The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of a long-term exposure to different levels of hypergravity on the stress response and the humoral immunity in a mouse model. For this purpose, adult C57Bl/6J male mice were subjected for 21 days either to control conditions or to 2G or 3G acceleration gravity forces. Corticosterone level and anxiety behavior revealed a stress response which was associated with a decrease of body weight, after 21-day of centrifugation at 3G but not at 2G. Spleen lymphocyte lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness was diminished by 40% in the 2G group only, whereas a decrease was noted when cells were stimulated with concanavalin A for both 2G and 3G groups (about 25% and 20%, respectively) compared to controls. Pro-inflammatory chemokines (MCP-1 and IP-10) and Th1 cytokines (IFNγ and IL2) were slightly decreased in the 2G group and strongly decreased in the 3G mouse group. Regarding Th2 cytokines (IL4, IL5) no further significant modification was observed, whereas the immunosuppressive cytokine IL10 was slightly increased in the 3G mice. Finally, serum IgG concentration was twice higher whereas IgA concentration was slightly increased (about 30%) and IgM were unchanged in 2G mice compared to controls. No difference was observed in the 3G group with these isotypes. Consequently, functional immune dysregulations and stress responses were dependent of the gravity level. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Volume Delivered During Recruitment Maneuver Predicts Lung Stress in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitler, Jeremy R; Majumdar, Rohit; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Malhotra, Atul; Thompson, B Taylor; Owens, Robert L; Loring, Stephen H; Talmor, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Global lung stress varies considerably with low tidal volume ventilation for acute respiratory distress syndrome. High stress despite low tidal volumes may worsen lung injury and increase risk of death. No widely available parameter exists to assess global lung stress. We aimed to determine whether the volume delivered during a recruitment maneuver (V(RM)) is inversely associated with lung stress and mortality in acute respiratory distress syndrome. Substudy of an acute respiratory distress syndrome clinical trial on esophageal pressure-guided positive end-expiratory pressure titration. U.S. academic medical center. Forty-two patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome in whom airflow, airway pressure, and esophageal pressure were recorded during the recruitment maneuver. A single recruitment maneuver was performed before initiating protocol-directed ventilator management. Recruitment maneuvers consisted of a 30-second breath hold at 40 cm H2O airway pressure under heavy sedation or paralysis. V(RM) was calculated by integrating the flow-time waveform during the maneuver. End-inspiratory stress was defined as the transpulmonary (airway minus esophageal) pressure during end-inspiratory pause of a tidal breath and tidal stress as the transpulmonary pressure difference between end-inspiratory and end-expiratory pauses. V(RM) ranged between 7.4 and 34.7 mL/kg predicted body weight. Lower V(RM) predicted high end-inspiratory and tidal lung stress (end-inspiratory: β = -0.449; 95% CI, -0.664 to -0.234; p volume, or plateau pressure and positive end-expiratory pressure, V(RM) remained independently associated with both end-inspiratory and tidal stress. In unadjusted analysis, low V(RM) predicted increased risk of death (odds ratio, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.72-1.00; p = 0.026). V(RM) remained significantly associated with mortality after adjusting for study arm (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.71-1.00; p = 0.022). Low V(RM) independently predicts high lung stress and may

  12. Understanding recovery in children following traffic-related injuries: Exploring acute traumatic stress reactions, child coping, and coping assistance

    OpenAIRE

    Marsac, Meghan L.; Donlon, Katharine A.; Hildenbrand, Aimee K.; Winston,Flaura K.; Kassam-Adams, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Millions of children incur potentially traumatic physical injuries every year. Most children recover well from their injury but many go on to develop persistent traumatic stress reactions. This study aimed to describe children’s coping and coping assistance (i.e., the ways in which parents and peers help children cope) strategies and to explore the association between coping and acute stress reactions following an injury. Children (N = 243) rated their acute traumatic stress reactions within ...

  13. Differential Effects of Acute Stress on Anticipatory and Consummatory Phases of Reward Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Poornima; Berghorst, Lisa H.; Nickerson, Lisa D.; Dutra, Sunny J.; Goer, Franziska; Greve, Douglas; Pizzagalli, Diego A.

    2014-01-01

    Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression and has been linked to blunted responses to rewarding stimuli in striatal regions. Stress, a key vulnerability factor for depression, has been shown to induce anhedonic behavior, including reduced reward responsiveness in both animals and humans, but the brain processes associated with these effects remain largely unknown in humans. Emerging evidence suggests that stress has dissociable effects on distinct components of reward processing, as it has been found to potentiate motivation/‘wanting’ during the anticipatory phase but reduce reward responsiveness/‘liking’ during the consummatory phase. To examine the impact of stress on reward processing, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task and an acute stress manipulation (negative performance feedback) in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy participants performed the MID task under no-stress and stress conditions. We hypothesized that stress would have dissociable effects on the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward-related brain regions. Specifically, we expected reduced striatal responsiveness during reward consumption (mirroring patterns previously observed in clinical depression) and increased striatal activation during reward anticipation consistent with non-human findings. Supporting our hypotheses, significant Phase (Anticipation/Consumption) x Stress (Stress/No-stress) interactions emerged in the putamen, nucleus accumbens, caudate and amygdala. Post-hoc tests revealed that stress increased striatal and amygdalar activation during anticipation but decreased striatal activation during consumption. Importantly, stress-induced striatal blunting was similar to the profile observed in clinical depression under baseline (no-stress) conditions in prior studies. Given that stress is a pivotal vulnerability factor for depression, these results offer insight to better understand the etiology of this

  14. The effects of acute stress on episodic memory: A meta-analysis and integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Grant S; Sazma, Matthew A; McCullough, Andrew M; Yonelinas, Andrew P

    2017-06-01

    A growing body of research has indicated that acute stress can critically impact memory. However, there are a number of inconsistencies in the literature, and important questions remain regarding the conditions under which stress effects emerge as well as basic questions about how stress impacts different phases of memory. In this meta-analysis, we examined 113 independent studies in humans with 6,216 participants that explored effects of stress on encoding, postencoding, retrieval, or postreactivation phases of episodic memory. The results indicated that when stress occurred prior to or during encoding it impaired memory, unless both the delay between the stressor and encoding was very short and the study materials were directly related to the stressor, in which case stress improved encoding. In contrast, postencoding stress improved memory unless the stressor occurred in a different physical context than the study materials. When stress occurred just prior to or during retrieval, memory was impaired, and these effects were larger for emotionally valenced materials than neutral materials. Although stress consistently increased cortisol, the magnitude of the cortisol response was not related to the effects of stress on memory. Nonetheless, the effects of stress on memory were generally reduced in magnitude for women taking hormonal contraceptives. These analyses indicate that stress disrupts some episodic memory processes while enhancing others, and that the effects of stress are modulated by a number of critical factors. These results provide important constraints on current theories of stress and memory, and point to new questions for future research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Differential effects of acute stress on anticipatory and consummatory phases of reward processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, P; Berghorst, L H; Nickerson, L D; Dutra, S J; Goer, F K; Greve, D N; Pizzagalli, D A

    2014-04-25

    Anhedonia is one of the core symptoms of depression and has been linked to blunted responses to rewarding stimuli in striatal regions. Stress, a key vulnerability factor for depression, has been shown to induce anhedonic behavior, including reduced reward responsiveness in both animals and humans, but the brain processes associated with these effects remain largely unknown in humans. Emerging evidence suggests that stress has dissociable effects on distinct components of reward processing, as it has been found to potentiate motivation/'wanting' during the anticipatory phase but reduce reward responsiveness/'liking' during the consummatory phase. To examine the impact of stress on reward processing, we used a monetary incentive delay (MID) task and an acute stress manipulation (negative performance feedback) in conjunction with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Fifteen healthy participants performed the MID task under no-stress and stress conditions. We hypothesized that stress would have dissociable effects on the anticipatory and consummatory phases in reward-related brain regions. Specifically, we expected reduced striatal responsiveness during reward consumption (mirroring patterns previously observed in clinical depression) and increased striatal activation during reward anticipation consistent with non-human findings. Supporting our hypotheses, significant Phase (Anticipation/Consumption)×Stress (Stress/No-stress) interactions emerged in the putamen, nucleus accumbens, caudate and amygdala. Post hoc tests revealed that stress increased striatal and amygdalar activation during anticipation but decreased striatal activation during consumption. Importantly, stress-induced striatal blunting was similar to the profile observed in clinical depression under baseline (no-stress) conditions in prior studies. Given that stress is a pivotal vulnerability factor for depression, these results offer insight to better understand the etiology of this prevalent

  16. Obesity-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Causes Lung Endothelial Dysfunction and Promotes Acute Lung Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Dilip; Romero, Freddy; Guo, Zhi; Sun, Jianxin; Li, Jonathan; Kallen, Caleb B; Naik, Ulhas P; Summer, Ross

