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Sample records for acute strenuous exercise

  1. Rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure after strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse: case report and literature review

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    Elizabeth De Francesco Daher

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Rhabdomyolysis is a severe and life-threatening condition in which skeletal muscle is damaged. Acute renal failure due to rhabdomyolysis has been widely described and its main pathophysiological mechanisms are renal vasoconstriction, intraluminal cast formation and direct myoglobin toxicity. OBJECTIVE: To report on a case of acute renal failure (ARF induced by rhabdomyolysis due to strenuous exercise and alcohol abuse and to describe the pathophysiology of this type of ARF. CASE REPORT: A 39-year-old man arrived at the hospital emergency service with swollen legs and lower extremity compartment syndrome. He was oliguric and had serum creatinine and urea levels of 8.1 mg/dl and 195 mg/dl, respectively. The diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made through clinical and laboratory findings (creatine kinase activity of 26320 IU/l. The initial treatment consisted of fluid replacement and forced diuresis. The specific treatment for compartment syndrome, such as fasciotomy, was avoided in order to prevent infection. Partial recovery of renal function was recorded, after ten hemodialysis sessions. Complete recovery was observed after two months of follow-up.

  2. The impact of acute and chronic strenuous exercise on pelvic floor muscle strength and support in nulliparous healthy women.

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    Middlekauff, Monique L; Egger, Marlene J; Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-09-01

    Strenuous physical activity, which is known to increase intraabdominal pressure and theoretically places stress on the pelvic floor, may affect pelvic support in nulliparous women. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the differences in maximal vaginal descent (MVD), vaginal resting pressure (VRP), and pelvic floor muscle strength (PFMS) between women who habitually perform strenuous exercise vs women who refrain from performing strenuous exercise; and (2) compare MVD, VRP, and PFMS before and immediately following physical activity in the strenuous and nonstrenuous groups separately. Participants were healthy nulliparous women ages 18-35 years who were habitual strenuous or nonstrenuous exercisers. Women in the strenuous group participated in CrossFit (CrossFit, Inc., Washington, DC) at least 3 days per week for at least 6 months. We assessed anthropometric and body composition values using standardized procedures. Participants completed the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification examination and pelvic muscle strength assessment before and again within 15 minutes of completing exercise (CrossFit for the strenuous group and self-paced walking for the nonstrenuous). A research nurse masked to study group assignment recorded MVD, defined as the greatest value of anterior, posterior, or apical support, and VRP and PFMS using a perineometer. Maximal PFMS was recorded as the highest pressure measured in 3 vaginal contraction trials. Data were analyzed using parametric and nonparametric tests as appropriate. P < .05 was considered significant. Seventy nulliparous women participated in the study, 35 in each group. The mean age was 24.77 ± 4.3 years. Compared to the nonstrenuous group, strenuous participants were heavier (64.70 ± 7.78 kg vs 60.6 ± 8.99 kg, P = .027), had lower percent body fat (23.36 ± 5.88% vs 27.55 ± 7.07%, P = .003), and had higher handgrip strength (20.78 ± 5.97 kg vs 16.04 ± 11.04 kg, P = .001). Before exercise, there were no

  3. Strenuous physical exercise adversely affects monocyte chemotaxis

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    Czepluch, Frauke S; Barres, Romain; Caidahl, Kenneth

    2011-01-01

    Physical exercise is important for proper cardiovascular function and disease prevention, but it may influence the immune system. We evaluated the effect of strenuous exercise on monocyte chemotaxis. Monocytes were isolated from blood of 13 young, healthy, sedentary individuals participating...... in a three-week training program which consisted of repeated exercise bouts. Monocyte chemotaxis and serological biomarkers were investigated at baseline, after three weeks training and after four weeks recovery. Chemotaxis towards vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) and transforming growth factor...

  4. Sex differences in cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise.

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    Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Foulds, Heather J; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Koehle, Michael S; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) function after an ultramarathon, and the association of vascular and training indices with the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue. Descriptive field study. Fat Dog 100 Ultramarathon Trail Race, Canada. Thirty-four (13 women) recreational runners (aged 28-56 years). A 100-km or 160-km mountain marathon. Baseline baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate variability, and arterial compliance; Pre-exercise and postexercise echocardiographic evaluations of LV dimensions, volumes, Doppler flow velocities, tissue velocities, strain, and strain rate. Finishers represented 17 men (44.8 ± 6.6 years) and 8 women (45.9 ± 10.2 years; P = 0.758). After ultraendurance exercise, significant reductions (P training status/experience. These findings suggest that vascular health is an important contributor to the degree of cardiovascular strain incurred as the result of an acute bout of prolonged strenuous exercise.

  5. Inadequate cerebral oxygen delivery and central fatigue during strenuous exercise

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    Nybo, Lars; Rasmussen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Under resting conditions, the brain is protected against hypoxia because cerebral blood flow increases when the arterial oxygen tension becomes low. However, during strenuous exercise, hyperventilation lowers the arterial carbon dioxide tension and blunts the increase in cerebral blood flow, which...... can lead to an inadequate oxygen delivery to the brain and contribute to the development of fatigue....

  6. Inflammatory response to strenuous muscular exercise in man

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    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the humoral and cellular changes occurring during strenuous muscular work in humans, the concept of inflammatory response to exercise (IRE is developed. The main indices of IRE consist of signs of an acute phase response, leucocytosis and leucocyte activation, release of inflammatory mediators, tissue damage and cellular infiltrates, production of free radicals, activation of complement, and coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways. Depending on exercise intensity and duration, it seems likely that muscle and/or associated connective tissue damage, contact system activation due to shear stress on endothelium and endotoxaemia could be the triggering mechanisms of IRE. Although this phenomenon can be considered in most cases as a physiological process associated with tissue repair, exaggerated IRE could have physiopathological consequences. On the other hand, the influence of several factors such as age, sex, training, hormonal status, nutrition, anti-inflammatory drugs, and the extent to which IRE could be a potential risk for subjects undergoing intense physical training require further study.

  7. The Effects of an Acute Bout of Strenuous Aerobic Exercise on Plasma, Erythrocyte, Urinary and Dietary Values for Selected Trace Minerals

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    1996-12-09

    associated with a decreased plasma level of the enzyme during and after two hours of soccer training (92). Increased Zn losses from acute exercise-induced...ascorbic acid (78,134). An interaction between dietary Cu and the macronutrients may exist (29,108). Carbohydrate as simple sugars, such as fructose or...Appendix F). Dietary intakes and percent RDA or ESADDI values were calculated for energy and selected macronutrients and minerals. Biochemical Analysis

  8. The Influence of Methylsulfonylmethane on Inflammation-Associated Cytokine Release before and following Strenuous Exercise

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    Mariè van der Merwe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Inflammation is associated with strenuous exercise and methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has been shown to have anti-inflammatory properties. Methods. Physically active men were supplemented with either placebo or MSM (3 grams per day for 28 days before performing 100 repetitions of eccentric knee extension exercise. Ex vivo and in vitro testing consisted of evaluating cytokine production in blood (whole blood and isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS, before and through 72 hours after exercise, while in vivo testing included the evaluation of cytokines before and through 72 hours after exercise. Results. LPS stimulation of whole blood after MSM supplementation resulted in decreased induction of IL-1β, with no effect on IL-6, TNF-α, or IL-8. After exercise, there was a reduced response to LPS in the placebo, but MSM resulted in robust release of IL-6 and TNF-α. A small decrease in resting levels of proinflammatory cytokines was noted with MSM, while an acute postexercise increase in IL-10 was observed with MSM. Conclusion. Strenuous exercise causes a robust inflammatory reaction that precludes the cells from efficiently responding to additional stimuli. MSM appears to dampen the release of inflammatory molecules in response to exercise, resulting in a less incendiary environment, allowing cells to still have the capacity to mount an appropriate response to an additional stimulus after exercise.

  9. Acute Effects of Moderate and Strenuous Running on Trace Element Distribution in the Brain, Liver, and Spleen of Trained Rats

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    Kıvanç Ergen

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Trace elements such as manganese (Mn, cobalt (Co and chromium (Cr play key roles in metabolic reactions and are important in many physiological enzymatic processes. In this study, we aimed to investigate the acute effects of moderate and strenuous running (treadmill exercise on the levels of Mn, Co and Cr in the brain, liver, and spleen of trained rats. Study Design: Animal experiment. Material and Methods: Twenty-one Wistar-Albino adult male rats were used in the study. Rats were grouped as control group (no mandated exercise; n=8, moderate exercise group (30 min exercise duration; n=7, and strenuous exercise group (60 min exercise duration; n=6. The levels of Mn, Co, and Cr in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe, brain stem, liver, and spleen were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Cr levels in liver of rats increased in parallel to the time course of running supporting the exercise training effect on the action of insulin. Compared to the control group, the level of Co significantly decreased in the brain stem of rats in the moderate exercise group (p=0.009 and in the frontal lobe of rats in the strenuous exercise group (p=0.004. In the strenuous exercise group, an examination of the brain stem revealed that the level of Mn significantly decreased (p=0.001, and levels of Co and Cr were apparently depleted to the extent that these elements were no longer detectable. Conclusion: A notable finding is that during or after single bout strenuous exercise, levels of Co decreased in the spleen and particularly decreased in the brain stem of regularly trained rats. From this study, it can be inferred that sportsmen should aware trace element disturbances among the body parts or depletion of some trace elements after single bout of chronic strenuous running exercise.

  10. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

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    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung; Lim, Wonchung; Kim, Taeyoung; Kang, Chounghun

    2015-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle

  11. Strenuous exercise induces mitochondrial damage in skeletal muscle of old mice

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    Lee, Sangho; Kim, Minjung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Wonchung [Department of Sports Medicine, College of Health Science, Cheongju University, Cheongju 363-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Taeyoung [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Chounghun, E-mail: kangx119@umn.edu [Department of Physical Education, Hankuk Univrsity of Foreign Studies, Seoul 130-791 (Korea, Republic of); Laboratory of Physiological Hygiene and Exercise Science, School of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota at Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2015-05-29

    Strenuous exercise is known to cause excessive ROS generation and inflammation. However, the mechanisms responsible for the regulation of mitochondrial integrity in the senescent muscle during high-intensity exercise (HE) are not well studied. Here, we show that HE suppresses up-regulation of mitochondrial function despite increase in mitochondrial copy number, following excessive ROS production, proinflammatory cytokines and NFκB activation. Moreover, HE in the old group resulted in the decreasing of both fusion (Mfn2) and fission (Drp1) proteins that may contribute to alteration of mitochondrial morphology. This study suggests that strenuous exercise does not reverse age-related mitochondrial damage and dysfunction by the increased ROS and inflammation. - Highlights: • Effect of exercise on mitochondrial function of aged skeletal muscles was studied. • Strenuous exercise triggered excessive ROS production and inflammatory cytokines. • Strenuous exercise suppressed mitochondrial function in senescent muscle.

  12. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation.

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    Xiao, Weihua; Chen, Peijie; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhao, Linlin

    2015-10-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C) Control, E) Exercise, (E1) Exercise with one week to recover, (ES) Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1) Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031), reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003) and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041) of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05). Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  13. The Impaired Function of Macrophages Induced by Strenuous Exercise Could Not Be Ameliorated by BCAA Supplementation

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    Weihua Xiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of strenuous exercise on the functions of peritoneal macrophages in rats and to test the hypothesis that branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation will be beneficial to the macrophages of rats from strenuous exercise. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: (C Control, E Exercise, (E1 Exercise with one week to recover, (ES Exercise + Supplementation and (ES1 Exercise + Supplementation with 1 week to recover. All rats except those of the sedentary control were subjected to four weeks of strenuous exercise. Blood hemoglobin, serum testosterone and BCAA levels were tested. Peritoneal macrophages functions were also determined at the same time. The data showed that hemoglobin, testosterone, BCAA levels, and body weight in group E decreased significantly as compared with that of group C. Meanwhile, phagocytosis capacity (decreased by 17.07%, p = 0.031, reactive oxygen species (ROS production (decreased by 26%, p = 0.003 and MHC II mRNA (decreased by 22%, p = 0.041 of macrophages decreased in the strenuous exercise group as compared with group C. However, the chemotaxis of macrophages did not change significantly. In addition, BCAA supplementation could slightly increase the serum BCAA levels of rats from strenuous exercise (increased by 6.70%, p > 0.05. Moreover, the body weight, the blood hemoglobin, the serum testosterone and the function of peritoneal macrophages in group ES did not change significantly as compared with group E. These results suggest that long-term intensive exercise impairs the function of macrophages, which is essential for microbicidal capability. This may represent a novel mechanism of immunosuppression induced by strenuous exercise. Moreover, the impaired function of macrophage induced by strenuous exercise could not be ameliorated by BCAA supplementation in the dosing and timing used for this study.

  14. Does intermittent pneumatic leg compression enhance muscle recovery after strenuous eccentric exercise?

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    Cochrane, D J; Booker, H R; Mundel, T; Barnes, M J

    2013-11-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) has gained rapid popularity as a post-exercise recovery modality. Despite its widespread use and anecdotal claims for enhancing muscle recovery there is no scientific evidence to support its use. 10 healthy, active males performed a strenuous bout of eccentric exercise (3 sets of 100 repetitions) followed by IPC treatment or control performed immediately after exercise and at 24 and 48 h post-exercise. Muscular performance measurements were taken prior to exercise and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise and included single-leg vertical jump (VJ) and peak and average isometric [knee angle 75º] (ISO), concentric (CON) and eccentric (ECC) contractions performed at slow (30° · s⁻¹) and fast (180° · s⁻¹) velocities. Plasma creatine kinase (CK) samples were taken at pre- and post-exercise 24, 48 and 72 h. Strenuous eccentric exercise resulted in a significant decrease in peak ISO, peak and average CON (30° · s⁻¹) at 24 h compared to pre-exercise for both IPC and control, however VJ performance remained unchanged. There were no significant differences between conditions (IPC and control) or condition-time interactions for any of the contraction types (ISO, CON, ECC) or velocities (CON, ECC 30° · s⁻¹ and 180° · s⁻¹). However, CK was significantly elevated at 24 h compared to pre-exercise in both conditions (IPC and control). IPC did not attenuate muscle force loss following a bout of strenuous eccentric exercise in comparison to a control. While IPC has been used in the clinical setting to treat pathologic conditions, the parameters used to treat muscle damage following strenuous exercise in healthy participants are likely to be very different than those used to treat pathologic conditions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Effect of strenuous physical exercise on circulating cell-derived microparticles.

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    Chaar, Vicky; Romana, Marc; Tripette, Julien; Broquere, Cédric; Huisse, Marie-Geneviève; Hue, Olivier; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Connes, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Strenuous exercise is associated with an inflammatory response involving the activation of several types of blood cells. In order to document the specific activation of these cell types, we studied the effect of three maximal exercise tests conducted to exhaustion on the quantitative and qualitative pattern of circulating cell-derived microparticles and inflammatory molecules in healthy subjects. This study mainly indicated that the plasma concentration of microparticles from platelets and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) was increased immediately after the strenuous exercise. In addition, the increase in plasma concentration of microparticles from PMN and platelets was still observed after 2 hours of recovery. A similar pattern was observed for the IL-6 plasma level. In contrast, no change was observed for either soluble selectins or plasma concentration of microparticles from red blood cells, monocytes and endothelial cells. In agreement, sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1 levels were not changed by the exercise. We conclude that a strenuous exercise is accompanied by platelet- and PMN-derived microparticle production that probably reflects the activation of these two cell types.

  16. Immersion pulmonary oedema in a healthy diver not exposed to cold or strenuous exercise.

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    Castagna, Olivier; de Maistre, Sébastien; Schmid, Bruno; Caudal, Delphine; Regnard, Jacques

    2018-03-31

    In healthy divers, the occurrence of immersion pulmonary oedema (IPE) is commonly caused by contributory factors including strenuous exercise, cold water and negative-pressure breathing. Contrary to this established paradigm, this case reports on a 26-year-old, well-trained combat swimmer who succumbed to acute IPE during static immersion in temperate (21°C) water, while using a front-mounted counterlung rebreather. The incident occurred during repeated depth-controlled ascent practice at the French military diving school. It was discovered that the diver had attempted to stop any gas leakage into the system by over-tightening the automatic diluent valve (ADV) (25th notch of 27) during the dive, thus causing a high resistance to inspiratory flow. The ventilatory constraints imposed by this ADV setting were assessed as a 3.2 Joules·L⁻¹ inspiratory work of breathing and -5 kPa (-50 mbar) transpulmonary pressure. This report confirms the key role of negative pressure breathing in the development of interstitial pulmonary oedema. Such a breathing pattern can cause a lowering of thoracic, airway and interstitial lung pressure, leading to high capillary pressure during each inspiration. Repetition of the diving drills resulted in an accumulation of interstitial lung water extravasation, causing pathological decompensation and proven symptoms. Copyright: This article is the copyright of the authors who grant Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine a non-exclusive licence to publish the article in electronic and other forms.

  17. Evaluation of Dogs with Border Collie Collapse, Including Response to Two Standardized Strenuous Exercise Protocols.

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    Taylor, Susan; Shmon, Cindy; Su, Lillian; Epp, Tasha; Minor, Katie; Mickelson, James; Patterson, Edward; Shelton, G Diane

    2016-01-01

    Clinical and metabolic variables were evaluated in 13 dogs with border collie collapse (BCC) before, during, and following completion of standardized strenuous exercise protocols. Six dogs participated in a ball-retrieving protocol, and seven dogs participated in a sheep-herding protocol. Findings were compared with 16 normal border collies participating in the same exercise protocols (11 retrieving, five herding). Twelve dogs with BCC developed abnormal mentation and/or an abnormal gait during evaluation. All dogs had post-exercise elevations in rectal temperature, pulse rate, arterial blood pH, PaO2, and lactate, and decreased PaCO2 and bicarbonate, as expected with strenuous exercise, but there were no significant differences between BCC dogs and normal dogs. Electrocardiography demonstrated sinus tachycardia in all dogs following exercise. Needle electromyography was normal, and evaluation of muscle biopsy cryosections using a standard panel of histochemical stains and reactions did not reveal a reason for collapse in 10 dogs with BCC in which these tests were performed. Genetic testing excluded the dynamin-1 related exercise-induced collapse mutation and the V547A malignant hyperthermia mutation as the cause of BCC. Common reasons for exercise intolerance were eliminated. Although a genetic basis is suspected, the cause of collapse in BCC was not determined.

  18. Strenuous exercise decreases the percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation

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    Steensberg, A; Toft, A D; Bruunsgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    -gamma and interleukin (IL)-2, and type 2 (Th2 and Tc2) cells, which produce IL-4. The question addressed in the present study was whether exercise affected the relative balance between the circulating levels of these cytokine-producing T cells. Nine male runners performed treadmill running for 2.5 h at 75% of maximal...... oxygen consumption. The intracellular expression of cytokines was detected following stimulation with ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in blood obtained before, during, and after exercise. The percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation was suppressed at the end of exercise and 2 h after......Prolonged strenuous exercise is followed by a temporary functional immune impairment. Low numbers of CD4+ T helper (Th) and CD8+ T cytotoxic (Tc) cells are found in the circulation. These cells can be divided according to their cytokine profile into type 1 (Th1 and Tc1), which produce interferon...

  19. Massage Alleviates Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness after Strenuous Exercise: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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    Jianmin Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of massage on alleviating delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS and muscle performance after strenuous exercise.Method: Seven databases consisting of PubMed, Embase, EBSCO, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang were searched up to December 2016. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs were eligible and the outcomes of muscle soreness, performance (including muscle maximal isometric force (MIF and peak torque and creatine kinase (CK were used to assess the effectiveness of massage intervention on DOMS.Results: Eleven articles with a total of 23 data points (involving 504 participants satisfied the inclusion criteria and were pooled in the meta-analysis. The findings demonstrated that muscle soreness rating decreased significantly when the participants received massage intervention compared with no intervention at 24 h (SMD: –0.61, 95% CI: –1.17 to –0.05, P = 0.03, 48 h (SMD: –1.51, 95% CI: –2.24 to –0.77, P < 0.001, 72 h (SMD: –1.46, 95% CI: –2.59 to –0.33, P = 0.01 and in total (SMD: –1.16, 95% CI: –1.60 to –0.72, P < 0.001 after intense exercise. Additionally, massage therapy improved MIF (SMD: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.21–0.90, P = 0.002 and peak torque (SMD: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.04–0.71, P = 0.03 as total effects. Furthermore, the serum CK level was reduced when participants received massage intervention (SMD: –0.64, 95% CI: –1.04 to –0.25, P = 0.001.Conclusion: The current evidence suggests that massage therapy after strenuous exercise could be effective for alleviating DOMS and improving muscle performance.

  20. Effect of strenuous maternal exercise before and during pregnancy on rat progeny renal function

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    Oliveira A.O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of strenuous exercise before and during pregnancy on the renal function and morphological alterations of the progeny were determined in a study on female Wistar rats. This research was done based on a previous study carried out in our laboratory, which showed morphological alterations in rats submitted to this kind of exercise. As the form is related to the function, the physiological relevance of submitting a pregnant female to a high-intensity exercise training regimen could be explained by the fact that morphological alterations can influence kidney function. The animals were assigned to one of two groups: control animals that did not exercise during pregnancy and trained animals that swam for 120 min 5 days a week for 8 weeks before pregnancy and daily for 60 min over a period of 8 weeks starting on the second day of pregnancy. Seven rats of each group were analyzed for morphological alterations and for renal function. The progeny of the rats used for morphological evaluation were born by cesarean section and the progeny of the animals used to evaluate renal function were born normally. The progeny were two months old when renal function was evaluated. Fertility and morbidity were the same for both groups. Strenuous maternal exercise had no significant influence on glomerular filtration rate (GFR but renal plasma flow was lower in the progeny of the trained group (mean ± SD, 16.65 ± 3.77 ml min-1 kg-1 compared to the progeny of the control group (33.42 ± 2.56 ml min-1 kg-1. Antidiuretic and antinatriuretic effects on the progeny of the trained group were observed, since urine flow as percentage of GFR and the fraction of urinary sodium excretion were lower in this group (1.38 ± 0.10 and 0.60 ± 0.04%, respectively compared to the progeny of the control group (2.36 ± 0.11 and 1.55 ± 0.20%, respectively. Moreover, in this exercise program, fetuses from trained animals were small-sized (2.45 ± 0.19 vs 4.66 ± 2.45 g for

  1. Evaluation of anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice

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    Zhang, Wei-qiang

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the anti-fatigue and immunomodulating effects of quercetin in strenuous exercise mice. Mice were given orally either corn oil or quercetin (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg body weight suspended in corn oil) by gavage once a day for 28 day. All mice were sacrificed after rotarod test and the major biochemical parameters were analyzed in serum and liver. The results indicated that quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects by prolonging retention times, decreasing levels of blood lactate and serum urea nitrogen, and increasing levels of blood glucose, tissue glycogen and serum glucagon. Furthermore, quercetin could improve the immune function of fatigue mice by decreasing tumor necrosis factor-α levels, and elevated interleukin-10 levels. Quercetin possessed anti-fatigue effects may be related to its immunomodulating effects.

  2. Endothelial glycocalyx integrity is preserved in young, healthy men during a single bout of strenuous physical exercise.

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    Majerczak, J; Duda, K; Chlopicki, S; Bartosz, G; Zakrzewska, A; Balcerczyk, A; Smoleński, R T; Zoladz, J A

    2016-06-20

    In the present study we aimed to evaluate whether oxidative stress and inflammation induced by strenuous exercise affect glycocalyx integrity and endothelial function. Twenty one young, untrained healthy men performed a maximal incremental cycling exercise - until exhaustion. Markers of glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1, heparan sulfate and hyaluronic acid), endothelial status (nitric oxide and prostacyclin metabolites - nitrate, nitrite, 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha)), oxidative stress (8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine) and antioxidant capacity (uric acid, non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity) as well as markers of inflammation (sVCAM-1 and sICAM-1) were analyzed in venous blood samples taken at rest and at the end of exercise. The applied strenuous exercise caused a 5-fold increase in plasma lactate and hypoxanthine concentrations (p<0.001), a fall in plasma uric acid concentration and non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (p<10(-4)), accompanied by an increase (p=0.003) in sVCAM-1 concentration. Plasma 6-keto-prostaglandin F(1alpha) concentration increased (p=0.006) at exhaustion, while nitrate and nitrite concentrations were not affected. Surprisingly, no significant changes in serum syndecan-1 and heparan sulfate concentrations were observed. We have concluded, that a single bout of severe-intensity exercise is well accommodated by endothelium in young, healthy men as it neither results in evident glycocalyx disruption nor in the impairment of nitric oxide and prostacyclin production.

  3. Effects of a single bout of strenuous exercise on platelet activation in female ApoE/LDLR-/- mice.

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    Przyborowski, K; Kassassir, H; Wojewoda, M; Kmiecik, K; Sitek, B; Siewiera, K; Zakrzewska, A; Rudolf, A M; Kostogrys, R; Watala, C; Zoladz, J A; Chlopicki, S

    2017-11-01

    Strenuous physical exercise leads to platelet activation that is normally counterbalanced by the production of endothelium-derived anti-platelet mediators, including prostacyclin (PGI 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO). However, in the case of endothelial dysfunction, e.g. in atherosclerosis, there exists an increased risk for intravascular thrombosis during exercise that might be due to an impairment in endothelial anti-platelet mechanisms. In the present work, we evaluated platelet activation at rest and following a single bout of strenuous treadmill exercise in female ApoE/LDLR - /- mice with early (3-month-old) and advanced (7-month-old) atherosclerosis compared to female age-matched WT mice. In sedentary and post-exercise groups of animals, we analyzed TXB 2 generation and the expression of platelet activation markers in the whole blood ex vivo assay. We also measured pre- and post-exercise plasma concentration of 6-keto-PGF 1α , nitrite/nitrate, lipid profile, and blood cell count. Sedentary 3- and 7-month-old ApoE/LDLR - /- mice displayed significantly higher activation of platelets compared to age-matched wild-type (WT) mice, as evidenced by increased TXB 2 production, expression of P-selectin, and activation of GPIIb/IIIa receptors, as well as increased fibrinogen and von Willebrand factor (vWf) binding. Interestingly, in ApoE/LDLR - /- but not in WT mice, strenuous exercise partially inhibited TXB 2 production, the expression of activated GPIIb/IIIa receptors, and fibrinogen binding, with no effect on the P-selectin expression and vWf binding. Post-exercise down-regulation of the activated GPIIb/IIIa receptor expression and fibrinogen binding was not significantly different between 3- and 7-month-old ApoE/LDLR - /- mice; however, only 7-month-old ApoE/LDLR - /- mice showed lower TXB 2 production after exercise. In female 4-6-month-old ApoE/LDLR - /- but not in WT mice, an elevated pre- and post-exercise plasma concentration of 6-keto-PGF 1α was observed. In turn

  4. Longitudinal changes in reproductive hormones and menstrual cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: abrupt transition to exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Caston-Balderrama, A L; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B; Nosbisch, C; Cameron, J L

    2001-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction have documented a high proportion of menstrual cycle disturbances in women involved in strenuous exercise training. However, longitudinal studies have been needed to examine individual susceptibility to exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and to elucidate the progression of changes in reproductive function that occur with strenuous exercise training. Using the female cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), we documented changes in menstrual cyclicity and patterns of LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone secretion as the animals developed exercise-induced amenorrhea. As monkeys gradually increased running to 12.3 +/- 0.9 km/day, body weight did not change significantly although food intake remained constant. The time spent training until amenorrhea developed varied widely among animals (7-24 months; mean = 14.3 +/- 2.2 months) and was not correlated with initial body weight, training distance, or food intake. Consistent changes in function of the reproductive axis occurred abruptly, one to two menstrual cycles before the development of amenorrhea. These included significant declines in plasma reproductive hormone concentrations, an increase in follicular phase length, and a decrease in luteal phase progesterone secretion. These data document a high level of interindividual variability in the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction, delineate the progression of changes in reproductive hormone secretion that occur with exercise training, and illustrate an abrupt transition from normal cyclicity to an amenorrheic state in exercising individuals, that is not necessarily associated with weight loss.

  5. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Coyle, E. F.; Sidossis, L. S.; Zhang, X. J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the extent to which decreased plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration contributes to the relatively low rates of fat oxidation during high-intensity exercise, we studied FFA metabolism in six endurance-trained cyclists during 20-30 min of exercise [85% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max)].

  6. Enhanced cerebral CO2 reactivity during strenuous exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Stie, Henrik; Nielsen, Bodil

    2006-01-01

    be accounted for by the reduction in the arterial CO(2) tension (P(a)CO(2)). This study evaluated whether the apparently large reduction in MCA V(mean) at the end of exhaustive exercise relates to an enhanced cerebrovascular CO(2) reactivity. The CO(2) reactivity was evaluated in six young healthy male......) at rest to 61.4 +/- 10.1% kPa(-1) during exercise with hyperthermia (P accounted for the 28 +/- 10% decrease in MCA V(mean). The results suggest that during...... exercise changes in cerebral blood flow are dominated by the arterial carbon dioxide tension....

  7. Strenuous exercise aggravates MDMA-induced skeletal muscle damage in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duarte, Jose A.; Leao, Anabela; Magalhaes, Jose; Ascensao, Antonio; Bastos, Maria L.; Amado, Francisco L.; Vilarinho, Laura; Quelhas, Dulce; Appell, Hans J.; Carvalho, Felix

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ecstasy (MDMA) administration on body temperature and soleus muscle histology in exercised and non-exercised mice. Charles-River mice were distributed into four groups: Control (C), exercise (EX), MDMA treated (M), and M + EX. The treated animals received an i.p. injection (10 mg/kg) of MDMA (saline for C and EX), and the exercise consisted of a 90 min level run at a velocity of 900 m/h, immediately after the MDMA or saline administration. Body temperature was recorded every 30 min via subcutaneous implanted transponder. Animals were sacrificed 1.5, 25.5, and 49.5 h after i.p. injection and the soleus muscles were removed and processed for light and electron microscopy. The MDMA-treated animals showed a significant increase in body temperature (similar in M and M + EX groups), reaching the peak 90 min after i.p. administration; their temperature remained higher than control for more than 5 h. The EX group evidenced a similar and parallel, yet lower temperature increase during exercise and recovery. Morphological signs of damage were rarely encountered in the EX group; they were more pronounced in M group and even aggravated in M + EX group. In conclusion, MDMA and exercise per se increased body temperature but in conjunction did not have a cumulated effect. However, ecstasy and concomitant physical activity might severely accumulate with regard to skeletal muscle toxicity and may lead to rhabdomyolysis

  8. In dubio pro silentio – Even Loud Music Does Not Facilitate Strenuous Ergometer Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutz, Gunter; Schorer, Jörg; Sojke, Dominik; Neugebauer, Judith; Bullack, Antje

    2018-01-01

    Background: Music listening is wide-spread in amateur sports. Ergometer exercise is one such activity which is often performed with loud music. Aim and Hypotheses: We investigated the effects of electronic music at different intensity levels on ergometer performance (physical performance, force on the pedal, pedaling frequency), perceived fatigue and heart rate in healthy adults. We assumed that higher sound intensity levels are associated with greater ergometer performance and less perceived effort, particularly for untrained individuals. Methods: Groups of high trained and low trained healthy males (N = 40; age = 25.25 years; SD = 3.89 years) were tested individually on an ergometer while electronic dance music was played at 0, 65, 75, and 85 dB. Participants assessed their music experience during the experiment. Results: Majorities of participants rated the music as not too loud (65%), motivating (77.50%), appropriate for this sports exercise (90%), and having the right tempo (67.50%). Participants noticed changes in the acoustical environment with increasing intensity levels, but no further effects on any of the physical or other subjective measures were found for neither of the groups. Therefore, the main hypothesis must be rejected. Discussion: These findings suggest that high loudness levels do not positively influence ergometer performance. The high acceptance of loud music and perceived appropriateness could be based on erroneous beliefs or stereotypes. Reasons for the widespread use of loud music in fitness sports needs further investigation. Reducing loudness during fitness exercise may not compromise physical performance or perceived effort. PMID:29867622

  9. In dubio pro silentio – Even Loud Music Does Not Facilitate Strenuous Ergometer Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunter Kreutz

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Music listening is wide-spread in amateur sports. Ergometer exercise is one such activity which is often performed with loud music.Aim and Hypotheses: We investigated the effects of electronic music at different intensity levels on ergometer performance (physical performance, force on the pedal, pedaling frequency, perceived fatigue and heart rate in healthy adults. We assumed that higher sound intensity levels are associated with greater ergometer performance and less perceived effort, particularly for untrained individuals.Methods: Groups of high trained and low trained healthy males (N = 40; age = 25.25 years; SD = 3.89 years were tested individually on an ergometer while electronic dance music was played at 0, 65, 75, and 85 dB. Participants assessed their music experience during the experiment.Results: Majorities of participants rated the music as not too loud (65%, motivating (77.50%, appropriate for this sports exercise (90%, and having the right tempo (67.50%. Participants noticed changes in the acoustical environment with increasing intensity levels, but no further effects on any of the physical or other subjective measures were found for neither of the groups. Therefore, the main hypothesis must be rejected.Discussion: These findings suggest that high loudness levels do not positively influence ergometer performance. The high acceptance of loud music and perceived appropriateness could be based on erroneous beliefs or stereotypes. Reasons for the widespread use of loud music in fitness sports needs further investigation. Reducing loudness during fitness exercise may not compromise physical performance or perceived effort.

  10. Acute exercise does not induce an acute phase response (APR) in Standardbred trotters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lena; Buhl, Rikke; Nostell, Katarina

    2014-01-01

    ), and iron], muscle enzymes [creatinine kinase (CK) and aspartate transaminase (AST)], and hemoglobin were assessed in 58 Standardbred trotters before and after racing. Hemoglobin levels increased and iron levels decreased 12 to 14 h after racing and haptoglobin concentrations, white blood cell counts......, and iron levels were decreased 2 and/or 7 d after racing. Concentrations of CK, AST, SAA, and fibrinogen were unaltered in response to racing. Acute strenuous exercise did not elicit an acute phase reaction. The observed acute increase in hemoglobin levels and decreases in haptoglobin and iron levels may...

  11. Effect of short-term strenuous exercise on erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in untrained men: a time-course study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odje, O E; Ramsey, J M

    1995-01-01

    The literature on the response of erythrocyte 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) following exercise is replete with inconsistencies, and recent studies have shown that the time of blood sampling during and following exercise, as well as the duration of exercise, are important in evaluating the response of 2,3-DPG. Experiments were designed to measure the response of 2,3-DPG following short-term strenuous exercise in two groups of untrained men. Twelve men, 19-22 years old (study 1), exercised on a bicycle ergometer at 122.5 W for 10 min and red blood cell (RBC) 2,3-DPG was measured at 0 and 50 min following exercise. The level of 2,3-DPG (mumol.ml-1 RBC) increased after exercise (P < 0.05), but this increase was not significant when 2,3-DPG was expressed as mol.mol-1 hemoglobin (Hb). However, following 50 min of rest, 2,3-DPG (mol.mol-1 Hb) decreased significantly. In a second group (study 2), nine other men, aged 18-19 years, exercised at the same workload for 15 min and 2,3-DPG was measured at 0, 30, 60, 180, and 330 min respectively after exercise, and no significant mean changes in the level of the phosphate were observed. Findings from these studies suggest that 2,3-DPG does not provide a compensatory adjustment to facilitate oxygen delivery in the hypoxia of short-term strenuous exercise in untrained males immediately following exercise and when recovery intervals of up to 330 min are also examined. It is suggested that 2,3-DPG be reported as mol.mol-1 Hb, since the phosphate exists on Hb in an equimolar ratio in normal physiological states.

  12. Vascular Nitric Oxide-Superoxide Balance and Thrombus Formation after Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przyborowski, Kamil; Proniewski, Bartosz; Czarny, Joanna; Smeda, Marta; Sitek, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Zoladz, Jerzy A; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2018-02-21

    An acute bout of strenuous exercise in humans results in transient impairment of NO-dependent function, but it remains unknown whether this phenomenon is associated with increased risk of post-exercise thrombotic events. This study aimed to evaluate effects of a single bout of exhaustive running in mice on the balance of vascular nitric oxide (NO)/reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and on thrombogenicity. At different time-points (0h, 2h and 4h) after exercise and in sedentary C57BL/6 mice the production of NO and superoxide (O2) in aorta was measured by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping and by dihydroethidium (DHE)/HPLC-based method, respectively, while collagen-induced thrombus formation was analyzed in a microchip-based flow-chamber system (T-TAS). We also measured pre- and post-exercise plasma concentration of nitrite/nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1α. An acute bout of exhaustive running in mice resulted in decreased production of NO and increased production of O2 in aorta, with maximum changes 2h after completion of exercise when compared to sedentary mice. However, platelet thrombus formation was not changed by exercise as evidenced by unaltered time to start of thrombus formation (T10) and capillary occlusion (OT), and total thrombogenicity (AUC) as measured in a flow-chamber system. Strenuous exercise increased the plasma concentration of nitrite but did not affect nitrate and 6-keto-PGF1α concentrations. An acute bout of strenuous exercise in mice reduced NO and in parallel increased O2 production in aorta. This response was most pronounced 2h after exercise. Surprisingly, the reduced NO and increased O2 production did not result in increased post-exercise platelet-dependent thrombogenicity. These results show that transient reduction in NO bioavailability, caused by exercise-induced oxidative stress, does not modify post-exercise thromboresistance in healthy mice.