    2017-08-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome. The mechanisms underlying this association are unknown. We recently showed that diet-induced obese mice exhibit pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction, which is associated with enhanced susceptibility to LPS-induced acute lung injury. Here, we demonstrate that lung endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese mice coincides with increased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Specifically, we observed enhanced expression of the major sensors of misfolded proteins, including protein kinase R-like ER kinase, inositol-requiring enzyme α, and activating transcription factor 6, in whole lung and in primary lung endothelial cells isolated from diet-induced obese mice. Furthermore, we found that primary lung endothelial cells exposed to serum from obese mice, or to saturated fatty acids that mimic obese serum, resulted in enhanced expression of markers of ER stress and the induction of other biological responses that typify the lung endothelium of diet-induced obese mice, including an increase in expression of endothelial adhesion molecules and a decrease in expression of endothelial cell-cell junctional proteins. Similar changes were observed in lung endothelial cells and in whole-lung tissue after exposure to tunicamycin, a compound that causes ER stress by blocking N-linked glycosylation, indicating that ER stress causes endothelial dysfunction in the lung. Treatment with 4-phenylbutyric acid, a chemical protein chaperone that reduces ER stress, restored vascular endothelial cell expression of adhesion molecules and protected against LPS-induced acute lung injury in diet-induced obese mice. Our work indicates that fatty acids in obese serum induce ER stress in the pulmonary endothelium, leading to pulmonary endothelial cell dysfunction. Our work suggests that reducing protein load in the ER of pulmonary endothelial cells might protect against acute respiratory distress syndrome in obese

  17. ICV melatonin reduces acute stress responses in neonatal chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shin; Tachibana, Tetsuya; Choi, Yang-Ho; Denbow, D Michael; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2005-12-07

    Melatonin is involved in a variety of biological functions including sleep and stress. Our previous study indicated that neonatal layer chicks were more susceptible to stress than broilers. However, it is not clear whether differences exist in melatonin concentrations between both types of chickens, nor is it known whether melatonin is directly involved in stress in neonatal chickens. In the present study we first compared melatonin concentrations in brain tissues (pineal gland, brain stem, telencephalon, and optic lobe) between neonatal broiler and layer chicks raised under either 12 h light:12 h dark cycle (lights on at 07:00 h) or continuous illumination. Although melatonin concentrations were much higher in broilers than layers at night under the alternative light-dark cycle, these differences disappeared under the 24 h illumination. We thus chose neonatal layers for a test system. We then investigated if intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of melatonin modulated plasma corticosterone concentrations under continuous illumination. Neonatal layer chicks housed in groups were ICV injected (1) with melatonin (0, 0.116 and 1.16 microg) or with nothing as an intact control followed by isolation in an open-field environment for 10 min; and (2) were given one of the followings treatments: nothing (intact control), control (0 microg), corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) (0.01 microg), melatonin (1.16 microg), or CRF (0.01 microg) + melatonin (1.16 microg). Ten minutes thereafter blood was collected via heart puncture to determine plasma corticosterone content. Isolation resulted in a significant increase in corticosterone concentration, and both doses of ICV melatonin completely suppressed this increase (P<0.01). CRF injection resulted in a strong increase in plasma corticosterone concentrations (P<0.01). Co-injection with melatonin attenuated the CRF-induced corticosterone elevation in plasma (P<0.01). Our findings provide direct evidence that melatonin modulates

  18. The effects of acute stress on Pavlovian-instrumental transfer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pielock, Steffi M; Braun, Stephanie; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2013-03-01

    Pavlovian stimuli invigorate ongoing instrumental action, a phenomenon termed the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer (PIT) effect. Acute stressors can markedly enhance the release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), and CRF injection into the nucleus accumbens increases the PIT effect. However, it is unknown whether acute stressors by themselves would amplify the PIT effect. Here, we examined the effects of acute stressors on PIT. Rats first received Pavlovian and instrumental training, and then the impact of the Pavlovian stimuli on instrumental responding was analyzed in the subsequent PIT test. Acute stressors were applied prior to the PIT test. Because the effects of acute stressors critically depend on stressor type and time of day, we used two acute stressors that involved one or several distinct stressors (denoted here as "single" vs. "multiple" stressors) applied either in the light or the dark period of the light:dark cycle. The results revealed that single and multiple stressors applied in the light period did not alter the PIT effect--that is, the ability of an appetitive Pavlovian stimulus to enhance leverpressing--or the basal leverpress rate. When applied in the dark period, single and multiple stressors also did not alter the PIT effect, but they did markedly reduce the basal leverpress rate. Diazepam pretreatment did not counteract the declines in basal instrumental responding in the PIT test that were induced by either a single or multiple stressors. Our findings suggest that acute stressors were unable to amplify the incentive salience of reward-predictive Pavlovian stimuli to activate instrumental responding, but, depending on the time of day of stressor exposure, they did reduce basal instrumental responding.

  19. Whole transcriptome analysis of transgenic barley with altered cytokinin homeostasis and increased tolerance to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojta, Petr; Kokáš, Filip; Husičková, Alexandra; Grúz, Jiří; Bergougnoux, Veronique; Marchetti, Cintia F; Jiskrová, Eva; Ježilová, Eliška; Mik, Václav; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-25

    Cytokinin plant hormones have been shown to play an important role in plant response to abiotic stresses. Herein, we expand upon the findings of Pospíšilová et al. [30] regarding preparation of novel transgenic barley lines overexpressing cytokinin dehydrogenase 1 gene from Arabidopsis under the control of mild root-specific promotor of maize β-glycosidase. These lines showed drought-tolerant phenotype mainly due to alteration of root architecture and stronger lignification of root tissue. A detailed transcriptomic analysis of roots of transgenic plants subjected to revitalization after drought stress revealed attenuated response through the HvHK3 cytokinin receptor and up-regulation of two transcription factors implicated in stress responses and abscisic acid sensitivity. Increased expression of several genes involved in the phenylpropanoid pathway as well as of genes encoding arogenate dehydratase/lyase participating in phenylalanine synthesis was found in roots during revitalization. Although more precursors of lignin synthesis were present in roots after drought stress, final lignin accumulation did not change compared to that in plants grown under optimal conditions. Changes in transcriptome indicated a higher auxin turnover in transgenic roots. The same analysis in leaves revealed that genes encoding putative enzymes responsible for production of jasmonates and other volatile compounds were up-regulated. Although transgenic barley leaves showed lower chlorophyll content and down-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in photosynthesis than did wild-type plants when cultivated under optimal conditions, they did show a tendency to return to initial photochemical activities faster than did wild-type leaves when re-watered after severe drought stress. In contrast to optimal conditions, comparative transcriptomic analysis of revitalized leaves displayed up-regulation of genes encoding enzymes and proteins involved in photosynthesis, and especially

  20. Preconception paternal stress in rats alters dendritic morphology and connectivity in the brain of developing male and female offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harker, A; Raza, S; Williamson, K; Kolb, B; Gibb, R

    2015-09-10

    The goal of this research was to examine the effect of preconception paternal stress (PPS) on the subsequent neurodevelopment and behavior of male and female offspring. Prenatal (gestational) stress has been shown to alter brain morphology in the developing brain, and is presumed to be a factor in the development of some adult psychopathologies. Our hypothesis was that paternal stress in the preconception period could impact brain development in the offspring, leading to behavioral abnormalities later in life. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of preconception paternal stress on developing male and female offspring brain morphology in five brain areas; medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), parietal cortex (Par1), hippocampus (CA1) and nucleus accumbens (NAc). Alterations in dendritic measures and spine density were observed in each brain area examined in paternal stress offspring. Our two main findings reveal; (1) PPS alters brain morphology and organization and these effects are different than the effects of stress observed at other ages; and, (2) the observed dendritic changes were sexually dimorphic. This study provides direct evidence that PPS modifies brain architecture in developing offspring, including dendritic length, cell complexity, and spine density. Alterations observed may contribute to the later development of psychopathologies and maladaptive behaviors in the offspring. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Active behavioral coping alters the behavioral but not the endocrine response to stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Dana L.; Tylee, Daniel; Christianson, John P.; Kubala, Kenneth H.; Govindarajan, Sindhuja T.; O’Neill, William E.; Becoats, Kyeesha; Watkins, Linda; Maier, Steve F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Exposure to traumatic stressors typically causes lasting changes in emotionality and behavior. However, coping strategies have been shown to prevent and alleviate many stress consequences and the biological mechanisms that underlie coping are of great interest. Whereas the laboratory stressor inescapable tail-shock induces anxiety-like behaviors, here we demonstrate that permitting a rat to chew on a wooden dowel during administration of tail-shock prevented the development of anxiety like behaviors in the open field and juvenile social exploration tests. Uncontrollable stressors increase corticosterone and decrease thyroid hormone, and we hypothesized that coping would blunt these changes. While tail-shock did produce these effects, active coping did not alter hormone levels. The dissociation between behavioral resilience and circulating hormones is discussed with regard to the utility of these molecules as biomarkers for psychiatric disease. PMID:22578266

  2. Pamidronate Attenuates Oxidative Stress and Energetic Metabolism Changes but Worsens Functional Outcomes in Acute Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bernardo de Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiotoxicity is the major side effect of doxorubicin. As mechanisms that are involved in cardiotoxicity are ambiguous, new methods for attenuating cardiotoxicity are needed. Recent studies have shown that bisphosphonates can decrease oxidative stress. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pamidronate on preventing acute doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity. Methods: Sixty-four male Wistar rats were allocated into four groups: the control group (C, the pamidronate group (P, the doxorubicin group (D and the doxorubicin/pamidronate group (DP. The rats in the P and DP groups received pamidronate injections (3 mg/kg, IP. After 24 hours, the rats in the D and DP groups received doxorubicin injections (20 mg/kg, IP. Forty-eight hours after doxorubicin injection, the rats were killed. Echocardiography, isolated heart study and biochemical analysis were performed. Results: Doxorubicin-induced acute cardiotoxicity showed increased matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 activation, oxidative damage and induced alterations in myocardial energetic metabolism. Pamidronate did not inhibit MMP-2 activation but attenuated oxidative stress and improved myocardial energetic metabolism. Regarding cardiac function, the DP group exhibited a decrease in the left ventricular ejection fraction in the echocardiography and a decrease in +dP/dt in the isolated heart study compared with other groups. The same DP group presented serum hypocalcaemia. Conclusions: Despite its ability to reduce oxidative stress and improve energy metabolism in the heart, pamidronate worsened systolic function in rats treated with doxorubicin, and therefore we cannot recommend its use in conjunction with anthracycline chemotherapy.

  3. Alterations in the genome of wheat seedlings grown under drought stress and the effect of gibberellic acid on these alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliyev, R T; Coskunçelebi, K; Beyazoğlu, O; Hacieva, S I

    2000-01-01

    The changes in the amount of nuclear, chloroplast and mithocondrial nucleic acids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in relation with drought stress and the effect of gibberellic acid (GA3) on these changes were investigated by spectrophotometric method. It was found that drought stress caused decrease in the amount of nucleic acids. In the seedlings to which GA3 was applied following drought stress, increase in the amount of nuclear nucleic acids (especially in the amount of labile DNA, which is the active portion) was determined. Similar results were observed in the amount of nucleic acids of mitochondria and chloroplasts. All these results show that drought stress caused quantitative changes in the genetic substrate of wheat seedling cells and GA3 application alleviated this effect by activating the synthesis of nucleic acids.

  4. Acute stress impairs frontocingulate activation during error monitoring in remitted depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Alexis E; Van't Veer, Ashlee; Kakani, Pragya; Dillon, Daniel G; Ironside, Manon L; Haile, Anja; Crowley, David J; Pizzagalli, Diego A

    2017-01-01

    Deficits in cognitive control are a hallmark characteristic of depression, however less is known about the degree to which they persist beyond symptom remission and might contribute to symptom recurrence in remitted individuals (rMDD). Evidence indicates that stress interferes with cognitive control, highlighting a potential mechanism by which stress precipitates depression relapse. Therefore, this study examined whether stress exposure elicits deficits in error monitoring - a component of cognitive control thought to be particularly implicated in the ability to adaptively respond to negative feedback - in individuals with rMDD. Unmedicated individuals with rMDD (n=30) and healthy controls (n=34) performed an Eriksen Flanker task before and 45min after an acute stressor while 128-channel event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Flanker interference effects and post-error adjustments were examined, and ERP analyses focused on the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe). Standardized low resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) was used to examine stress-induced changes in current source density. Individuals with rMDD showed blunted cortisol reactivity to the stressor, coupled with heightened self-reported stress reactivity. Although no significant effects of group or stress were observed in scalp-level ERPs, source-level analyses indicated that among the rMDD group only, stress caused a reduction in activation in frontocingulate regions critically implicated in error monitoring. The magnitude of stress-induced decreases in frontocingulate activation correlated with heightened self-reported stress reactivity, and also predicted heightened levels of stress and depression 18 months later in the entire sample. These findings suggest that individuals with rMDD show a stress-induced disruption in frontocingulate function that is linked to heightened stress reactivity, and this disruption prospectively predicts heightened levels of future

  5. Oxidative stress and apoptosis after acute respiratory hypoxia and reoxygenation in rat brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debora Coimbra-Costa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute hypoxia increases the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in the brain. However, the effect of reoxygenation, unavoidable to achieve full recovery of the hypoxic organ, has not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exposition to acute severe respiratory hypoxia followed by reoxygenation on the evolution of oxidative stress and apoptosis in the brain. We investigated the effect of in vivo acute severe normobaric hypoxia (rats exposed to 7% O2 for 6 h and reoxygenation in normoxia (21% O2 for 24 h or 48 h on oxidative stress markers, the antioxidant system and apoptosis in the brain. After respiratory hypoxia we found increased levels of HIF-1α expression, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and nitric oxide in brain extracts. Antioxidant defence systems such as superoxide dismutase (SOD, reduced glutathione (GSH and glutathione peroxidase (GPx and the reduced/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio were significantly decreased in the brain. After 24 h of reoxygenation, oxidative stress parameters and the anti-oxidant system returned to control values. Regarding the apoptosis parameters, acute hypoxia increased cytochrome c, AIF and caspase 3 activity in the brain. The apoptotic effect is greatest after 24 h of reoxygenation. Immunohistochemistry suggests that CA3 and dentate gyrus in the hippocampus seem more susceptible to hypoxia than the cortex. Severe acute hypoxia increases oxidative damage, which in turn could activate apoptotic mechanisms. Our work is the first to demonstrate that after 24 h of reoxygenation oxidative stress is attenuated, while apoptosis is maintained mainly in the hippocampus, which may, in fact, be the cause of impaired brain function.

  6. Switching between executive and default mode networks in posttraumatic stress disorder: alterations in functional connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Judith K.; McFarlane, Alexander C.; Bluhm, Robyn L.; Moores, Kathryn A.; Clark, C. Richard; Shaw, Marnie E.; Williamson, Peter C.; Densmore, Maria; Lanius, Ruth A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Working memory processing and resting-state connectivity in the default mode network are altered in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Because the ability to effortlessly switch between concentration on a task and an idling state during rest is implicated in both these alterations, we undertook a functional magnetic resonance imaging study with a block design to analyze task-induced modulations in connectivity. Methods We performed a working memory task and psychophysiologic interaction analyses with the posterior cingulate cortex and the medial prefrontal cortex as seed regions during fixation in 12 patients with severe, chronic PTSD and 12 healthy controls. Results During the working memory task, the control group showed significantly stronger connectivity with areas implicated in the salience and executive networks, including the right inferior frontal gyrus and the right inferior parietal lobule. The PTSD group showed stronger connectivity with areas implicated in the default mode network, namely enhanced connectivity between the posterior cingulate cortex and the right superior frontal gyrus and between the medial prefrontal cortex and the left parahip-pocampal gyrus. Limitations Because we were studying alterations in patients with severe, chronic PTSD, we could not exclude patients taking medication. The small sample size may have limited the power of our analyses. To avoid multiple testing in a small sample, we only used 2 seed regions for our analyses. Conclusion The different patterns of connectivity imply significant group differences with task-induced switches (i.e., engaging and disengaging the default mode network and the central-executive network). PMID:20569651

  7. The tomato res mutant which accumulates JA in roots in non-stressed conditions restores cell structure alterations under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Abellan, José O; Fernandez-Garcia, Nieves; Lopez-Berenguer, Carmen; Egea, Isabel; Flores, Francisco B; Angosto, Trinidad; Capel, Juan; Lozano, Rafael; Pineda, Benito; Moreno, Vicente; Olmos, Enrique; Bolarin, Maria C