  13. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankai Araya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly. Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO, blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC], beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05. In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p 0.05. All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%, 1(59.52%, 3 (53.57% and 4(14.04%, whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%, 3 (42.30%, 2 (40% and 4 (9.2%. Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  14. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Pratanaphon, Sainatee; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Sriboonreung, Thanyaluck; Yankai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-05-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  15. Acute exercise improves motor memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen; Roig, Marc; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    We have recently shown that a single bout of acute cardiovascular exercise improves motor skill learning through an optimization of long-term motor memory. Here we expand this previous finding, to explore potential exercise-related biomarkers and their association with measures of motor memory...... practice whereas lactate correlated with better retention 1 hour as well as 24 hours and 7 days after practice. Thus, improvements in motor skill acquisition and retention induced by acute cardiovascular exercise are associated with increased concentrations of biomarkers involved in memory and learning...... processes. More mechanistic studies are required to elucidate the specific role of each biomarker in the formation of motor memory....

  16. The influence of respiratory acid-base changes on muscle performance and excitability of the sarcolemma during strenuous intermittent hand grip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, M; Shushakov, V; Maassen, N

    2012-02-01

    Acidification has been reported to provide protective effects on force production in vitro. Thus, in this study, we tested if respiratory acid-base changes influence muscle function and excitability in vivo. Nine subjects performed strenuous, intermittent hand grip exercises (10 cycles of 15 s of work/45 s of rest) under respiratory acidosis by CO(2) rebreathing, alkalosis by hyperventilation, or control. The Pco(2), pH, K(+) concentration ([K(+)]), and Na(+) concentration were measured in venous and arterialized blood. Compound action potentials (M-wave) were elicited to examine the excitability of the sarcolemma. The surface electromyogram (EMG) was recorded to estimate the central drive to the muscle. The lowest venous pH during the exercise period was 7.24 ± 0.03 in controls, 7.31 ± 0.05 with alkalosis, and 7.17 ± 0.04 with acidosis (P alkalosis, and, after the second cycle, it was smaller with acidosis than with the control condition (P Respiratory alkalosis stabilized the M-wave area without influencing performance. Thus, we did not find a direct link between performance and alteration of excitability of the sarcolemma due to changes in pH in vivo.

  17. Evidence for a causal role of low energy availability in the induction of menstrual cycle disturbances during strenuous exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, N I; Helmreich, D L; Parfitt, D B; Caston-Balderrama, A; Cameron, J L

    2001-11-01

    Cross-sectional and short-term prospective studies in humans support the concept that low energy availability, and not other factors associated with exercise, causes the development of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction. To rigorously test this hypothesis, we performed a longitudinal study, examining the role of low energy availability on both the development and the reversal of exercise-induced amenorrhea, using a monkey model (Macaca fascicularis). Eight adult female monkeys developed amenorrhea (defined as absence of menses for at least 100 d, with low and unchanging concentrations of LH, FSH, E2, and P4) after gradually increasing their daily exercise to 12.3 +/- 0.9 km/d of running over a 7- to 24-month period. Food intake remained constant during exercise training. To test whether amenorrhea is caused by low energy availability, four of the eight amenorrheic monkeys were provided with supplemental calories (138-181% of calorie intake during amenorrhea) while they maintained their daily training. All four monkeys exhibited increased reproductive hormone levels and reestablished ovulatory cycles, with recovery times for circulating gonadotropin levels ranging from 12-57 d from the initiation of supplemental feeding. The rapidity of recovery within the reproductive axis in a given monkey was directly related to the amount of energy that was consumed during the period of supplemental feeding (r = -0.97; P amenorrhea (P exercise-induced amenorrhea.

  18. Acute Exercise and Motor Memory Consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard

    It is well documented in the scientific literature that acute and chronic exercise positively affects cognitive function and brain health in humans. It has also been shown more recently that acute aerobic exercise can improve the acquisition and retention of motor skills. While this has interesting...

  19. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2016-01-01

    where low to moderate intensities may be more suitable. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of intensity in mediating the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on motor skill learning. We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on the retention (performance score...... an important role in modulating the effects that a single bout of cardiovascular exercise has on the consolidation phase following motor skill learning. There appears to be a dose-response relationship in favour of higher intensity exercise in order to augment off-line effects and strengthen procedural memory.......A single bout of high intensity aerobic exercise (~90% VO2peak) was previously demonstrated to amplify off-line gains in skill level during the consolidation phase of procedural memory. High intensity exercise is not always a viable option for many patient groups or in a rehabilitation setting...

  20. Effects of non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading induced by expiratory flow limitation during strenuous incremental cycle exercise on metabolic stress and circulating natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Debord, Camille; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Duranti, Roberto; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-12-01

    Exercise induces release of cytokines and increase of circulating natural killers (NK) lymphocyte during strong activation of respiratory muscles. We hypothesised that non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading during exercise causes an increase in NK cells and in metabolic stress indices. Heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), oesophageal pressure (Pes), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), dyspnoea and leg effort were measured in eight healthy humans (five men and three women, average age of 31 ± 4 years and body weight of 68 ± 10 kg), performing an incremental exercise testing on a cycle ergometer under control condition and expiratory flow limitation (FL) achieved by putting a Starling resistor. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at peak of exercise and at iso-workload corresponding to that reached at the peak of FL exercise during control exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue was evaluated by measuring the tension time index of the diaphragm. Respiratory muscle overloading caused an earlier interruption of exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue did not occur in the two conditions. At peak of flow-limited exercise compared to iso-workload, HR, peak inspiratory and expiratory Pes, NK cells and norepinephrine were significantly higher. The number of NK cells was significantly related to ΔPes (i.e. difference between the most and the less negative Pes) and plasmatic catecholamines. Loading of respiratory muscles is able to cause an increase of NK cells provided that activation of respiratory muscles is intense enough to induce a significant metabolic stress.

  1. Effects of acute exercise on monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonner, Ralph; Wallner, Stefan; Orsó, Evelyn; Schmitz, Gerd

    2016-06-10

    Acute exercise induces numerous changes in peripheral blood, e.g. counts of leukocytes. CD16 pos monocytes, which play a role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), are among the blood cells with the highest fold increase through exercise. So far no studies have investigated the effect of exercise on the blood cell composition of patients with MetS. Blood cell counts, a wide panel of laboratory tests, as well as lipid and protein content of monocytes and granulocytes were determined in healthy subjects, persons with metabolic risk and MetS patients before and after one minute of exercise at 400 W. Leukocyte counts increased significantly in all groups with CD14 pos CD16 pos monocytes showing the highest fold-change. In MetS patients the fold increase was smaller. They had a higher resting level of CD14 pos CD16 pos monocytes and a lower basal ratio of CD16 neg /CD16 pos monocytes. A similar ratio of these cells was induced in control and risk subjects after exercise. However, absolute counts of mobilized pro-inflammatory monocytes did not differ significantly. Furthermore, we detected a decrease in protein content of monocytes in controls, but not in MetS patients. As strenuous exercise is able to mobilize the same amount of pro-inflammatory monocytes in MetS patients as in healthy persons, the elevated basal level of these cells in MetS patients is likely to be caused by enhanced maturation rather than chronic mobilization. The removal of these monocytes from the endothelium might be part of the beneficial effect of exercise on vascular disease. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  2. Acute Moderate Exercise Improves Mnemonic Discrimination in Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwabe, Kazuya; Hyodo, Kazuki; Byun, Kyeongho; Ochi, Genta; Yassa, Michael A.; Soya, Hideaki

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that regular moderate exercise increases neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and improves memory functions in both humans and animals. The DG is known to play a role in pattern separation, which is the ability to discriminate among similar experiences, a fundamental component of episodic memory. While long-term voluntary exercise improves pattern separation, there is little evidence of alterations in DG function after an acute exercise session. Our previous studies showing acute moderate exercise-enhanced DG activation in rats, and acute moderate exercise-enhanced prefrontal activation and executive function in humans, led us to postulate that acute moderate exercise may also activate the hippocampus, including more specifically the DG, thus improving pattern separation. We thus investigated the effects of a 10-min moderate exercise (50% V̇O2peak) session, the recommended intensity for health promotion, on mnemonic discrimination (a behavioral index of pattern separation) in young adults. An acute bout of moderate exercise improved mnemonic discrimination performance in high similarity lures. These results support our hypothesis that acute moderate exercise improves DG-mediated pattern separation in humans, proposing a useful human acute-exercise model for analyzing the neuronal substrate underlying acute and regular exercise-enhanced episodic memory based on the hippocampus. PMID:27997992

  3. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  4. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milène Catoire

    Full Text Available Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max. Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.

  5. Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z ... to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. Acute respiratory infections, ...

  6. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    2014-11-03

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis.

  7. Effectiveness of vestibular exercise in acute vertigo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashim, N.D.; Abdullah, A.; Ami, M.; Rahman, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate effectiveness of vestibular exercises in acute vertigo. 45 patients with acute vertigo were divided into 2 groups; 23 in study group (SG) and 22 in control group (CG). All patients were given tablet betahistine 24 mg twice daily as basic medical treatment and tablet Stemetil 5mg as a rescue. Those in SG also received vestibular exercise. Assessment was done using validated questionnaires, neuro-otology tests and individual diaries. Results : Intragroup comparison of intensity of symptoms showed a significant improvement from baseline, 3-month and 6-month visit with p<0.001. While intergroup comparison showed reduction of scores in both groups and which was greater in SG at 6 months visit. An improvement of neuro-otology tests was seen in all five tests whereby the Romber test, Unterberger-Fukuda test and spontaneous nystagmus test showed earlier improvement in SG at 3-month visit than CG. The SG also recovered faster and used lesser medication. 30.4% patients in SG were asymptomatic as early as first to third week after intervention. The number of rescue medications required in each group lessened towards the end of study. By week 7, 56.3% of SG and 43.8% of CG needed no rescue medication. (author)

  8. Effect of Acute Exercise on Hunger in Healthy Woman

    OpenAIRE

    OLCUCU, Burcin; VATANSEVER, Serife; TIRYAKI-SONMEZ, Gul; BURKAN ONER, Seda

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of different acute exercise mode on subjective hunger rating. Ten healthy woman subjects participated voluntarily in the study and written informed consent was obtained from all subjects before participation. Subjects undertook four, 1,5 h trials (3exercises and 1 control) in a randomized crossover design. In the exercise trials subjects were performed three different exercise protocol (resistance, resistance+endurance, endurance). In the control trial, sub...

  9. Effects of Acute Exercise on Long-Term Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labban, Jeffrey D.; Etnier, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we tested the effect of acute exercise on long-term memory, specifically the timing of exercise relative to the memory challenge. We assessed memory via paragraph recall, in which participants listened to two paragraphs (exposure) and recounted them following a 35-min delay. Participants (n = 48) were randomly assigned to one of…

  10. Acute psychological benefits of exercise: reconsideration of the placebo effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila

    2013-10-01

    The psychological benefits of exercise are repeatedly and consistently reported in the literature. Various forms of exercise, varying in duration and intensity, yield comparably positive changes in affect, which sheds doubt on the significance of exercise characteristics in the acute mental health benefits resulting from physical activity. Based on research evidence, it is argued that the placebo effect may play a key role in the subjective exercise experience. This report is aimed at highlighting those aspects of the extant literature that call for the reconsideration of the placebo effect in the understanding of the acute mental benefits of physical activity. This narrative review focuses on research evidence demonstrating that the duration and intensity of physical activity are not mediatory factors in the mental health benefits of acute exercise. Current research evidence pointing to the roles of expectancy and conditioning in the affective benefits of exercise calls for the reconsideration of the placebo effect. The present evaluation concludes that new research effort ought to be invested in the placebo-driven affective beneficence of exercise.

  11. Effects of an Acute Exercise Bout on Serum Hepcidin Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Domínguez

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Iron deficiency is a frequent and multifactorial disorder in the career of athletes, particularly in females. Exercise-induced disturbances in iron homeostasis produce deleterious effects on performance and adaptation to training; thus, the identification of strategies that restore or maintain iron homeostasis in athletes is required. Hepcidin is a liver-derived hormone that degrades the ferroportin transport channel, thus reducing the ability of macrophages to recycle damaged iron, and decreasing iron availability. Although it has been suggested that the circulating fraction of hepcidin increases during early post-exercise recovery (~3 h, it remains unknown how an acute exercise bout may modify the circulating expression of hepcidin. Therefore, the current review aims to determine the post-exercise expression of serum hepcidin in response to a single session of exercise. The review was carried out in the Dialnet, Elsevier, Medline, Pubmed, Scielo and SPORTDiscus databases, using hepcidin (and “exercise” or “sport” or “physical activity” as a strategy of search. A total of 19 articles were included in the review after the application of the inclusion/exclusion criteria. This search found that a single session of endurance exercise (intervallic or continuous at moderate or vigorous intensity (60–90% VO2peak stimulates an increase in the circulating levels of hepcidin between 0 h and 6 h after the end of the exercise bout, peaking at ~3 h post-exercise. The magnitude of the response of hepcidin to exercise seems to be dependent on the pre-exercise status of iron (ferritin and inflammation (IL-6. Moreover, oxygen disturbances and the activation of a hypoxia-induced factor during or after exercise may stimulate a reduction of hepcidin expression. Meanwhile, cranberry flavonoids supplementation promotes an anti-oxidant effect that may facilitate the post-exercise expression of hepcidin. Further studies are required to explore the effect

  12. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Beck, Mikkel Malling; Lind, Rune Rasmussen

    2016-01-01

    High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity...... of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24.0 ± 2.5 yrs), healthy male subjects randomly...... assigned to one of four groups either performing a high intensity (90% Maximal Power Output) exercise bout at 20 min (EX90), 1 h (EX90+1), 2 h (EX90+2) after acquisition or rested (CON). Retention tests were performed at 1 d (R1) and 7 d (R7). At R1 changes in performance scores after acquisition were...

  13. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics. PMID:25379174

  14. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Caffeine delays autonomic recovery following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; White, Daniel W; Kappus, Rebecca M; Baynard, Tracy

    2015-11-01

    Impaired autonomic recovery of heart rate (HR) following exercise is associated with an increased risk of sudden death. Caffeine, a potent stimulator of catecholamine release, has been shown to augment blood pressure (BP) and sympathetic nerve activity; however, whether caffeine alters autonomic function after a bout of exercise bout remains unclear. In a randomized, crossover study, 18 healthy individuals (26 ± 1 years; 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m(-2)) ingested caffeine (400 mg) or placebo pills, followed by a maximal treadmill test to exhaustion. Autonomic function and ventricular depolarization/repolarization were determined using heart rate variability (HRV) and corrected QT interval (QTc), respectively, at baseline, 5, 15, and 30 minutes post-exercise. Maximal HR (HRmax) was greater with caffeine (192 ± 2 vs. 190 ± 2 beat·min(-1), p < 0.05). During recovery, HR, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) remained elevated with caffeine (p < 0.05). Natural log transformation of low-to-high frequency ratio (LnLF/LnHF) of HRV was increased compared with baseline at all time points in both trials (p < 0.05), with less of an increase during 5 and 15 minutes post-exercise in the caffeine trial (p < 0.05). QTc increased from baseline at all time points in both trials, with greater increases in the caffeine trial (p < 0.05). Caffeine ingestion disrupts post-exercise autonomic recovery because of increased sympathetic nerve activity. The prolonged sympathetic recovery time could subsequently hinder baroreflex function during recovery and disrupt the stability of autonomic function, potentiating a pro-arrhythmogenic state in young adults. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014.

  16. Exercise and cognition in multiple sclerosis: The importance of acute exercise for developing better interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Exercise training represents a promising approach for managing this clinical symptom of the disease. However, results from early randomized controlled trials of exercise on cognition in MS are equivocal, perhaps due to methodological concerns. This underscores the importance of considering the well-established literature in the general population that documents robust, beneficial effects of exercise training on cognition across the lifespan. The development of such successful interventions is based on examinations of fitness, physical activity, and acute exercise effects on cognition. Applying such an evidence-based approach in MS serves as a way of better informing exercise training interventions for improving cognition in this population. To that end, this paper provides a focused, updated review on the evidence describing exercise effects on cognition in MS, and develops a rationale and framework for examining acute exercise on cognitive outcomes in this population. This will provide keen insight for better developing exercise interventions for managing cognitive impairment in MS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Acute Effect of Various Exercise Intensities on Cognitive Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceylan, Halil Ibrahim; Saygin, Ozcan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute effect of various exercise intensities on coincidence anticipation timing at different stimulus speeds. Fifteen male students who attend to Faculty of Sport Sciences at Mugla Sitki Kocman University, have been dealing with individual or team sports and having licenses for 5 or more years with no…

  18. Exercisers achieve greater acute exercise-induced mood enhancement than nonexercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Hoffman, Debi Rufi

    2008-02-01

    To determine whether a single session of exercise of appropriate intensity and duration for aerobic conditioning has a different acute effect on mood for nonexercisers than regular exercisers. Repeated-measures design. Research laboratory. Adult nonexercisers, moderate exercisers, and ultramarathon runners (8 men, 8 women in each group). Treadmill exercise at self-selected speeds to induce a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of 13 (somewhat hard) for 20 minutes, preceded and followed by 5 minutes at an RPE of 9 (very light). Profile of Mood States before and 5 minutes after exercise. Vigor increased by a mean +/- standard deviation of 8+/-7 points (95% confidence interval [CI], 5-12) among the ultramarathon runners and 5+/-4 points (95% CI, 2-9) among the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Fatigue decreased by 5+/-6 points (95% CI, 2-8) for the ultramarathon runners and 4+/-4 points (95% CI, 1-7) for the moderate exercisers, with no improvement among the nonexercisers. Postexercise total mood disturbance decreased by a mean of 21+/-16 points (95% CI, 12-29) among the ultramarathon runners, 16+/-10 points (95% CI, 7-24) among the moderate exercisers, and 9+/-13 points (95% CI, 1-18) among the nonexercisers. A single session of moderate aerobic exercise improves vigor and decreases fatigue among regular exercisers but causes no change in these scores for nonexercisers. Although total mood disturbance improves postexercise in exercisers and nonexercisers, regular exercisers have approximately twice the effect as nonexercisers. This limited postexercise mood improvement among nonexercisers may be an important deterrent for persistence with an exercise program.

  19. Effects of acute exercise on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, Milene; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark; Hangelbroek, Roland; Muller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patricht; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Background: Exercising is know to have an effect on exercising skeletal muscle, but unkown is the effect on non-exercising skeletal muscle. Gene expression changes in the non-exercising skeletal muscle would point to a signalling role of skeletal muscle

  20. Acute effects of cycling exercise on post-exercise blood pressure in individuals with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bezerra Maria Edilma Da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Studies have shown that even a single session of physical exercise lowers blood pressure after its completion. This phenomenon is called post-exercise hypotension (PEH and has been considered as a non-pharmacological treatment to control blood pressure. However, there are no studies regarding the occurrence of PEH after acute exercise in individuals with Down syndrome (DS. This study aimed to analyse the occurrence of PEH in these subjects and the possible role of exercise intensity. Methods. Ten individuals with DS, of both genders, participated in the study (age, 29 ± 7 years; body mass, 60.7 ± 9 kg; height, 1.48 ± 0.11 m; BMI, 27.6 ± 2.4 kg/m2. The volunteers randomly underwent 2 sessions of exercise on a stationary bike for 20 minutes and 1 control session. Heart rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured after 15 minutes of resting, in the 20th minute of each exercise session or control, and in the 15th, 30th, and 45th minute of postexercise recovery. Results. Both moderate and intense exercise performed acutely increased SBP (p < 0.001, p < 0.01, respectively, with no effect on DBP in individuals with DS. Neither the moderate nor the intense exercise was enough to elicit PEH. Conclusions. The results indicated that individuals with DS may not present PEH for the intensities, duration, and exercise mode as applied in the present investigation. While additional studies with different exercise strategies are needed, our findings contribute to the body of literature regarding the PEH responses in adults with DS.

  1. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqin Li; Mengchao Yao; Qiulian Zhou; Yan Cheng; Lin Che; Jiahong Xu; Junjie Xiao; Zhongming Shen; Yihua Bei

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response ...

  2. Creatine supplementation prevents acute strength loss induced by concurrent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salles Painelli, Vítor; Alves, Victor Tavares; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of creatine (CR) supplementation on the acute interference induced by aerobic exercise on subsequent maximum dynamic strength (1RM) and strength endurance (SE, total number of repetitions) performance. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men were submitted to a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 41.56 ± 5.24 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), anaerobic threshold velocity (ATv: 8.3 ± 1.18 km h(-1)), and baseline performance (control) on the 1RM and SE (4 × 80 % 1RM to failure) tests. After the control tests, participants were randomly assigned to either a CR (20 g day(-1) for 7 days followed by 5 g day(-1) throughout the study) or a placebo (PL-dextrose) group, and then completed 4 experimental sessions, consisting of a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (90 % ATv) or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max) followed by either a leg- or bench-press SE/1RM test. CR was able to maintain the leg-press SE performance after the intermittent aerobic exercise when compared with C (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the PL group showed a significant decrease in leg-press SE (p ≤ 0.05). CR supplementation significantly increased bench-press SE after both aerobic exercise modes, while the bench-press SE was not affected by either mode of aerobic exercise in the PL group. Although small increases in 1RM were observed after either continuous (bench press and leg press) or intermittent (bench press) aerobic exercise in the CR group, they were within the range of variability of the measurement. The PL group only maintained their 1RM. In conclusion, the acute interference effect on strength performance observed in concurrent exercise may be counteracted by CR supplementation.

  3. Acute exercise improves motor memory consolidation in preadolescent children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper; Skriver, Kasper Christen; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2017-01-01

    protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children. Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD)) participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general...... immediately after motor skill acquisition facilitates long-term motor memory in pre-adolescent children, presumably by promoting memory consolidation. The results also demonstrate that the effects can be accomplished in a school setting. The positive effect of both a team game (i.e., FLB) and running......Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise...

  4. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Flindtgaard, Mads; Skriver, Kasper Christen

    2017-01-01

    d. The results demonstrate that high-intensity, acute exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off...... following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill......-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed....

  5. INFLUENCE OF ACUTE EXERCISE ON OXIDATIVE STRESS IN CHRONIC SMOKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zehra Serdar

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available The relative oxidative insult caused by exercise and smoking on biological systems are well documented, however, their cumulative influence needs to be clarified. In order to examine the collective effects of exercise and smoking on oxidant and antioxidant parameters, young male smokers (n=10 and non-smokers (n=10 made to perform a negative slope (10% cycling exercise for 30 minutes at individual load equivalent to 60% maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max. Pre- and post-exercise (post-ex haematocrit, haemoglobin, white blood cells, plasma malondialdehyde (MDA levels, protein carbonyl formation and non-HDL oxidation, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX activities, serum ceruloplasmin (CER and urinary cotinine concentrations were evaluated. Pre-ex CER and urinary cotinine concentrations of smokers were significantly higher (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively compared to that of non-smokers and pre-ex CER concentrations were significantly correlated with cotinine levels in all subjects (p<0.05. Significant (p<0.01 increases were observed in non-HDL oxidation following the exercise in both groups and the elevations were more pronounced in smokers. Pre-ex SOD and GPX activities were not different between the two groups, however post-ex enzyme activities were significantly reduced in smokers (p<0.05. MDA and protein carbonyl concentrations were not different between the two groups and there were not any significant changes due to exercise.In conclusion, according to the results of the present study, we suggest that erythrocyte antioxidants SOD and GPX and plasma non-HDL are more prone to the possible oxidant damage of acute physical exercise in chronic smokers.

  6. Acute metabolic response to fasted and postprandial exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima FD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Dinato de Lima,1,2 Ana Luiza Matias Correia,1 Denilson da Silva Teixeira,2 Domingos Vasco da Silva Neto,2 Ítalo Sávio Gonçalves Fernandes,2 Mário Boratto Xavier Viana,2 Mateus Petitto,2 Rodney Antônio da Silva Sampaio,2 Sandro Nobre Chaves,2 Simone Teixeira Alves,2 Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas,2 Márcio Rabelo Mota2 1University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Universitary Center of Brasília (UniCEUB, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute metabolic response to exercise in fasting and postprandial. For this, ten individuals were submitted to an incremental treadmill test, with an initial speed of 5 and 1 km/h increments every minute, with no inclination, and a body composition assessment. After this 1st day, all volunteers were submitted to two experimental procedures (fasting and postprandial, with an aerobic exercise performed for 36 minutes at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. At postprandial procedure, all subjects ingested a breakfast containing 59.3 g of carbohydrate (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%, with a total energy intake of 349.17 kcal. An analysis of plasma concentration of triglycerides, lactate, and glucose was performed in two stages: before and after exercise. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to verify the normality of the data. For analysis of glucose concentration, plasma lactate, and triglycerides, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance factorial 2×2, with Bonferroni multiple comparison test. The significance level of P<0.05 was adopted. The results indicated a maintenance level of glucose at fasting and a decrease in glucose concentration at postprandial exercise. Both conditions increase plasma lactate. Triglycerides also increased in the two experimental conditions; however, after exercise fasting, the increase was significantly higher than in the postprandial exercise. These data suggest that both exercises could increase

  7. Acute Exercise Improves Motor Memory Consolidation in Preadolescent Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Lundbye-Jensen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The ability to acquire new motor skills is essential both during childhood and later in life. Recent studies have demonstrated that an acute bout of exercise can improve motor memory consolidation in adults. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether acute exercise protocols following motor skill practice in a school setting can also improve long-term retention of motor memory in preadolescent children.Methods: Seventy-seven pre-adolescent children (age 10.5 ± 0.75 (SD participated in the study. Prior to the main experiment age, BMI, fitness status and general physical activity level was assessed in all children and they were then randomly allocated to three groups. All children practiced a visuomotor tracking task followed by 20 min of rest (CON, high intensity intermittent floorball (FLB or running (RUN with comparable exercise intensity and duration for exercise groups. Delayed retention of motor memory was assessed 1 h, 24 h and 7 days after motor skill acquisition.Results: During skill acquisition, motor performance improved significantly to the immediate retention test with no differences between groups. One hour following skill acquisition, motor performance decreased significantly for RUN. Twenty-four hours following skill acquisition there was a tendency towards improved performance for FLB but no significant effects. Seven days after motor practice however, both FLB and RUN performed better when compared to their immediate retention test indicating significant offline gains. This effect was not observed for CON. In contrast, 7 days after motor practice, retention of motor memory was significantly better for FLB and RUN compared to CON. No differences were observed when comparing FLB and RUN.Conclusions: Acute intense intermittent exercise performed immediately after motor skill acquisition facilitates long-term motor memory in pre-adolescent children, presumably by promoting memory consolidation. The

  8. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqin Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise. Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise and AT VO2 (baseline. The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise were significantly correlated with AT VO2, peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches. Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  9. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Yao, Mengchao; Zhou, Qiulian; Cheng, Yan; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Xiao, Junjie; Shen, Zhongming; Bei, Yihua

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise) showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise). Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) and AT VO 2 (baseline). The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) were significantly correlated with AT VO 2 , peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches). Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  10. Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin concentration in healthy overweight and lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerre, Lise; Rosenzweig, Mary; Dela, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    -) plasma concentration did not change during exercise in any of the groups, but SCAAT TNF- mRNA increased after exercise in both groups. Furthermore, exercise decreased SCAAT leptin mRNA with no change in resistin mRNA. CONCLUSIONS: Acute exercise increases adipose tissue interstitial adiponectin...

  11. Acute Exercise and Neurocognitive Development in Preadolescents and Young Adults: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout of exercise on neurocognitive function in preadolescent children and young adults by determining the modulatory role of age and the neuroelectrical mechanism(s underlying the association between acute exercise and executive function. Twenty preadolescents and 20 young adults completed the Stroop test, and neuroelectrical activity was recorded during two treatment sessions performed in a counterbalanced order. Exercise treatments involved moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 20 min as the main exercise and two 5 min periods of warm-up and cool-down. The control treatment participants read for a similar duration of time. Acute exercise improved participant reaction times on the Stroop test, regardless of Stroop congruency, and greater beneficial effects were observed in young adults compared to those in preadolescents. The P3 amplitudes increased after acute exercise in preadolescents and young adults, but acute exercise induced lower conflict sustained potential (conflict SP amplitudes in preadolescent children. Based on these findings, age influences the beneficial effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in general. Furthermore, the event-related brain potential differences attributed to acute exercise provide a potential clue to the mechanisms that differentiate the effects of acute exercise on individuals from preadolescence to young adulthood.

  12. Concomitant changes in cross-sectional area and water content in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maja Sofie; Uhrbrand, Anders; Hansen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how one bout (1EX) and three bouts (3EX) of strenuous resistance exercise affected the cross-sectional area (CSA) and water content (WC) of the quadriceps muscle and patella tendon (PT), 4 h and 52 h after the last exercise bout. Ten healthy untrained male subjects performed...... was significantly reduced at 52 h (3EX: 14 ± 2%) compared with baseline and (3EX: 13 ± 1%) compared with 4 h. Present data demonstrate that strenuous resistance exercise results in an acute increase in muscle WC and underlines the importance of ensuring sufficient time between the last exercise bout...

  13. Oxidative stress and inflammation: liver responses and adaptations to acute and regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillon Barcelos, Rômulo; Freire Royes, Luiz Fernando; Gonzalez-Gallego, Javier; Bresciani, Guilherme

    2017-02-01

    The liver is remarkably important during exercise outcomes due to its contribution to detoxification, synthesis, and release of biomolecules, and energy supply to the exercising muscles. Recently, liver has been also shown to play an important role in redox status and inflammatory modulation during exercise. However, while several studies have described the adaptations of skeletal muscles to acute and chronic exercise, hepatic changes are still scarcely investigated. Indeed, acute intense exercise challenges the liver with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammation onset, whereas regular training induces hepatic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory improvements. Acute and regular exercise protocols in combination with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplementation have been also tested to verify hepatic adaptations to exercise. Although positive results have been reported in some acute models, several studies have shown an increased exercise-related stress upon liver. A similar trend has been observed during training: while synergistic effects of training and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory supplementations have been occasionally found, others reported a blunting of relevant adaptations to exercise, following the patterns described in skeletal muscles. This review discusses current data regarding liver responses and adaptation to acute and regular exercise protocols alone or combined with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory supplementation. The understanding of the mechanisms behind these modulations is of interest for both exercise-related health and performance outcomes.

  14. Acute effects of exercise and active video games on adults' reaction time and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán, José F; López-García, Jesús

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the acute effects of resting, aerobic exercise practised alone, and aerobic exercise with active video games (AVG), on complex reaction time (CRT) and the post-exercise acute rate of perceived exertion (RPE) in young healthy adults. The experimental group was composed of 92 healthy young adults, 78 males and 13 females (age M = 21.9 ± 2.7 years) who completed two sessions, A and B. In session A, participants rode 30 min on an ergometer, while in session B they exercised for 30 min on an ergometer while playing an AVG on a Wii. The control group was composed of 30 young adults, 26 males and 4 females (age M = 21.4 ± 2.9 years) who rested for 30 min. In each session, a CRT task was performed before and after exercising or resting, and post-exercise global RPE was noted. Repeated measures general linear model (GLM) and Wilcoxon tests were performed. (1) Both aerobic exercise alone and aerobic exercise combined with AVG improved CRT, while resting did not; (2) aerobic exercise combined with AVG did not improve CRT more than aerobic exercise only; and (3) RPE was lower after aerobic exercise combined with AVG compared with aerobic exercise only. In young adults, exercise produces acute benefits on CRT, and practising exercise with AVG helps to decrease RPE.

  15. Impact of TGF-β inhibition during acute exercise on Achilles tendon extracellular matrix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Potter, Ross M; Huynh, Richard T; Volper, Brent D

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of TGF-β1in regulating tendon extracellular matrix after acute exercise. Wistar rats exercised (n = 15) on a treadmill for four consecutive days (60 min/day) or maintained normal cage activity. After each exercise bout, the peritendinous space of...

  16. Acute effects of high- and low-intensity exercise bouts on leukocyte counts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Rogério Da Silva Neves

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: When the same participants were submitted to different exercise intensities, the acute and short-term effects of exercise on white blood cells were intensity-dependent immediately after exercise (i.e., lymphocytosis and monocytosis and 2 hours after passive recovery (i.e., neutrophilia.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  18. Self-regulation strategies may enhance the acute effect of exercise on smoking delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzigeorgiadis, Antonis; Pappa, Vassiliki; Tsiami, Anastasia; Tzatzaki, Theodora; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zourbanos, Nikos; Goudas, Marios; Chatzisarantis, Nikos; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-06-01

    The present study examined the acute effect of a moderate intensity aerobic exercise session combined with self-regulation on smoking delay in physically inactive smokers. Participants were 11 adults (5 males and 6 females) that completed three experimental conditions: control, exercise, and exercise using self-regulation strategies (SR). Following the experimental treatment smoking for the two exercise conditions delayed significantly more than for the control condition; in addition exercise SR delayed smoking marginally more that the plain exercise condition. Findings supported previous research that acute exercise reduces cravings to smoke, and suggests that the use of self-regulation strategies may strengthen exercise for smoking cessation interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of acute exercise on executive functioning, mood and attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: It is internationally recognised that exercise is beneficial—both physically and mentally. However, only a minority of published research has explored the unique contribution of the exercise task itself. We tested the effect an ‘acute bout of moderate exercise’ had on selective attention, executive function and mood. We hypothesised that acute exercise would improve mood and cognitive performance compared to the controls. Method: 29 females and 11 males aged between 18-50 (M=26.5, SD=8.8 were administered the Stroop Colour-Interference Test, Erikson Flanker Task and Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS.  Participants were randomly assigned to one of two conditions (exercise or relaxation. The experimental group (N=20 performed 20 minutes of exercise on a treadmill. The control group (N=20 relaxed for 20 minutes. Measures were taken before and after the intervention. Results: An independent samples t-test compared the differences between post-test and pre-test for the two groups. Results revealed a significant difference between the exercise group and control group on the measures of mood. The exercise group reported increased positive affect (t(38 = 3.10, p = .004, d = .99 and decreased negative affect (t(38 = -3.24, p = .003, d = 1.0 on the post-test. No significant differences between the exercise and control groups were obtained for the two tasks of cognitive performance. Conclusions: A significant difference in the PANAS ratings following exercise offers strong support to earlier research demonstrating that acute exercise improves mood. Although no significant improvement in performance was observed in the two cognitive tasks following acute exercise, it is possible that fitness levels could be the relevant factor, rather than acute exercise as a task. Our findings did not support the hypothesis that acute exercise improves cognitive performance.