    2015-11-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) regulates a wide spectrum of plant biological processes, from plant development to stress defense responses. The role of JA in plant response to salt stress is scarcely known, and even less known is the specific response in root, the main plant organ responsible for ionic uptake and transport to the shoot. Here we report the characterization of the first tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mutant, named res (restored cell structure by salinity), that accumulates JA in roots prior to exposure to stress. The res tomato mutant presented remarkable growth inhibition and displayed important morphological alterations and cellular disorganization in roots and leaves under control conditions, while these alterations disappeared when the res mutant plants were grown under salt stress. Reciprocal grafting between res and wild type (WT) (tomato cv. Moneymaker) indicated that the main organ responsible for the development of alterations was the root. The JA-signaling pathway is activated in res roots prior to stress, with transcripts levels being even higher in control condition than in salinity. Future studies on this mutant will provide significant advances in the knowledge of JA role in root in salt-stress tolerance response, as well as in the energy trade-off between plant growth and response to stress. © 2015 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  8. Early repolarization, acute emotional stress and sudden death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmiere, Cristian; Lesta, Maria del Mar; Vanhaebost, Jessica; Mangin, Patrice; Augsburger, Marc; Vogt, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    We herein report the case of a 36-year-old man who died suddenly after a fight with another man. Forensic investigations included unenhanced computed tomography, postmortem angiography, autopsy, histology, neuropathology, toxicology, and biochemistry and allowed a traumatic cause of death to be excluded. An electrocardiogram recorded some years prior to death revealed the presence of an early repolarization pattern. Based on the results of all investigations, the cause of death was determined to be cardiac arrhythmia and cardiac arrest during an emotionally stressful event associated with physical assault. Direct third party involvement, however, was excluded, and the manner of death was listed as natural. The case was not pursued any further by the public prosecutor. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  9. Effects of acute ethanol administration and chronic stress exposure on social investigation and 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations in adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Amanda R; Spear, Linda P

    2013-04-01

    Adolescents drink largely in social situations, likely in an attempt to facilitate social interactions. This study sought to examine alterations in the incentive salience of a social stimulus following repeated stress exposure and acute ethanol administration in adolescent and adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. Subjects were either exposed to 5days of restraint stress, chronic variable stress (CVS), which consisted of a different stressor every day, or non-stressed. On test day, the animals were injected with 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 0.75g/kg ethanol and placed in a social approach test in which they could see, hear, and smell a social conspecific, but could not physically interact with it. All the animals showed an interest in the social stimulus, with adolescents engaging in more social investigation than adults. Restraint stressed adults showed ethanol-induced increases in social investigation, while ethanol effects were not seen in any other group. An ethanol-associated increase in 50kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV) production was only evident in restraint stressed adolescents following 0.75g/kg ethanol. 50kHz USVs were not correlated with time spent investigating the social stimulus in any test condition. These results show that age differences in the facilitatory effects of ethanol on incentive salience of social stimuli are moderated by stress, with the facilitation of social approach by ethanol only evident in restraint stressed adults. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress hormonal changes in the brain and plasma after acute noise exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang Gyun; Kim, Min Jung; Park, So Young; Park, Shi Nae

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effects of acute noise stress on two amine stress hormones, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in the brain and plasma of mice after noise exposure. Mice were grouped into the control and noise groups. Mice in the noise group were exposed to white noise of 110dB sound pressure level for 60min. Auditory brainstem response thresholds, distortion product otoacoustic emissions, the organ of Corti grading scores, western blots of NE/5-HIAA in the whole brain and hippocampus, and the plasma levels of NE/5-HIAA were compared between the two groups. Significant hearing loss and cochlear damage were demonstrated in the noise group. NE and 5-HIAA in the hippocampus were elevated in the noise group (p=0.019/0.022 for NE/5-HIAA vs. the control). Plasma levels of NE and 5-HIAA were not statistically different between the groups (p=0.052/0.671 for NE/5-HIAA). Hearing loss with outer hair cell dysfunction and morphological changes of the organ of Corti after noise exposure in C57BL/6 mice proved the reliability of our animal model as an acute noise stress model. NE and 5-HIAA are suggested to be the potential biomarkers for acute noise stress in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessment of fructosamine concentrations in cats with acute and chronic stress

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    Lívia Fagundes Moraes

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Fructosamine are glycated serum proteins that are formed continuously due to the reaction between glucose and circulating proteins, and corresponding to the blood glucose control assessment over the last one to two weeks in cats. The fructosamine concentration has been used for differentiation between persistent and transient hyperglycemia. Therefore, the determination of fructosamine is considered the gold standard for monitoring glycemia into control in diabetic cats. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of acute and chronic stress of cats on serum fructosamine. 62 cats were selected from the Veterinary Hospital of FMVZ - UNESP, Botucatu campus. They were distributed into three groups: cats with a history of any illness or stress condition, excluding Diabetes Mellitus (DM, for a maximum of 48 hours (Group A, n = 21 or for a period exceeding 120 hours (Group B n = 27. The third group (Group C = control was formed by 14 health cats. The groups were evaluated for serum fructosamine, glucose, protein and albumin. In this study, there was a significant increase in the values of fructosamine in animals subjected to acute and chronic stress, but these values remained within the reference range. The animals were, on average, normoglycemic, despite the positive correlation between fructosamine and glucose concentrations. We conclude that the fructosamine concentration is influenced by acute and chronic stress in cats, remaining, however, within the reference range, and therefore, still useful in the diagnosis of DM.

  12. Acute Ethanol Gavage Attenuates Hemorrhage/Resuscitation-Induced Hepatic Oxidative Stress in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Relja, B.; Wilhelm, K.; Wang, M.; Henrich, D.; I. Marzi; Lehnert, M.

    2012-01-01

    Acute ethanol intoxication increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hemorrhagic shock with subsequent resuscitation (H/R) also induces ROS resulting in cellular and hepatic damage in vivo. We examined the role of acute ethanol intoxication upon oxidative stress and subsequent hepatic cell death after H/R. 14 h before H/R, rats were gavaged with single dose of ethanol or saline (5 g/kg, EtOH and ctrl; H/R_EtOH or H/R_ctrl, resp.). Then, rats were hemorrhaged to a mean arteria...

  13. Innate immunity and testosterone rapidly respond to acute stress, but is corticosterone at the helm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, S; Noor, S; Carpentier, E; Deviche, P

    2016-10-01

    When faced with a stressor, vertebrates can rapidly increase the secretion of glucocorticoids, which is thought to improve the chances of survival. Concurrent changes in other physiological systems, such as the reproductive endocrine or innate immune systems, have received less attention, particularly in wild vertebrates. It is often thought that glucocorticoids directly modulate immune performance during a stress response, but, in many species, androgens also rapidly respond to stress. However, to our knowledge, no study has simultaneously examined the interactions between the glucocorticoid, androgen, and innate immune responses to stress in a wild vertebrate. To address this issue, we tested the hypothesis that the change in plasma corticosterone (CORT) in response to the acute stress of capture and restraint is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma testosterone (T) and innate immune performance (estimated by the capacity of plasma to agglutinate and lyse foreign cells) in the Abert's Towhee (Melozone aberti). Furthermore, to broaden the generality of the findings, we compared male and female towhees, as well as males from urban and non-urban populations. Acute stress increased plasma CORT, decreased plasma T in males, and decreased innate immune performance, but the increase in CORT during stress was not correlated with the corresponding decreases in either plasma T or innate immunity. By contrast, the plasma T stress response was positively correlated with the innate immune stress response. Collectively, our results challenge the proposition that the glucocorticoid stress response is correlated with the concurrent changes in plasma T, a key reproductive hormone, and innate immunity, as estimated by agglutination and lysis.

  14. Depressive symptoms are associated with mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia after acute myocardial infarction.

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    Jingkai Wei

    Full Text Available Depression is an adverse prognostic factor after an acute myocardial infarction (MI, and an increased propensity toward emotionally-driven myocardial ischemia may play a role. We aimed to examine the association between depressive symptoms and mental stress-induced myocardial ischemia in young survivors of an MI.We studied 98 patients (49 women and 49 men age 38-60 years who were hospitalized for acute MI in the previous 6 months. Patients underwent myocardial perfusion imaging at rest, after mental stress (speech task, and after exercise or pharmacological stress. A summed difference score (SDS, obtained with observer-independent software, was used to quantify myocardial ischemia under both stress conditions. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II was used to measure depressive symptoms, which were analyzed as overall score, and as separate somatic and cognitive depressive symptom scores.There was a significant positive association between depressive symptoms and SDS with mental stress, denoting more ischemia. After adjustment for demographic and lifestyle factors, disease severity and medications, each incremental depressive symptom was associated with 0.14 points higher SDS. When somatic and cognitive depressive symptoms were examined separately, both somatic [β = 0.17, 95% CI: (0.04, 0.30, p = 0.01] and cognitive symptoms [β = 0.31, 95% CI: (0.07, 0.56, p = 0.01] were significantly associated with mental stress-induced ischemia. Depressive symptoms were not associated with ischemia induced by exercise or pharmacological stress.Among young post-MI patients, higher levels of both cognitive and somatic depressive symptoms are associated with a higher propensity to develop myocardial ischemia with mental stress, but not with physical (exercise or pharmacological stress.

  15. Hepatic mitochondrial alterations and increased oxidative stress in nutritional diabetes-prone Psammomys obesus model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouderba, Saida; Sanz, M Nieves; Sánchez-Martín, Carlos; El-Mir, M Yehia; Villanueva, Gloria R; Detaille, Dominique; Koceïr, E Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a pivotal component of insulin resistance and associated metabolic diseases. Psammomys obesus is a relevant model of nutritional diabetes since these adult animals exhibit a state of insulin resistance when fed a standard laboratory chow, hypercaloric for them as compared to their natural food. In this context, alterations in bioenergetics were studied. Using liver mitochondria isolated from these rats fed such a diet for 18 weeks, oxygen consumption rates, activities of respiratory complexes, and content in cytochromes were examined. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and gluthatione (GSH) were measured in tissue homogenates. Diabetic Psammomys showed a serious liver deterioration (hepatic mass accretion, lipids accumulation), accompanied by an enhanced oxidative stress (MDA increased, GSH depleted). On the other hand, both ADP-dependent and uncoupled respirations greatly diminished below control values, and the respiratory flux to cytochrome oxydase was mildly lowered. Furthermore, an inhibition of complexes I and III together with an activation of complex II were found. With emergence of oxidative stress, possibly related to a defect in oxidative phosphorylation, some molecular adjustments could contribute to alleviate, at least in part, the deleterious outcomes of insulin resistance in this gerbil species.

  16. Hepatic Mitochondrial Alterations and Increased Oxidative Stress in Nutritional Diabetes-Prone Psammomys obesus Model

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    Saida Bouderba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction is considered to be a pivotal component of insulin resistance and associated metabolic diseases. Psammomys obesus is a relevant model of nutritional diabetes since these adult animals exhibit a state of insulin resistance when fed a standard laboratory chow, hypercaloric for them as compared to their natural food. In this context, alterations in bioenergetics were studied. Using liver mitochondria isolated from these rats fed such a diet for 18 weeks, oxygen consumption rates, activities of respiratory complexes, and content in cytochromes were examined. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and gluthatione (GSH were measured in tissue homogenates. Diabetic Psammomys showed a serious liver deterioration (hepatic mass accretion, lipids accumulation, accompanied by an enhanced oxidative stress (MDA increased, GSH depleted. On the other hand, both ADP-dependent and uncoupled respirations greatly diminished below control values, and the respiratory flux to cytochrome oxydase was mildly lowered. Furthermore, an inhibition of complexes I and III together with an activation of complex II were found. With emergence of oxidative stress, possibly related to a defect in oxidative phosphorylation, some molecular adjustments could contribute to alleviate, at least in part, the deleterious outcomes of insulin resistance in this gerbil species.

  17. Sweet taste perception not altered after acute sleep deprivation in healthy young men

    OpenAIRE

    Hogenkamp, P.S.; Nilsson, E; Chapman, C.D.; Cedernaes, J; Vogel, H; Dickson, S. L.; Broman, J-E; Schi?th, H B; Benedict, C

    2013-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that acutely sleep-deprived participants would rate ascending concentrations of sucrose as more intense and pleasant, than they would do after one night of normal sleep. Such a finding would offer a potential mechanism through which acute sleep loss could promote overeating in humans. Method A total of 16?healthy normal-weight men participated in 2?conditions: sleep (permitted between 22:30 and 06:30?h) and total sleep deprivation (TSD) respectively. On the morning ...

  18. Prenatal stress causes alterations in the morphology of microglia and the inflammatory response of the hippocampus of adult female mice

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    Diz-Chaves Yolanda

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stress during fetal life increases the risk of affective and immune disorders later in life. The altered peripheral immune response caused by prenatal stress may impact on brain function by the modification of local inflammation. In this study we have explored whether prenatal stress results in alterations in the immune response in the hippocampus of female mice during adult life. Methods Pregnant C57BL/6 mice were subjected three times/day during 45 minutes to restraint stress from gestational Day 12 to delivery. Control non-stressed pregnant mice remained undisturbed. At four months of age, non-stressed and prenatally stressed females were ovariectomized. Fifteen days after surgery, mice received an i.p. injection of vehicle or of 5 mg/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Mice were sacrificed 20 hours later by decapitation and the brains were removed. Levels of interleukin-1β (IL1β, interleukin-6 (IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, interferon γ-inducible protein 10 (IP10, and toll-like receptor 4 mRNA were assessed in the hippocampus by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Iba1 immunoreactivity was assessed by immunocytochemistry. Statistical significance was determined by one-way or two-way analysis of variance. Results Prenatal stress, per se, increased IL1β mRNA levels in the hippocampus, increased the total number of Iba1-immunoreactive microglial cells and increased the proportion of microglial cells with large somas and retracted cellular processes. In addition, prenatally stressed and non-stressed animals showed different responses to peripheral inflammation induced by systemic administration of LPS. LPS induced a significant increase in mRNA levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IP10 in the hippocampus of prenatally stressed mice but not of non-stressed animals. In addition, after LPS treatment, prenatally stressed animals showed a higher proportion of Iba1-immunoreactive cells in the hippocampus with

  19. Investigation of biomarkers alterations after an acute tissue trauma in human trapezius muscle, using microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Line Bay; Gazerani, Parisa; Wåhlén, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in muscle milieu are suggested as important activity of peripheral drive in patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain (CMP). Microdialysis (MD) has been used in monitoring altered metabolic response pattern in muscles. However, the insertion of MD probe causes a local tissue trauma. ...

  20. Symptoms of Acute Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Patients With Acute Hand Injuries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opsteegh, Lonneke; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Postema, Klass; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; van der Sluis, Corry K.

    Purpose Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with hand injuries may delay return to work, even when criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV are not met. This study investigated which biomedical and psychosocial factors relate to symptoms of

  1. Metabolic Alterations of the Zebrafish Brain after Acute Alcohol Treatment by 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

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    Dong-Cheol Woo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with acute alcohol treatment in zebrafish by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS. The brain metabolism of zebrafish was investigated after acute alcohol treatment (one-hour long exposure of adult fish to 0.00%, 0.25%, 0.50%, or 1.00% ethyl alcohol with whole brain extraction. The results of this study showed that glutamate (Glu was significantly decreased, scyllo-inositol (sIns showed a small apparent increase only in the highest acute treatment dose group, and myoinositol (mIns showed a significant decrease. [Glu]/[tCr] and [mIns]/[tCr] levels were significantly reduced regardless of the alcohol dose, and [sIns]/[tCr] was increased in the highest alcohol treatment dose group. The present NMR study revealed that specific metabolites, such as Glu and mIns, were substantially decreased in case of acute alcohol exposed zebrafish brain.

  2. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

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    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  3. Salicylic acid alters antioxidant and phenolics metabolism in Catharanthus roseus grown under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Neelam; Misra, Rahul; Mariam, Ajiboye; Yusuf, Kafayat; Yusuf, Lateefat

    2014-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) acts as a potential non-enzymatic antioxidant and a plant growth regulator, which plays a major role in regulating various plant physiological mechanisms. The effects of salicylic acid (SA; 0.05 mM) on physiological parameters, antioxidative capacity and phenolic metabolism, lignin, alkaloid accumulation in salt stressed Catharanthus roseus were investigated. Catharanthus roseus seeds were grown for two months in a glass house at 27-30°C in sunlight, and then divided into four different groups and transplanted with each group with the following solutions for one month: group I (non-saline control), group II, 100 mM NaCl, group III, 0.05 mM SA, group IV, 100 mM NaCl+0.05 mM SA and to determine the physiological parameters (DW, FW, WC), chlorophyll contents, carotenoid contents, lipid peroxidation, phenolics, lignin, alkaloid and enzymatic assays in each leaf pairs and roots. SA exhibited growth-promoting property, which correlated with the increase of dry weight, water content, photosynthetic pigments and soluble proteins. SA has additive effect on the significant increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity, which is followed by an increase in total soluble phenolics and lignin contents in all leaf pairs and root of C. roseus. SA enhances malondialdehyde content in all leaf pairs and root. The antioxidant enzymes (catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-tranferase, superoxide dismutase, peroxidase) as well as alkaloid accumulation increased in all treatments over that of non-saline control but the magnitude of increase was found more in root. Further, the magnitude of increase of alkaloid accumulation was significantly higher in 100 mM NaCl, but highly significant was found in presence of 0.05 mM SA and intermediate in presence of both 0.05 mM SA+100 mM NaCl. We concluded that applied SA to salt stress, antioxidant and phenolic metabolism, and alkaloid accumulation were significantly altered and the extent of alteration varied

  4. Effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress in rat lungs

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    Ronaldo Lopes Torres

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of acute and chronic administration of methylprednisolone on oxidative stress, as quantified by measuring lipid peroxidation (LPO and total reactive antioxidant potential (TRAP, in rat lungs. Methods: Forty Wistar rats were divided into four groups: acute treatment, comprising rats receiving a single injection of methylprednisolone (50 mg/kg i.p.; acute control, comprising rats i.p. injected with saline; chronic treatment, comprising rats receiving methylprednisolone in drinking water (6 mg/kg per day for 30 days; and chronic control, comprising rats receiving normal drinking water. Results: The levels of TRAP were significantly higher in the acute treatment group rats than in the acute control rats, suggesting an improvement in the pulmonary defenses of the former. The levels of lung LPO were significantly higher in the chronic treatment group rats than in the chronic control rats, indicating oxidative damage in the lung tissue of the former. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the acute use of corticosteroids is beneficial to lung tissue, whereas their chronic use is not. The chronic use of methylprednisolone appears to increase lung LPO levels.