  20. Relationships between serum BDNF and the antidepressant effect of acute exercise in depressed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jacob D; Koltyn, Kelli F; Stegner, Aaron J; Kim, Jee-Seon; Cook, Dane B

    2016-12-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has recently emerged as one potential mechanism with which exercise improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD). This study examined the relationship between changes in serum total BDNF and mood following acute exercise in MDD. It was hypothesized that acute exercise would increase BDNF in an intensity-dependent manner and that changes in BDNF would be significantly related to improvement in depressed mood post-exercise. Twenty-four women (age: 38.6±14.0years) with MDD exercised for 30min on a stationary bicycle at light, moderate and hard exercise intensities and performed a quiet rest session using a within-subjects, randomized and counter-balanced design. Before, 10 and 30min after each session, participants completed the profile of mood states (POMS). Blood was drawn before and within 10min after completion of each session and serum total BDNF (sBDNF) was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Acute exercise-induced changes in POMS Depression and sBDNF were analyzed via 4 session (quiet rest, light, moderate, hard) by 2 measurement (pre, post) ANOVA. Secondary analyses examined the effects of baseline mood and antidepressant usage on sBDNF. Exercise resulted in an acute improvement in depressed mood that was not intensity dependent (p>0.05), resulting in significant acute increases in sBDNF (p=0.006) that were also not intensity-dependent (p>0.05). Acute changes in sBDNF were not significantly correlated to changes in POMS depression at 10m (r=-0.171, p=0.161) or 30m (r=-0.151, p=0.215) post-exercise. The fourteen participants taking antidepressant medications exhibited lower post-exercise sBDNF (p=0.015) than the participants not currently taking antidepressants, although mood responses were similar. Acute exercise is an effective mood-enhancing stimulus, although sBDNF does not appear to play a role in this short-term response. Patients who are not currently taking antidepressant medications and those who

  1. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

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    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  2. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Affect and Arousal in Inpatient Mental Health Consumers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Reaburn, Peter; Happell, Brenda

    2016-09-01

    Acute exercise performed at a self-selected intensity improves affect and may improve long-term adherence. Similarly, in people with severe depression, acute aerobic exercise performed at self-selected intensity improves affect and arousal. However, the relationship between changes in affect and arousal and perceived exercise intensity in people with mental illness has not been evaluated. Affect and arousal were assessed immediately prior to, and immediately following, a group exercise program performed at a self-selected intensity in 40 inpatient mental health consumers who received a diagnosis of anxiety or bipolar or depressive disorders. Exercise intensity was assessed immediately after exercise. Postexercise affect was significantly improved for people with bipolar and depressive disorders but not for people with anxiety disorders. For the group as a whole, results showed a significant curvilinear relationship between ratings of perceived exertion and postexercise affect. These data will inform the development and delivery of future exercise interventions for inpatient mental health consumers.

  3. Acute bouts of wheel running decrease cocaine self-administration: Influence of exercise output.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mark A; Fronk, Gaylen E; Zhang, Huailin; Magee, Charlotte P; Robinson, Andrea M

    Exercise is associated with lower rates of drug use in human populations and decreases drug self-administration in laboratory animals. Most of the existing literature examining the link between exercise and drug use has focused on chronic, long-term exercise, and very few studies have examined the link between exercise output (i.e., amount of exercise) and drug self-administration. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of acute bouts of exercise on cocaine self-administration, and to determine whether these effects were dependent on exercise output and the time interval between exercise and drug self-administration. Female rats were trained to run in automated running wheels, implanted with intravenous catheters, and allowed to self-administer cocaine on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule of reinforcement. Immediately prior to each test session, subjects engaged in acute bouts of exercise in which they ran for 0, 30, or 60min at 12m/min. Acute bouts of exercise before test sessions decreased cocaine self-administration in an output-dependent manner, with the greatest reduction in cocaine intake observed in the 60-min exercise condition. Exercise did not reduce cocaine self-administration when wheel running and test sessions were separated by 12h, and exercise did not reduce responding maintained by food or responding during a saline substitution test. These data indicate that acute bouts of exercise decrease cocaine self-administration in a time- and output-dependent manner. These results also add to a growing body of literature suggesting that physical activity may be an effective component of drug abuse treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental Effects of Acute Exercise on Prospective Memory and False Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, David; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-01-01

    Research demonstrates that acute exercise can enhance retrospective episodic memory performance. However, limited research has examined the effects of acute exercise on prospective memory, and no studies have examined the effects of exercise on false memory performance. This study examined the potential effects of acute exercise on prospective memory and false memory performance. A between-group randomized controlled trial was employed, with participants (college students; M age  = 20 years) randomized into an exercise group (15-minute acute bout of treadmill walking; N = 25) or a control group (15 minutes of sitting; N = 26). Prospective memory was assessed from two laboratory and two naturalistic assessments outside the lab. False memory was assessed using a word-list trial. There were no statistically significant differences in prospective memory based on group allocation (F Group×Time  = 1.17; P = 0.32; η 2  = 0.06). However, the control group recalled more false words and had a higher rate of false memory recognition (F Group×Time  = 3.15; P = 0.01; η 2  = 0.26). These findings indicate that acute moderate-intensity aerobic exercise is not associated with prospective memory performance but provides some suggestive evidence that acute exercise may reduce the rate of false memories.

  5. Effects of Moderate Aerobic Exercise Combined With Caloric Restriction on Circulating Estrogens and IGF-1 in Premenopausal Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: rapid transition to exercise - induced amenorrhea Endocrinology 142: 2381- 2389...and menstrual cyclicity in cynomolgus monkeys during strenuous exercise training: rapid transition to exercise - induced amenorrhea Endocrinology 142...Spain. p. 155, 1992 Williams, N.I., A.L. Caston, and J.L. Cameron. Induction and reversal of exercise - induced amenorrhea : Temporal correlation

  6. REDD1 induction regulates the skeletal muscle gene expression signature following acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Bradley S; Steiner, Jennifer L; Rossetti, Michael L; Qiao, Shuxi; Ellisen, Leif W; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Eroshkin, Alexey M; Williamson, David L; Coen, Paul M

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle. To do this, wild-type and REDD1-null mice were randomized to remain sedentary or undergo a bout of acute treadmill exercise. Exercised mice recovered for 1, 3, or 6 h before euthanization. Acute exercise induced a transient increase in REDD1 protein expression within the plantaris only at 1 h postexercise, and the induction occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. At this time point, global changes in gene expression were surveyed using microarray. REDD1 induction was required for the exercise-induced change in expression of 24 genes. Validation by RT-PCR confirmed that the exercise-mediated changes in genes related to exercise capacity, muscle protein metabolism, neuromuscular junction remodeling, and Metformin action were negated in REDD1-null mice. Finally, the exercise-mediated induction of REDD1 was partially dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor activation. In all, these data show that REDD1 induction regulates the exercise-mediated change in a distinct set of genes within skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

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    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  8. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATION IN CHILDREN

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    Gustav Bala

    2014-12-01

    The results showed that the children’s computation performance was enhanced significantly in the groups with 30, or 45, or 60 min of physical exercise, but not in the groups without physical exercise. This means that even acute intensive physical training can yield positive effects on children's mathematical abilities.

  9. Acute Aerobic Exercise Impacts Selective Attention: An Exceptional Boost in Lower-Income Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tine, Michele T.; Butler, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Educational research suggests that lower-income children exhibit poor general executive functioning relative to their higher-income peers. Meanwhile, sports psychology research suggests that an acute bout of aerobic exercise improves executive functioning in children. Yet, it has never been determined if such exercise (1) specifically improves the…

  10. Effect of thrombolytic therapy on exercise response during early recovery from acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, J H; Madsen, J K; Saunamäki, K I

    1992-01-01

    Several studies have shown that infarct size is reduced following thrombolytic treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Exercise test variables, such as an impaired heart rate response during exercise, are known to be related to left ventricular function and patient prognosis follo...

  11. Acute psychological benefits of exercise performed at self-selected workloads: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila

    2003-09-01

    Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs) took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs) completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992) inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD) decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%). No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (%) of maximal heart rate reserve) and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise.

  12. Acute effects of walking exercise on stair negotiation in sedentary and physically active older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunzler, Marcos R.; Da Rocha, Emmanuel S.; Bobbert, Maarten F.; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to

  13. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin...

  14. Reduced Tic Symptomatology in Tourette Syndrome After an Acute Bout of Exercise: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Elena; Glazebrook, Cris; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2014-03-01

    In light of descriptive accounts of attenuating effects of physical activity on tics, we used an experimental design to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on tic expression in young people (N = 18) with Tourette Syndrome (TS). We compared video-based tic frequency estimates obtained during an exercise session with tic rates obtained during pre-exercise (baseline) and post-exercise interview-based sessions. Results showed significantly reduced tic rates during the exercise session compared with baseline, suggesting that acute exercise has an attenuating effect on tics. Tic rates also remained reduced relative to baseline during the post-exercise session, likely reflecting a sustained effect of exercise on tic reduction. Parallel to the observed tic attenuation, exercise also had a beneficial impact on self-reported anxiety and mood levels. The present findings provide novel empirical evidence for the beneficial effect of exercise on TS symptomatology bearing important research and clinical implications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Regular exercise is associated with emotional resilience to acute stress in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma eChilds

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has long been considered beneficial to health and regular exercise is purported to relieve stress. However empirical evidence demonstrating these effects is limited. In this study, we compared psychophysiological responses to an acute psychosocial stressor between individuals who did, or did not, report regular physical exercise. Healthy men and women (N=111 participated in two experimental sessions, one with the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST and one with a non-stressful control task. We measured heart rate, blood pressure, cortisol and self-reported mood before and at repeated times after the tasks.Individuals who reported physical exercise at least once per week exhibited lower heart rate at rest than non-exercisers, but the groups did not differ in their cardiovascular responses to the TSST. Level of habitual exercise did not influence self-reported mood before the tasks, but non-exercisers reported a greater decline in positive affect after the TSST in comparison to exercisers. These findings provide modest support for claims that regular exercise protects against the negative emotional consequences of stress, and suggest that exercise has beneficial effects in healthy individuals. These findings are limited by their correlational nature, and future prospective controlled studies on the effects of regular exercise on response to acute stress are needed.

  16. Acute physical exercise under hypoxia improves sleep, mood and reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aquino-Lemos, Valdir; Santos, Ronaldo Vagner T; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Lira, Fabio S; Luz Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Tulio

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to assess the effect of two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak performed under hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 4500 m for 28 h) on sleep, mood and reaction time. Forty healthy men were randomized into 4 groups: Normoxia (NG) (n = 10); Hypoxia (HG) (n = 10); Exercise under Normoxia (ENG) (n = 10); and Exercise under Hypoxia (EHG) (n = 10). All mood and reaction time assessments were performed 40 min after awakening. Sleep was reassessed on the first day at 14 h after the initiation of hypoxia; mood and reaction time were measured 28 h later. Two sessions of acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak were performed for 60 min on the first and second days after 3 and 27 h, respectively, after starting to hypoxia. Improved sleep efficiency, stage N3 and REM sleep and reduced wake after sleep onset were observed under hypoxia after acute physical exercise. Tension, anger, depressed mood, vigor and reaction time scores improved after exercise under hypoxia. We conclude that hypoxia impairs sleep, reaction time and mood. Acute physical exercise at 50% VO2peak under hypoxia improves sleep efficiency, reversing the aspects that had been adversely affected under hypoxia, possibly contributing to improved mood and reaction time.

  17. Muscle Contraction Induces Acute Hydroxymethylation of the Exercise-Responsive Gene Nr4a3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pattamaprapanont, Pattarawan; Garde, Christian; Fabre, Odile

    2016-01-01

    stimulated over time is required to determine whether contraction-induced demethylation is preceded by changes in the hydroxymethylcytosine level. Here, we established an acute skeletal muscle contraction model to mimic the effects of acute exercise on gene expression. We used this model to investigate...... promoters. Exercise induces dynamic DNA demethylation at gene promoters; however, the contribution of the demethylation precursor hydroxymethylcytosine is unknown. Given the evanescent nature of hydroxymethylcytosine, a muscle contraction model that allows for the collection of samples that are repeatedly...... the effect of muscle contraction on DNA demethylation and hydroxymethylation. First, we performed an acute exercise study in healthy humans to identify an exercise-responsive gene that we could study in culture. We identified the nuclear receptor subfamily 4 group A member 3 (Nr4a3) gene with the highest...

  18. Acute exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke are not related to expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, James Z; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Recent research has shown that 10 min of moderate intensity exercise reduce smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in acutely abstinent smokers. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the reductions are related to participant expectation of these effects. Forty-five sedentary participants who had smoked ten or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years reported their expectation of the effects of exercise on smoking withdrawal symptoms. Approximately 1 month later, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups after 11-15 h of overnight smoking abstinence. Each group read either a positive, negative or neutral statement concerning exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms. They rated their expectation again and then completed 10 min of moderate intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer. Using standardised scales, participants rated smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke at 10, 5 and 0 min before exercise, then at 5 and 10 min during exercise and 15 and 20 min post-exercise. Expectation of exercise effects on withdrawal were manipulated in the predicted directions. No significant group main effects were found for any symptom. Significant reductions in symptoms and desire to smoke occurred during and after exercise regardless of participant expectation. Ten minutes of moderate intensity exercise can lead to reductions in desire to smoke and smoking withdrawal symptoms, which are not due to the participant's expectation of exercise effects. These findings support the use of short periods of exercise as an aid to smoking cessation.

  19. Are There Deleterious Cardiac Effects of Acute and Chronic Endurance Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Fernandez, Antonio B.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies document that habitual physical activity reduces the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and most demonstrate progressively lower rates of ASCVD with progressively more physical activity. Few studies have included individuals performing high-intensity, lifelong endurance exercise, however, and recent reports suggest that prodigious amounts of exercise may increase markers for, and even the incidence of, cardiovascular disease. This review examines the evidence that extremes of endurance exercise may increase cardiovascular disease risk by reviewing the causes and incidence of exercise-related cardiac events, and the acute effects of exercise on cardiovascular function, the effect of exercise on cardiac biomarkers, including “myocardial” creatine kinase, cardiac troponins, and cardiac natriuretic peptides. This review also examines the effect of exercise on coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, the frequency of atrial fibrillation in aging athletes, and the possibility that exercise may be deleterious in individuals genetically predisposed to such cardiac abnormalities as long QT syndrome, right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review is to our knowledge unique because it addresses all known potentially adverse cardiovascular effects of endurance exercise. The best evidence remains that physical activity and exercise training benefit the population, but it is possible that prolonged exercise and exercise training can adversely affect cardiac function in some individuals. This hypothesis warrants further examination. PMID:26607287

  20. Perceived Benefits and Barriers to Exercise for Recently Treated Adults With Acute Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leak Bryant, Ashley; Walton, AnnMarie L; Pergolotti, Mackenzi; Phillips, Brett; Bailey, Charlotte; Mayer, Deborah K; Battaglini, Claudio

    2017-07-01

    To explore perceived exercise benefits and barriers in adults with acute leukemia who recently completed an inpatient exercise intervention during induction therapy.
. Descriptive, exploratory design using semistructured interviews.
. Inpatient hematology/oncology unit at North Carolina Cancer Hospital in Chapel Hill.
. 6 adults with acute leukemia aged 35-67 years.
. Content analyses of semistructured interviews that were conducted with each participant prior to hospital discharge.
. Most participants were not meeting the recommended physical activity levels of 150 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise per week before their diagnosis. Patients were highly pleased with the exercise intervention and the overall program. Common barriers to exercise were anxiety and aches and pains.
. Overall, participants experienced physical and psychological benefits with the exercise intervention with no adverse events from exercising regularly during induction chemotherapy. Referrals for cancer rehabilitation management will lead to prolonged recovery benefits.
. Findings inform the nurses' role in encouraging and supporting adults with acute leukemia to exercise and be physically active during their hospitalization. Nurses should also be responsible for assisting patients with physical function activities to increase mobility and enhance overall health-related quality of life.

  1. Experimental Investigation of the Time Course Effects of Acute Exercise on False Episodic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Siddiqui

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous experimental work suggests that acute exercise may positively influence the accurate recall of past episodic events. However, few studies have examined whether acute exercise also reduces the number of false episodic memories. We evaluated this paradigm in conjunction with an examination of the temporal effects of acute exercise, which have previously been shown to play an important role in subserving episodic memory function. Twenty young adults participated in three experimental visits, including a non-exercise control visit, a visit involving an acute bout (20 min of moderate-intensity exercise occurring prior to the memory task, and a visit involving an acute bout of exercise occurring during the encoding of the memory task. All visits were counterbalanced and occurred at least 24 h apart. The Deese–Roediger–McDermott (DRM Paradigm, involving a separate word list trial for each visit, was employed to assess accurate and false episodic memory recall. For each visit, a short-term (immediate recall and a long-term (25-min delay memory recall was assessed. For both time points, the visit that involved exercise prior to encoding resulted in better short-term and long-term memory function (F(2 = 11.56, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.38. For both time points, the control visit resulted in a greater number of false memories. These findings suggest that acute moderate-intensity exercise may help to increase the accurate recall of past episodic memories and may help to reduce the rate of false memories.

  2. Coordinated collagen and muscle protein synthesis in human patella tendon and quadriceps muscle after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Olesen, Jens L; Hansen, Mette

    2005-01-01

    We hypothesized that an acute bout of strenuous, non-damaging exercise would increase rates of protein synthesis of collagen in tendon and skeletal muscle but these would be less than those of muscle myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Two groups (n = 8 and 6) of healthy young men were studied...... collagen (0.077% h(-1)), muscle collagen (0.054% h(-1)), myofibrillar protein (0.121% h(-1)), and sarcoplasmic protein (0.134% h(-1))). The rates decreased toward basal values by 72 h although rates of tendon collagen and myofibrillar protein synthesis remained elevated. There was no tissue damage...... of muscle visible on histological evaluation. Neither tissue microdialysate nor serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGF binding proteins (IGFBP-3 and IGFBP-4) or procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide changed from resting values. Thus, there is a rapid increase in collagen synthesis after strenuous exercise...

  3. Effect of acute moderate exercise on induced inflammation and arterial function in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant Mohan; Kappus, Rebecca Marie; Cook, Marc D; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi Danielle; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Iwamoto, Gary; Vanar, Vishwas; Tandon, Rudhir; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-04-01

    Acute inflammation reduces flow-mediated vasodilatation and increases arterial stiffness in young healthy individuals. However, this response has not been studied in older adults. The aim of this study, therefore, was to evaluate the effect of acute induced systemic inflammation on endothelial function and wave reflection in older adults. Furthermore, an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be anti-inflammatory. Taken together, we tested the hypothesis that acute moderate-intensity endurance exercise, immediately preceding induced inflammation, would be protective against the negative effects of acute systemic inflammation on vascular function. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers between 55 and 75 years of age were randomized to an exercise or a control group. Both groups received a vaccine (induced inflammation) and sham (saline) injection in a counterbalanced crossover design. Inflammatory markers, endothelial function (flow-mediated vasodilatation) and measures of wave reflection and arterial stiffness were evaluated at baseline and at 24 and 48 h after injections. There were no significant differences in endothelial function and arterial stiffness between the exercise and control group after induced inflammation. The groups were then analysed together, and we found significant differences in the inflammatory markers 24 and 48 h after induction of acute inflammation compared with sham injection. However, flow-mediated vasodilatation, augmentation index normalized for heart rate (AIx75) and β-stiffness did not change significantly. Our results suggest that acute inflammation induced by influenza vaccination did not affect endothelial function in older adults.

  4. Failure to identify an acute exercise effect on executive function assessed by the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test

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    Chun-Chih Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute aerobic exercise failed to influence executive function as assessed by the WCST, revealing that this classical neuropsychological test tapping executive function may not be sensitive to acute exercise. Our findings suggest that acute exercise does not broadly affect the entire family of executive functions, or its effect on a specific aspect of executive function may be task-dependent, as proposed by Etnier and Chang (2009.

  5. Influence of acute exercise of varying intensity and duration on postprandial oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canale, Robert E; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Bloomer, Richard J

    2014-09-01

    Aerobic exercise can reduce postprandial lipemia, and possibly oxidative stress, when performed prior to a lipid-rich meal. To compare the impact of acute exercise on postprandial oxidative stress. We compared aerobic and anaerobic exercise bouts of different intensities and durations on postprandial blood triglycerides (TAG), oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, advanced oxidation protein products), and antioxidant status (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase). Twelve trained men (21-35 years) underwent four conditions: (1) No exercise rest; (2) 60-min aerobic exercise at 70% heart rate reserve; (3) five 60-s sprints at 100% max capacity; and (4) ten 15-s sprints at 200% max capacity. All exercise bouts were performed on a cycle ergometer. A high-fat meal was consumed 1 h after exercise cessation. Blood samples were collected pre-meal and 2 and 4 h post-meal and analyzed for TAG, oxidative stress biomarkers, and antioxidant status. No significant interaction or condition effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with acute exercise having little to no effect on the magnitude of postprandial oxidative stress. In a sample of healthy, well-trained men, neither aerobic nor anaerobic exercise attenuates postprandial oxidative stress in response to a high-fat meal.

  6. Acute exercise improves cognition in the depressed elderly: the effect of dual-tasks

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    Paulo Eduardo Vasques

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to assess the acute effect of physical exercise on the cognitive function of depressed elderly patients in a dual-task experiment. INTRODUCTION: Physical exercise has a positive effect on the brain and may even act as a treatment for major depressive disorder. However, the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on cognitive function during and after one session of aerobic training in elderly depressive patients are not known. METHODS: Ten elderly subjects diagnosed with major depressive disorder performed neuropsychological tests during and after a moderate physical exercise session (65-75%HRmax. A Digit Span Test (Forward and Backward and a Stroop Color-Word Test were used to assess cognitive function. The elderly participants walked on an electric treadmill for 30 minutes and underwent the same cognitive testing before, during, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the exercise session. In the control session, the same cognitive testing was conducted, but without exercise training. RESULTS: The results of the Digit Span Test did not change between the control and the exercise sessions. The results of the Stroop Color-Word Test improved after physical exercise, indicating a positive effect of exercise on cognition. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that the cognitive functions of depressed elderly persons, especially attention and inhibitory control, are not impaired during and after an acute session of physical exercise. In contrast, the effect of dual-tasks showed beneficial results for these subjects, mainly after exercise. The dual-task may be a safe and useful tool for assessing cognitive function.

  7. Acute exercise remodels promoter methylation in human skeletal muscle

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    Barrès, Romain; Yan, Jie; Egan, Brendan

    2012-01-01

    DNA methylation is a covalent biochemical modification controlling chromatin structure and gene expression. Exercise elicits gene expression changes that trigger structural and metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle. We determined whether DNA methylation plays a role in exercise-induced gene ex...

  8. The Effects of Acute Exercise on Memory and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF).

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    Etnier, Jennifer L; Wideman, Laurie; Labban, Jeffrey D; Piepmeier, Aaron T; Pendleton, Daniel M; Dvorak, Kelly K; Becofsky, Katie

    2016-08-01

    Acute exercise benefits cognition, and some evidence suggests that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a role in this effect. The purpose of this study was to explore the dose-response relationship between exercise intensity, memory, and BDNF. Young adults completed 3 exercise sessions at different intensities relative to ventilator threshold (Vt) (VO 2max , Vt - 20%, Vt + 20%). For each session, participants exercised for approximately 30 min. Following exercise, they performed the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to assess short-term memory, learning, and long-term memory recall. Twenty-four hours later, they completed the RAVLT recognition trial, which provided another measure of long-term memory. Blood was drawn before exercise, immediately postexercise, and after the 30-min recall test. Results indicated that long-term memory as assessed after the 24-hr delay differed as a function of exercise intensity with the largest benefits observed following maximal intensity exercise. BDNF data showed a significant increase in response to exercise; however, there were no differences relative to exercise intensity and there were no significant associations between BDNF and memory. Future research is warranted so that we can better understand how to use exercise to benefit cognitive performance.

  9. The effect of acute aerobic and resistance exercise on working memory.

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    Pontifex, Matthew B; Hillman, Charles H; Fernhall, Bo; Thompson, Kelli M; Valentini, Teresa A

    2009-04-01

    The goal of this investigation was to assess the influence of acute bouts of aerobic versus resistance exercise on the executive control of working memory. Twenty-one young adult participants completed a cardiorespiratory fitness test and maximal strength tests. On subsequent days, task performance measures of reaction time (RT) and accuracy were collected while participants completed a modified Sternberg working memory task before the start of, immediately after, and 30 min after an intervention consisting of 30 min of either resistance or aerobic exercise and a seated rest control. Findings indicated shorter RT immediately and 30 min after acute aerobic exercise relative to the preexercise baseline with no such effects observed after resistance exercise or seated rest. Further, in the aerobic condition, a larger reduction in RT from the baseline occurred during task conditions requiring increased working memory capacity. Again, no effect was observed in the resistance exercise or the seated rest conditions. These data extend the current knowledge base by indicating that acute exercise-induced changes in cognition are disproportionately related to executive control and may be specific to the aerobic exercise domain.

  10. Influence of acute exercise with and without carbohydrate replacement on postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael; O'Gorman, Donal J; McCaffrey, Noel; Hamilton, Marc T; Zderic, Theodore W; Carson, Brian P; Moyna, Niall M

    2009-03-01

    Acute exercise, undertaken on the day before an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT), typically reduces postprandial triglycerides (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the benefits of acute exercise may be overstated when studies do not account for compensatory changes in dietary intake. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute exercise, with and without carbohydrate (CHO) replacement, on postprandial lipid metabolism. Eight recreationally active young men underwent an OFTT on the morning after three experimental conditions: no exercise [control (Con)], prolonged exercise without CHO replacement (Ex-Def) and prolonged exercise with CHO replacement to restore CHO and energy balance (Ex-Bal). The exercise session in Ex-Def and Ex-Bal consisted of 90 min cycle ergometry at 70% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)) followed by 10 maximal 1-min sprints. CHO replacement was achieved using glucose solutions consumed at 0, 2, and 4 h postexercise. Muscle glycogen was 40 +/- 4% (P Con values on the morning of the Ex-Def and Ex-Bal OFTT, respectively. Postprandial TG were 40 +/- 14% lower and postprandial HDL-C, free fatty acids, and 3-hydroxybutyrate were higher in Ex-Def compared with Con (P < 0.05). Most importantly, these exercise effects were not evident in Ex-Bal. Postprandial insulin and glucose and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) were not significantly different across trials. There was no relation between the changes in postprandial TG and muscle glycogen across trials. In conclusion, the influence of acute exhaustive exercise on postprandial lipid metabolism is largely dependent on the associated CHO and energy deficit.

  11. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie

    2018-01-01

    session among female cleaners. METHODS: Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed...... of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. CONCLUSION: A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h...

  12. Transient increase in homocysteine but not hyperhomocysteinemia during acute exercise at different intensities in sedentary individuals.

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    Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B(12, and B(6 in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18-27 yr took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI and 80% VO(2peak (high intensity, HI. Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h, during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min, and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h. Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0-10.1 µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0 and HI (9.4 (8.2-10.6 µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0, coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B(12, and B(6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations.

  13. The effect of different volumes of acute resistance exercise on elderly individuals with treated hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher, Luria M L; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Moriguti, Julio C; Scher, Ricardo; Lima, Nereida K C

    2011-04-01

    Acute resistance exercise can reduce the blood pressure (BP) of hypertensive subjects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different volumes of acute low-intensity resistance exercise over the magnitude and the extent of BP changes in treated hypertensive elderly individuals. Sixteen participants (7 men, 9 women), with mean age of 68 ± 5 years, performed 3 independent randomized sessions: Control (C: 40 minutes of rest), Exercise 1 (E1: 20 minutes, 1 lap in the circuit), and Exercise 2 (E2: 40 minutes, 2 laps in the circuit) with the intensity of 40% of 1 repetition maximum. Blood pressure was measured before (during 20 minutes) and after each session (every 5 minutes during 60 minutes) using both a mercury sphygmomanometer and a semiautomatic device (Omrom-HEM-431). After that, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed (Dyna-MAPA). Blood pressure decreased during the first 60 minutes (systolic: p exercise sessions. Only the highest volume session promoted a reduction of mean systolic 24-hour BP and awake BP (p exercise, with higher diastolic BP during sleep (p exercise sessions in a circuit with different volumes reduced BP during the first 60 minutes after exercise in elderly individuals with treated hypertension. However, only the highest volume promoted a reduction of mean 24-hour and awake systolic BP.

  14. Profiling of circulating microRNAs after a bout of acute resistance exercise in humans.

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    Shuji Sawada

    Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed a new aspect of physiological regulation in which microRNAs (miRNAs play fundamental roles in diverse biological and pathological processes. Furthermore, it was recently discovered that miRNAs are stably secreted into blood and that circulating miRNAs may play important roles in cell-cell communication. Here, we examined whether the circulating miRNA profile is affected by acute resistance exercise. Twelve males performed a resistance exercise session (bench press and leg press, consisting of five sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of maximum strength, with a 1 min rest between sets. Blood samples were taken before exercise, and at 0 and 60 min, 1 day, and 3 days after exercise. The circulating miRNA profile was determined by microarray analysis. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that the miR-149* level increased three days after resistance exercise. In contrast, the miR-146a and miR-221 levels decreased three days after resistance exercise. Our findings suggest that circulating miRNA levels change in response to acute resistance exercise, and miRNAs may play important roles in resistance-exercise-induced adaptation.

  15. Effects of grape seed polyphenols on oxidative damage in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belviranlı, Muaz; Gökbel, Hakkı; Okudan, Nilsel; Büyükbaş, Sadık

    2013-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of grape seed extract (GSE) supplementation on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense markers in liver tissue of acutely and chronically exercised rats. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: Control (C), Control Chronic Exercise (CE), Control Acute Exercise (AE), GSE-supplemented Control (GC), GSE-supplemented Chronic Exercise(GCE) and GSE-supplemented Acute Exercise (GAE). Rats in the chronic exercise groups were subjected to a six-week treadmill running and in the acute exercise groups performed an exhaustive running. Rats in the GSE supplemented groups received GSE (100 mg.kg(-1) .day(-1) ) in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver tissues of the rats were taken for the analysis of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) levels and total antioxidant activity (AOA) and xanthine oxidase (XO) activities. MDA levels decreased with GSE supplementation in control groups but increased in acute and chronic exercise groups compared to their non-supplemented control. NO levels increased with GSE supplementation. XO activities were higher in AE group compared to the CE group. AOA decreased with GSE supplementation. In conclusion, while acute exercise triggers oxidative stress, chronic exercise has protective role against oxidative stress. GSE has a limited antioxidant effect on exercise-induced oxidative stress in liver tissue.

  16. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  17. Can the measurement of brachial artery flow-mediated dilation be applied to the acute exercise model?

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    Harris Ryan A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The measurement of flow-mediated dilation using high-resolution ultrasound has been utilized extensively in interventional trials evaluating the salutary effect of drugs and lifestyle modifications (i.e. diet or exercise training on endothelial function; however, until recently researchers have not used flow-mediated dilation to examine the role of a single bout of exercise on vascular function. Utilizing the acute exercise model can be advantageous as it allows for an efficient manipulation of exercise variables (i.e. mode, intensity, duration, etc. and permits greater experimental control of confounding variables. Given that the application of flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise paradigm is expanding, the purpose of this review is to discuss methodological and physiological factors pertinent to flow-mediated dilation in the context of acute exercise. Although the scientific rationale for evaluating endothelial function in response to acute exercise is sound, few concerns warrant attention when interpreting flow-mediated dilation data following acute exercise. The following questions will be addressed in the present review: Does the measurement of flow-mediated dilation influence subsequent serial measures of flow-mediated dilation? Do we need to account for diurnal variation? Is there an optimal time to measure post-exercise flow-mediated dilation? Is the post-exercise flow-mediated dilation reproducible? How is flow-mediated dilation interpreted considering the hemodynamic and sympathetic changes associated with acute exercise? Can the measurement of endothelial-independent dilation affect the exercise? Evidence exists to support the methodological appropriateness for employing flow-mediated dilation in the acute exercise model; however, further research is warranted to clarify its interpretation following acute exercise.

  18. ACUTE PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF EXERCISE PERFORMED AT SELF-SELECTED WORKLOADS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE

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    Attila Szabo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992 inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%. No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (% of maximal heart rate reserve and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise

  19. Acute Response of Some Iron Indices of Young Elite Wrestlers to Three Types of Aerobic, Anaerobic, and Wrestling Exercise

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    Seyed Morteza Tayebi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the acute responses of some iron indices of young elite wrestlers to three types of aerobic, anaerobic, and wrestling exercises. A total of 24 elite volunteer wrestlers were randomly categorized into three groups (n=8 aerobic, anaerobic, and routine wrestling exercises. The exercises were conducted during three non-consecutive sessions within one week. The aerobic exercises included 35 min of continuous running with 130 beats per minute (BPM on a treadmill; the anaerobic exercises included 15 min circuit movements and 15 min rest with 160 BPM, and the wrestling training included routine wrestling exercises. Blood sampling was done in the first and third sessions in order to study the acute responses which included four stages of 1 h before, immediately, 3 h, and finally 24 h after exercises. The study of the acute response to the first session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum iron (p=0.57. Furthermore, the serum ferritin (p=0.012 and TIBC (p=0.006 affected was affected by type of exercise. The study of the acute response to the second session showed that the type of exercise had no effect on serum ferritin (p=0.731 and TIBC (p=0.231, rather the serum iron was affected by the type of exercise (p=0.01. Conclusively, the study of acute response showed that wrestling exercises led to a decline in iron stores during exercise and reduced total iron binding capacity during a 24-h recovery period. The study of acute exercise after a short adaptation period showed that despite the fact that serum iron had no change in anaerobic and wrestling exercises over the passage of time, it changed during aerobic exercise and 24-h recovery periods. Furthermore, the progress of iron deficiency was only observed in the first stage which prevented its progress to the next stage.

  20. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

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    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  1. Acute supramaximal exercise increases the brain oxygenation in relation to cognitive workload

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    Cem Seref Bediz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise (Wingate Anaerobic Test lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP and low performers (LP according to their peak power values (PP obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ than those of LP. In addition, peak power values of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb. The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anaerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load and post-exercise hemodynamic

  2. AMPKα is essential for acute exercise-induced gene responses but not for exercise training-induced adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Maag Kristensen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    -induced increases in exercise capacity and expression of metabolic proteins as well as acute exercise-induced gene regulation would be compromised in AMPKα1 and -α2 muscle-specific double knockout (mdKO) mice. An acute bout of exercise increased skeletal muscle mRNA content of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I......, glucose transporter 4 and VEGF in an AMPK-dependent manner, while cluster of differentiation 36 and fatty acid transport protein 1 mRNA content increased similarly in AMPKα wild type (WT) and mdKO mice. During four weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training, the AMPKα mdKO mice ran less than WT...

  3. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Consolidation and Retention of Motor Memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Kasper Christen

    with the perspective of exploring the arguments for applying exercise systematically in the educational system. In addition, since a team sport could be more motivating to school children compared to e.g. running, we investigated the effects of both hockey and running on motor memory. Seventy-seven pre......There is substantial evidence that a single bout of exercise can improve cognitive functions and retention of certain types of declarative memory. However, it is unclear if a similar effect can be demonstrated when coupling physical activity with the acquisition and retention of a motor skill....... Hence, the overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate the relationship between acute exercise and motor memory, with special interest in investigating if exercise performed after motor skill learning could improve skill retention. Study I was designed to assess if a single bout of exercise...

  4. Serum Growth Hormone and Glucose Levels in Acute Exercise and in the Recovery Period in Athletes

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    Elma Kučukalić-Selimović

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Growth hormone exerts several metabolic effects, including effects on proteins, fats and carbohydrates. Among the many metabolic activities of GH, two contradictory actions were described: acute and early insulin-like activity and chronic and late anti-insulin like activity also called diabetogenic activity. A dramatic increase in plasma concentration of GH was found during endurance exercise, but its role during exercise is not well known. According to its metabolic effects a possible role of growth hormone may be in maintenance of glucose level during exercise. The aim of this study was to analyze dynamics of changes in GH and glucose levels during acute workload and in the recovery period, in a group of well trained athletes. All the subjects exercised for 30 minutes on cycle ergometer in sitting position (work intensity 50% of VO2 max, RPM 60/min. Serum GH concentrations were measured by IRMA (immunoradiometric assays method in blood samples obtained at rest and 6-min intervals during exercise, and 15-min intervals during recovery period. Serum glucose levels were determined by standard enzymatic method glucose oxidase (GOD PAP at the same intervals. There were no correlations between serum GH and glucose levels either during exercise or in the recovery period. There were no differences between glucose levels during exercise, so we can not exclude possible role of GH in glucose concentration maintenance.

  5. The acute phase response and exercise: court and field sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, K; Fallon, S; Boston, T

    2001-01-01

    Objective—To determine the presence or absence of an acute phase response after training for court and field sports. Participants—All members of the Australian women's soccer team (n = 18) and all members of the Australian Institute of Sport netball team (n = 14). Methods—Twelve acute phase reactants (white blood cell count, neutrophil count, platelet count, serum iron, ferritin, and transferrin, percentage transferrin saturation, α1 antitrypsin, caeruloplasmin, α2 acid glycoprotein, C reactive protein, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate) were measured during a rest period and after moderate and heavy training weeks in members of elite netball and women's soccer teams. Results—Responses consistent with an acute phase response were found in five of 24 tests in the soccer players, and in three of 24 tests in the netball players. Responses in the opposite direction were found in seven of 24 tests in the soccer players and two of 24 tests in the netballers. The most sensitive reactant measured, C reactive protein, did not respond in a manner typical of an acute phase response. Conclusion—An acute phase response does not seem to occur as a consequence of the levels of training typical of elite female netball and soccer teams. This has implications for the interpretation of biochemical variables in these groups. Key Words: acute phase response; iron; plasma proteins; inflammation PMID:11375875

  6. Exercise induced rhabdomyolysis

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    Ružič Maja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Rhabdomyolysis is a potentially life threatening disease, characterized by the release of intracellular calcium from skeletal muscles and can result in acute renal failure. Case report. A nineteen year old boy was admitted to the Clinic for Infective Diseases of Clinical Center Novi Sad. The disease was developing gradually and the symptoms were dizziness, muscle pain and dark color of urine. Due to the pathological level of aminotransferase he was hospitalized on the fourth day of the disease beginning with a suspicious diagnosis of acute viral hepatitis. In the hospital course of the disease, a further elevation of serum aminotransferases, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were registered. Additional serological analyses were done to exclude other possible causes of acute liver lesion. In the neurological status prolonged decontraction of quadriceps muscle was detected and the electromyography was suspicious on neuromyositis. Conclusion. Excessive muscular activity with the strenuous exercise is the leading, but very frequently overlooked, cause of rhabdomyolysis in healthy people. Excessive physical exercise may lead to elevation of the serum activity of aminotransferases and to suspicion of hepatitis.