  5. Acute stress and working memory: The role of sex and cognitive stress appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandara, M; Garcia-Lluch, M; Pulopulos, M M; Hidalgo, V; Villada, C; Salvador, A

    2016-10-01

    Sex is considered a moderating factor in the relationship between stress and cognitive performance. However, sex differences and the impact of cognitive stress appraisal on working memory performance have not received much attention. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of physiological responses (heart rate and salivary cortisol) and cognitive stress appraisal in Working Memory (WM) performance in males and females. For this purpose, we subjected a comparable number of healthy young adult males (N=37) and females (N=45) to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and we evaluated WM performance before and after the stress task. Females performed better on attention and maintenance after the TSST, but males did not. Moreover, we found that attention and maintenance performance presented a negative relationship with cortisol reactivity in females, but not in males. Nevertheless, we observed that only the females who showed a cortisol decrease after the TSST performed better after the stress task, whereas females and males who showed an increase or no change in cortisol levels, and males who showed a cortisol decrease, did not change their performance over time. In females, we also found that the global indexes of cognitive stress appraisal and cognitive threat appraisal were negatively related to attention and maintenance performance, whereas the Self-concept of Own Competence was positively related to it. However, these relationships were not found in males. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Prepubertal Acute Immobilization Stress on Serum Kisspeptin Level and Testis Histology in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maalhagh, Mehrnoosh; Jahromi, Abdolreza Sotoodeh; Yusefi, Alireza; Razeghi, Ali; Zabetiyan, Hassan; Karami, Mohammad Yasin; Madani, Abdol Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Stress has inhibitory effect on HPG axis through increasing cortisol serum level. In this study, the effect of acute prepubertal stress on kisspeptin, which plays essential role in puberty achievement is assessed. To do this experimental study thirty immature healthy male wistar rats of 4 weeks old and without any symptoms of puberty were selected randomly. These rats were divided into three groups, randomly. Two groups were chosen as control and pretest and one as stress (test) group. Immobilization stress was applied for 10 days and serum level of cortisol, testosterone and kisspeptin were measured. Primary and secondary spermatocyte and sertoli cell evaluated and compared among groups. Mean serum level of kisspeptin in pretest group, control group and stress (test) group were 0.0381 ± 0.0079, 91.0500 ± 4.87430 and 15.2156 ± 3.88135 pg mL(-1) respectively. Serum level of kisspeptin had significant differences between three groups (p stress led to decrease in serum level of kisspeptin and testosterone in stress (test) group compared to control groups. Also stress caused a significant decrease in the numbers of secondary spermatocytes of the test group.

  7. The Effects of Acute Stress-Induced Sleep Disturbance on Acoustic Trauma-Induced Tinnitus in Rats

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    Yiwen Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic tinnitus is a debilitating condition and often accompanied by anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance. It has been suggested that sleep disturbance, such as insomnia, may be a risk factor/predictor for tinnitus-related distress and the two conditions may share common neurobiological mechanisms. This study investigated whether acute stress-induced sleep disturbance could increase the susceptibility to acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus in rats. The animals were exposed to unilateral acoustic trauma 24 h before sleep disturbance being induced using the cage exchange method. Tinnitus perception was assessed behaviourally using a conditioned lick suppression paradigm 3 weeks after the acoustic trauma. Changes in the orexin system in the hypothalamus, which plays an important role in maintaining long-lasting arousal, were also examined using immunohistochemistry. Cage exchange resulted in a significant reduction in the number of sleep episodes and acoustic trauma-induced tinnitus with acoustic features similar to a 32 kHz tone at 100 dB. However, sleep disturbance did not exacerbate the perception of tinnitus in rats. Neither tinnitus alone nor tinnitus plus sleep disturbance altered the number of orexin-expressing neurons. The results suggest that acute sleep disturbance does not cause long-term changes in the number of orexin neurons and does not change the perception of tinnitus induced by acoustic trauma in rats.

  8. Different altered stage correlative expression of high abundance acute-phase proteins in sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma

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    Lim Boon-Kiong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The general enhanced expression of α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT, clusterin (CLU, α1-antitrypsin (AAT, haptoglobin β-chain (HAP, and leucine rich glycoprotein (LRG in the sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOCa was recently reported. In the present study, we compared the expression of the serum acute-phase proteins (APPs in the patients according to their stages of cancer. Results Different altered stage correlative expression of the high abundance serum APPs was demonstrated in sera of the patients studied. While the expression of ACT, HAP and AAT appeared to demonstrate positive correlation with the three initial stages of the cancer, inverse correlation was apparently detected in the expression of LRG and CLU. For patients who were diagnosed with stage IV of the cancer, expression of the serum APPs did not conform to the altered progression changes. Conclusion Our results highlight the potential prognostic significance of selective high abundance serum APPs in patients with EOCa.

  9. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Sarah M; Lupis, Sarah B; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed toward understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body's capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress. A total of 73 college-aged adults (44 females) were investigated. Self-reported sleep behavior was assessed via the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and salivary cortisol responses to the Trier Social Stress Test were measured. In terms of sleep quality, we found a significant three-way interaction, such that relative to bad sleep quality, men who reported fairly good or very good sleep quality showed blunted or exaggerated cortisol responses, respectively, while women's stress responses were less dependent on their self-reported sleep quality. Contrarily, average sleep duration did not appear to impact cortisol stress responses. Lastly, participants who reported daytime dysfunctions (i.e. having trouble staying awake or keeping up enthusiasm) also showed a trend to blunted cortisol stress responses compared to participants who did not experience these types of daytime dysfunctions. Overall, the current study suggests gender-specific stress reactivity dysfunctions as one mechanism linking poor sleep with detrimental physical health outcomes. Furthermore, the observed differential sleep effects may indicate that while the body may be unable to maintain normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal functioning in an acute psychosocial stress situation after falling prey to low sleep quality, it may retain capacities to deal with challenges during extended times of sleep deprivation.

  10. Immediate and long-term effects of meditation on acute stress reactivity, cognitive functions, and intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Yogesh; Sharma, Ratna; Talwar, Anjana

    2012-01-01

    With the current globalization of the world's economy and demands for enhanced performance, stress is present universally. Life's stressful events and daily stresses cause both deleterious and cumulative effects on the human body. The practice of meditation might offer a way to relieve that stress. The research team intended to study the effects of meditation on stress-induced changes in physiological parameters, cognitive functions, intelligence, and emotional quotients. The research team conducted the study in two phases, with a month between them. Each participant served as his own control, and the first phase served as the control for the second phase. In phase 1, the research team studied the effects of a stressor (10 minutes playing a computer game) on participants' stress levels. In phase 2, the research team examined the effects of meditation on stress levels. The research team conducted the study in a lab setting at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, India. The participants were 34 healthy, male volunteers who were students. To study the effects of long-term meditation on stress levels, intelligence, emotional quotients, and cognitive functions participants meditated daily for 1 month, between phases 1 and 2. To study the immediate effects of meditation on stress levels, participants meditated for 15 minutes after playing a computer game to induce stress. The research team measured galvanic skin response (GSR), heart rate (HR), and salivary cortisol and administered tests for the intelligence and emotional quotients (IQ and EQ), acute and perceived stress (AS and PS), and cognitive functions (ie, the Sternberg memory test [short-term memory] and the Stroop test [cognitive flexibility]). Using a pre-post study design, the team performed this testing (1) prior to the start of the study (baseline); (2) in phase 1, after induced stress; (3) in part 1 of phase 2, after 1 month of daily meditation, and (4) in part 2 of phase 2, after

  11. Alginate Oligosaccharide Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity by Suppressing Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mediated Apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-Jie; Ma, Lei-Lei; Shi, Hong-Tao; Zhu, Jian-Bing; Wu, Jian; Ding, Zhi-Wen; An, Yi; Zou, Yun-Zeng; Ge, Jun-Bo

    2016-12-20

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a highly potent chemotherapeutic agent, but its usage is limited by dose-dependent cardiotoxicity. DOX-induced cardiotoxicity involves increased oxidative stress and activated endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. Alginate oligosaccharide (AOS) is a non-immunogenic, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-endoplasmic reticulum stress properties. The present study examined whether AOS pretreatment could protect against acute DOX cardiotoxicity, and the underlying mechanisms focused on oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis. We found that AOS pretreatment markedly increased the survival rate of mice insulted with DOX, improved DOX-induced cardiac dysfunction and attenuated DOX-induced myocardial apoptosis. AOS pretreatment mitigated DOX-induced cardiac oxidative stress, as shown by the decreased expressions of gp91 (phox) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE). Moreover, AOS pretreatment significantly decreased the expression of Caspase-12, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) (markers for endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis) and Bax (a downstream molecule of CHOP), while up-regulating the expression of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Taken together, these findings identify AOS as a potent compound that prevents acute DOX cardiotoxicity, at least in part, by suppression of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum-mediated apoptosis.

  12. [Investigation of risk factors for acute stress reaction following induced abortion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukelić, Jelka; Kapamadzija, Aleksandra; Kondić, Biljana

    2010-01-01

    Termination of pregnancy-induced abortion is inevitable in family planning as the final solution in resolving unwanted pregnancies. It can be the cause of major physical and phychological consequences on women's health. Diverse opinions on psychological consequences of induced abortion can be found in literature. A prospective study was performed in order to predict acute stress disorder (ASD) after the induced abortion and the possibility of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Seven days after the induced abortion, 40 women had to fill in: (1) a special questionnaire made for this investigation, with questions linked to some risk factors inducing stress, (2) Likert's emotional scale and 3. Bryant's acute stress reaction scale. After an induced abortion 52.5% women had ASD and 32.5% women had PTSD. Women with ASD after the abortion developed more sense of guilt, irritability, shame, self-judgement, fear from God and self-hatred. They were less educated, had lower income, they were more religious, did not approve of abortion and had worse relationship with their partners after the abortion in comparison to women without ASD. Age, number of previous abortions and decision to abort did not differ between the two groups. and conclusion Induced abortion represents a predisposing factor for ASD and PTSD in women. Some psycho-social factors contribute to the development of stress after abortion. Serbia has a task to reduce the number of abortions which is very high, in order, to preserve reproductive and phychological health of women.

  13. The impact of acute psychosocial stress on magnetoencephalographic correlates of emotional attention and exogenous visual attention.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludger Elling

    Full Text Available Stress-induced acute activation of the cerebral catecholaminergic systems has often been found in rodents. However, little is known regarding the consequences of this activation on higher cognitive functions in humans. Theoretical inferences would suggest increased distractibility in the sense of increased exogenous attention and emotional attention. The present study investigated the influence of acute stress responses on magnetoencephalographic (MEG correlates of visual attention. Healthy male subjects were presented emotional and neutral pictures in three subsequent MEG recording sessions after being exposed to a TSST-like social stressor, intended to trigger a HPA-response. The subjects anticipation of another follow-up stressor was designed to sustain the short-lived central catecholaminergic stress reactions throughout the ongoing MEG recordings. The heart rate indicates a stable level of anticipatory stress during this time span, subsequent cortisol concentrations and self-report measures of stress were increased. With regard to the MEG correlates of attentional functions, we found that the N1m amplitude remained constantly elevated during stressor anticipation. The magnetic early posterior negativity (EPNm was present but, surprisingly, was not at all modulated during stressor anticipation. This suggests that a general increase of the influence of exogenous attention but no specific effect regarding emotional attention in this time interval. Regarding the time course of the effects, an influence of the HPA on these MEG correlates of attention seems less likely. An influence of cerebral catecholaminergic systems is plausible, but not definite.

  14. Critical job events, acute stress, and strain: a multiple interrupted time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eden, D

    1982-12-01

    A critical job event (CJE) is defined as a time-bounded peak of performance demand made on the individual as an integral part of his job. Though such events are an important source of acute job stress and are amenable to longitudinal study, relevant research has been scant. In the present study, the effects of acute objective stress on subjective stress and on psychological and physiological strain were assessed among 39 first-year nursing students in an interrupted time series with multiple replications. Strain was measured five times, twice in anticipation of CJE interspersed by three low-stress occasions. The CJEs were providing the first comprehensive patient care and the final exam in nursing. A consistently confirmatory pattern of significantly rising and falling strain was found for anxiety, systolic blood pressure, and pulse rate: qualitative overload and serum uric acid changed as predicted four times out of five. CJE research can redress past overemphasis on chronic organizational stress and strengthen causal interpretation.

  15. The multitasking framework: the effects of increasing workload on acute psychobiological stress reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherell, Mark A; Carter, Kirsty

    2014-04-01

    A variety of techniques exist for eliciting acute psychological stress in the laboratory; however, they vary in terms of their ease of use, reliability to elicit consistent responses and the extent to which they represent the stressors encountered in everyday life. There is, therefore, a need to develop simple laboratory techniques that reliably elicit psychobiological stress reactivity that are representative of the types of stressors encountered in everyday life. The multitasking framework is a performance-based, cognitively demanding stressor, representative of environments where individuals are required to attend and respond to several different stimuli simultaneously with varying levels of workload. Psychological (mood and perceived workload) and physiological (heart rate and blood pressure) stress reactivity was observed in response to a 15-min period of multitasking at different levels of workload intensity in a sample of 20 healthy participants. Multitasking stress elicited increases in heart rate and blood pressure, and increased workload intensity elicited dose-response increases in levels of perceived workload and mood. As individuals rarely attend to single tasks in real life, the multitasking framework provides an alternative technique for modelling acute stress and workload in the laboratory. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effects of hyperflexion on acute stress responses in ridden dressage horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Janne Winther; Beekmans, M.; van Dalum, M.

    2014-01-01

    The effects of hyperflexion on the welfare of dressage horses have been debated. This study aimed to investigate acute stress responses of dressage horses ridden in three different Head-and-Neck-positions (HNPs). Fifteen dressage horses were ridden by their usual rider in a standardised 10-min...... concentrations directly after LDR compared to LF. In addition, the horses showed more distinctive head movements, including head waving, during LDR. There were no significant treatment effects on HR and HRV. In conclusion, the results indicate that LDR may be more stressful to these horses during riding....

  17. Early life stress modulates oxytocin effects on limbic system during acute psychosocial stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grimm, Simone; Pestke, Karin; Feeser, Melanie; Aust, Sabine; Weigand, Anne; Wang, Jue; Wingenfeld, Katja; Pruessner, Jens C; La Marca, Roberto; Böker, Heinz; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-01-01

    .... Due to its behavioral and physiological effects, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) is a useful tool to investigate stress responsivity, even though the neurobiological underpinnings of its effects are still unknown...

  18. Sleep quality but not sleep quantity effects on cortisol responses to acute psychosocial stress

    OpenAIRE

    Bassett, Sarah M.; Lupis, Sarah B.; Gianferante, Danielle; Rohleder, Nicolas; Wolf, Jutta M

    2015-01-01

    Given the well-documented deleterious health effects, poor sleep has become a serious public health concern and increasing efforts are directed towards understanding underlying pathways. One potential mechanism may be stress and its biological correlates; however, studies investigating the effects of poor sleep on a body’s capacity to deal with challenges are lacking. The current study thus aimed at testing the effects of sleep quality and sleep quantity on cortisol responses to acute psychos...