  7. Effect of acute exercise on glycogen synthase in muscle from obese and diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Jørgen; Tantiwong, Puntip; Stuenæs, Jorid T; Molina-Carrion, Marjorie; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-07-01

    Insulin stimulates glycogen synthase (GS) through dephosphorylation of serine residues, and this effect is impaired in skeletal muscle from insulin-resistant [obese and type 2 diabetic (T2DM)] subjects. Exercise also increases GS activity, yet it is not known whether the ability of exercise to affect GS is impaired in insulin-resistant subjects. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of acute exercise on GS phosphorylation and enzyme kinetic properties in muscle from insulin-resistant individuals. Lean normal glucose-tolerant (NGT), obese NGT, and obese T2DM subjects performed 40 min of moderate-intensity cycle exercise (70% of Vo(2max)). GS kinetic properties and phosphorylation were measured in vastus lateralis muscle before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 3.5 h postexercise. In lean subjects, GS fractional activity increased twofold after 40 min of exercise, and it remained elevated after the 3.5-h rest period. Importantly, exercise also decreased GS K(m) for UDP-glucose from ≈0.5 to ≈0.2 mM. In lean subjects, exercise caused significant dephosphorylation of GS by 50-70% (Ser(641), Ser(645), and Ser(645,649,653,657)), and phosphorylation of these sites remained decreased after 3.5 h; Ser⁷ phosphorylation was not regulated by exercise. In obese NGT and T2DM subjects, exercise increased GS fractional activity, decreased K(m) for UDP-glucose, and decreased GS phosphorylation as effectively as in lean NGT subjects. We conclude that the molecular regulatory process by which exercise promotes glycogen synthesis in muscle is preserved in insulin-resistant subjects.

  8. Acute effect of Ethanol and Taurine on frontal cortex absolute beta power before and after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagy, Mauricio; Velasques, Bruna; Ribeiro, Pedro; Gongora, Mariana; Alvarenga, Renato; Alonso, Luciano; Pompeu, Fernando A. M. S.

    2018-01-01

    Ethanol (ET) is a substance that modulates the Central Nervous System (CNS). Frequently, ET intake occurs combined with energy drinks, which contain taurine (TA), an important amino acid found in the body (i.e brain and muscles). Although TA administration has been used in the improvement of physical performance, the impact of TA, ET and exercise remains unknown. This study aimed to analyze the acute effect of 6g of Taurine (TA), 0.6 mL∙kg-1 of Ethanol (ET), and Taurine combined with Ethanol (TA+ET) ingestion on the electrocortical activity before and after a moderate intensity exercise in 9 subjects, 5 women (counterbalanced experimental design). In each of the 4 treatments (Placebo—PL, TA, ET and TA+ET), electroencephalography (EEG) tests were conducted in order to analyze changes in absolute beta power (ABP) in the frontal lobe in 3 moments: baseline (before ingestion), peak (before exercise) and post-exercise. In the PL treatment, the frontal areas showed decrease in ABP after exercise. However, in the ET+TA treatment, ABP values were greater after exercise, except for Fp1. The ET treatment had no effect on the Superior Frontal Gyrus area (F3, Fz and F4) and ABP decreased after exercise in Fp1 and Fp2. In the TA treatment, ABP increased after exercise, while it decreased at the peak moment in most of the frontal regions, except for Fp1, F3 and Fz. We concluded that after a moderate intensity exercise, a decrease in cortical activity occurs in placebo treatment. Moreover, we found a inhibitory effect of TA on cortical activity before exercise and a increased in cortical activity after exercise. A small ET dose is not enough to alter ABP in all regions of the frontal cortex and, in combination with TA, it showed an increase in the frontal cortex activity at the post-exercise moment. PMID:29538445

  9. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: Does exercise type play a role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Flindtgaard, M; Skriver, K; Geertsen, S S; Christiansen, L; Korsgaard Johnsen, L; Busk, D V P; Bojsen-Møller, E; Madsen, M J; Ritz, C; Roig, M; Lundbye-Jensen, J

    2017-11-01

    A single bout of high-intensity exercise can augment off-line gains in skills acquired during motor practice. It is currently unknown if the type of physical exercise influences the effect on motor skill consolidation. This study investigated the effect of three types of high-intensity exercise following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 40 young (25.3 ±3.6 years), able-bodied male participants randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing strength training (STR), circuit training (CT), indoor hockey (HOC) or rest (CON). Retention tests of the motor skill were performed 1 (R1h) and 24 h (R1d) post acquisition. For all exercise groups, mean motor performance scores decreased at R1h compared to post acquisition (POST) level; STR (P = 0.018), CT (P = 0.02), HOC (P = 0.014) and performance scores decreased for CT compared to CON (P = 0.049). Mean performance scores increased from POST to R1d for all exercise groups; STR (P = 0.010), CT (P = 0.020), HOC (P = 0.007) while performance scores for CON decreased (P = 0.043). Changes in motor performance were thus greater for STR (P = 0.006), CT (P exercise can lead to a decrease in motor performance assessed shortly after motor skill practice (R1h), but enhances offline effects promoting long-term retention (R1d). Given that different exercise modalities produced similar positive off-line effects on motor memory, we conclude that exercise-induced effects beneficial to consolidation appear to depend primarily on the physiological stimulus rather than type of exercise and movements employed. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Acute Effect of Aerobic Exercise on Measures of Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Inza L.; And Others

    The immediate response of stress to aerobic exercise was measured by utilizing the Palmar Sweat Index (PSI) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Forty subjects (20 male and 20 female) from the ages of 18-30 sustained a single bout of aerobic activity for 30 minutes at 60 percent of their maximum heart rate. Pre-treatment procedures…

  11. The protective effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on the interference of procedural memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, J S; Chen, J; Riechman, S; Roig, M; Wright, D L

    2018-04-10

    Numerous studies have reported a positive impact of acute exercise for procedural skill memory. Previous work has revealed this effect, but these findings are confounded by a potential contribution of a night of sleep to the reported exercise-mediated reduction in interference. Thus, it remains unclear if exposure to a brief bout of exercise can provide protection to a newly acquired motor memory. The primary objective of the present study was to examine if a single bout of moderate-intensity cardiovascular exercise after practice of a novel motor sequence reduces the susceptibility to retroactive interference. To address this shortcoming, 17 individuals in a control condition practiced a novel motor sequence that was followed by test after a 6-h wake-filled interval. A separate group of 17 individuals experienced practice with an interfering motor sequence 45 min after practice with the original sequence and were then administered test trials 6 h later. One additional group of 12 participants was exposed to an acute bout of exercise immediately after practice with the original motor sequence but prior to practice with the interfering motor sequence and the subsequent test. In comparison with the control condition, increased response times were revealed during the 6-h test for the individuals that were exposed to interference. The introduction of an acute bout of exercise between the practice of the two motor sequences produced a reduction in interference from practice with the second task at the time of test, however, this effect was not statistically significant. These data reinforce the hypothesis that while there may be a contribution from exercise to post-practice consolidation of procedural skills which is independent of sleep, sleep may interact with exercise to strengthen the effects of the latter on procedural memory.

  12. Exercise in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Hinman, Sally K.; Smith, Kristy B.; Quillen, David M.; Smith, M. Seth

    2015-01-01

    Context: Health professionals who care for pregnant women should discuss potential health benefits and harms of exercise. Although most pregnant women do not meet minimal exercise recommendations, there are a growing number of physically active women who wish to continue training throughout pregnancy. Evidence Acquisition: A search of the Web of Science database of articles and reviews available in English through 2014. The search terms exercise pregnancy, strenuous exercise pregnancy, and vi...

  13. Effects of acute exercise on salivary free insulin-like growth factor 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Saliva analysis is rapidly developing as a tool for the assessment of biomarkers of sports training. It remains poorly understood whether a short bout of sport training can alter some salivary immune biomarkers. Aim: To investigate the effect of acute exercise using football training session on salivary flow rate, ...

  14. Systolic blood pressure reactivity during submaximal exercise and acute psychological stress in youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Studies in youth show an association between systolic blood-pressure (SBP) reactivity to acute psychological stress and carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT). However, it has not yet been determined whether SBP reactivity during submaximal exercise is also associated with CIMT i...

  15. Acute exercise in treated phenylketonuria patients: Physical activity and biochemical response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Nicolao Mazzola

    2015-12-01

    Conclusions: Acute aerobic exercise followed by a Phe-restricted breakfast did not change Phe concentrations in treated phenylketonuria patients, but it was associated with decreased Phe/Tyr only in controls. Further studies are necessary to confirm our results in a higher number of patients.

  16. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  17. Improvement of exercise capacity and left ventricular diastolic function with metoprolol XL after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, S H; Jensen, S E; Egstrup, K

    2000-01-01

    dysfunction after acute myocardial infarction were given metoprolol XL (n = 29) or placebo (n = 30). The effects of metoprolol XL on exercise capacity in relation to effects on LV diastolic filling were studied. Two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography and maximal symptom limited bicycle test were performed...

  18. Acute relief of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by inhaled formoterol in children with persistent asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermansen, Mette Northman; Nielsen, Kim Gjerum; Buchvald, Frederik

    2006-01-01

    -controlled, crossover study of the immediate effect of formoterol, 9 microg, vs terbutaline, 0.5 mg, and placebo administered as dry powder at different study days. Exercise challenge test was used as a model of acute bronchoconstriction. PATIENTS: Twenty-four 7- to 15-year-old children with persistent asthma...

  19. The Chronic and Acute Effects of Exercise Upon Selected Blood Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roitman, J. L.; Brewer, J. P.

    This study investigated the effects of chronic and acute exercise upon selected blood measures and indices. Nine male cross-country runners were studied. Red blood count, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were measured using standard laboratory techniques; mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin…

  20. Acute Exercise and Motor Memory Consolidation: The Role of Exercise Timing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High intensity aerobic exercise amplifies offline gains in procedural memory acquired during motor practice. This effect seems to be evident when exercise is placed immediately after acquisition, during the first stages of memory consolidation, but the importance of temporal proximity of the exercise bout used to stimulate improvements in procedural memory is unknown. The effects of three different temporal placements of high intensity exercise were investigated following visuomotor skill acquisition on the retention of motor memory in 48 young (24.0 ± 2.5 yrs, healthy male subjects randomly assigned to one of four groups either performing a high intensity (90% Maximal Power Output exercise bout at 20 min (EX90, 1 h (EX90+1, 2 h (EX90+2 after acquisition or rested (CON. Retention tests were performed at 1 d (R1 and 7 d (R7. At R1 changes in performance scores after acquisition were greater for EX90 than CON (p<0.001 and EX90+2 (p=0.001. At R7 changes in performance scores for EX90, EX90+1, and EX90+2 were higher than CON (p<0.001, p=0.008, and p=0.008, resp.. Changes for EX90 at R7 were greater than EX90+2 (p=0.049. Exercise-induced improvements in procedural memory diminish as the temporal proximity of exercise from acquisition is increased. Timing of exercise following motor practice is important for motor memory consolidation.

  1. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Hötting

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  2. The Effects of Acute Physical Exercise on Memory, Peripheral BDNF, and Cortisol in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötting, Kirsten; Schickert, Nadine; Kaiser, Jochen; Röder, Brigitte; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren

    2016-01-01

    In animals, physical activity has been shown to induce functional and structural changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve memory, probably by upregulating the release of neurotrophic factors. In humans, results on the effect of acute exercise on memory are inconsistent so far. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the effects of a single bout of physical exercise on memory consolidation and the underlying neuroendocrinological mechanisms in young adults. Participants encoded a list of German-Polish vocabulary before exercising for 30 minutes with either high intensity or low intensity or before a relaxing phase. Retention of the vocabulary was assessed 20 minutes after the intervention as well as 24 hours later. Serum BDNF and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, after learning, and after the intervention. The high-intensity exercise group showed an increase in BDNF and cortisol after exercising compared to baseline. Exercise after learning did not enhance the absolute number of recalled words. Participants of the high-intensity exercise group, however, forgot less vocabulary than the relaxing group 24 hours after learning. There was no robust relationship between memory scores and the increase in BDNF and cortisol, respectively, suggesting that further parameters have to be taken into account to explain the effects of exercise on memory in humans.

  3. Cardiac Autonomic and Blood Pressure Responses to an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexei; Nordvall, Michael; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Lastova, Kevin; Francavillo, Gwendolyn; Summerfield, Liane; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos

    2017-10-07

    Kettlebell (KB) training has become an extremely popular exercise program for improving both muscle strength and aerobic fitness. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation and blood pressure (BP) responses induced by an acute KB exercise session are currently unknown. Understanding the impact of this exercise modality on the post-exercise autonomic modulation and BP would facilitate appropriate exercise prescription in susceptible populations. The present study evaluated the effects of an acute session of KB exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) and BP responses in healthy individuals. Seventeen (M=10, F=7) healthy subjects completed either a KB or non-exercise control trial in randomized order. HRV and BP measurements were collected at baseline, 3, 10 and 30 min after each trial. There were significant increases (P < 0.01) in heart rate, markers of sympathetic activity (nLF) and sympathovagal balance (nLF/nHF) for 30 min after the trial KB trial, while no changes from baseline were observed after the control trial. There were also significant decreases (P < 0.01) in markers of vagal tone (RMMSD, nHF) for 30 min as well as (P < 0.01) systolic BP and diastolic BP at 10 and 30 min after the trial KB trial while no changes from baseline were observed after the control trial. Our findings indicate that KB exercise increases sympathovagal balance for 30 min post-intervention which is concurrent with an important hypotensive effect. Further research is warranted to evaluate the potential clinical application of KB training in populations that might benefit from post-exercise hypotension, such as hypertensives.

  4. The stress-buffering effect of acute exercise: Evidence for HPA axis negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zschucke, Elisabeth; Renneberg, Babette; Dimeo, Fernando; Wüstenberg, Torsten; Ströhle, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    According to the cross-stressor adaptation hypothesis, physically trained individuals show lower physiological and psychological responses to stressors other than exercise, e.g. psychosocial stress. Reduced stress reactivity may constitute a mechanism of action for the beneficial effects of exercise in maintaining mental health. With regard to neural and psychoneuroendocrine stress responses, the acute stress-buffering effects of exercise have not been investigated yet. A sample of highly trained (HT) and sedentary (SED) young men was randomized to either exercise on a treadmill at moderate intensity (60-70% VO2max; AER) for 30 min, or to perform 30 min of "placebo" exercise (PLAC). 90 min later, an fMRI experiment was conducted using an adapted version of the Montreal Imaging Stress Task (MIST). The subjective and psychoneuroendocrine (cortisol and α-amylase) changes induced by the exercise intervention and the MIST were assessed, as well as neural activations during the MIST. Finally, associations between the different stress responses were analysed. Participants of the AER group showed a significantly reduced cortisol response to the MIST, which was inversely related to the previous exercise-induced α-amylase and cortisol fluctuations. With regard to the sustained BOLD signal, we found higher bilateral hippocampus (Hipp) activity and lower prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity in the AER group. Participants with a higher aerobic fitness showed lower cortisol responses to the MIST. As the Hipp and PFC are brain structures prominently involved in the regulation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, these findings indicate that the acute stress-buffering effect of exercise relies on negative feedback mechanisms. Positive affective changes after exercise appear as important moderators largely accounting for the effects related to physical fitness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of an acute bout of exercise on memory in 6th grade children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etnier, Jennifer; Labban, Jeffrey D; Piepmeier, Aaron; Davis, Matthew E; Henning, David A

    2014-08-01

    Research supports the positive effects of exercise on cognitive performance by children. However, a limited number of studies have explored the effects specifically on memory. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of an acute bout of exercise on learning, short-term memory, and long-term memory in a sample of children. Children were randomly assigned to an exercise condition or to a no-treatment control condition and then performed repeated trials on an auditory verbal learning task. In the exercise condition, participants performed the PACER task, an aerobic fitness assessment, in their physical education class before performing the memory task. In the control condition, participants performed the memory task at the beginning of their physical education class. Results showed that participants in the exercise condition demonstrated significantly better learning of the word lists and significantly better recall of the words after a brief delay. There were not significant differences in recognition of the words after an approximately 24-hr delay. These results provide evidence in a school setting that an acute bout of exercise provides benefits for verbal learning and long-term memory. Future research should be designed to identify the extent to which these findings translate to academic measures.

  6. Acute Exercise Stimulates Carnitine Biosynthesis and OCTN2 Expression in Mouse Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom L. Broderick

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Carnitine is essential for the transport of long-chain FAs (FA into the mitochondria for energy production. During acute exercise, the increased demand for FAs results in a state of free carnitine deficiency in plasma. The role of kidney in carnitine homeostasis after exercise is not known. Methods: Swiss Webster mice were sacrificed immediately after a 1-hour moderate intensity treadmill run, and at 4-hours and 8-hours into recovery. Non-exercising mice served as controls. Plasma was analyzed for carnitine using acetyltransferase and [14C] acetyl-CoA. Kidney was removed for gene and protein expression of butyrobetaine hydroxylase (γ-BBH, organic cation transporter (OCTN2, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPARα, a regulator of fatty acid oxidation activated by FAs. Results: Acute exercise caused a decrease in plasma free carnitine levels. Rapid return of free carnitine to control levels during recovery was associated with increased γ-BBH expression. Both mRNA and protein levels of OCTN2 were detected in kidney after exercise and during recovery, suggesting renal transport mechanisms were stimulated. These changes were accompanied with a reciprocal increase in PPARα protein expression. Conclusions: Our results show that the decrease in free carnitine after exercise rapidly activates carnitine biosynthesis and renal transport mechanism in kidney to establish carnitine homeostasis.

  7. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  8. Responses of catecholestrogen metabolism to acute graded exercise in normal menstruating women before and after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crée, C; Ball, P; Seidlitz, B; Van Kranenburg, G; Geurten, P; Keizer, H A

    1997-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that exercise-related hypo-estrogenemia occurs as a consequence of increased competition of catecholestrogens (CE) for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). This may result in higher norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, which could interfere with normal gonadotropin pulsatility. The present study investigates the effects of training on CE responses to acute exercise stress. Nine untrained eumenorrheic women (mean percentage of body fat +/-SD: 24.8 +/- 3.1%) volunteered for an intensive 5-day training program. Resting, submaximal, and maximal (tmax) exercise plasma CE, estrogen, and catecholamine responses were determined pre- and post training in both the follicular (FPh) and luteal phase (LPh). Acute exercise stress increased total primary estrogens (E) but had little effect on total 2-hydroxyestrogens (2-OHE) and 2-hydroxyestrogen-monomethylethers (2-MeOE) (= O-methylated CE after competition for catechol-O-methyltransferase). This pattern was not significantly changed by training. However, posttraining LPh mean (+/-SE) plasma E, 2-OHE, and 2-MeOE concentrations were significantly lower (P Training produced opposite effects on 2-OHE:E ratios (an estimation of CE formation) during acute exercise in the FPh (reduction) and LPh (increase). The 2-MeOE:2-OHE ratio (an estimation of CE activity) showed significantly higher values at tmax in both menstrual phases after training (FPh: +11%; LPh: +23%; P training, NE values were significantly higher (P training lowers absolute concentrations of plasma estrogens and CE; the acute exercise challenge altered plasma estrogens but had little effect on CE; estimation of the formation and activity of CE suggests that formation and O-methylation of CE proportionately increases. These findings may be of importance for NE-mediated effects on gonadotropin release.

  9. Importance of hemoglobin concentration to exercise: acute manipulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Lundby, Carsten; Koskolou, Maria

    2006-01-01

    An acute reduction of blood hemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), even when the circulating blood volume is maintained, results in lower (.)V(O(2)(max) and endurance performance, due to the reduction of the oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Conversely, an increase of [Hb] is associated with enhanced...

  10. The effect of acute exercise on collagen turnover in human tendons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørch, Lina Steinrud; Pingel, Jessica; Boesen, Mikael

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical loading of human tendon stimulates collagen synthesis, but the relationship between acute loading responses and training status of the tendon is not clear. We tested the effect of prolonged load deprivation on the acute loading-induced collagen turnover in human tendons, by applying...... the contra-lateral leg was used habitually. Following the procedure both Achilles tendons and calf muscles were loaded with the same absolute load during a 1-h treadmill run. Tissue collagen turnover was measured by microdialysis performed post-immobilization but pre-exercise around both Achilles tendons...... and compared to values obtained by 72-h post-exercise. Power Doppler was used to monitor alterations in intratendinous blood flow velocity of the Achilles tendon and MRI used to quantitate changes in tendon cross-section area. Acute loading resulted in an increased collagen synthesis 72 h after the run in both...

  11. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Carpio Rivera

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Carpio-Rivera, E. y Solera-Herrera, A. (2012. Acute effect of resistance, aerobic and combined exercise circuits on blood pressure of hypertensive women. Pensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud, 10 (2, 1-12. The purpose of this study was to observe the acute effect of different exercises executed in circuit on the resting blood pressure of hypertensive women. Nine trained persons (aged 53.22 ± 4.67 years, hypertensive but medicated with enalapril, participated in four training treatments, each carried out on different days under a randomized repeated measures design: (1 A: aerobic training condition (steps training; (2 R: resistance training condition (machine training (3 AR: aerobic and resistance training condition (alternating aerobic and resistance training every 30 seconds (4 C: control condition (30 minutes resting. Exercise conditions were performed during 30 minutes at 70% of maximum heart rate and resting blood pressure was measured 5 minutes before and immediately after each condition. A two-way analysis of variance detected a significant interaction between conditions and measurements (p<0.05 on systolic blood pressure (sBP. Tukey Post-hoc analyses showed a significant increase of sBP following the three exercise conditions (A: +19 mmHg; R: +28 mmHg; AR: +22 mmHg, while the sBP remained unchanged during the control condition. In contrast, there was no significant effect of any type of exercise on diastolic blood pressure (dBP. In conclusion, the acute elevation in sBP following this type of resistance exercise was similar to the increase produced by aerobic exercise.

  12. Earlier time to aerobic exercise is associated with faster recovery following acute sport concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, David Wyndham; Richards, Doug; Comper, Paul; Hutchison, Michael G

    2018-01-01

    To determine whether earlier time to initiation of aerobic exercise following acute concussion is associated with time to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A retrospective stratified propensity score survival analysis of acute (≤14 days) concussion was used to determine whether time (days) to initiation of aerobic exercise post-concussion was associated with, both, time (days) to full return to (1) sport and (2) school or work. A total of 253 acute concussions [median (IQR) age, 17.0 (15.0-20.0) years; 148 (58.5%) males] were included in this study. Multivariate Cox regression models identified that earlier time to aerobic exercise was associated with faster return to sport and school/work adjusting for other covariates, including quintile propensity strata. For each successive day in delay to initiation of aerobic exercise, individuals had a less favourable recovery trajectory. Initiating aerobic exercise at 3 and 7 days following injury was associated with a respective 36.5% (HR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.53-0.76) and 73.2% (HR, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.16-0.45) reduced probability of faster full return to sport compared to within 1 day; and a respective 45.9% (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.44-0.66) and 83.1% (HR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.10-0.30) reduced probability of faster full return to school/work. Additionally, concussion history, symptom severity, LOC deleteriously influenced concussion recovery. Earlier initiation of aerobic exercise was associated with faster full return to sport and school or work. This study provides greater insight into the benefits and safety of aerobic exercise within the first week of the injury.

  13. Acute effects of exercise posture on executive function in transient ischemic attack patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, James; Stoner, Lee; Grigg, Rebecca; Fryer, Simon; Stone, Keeron; Lambrick, Danielle

    2017-08-01

    In patients with stroke or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), a decline in executive function may limit an individual's ability to process motor tasks and relearn motor skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effect of exercise posture (seated vs. supine cycle ergometry) on executive function and prefrontal cortex perfusion in patients with TIA. Eleven TIA patients (65 ± 10 years) and 15 age-matched, healthy controls (HC; 62 ± 7 years) completed two exercise tests to maximal capacity (one seated, one supine) and two 30-min submaximal exercise tests (one seated, one supine). Executive function was assessed prior to and following (1.5 min post, 15 min post) the submaximal exercise tests using a Stroop task. Prefrontal cortex perfusion (total hemoglobin) was continuously recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy. There was no Posture (seated, supine) × Group (TIA, HC) interaction for the Stroop task (p > .05). HC completed Stroop tasks significantly faster than TIA (51.9[SD = 10.3] vs. 64.2[8.5] s, respectively), while Stroop completion time significantly improved between baseline and 1.5 min post (61.3[10] vs. 58.1[9.4] s, respectively) and 1.5 min post and 15 min post (54.8[8.9] s). Posture and group had no significant influence on prefrontal cortex perfusion (p > .05). In summary, executive function improves to a similar extent in TIA and age-matched, healthy controls following an acute bout of exercise, regardless of exercise posture. As acute improvements in executive function were maintained for 15 min, there could be an important window of opportunity for assigning executive tasks following exercise rehabilitation for patients with TIA. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  14. Predischarge maximal exercise test identifies risk for cardiac death in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Mickley, H; Damsgaard, E M

    1990-01-01

    A maximal exercise test was performed in 54 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) before discharge and in 49 age-matched control subjects. The long-term prognosis was assessed after an average follow-up of 7.6 years in AMI patients and 5.8 years in control subjects. The maximal work...... capacity and systolic blood pressure increase in AMI patients was 59% that of control subjects (p less than 0.001). Seventeen AMI patients had significant ST-segment shifts, 13 with ST depression and 4 with ST elevation. In AMI patients experiencing a cardiac death during follow-up the maximal work...... were of no significant value. In this study maximal work capacity turned out to be the best single exercise variable for identifying groups of AMI patients with very low and relative high risk of cardiac death. When all 3 exercise variables were combined, the predischarge maximal exercise test...

  15. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avnstorp, Magnus B; Rasmussen, Peter; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    both circumstances. No cerebral net exchange of Na(+) or K(+) was evident. Likewise, no significant net-exchange of water over the brain was demonstrated and the arterial and jugular venous hemoglobin concentrations were similar. CONCLUSION: Challenging exercise in hypoxia for 30 min affected muscle......Avnstorp, Magnus B., Peter Rasmussen, Patrice Brassard, Thomas Seifert, Morten Overgaard, Peter Krustrup, Niels H. Secher, and Nikolai B. Nordsborg. Cerebral water and ion balance remains stable when humans are exposed to acute hypoxic exercise. High Alt Med Biol 16:000-000, 2015.-Background...... intense exercise is carried out in hypoxia and monitored the influence of muscle metabolism for changes in arterial variables. METHODS: On two separate days, in random order, 30 min cycling exercise was performed in either hypoxia (10% O2) or normoxia at an intensity that was exhaustive in the hypoxic...

  16. Small RNA-seq during acute maximal exercise reveal RNAs involved in vascular inflammation and cardiometabolic health: brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ravi; Yeri, Ashish; Das, Avash; Courtright-Lim, Amanda; Ziegler, Olivia; Gervino, Ernest; Ocel, Jeffrey; Quintero-Pinzon, Pablo; Wooster, Luke; Bailey, Cole Shields; Tanriverdi, Kahraman; Beaulieu, Lea M; Freedman, Jane E; Ghiran, Ionita; Lewis, Gregory D; Van Keuren-Jensen, Kendall; Das, Saumya

    2017-12-01

    Exercise improves cardiometabolic and vascular function, although the mechanisms remain unclear. Our objective was to demonstrate the diversity of circulating extracellular RNA (ex-RNA) release during acute exercise in humans and its relevance to exercise-mediated benefits on vascular inflammation. We performed plasma small RNA sequencing in 26 individuals undergoing symptom-limited maximal treadmill exercise, with replication of our top candidate miRNA in a separate cohort of 59 individuals undergoing bicycle ergometry. We found changes in miRNAs and other ex-RNAs with exercise (e.g., Y RNAs and tRNAs) implicated in cardiovascular disease. In two independent cohorts of acute maximal exercise, we identified miR-181b-5p as a key ex-RNA increased in plasma after exercise, with validation in a separate cohort. In a mouse model of acute exercise, we found significant increases in miR-181b-5p expression in skeletal muscle after acute exercise in young (but not older) mice. Previous work revealed a strong role for miR-181b-5p in vascular inflammation in obesity, insulin resistance, sepsis, and cardiovascular disease. We conclude that circulating ex-RNAs were altered in plasma after acute exercise target pathways involved in inflammation, including miR-181b-5p. Further investigation into the role of known (e.g., miRNA) and novel (e.g., Y RNAs) RNAs is warranted to uncover new mechanisms of vascular inflammation on exercise-mediated benefits on health. NEW & NOTEWORTHY How exercise provides benefits to cardiometabolic health remains unclear. We performed RNA sequencing in plasma during exercise to identify the landscape of small noncoding circulating transcriptional changes. Our results suggest a link between inflammation and exercise, providing rich data on circulating noncoding RNAs for future studies by the scientific community. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Does prior acute exercise affect postexercise substrate oxidation in response to a high carbohydrate meal?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hickey Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of a mixed meal increases postprandial carbohydrate utilization and decreases fat oxidation. On the other hand, acute endurance exercise increases fat oxidation and decreases carbohydrate utilization during the post-exercise recovery period. It is possible that the resulting post-exercise increase in circulating nonesterified fatty acids could attenuate the ability of ingested carbohydrate to inhibit lipid oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine whether prior exercise attenuates the usual meal-induced decline in lipid oxidation. Methods Six healthy, physically active young subjects (x age = 26.3 years, 4 males, 2 females completed three treatments in random order after a ~10 h fast: (a Exercise/Carbohydrate (Ex/CHO – subjects completed a bout of exercise at 70% VO2peak (targeted net energy cost of 400 kcals, followed by consumption of a carbohydrate-rich meal; (b Exercise/Placebo (Ex/Placebo – subjects completed an identical bout of exercise followed by consumption of a placebo; and (c No Exercise/Carbohydrate (NoEx/CHO – subjects sat quietly rather than exercising and then consumed the carbohydrate-rich meal. Blood samples were obtained before and during the postprandial period to determine plasma glucose, insulin, and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA. Respiratory gas exchange measures were used to estimate rates of fat and carbohydrate oxidation. Results Plasma NEFA were approximately two-fold higher immediately following the two exercise conditions compared to the no-exercise condition, while meal consumption significantly increased insulin and glucose in both Ex/CHO and NoEx/CHO. NEFA concentrations fell rapidly during the 2-h postprandial period, but remained higher compared to the NoEx/CHO treatment. Carbohydrate oxidation increased rapidly and fat oxidation decreased in response to the meal, with no differences in the rates of carbohydrate and fat oxidation during recovery between the Ex

  18. Acute exercise and motor memory consolidation: The role of exercise intensity and timing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Richard; Korsgaard Johnsen, Line; Geertsen, Svend Sparre

    2015-01-01

    Background A single bout of high intensity cycling (~90% VO2peak) immediately after motor skill training enhances motor memory consolidation. It is unclear how different parameters of exercise may influence this process and the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We hypothesize......) accompanying skill learning and exercise. Methods Sixty able-bodied male subjects (20-35 years) were randomly assigned to one of five groups that practiced a visuomotor accuracy task. 20 min post motor skill learning (MSL), subjects in Experiment A performed either a single bout of aerobic exercise at 45% (EX...... and baseline motor performance. Delayed retention tests of motor skill were tested 24 hours (R24) & 7 days (R7) post acquisition. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was applied to the primary motor cortex to obtain measures of CSE, intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF) before and after...

  19. Acute molecular responses to concurrent resistance and high-intensity interval exercise in untrained skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Jamie K; Faulkner, Steve H; Jackson, Andrew P; King, James A; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent training involving resistance and endurance exercise may augment the benefits of single-mode training for the purpose of improving health. However, muscle adaptations, associated with resistance exercise, may be blunted by a subsequent bout of endurance exercise, via molecular interference. High-intensity interval training (HIIT), generating similar adaptations to endurance exercise, may offer an alternative exercise mode to traditional endurance exercise. This study examined the influence of an acute HIIT session on the molecular responses following resistance exercise in untrained skeletal muscle. Ten male participants performed resistance exercise (4 × 8 leg extensions, 70% 1RM, (RE)) or RE followed by HIIT (10 × 1 min at 90% HRmax, (RE+HIIT)). Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 2 and 6 h post-RE to determine intramuscular protein phosphorylation and mRNA responses. Phosphorylation of Akt (Ser473) decreased at 6 h in both trials (P HIIT (P HIIT with PGC-1α and PGC-1α-ex1b remaining elevated at 6 h, whereas RE-induced increases at 2 and 6 h for PGC-1α-ex1b only (P HIIT versus RE at 2 and 6 h (P effect on protein signaling and mRNA expression, and suggest that HIIT may be an alternative to endurance exercise when performed after resistance exercise in the same training session to optimize adaptations. PMID:25902785

  20. Time course of the acute effects of core stabilisation exercise on seated postural control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jordan B; Brown, Stephen H M

    2017-09-20

    Core stabilisation exercises are often promoted for purposes ranging from general fitness to high-performance athletics, and the prevention and rehabilitation of back troubles. These exercises, when performed properly, may have the potential to enhance torso postural awareness and control, yet the potential for achieving immediate gains has not been completely studied. Fourteen healthy young participants performed a single bout of non-fatiguing core stabilisation exercise that consisted of repeated sets of 2 isometric exercises, the side bridge and the four-point contralateral arm-and-leg extension. Seated postural control, using an unstable balance platform on top of a force plate, was assessed before and after exercise, including multiple time points within a 20-minute follow-up period. Nine standard postural control variables were calculated at each time point, including sway displacement and velocity ranges, root mean squares and cumulative path length. Statistical analysis showed that none of the postural control variables were significantly different at any time point following completion of core stabilisation exercise. Thus, we conclude that a single bout of acute core stabilisation exercise is insufficient to immediately improve seated trunk postural control in young healthy individuals.

  1. A Randomized Control Intervention Investigating the Effects of Acute Exercise on Emotional Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Meghan K; Rhodes, Ryan E; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2017-09-01

    Exercise may help to cope with hectic or demanding events after a stressful situation occurs. Limited research has evaluated whether exercise, prior to a stressor, helps to facilitate subsequent emotional regulation. This pilot study addresses this novel paradigm. We employed a randomized controlled trial evaluating the effects of acute exercise on emotional regulation. Participants were randomly assigned to stretch (control group, N = 10), walk (N = 9), or jog (N = 8) for 15-minutes, after which they were exposed to a film clip intended to elicit a negative emotional response. Participants' emotions were monitored before and during exercise, as well as after the film clip. Emotional responses were evaluated using the Exercise Induced Feeling Inventory and Affective Circumplex Scale. A group x time splitplot interaction effect was significant for anger (p = .046) and anxiousness (p = .038). Follow-up analyses showed that only the stretching group (p = .048) had a significantly increased anger score from baseline to post-film clip, suggesting a protective emotional effect from walking and jogging. Exercise was effective in regulating anger and anxiousness after a stressful event. These findings provide evidence for potential preventive effects of exercise in facilitating emotional regulation.

  2. Acute Hypotension after High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Palomo, Felix; Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Pallarés, Jesús G; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after a bout of cycling exercise using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in comparison to a bout of traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (CE). After supine rest 14 obese (31±1 kg·m -2 ) middle-age (57±2 y) metabolic syndrome patients (50% hypertensive) underwent a bout of HIIT or a bout of CE in a random order and then returned to supine recovery for another 45 min. Exercise trials were isocaloric and compared to a no-exercise trial (CONT) of supine rest for a total of 160 min. Before and after exercise we assessed blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), intestinal temperature (T INT ), forearm skin blood flow (S K BF) and percent dehydration. HIIT produced a larger post-exercise reduction in systolic blood pressure than CE in the hypertensive group (-20±6 vs. -5±3 mmHg) and in the normotensive group (-8±3 vs. -3±2 mmHg) while HIIT reduced SVR below CE (Pexercise T INT and S K BF increased only after HIIT (all Pexercise method to CE to acutely reduce blood pressure in MSyn subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, A C; Prieto, J G; Vila, L; Perez, A C; Duarte, I D G; Alvarez, A I

    2004-12-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 +/- 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05) after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05) by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  4. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  5. The Effects of Acute Dopamine Precursor Depletion on the Reinforcing Value of Exercise in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin B O'Hara

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether dopaminergic systems are involved in the motivation to engage in behaviours associated with anorexia nervosa (AN, specifically, the drive to exercise. Women recovered from AN (AN REC, n = 17 and healthy controls (HC, n = 15 were recruited. The acute phenylalanine/tyrosine depletion (APTD method was used to transiently decrease dopamine synthesis and transmission. The effect of dopamine precursor depletion on drive to exercise was measured using a progressive ratio (PR exercise breakpoint task. Both groups worked for the opportunity to exercise, and, at baseline, PR breakpoint scores were higher in AN REC than HC. Compared to values on the experimental control session, APTD did not decrease PR breakpoint scores in AN REC, but significantly decreased scores in HC. These data show that women recovered from AN are more motivated to exercise than HC, although in both groups, activity is more reinforcing than inactivity. Importantly, decreasing dopamine does not reduce the motivation to exercise in people recovered from AN, but in contrast, does so in HC. It is proposed that in AN, drive to exercise develops into a behaviour that is largely independent of dopamine mediated reward processes and becomes dependent on cortico-striatal neurocircuitry that regulates automated, habit- or compulsive-like behaviours. These data strengthen the case for the involvement of reward, learning, habit, and dopaminergic systems in the aetiology of AN.

  6. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  7. Acute Effects of Walking Exercise on Stair Negotiation in Sedentary and Physically Active Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunzler, Marcos R; da Rocha, Emmanuel S; Bobbert, Maarten F; Duysens, Jacques; Carpes, Felipe P

    2017-07-01

    In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to exercise. Here we determined acute changes in foot clearances during stair walking in sedentary (n = 15) and physically active older adults (n = 15) after prolonged exercise. Kinematic data were acquired during negotiation with a 3-steps staircase while participants walked at preferred speed, before and after 30 min walking at preferred speed and using a treadmill. Foot clearances were compared before and after exercise and between the groups. Sedentary older adults presented larger (0.5 cm for lead and 2 cm for trail leg) toe clearances in ascent, smaller (0.7 cm) heel clearance in the leading foot in descent, and larger (1 cm) heel clearance in the trailing foot in descent than physically active. Sedentary older adults negotiate stairs in a slightly different way than active older adults, and 30 min walking at preferred speed does not affect clearance in stair negotiation.

  8. Effects of acute and chronic exercise in patients with essential hypertension: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkaliagkousi, Eugenia; Gavriilaki, Eleni; Douma, Stella

    2015-04-01

    The importance of regular physical activity in essential hypertension has been extensively investigated over the last decades and has emerged as a major modifiable factor contributing to optimal blood pressure control. Aerobic exercise exerts its beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system by promoting traditional cardiovascular risk factor regulation, as well as by favorably regulating sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity, molecular effects, cardiac, and vascular function. Benefits of resistance exercise need further validation. On the other hand, acute exercise is now an established trigger of acute cardiac events. A number of possible pathophysiological links have been proposed, including SNS, vascular function, coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function. In order to fully interpret this knowledge into clinical practice, we need to better understand the role of exercise intensity and duration in this pathophysiological cascade and in special populations. Further studies in hypertensive patients are also warranted in order to clarify the possibly favorable effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced effects. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Effect of acute aerobic exercise on vaccine efficacy in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant Mohan; Cook, Marc; Kappus, Rebecca Marie; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi Danielle; Woods, Jeffery A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Iwamoto, Gary; Vanar, Vishwas; Tandon, Rudhir; Fernhall, Bo

    2014-03-01

    The most effective way of avoiding influenza is through influenza vaccination. However, the vaccine is ineffective in about 25% of the older population. Immunosenescence with advancing age results in inadequate protection from disease because of ineffective responses to vaccination. Recently, a number of strategies have been tested to improve the efficacy of a vaccine in older adults. An acute bout of moderate aerobic exercise may increase the efficacy of the vaccine in young individuals, but there are limited efficacy data in older adults who would benefit most. This study sought to evaluate whether acute moderate-intensity endurance exercise immediately before influenza vaccination would increase the efficacy of the vaccine. Fifty-nine healthy volunteers between 55 and 75 yr of age were randomly allocated to an exercise or control group. Antibody titers were measured at baseline before exercise and 4 wk after vaccination. C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured at 24 and 48 h after vaccination. Delta CRP and IL-6 at 24 and 48 h were significantly higher after vaccination as compared to the sham injection. There were no differences in the levels of antibody titers against the H3N2 influenza strain between groups. However, women in the exercise group had a significantly higher antibody response against the H1N1 influenza strain as compared to the men, probably because of lower prevaccine titers. There were no significant differences in seroprotection between groups. Acute moderate aerobic exercise was not immunostimulatory in healthy older men but may serve as a vaccine adjuvant in older women.

  10. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham; Holst, Jens; Wisloff, Ulrik; Kulseng, Bård; Morgan, Linda; King, Neil A

    2015-01-01

    The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous cycling (MICC) or short-duration HIIC (S-HIIC) (125 kcal) and a resting control condition on the appetite hormone responses, subjective feelings of appetite, energy intake (EI), and food reward in overweight/obese individuals. This study is a randomized crossover study on 12 overweight/obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin, polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 and subjective feelings of appetite were measured every 30 min for 3 h. Nutrient and taste preferences were measured at the beginning and end of each condition using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. Insulin levels were significantly reduced, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels, hunger or fullness ratings, EI, or food reward. Our findings suggest that, in overweight/obese individuals, isocaloric bouts of moderate- or high-intensity exercise lead to a similar appetite response. This strengthens previous findings in normal-weight individuals that acute exercise, even at high intensity, does not induce any known physiological adaptation that would lead to increased EI.

  11. Acute effects of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ryota; Hashimoto, Yuto; Hatakeyama, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2018-03-22

    The aim of this study was to investigate the acute repeated bouts of aerobic exercise decrease leg arterial stiffness. However, the influence of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after glucose ingestion is unknown. The present study investigates the acute effects of repeated bouts of aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness after the 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Ten healthy young men (age, 23.2 ± 0.9 years) performed repeated bouts of aerobic exercise trial (RE, 65% peak oxygen uptake; two 15 min bouts of cycling performed 20 min apart) and control trial (CON, seated and resting in a quiet room) at 80 min before the 75-g OGTT on separate days in a randomized, controlled crossover fashion. Carotid-femoral (aortic) and femoral-ankle (leg) pulse wave velocity, carotid augmentation index, brachial and ankle blood pressure, heart rate and blood glucose and insulin levels were measured before (baseline) and 30, 60 and 120 min after the 75-g OGTT. Leg pulse wave velocity, ankle systolic blood pressure and blood glucose levels increased from baseline after the 75-g OGTT in the CON trial, but not in the RE trial. The present findings indicate that acute repeated bouts of aerobic exercise before glucose ingestion suppress increases in leg arterial stiffness following glucose ingestion. RE trial repeated bouts of aerobic exercise trial; CON trial control trial; BG blood glucose; VO 2peak peak oxygen uptake; PWV Pulse wave velocity; AIx carotid augmentation index; BP blood pressure; HR heart rate; CVs coefficients of variation; RPE Ratings of perceived exertion; SE standard error.

  12. Acylated Ghrelin and Circulatory Oxidative Stress Markers Responses to Acute Resistance and Aerobic Exercise in Postmenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carteri, Randhall B; Lopes, André Luis; Schöler, Cinthia M; Correa, Cleiton Silva; Macedo, Rodrigo C; Gross, Júlia Silveira; Kruger, Renata Lopes; Homem de Bittencourt, Paulo I; Reischak-Oliveira, Álvaro

    2016-06-01

    Since exercise increases the production of reactive oxygen species in different tissues, the objective of this study is to evaluate, compare and correlate the acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in circulatory markers of oxidative stress and acylated ghrelin (AG) in postmenopausal women. Ten postmenopausal women completed different protocols: a control session (CON), an aerobic exercise session (AERO); and a single-set (SSR) or 3-set (MSR) resistance exercise protocol. After exercise, both MSR (P = .06) and AERO (P = .02) sessions showed significant increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline levels. CON and SSR sessions showed no differences after exercise. No differences were found between sessions at any time for total glutathione, glutathione dissulfide or AG concentrations. Exercise significantly increased lipid peroxidation compared with baseline values. As pro oxidant stimuli is necessary to promote chronic adaptations to the antioxidant defenses induced by exercise, our findings are important to consider when evaluating exercise programs prescription variables aiming quality of life in this population.

  13. Altered arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio in young healthy light smokers after acute exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Doonan

    Full Text Available Studies showed that long-standing smokers have stiffer arteries at rest. However, the effect of smoking on the ability of the vascular system to respond to increased demands (physical stress has not been studied. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effect of smoking on arterial stiffness and subendocardial viability ratio, at rest and after acute exercise in young healthy individuals.Healthy light smokers (n = 24, pack-years = 2.9 and non-smokers (n = 53 underwent pulse wave analysis and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity measurements at rest, and 2, 5, 10, and 15 minutes following an exercise test to exhaustion. Smokers were tested, 1 after 12h abstinence from smoking (chronic condition and 2 immediately after smoking one cigarette (acute condition. At rest, chronic smokers had higher augmentation index and lower aortic pulse pressure than non-smokers, while subendocardial viability ratio was not significantly different. Acute smoking increased resting augmentation index and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with non-smokers, and decreased subendocardial viability ratio compared with the chronic condition. After exercise, subendocardial viability ratio was lower, and augmentation index and aortic pulse pressure were higher in non-smokers than smokers in the chronic and acute conditions. cfPWV rate of recovery of was greater in non-smokers than chronic smokers after exercise. Non-smokers were also able to achieve higher workloads than smokers in both conditions.Chronic and acute smoking appears to diminish the vascular response to physical stress. This can be seen as an impaired 'vascular reserve' or a blunted ability of the blood vessels to accommodate the changes required to achieve higher workloads. These changes were noted before changes in arterial stiffness or subendocardial viability ratio occurred at rest. Even light smoking in young healthy individuals appears to have harmful effects on vascular

  14. Exercise capacity in patients 3 days after acute, uncomplicated myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burek, K.A.; Kirscht, J.; Topol, E.J.

    1989-01-01

    In a randomized, controlled trial of early hospital discharge after acute myocardial infarction (MI), a heart rate, symptom-limited exercise thallium test was performed after the onset of MI. Patients' exercise capacity was evaluated by the exercise treadmill with accompanying thallium scintigraphy. Of 507 consecutive patients screened, the condition of 179 was classified as uncomplicated, which is defined as the absence of angina, heart failure, or serious arrhythmias at 72 hours from admission. Of the patients with uncomplicated conditions, 126 had an exercise test on day 3 and 53 did not exercise on day 3. Of the 126 patients who exercised on day 3, 36 had a positive test and 90 had a negative test for ischemia. The 36 patients with a positive test result exercised a mean time of 6.71 +/- 2.8 minutes, achieved a mean peak heart rate of 120.9 +/- 21.4 beats/min, reached a peak systolic blood pressure of 144.7 +/- 33.3 mm Hg, and achieved a double product (rate-pressure product) of 183.4 +/- 67.6. The 90 patients with a negative test result for ischemia exercised 9.45 +/- 12.7 minutes, achieved a peak heart rate of 130.2 +/- 14.4 beats/min, reached a mean systolic blood pressure of 155.5 +/- 29.4 mm Hg, and achieved a rate-pressure product of 210.5 +/- 44.0. Of the 90 patients with uncomplicated conditions who had a negative exercise test for ischemia, 85 patients received reperfusion therapy, which included thrombolysis or coronary angioplasty or both

  15. Exercise and Academic Achievement in Children: Effects of Acute Class-Based Circuit Training

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    Dickinson Ben D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts increasing emphasis on improving academic achievement. While treadmill exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and cycling ergometers produce stronger effect sizes than treadmill running, it is impractical for schools to use these on a whole-class basis. There is a need to examine if more ecologically valid modes of exercise might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training is one such modality shown to benefit cognitive function and recall ability and is easily operationalised within schools. Methods. In a repeated measures design, twenty-six children (17 boys, 8 girls aged 10-11 years (mean age 10.3; SD ± 0.46 years completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4 at rest and following 30 minutes of exercise. Results. Standardised scores for word reading were significantly higher post exercise (F(1,18 = 49.9, p = 0.0001 compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores for sentence comprehension (F(1,18 = 0.078, p = 0.783, spelling (F(1,18 = 4.07, p = 0.06 mathematics (F(1,18 = 1.257, p = 0.277, and reading (F(1,18 = 2.09, p = 0.165 were not significantly different between rest and exercise conditions. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest acute bouts of circuit based exercise enhances word reading but not other areas of academic ability in 10-11 year old children. These findings support prior research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in children.

  16. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  17. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  18. Individual Variation in Hunger, Energy Intake, and Ghrelin Responses to Acute Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, James A; Deighton, Kevin; Broom, David R; Wasse, Lucy K; Douglas, Jessica A; Burns, Stephen F; Cordery, Philip A; Petherick, Emily S; Batterham, Rachel L; Goltz, Fernanda R; Thackray, Alice E; Yates, Thomas; Stensel, David J

    2017-06-01

    This study aimed to characterize the immediate and extended effect of acute exercise on hunger, energy intake, and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations using a large data set of homogenous experimental trials and to describe the variation in responses between individuals. Data from 17 of our group's experimental crossover trials were aggregated yielding a total sample of 192 young, healthy males. In these studies, single bouts of moderate to high-intensity aerobic exercise (69% ± 5% V˙O2 peak; mean ± SD) were completed with detailed participant assessments occurring during and for several hours postexercise. Mean hunger ratings were determined during (n = 178) and after (n = 118) exercise from visual analog scales completed at 30-min intervals, whereas ad libitum energy intake was measured within the first hour after exercise (n = 60) and at multiple meals (n = 128) during the remainder of trials. Venous concentrations of acylated ghrelin were determined at strategic time points during (n = 118) and after (n = 89) exercise. At group level, exercise transiently suppressed hunger (P hunger and circulating acylated ghrelin concentrations with notable diversity between individuals. Care must be taken to distinguish true interindividual variation from random differences within normal limits.

  19. Breakfast food health and acute exercise: Effects on state body image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Jacqueline F; Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2018-05-10

    Food intake and exercise have been shown to alter body satisfaction in a state-dependent manner. One-time consumption of food perceived as unhealthy can be detrimental to body satisfaction, whereas an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise can be beneficial. The current study examined the effect of exercise on state body image and appearance-related self-esteem following consumption of isocaloric foods perceived as healthy or unhealthy in 36 female college students (18-30 years old) in the Northeastern United States. Using a randomized-controlled design, participants attended six study sessions with breakfast conditions (healthy, unhealthy, no food) and activity (exercise, quiet rest) as within-participants factors. Body image questionnaires were completed prior to breakfast condition, between breakfast and activity conditions, and following activity condition. Results showed that consumption of an unhealthy breakfast decreased appearance self-esteem and increased body size perception, whereas consumption of a healthy breakfast did not influence appearance self-esteem but increased body size perception. Exercise did not influence state body image attitudes or perceptions following meal consumption. Study findings suggest that morning meal type, but not aerobic exercise, influence body satisfaction in college-aged females. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. The impact of obesity on pentraxin 3 and inflammatory milieu to acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Aaron L; Mock, J Thomas; Whitehurst, Michael; Maharaj, Arun; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2015-02-01

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) has recently been linked to obesity-associated inflammation, serving as a cardioprotective modulator against cardiovascular disease (CVD). Aerobic exercise has been shown to enhance plasma PTX3 levels; however, the impact of obesity on PTX3 response to exercise remains unknown. Therefore, this study sought to examine whether obese subjects would have an attenuated plasma PTX3 response compared to normal-weight subjects following acute aerobic exercise. The relationship of plasma PTX3 with pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) was also examined. Twenty healthy subjects (10 obese [4 males and 6 females] and 10 normal-weight [4 males, 6 females]) performed 30min of continuous submaximal aerobic exercise. At baseline, obese subjects exhibited approximately 40% lower plasma PTX3 and a 7-fold greater IL-6 concentration compared to normal-weight subjects. In response to exercise, no difference was observed in PTX3 or IL-6 as indicated by area-under-the-curve "with respect to increase" (AUCi) analyses. Furthermore, PTX3 AUCi was positively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels (VO(2max)) (r=0.594, p=0.006), even after controlling for body mass index. These findings suggest that in addition to obesity-associated complications, low cardiorespiratory fitness levels could impact exercise-induced PTX3 elevations, thereby potentially diminishing PTX3's effects of anti-inflammation and/or cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effects of a Multiflavonoid Supplement on Vascular and Hemodynamic Parameters following Acute Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Kappus

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Methods. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (=10 or antioxidant supplementation (=10 for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Results. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.. Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024 after supplementation. Conclusion. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  2. The effects of a multiflavonoid supplement on vascular and hemodynamic parameters following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Curry, Chelsea D; McAnulty, Steve; Welsh, Janice; Morris, David; Nieman, David C; Soukup, Jeffrey; Collier, Scott R

    2011-01-01

    Antioxidants can decrease oxidative stress and combined with acute exercise they may lead to further decreases in blood pressure. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 weeks of antioxidant supplementation on vascular distensibility and cardiovascular hemodynamics during postexercise hypotension. Twenty young subjects were randomized to placebo (n = 10) or antioxidant supplementation (n = 10) for two weeks. Antioxidant status, vascular distensibility, and hemodynamics were obtained before, immediately, and 30 minutes after an acute bout of aerobic exercise both before and after supplementation. Two weeks of antioxidant supplementation resulted in a greater systolic blood pressure (SBP) decrease during postexercise hypotension (PEH) and significant decreases in augmentation index versus placebo (12.5% versus 3.5%, resp.). Also ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) increased significantly (interaction P = 0.024) after supplementation. Supplementation showed an additive effect on PEH associated with increased FRAP values and decreases in systolic blood pressure and augmentation index.

  3. Acute chest pain after bench press exercise in a healthy young adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smereck, Janet A; Papafilippaki, Argyro; Sudarshan, Sawali

    2016-01-01

    Bench press exercise, which involves repetitive lifting of weights to full arm extension while lying supine on a narrow bench, has been associated with complications ranging in acuity from simple pectoral muscle strain, to aortic and coronary artery dissection. A 39-year-old man, physically fit and previously asymptomatic, presented with acute chest pain following bench press exercise. Diagnostic evaluation led to the discovery of critical multivessel coronary occlusive disease, and subsequently, highly elevated levels of lipoprotein (a). Judicious use of ancillary testing may identify the presence of "high-risk" conditions in a seemingly "low-risk" patient. Emergency department evaluation of the young adult with acute chest pain must take into consideration an extended spectrum of potential etiologies, so as to best guide appropriate management.

  4. Acute resistance exercise using free weights on aortic wave reflection characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tai, Yu Lun; Gerhart, Hayden; Mayo, Xián; Kingsley, J Derek

    2018-01-01

    Aortic wave reflection characteristics such as the augmentation index (AIx), wasted left ventricular pressure energy (ΔE w ) and aortic haemodynamics, such as aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), strongly predict cardiovascular events. The effects of acute resistance exercise (ARE) using free-weight exercises on these characteristics are unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of acute free-weight resistance exercise on aortic wave reflection characteristics and aortic haemodynamics in resistance-trained individuals. Fifteen young, healthy resistance-trained (9 ± 3 years) individuals performed two randomized sessions consisting of an acute bout of free-weight resistance exercise (ARE) or a quiet control (CON). The ARE consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions at 75% one repetition maximum for squat, bench press and deadlift. In CON, the participants rested in the supine position for 30 min. Measurements were made at baseline before sessions and 10 min after sessions. A two-way ANOVA was used to compare the effects of condition across time. There were no significant interactions for aortic or brachial blood pressures. Compared to rest, there were significant increases in augmentation pressure (rest: 5·7 ± 3·0 mmHg; recovery: 10·4 ± 5·7 mmHg, P = 0·002), AIx (rest: 116·8 ± 4·2%; recovery: 123·2 ± 8·4%, P = 0·002), AIx normalized at 75 bpm (rest: 5·2 ± 7·6%; recovery: 27·3 ± 13·2%, Pfree-weight exercises may have no effect on aortic and brachial blood pressure but may significantly alter aortic wave reflection characteristics. © 2016 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Patient Activation through Counseling and ExerciseAcute Leukemia (PACE-AL) – a randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary; Møller, Tom; Kjeldsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    and treatment related symptoms and side effects. To date, there are no clinical practice exercise guidelines for patients with acute leukemia undergoing induction and consolidation chemotherapy. A randomized controlled trial is needed to determine if patients with acute leukemia can benefit by a structured...... and supervised counseling and exercise program.Methods/design: This paper presents the study protocol: Patient Activation through Counseling and Exercise -- Acute Leukemia (PACE-AL) trial, a two center, randomized controlled trial of 70 patients with acute leukemia (35 patients/study arm) following induction...... chemotherapy in the outpatient setting. Eligible patients will be randomized to usual care or to the 12 week exercise and counseling program. The intervention includes 3 hours + 30 minutes per week of supervised and structured aerobic training (moderate to high intensity 70 - 80%) on an ergometer cycle...

  6. The effect of game-based exercise on infant acute lymphocytic leukaemia patients

    OpenAIRE

    Cortés-Reyes, Édgar; Escobar-Zabala, Paola; González-García, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To establish the effect of a game-based exercise programme on Physical Deconditioning Syndrome (PDS) in 5 to 12 year-old children suffering Acute Lymphocytic Leukaemia (ALL). Materials and methods. This was a quasi-experimental study involving seven children being treated for ALL at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) in Bogotá, Colombia. Fitness determinants (aerobic capacity, muscle strength, flexibility, motor skills and proprioception) were initially assessed to establish their...

  7. Acute effects of massage or active exercise in relieving muscle soreness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Jay, Kenneth; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    Massage is commonly believed to be the best modality for relieving muscle soreness. However, actively warming up the muscles with exercise may be an effective alternative. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of massage with active exercise for relieving muscle soreness. Twenty...... healthy female volunteers (mean age 32 years) participated in this examiner-blind randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01478451). The participants performed eccentric contractions for the upper trapezius muscle on a Biodex dynamometer. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) presented 48 hours...... later, at which the participants (a) received 10 minutes of massage of the trapezius muscle or (b) performed 10 minutes of active exercise (shoulder shrugs 10 × 10 reps) with increasing elastic resistance (Thera-Band). First, 1 treatment was randomly applied to 1 shoulder while the contralateral...

  8. Acute physical exercise affected processing efficiency in an auditory attention task more than processing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutke, Stephan; Jaitner, Thomas; Berse, Timo; Barenberg, Jonathan

    2014-02-01

    Research on effects of acute physical exercise on performance in a concurrent cognitive task has generated equivocal evidence. Processing efficiency theory predicts that concurrent physical exercise can increase resource requirements for sustaining cognitive performance even when the level of performance is unaffected. This hypothesis was tested in a dual-task experiment. Sixty young adults worked on a primary auditory attention task and a secondary interval production task while cycling on a bicycle ergometer. Physical load (cycling) and cognitive load of the primary task were manipulated. Neither physical nor cognitive load affected primary task performance, but both factors interacted on secondary task performance. Sustaining primary task performance under increased physical and/or cognitive load increased resource consumption as indicated by decreased secondary task performance. Results demonstrated that physical exercise effects on cognition might be underestimated when only single task performance is the focus.

  9. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves severe-intensity intermittent exercise under moderate acute hypoxic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Sanjoy K; Gough, Lewis A; Sparks, S Andy; McNaughton, Lars R

    2018-03-01

    Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H + ) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO 2 % = 14.5%). Pre-experimental trials involved the determination of time to attain peak bicarbonate anion concentrations ([HCO 3 - ]) following NaHCO 3 ingestion. The intermittent exercise tests involved repeated 60-s work in their severe-intensity domain and 30-s recovery at 20 W to exhaustion. Participants ingested either 0.3 g kg bm -1 of NaHCO 3 or a matched placebo of 0.21 g kg bm -1 of sodium chloride prior to exercise. Exercise tolerance (+ 110.9 ± 100.6 s; 95% CI 43.3-178 s; g = 1.0) and work performed in the severe-intensity domain (+ 5.8 ± 6.6 kJ; 95% CI 1.3-9.9 kJ; g = 0.8) were enhanced with NaHCO 3 supplementation. Furthermore, a larger post-exercise blood lactate concentration was reported in the experimental group (+ 4 ± 2.4 mmol l -1 ; 95% CI 2.2-5.9; g = 1.8), while blood [HCO 3 - ] and pH remained elevated in the NaHCO 3 condition throughout experimentation. In conclusion, this study reported a positive effect of NaHCO 3 under acute moderate hypoxic conditions during intermittent exercise and therefore, may offer an ergogenic strategy to mitigate hypoxic induced declines in exercise performance.

  10. Acute cardiovascular response of older women to three resistance exercise protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martim Bottaro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise proto-cols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 years performed three different protocols on the bench press (BP and leg press (LP. All protocols consisted of three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 min of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP consisted of 10 repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5 or 15 (DP15 seconds between the fifth and sixth repetition. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and rate pressure product (RPP were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR, SBP and RPP were, respectively, 22.3%, 23.2% and 51.2% (p < 0.05 higher for BP exercise, and 41.7%, 43.0% and 102.9% (p < 0.05 higher for LP exercise after the third set in all protocols. For BP exercise, HR and RPP were 5.6% and 8.2% (p < 0.05 lower in DP5 and DP15, respectively, compared to CP. For LP exercise, HR, SBP and RPP were, respectively, 5.2%, 8.0% and 14.8% lower in DP5 compared to CP. In conclusion, discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise seems to have a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women.

  11. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Harrell, John W; Johansson, Rebecca E; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-15

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To account for group differences in blood pressure and forearm size, and to assess vasodilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC = FBF/mean arterial blood pressure/lean forearm mass) was calculated. We examined the time to achieve steady-state FVC (mean response time, MRT) and the rise in FVC from rest to steady-state exercise (Δ, exercise - rest) before and during acute AA infusion. The MRT (P = 0.26) and steady-state vasodilator responses to exercise (ΔFVC, P = 0.31) were not different between groups. Intra-arterial infusion of AA resulted in a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (174 ± 37%). AA infusion did not alter MRT or steady-state FVC in any group (P = 0.90 and P = 0.85, respectively). Interestingly, higher levels of C-reactive protein predicted longer MRT (r = 0.52, P exercise does not alter the time course or magnitude of exercise-mediated vasodilation in groups of young lean, obese, or MetSyn adults. However, systemic inflammation may limit the MRT to exercise, which can be improved with AA. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Effects of stress related acute exercise on consolidation of implicit motor memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghadiri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extensive evidence documents arousal modulation of declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the arousal modulation of implicit motor memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a post-acquisition acute exercise stress on implicit motor memory consolidation.Materials and Methods: Forty healthy subjects were randomly divided into stress (10 men and 10 woman and non- stress (10 men and 10 woman groups. Experiment consisted of two phases of acquisition and retention. Serial Color matching (SCM task was used for this study. In acquisition period, all groups practiced the task for six blocks of 150 trials. Following, the stress group performed exercise on a treadmill until the moment of exhaustion while the non stress group did rest. In retention, all groups practiced the SCM task in one block. During the experiment the trends of saliva cortisol changes were measured.Results: Acute exercise stress leads to a significant increase in salivary cortisol level. While the non-stress group did not show enhancement of SCRT learning across the 24 hours delay interval, the stress group showed substantial enhancement across the same time (P<0.05.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that acute stress after acquisition can facilitate the implicit motor memory consolidation.

  13. Postactivation Potentiation Following Acute Bouts of Plyometric versus Heavy-Resistance Exercise in Collegiate Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourabh Kumar Sharma

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Postactivation potentiation is referred to as an acute and temporary enhancement of muscle performance resulting from previous muscle contraction. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effect of plyometric exercise (PLY and heavy-resistance exercise (RES on the blood lactate level (BLa and physical performance. Fourteen male collegiate soccer players were randomized to perform either RES or PLY first and then crossed over to perform the opposite intervention. PLY consisted of 40 jumps, whereas RES comprised ten single repetitions at 90% of one repetition maximum. BLa and physical performance (countermovement jump height and 20-m sprint were measured before and at 1 and 10 min following the exercise. No significant difference was observed in the BLa for both exercises (PLY and RES. Relative to baseline, countermovement jump (CMJ height was significantly better for the PLY group after 1 min (P=0.004 and after 10 min (P=0.001 compared to that of the RES group. The 20-m sprint time was significantly better for PLY at 10 min (P=0.003 compared to that of RES. The present study concluded that, compared to RES, PLY causes greater potentiation, which leads to improved physical performance. This trial is registered with NCT03150277.

  14. Acute effect of exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin and hunger in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broom, David R; Miyashita, Masashi; Wasse, Lucy K; Pulsford, Richard; King, James A; Thackray, Alice E; Stensel, David J

    2017-03-01

    Acute exercise transiently suppresses the orexigenic gut hormone acylated ghrelin, but the extent to which exercise intensity and duration determine this response is not fully understood. The effects of manipulating exercise intensity and duration on acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were examined in two experiments. In experiment one, nine healthy males completed three, 4-h conditions (control, moderate-intensity running (MOD) and vigorous-intensity running (VIG)), with an energy expenditure of ~2.5 MJ induced in both MOD (55-min running at 52% peak oxygen uptake (V.O 2peak )) and VIG (36-min running at 75% V.O 2peak ). In experiment two, nine healthy males completed three, 9-h conditions (control, 45-min running (EX45) and 90-min running (EX90)). Exercise was performed at 70% V.O 2peak In both experiments, participants consumed standardised meals, and acylated ghrelin concentrations and hunger were quantified at predetermined intervals. In experiment one, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in MOD (ES = 0.44, P = 0.01) and VIG (ES = 0.98, P Hunger ratings were similar across the conditions (P = 0.35). In experiment two, delta acylated ghrelin concentrations were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.77, P Hunger ratings were lower than control in EX45 (ES = 0.20, P = 0.01) and EX90 (ES = 0.27, P = 0.001); EX45 and EX90 were similar (ES = 0.07, P = 0.34). Hunger and delta acylated ghrelin concentrations remained suppressed at 1.5 h in EX90 but not EX45. In conclusion, exercise intensity, and to a lesser extent duration, are determinants of the acylated ghrelin response to acute exercise. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  15. The Acute Risks of Exercise in Apparently Healthy Adults and Relevance for Prevention of Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Jack M; Burr, Jamie F; Banks, Laura; Thomas, Scott G

    2016-04-01

    Increased physical activity (PA) is associated with improved quality of life and reductions in cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and all-cause mortality in the general population in a dose-response manner. However, PA acutely increases the risk of adverse CV event or sudden cardiac death (SCD) above levels expected at rest. We review the likelihood of adverse CV events related to exercise in apparently healthy adults and strategies for prevention, and contextualize our understanding of the long-term risk reduction conferred from PA. A systematic review of the literature was performed using electronic databases; additional hand-picked relevant articles from reference lists and additional sources were included after the search. The incidence of adverse CV events in adults is extremely low during and immediately after PA of varying types and intensities and is significantly lower in those with long-standing PA experience. The risk of SCD and nonfatal events during and immediately after PA remains extremely low (well below 0.01 per 10,000 participant hours); increasing age and PA intensity are associated with greater risk. In most cases of exercise-related SCD, occult CV disease is present and SCD is typically the first clinical event. Exercise acutely increases the risk of adverse CV events, with greater risk associated with vigorous intensity. The risks of an adverse CV event during and immediately after exercise are outweighed by the health benefits of vigorous exercise performed regularly. A key challenge remains the identification of occult structural heart disease and inheritable conditions that increase the chances of lethal arrhythmias during exercise. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The acute hormonal response to free weight and machine weight resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaner, Aaron A; Vingren, Jakob L; Hatfield, Disa L; Budnar, Ronald G; Duplanty, Anthony A; Hill, David W

    2014-04-01

    Resistance exercise can acutely increase the concentrations of circulating neuroendocrine factors, but the effect of mode on this response is not established. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of resistance exercise selection on the acute hormonal response using similar lower-body multijoint movement free weight and machine weight exercises. Ten resistance trained men (25 ± 3 years, 179 ± 7 cm, 84.2 ± 10.5 kg) completed 6 sets of 10 repetitions of squat or leg press at the same relative intensity separated by 1 week. Blood samples were collected before (PRE), immediately after (IP), and 15 (P15) and 30 minutes (P30) after exercise, and analyzed for testosterone (T), growth hormone (GH), and cortisol (C) concentrations. Exercise increased (p ≤ 0.05) T and GH at IP, but the concentrations at IP were greater for the squat (T: 31.4 ± 10.3 nmol·L(-1); GH: 9.5 ± 7.3 μg·L(-1)) than for the leg press (T: 26.9 ± 7.8 nmol·L(-1); GH: 2.8 ± 3.2 μg·L(-1)). At P15 and P30, GH was greater for the squat (P15: 12.3 ± 8.9 μg·L(-1); P30: 12.0 ± 8.9 μg·L(-1)) than for the leg press (P15: 4.8 ± 3.4 μg·L(-1); P30: 5.4 ± 4.1 μg·L(-1)). C was increased after exercise and was greater for the squat than for the leg press. Although total work (external load and body mass moved) was greater for the squat than for the leg press, rating of perceived exertion did not differ between the modes. Free weight exercises seem to induce greater hormonal responses to resistance exercise than machine weight exercises using similar lower-body multijoint movements and primary movers.

  17. Affective Responses to Acute Exercise in Elderly Impaired Males: The Moderating Effects of Self-Efficacy and Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, Edward; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examined relationships between perceptions of personal efficacy and affective responsibility to acute exercise in elderly male inpatients and outpatients at a Veterans Administration Medical Center. A significant change in feelings of fatigue was revealed over time but exercise effects on affect were shown to be moderated by perceptions of…

  18. Effect of thrombolytic therapy on exercise response during early recovery from acute myocardial infarction: a placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Madsen, J K; Saunamäki, K I

    1992-01-01

    Several studies have shown that infarct size is reduced following thrombolytic treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Exercise test variables, such as an impaired heart rate response during exercise, are known to be related to left ventricular function and patient prognosis follo...

  19. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 �� 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval du...

  20. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval dur...

  1. Cytokine Responses to Acute Exercise in Healthy Older Adults: The Effect of Cardiorespiratory Fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark T. Windsor

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Markers of chronic inflammation increase with aging, and are associated with cardiovascular disease prevalence and mortality. Increases in fitness with exercise training have been associated with lower circulating concentrations of cytokines known to have pro-inflammatory actions (such as interleukin-6 [IL-6] and higher circulating concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-10 [IL-10]. However, the effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on acute cytokine responses to a single bout of exercise in healthy older individuals is unknown. We compared the response of plasma cytokines IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and IL-10 to a bout of moderate-intensity continuous and higher-intensity interval exercise between older individuals with higher and lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness. Sixteen lower-fit (VO2peak: 22.6±2.8 mL.kg−1.min−1 and fourteen higher-fit participants (VO2peak: 37.4±5.9 mL.kg−1.min−1 completed three 24 min experimental protocols in a randomized order: (1 moderate-intensity continuous exercise (40% of peak power output [PPO]; (2 higher-intensity interval exercise (12 × 1 min intervals at 70% PPO separated by 1 min periods at 10% PPO; or (3 non-exercise control. Plasma cytokines were measured at rest, immediately after, and during 90 min of recovery following exercise or control. Plasma IL-6 concentrations at baseline were greater in the higher-fit compared to the lower-fit group (P = 0.02, with no difference in plasma IL-10 or TNF-α concentrations at baseline between groups. Plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations in both groups increased immediately after all protocols (IL-6: P = 0.02, IL-10: P < 0.01. However, there was no difference in the IL-6 and IL-10 response between the exercise and non-exercise (control protocols. After all protocols, no changes in plasma TNF-α concentrations were observed in either the higher- or lower-fit groups. In this study, basal concentrations of circulating IL-6

  2. Physically strenuous work during pregnancy and risk of preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Iben Risager; Bonde, Jens Peter; Bondo, Sesilje

    2017-01-01

    computed by logistic regression using a population sample of gainfully employed women as reference (n = 345,915). The risk of preterm birth was increased in women lifting heavy loads during pregnancy (OR 1.40, 95% CI [0.88, 2.23]) but not in women with physically strenuous work (OR 0.98, 95% CI [0.66, 1......The aim of the study was to examine the risk of preterm birth following physically strenuous work during pregnancy. We included 343 pregnant women referred to an occupational medical clinic. Data on preterm birth and covariates were retrieved from the Danish Birth Registry. Risk estimates were.......46]). The mean gestational age in the heavy-lifting group compared to the reference group was 2.4 days shorter (95% CI [0.36, 4.41]). The study challenges earlier reassuring findings as heavy-lifting pregnant women had a reduced gestational age, indicating a possibility of increased risk of preterm birth....