  19. 16p11.2 deletion syndrome mice perseverate with active coping response to acute stress - rescue by blocking 5-HT2A receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzini, Chris M; Ehlinger, Daniel G; Alchahin, Adele M; Guo, Yueping; Commons, Kathryn G

    2017-12-01

    In humans a chromosomal hemideletion of the 16p11.2 region results in variable neurodevelopmental deficits including developmental delay, intellectual disability, and features of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Serotonin is implicated in ASD but its role remains enigmatic. In this study we sought to determine if and how abnormalities in serotonin neurotransmission could contribute to the behavioral phenotype of the 16p11.2 deletion syndrome in a mouse model (Del mouse). As ASD is frequently associated with altered response to acute stress and stress may exacerbate repetitive behavior in ASD, we studied the Del mouse behavior in the context of an acute stress using the forced swim test, a paradigm well characterized with respect to serotonin. Del mice perseverated with active coping (swimming) in the forced swim test and failed to adopt passive coping strategies with time as did their wild-type littermates. Analysis of monoamine content by HPLC provided evidence for altered endogenous serotonin neurotransmission in Del mice while there was no effect of genotype on any other monoamine. Moreover, we found that Del mice were highly sensitive to the 5-HT2A antagonists M100907, which at a dose of 0.1 mg/kg normalized their level of active coping and restored the gradual shift to passive coping in the forced swim test. Supporting evidence for altered endogenous serotonin signaling was provided by observations of additional ligand effects including altered forebrain Fos expression. Taken together, these observations indicate notable changes in endogenous serotonin signaling in 16p11.2 deletion mice and support the therapeutic utility of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  20. Effects of acute physical exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory status in young, sedentary obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accattato, Francesca; Greco, Marta; Pullano, Salvatore A; Carè, Ilaria; Fiorillo, Antonino S; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana; Foti, Daniela P; Brunetti, Antonio; Gulletta, Elio

    2017-01-01

    Circulating oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory markers change after regular physical exercise; however, how a short session of acute physical activity affects the inflammatory status and redox balance in sedentary individuals is still unclear. Aim of this study is to assess antioxidant and inflammatory parameters, both at rest and after acute exercise, in sedentary young men with or without obesity. Thirty sedentary male volunteers, aged 20-45 (mean age 32 ± 7 years), were recruited, divided into 3 groups (normal weight: BMI group comparisons demonstrated significantly higher Glutathione Reductase activity in severely obese subjects in the post-exercise period (P = 0.036), and higher EGF levels in normal weight individuals, either before (P = 0.003) and after exercise (P = 0.05). Intra-group comparisons showed that the acute exercise stress induced a significant increase in Glutathione Reductase activity in severely obese subjects only (P = 0.007), a significant decrease in MCP-1 in the normal weight group (P = 0.02), and a decrease in EGF levels in all groups (normal weight: P = 0.025, overweight/moderate obesity: P = 0.04, severe obesity: P = 0.018). Altogether, these findings suggest that in sedentary individuals with different ranges of BMI, Glutathione Reductase and distinct cytokines are differentially involved into the adaptive metabolic changes and redox responses induced by physical exercise. Therefore, these biomarkers may have the potential to identify individuals at higher risk for developing diseases pathophysiologically linked to oxidative stress.

  1. Working memory performance after acute exposure to the cold pressor stress in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncko, Roman; Johnson, Linda; Merikangas, Kathleen; Grillon, Christian

    2009-05-01

    Effects of acute stress exposure on learning and memory have been frequently studied in both animals and humans. However, only a few studies have focused specifically on working memory performance and the available data are equivocal. The present study examined working memory performance during the Sternberg item recognition task after exposure to a predominantly adrenergic stressor. Twenty four healthy subjects were randomly assigned to a stress group or a control group. The stress group was exposed to the cold pressor stress test (CPS; i.e. insertion of the dominant hand into ice water for 60s),while 37 degrees C warm water was used with the control group. Twenty minutes after the stress exposure, working memory performance was tested with the Sternberg item recognition task with three levels of cognitive load. Sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic pituitary adrenocortical (HPA) axis activation during CPS, were assessed by measuring heart rate and salivary cortisol before and during (heart rate) or 30 min after (cortisol) the stress procedure. Exposure to the CPS test was associated with a significant increase in heart rate but no increase in salivary cortisol. Participants exposed to the stress procedure showed significantly shorter reaction times during trials with higher cognitive load but tended to show higher false alarm rates than control subjects. The present results indicate that exposure to CPS can be associated with signs of both enhanced and impaired working memory performance. The observed behavioral pattern might represent a form of streamlined information processing advantageous in a threatening situation.

  2. Inhibitory effects of alprazolam on the development of acute experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in stressed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Iglesias, María J; Novío, Silvia; Almeida-Dias, Antonio; Freire-Garabal, Manuel

    2010-12-01

    The progression and development of multiple sclerosis (MS) has long been hypothesized to be associated with stress. Benzodiazepines have been observed to reduce negative consequences of stress on the immune system in experimental and clinical models, but there are no data on their effects on MS, or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for human MS. We designed experiments conducted to ascertain whether alprazolam could modify the clinical, histological and neuroendocrine manifestations of acute EAE in Lewis rats exposed to a chronic auditory stressor. EAE was induced by injection of an emulsion of MBP and complete Freund's adjuvant containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Stress application and treatment with drugs (placebo or alprazolam) were initiated 5days before inoculation and continued daily for the duration of the experiment (days 14 or 34 postinoculation).Our results show significant increases in the severity of neurological signs, the histological lesions of the spinal cord (inflammation), and the corticosterone plasmatic levels in stressed rats compared to those non-stressed ones. Treatment with alprazolam reversed the adverse effects of stress. These findings could have clinical implications in patients suffering from MS treated with benzodiazepines, so besides the psychopharmacological properties of alprazolam against stress, it has beneficial consequences on EAE. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Thyroid Hormone Receptor beta Mediates Acute Illness-Induced Alterations in Central Thyroid Hormone Metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelen, Anita; Kwakkel, Joan; Chassande, Olivier; Fliers, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Acute illness in mice profoundly affects thyroid hormone metabolism in the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It remains unknown whether the thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-beta is involved in these changes. In the present study, we investigated central thyroid hormone metabolism during

  4. Chemotherapy for testicular cancer induces acute alterations in diastolic heart function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, L.D. van; Willemse, P.M.; Meer, R.W. van der; Burggraaf, J.; Elderen, S.G. van; Smit, J.W.A.; Roos, A. de; Osanto, S.; Lamb, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    Background:After treatment with cisplatin-based chemotherapy for testicular cancer (TC), patients have higher prevalence of cardiovascular complications after long-term follow up. Little is known about acute cardiovascular effects of cisplatin-based chemotherapy. The aim of this study was to explore

  5. The influence of acute stress on attention mechanisms and its electrophysiological correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica eSänger

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available For the selection of relevant information out of a continuous stream of information, which is a common definition of attention, two core mechanisms are assumed: a competition-based comparison of the neuronal activity in sensory areas and the top-down modulation of this competition by frontal executive control functions. Those control functions are thought to bias the processing of information towards the intended goals. Acute stress is thought to impair these frontal functions through the release of cortisol.In the present study, subjects had to detect a luminance change of a stimulus and ignore more salient but task irrelevant orientation changes. Before the execution of this task, subjects underwent a socially evaluated cold pressor test (SECPT or a non-stressful control situation. The SECPT revealed reliable stress response with a significant increase of cortisol and alpha-amylase. Stressed subjects showed higher error rates than controls, particularly in conditions which require top-down control processing to bias the less salient target feature against the more salient and spatially separated distracter.By means of the EEG, subjects who got stressed showed a reduced allocation to the relevant luminance change apparent in a modulation of the N1pc. The following N2pc, which reflects a re-allocation of attentional resources, supports the error pattern. There was only an N2pc in conditions, which required to bias the less salient luminance change. Moreover, this N2pc was decreased as a consequence of the induced stress. These results allow the conclusion that acute stress impairs the intention-based attentional allocation and enhances the stimulus-driven selection, leading to a strong distractibility during attentional information selection.

  6. Acute restraint stress decreases c-fos immunoreactivity in hilar mossy cells of the adult dentate gyrus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moretto, Jillian N.; Duffy, Áine M.

    2017-01-01

    Although a great deal of information is available about the circuitry of the mossy cells (MCs) of the dentate gyrus (DG) hilus, their activity in vivo is not clear. The immediate early gene c-fos can be used to gain insight into the activity of MCs in vivo, because c-fos protein expression reflects increased neuronal activity. In prior work, it was identified that control rats that were perfusion-fixed after removal from their home cage exhibited c-fos immunoreactivity (ir) in the DG in a spatially stereotyped pattern: ventral MCs and dorsal granule cells (GCs) expressed c-fos protein (Duffy et al., Hippocampus 23:649–655, 2013). In this study, we hypothesized that restraint stress would alter c-fos-ir, because MCs express glucocorticoid type 2 receptors and the DG is considered to be involved in behaviors related to stress or anxiety. We show that acute restraint using a transparent nose cone for just 10 min led to reduced c-fos-ir in ventral MCs compared to control rats. In these comparisons, c-fos-ir was evaluated 30 min after the 10 min-long period of restraint, and if evaluation was later than 30 min c-fos-ir was no longer suppressed. Granule cells (GCs) also showed suppressed c-fos-ir after acute restraint, but it was different than MCs, because the suppression persisted for over 30 min after the restraint. We conclude that c-fos protein expression is rapidly and transiently reduced in ventral hilar MCs after a brief period of restraint, and suppressed longer in dorsal GCs. PMID:28190104

  7. Transcriptional analysis of bla NDM-1 and copy number alteration under carbapenem stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D