  3. Early rehabilitation exercise program for inpatients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Clarice Y; Blackstock, Felicity C; Clarence, Michael; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether an early rehabilitation program was safe and feasible for patients during an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this phase 1 randomized controlled trial, patients with an acute exacerbation of COPD admitted to the hospital were randomly allocated to a low-intensity exercise group, a moderate- to high-intensity exercise group, or a control group, who received routine physical therapy. In addition to routine physical therapy, patients in the exercise group had to participate in an exercise program. The program consisted of twice-daily aerobic and resistance exercise sessions. Primary outcomes were the number and classification of adverse events and program adherence. In 174 exercise sessions, there was 1 serious adverse event of arrhythmia in the low-intensity exercise group that resolved within 1 hour. There were 12 other minor adverse events involving 5 patients with no significant differences between groups. Patients completed an average of 80% of their scheduled sessions with no significant between-group differences. The exercise groups improved significantly in walking distance; however, no significant between-group differences were observed. There was preliminary evidence that it was safe and feasible to implement an exercise program for patients during an acute exacerbation of COPD. Additional studies with larger sample sizes are required to accurately evaluate program effectiveness.

  4. Acute blood pressure response in hypertensive elderly women immediately after water aerobics exercise: A crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Raphael Martins; Vilaça-Alves, José; Noleto, Marcelo Vasconcelos; Silva, Juliana Sá; Costa, Andressa Moura; Silva, Christoffer Novais Farias; Póvoa, Thaís Inácio Rolim; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2017-01-01

    Water aerobics exercise is widely recommended for elderly people. However, little is known about the acute effects on hemodynamic variables. Thus, we assessed the effects of a water aerobic session on blood pressure in hypertensive elderly women. Fifty hypertensive elderly women aged 67.8 ± 4.1 years, 1.5 ± 0.6 m high and BMI 28.6 ± 3.9 kg/m 2 , participated in a crossover clinical trial. The experiment consisted of a 45-minute water aerobics session (70%-75% HRmax adjusted for the aquatic environment) (ES) and a control session (no exercise for 45 minutes) (CS). Heart rate was monitored using a heart rate monitor and systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) measurements were taken using a semi-automatic monitor before and immediately after the sessions, and at 10, 20 and 30 minutes thereafter. It was using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) with Bonferroni's post-hoc test (p exercise, BP declined in ES by a greater magnitude than in CS (SBP 7.5 mmHg, 6.2%, p = 0.005 and DBP 3.8 mmHg, 5.5%, p = 0.013). At 20 minutes after exercise and thereafter, SBP and DBP were similar in both ES and CS. In conclusion, BP returned to control levels within 10-20 minutes remaining unchanged until 30 minutes after exercise, and post-exercise hypotension was not observed. Besides, BP changed after exercise was a safe rise of small magnitude for hypertensive people.

  5. The effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognitive function and academic performance in adolescents: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Joanna W; O'Connor, Helen; O'Dwyer, Nicholas; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-09-01

    To investigate whether exercise, proposed to enhance neuroplasticity and potentially cognitive function (CF) and academic performance (AP), may be beneficial during adolescence when important developmental changes occur. Systematic review evaluating the impact of acute or chronic exercise on CF and AP in adolescents (13-18 years). Nine databases (AMED, AusportMed, CINAHL, COCHRANE, Embase, Medline, Scopus, SPORTdiscus, Web of Science) were searched from earliest records to 31st October 2016, using keywords related to exercise, CF, AP and adolescents. Eligible studies included controlled trials examining the effect of any exercise intervention on CF, AP or both. Effect size (ES) (Hedges g) were calculated where possible. Ten papers (11 studies) were reviewed. Cognitive domains included: executive function (n=4), memory (n=4), attention/concentration (n=2), visuo-motor speed (n=1), logical sequencing (n=1) and psychometric aptitude (n=1). All papers, nine of 10 being acute studies, reported at least one parameter showing a significant effect of exercise in improving CF and AP. However, the CF parameters displayed substantial heterogeneity, with only 37% favouring acute and chronic exercise. Where ES could be calculated, 52% of the acute CF parameters favoured rest. Memory was the domain most consistently improved by exercise. Academic performance demonstrated a significant improvement with exercise in one of two acute studies and the only chronic study (p≤0.001). The evidence for the effect of exercise on CF and AP in adolescents is equivocal and limited in quantity and quality. Well-designed research is therefore warranted to determine the benefits of exercise in enhancing CF and AP and reducing sedentary behaviour. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Adipocytokine and ghrelin responses to acute exercise and sport training in children during growth and maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürimäe, Jaak

    2014-11-01

    Physical exercise is known to regulate energy balance. Important to this regulatory system is the existence of several peptides that communicate the status of body energy stores to the brain and are related to the body fatness including leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. These hormones assist in regulating energy balance as well as somatic and pubertal growth in children. It appears that rather few studies have investigated the responses of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin to acute exercise and these studies have demonstrated no changes in these peptides as a result of exercise. Leptin levels are decreased and may remain unchanged advancing from prepuberty to pubertal maturation in young male and female athletes. A limited number of studies indicate that adiponectin levels are not different between prepubertal and pubertal athletes and untrained controls. However, in certain circumstances circulating adiponectin could be increased in young athletes after onset of puberty as a result of heavily increased energy expenditure. Ghrelin levels are elevated in young sportsmen. However, pubertal onset decreases ghrelin levels in boys and girls even in the presence of chronically elevated energy expenditure as seen in young athletes. Ghrelin may also be used as an indicator of energy imbalance across the menstrual cycle in adolescent athletes. There are no studies with high-molecular-weight adiponectin and only very few studies with acylated ghrelin responses to acute exercise and chronic training have been performed in young athletes. Since these forms of adiponectin and ghrelin have been thought to be bioactive forms, further studies with these specific forms of adiponectin and ghrelin are needed. In conclusion, further studies should be conducted to investigate the response of these hormones to acute and chronic negative energy balance to better understand their role in regulating energy balance during growth and maturation in young athletes.

  7. Comparing the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise with an acute bout of interactive mental and physical exercise on electrophysiology and executive functioning in younger and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrova, Julia; Hogan, Michael; Khader, Patrick; O'Hora, Denis; Kilmartin, Liam; Walsh, Jane C; Roche, Richard; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2017-10-01

    Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive and neural functioning in older adults. The current study compared the effects of an acute bout of physical exercise with a bout of interactive mental and physical exercise (i.e., "exergaming") on executive (Stroop) task performance and event-related potential (ERP) amplitudes in younger and older adults. Results revealed enhanced executive task performance in younger and older adults after exercise, with no differences in performance between exercise conditions. Stroop (RT) performance in older adults improved more than in younger adults from pre- to post-exercise. A significant increase in EEG amplitude from pre- to post-exercise was found at the Cz site from 320 to 700 ms post-stimulus for both younger and older adults, with older adults demonstrating a larger Stroop interference effect. While younger adults exhibited overall greater EEG amplitudes than older adults, they showed no differences between congruent and incongruent trials (i.e., minimal interference). Compared to peers with higher BMI (body mass index), older adults with lower BMI showed a greater reduction in Stroop interference effects from pre- to post-exercise. The beneficial effects of an acute bout of physical exercise on cognitive and neural functioning in younger and older adults were confirmed, with no difference between standard exercise and exergaming. Findings suggest that BMI, sometimes used as a proxy for fitness level, may modulate benefits that older adults derive from an acute bout of exercise. Findings have implications for future research that seeks to investigate unique effects of exergaming when compared to standard physical exercise.

  8. Psychological stress impairs short-term muscular recovery from resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Bartholomew, John B

    2012-11-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine whether chronic mental stress moderates recovery of muscular function, perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness in the first hour after a bout of strenuous resistance exercise. Thirty-one undergraduate resistance training students (age = 20.26 ± 1.34 yr) completed the Perceived Stress Scale and Undergraduate Stress Questionnaire (USQ; a measure of life event stress) and completed fitness testing. After 5 to 14 d of recovery, they performed an acute heavy-resistance exercise protocol (10-repetition maximum (RM) leg press test plus six sets: 80%-100% of 10 RM). Maximal isometric force (MIF) was assessed before exercise, after exercise, and at 20, 40, and 60 min postexercise. Participants also reported their levels of perceived energy, fatigue, and soreness. Recovery data were analyzed with hierarchical linear modeling growth curve analysis. Life event stress significantly moderated linear (P = 0.013) and squared (P = 0.05) recovery of MIF. This relationship held even when the model was adjusted for fitness, workload, and training experience. Likewise, perceived stress moderated linear recovery of MIF (P = 0.023). Neither USQ nor Perceived Stress Scale significantly moderated changes in energy, fatigue, or soreness. Life event stress and perceived stress both moderated the recovery of muscular function, but not psychological responses, in the first hour after strenuous resistance exercise.

  9. Acute Exercise and Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Overweight and Obese Individuals: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Anne Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In lean individuals, acute aerobic exercise is reported to transiently suppress sensations of appetite, suppress blood concentrations of acylated ghrelin (AG, and increase glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and peptide-YY (PYY. Findings in overweight/obese individuals have yet to be synthesised. In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we quantified the effects that acute exercise has on AG and total PYY and GLP-1 in overweight/obese individuals. The potential for body mass index (BMI to act as a moderator for AG was also explored. Six published studies (73 participants, 78% male, mean BMI: 30.6 kg·m−2 met the inclusion criteria. Standardised mean differences (SMDs and standard errors were extracted for AG and total PYY and GLP-1 concentrations in control and exercise trials and synthesised using a random effects meta-analysis model. BMI was the predictor in metaregression for AG. Exercise moderately suppressed AG area-under-the-curve concentrations (pooled SMD: −0.34, 95% CI: −0.53 to −0.15. The magnitude of this reduction was greater for higher mean BMIs (pooled metaregression slope: −0.04 SMD/kg·m−2 (95% CI: −0.07 to 0.00. Trivial SMDs were obtained for total PYY (0.10, 95% CI: −0.13 to 0.31 and GLP-1 (−0.03, 95% CI: −0.18 to 0.13. This indicates that exercise in overweight/obese individuals moderately alters AG in a direction that could be associated with decreased hunger and energy intake. This trial is registered with PROSPERO: CRD42014006265.

  10. Exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B R

    1989-02-01

    Strenuous exercise may cause menstrual abnormalities, including amenorrhea. The hypoestrogenemia that accompanies amenorrhea has been associated with a low bone mineral content and an increased incidence of stress fractures. With the resumption of menses, which usually occurs soon after female athletes decrease the intensity of their training or increase their body weight, bone mineral content increases and the incidence of stress fractures decreases.

  11. Acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite, energy intake and mood. Is there a time of day effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, M; Tsofliou, F; Pitsiladis, Y P; Malkova, D; Mutrie, N; Higgins, S

    2005-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of a single exercise class on appetite sensations, energy intake and mood, and to determine if there was a time of day effect. Twelve healthy, young, normal weight females, who were non-regular exercisers, participated in four trials: morning control, morning exercise, evening control and evening exercise. Exercise trials were a one-hour class of aerobic and muscle conditioning exercise of varying intensities, to music. Control trials were a one-hour rest. Ratings of perceived exertion were significantly greater during the warm-up and muscle conditioning parts of the morning exercise trial compared to those of the evening exercise trial. Although both exercise trials, compared to control trials, produced an increase in appetite sensations, they did not alter energy intake and produced a decrease in 'relative' energy intake. In relation to mood, both exercise trials increased positive affect and decreased negative affect. These results suggest that a single exercise class, representative of that offered by many sports centres, regardless of whether it is performed in the morning or evening produces a short-term negative energy balance and improves mood in normal weight women. However, when this type of exercise was performed in the morning it was perceived to require more effort.

  12. The acute effect of exercise modality and nutrition manipulations on post-exercise resting energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio in women: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingfield, Hailee L; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E; Melvin, Malia N; Roelofs, Erica J; Trexler, Eric T; Hackney, Anthony C; Weaver, Mark A; Ryan, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of exercise modality and pre-exercise carbohydrate (CHO) or protein (PRO) ingestion on post-exercise resting energy expenditure (REE) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) in women. Twenty recreationally active women (mean ± SD; age 24.6 ± 3.9 years; height 164.4 ± 6.6 cm; weight 62.7 ± 6.6 kg) participated in this randomized, crossover, double-blind study. Each participant completed six exercise sessions, consisting of three exercise modalities: aerobic endurance exercise (AEE), high-intensity interval running (HIIT), and high-intensity resistance training (HIRT); and two acute nutritional interventions: CHO and PRO. Salivary samples were collected before each exercise session to determine estradiol-β-17 and before and after to quantify cortisol. Post-exercise REE and RER were analyzed via indirect calorimetry at the following: baseline, immediately post (IP), 30 minutes (30 min) post, and 60 minutes (60 min) post exercise. A mixed effects linear regression model, controlling for estradiol, was used to compare mean longitudinal changes in REE and RER. On average, HIIT produced a greater REE than AEE and HIRT (p HIIT produced lower RER compared to either AEE or HIRT after 30 min (p HIIT resulted in the largest increase in REE and largest reduction in RER.

  13. Intact initiation of autophagy and mitochondrial fission by acute exercise in skeletal muscle of patientswith type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Sørensen, Rikke; Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Kristensen, Jonas Møller

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is characterized by insulin resistance, mitochondrial dysregulation, and, in some studies, exercise resistance in skeletal muscle. Regulation of autophagy and mitochondrial dynamics during exercise and recovery is important for skeletal muscle homeostasis......, and these responses may be altered in T2D. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined the effect of acute exercise on markers of autophagy and mitochondrial fusion and fission in skeletal muscle biopsies from patients with T2D (n=13) and weight-matched controls (n=14) before, immediately after and 3h after an acute bout...... of exercise. RESULTS: While mRNA levels of most markers of autophagy ( PIK3C, MAP1LC3B, SQSTM1, BNIP3, BNIP3L ) and mitochondrial dynamics ( OPA1, FIS1 ) remained unchanged, some either increased during and after exercise (GABARAPL1 ), decreased in the recovery period ( BECN1, ATG7, DNM1L ), or both ( MFN2...

  14. The effect of acute maximal exercise on postexercise hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Yan, Huimin; Kappus, Rebecca M; Fernhall, Bo; Baynard, Tracy

    2017-04-01

    Central arterial stiffness is associated with incident hypertension and negative cardiovascular outcomes. Obese individuals have higher central blood pressure (BP) and central arterial stiffness than their normal-weight counterparts, but it is unclear whether obesity also affects hemodynamics and central arterial stiffness after maximal exercise. We evaluated central hemodynamics and arterial stiffness during recovery from acute maximal aerobic exercise in obese and normal-weight individuals. Forty-six normal-weight and twenty-one obese individuals underwent measurements of central BP and central arterial stiffness at rest and 15 and 30 min following acute maximal exercise. Central BP and normalized augmentation index (AIx@75) were derived from radial artery applanation tonometry, and central arterial stiffness was obtained via carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cPWV) and corrected for central mean arterial pressure (cPWV/cMAP). Central arterial stiffness increased in obese individuals but decreased in normal-weight individuals following acute maximal exercise, after adjusting for fitness. Obese individuals also exhibited an overall higher central BP ( P  <   0.05), with no exercise effect. The increase in heart rate was greater in obese versus normal-weight individuals following exercise ( P  <   0.05), but there was no group differences or exercise effect for AIx@75 In conclusion, obese (but not normal-weight) individuals increased central arterial stiffness following acute maximal exercise. An assessment of arterial stiffness response to acute exercise may serve as a useful detection tool for subclinical vascular dysfunction. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  15. Effect of Acute Resistance Exercise on Carotid Artery Stiffness and Cerebral Blood Flow Pulsatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesley K Lefferts

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Arterial stiffness is associated with cerebral flow pulsatility. Arterial stiffness increases following acute resistance exercise (RE. Whether this acute RE-induced vascular stiffening affects cerebral pulsatility remains unknown. Purpose: To investigate the effects of acute RE on common carotid artery (CCA stiffness and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv pulsatility. Methods: Eighteen healthy men (22 ± 1 yr; 23.7 ± 0.5 kg∙m-2 underwent acute RE (5 sets, 5-RM bench press, 5 sets 10-RM bicep curls with 90 s rest intervals or a time control condition (seated rest in a randomized order. CCA stiffness (β-stiffness, Elastic Modulus (Ep and hemodynamics (pulsatility index, forward wave intensity and reflected wave intensity were assessed using a combination of Doppler ultrasound, wave intensity analysis and applanation tonometry at baseline and 3 times post-RE. CBFv pulsatility index was measured with transcranial Doppler at the middle cerebral artery (MCA. Results: CCA β-stiffness, Ep and CCA pulse pressure significantly increased post-RE and remained elevated throughout post-testing (p 0.05. There were significant increases in forward wave intensity post-RE (p0.05. Conclusion: Although acute RE increases CCA stiffness and pressure pulsatility, it may not affect CCA or MCA flow pulsatility. Increases in pressure pulsatility may be due to increased forward wave intensity and not pressure from wave reflections.

  16. Acute Exercise Improves Mood and Motivation in Young Men with ADHD Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Kathryn M; O'Connor, Patrick J

    2016-06-01

    Little is known about whether acute exercise affects signs or symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. This experiment sought to determine the effects of a single bout of moderate-intensity leg cycling exercise on measures of attention, hyperactivity, mood, and motivation to complete mental work in adult men reporting elevated ADHD symptoms. A repeated-measures crossover experiment was conducted with 32 adult men (18-33 yr) with symptoms consistent with adult ADHD assessed by the Adult Self-Report Scale V1.1. Measures of attention (continuous performance task and Bakan vigilance task), motivation to perform the mental work (visual analog scale), lower leg physical activity (accelerometry), and mood (Profile of Mood States and Addiction Research Center Inventory amphetamine scale) were measured before and twice after a 20-min seated rest control or exercise condition involving cycling at 65% V˙O2peak. Condition (exercise vs rest) × time (baseline, post 1, and post 2) ANOVA was used to test the hypothesized exercise-induced improvements in all outcomes. Statistically significant condition-time interactions were observed for vigor (P motivation (P = 0.027), and Profile of Mood States depression (P = 0.027), fatigue (P = 0.030), and confusion (P = 0.046) scales. No significant interaction effects were observed for leg hyperactivity, simple reaction time, or vigilance task performance (accuracy, errors, or reaction time). In young men reporting elevated symptoms of ADHD, a 20-min bout of moderate-intensity cycle exercise transiently enhances motivation for cognitive tasks, increases feelings of energy, and reduces feelings of confusion, fatigue, and depression, but this has no effect on the behavioral measures of attention or hyperactivity used.

  17. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Brand

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders.Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states.Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week.Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time.

  18. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Ludyga, Sebastian; Emmenegger, Raphael; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions) showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level) are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders. Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females) took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states. Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week. Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time.

  19. Television viewing, leisure-time exercise and acute coronary syndrome in transitional Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burazeri, Genc; Goda, Artan; Kark, Jeremy D

    2008-07-01

    To assess the association of leisure-time exercise and television (TV) viewing, a sedentary marker, with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Albania, a transitional country in Southeast Europe. A population-based case-control study was conducted among Tirana residents in 2003-2006. Information on leisure-time exercise (transformed into kilocalories of energy expenditure) and daily hours of TV viewing was obtained by interviewer-administered questionnaire. 460 non-fatal ACS patients (368 men, 92 women) and 628 coronary heart disease-free controls (413 men, 215 women) were studied. Adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics, conventional coronary risk factors and leisure-time exercise, TV viewing was associated with ACS in women (OR=1.66, 95%CI=1.12-2.46 per hour/day viewing), but not in men (OR=0.93, 95%CI=0.81-1.07; P for sex-interaction=0.02). A low level of leisure-time exercise (adjusted also for TV viewing) was associated with ACS similarly in men and women (pooled sexes OR=2.03, 95%CI=1.29-3.22 for bottom vs top tertile of energy expenditure). Leisure-time inactivity is confirmed as an important risk factor for ACS also in Southeastern Europe. TV viewing may be an informative coronary risk marker in transitional societies, especially in women.

  20. Acute Bouts of Exercising Improved Mood, Rumination and Social Interaction in Inpatients With Mental Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Colledge, Flora; Ludyga, Sebastian; Emmenegger, Raphael; Kalak, Nadeem; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2018-01-01

    Background: Studies at the macro level (such as longer-term interventions) showed that physical activity impacts positively on cognitive-emotional processes of patients with mental disorders. However, research focusing on the immediate impact of acute bouts of exercise (micro level) are missing. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate whether and to what extent single bouts of moderately intense exercise can influence dimensions of psychological functioning in inpatients with mental disorders. Method: 129 inpatients (mean age: 38.16 years; 50.4% females) took part and completed a questionnaire both immediately before and immediately after exercising. Thirty inpatients completed the questionnaires a second time in the same week. The questionnaire covered socio-demographic and illness-related information. Further, the questionnaire asked about current psychological states such as mood, rumination, social interactions, and attention, tiredness, and physical strengths as a proxy of physiological states. Results: Psychological states improved from pre- to post-session. Improvements were observed for mood, social interactions, attention, and physical strengths. Likewise, rumination and tiredness decreased. Mood, rumination, and tiredness further improved, when patients completed the questionnaires the second time in the same week. Conclusion: At micro level, single bouts of exercise impacted positively on cognitive-emotional processes such as mood, rumination, attention and social interactions, and physiological states of tiredness and physical strengths among inpatients with mental disorders. In addition, further improvements were observed, if patients participated in physical activities a second time. PMID:29593592

  1. Structured physical exercise improves neuropsychiatric symptoms in acute dementia care: a hospital-based RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiner, Tim; Dauth, Hannah; Gersie, Marleen; Zijlstra, Wiebren; Haussermann, Peter

    2017-08-29

    The primary objective of this trial is to investigate the effects of a short-term exercise program on neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms in acute hospital dementia care. Within a hospital-based randomized controlled trial, the intervention group conducted a 2-week exercise program with four 20-min exercise sessions on 3 days per week. The control group conducted a social stimulation program. Effects on neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms were measured via the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study-Clinical Global Impression of Change, the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, and the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory. The antipsychotic and sedative dosage was quantified by olanzapine and diazepam equivalents. Eighty-five patients were randomized via minimization to an intervention group (IG) and a control group (CG). Seventy patients (82%) (mean age 80 years, 33 females, mean Mini Mental State Examination score 18.3 points) completed the trial. As compared to the CG (n = 35), the IG (n = 35) showed significantly reduced neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms. Especially, agitated behavior and lability improved. There were no between-group differences concerning antipsychotic and benzodiazepine medication. This exercise program is easily applicable in hospital dementia care and significantly reduces neuropsychiatric signs and symptoms in patients suffering from predominantly moderate stages of dementia. German Clinical Trial Register DRKS00006740 . Registered 28 October 2014.

  2. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  3. Effects of Acute Exercise and Chronic Exercise on the Liver Leptin-AMPK-ACC Signaling Pathway in Rats with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejie Yi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effects of acute and chronic exercise on glucose and lipid metabolism in liver of rats with type 2 diabetes caused by a high fat diet and low dose streptozotocin (STZ. Methods. Animals were classified into control (CON, diabetes (DC, diabetic chronic exercise (DCE, and diabetic acute exercise (DAE groups. Results. Compared to CON, the leptin levels in serum and liver and ACC phosphorylation were significantly higher in DC, but the levels of liver leptin receptor, AMPKα1/2, AMPKα1, and ACC proteins expression and phosphorylation were significantly lower in DC. In addition, the levels of liver glycogen reduced significantly, and the levels of TG and FFA increased significantly in DC compared to CON. Compared to DC, the levels of liver AMPKα1/2, AMPKα2, AMPKα1, and ACC phosphorylation significantly increased in DCE and DAE. However, significant increase of the level of liver leptin receptor and glycogen as well as significant decrease of the level of TG and FFA were observed only in DEC. Conclusion. Our study demonstrated that both acute and chronic exercise indirectly activated the leptin-AMPK-ACC signaling pathway and increased insulin sensitivity in the liver of type 2 diabetic rats. However, only chronic and long-term exercise improved glucose and lipid metabolism of the liver.

  4. Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors. Methods Twenty-two healthy and physically active seniors (age: 69 ± 3 y, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2, VO2peak: 32 ± 6 mL/kg/bodyweight were enrolled in this randomized controlled cross-over study. A repeated between-day comparison [i.e., day 1 (habituation vs. day 2 & day 2 vs. day 3] of executive function testing (Eriksen-Flanker-Test, Stroop-Color-Test, Digit-Span, Five-Point-Test before and after aerobic cycling exercise at 70% of the heart rate reserve [0.7 × (HRmax – HRrest] was conducted. Reliability measures were calculated for pre, post and change scores. Results Large between-day differences between day 1 and 2 were found for reaction times (Flanker- and Stroop Color testing and completed figures (Five-Point test at pre and post testing (0.002 < p < 0.05, 0.16 < ɳp 2 < 0.38. These differences notably declined when comparing day 2 and 3. Absolute between days variability (CoV dropped from 10 to 5% when comparing day 2 vs. day 3 instead of day 1 vs. day 2. Also ICC ranges increased from day 1 vs. day 2 (0.65 < ICC < 0.87 to day 2 vs. day 3 (0.40 < ICC < 0.93. Interestingly, reliability measures for pre-post change scores were low (0.02 < ICC < 0.71. These data did not improve when comparing day 2 with day 3. During inhibition tests, reaction times showed excellent reliability values compared to the poor to fair reliability of

  5. Short-Term High- and Moderate-Intensity Training Modifies Inflammatory and Metabolic Factors in Response to Acute Exercise

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    Fabio Santos Lira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the acute and chronic effects of high intensity intermittent training (HIIT and steady state training (SST on the metabolic profile and inflammatory response in physically active men.Methods: Thirty recreationally active men were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 10, HIIT group (n = 10, or SST group (n = 10. For 5 weeks, three times per week, subjects performed HIIT (5 km 1-min at 100% of maximal aerobic speed interspersed by 1-min passive recovery or SST (5 km at 70% of maximal aerobic speed while the control group did not perform training. Blood samples were collected at fasting (~12 h, pre-exercise, immediately post, and 60 min post-acute exercise session (pre- and post-5 weeks training. Blood samples were analyzed for glucose, non-ester fatty acid (NEFA, and cytokine (IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α levels through a three-way analysis (group, period, and moment of measurement with repeated measures in the second and third factors.Results: The results showed an effect of moment of measurement (acute session with greater values to TNF-α and glucose immediately post the exercise when compared to pre exercise session, independently of group or training period. For IL-6 there was an interaction effect for group and moment of measurement (acute session the increase occurred immediately post-exercise session and post-60 min in the HIIT group while in the SST the increase was observed only 60 min post, independently of training period. For IL-10, there was an interaction for training period (pre- and post-training and moment of measurement (acute session, in which in pre-training, pre-exercise values were lower than immediately and 60 min post-exercise, in post-training period pre-exercise values were lower than immediately post-exercise and immediately post-exercise lower than 60 min post, it was also observed that values immediately post-exercise were lower pre- than post-training, being all results independently of intensity

  6. Exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome in a young man, occurring after a short race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bibhusan; Matar, Mousa; Vaitilingham, Siddharthan; Chalise, Shyam; Irooegbu, Nkem; Bang, Jane

    2016-04-01

    We describe a case of exercise-induced acute compartment syndrome (ACS) in a 23-year-old man who presented to his primary care physician 48 hours after he attempted to run a 5K race. He noticed searing pain in his left leg after the first half mile but had no other symptoms. He was referred to the emergency department and diagnosed with ACS, and a fasciotomy was done. A presentation of limb pain that is out of proportion to a known or suspected injury should prompt consideration of ACS. Early recognition and surgical management are essential to achieving the best possible outcome.

  7. Induction and adaptation of chaperone-assisted selective autophagy CASA in response to resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulbricht, Anna; Gehlert, Sebastian; Leciejewski, Barbara; Schiffer, Thorsten; Bloch, Wilhelm; Höhfeld, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Chaperone-assisted selective autophagy (CASA) is a tension-induced degradation pathway essential for muscle maintenance. Impairment of CASA causes childhood muscle dystrophy and cardiomyopathy. However, the importance of CASA for muscle function in healthy individuals has remained elusive so far. Here we describe the impact of strength training on CASA in a group of healthy and moderately trained men. We show that strenuous resistance exercise causes an acute induction of CASA in affected muscles to degrade mechanically damaged cytoskeleton proteins. Moreover, repeated resistance exercise during 4 wk of training led to an increased expression of CASA components. In human skeletal muscle, CASA apparently acts as a central adaptation mechanism that responds to acute physical exercise and to repeated mechanical stimulation.

  8. Changes in corticospinal excitability during consolidation predict acute exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostadan, Fatemeh; Centeno, Carla; Daloze, Jean-Felix

    2016-01-01

    A single bout of cardiovascular exercise performed immediately after practicing a motor task improves the long-term retention of the skill through an optimization of memory consolidation. However, the specific brain mechanisms underlying the effects of acute cardiovascular exercise on procedural...... exercise correlated with the magnitude of off-line gains in skill level assessed in a retention test performed 8h after motor practice. A single bout of exercise modulates short-term neuroplasticity mechanisms subserving consolidation processes that predict off-line gains in procedural memory....... memory are poorly understood. We sought to determine if a single bout of exercise modifies corticospinal excitability (CSE) during the early stages of memory consolidation. In addition, we investigated if changes in CSE are associated with exercise-induced off-line gains in procedural memory...

  9. Muscle performance following an acute bout of plyometric training combined with low or high intensity weight exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneka, Anastasia G; Malliou, Paraskevi K; Missailidou, Victoria; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Fatouros, Ioannis; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Georgiadis, Elias

    2013-01-01

    To determine the time course of performance responses after an acute bout of plyometric exercise combined with high and low intensity weight training, a 3-group (including a control group), repeated-measures design was employed. Changes in performance were monitored through jumping ability by measuring countermovement and squat jumping, and strength performance assessment through isometric and isokinetic testing of knee extensors (at two different velocities). Participants in both experimental groups performed a plyometric protocol consisting of 50 jumps over 50 cm hurdles and 50 drop jumps from a 50 cm plyometric box. Additionally, each group performed two basic weight exercises consisting of leg presses and leg extensions at 90-95% of maximum muscle strength for the high intensity group and 60% of maximum muscle strength for the low intensity group. The results of the study suggest that an acute bout of intense plyometric exercise combined with weight exercise induces time-dependent changes in performance, which are also dependent on the nature of exercise protocol and testing procedures. In conclusion, acute plyometric exercise with weight exercise may induce a substantial decline in jumping performance for as long as 72 hours but not in other forms of muscle strength.

  10. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Performance during a strenuous swimming session is associated with high blood lactate: pyruvate ratio and hypoglycemia in fasted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travassos, P B; Godoy, G; De Souza, H M; Curi, R; Bazotte, R B

    2018-03-26

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lactatemia elevation and glycemia reduction on strenuous swimming performance in fasted rats. Three rats were placed in a swimming tank at the same time. The first rat was removed immediately (control group) and the remaining ones were submitted to a strenuous swimming session. After the second rat was exhausted (Exh group), the third one was immediately removed from the water (Exe group). According to the period of time required for exhaustion, the rats were divided into four groups: low performance (3-7 min), low-intermediary performance (8-12 min), high-intermediary performance (13-17 min), and high performance (18-22 min). All rats were removed from the swimming tanks and immediately killed by decapitation for blood collection or anesthetized for liver perfusion experiments. Blood glucose, lactate, and pyruvate concentrations, blood lactate/pyruvate ratio, and liver lactate uptake and its conversion to glucose were evaluated. Exhaustion in low and low-intermediary performance were better associated with higher lactate/pyruvate ratio. On the other hand, exhaustion in high-intermediary and high performance was better associated with hypoglycemia. Lactate uptake and glucose production from lactate in livers from the Exe and Exh groups were maintained. We concluded that there is a time sequence in the participation of lactate/pyruvate ratio and hypoglycemia in performance during an acute strenuous swimming section in fasted rats. The liver had an important participation in preventing hyperlactatemia and hypoglycemia during swimming through lactate uptake and its conversion to glucose.

  12. Inhibition of myostatin signaling through Notch activation following acute resistance exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew G MacKenzie

    Full Text Available Myostatin is a TGFβ family member and negative regulator of muscle size. Due to the complexity of the molecular pathway between myostatin mRNA/protein and changes in transcription, it has been difficult to understand whether myostatin plays a role in resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. To circumvent this problem, we determined the expression of a unique myostatin target gene, Mighty, following resistance exercise. Mighty mRNA increased by 6 h (82.9 ± 24.21% and remained high out to 48 h (56.5 ± 19.67% after resistance exercise. Further examination of the soleus, plantaris and tibialis anterior muscles showed that the change in Mighty mRNA at 6 h correlated with the increase in muscle size associated with this protocol (R(2 = 0.9996. The increase in Mighty mRNA occurred both independent of Smad2 phosphorylation and in spite of an increase in myostatin mRNA (341.8 ± 147.14% at 3 h. The myostatin inhibitor SKI remained unchanged. However, activated Notch, another potential inhibitor of TGFβ signaling, increased immediately following resistance exercise (83 ± 11.2% and stayed elevated out to 6 h (78 ± 16.6%. Electroportion of the Notch intracellular domain into the tibialis anterior resulted in an increase in Mighty mRNA (63 ± 13.4% that was equivalent to the canonical Notch target HES-1 (94.4 ± 7.32%. These data suggest that acute resistance exercise decreases myostatin signaling through the activation of the TGFβ inhibitor Notch resulting in a decrease in myostatin transcriptional activity that correlates well with muscle hypertrophy.

  13. Circulating cell-free DNA: an up-coming molecular marker in exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitbach, Sarah; Tug, Suzan; Simon, Perikles

    2012-07-01

    The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations is of importance for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise physiology. Increases of cfDNA due to exercise are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome and might be related to, or trigger adaptations of, immune function induced by strenuous exercise. At the same time, exercise provides a practicable model for studying the phenomenon of cfDNA that is described to be of pathophysiological relevance for different topics in clinical medicine like autoimmune diseases and cancer. In this review, we are summarizing the current knowledge of exercise-based acute and chronic alterations in cfDNA levels and their physiological significance. The effects of acute exercise on cfDNA concentrations have been investigated in resistance exercises and in continuous, stepwise and interval endurance exercises of different durations. cfDNA concentrations peaked immediately after acute exercise and showed a rapid return to baseline levels. Typical markers of skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase, uric acid, C-reactive protein) show delayed kinetics compared with the cfDNA peak response. Exercise parameters such as intensity, duration or average energy expenditure do not explain the extent of increasing cfDNA concentrations after strenuous exercise. This could be due to complex processes inside the human organism during and after physical activity. Therefore, we hypothesize composite effects of different physiological stress parameters that come along with exercise to be responsible for increasing cfDNA concentrations. We suggest that due to acute stress, cfDNA levels increase rapidly by a spontaneous active or passive release mechanism that is not yet known. As a result of the rapid and parallel increase of cfDNA and lactate in an incremental treadmill test leading to exhaustion within 15-20 minutes, it is unlikely that cfDNA is released into the plasma by typical necrosis

  14. Acute and Chronic Whole-Body Vibration Exercise does not Induce Health-Promoting Effects on The Blood Profile

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    Theodorou Anastasios A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Whole-body vibration (WBV exercise is an alternative, popular and easy exercise that can be followed by general public. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of acute and chronic WBV exercise on health-related parameters. Twenty-eight women were allocated into a control group (n=11, mean ±SEM: age, 43.5 ±1.5 yr; body mass, 66.1 ±3.1 kg; height, 160.6 ±1.5 cm and a vibration group (n=17, mean ±SEM: age, 44.0 ±1.0 yr; body mass, 67.1 ±2.2 kg; height, 162.5 ±1.5 cm. After baseline assessments, participants of the experimental group performed WBV training 3 times/week for 8 weeks. Before and after the chronic WBV exercise, the participants of the vibration group performed one session of acute WBV exercise. Blood chemistry measurements (hematology, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, triacylglycerols, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B and lipoprotein, thiobarbituric-acid reactive substances, protein carbonyls, total antioxidant capacity, uric acid, albumin and bilirubin were assessed pre-exercise and post-exercise at the first and eighth week of WBV exercise in both control and vibration groups. The results failed to support any effect of both acute and chronic WBV exercise on biochemical health-related parameters. However, it seems that WBV exercise is a safe way of training without a negative impact on muscle and liver functionality.

  15. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression......BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  16. N-terminal pro-atrial natriuretic peptide response to acute exercise in depressed patients and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Jesper; Ströhle, Andreas; Westrin, Asa

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The dysfunction of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in major depression includes hyperactivity and reduced feedback inhibition. Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) is able to reduce the HPA-axis response to stress and has an anxiolytic effect in rodents and humans. We hypothesized...... that patients with depression would have an attenuated N-terminal proANP (NT-proANP) response to acute exercise compared to healthy controls. Secondly, we aimed to assess the effect of antidepressants on NT-proANP response to acute exercise. METHODS: We examined 132 outpatients with mild to moderate depression...... (ICD-10) and 44 healthy controls, group matched for age, sex, and BMI. We used an incremental bicycle ergometer test as a physical stressor. Blood samples were drawn at rest, at exhaustion, and 15, 30, and 60min post-exercise. RESULTS: The NT-proANP response to physical exercise differed between...

  17. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C. John; Blessing, L. Daniel; Oliver, D. Gretchen; Esco, R. Michael; Taylor, J. Kyle

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%, Treadmill=−8%) and 2-HP (CF=−16%, TM=−1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™=−10%, Treadmill=−12%), 1-HP (CrossFit™=−12%, Treadmill=−6%), 2-HP (CrossFit™=−7%, Treadmill=−11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses. PMID:26557192

  18. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit(™) vs. Treadmill Bout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliszczewicz, Brian; Quindry, C John; Blessing, L Daniel; Oliver, D Gretchen; Esco, R Michael; Taylor, J Kyle

    2015-09-29

    CrossFit(™), a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit(™) bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit(™) experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE), immediately-post-exercise (IPE), 1 hr-post (1-HP) and 2 hr-post (2-HP), to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit(™) and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+143%, Treadmill=+115%) and 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+256%, Treadmill+167%). Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%), while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-16%, Treadmill=-8%) and 2-HP (CF=-16%, TM=-1%) compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit(™) and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit(™)=+25%, Treadmill=+17%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=+26%, Treadmill=+4.8%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=+20%, Treadmill=+12%). Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit(™)=-10%, Treadmill=-12%), 1-HP (CrossFit(™)=-12%, Treadmill=-6%), 2-HP (CrossFit(™)=-7%, Treadmill=-11%). No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit(™) bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.

  19. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kliszczewicz Brian

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available CrossFit™, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit™ bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ± 2.7 yrs having three or more months of CrossFit™ experience participated in the present study. Blood plasma was collected at four time points: Pre-exercise (PRE, immediately-post-exercise (IPE, 1 hr-post (1-HP and 2 hr-post (2-HP, to examine oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity. Regarding plasma oxidative damage, CrossFit™ and Treadmill elicited a time-dependent increase of lipid peroxides 1-HP (CrossFit™=+143%,Treadmill=+115% and 2-HP (CrossFit™=+256%,Treadmill+167%. Protein Carbonyls were increased IPE in CF only (+5%, while a time-dependent decrease occurred 1-HP (CrossFit™=−16%,Treadmill=−8% and 2-HP (CF=−16%,TM=−1% compared to IPE. Regarding antioxidant capacity, Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power also demonstrated a time-dependent increase within CrossFit™ and Treadmill: IPE (CrossFit™=+25%,Treadmill=+17%, 1-HP (CrossFit™=+26%,Treadmill=+4.8%, 2-HP (CrossFit™=+20%,Treadmill=+12%. Total Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity showed a time-dependent decrease in IPE (CrossFit™= −10%,Treadmill=−12%, 1-HP (CrossFit™= −12%,Treadmill=−6%, 2-HP (CrossFit™= −7%,Treadmill=−11%. No trial-dependent differences were observed in any biomarker of oxidative stress. The CrossFit™ bout elicited an acute blood oxidative stress response comparable to a traditional bout of high-intensity treadmill running. Results also confirm that exercise intensity and the time course of exercise recovery influence oxidative responses.

  20. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  1. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  2. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  3. Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Ludyga, Sebastian; Hammes, Daniel; Rossmeissl, Anja; Andergassen, Nadin; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-10-25

    Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory) in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors. Twenty-two healthy and physically active seniors (age: 69 ± 3 y, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2, VO 2peak : 32 ± 6 mL/kg/bodyweight) were enrolled in this randomized controlled cross-over study. A repeated between-day comparison [i.e., day 1 (habituation) vs. day 2 & day 2 vs. day 3] of executive function testing (Eriksen-Flanker-Test, Stroop-Color-Test, Digit-Span, Five-Point-Test) before and after aerobic cycling exercise at 70% of the heart rate reserve [0.7 × (HR max - HR rest )] was conducted. Reliability measures were calculated for pre, post and change scores. Large between-day differences between day 1 and 2 were found for reaction times (Flanker- and Stroop Color testing) and completed figures (Five-Point test) at pre and post testing (0.002 seniors can be presumed.

  4. Acute acetaminophen (paracetamol) ingestion improves time to exhaustion during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauger, Alexis R; Taylor, Lee; Harding, Christopher; Wright, Benjamin; Foster, Josh; Castle, Paul C

    2014-01-01

    Acetaminophen (paracetamol) is a commonly used over-the-counter analgesic and antipyretic and has previously been shown to improve exercise performance through a reduction in perceived pain. This study sought to establish whether its antipyretic action may also improve exercise capacity in the heat by moderating the increase in core temperature. On separate days, 11 recreationally active participants completed two experimental time-to-exhaustion trials on a cycle ergometer in hot conditions (30°C, 50% relative humidity) after ingesting a placebo control or an oral dose of acetaminophen in a randomized, double-blind design. Following acetaminophen ingestion, participants cycled for a significantly longer period of time (acetaminophen, 23 ± 15 min versus placebo, 19 ± 13 min; P = 0.005; 95% confidence interval = 90-379 s), and this was accompanied by significantly lower core (-0.15°C), skin (-0.47°C) and body temperatures (0.19°C; P 0.05). This is the first study to demonstrate that an acute dose of acetaminophen can improve cycling capacity in hot conditions, and that this may be due to the observed reduction in core, skin and body temperature and the subjective perception of thermal comfort. These findings suggest that acetaminophen may reduce the thermoregulatory strain elicited from exercise, thus improving time to exhaustion.

  5. Acute neuromuscular and performance responses to Nordic hamstring exercises completed before or after football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C; Knox, Michael; Brennan, Scott; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-12-01

    The optimal scheduling of Nordic Hamstring exercises (NHEs) relative to football training sessions is unknown. We examined the acute neuromuscular and performance responses to NHE undertaken either before (BT) or after (AT) simulated football training. Twelve amateur players performed six sets of five repetitions of the NHE either before or after 60 min of standardised football-specific exercise (SAFT 60 ). Surface electromyography signals (EMG) of the hamstring muscles were recorded during both the NHE, and maximum eccentric actions of the knee flexors (0.52 rad · s -1 ) performed before and after the NHE programme, and at 15 min intervals during SAFT 60 . Ten-metre sprint times were recorded on three occasions during each 15 min SAFT 60 segment. Greater eccentric hamstring fatigue following the NHE programme was observed in BT versus AT (19.8 %; very likely small effect), which was particularly apparent in the latter range of knee flexion (0-15°; 39.6%; likely moderate effect), and synonymous with hamstring EMG declines (likely small-likely moderate effects). Performing NHE BT attenuated sprint performance declines (2.0-3.2%; likely small effects), but decreased eccentric hamstring peak torque (-14.1 to -18.9%; likely small effects) during football-specific exercise. Performing NHE prior to football training reduces eccentric hamstring strength and may exacerbate hamstring injury risk.

  6. Effect of acute aerobic exercise and histamine receptor blockade on arterial stiffness in African Americans and Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-02-01

    African Americans (AA) exhibit exaggerated central blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) in response to an acute bout of maximal exercise compared with Caucasians (CA). However, whether potential racial differences exist in central BP, elastic, or muscular arterial distensibility after submaximal aerobic exercise remains unknown. Histamine receptor activation mediates sustained postexercise hyperemia in CA but the effect on arterial stiffness is unknown. This study sought to determine the effects of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on central BP and arterial stiffness and the role of histamine receptors, in AA and CA. Forty-nine (22 AA, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either histamine receptor antagonist or control placebo. Central blood BP and arterial stiffness measurements were obtained at baseline, and at 30, 60, and 90 min after 45 min of moderate treadmill exercise. AA exhibited greater central diastolic BP, elevated brachial PWV, and local carotid arterial stiffness after an acute bout of submaximal exercise compared with CA, which may contribute to their higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Unexpectedly, histamine receptor blockade did not affect central BP or PWV in AA or CA after exercise, but it may play a role in mediating local carotid arterial stiffness. Furthermore, histamine may mediate postexercise carotid arterial dilation in CA but not in AA. These observations provide evidence that young and healthy AA exhibit an exaggerated hemodynamic response to exercise and attenuated vasodilator response compared with CA. NEW & NOTEWORTHY African Americans are at greater risk for developing cardiovascular disease than Caucasians. We are the first to show that young and healthy African Americans exhibit greater central blood pressure, elevated brachial stiffness, and local carotid arterial stiffness following an acute bout of submaximal exercise

  7. Protective effects of myricetin on acute hypoxia-induced exercise intolerance and mitochondrial impairments in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zou

    Full Text Available Exercise tolerance is impaired in hypoxia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of myricetin, a dietary flavonoid compound widely found in fruits and vegetables, on acute hypoxia-induced exercise intolerance in vivo and in vitro.Male rats were administered myricetin or vehicle for 7 days and subsequently spent 24 hours at a barometric pressure equivalent to 5000 m. Exercise capacity was then assessed through the run-to-fatigue procedure, and mitochondrial morphology in skeletal muscle cells was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The enzymatic activities of electron transfer complexes were analyzed using an enzyme-linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA. mtDNA was quantified by real-time-PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by JC-1 staining. Protein expression was detected through western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and immunofluorescence.Myricetin supplementation significantly prevented the decline of run-to-fatigue time of rats in hypoxia, and attenuated acute hypoxia-induced mitochondrial impairment in skeletal muscle cells in vivo and in vitro by maintaining mitochondrial structure, mtDNA content, mitochondrial membrane potential, and activities of the respiratory chain complexes. Further studies showed that myricetin maintained mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle cells under hypoxic conditions by up-regulating the expressions of mitochondrial biogenesis-related regulators, in addition, AMP-activated protein kinase(AMPK plays a crucial role in this process.Myricetin may have important applications for improving physical performance under hypoxic environment, which may be attributed to the protective effect against mitochondrial impairment by maintaining mitochondrial biogenesis.

  8. Prognostic utility of intravenous dipyridamole thallium-201 imaging and exercise testing after an acute infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leppo, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    To define the prognosis in asymptomatic survivors of acute infarcts (MI), coronary vasodilation was induced with I.V. dipyridamole, followed by Thallium-201 (T1) imaging in 26 patients just prior to discharge. All patients (pts) also had a modified exercise treadmill (MET) test. During the imaging protocol, 10 (39%) pts experienced transient adverse effects and 12 (46%) pts had either angina or ST depression with MET. During a mean follow-up of 17 months, 13 (50%) pts had a cardiac event defined as readmission for control of angina, MI or death. In the 13 pts having cardiac events, 4 (31%) had ST depression and 2 (15%) had angina during MET, but 12 (92%) demonstrated T1 redistribution (RD) as determined by at least 1 segment/scan having a transient defect. A logistic regression analysis using several exercise, scintigraphic and general clinical parameters, showed that the presence of T1 RD was the only significant (p <0.001) predictor for future cardiac events. The predicted probability for events in pts with T1 RD was 80 +- 10% (SD) and was 9 +- 9% in those without T1 RD. The mean number of defects per scan was similar in pts with and without cardiac events, but compared to persistent defects, transient ones are associated with potentially ischemic myocardium. Although the pt population is relatively small, dipyridamole T1 imaging after MI appears to be safe and has demonstrated prognostic value. It also offers an alternative and/or addition to exercise testing in the predischarge evaluation after acute MI

  9. Effects of Acute Exercise on Circulating Soluble Form of the Urokinase Receptor in Patients With Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gustafsson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation has been proposed to play a role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Previously, we demonstrated that patients with major depressive disorder (MDD have increased plasma levels of the soluble form of the urokinase receptor (suPAR, a marker for low-grade inflammation. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that acute exercise would induce inflammatory response characterized by increased suPAR and elucidate whether patients with MDD display altered levels of suPAR in response to acute exercise. A total of 17 patients with MDD and 17 controls were subjected to an exercise challenge. Plasma suPAR (P-suPAR was analyzed before, during, and after exercise. There was a significantly higher baseline P-suPAR in the patients with MDD, and the dynamic changes of P-suPAR during the exercise were significantly lower in the patients with MDD, compared with the controls. This study supports the hypothesis that an activation of systemic inflammatory processes, measured as elevated P-suPAR, is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. The study concludes that P-suPAR is influenced by acute exercise, most likely due to release from activated neutrophils.

  10. Acute effects of physical exercise on the serum insulin-like growth factor system in women with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannerkorpi, Kaisa; Landin-Wilhelmsen, Kerstin; Larsson, Anette; Cider, Åsa; Arodell, Olivia; Bjersing, Jan L

    2017-01-25

    Increased Serum insulin-like growth factor-1 (S-IGF-1) has been noted after physical activity in healthy subjects, while the acute release of S-IGF-1 in relation to exercise has not previously been studied in women with fibromyalgia (FM). S-IGF-1 and its binding protein (S-IGFBP-3) are mediated by growth hormone and have anabolic effects on the skeletal muscle. Aim of the study was to investigate acute release of IGF-1 after aerobic exercise in women with FM. The acute effect of physical exercise on S-IGF-1 and S-IGFBP-3 were studied in 22 women with FM and in 27 healthy controls during moderate and high-intensity cycling (i.e. ratings 12-13 and 15-17, on Borg's perceived exertion scale (RPE), respectively). Self-reported pain and fatigue were recorded. Differences within and between the two groups were analyzed. After 15 min of bicycling, S-IGF-1 and S-IGFBP-3 increased both within the group with FM and in the healthy controls (p exercise, irrespective of intensity, were higher in women with FM compared with healthy controls (p exercise and were not resistant to training effects. The result is important for encouraging clinical rehabilitation of patients with FM who commonly exercise at a moderate, rather than at a high-intensity level. ClinicalTrials.govNCT01592916 , May 4, 2012.

  11. Effects of acute exercise on the diameter of the spermatic vein, and duration of reflux in patients with varicocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atar, Murat; Söylemez, Haluk; Oguz, Fatih; Beytur, Ali; Altunoluk, Bülent; Kahraman, Bayram; Islamoglu, Yahya; Soylu, Ahmet

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of acute exercise on the diameter of the spermatic vein, and on the duration of reflux in patients with varicocele. The study included 38 patients with complaints of infertility and scrotal pain between 2009 and 2010. The diagnoses were made by physical examination and colour Doppler ultrasound, with both performed before and after exercise tests. The mean age of the participants was 25.7 ± 4.9 years. During the first examination, the grades of the varicoceles detected were as follows: grade I, n = 7; II, n = 10; and III, n = 21. The diameters of veins in patients with grades I, II and III varicocele were 2.1 mm, 2.9 mm and 4.2 mm, respectively, before exercise, whereas they were 2.6 mm, 3.2 mm and 4.3 mm, respectively, after exercise. In patients with grade I varicoceles, compared with pre-exercise values, the diameter of the left spermatic vein and duration of reflux measured during Valsalva manoeuvres were increased significantly after exercise (p = 0.042 and p = 0.034, respectively); similar results were obtained for the patients with grade II varicoceles (p = 0.007 and p = 0.008, respectively). However, the minimal relative increase in cases with grade III varicoceles was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). This study demonstrates that acute exercise increases the spermatic vein diameter and reflux time in patients with varicoceles. These outcomes demonstrate that acute exercise may be an aggravating factor for varicocele, as seen in chronic exercise.

  12. Acute exercise attenuates negative affect following repeated sad mood inductions in persons who have recovered from depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Jutta; Hogan, Candice L; Joormann, Jutta; Waugh, Christian E; Gotlib, Ian H

    2013-02-01

    Identifying factors that may protect individuals from developing Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) in the face of stress is critical. In the current study we experimentally tested whether such a potentially protective factor, engaging in acute exercise, reduces the adverse effects of repeated sad mood inductions in individuals who have recovered from depression. We hypothesized that recovered depressed participants who engage in acute exercise report a smaller increase in negative affect (NA) and a smaller decrease in positive affect (PA) when exposed to a repeated sad mood induction (i.e., habituation), whereas participants who do not exercise show sensitization (i.e., increased NA and decreased PA in response to a repeated adverse stimulus). Forty-one women recovered from MDD and 40 healthy control women were randomly assigned to either exercise for 15 minutes or quiet rest. Afterward, participants were exposed to two sad mood inductions and reported their levels of affect throughout the study. Recovered depressed participants who had not exercised exhibited higher NA after the second sad mood induction, a finding consistent with sensitization. In contrast, both recovered depressed participants who had engaged in acute exercise and healthy control participants showed no increase in NA in response to the repeated sad mood induction. Participants who exercised reported higher PA after the exercise bout; however, our hypothesis concerning reported PA trajectories following the sad mood inductions was not supported. Results suggest that exercise can serve as a protective factor in the face of exposure to repeated emotional stressors, particularly concerning NA in individuals who have recovered from depression. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  13. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇ O 2 , RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇ O 2 . These differences were trivial/small when V̇ O 2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇ O 2max . Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  14. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  15. Acute effects of power and resistance exercises on hemodynamic measurements of older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho-Júnior HJ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hélio José Coelho-Júnior,1,2 Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen,3 Samuel da Silva Aguiar,2,4 Ivan de Oliveira Gonçalves,2,5 Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara,6 Marco Antonio Cenedeze,7 Ricardo Yukio Asano,2,8 Bruno Rodrigues,1 Marco Carlos Uchida1 1Applied Kinesiology Laboratory–LCA, School of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, 2Center of Health Sciences, University of Mogi das Cruzes, Mogi das Cruzes, 3Hypertension Unit, Heart Institute (InCor, Medical School of University of São Paulo, 4School of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Águas Claras, Brasília, 5Community Center for Older People of Poá, Poá, 6Department of Immunobiology, Laboratory of Transplantation Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 7Nephrology Division, Federal University of São Paulo, 8School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of resistance training (RT and power training (PT on the hemodynamic parameters and nitric oxide (NO bioavailability of older women. Materials and methods: A randomized experimental design was used in this study. Twenty-one older women (age: 67.1±4.6 years; body mass index: 28.03±4.9 kg/m2; systolic blood pressure: 135.1±21.1 mmHg were recruited to participate in this study. Volunteers were randomly allocated into PT, RT, and control session (CS groups. The PT and RT groups underwent a single session of physical exercise equalized by training volume, characterized by 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions in 8 different exercises. However, RT group performed exercise at a higher intensity (difficult than PT (moderate group. On the other hand, concentric contractions were faster in PT group than in RT group. Hemodynamic parameters and saliva samples (for NO quantification were collected before and during an hour after exercise completion. Results: Results

  16. Strenuous running exacerbates knee cartilage erosion induced by low amount of mono-iodoacetate in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Saito, Ryusuke; Muneta, Takeshi; Ozeki, Nobutake; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Udo, Mio; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Tomita, Makoto; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Background It is still debated whether strenuous running in the inflammatory phase produces beneficial or harmful effect in rat knees. We examined (1) the dropout rate of rats during a 30-km running protocol, (2) influences of strenuous running and/or low amounts of mono-iodoacetate injection on cartilage, and (3) the effect of strenuous running on synovitis. Methods Rats were forced to run 30?km over 6?weeks and the dropout rate was examined. One week after 0.1?mg mono-iodoacetate was inject...

  17. A clinical trial of supervised exercise for adult inpatients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing induction chemotherapy☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibhai, Shabbir M.H.; O’Neill, Sara; Fisher-Schlombs, Karla; Breunis, Henriette; Brandwein, Joseph M.; Timilshina, Narhari; Tomlinson, George A.; Klepin, Heidi D.; Culos-Reed, S. Nicole

    2013-01-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving induction chemotherapy (IC) were enrolled in a supervised exercise intervention to determine safety, feasibility, and efficacy. Physical fitness measures, quality of life (QOL) and fatigue were assessed using standardized measures at baseline, post-induction, and post first consolidation. Retention was excellent, the intervention was safe, and efficacy estimates suggested benefits in physical fitness and QOL outcomes. Exercise is a safe, promising intervention for improving fitness and QOL in this patient population. These results provide a foundation for a randomized trial to better understand the impact of exercise during IC on clinically important outcomes. PMID:22726923

  18. A clinical trial of supervised exercise for adult inpatients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) undergoing induction chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibhai, Shabbir M H; O'Neill, Sara; Fisher-Schlombs, Karla; Breunis, Henriette; Brandwein, Joseph M; Timilshina, Narhari; Tomlinson, George A; Klepin, Heidi D; Culos-Reed, S Nicole

    2012-10-01

    Patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) receiving induction chemotherapy (IC) were enrolled in a supervised exercise intervention to determine safety, feasibility, and efficacy. Physical fitness measures, quality of life (QOL) and fatigue were assessed using standardized measures at baseline, post-induction, and post first consolidation. Retention was excellent, the intervention was safe, and efficacy estimates suggested benefits in physical fitness and QOL outcomes. Exercise is a safe, promising intervention for improving fitness and QOL in this patient population. These results provide a foundation for a randomized trial to better understand the impact of exercise during IC on clinically important outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Heart rate variability in stroke patients submitted to an acute bout of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimundo, Rodrigo Daminello; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Adami, Fernando; Vanderlei, Franciele Marques; de Carvalho, Tatiana Dias; Moreno, Isadora Lessa; Pereira, Valdelias Xavier; Valenti, Vitor Engracia; Sato, Monica Akemi

    2013-10-01

    Stroke has been associated with cardiac autonomic impairment due to damage in central nervous system. Dysfunction in heart rate variability (HRV) may reflect dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system. Aerobic training has been used in the rehabilitation procedure of patients, due to improvement of aerobic function and other beneficial effects as increased recruitment of motor units, favoring the development of muscle fibers. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation in patients with stroke before, during, and after an acute bout of aerobic exercise. The heart rate of 38 stroke patients was recorded using a heart rate (HR) monitor and the data were used to assess cardiac autonomic modulation through HRV analysis. The patients were in supine position and remained at resting condition (R) for 10 min before starting the experiment. Afterwards, they were submitted to walking exercise (E) on a treadmill until achieve 50-70% of maximum heart rate. After 30 min of aerobic exercise, the subjects were advised to remain in supine position for additional 30 min in order to record the HR during the recovery (RC) period. The recordings were divided in three periods: RC1, immediately after the end of exercise bout, RC2, between 12 and 17 min of recovery, and RC3, at the final 5 min of recovery. A significant decrease was observed during exercise in the MeanRR index (577.3±92 vs. 861.1+109), RRtri (5.1±2 vs. 9.1±3), high frequency component (11.2±4 vs. 167±135 ms) and SD1 (5.7±2 vs. 16.9±7 ms) compared to resting values. The SDNN index reduced during E (27.6±19) and RC1 (29.9±11), RC2 (27.9±9) and RC3 (32.4±13) compared to resting values (42.4±19). The low frequency component increased during E (545±82), but decreased during RC1 (166.3±129), RC2 (206.9±152), and RC3 (249.5±236) compared to R levels (394.6±315). These findings suggest that stroke patients showed a reduced HRV during and at least 30 min after exercise, due to an

  20. Acute effects of dynamic exercises on the relationship between the motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Beck, Travis W; DeFreitas, Jason M; Wages, Nathan P

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of concentric versus eccentric exercise on motor control strategies. Fifteen men performed six sets of 10 repetitions of maximal concentric exercises or eccentric isokinetic exercises with their dominant elbow flexors on separate experimental visits. Before and after the exercise, maximal strength testing and submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions (40% of the maximal force) were performed. Both exercise conditions caused significant strength loss in the elbow flexors, but the loss was greater following the eccentric exercise (t=2.401, P=.031). The surface electromyographic signals obtained from the submaximal trapezoid isometric contractions were decomposed into individual motor unit action potential trains. For each submaximal trapezoid isometric contraction, the relationship between the average motor unit firing rate and the recruitment threshold was examined using linear regression analysis. In contrast to the concentric exercise, which did not cause significant changes in the mean linear slope coefficient and y-intercept of the linear regression line, the eccentric exercise resulted in a lower mean linear slope and an increased mean y-intercept, thereby indicating that increasing the firing rates of low-threshold motor units may be more important than recruiting high-threshold motor units to compensate for eccentric exercise-induced strength loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Adrenaline is a critical mediator of acute exercise-induced AMP-activated protein kinase activation in adipocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ho-Jin; Hirshman, Michael F.; He, Huamei; Li, Yangfeng; Manabe, Yasuko; Balschi, James A.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2007-01-01

    Exercise increases AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) activity in human and rat adipocytes, but the underlying molecular mechanisms and functional consequences of this activation are not known. Since adrenaline (epinephrine) concentrations increase with exercise, in the present study we hypothesized that adrenaline activates AMPK in adipocytes. We show that a single bout of exercise increases AMPKα1 and α2 activities and ACC (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) Ser79 phosphorylation in rat adipocytes. Similarly to exercise, adrenaline treatment in vivo increased AMPK activities and ACC phosphorylation. Pre-treatment of rats with the β-blocker propranolol fully blocked exercise-induced AMPK activation. Increased AMPK activity with exercise and adrenaline treatment in vivo was accompanied by an increased AMP/ATP ratio. Adrenaline incubation of isolated adipocytes also increased the AMP/ATP ratio and AMPK activities, an effect blocked by propranolol. Adrenaline incubation increased lipolysis in isolated adipocytes, and Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, attenuated this effect. Finally, a potential role for AMPK in the decreased adiposity associated with chronic exercise was suggested by marked increases in AMPKα1 and α2 activities in adipocytes from rats trained for 6 weeks. In conclusion, both acute and chronic exercise are significant regulators of AMPK activity in rat adipocytes. Our findings suggest that adrenaline plays a critical role in exercise-stimulated AMPKα1 and α2 activities in adipocytes, and that AMPK can function in the regulation of lipolysis. PMID:17253964

  2. Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseane Böhm

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Methods: Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG. Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Results: Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035. There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly, which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027. Conclusion: The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.

  3. Acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Joseane; Monteiro, Mariane Borba; Andrade, Francini Porcher; Veronese, Francisco Veríssimo; Thomé, Fernando Saldanha

    2017-01-01

    Hemodialysis contributes to increased oxidative stress and induces transitory hypoxemia. Compartmentalization decreases the supply of solutes to the dialyzer during treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of intradialytic aerobic exercise on solute removal, blood gases and oxidative stress in patients with chronic kidney disease during a single hemodialysis session. Thirty patients were randomized to perform aerobic exercise with cycle ergometer for lower limbs during 30 minutes with intensity between 60-70% of maximal heart rate, or control group (CG). Blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after exercise or the equivalent time in CG. Analysis of blood and dialysate biochemistry as well as blood gases were performed. Mass removal and solute clearance were calculated. Oxidative stress was determined by lipid peroxidation and by the total antioxidant capacity. Serum concentrations of solutes increased with exercise, but only phosphorus showed a significant elevation (p = 0.035). There were no significant changes in solute removal and in the acid-base balance. Both oxygen partial pressure and saturation increased with exercise (p = 0.035 and p = 0.024, respectivelly), which did not occur in the CG. The total antioxidant capacity decreased significantly (p = 0.027). The acute intradialytic aerobic exercise increased phosphorus serum concentration and decreased total antioxidant capacity, reversing hypoxemia resulting from hemodialysis. The intradialytic exercise did not change the blood acid-base balance and the removal of solutes.

  4. Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90 min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

  5. Acute tendon changes in intense CrossFit workout: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisker, F Y; Kildegaard, S; Thygesen, M; Grosen, K; Pfeiffer-Jensen, M

    2017-11-01

    CrossFit is a fitness program that has become increasingly popular in the Western world, but as in other sports, the risk of injury is present. Only a few studies have addressed health benefits and injuries in CrossFit. It is known that chronically overloaded tendons will thicken and increase the risk of tendinopathy. However, it remains unknown whether acute overload caused by strenuous, high-intensity exercise will exert changes in tendons and if these changes can be detected and described by ultrasonography. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of acute overload on tendon thickness using ultrasonography. Standardized ultrasound measurements of the patella, Achilles, and plantaris tendons were performed before and after a specific workout in 34 healthy subjects. Significant increases were observed in patella tendon thickness before (M = 4.5, SD = 0.6) and after (M = 5.0, SD = 0.7) highly intense strenuous exercise, with an estimated mean differences of 0.47 mm (95% CI: 0.35-0.59 mm; P CrossFit exercises. In order to understand the underlying mechanisms of the findings and possibly utilize this to gain a better understanding, further studies must be conducted. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Acute Effects of Aerobic Exercise on Affect and Smoking Craving in the Weeks Before and After a Cessation Attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrantes, Ana M; Farris, Samantha G; Minami, Haruka; Strong, David R; Riebe, Deborah; Brown, Richard A

    2018-04-02

    Aerobic exercise may improve smoking abstinence via reductions in craving and negative affect and increases in positive moods. Acute changes in craving and affect before and after structured exercise sessions have not been examined during the weeks prior to and following quit attempts nor has smoking status been examined in relation to these effects. Given that regular cigarette smoking can be perceived as affect enhancing and craving reducing, it is not known whether exercise could contribute additional affective benefit beyond these effects. Participants (N = 57; 68.4% women) were low-active daily smokers randomized to cessation treatments plus either group-based aerobic exercise (AE) or a health-education control (HEC). Mood, anxiety, and craving were assessed before and after each intervention session for each of the 12 weeks. Carbon monoxide (CO) breath samples ≤ 5ppm indicated smoking abstinence. During the prequit sessions, significantly greater decreases in anxiety following AE sessions relative to HEC sessions were observed. Changes in mood and craving were similar after AE and HEC sessions prior to quitting. Postquit attempt, significant reductions in craving and anxiety were observed after AE sessions but not following HEC. During the postquit period, positive mood increased following AE sessions relative to HEC only among individuals who were abstinence on that day. AE may be effective in acutely reducing anxiety prior to a quit attempt and both anxiety and craving following the quit attempt regardless of abstinence status. The mood-enhancing effects of AE may occur only in the context of smoking abstinence. The current findings underscore the importance of examining the acute effects of aerobic exercise prior to and after a cessation attempt and as a function of smoking status. Given the equivocal results from previous studies on the efficacy of exercise for smoking cessation, increasing our understanding of how aerobic exercise produces its

  7. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    training are associated with muscle adaptations and dam- ... 1Department of Sport and Physical Rehabilitation Sciences, Tshwane University of ... ing values with before-exercise levels. ..... phase response (APR) to muscle/tissue damage, specifical- .... dence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in competitive figure skaters.

  8. Early detection of skeletal muscle injury by assay of creatine kinase MM isoforms in serum after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apple, F. S.; Hellsten, Ylva; Clarkson, P. M.

    1988-01-01

    We could detect skeletal muscle injury early after an acute exercise bout by measuring creatine kinase (CK, EC 2.7.3.2) MM isoforms in serum. Eleven men performed 120 alternating-arm, eccentric (muscle lengthening) biceps contractions with the intensity of each contraction being 110% of maximal...

  9. Effect of Acute Hypoxia on Post-Exercise Parasympathetic Reactivation in Healthy Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Haddad, Hani; Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Bourdon, Pitre C.; Buchheit, Martin

    2012-01-01

    In this study we assessed the effect of acute hypoxia on post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation inferred from heart rate (HR) recovery (HRR) and HR variability (HRV) indices. Ten healthy males participated in this study. Following 10 min of seated rest, participants performed 5 min of submaximal running at the speed associated with the first ventilatory threshold (Sub) followed by a 20-s all-out supramaximal sprint (Supra). Both Sub and Supra runs were immediately followed by 15 min of seated passive recovery. The resting and exercise sequence were performed in both normoxia (N) and normobaric hypoxia (H; FiO2 = 15.4%). HRR indices (e.g., heart beats recovered in the first minute after exercise cessation, HRR60s) and vagal-related HRV indices [i.e., natural logarithm of the square root of the mean of the sum of the squared differences between adjacent normal R–R intervals (Ln rMSSD)] were calculated for both conditions. Difference in the changes between N and H for all HR-derived indices were also calculated for both Sub and Supra. HRR60s was greater in N compared with H following Sub only (60 ± 14 vs. 52 ± 19 beats min−1, P = 0.016). Ln rMSSD was greater in N compared with H (post Sub: 3.60 ± 0.45 vs. 3.28 ± 0.44 ms in N and H, respectively, and post Supra: 2.66 ± 0.54 vs. 2.65 ± 0.63 ms, main condition effect P = 0.02). When comparing the difference in the changes, hypoxia decreased HRR60s (−14.3% ± 17.2 vs. 5.2% ± 19.3; following Sub and Supra, respectively; P = 0.03) and Ln rMSSD (−8.6% ± 7.0 vs. 2.0% ± 13.3, following Sub and Supra, respectively; P = 0.08, Cohen’s effect size = 0.62) more following Sub than Supra. While hypoxia may delay parasympathetic reactivation following submaximal exercise, its effect is not apparent following supramaximal exercise. This may suggest that the effect of blood O2 partial pressure on parasympathetic reactivation is limited

  10. Effects of acute exercise on fear extinction in rats and exposure therapy in humans: Null findings from five experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacquart, Jolene; Roquet, Rheall F; Papini, Santiago; Powers, Mark B; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J; Monfils, Marie-H

    2017-08-01

    Exposure therapy is an established learning-based intervention for the treatment of anxiety disorders with an average response rate of nearly 50%, leaving room for improvement. Emerging strategies to enhance exposure therapy in humans and fear extinction retention in animal models are primarily pharmacological. These approaches are limited as many patients report preferring non-pharmacological approaches in therapy. With general cognitive enhancement effects, exercise has emerged as a plausible non-pharmacological augmentation strategy. The present study tested the hypothesis that fear extinction and exposure therapy would be enhanced by a pre-training bout of exercise. We conducted four experiments with rats that involved a standardized conditioning and extinction paradigm and a manipulation of exercise. In a fifth experiment, we manipulated vigorous-intensity exercise prior to a standardized virtual reality exposure therapy session among adults with fear of heights. In experiments 1-4, exercise did not facilitate fear extinction, long-term memory, or fear relapse tests. In experiment 5, human participants showed an overall reduction in fear of heights but exercise did not enhance symptom improvement. Although acute exercise prior to fear extinction or exposure therapy, as operationalized in the present 5 studies, did not enhance outcomes, these results must be interpreted within the context of a broader literature that includes positive findings. Taken all together, this suggests that more research is necessary to identify optimal parameters and key individual differences so that exercise can be implemented successfully to treat anxiety disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. GLUT4 translocation is not impaired after acute exercise in skeletal muscle of women with obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dantas, Wagner Silva; Marcondes, José Antonio Miguel; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki; Perandini, Luiz Augusto; Zambelli, Vanessa Olzon; Neves, Willian Das; Barcellos, Cristiano Roberto Grimaldi; Rocha, Michele Patrocínio; Yance, Viviane Dos Reis Vieira; Pereira, Renato Tavares Dos Santos; Murai, Igor Hisashi; Pinto, Ana Lucia De Sá; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of acute exercise on insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and controls (CTRL). Fifteen women with obesity and PCOS and 12 body mass index-matched CTRL participated in this study. Subjects performed a 40-min single bout of exercise. Muscle biopsies were performed before and 60 min after exercise. Selected proteins were assessed by Western blotting. CTRL, but not PCOS, showed a significant increase in PI3-k p85 and AS160 Thr 642 after a single bout of exercise (P = 0.018 and P = 0.018, respectively). Only PCOS showed an increase in Akt Thr 308 and AMPK phosphorylation after exercise (P = 0.018 and P = 0.018, respectively). Total GLUT4 expression was comparable between groups (P > 0.05). GLUT4 translocation tended to be significantly higher in both groups after exercise (PCOS: P = 0.093; CTRL: P = 0.091), with no significant difference between them (P > 0.05). A single bout of exercise elicited similar GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle of PCOS and CTRL, despite a slightly differential pattern of protein phosphorylation. The absence of impairment in GLUT4 translocation suggests that PCOS patients with obesity and insulin resistance may benefit from exercise training. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  12. The influence of strenuous muscle stimulation on the menarche.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuuchi, F; Ichikawa, Y; Arakawa, M; Chiba, G

    1984-03-01

    Nowadays, the average age at which menarche begins is lowering by three to four years every century, that is, four months every decade, according to both Japanese, and European and American annual changes of the average age. It emerged that the menarche shows a tendency to occur later in female gymnasts, because of the influence of strenuous muscle stimulation, and the fact that a higher level of technic is required in gymnastic games each year. These conclusions have been drawn from replies submitted to a questionnaire distributed among a relatively small number of gymnasts who participated in the competitions including the Inter High School Championship and the World Cup Championship. For example, at the age of 14, the percentage of women who had menstruated is almost 100% among women in general, but only 24% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, the average age at menarche of the latter being later than that of the former by as many as 3 years. At the age of 16, the percentage of women who had menstruated is 100% among women in general, but on the other hand, it is only 60% among World Cup Championship gymnasts, in other words, only a low percentage of women, of the latter group, had menstruated. Finally in our study, we established that the age at menarche of gymnasts is three or five years later than that of women in general. From our study, we concluded that the excessive burden imposed on muscles might cause an abnormal menstrual cycle, and the influence on menstruation would be considerable.

  13. Acute Sodium Ingestion Before Exercise Increases Voluntary Water Consumption Resulting In Preexercise Hyperhydration and Improvement in Exercise Performance in the Heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, David M; Huot, Joshua R; Jetton, Adam M; Collier, Scott R; Utter, Alan C

    2015-10-01

    Dehydration has been shown to hinder performance of sustained exercise in the heat. Consuming fluids before exercise can result in hyperhydration, delay the onset of dehydration during exercise and improve exercise performance. However, humans normally drink only in response to thirst, which does not result in hyperhydration. Thirst and voluntary fluid consumption have been shown to increase following oral ingestion or infusion of sodium into the bloodstream. We measured the effects of acute sodium ingestion on voluntary water consumption and retention during a 2-hr hydration period before exercise. Subjects then performed a 60-min submaximal dehydration ride (DR) followed immediately by a 200 kJ performance time trial (PTT) in a warm (30 °C) environment. Water consumption and retention during the hydration period was greater following sodium ingestion (1380 ± 580 mL consumed, 821 ± 367 ml retained) compared with placebo (815 ± 483 ml consumed, 244 ± 402 mL retained) and no treatment (782 ± 454 ml consumed, 148 ± 289 mL retained). Dehydration levels following the DR were significantly less after sodium ingestion (0.7 ± 0.6%) compared with placebo (1.3 ± 0.7%) and no treatment (1.6 ± 0.4%). Time to complete the PTT was significantly less following sodium consumption (773 ± 158 s) compared with placebo (851 ± 156 s) and no treatment (872 ± 190 s). These results suggest that voluntary hyperhydration can be induced by acute consumption of sodium and has a favorable effect on hydration status and performance during subsequent exercise in the heat.

  14. Effects of β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate Free Acid Ingestion and Resistance Exercise on the Acute Endocrine Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Jeremy R.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Jajtner, Adam R.; Boone, Carleigh H.; Robinson, Edward H.; Mangine, Gerald T.; Wells, Adam J.; Fragala, Maren S.; Fukuda, David H.; Stout, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To examine the endocrine response to a bout of heavy resistance exercise following acute β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate free acid (HMB-FA) ingestion. Design. Twenty resistance trained men were randomized and consumed either 1 g of HMB-FA (BetaTor) or placebo (PL) 30 min prior to performing an acute heavy resistance exercise protocol. Blood was obtained before (PRE), immediately after (IP), and 30 min after exercise (30P). Circulating concentrations of testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and insulin were assayed. Data were analyzed with a repeated measures ANOVA and area under the curve (AUC) was analyzed by the trapezoidal rule. Results. The resistance exercise protocol resulted in significant elevations from PRE in testosterone (P HMB-FA compared to PL (P HMB-FA group compared to PL. Conclusion. HMB-FA prior to resistance exercise augments the GH response to high volume resistance exercise compared to PL. These findings provide further support for the potential anabolic benefits associated with HMB supplementation. PMID:25792982

  15. Acute effects of different dynamic exercises on hamstring strain risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Che Hsiu; Xin, Ye; Lee, Kuang Wu; Lin, Ming Ju; Lin, Jiu Jenq

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the acute effects of different dynamic exercise interventions on hamstring muscle performance. Thirty-six young men with poor hamstring flexibility were randomly assigned to three intervention groups: jogging combined with dynamic open kinetic chain stretching (DS), jogging combined with dynamic closed kinetic chain stretching (lunge with eccentric hamstring windmills, LEC), and jogging only (CON) groups. Hamstring flexibility, muscle stiffness (area under the curve, AUC), joint position sense (JPS), maximal eccentric strength (ECC), and angle of peak torque (APT) were recorded before and immediately after the exercise interventions. The results showed that the hamstring flexibility increased in DS (p < 0.001); muscle stiffness decreased in DS and was lower than jogging (p < 0.001). Moreover, ECC increased in LEC and was higher than jogging and DS (p < 0.001). APT was different among 3 groups (p < 0.001). Decreased accuracy of JPS was found in DS and jogging (p < 0.001). In conclusion, the dynamic closed kinetic chain stretching (LEC) as compared to open kinetic chain stretching (DS) or jogging group, may be an effective technique to enhance muscle performance during the pre-competition warm-up routine.

  16. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor mediates cognitive improvements following acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borror, Andrew

    2017-09-01

    The mechanisms causing improved cognition following acute exercise are poorly understood. This article proposes that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is the main factor contributing to improved cognition following exercise. Additionally, it argues that cerebral blood flow (CBF) and oxidative stress explain the release of BDNF from cerebral endothelial cells. One way to test these hypotheses is to block endothelial function and measure the effect on BDNF levels and cognitive performance. The CBF and oxidative stress can also be examined in relationship to BDNF using a multiple linear regression. If these hypotheses are true, there would be a linear relationship between CBF+oxidative stress and BDNF levels as well as between BDNF levels and cognitive performance. The novelty of these hypotheses comes from the emphasis on the cerebral endothelium and the interplay between BDNF, CBF, and oxidative stress. If found to be valid, these hypotheses would draw attention to the cerebral endothelium and provide direction for future research regarding methods to optimize BDNF release and enhance cognition. Elucidating these mechanisms would provide direction for expediting recovery in clinical populations, such as stroke, and maintaining quality of life in the elderly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Acute Effect of Resistance Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction with Hemodynamic Variables on Hypertensive Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araújo Joamira P.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the heart rate (HR before, during and after training at moderate intensity (MI, 50%-1RM and at low intensity with blood flow restriction (LIBFR. In a randomized controlled trial study, 14 subjects (average age 45±9,9 years performed one of the exercise protocols during two separate visits to the laboratory. SBP, DBP and HR measurements were collected prior to the start of the set and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after knee extension exercises. Repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA were used to identify significant variables (2 x 5; group x time. The results demonstrated a significant reduction in SBP in the LIBFR group. These results provide evidence that strength training performed acutely alters hemodynamic variables. However, training with blood flow restriction is more efficient in reducing blood pressure in hypertensive individuals than training with moderate intensity.

  18. Proteomic and carbonylation profile analysis of rat skeletal muscles following acute swimming exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Magherini

    Full Text Available Previous studies by us and other groups characterized protein expression variation following long-term moderate training, whereas the effects of single bursts of exercise are less known. Making use of a proteomic approach, we investigated the effects of acute swimming exercise (ASE on protein expression and carbonylation patterns in two hind limb muscles: the Extensor Digitorum Longus (EDL and the Soleus, mostly composed of fast-twitch and slow-twitch fibres, respectively. Carbonylation is one of the most common oxidative modifications of proteins and a marker of oxidative stress. In fact, several studies suggest that physical activity and the consequent increase in oxygen consumption can lead to increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS production, hence the interest in examining the impact of RONS on skeletal muscle proteins following ASE. Results indicate that protein expression is unaffected by ASE in both muscle types. Unexpectedly, the protein carbonylation level was reduced following ASE. In particular, the analysis found 31 and 5 spots, in Soleus and EDL muscles respectively, whose carbonylation is reduced after ASE. Lipid peroxidation levels in Soleus were markedly reduced as well. Most of the decarbonylated proteins are involved either in the regulation of muscle contractions or in the regulation of energy metabolism. A number of hypotheses may be advanced to account for such results, which will be addressed in future studies.

  19. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise Performed in the Morning and Evening on Inflammatory Cytokine and Metabolic Hormone Responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Ki Kim

    Full Text Available To compare the effects of endurance exercise performed in the morning and evening on inflammatory cytokine responses in young men.Fourteen healthy male participants aged 24.3 ± 0.8 years (mean ± standard error performed endurance exercise in the morning (0900-1000 h on one day and then in the evening (1700-1800 h on another day with an interval of at least 1 week between each trial. In both the morning and evening trials, the participants walked for 60 minutes at approximately 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max on a treadmill. Blood samples were collected to determine hormones and inflammatory cytokines at pre-exercise, immediately post exercise, and 2 h post exercise.Plasma interleukin (IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations were significantly higher immediately after exercise in the evening trial than in the morning trial (P < 0.01, both. Serum free fatty acids concentrations were significantly higher in the evening trial than in the morning trial at 2 h after exercise (P < 0.05. Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the levels of IL-6 immediately post-exercise and free fatty acids 2 h post-exercise in the evening (r = 0.68, P < 0.01.These findings suggest that the effect of acute endurance exercise in the evening enhances the plasma IL-6 and adrenaline concentrations compared to that in the morning. In addition, IL-6 was involved in increasing free fatty acids, suggesting that the evening is more effective for exercise-induced lipolysis compared with the morning.

  20. Acute effect of passive rest intervals and stretching exercise on multiple set performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Claudio do Rosário Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p435 The objective of this study was to determine the acute effect of passive rest intervals and static stretching between resistance exercise sets on the number of maximal repetitions (RM, rating of perceived exertion (RPE, and cumulative number of repetitions in multiple sets with a workload adjusted by the 8RM test. Fourteen trained male subjects (24.4 ± 2.1 years; 79.1 ± 7.1 kg; 175.4 ± 5.6 cm were studied. On the first two visits, the subjects were submitted to the test and 8RM re-test using chest press (CP and squat (SQ exercises. On the two subsequent visits, all subjects were randomly assigned to two experimental situations: a 8RM test with a passive rest interval (PI; b 8RM test with static stretching (SS. The subjects performed three sets of CP and SQ, intercalated with 2 minutes of passive rest or 30 seconds of static stretching. ANOVA revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the second (PI = 6 ± 0.8 x SS = 5.2 ± 1.0 repetitions and third (PI = 4.1 ± 0.8 X SS = 3.3 ± 0.6 repetitions sets for CP and only in the third set (PI = 4.9 ± 0.8 X SS = 4.2 ± 1.0 repetitions for SQ. For RPE, the Wilcoxon test showed significant differences (p < 0.05 between all sets for CP and SQ. For the cumulative number of repetitions, the paired t-test revealed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 for CP (PI = 18.3 ± 1.5 X SS = 16.8 ± 1.6 repetitions. These results indicate that static stretching between resistance exercise sets decreases 8RM test performance.

  1. Exercise Metabolism in Nonobese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Following the Acute Restoration of Normoglycaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Gaffney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how acute restoration of normoglycaemia affected energy metabolism during exercise in nonobese patients with type 2 diabetes. Six subjects (mean ± SEM aged 56.2 ± 2.7 years, with a BMI of 24.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2 and a VO2 peak of 28.7 ml/kg/min, attended the lab on two randomised occasions for a four-hour resting infusion of insulin or saline, followed by 30 minutes cycling at 50% VO2 peak. During the 4 h resting infusion, there was a greater (P<0.0001 reduction in blood glucose in insulin treatment (INS (from 11.2 ± 0.6 to 5.6 ± 0.1 mmol/l than in saline treatment/control (CON (from 11.5 ± 0.7 to 8.5 ± 0.6 mmol/l. This was associated with a lower (P<0.05 resting metabolic rate in INS (3.87 ± 0.17 than in CON (4.39 ± 0.30 kJ/min. During subsequent exercise, blood glucose increased significantly in INS from 5.6 ± 0.1 at 0 min to 6.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l at 30 min (P<0.01, which was accompanied by a lower blood lactate response (P<0.05. Oxygen uptake, rates of substrate utilization, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between trials. Insulin-induced normoglycaemia increased blood glucose during subsequent exercise without altering overall substrate utilization.

  2. The effects of cardiorespiratory fitness and acute aerobic exercise on executive functioning and EEG entropy in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael John Hogan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The current study examined the effects of cardiorespiratory fitness, identified with a continuous graded cycle ergometry, and aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning and entropy of the electroencephalogram (EEG in 30 adolescents between the ages of 13 and 14 years. Higher and lower fit participants performed an executive function task after a bout of acute exercise and after rest while watching a film. EEG entropy, using the sample entropy measure, was repeatedly measured during the 1500ms post-stimulus interval to evaluate changes in entropy over time. Analysis of the behavioural data for lower and higher fit groups revealed an interaction between fitness levels and acute physical exercise. Notably, lower fit, but not higher fit, participants had higher error rates for NoGo relative to Go trials in the rest condition, whereas in the acute exercise condition there were no differences in error rates between groups; higher fit participants also had significantly faster reaction times in the exercise condition in comparison with the rest condition. Analysis of EEG data revealed that higher fit participants demonstrated lower entropy post-stimulus than lower fit participants in the left frontal hemisphere, possibly indicating increased efficiency of early stage stimulus processing and more efficient allocation of cognitive resources to the task demands. The results suggest that EEG entropy is sensitive to stimulus processing demands and varies as a function of physical fitness levels, but not acute exercise. Physical fitness, in turn, may enhance cognition in adolescence by facilitating higher functionality of the attentional system in the context of lower levels of frontal EEG entropy.

  3. Soldier Performance and Mood States Following a Strenuous Road March

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    13) and the more intense the exercise, the greater the elevation (14). Reductions in heart rate through the use of beta - blockers can substantially...extreme physical fatigue. Shooting accuracy degraded severely under these conditions. An increase in body tremors due to fatigue or elevated post...exercise (9) and this may effect shooting accuracy. Muscle tremors increase after brief or prolonged muscular contractions (10, 11) and such tremors

  4. Endocrine Responses to Exercise in the Developing Child and Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Erick; Rogol, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    The impact of exercise training on the neuroendocrine control of the pituitary in the developing child is complex and the exact mechanisms are not fully understood. Multiple determinants influence adaptive hypothalamic-pituitary secretory responses to physical stress, namely, training intensity and duration, nutrition and energy balance, gender, age, sex, and sexual maturation status. The increase in growth hormone (GH) in response to acute exercise is dependent on pubertal status; children in more advanced pubertal stages respond with larger peak GH concentrations compared to those in earlier stages. The adolescent female athlete is more prone to menstrual disorders than the more mature athlete, and recent data suggest that athletes may be able to reverse menstrual disorders by increasing their dietary energy intake without decreasing their exercise levels. The thyroid changes observed are of minor impact, practically reflecting the relative negative energy balance during strenuous exercise. Studies that evaluated changes in cortisol secretion during aerobic exercise in children and adolescents show either an increase or no change in response to the exercise bout. Recent research showed that physical activity is an important contributor to bone strength prior to adolescence and increasing levels of physical activity during childhood likely enhance optimal bone strength. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Kosuke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle contraction during short intervals of intense exercise causes oxidative stress, which can play a role in the development of overtraining symptoms, including increased fatigue, resulting in muscle microinjury or inflammation. Recently it has been said that hydrogen can function as antioxidant, so we investigated the effect of hydrogen-rich water (HW on oxidative stress and muscle fatigue in response to acute exercise. Methods Ten male soccer players aged 20.9 ± 1.3 years old were subjected to exercise tests and blood sampling. Each subject was examined twice in a crossover double-blind manner; they were given either HW or placebo water (PW for one week intervals. Subjects were requested to use a cycle ergometer at a 75 % maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 for 30 min, followed by measurement of peak torque and muscle activity throughout 100 repetitions of maximal isokinetic knee extension. Oxidative stress markers and creatine kinase in the peripheral blood were sequentially measured. Results Although acute exercise resulted in an increase in blood lactate levels in the subjects given PW, oral intake of HW prevented an elevation of blood lactate during heavy exercise. Peak torque of PW significantly decreased during maximal isokinetic knee extension, suggesting muscle fatigue, but peak torque of HW didn’t decrease at early phase. There was no significant change in blood oxidative injury markers (d-ROMs and BAP or creatine kinease after exercise. Conclusion Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function. Although further studies to elucidate the exact mechanisms and the benefits are needed to be confirmed in larger series of studies, these preliminary results may suggest that HW may be suitable hydration for athletes.

  6. Investigation the Response of Some Proteins That Involved in Cachexia Syndrome to Acute Resistance Exercise in Healthy Elderly People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the response of plasma Myostatin and insulin growth factor like-1 (IGF-1, as two most important proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome, to acute resistance exercise in healthy elderly people. Methods & Materials: Twelve healthy older men (Age=67±1.3 years, BMI=25±1.4 kg/m2 volunteered for participation in this study. 72 hours after the determination of muscular maximal strength (by 1-RM test, subjects participated in acute resistance exercises via 75% 1-RM. In this research, two blood samples were collected at before and immediately after the exercise from Antecubital vein. Plasma Myostatin and serum levels of IGF-1 were measured by ELISA methods. Paired T-Test used for statical analyses of research data. Significant level was set at P≤0.05. Results: The results of this study showed that plasma Myostatin significantly decreased in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. Also the serum levels of IGF-1 increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.0001. In turn, the results reveled that the IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio increased significantly in response to resistance exercise (P=0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that resistance exercise through increases of IGF-1 and decreases of Myostatin causes increment of IGF-1 to Myostatin ratio. According to the results of this study it seems prescription of resistance exercise could positive changes in proteins that involved in Cachexia syndrome in elderly people. Presumably, through this way we can prevent from Cachexia and its many physiological and physical related dysfunctions in theses people. Although more study is needed to clear its mechanisms.

  7. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise: a randomised cross-over study among female cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Korshøj, Mette

    2018-02-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) is shown to increase the risk for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Conversely, aerobic exercise acutely lowers the blood pressure up to 25 h post exercise. However, it is unknown if this beneficial effect also apply for workers exposed to high levels of OPA. Cleaners constitute a relevant occupational group for this investigation because of a high prevalence of OPA and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the acute effects on ambulatory blood pressure from a single aerobic exercise session among female cleaners. Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed-models. After the aerobic exercise session, the 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.4 mmHg (p ABP was unaltered. During work hours, a lowered systolic ABP of 2.2 mmHg (p = 0.02) and a higher diastolic ABP of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h systolic ABP of 2.4 mmHg. Thus, an aerobic exercise session seems to be beneficial for lowering the risk of hypertension among cleaners.

  8. Hormone Responses to an Acute Bout of Low Intensity Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Exercise in College-Aged Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eonho Kim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether the acute hormone response to exercise differed between low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise and traditional high-intensity resistance exercise in college-aged women. A total of 13 healthy women (aged 18-25 yrs, who were taking oral contraceptives, volunteered for this randomized crossover study. Subjects performed a session of low intensity blood flow restricted resistance exercise (BFR (20% of 1-RM, 1 set 30 reps, 2 sets 15 reps and a session of traditional high intensity resistance exercise without blood flow restriction (HI (3 sets of 10 repetitions at 80% of 1-RM on separate days. Fasting serum cortisol and growth hormone (GH and blood lactate responses were measured in the morning pre and post exercise sessions. GH (Change: HI: 6.34 ± 1.72; BFR: 4.22 ± 1.40 ng·mL-1 and cortisol (Change: HI: 4.46 ± 1.53; BFR: 8.10 ± 2.30 ug·dL-1 significantly (p < 0.05 increased immediately post exercise for both protocols compared to baseline and there were no significant differences between the protocols for these responses. In contrast, blood lactate levels (HI: 7.35 ± 0.45; BFR: 4.02 ± 0.33 mmol·L-1 and ratings of perceived exertion were significantly (p < 0.01 higher for the HI protocol. In conclusion, acute BFR restricted resistance exercise stimulated similar increases in anabolic and catabolic hormone responses in young women.

  9. Cordyceps militaris improves tolerance to high intensity exercise after acute and chronic supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Katie R.; Smith-Ryan, Abbie E.; Roelofs, Erica J.; Trexler, Eric T.; Mock, Meredith G.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the effects of a mushroom blend containing cordyceps militaris on high intensity exercise after 1- and 3-weeks of supplementation. Twenty-eight individuals (Mean ± SD; Age=22.7 ± 4.1 yrs; Height=175.4 ± 8.7 cm; Weight=71.6 ± 12.0 kg) participated in this randomized, repeated measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion (TTE), and ventilatory threshold (VT) were measured during a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Relative peak power output (RPP), average power output (AvgP), and percent drop (%drop) were recorded during a 3-minute maximal cycle test with resistance at 4.5% body weight. Subjects consumed 4 g·d−1 mushroom blend (MR) or maltodextrin (PL) for 1 week. Ten volunteers supplemented for an additional 2 weeks. Exercise tests were separated by at least 48-hours and repeated following supplementation periods. One week of supplementation elicited no significant time × treatment interaction for VO2max (p=0.364), VT (p=0.514), TTE (p=0.540), RPP (p=0.134), AvgP (p=0.398), or %drop (p=0.823). After 3-weeks, VO2max significantly improved (p=0.042) in MR (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1), but not PL (+0.9 ml·kg−1·min−1). Analysis of 95% confidence intervals revealed significant improvements in TTE after 1- (+28.1 s) and 3-weeks (+69.8 s) in MR, but not PL, with additional improvements in VO2max (+4.8 ml·kg−1·min−1) and VT (+0.7 l·min−1) after 3-weeks. Acute supplementation with a cordyceps militaris containing mushroom blend may improve tolerance to high intensity exercise; greater benefits may be elicited with consistent chronic supplementation. PMID:27408987

  10. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipryan, Lukas; Tschakert, Gerhard; Hofmann, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT) between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years) participating in endurance (n = 8) or sprint (n = 8) sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s), long HIIT (3min) and constant load exercise (CE). The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER) and metabolic (lactate) variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h) in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes) and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin) were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE) or largely (both HIIT modes) higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes. Key points The manner in which each training background (endurance vs. sprint) influences the response to HIIT is not well known. Despite the identical exercise intensity in relative terms, endurance

  11. Prevention of subsequent exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia by emergency coronary angioplasty in acute myocardial infarction: comparison with intracoronary streptokinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fung, A.Y.; Lai, P.; Juni, J.E.; Bourdillon, P.D.; Walton, J.A. Jr.; Laufer, N.; Buda, A.J.; Pitt, B.; O'Neill, W.W.

    1986-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of emergency percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and intracoronary streptokinase in preventing exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia, 28 patients presenting within 12 hours of the onset of symptoms of acute myocardial infarction were prospectively randomized. Of these, 14 patients were treated with emergency angioplasty and 14 patients received intracoronary streptokinase. Recatheterization and submaximal exercise thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography were performed before hospital discharge. Periinfarct ischemia was defined as a reversible thallium defect adjacent to a fixed defect assessed qualitatively. Successful reperfusion was achieved in 86% of patients treated with emergency angioplasty and 86% of patients treated with intracoronary streptokinase (p = NS). Residual stenosis of the infarct-related coronary artery shown at predischarge angiography was 43.8 +/- 31.4% for the angioplasty group and 75.0 +/- 15.6% for the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Of the angioplasty group, 9% developed exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia compared with 60% of the streptokinase group (p less than 0.05). Thus, patients with acute myocardial infarction treated with emergency angioplasty had significantly less severe residual coronary stenosis and exercise-induced periinfarct ischemia than did those treated with intracoronary streptokinase. These results suggest further application of coronary angioplasty in the management of acute myocardial infarction

  12. Effects of Single Bouts of Walking Exercise and Yoga on Acute Mood Symptoms in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensari, Ipek; Sandroff, Brian M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the acute or immediate effects of walking exercise and yoga on mood in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). Such an examination is important for identifying an exercise modality for inclusion in exercise-training interventions that yields mood benefits in MS. We examined the effects of single bouts of treadmill walking and yoga compared with a quiet, seated-rest control condition on acute mood symptoms in MS. Methods: Twenty-four participants with MS completed 20 minutes of treadmill walking, yoga, or quiet rest in a randomized, counterbalanced order with 1 week between sessions. Participants completed the Profile of Mood States questionnaire before and immediately after each condition. Total mood disturbance (TMD) and the six subscales of the Profile of Mood States were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired-samples t tests. Results: There was a significant condition × time interaction on TMD scores (ηp2 = 0.13). Walking and yoga conditions yielded comparable reductions in TMD scores. There was a significant condition × time interaction on vigor (ηp2 = 0.23) whereby walking but not yoga yielded an improvement in vigor. There was a significant main effect of time on anger, confusion, depression, and tension (P improvements in overall acute mood symptoms, and walking improved feelings of vigor. These effects should be further investigated in long-term exercise-training studies. PMID:26917992

  13. The impact of acute aerobic exercise on chitinase 3-like protein 1 and intelectin-1 expression in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Slusher, Aaron L; Whitehurst, Michael; Wells, Marie; Maharaj, Arun; Shibata, Yoshimi

    2016-01-01

    Chitinase 3-like 1 (CHI3L1) and intelectin 1 (ITLN-1) recognize microbial N-acetylglucosamine polymer and galactofuranosyl carbohydrates, respectively. Both lectins are highly abundant in plasma and seem to play pro- and anti-inflammatory roles, respectively, in obesity and inflammatory-related illnesses. The aim of this study was to examine whether plasma levels of these lectins in obese subjects are useful for monitoring inflammatory conditions immediately influenced by acute aerobic exercise. Plasma interleukin-6, a pro-inflammatory cytokine, was also examined. Twenty-two (11 obese and 11 normal-weight) healthy subjects, ages 18-30 years, were recruited to perform a 30 min bout of acute aerobic exercise at 75% VO2max. We confirmed higher baseline levels of plasma CHI3L1, but lower ITLN-1, in obese subjects than in normal-weight subjects. The baseline levels of CHI3L1 were negatively correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness (relative VO2max). However, when controlled for BMI, the relationship between baseline level of CHI3L1 and relative VO2max was no longer observed. While acute aerobic exercise elicited an elevation in these parameters, we found a lower ITLN-1 response in obese subjects compared to normal-weight subjects. Our study clearly indicates that acute aerobic exercise elicits a pro-inflammatory response (e.g. CHI3L1) with a lower anti-inflammatory effect (e.g. ITLN-1) in obese individuals. Furthermore, these lectins could be predictors of outcome of exercise interventions in obesity-associated inflammation. © 2015 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  14. The influence of acute resistance exercise on cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 activity and protein levels in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Chad C; O'Connor, Devin T; Steinmeyer, Robert; Del Mundo, Jonathon D; McMullan, David R; Whitt, Jamie A; Ramos, Jahir E; Gonzales, Rayna J

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the activity and content of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 in response to acute resistance exercise (RE) in human skeletal muscle. Previous work suggests that COX-1, but not COX-2, is the primary COX isoform elevated with resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. COX activity, however, has not been assessed after resistance exercise in humans. It was hypothesized that RE would increase COX-1 but not COX-2 activity. Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis of nine young men (25 ± 1 yr) at baseline (preexercise), 4, and 24 h after a single bout of knee extensor RE (three sets of 10 repetitions at 70% of maximum). Tissue lysate was assayed for COX-1 and COX-2 activity. COX-1 and COX-2 protein levels were measured via Western blot analysis. COX-1 activity increased at 4 h (P 0.05) with acute RE. In contrast, COX-2 protein levels were nearly 3-fold greater (P > 0.05) at 4 h and 5-fold greater (P = 0.06) at 24 h, compared with preexercise. In conclusion, COX-1 activity increases transiently with exercise independent of COX-1 protein levels. In contrast, both COX-2 activity and protein levels were elevated with exercise, and this elevation persisted to at least 24 h after RE.

  15. Conducting an acute intense interval exercise session during the Ramadan fasting month: what is the optimal time of the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Chia, Michael Yong Hwa; Low, Chee Yong; Slater, Gary John; Png, Weileen; Teh, Kong Chuan

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the effects of Ramadan fasting on performance during an intense exercise session performed at three different times of the day, i.e., 08:00, 18:00, and 21:00 h. The purpose was to determine the optimal time of the day to perform an acute high-intensity interval exercise during the Ramadan fasting month. After familiarization, nine trained athletes performed six 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) cycle bouts followed by a time-to-exhaustion (T(exh)) cycle on six separate randomized and counterbalanced occasions. The three time-of-day nonfasting (control, CON) exercise sessions were performed before the Ramadan month, and the three corresponding time-of-day Ramadan fasting (RAM) exercise sessions were performed during the Ramadan month. Note that the 21:00 h session during Ramadan month was conducted in the nonfasted state after the breaking of the day's fast. Total work (TW) completed during the six WAnT bouts was significantly lower during RAM compared to CON for the 08:00 and 18:00 h (p effect size [d] = .55 [small] and .39 [small], respectively) sessions, but not for the 21:00 h (p = .03, d = .18 [trivial]) session. The T(exh) cycle duration was significantly shorter during RAM than CON in the 18:00 (p Ramadan fasting had a small to moderate, negative impact on quality of performance during an acute high-intensity exercise session, particularly during the period of the daytime fast. The optimal time to conduct an acute high-intensity exercise session during the Ramadan fasting month is in the evening, after the breaking of the day's fast.

  16. Effects of Pregnancy on Responses to Exercise Above and Below the Ventilatory Anaerobic THreshold

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wolfe, Larry

    1999-01-01

    ... vent). Results from Study #1 support the hypothesis that cardiac vagal/parasympathetic modulation is reduced in the resting state and that sympathoadrenal modulation is blunted during strenuous exercise above T to the vent in late gestation...

  17. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  18. The emerging role of exercise and health counseling in patients with acute leukemia undergoing chemotherapy during outpatient management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarden, Mary; Adamsen, Lis; Kjeldsen, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the feasibility, safety and benefits of a 6-week exercise and health counseling intervention in patients with acute leukemia undergoing consolidation chemotherapy during outpatient management. Seventeen of twenty patients completed study requirements (85%), adherence...... to exercise was 73% and for health counseling 92%. There were improvements in the 6-min-walk-distance (p=0.0013), sit-to-stand test (p=0.0062), the right and left biceps arm-curl tests p=0.0002 and p=0.0002, respectively; health-related quality of life (p=0.0209) (FACT-An), vitality (p=0.0015), mental health...

  19. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute kicking exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle in humans, but it is not known if this relates to increased collagen transcription and if other matrix genes are regulated. Young men performed 1 h of one-leg kicking at 67% of max workload. Biopsies were taken from...... the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...

  20. The effects of acute exercise on attentional bias towards smoking-related stimuli during temporary abstinence from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim

    2009-11-01

    Attentional bias towards smoking-related cues is increased during abstinence and can predict relapse after quitting. Exercise has been found to reduce cigarette cravings and desire to smoke during temporary abstinence and attenuate increased cravings in response to smoking cues. To assess the acute effects of exercise on attentional bias to smoking-related cues during temporary abstinence from smoking. In a randomized cross-over design, on separate days regular smokers (n = 20) undertook 15 minutes of exercise (moderate intensity stationary cycling) or passive seating following 15 hours of nicotine abstinence. Attentional bias was measured at baseline and post-treatment. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixation was assessed during the passive viewing of a series of paired smoking and neutral images using an Eyelink II eye-tracking system. Self-reported desire to smoke was recorded at baseline, mid- and post-treatment and post-eye-tracking task. There was a significant condition x time interaction for desire to smoke, F((1,18)) = 10.67, P = 0.004, eta(2) = 0.36, with significantly lower desire to smoke at mid- and post-treatment following the exercise condition. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixations towards smoking images were also reduced significantly following the exercise condition compared with the passive control. Findings support previous research that acute exercise reduces desire to smoke. This is the first study to show that exercise appears to also influence the salience and attentional biases towards cigarettes.

  1. Treatment of dyslipidemia with statins and physical exercises: recent findings of skeletal muscle responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; do Amaral, Sandra Lia; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-04-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords "statin" AND "exercise" AND "muscle", restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.

  2. Non-allergic activation of eosinophils after strenuous endurance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To determine the effect of prolonged endurance exercise on the serum concentrations of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), immunoglobulin E (IgE) and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URTS). Design. In 11 healthy, experienced volunteers (6 males, 5 females, age 43 ± 9.8 years) the serum concentrations of ...

  3. The Acute Effect of Local Vibration As a Recovery Modality from Exercise-Induced Increased Muscle Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hervé Pournot, Jérémy Tindel, Rodolphe Testa, Laure Mathevon, Thomas Lapole

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise involving eccentric muscle contractions is known to decrease range of motion and increase passive muscle stiffness. This study aimed at using ultrasound shear wave elastography to investigate acute changes in biceps brachii passive stiffness following intense barbell curl exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions. The effect of local vibration (LV as a recovery modality from exercise-induced increased stiffness was further investigated. Eleven subjects performed 4 bouts of 10 bilateral barbell curl movements at 70% of the one-rep maximal flexion force. An arm-to-arm comparison model was then used with one arm randomly assigned to the passive recovery condition and the other arm assigned to the LV recovery condition (10 min of 55-Hz vibration frequency and 0.9-mm amplitude. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus measurements were performed prior to exercise (PRE, immediately after exercise (POST-EX and 5 min after the recovery period (POST-REC. Biceps brachii shear elastic modulus was significantly increased at POST-EX (+53 ± 48%; p < 0.001 and POST-REC (+31 ± 46%; p = 0.025 when compared to PRE. No differences were found between passive and LV recovery (p = 0.210. LV as a recovery strategy from exercise-induced increased muscle stiffness was not beneficial, probably due to an insufficient mechanical action of vibrations.

  4. No Evidence of Racial Differences in Endothelial Function and Exercise Blood Flow in Young, Healthy Males Following Acute Antioxidant Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Rosenberg, Alexander J; Fernhall, Bo

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute antioxidant supplementation on endothelial function, exercise blood flow and oxidative stress biomarkers in 9 young African American compared to 10 Caucasian males (25.7±1.2 years). We hypothesized that African American males would have lower exercise blood flow and endothelial responsiveness compared to Caucasian males, and these responses would be improved following antioxidant supplementation. Ultrasonography was used to measure blood flow during handgrip exercise. Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation, and lipid peroxidation was assessed by measuring levels of malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. African American males exhibited lower endothelial function than Caucasians at baseline (8.3±1.7 vs. 12.2±1.7%) and the difference was ameliorated with antioxidant supplementation (10.7±1.9% vs. 10.8±1.8%), but the interaction was not significant (p=0.10). There were no significant changes in malondialdehyde-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances following antioxidant supplementation. There was a significant increase in brachial blood flow and forearm vascular conductance with exercise but no differences with antioxidant supplementation. There were no group differences in exercise responses and no differences with antioxidant supplementation, suggesting a lack of influence of oxidative stress during exercise in this cohort. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Acute effects of Resistance exercise performed on ladder on energy metabolism, stress, and muscle damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Oliveira Silvestre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS To evaluate the acute effects of a resistance exercise session performed on ladder on energy metabolism, stress, and muscle damage in rats. METHODS Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in Exercise (E (n=30 and Control (C (n = 20 groups. The E group performed a resistance exercise session on a vertical ladder with weights on their tails. Blood samples were collected at rest and after each climb to analyze lactate levels and ten minutes after the last climb to analyze lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, and corticosterone levels. RESULTS Blood lactate levels remained stable during exercise. Serum corticosterone, blood glucose, LDH and CK levels increased and glycogen content decreased in the E group, when compared to the C group. CONCLUSION These results suggest that resistance exercise performed on ladder is a model of high-intensity exercise. However, the stabilization of lactate during the session suggests that the aerobic metabolism is an important factor during the intervals between climbs.

  6. Pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise and training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høier, Birgitte; Nordsborg, Nikolai; Andersen, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of acute exercise and 4 weeks of aerobic training on skeletal muscle gene and protein expression of pro- and anti-angiogenic factors in 14 young male subjects. Training consisted of 60 min of cycling (~ 60% of VO2 max), 3 times/week. Biopsies were obtained from m. v....... lateralis before and after training. Muscle interstitial fluid was collected during cycling at week 0 and 4. Training increased (P ... to acute exercise increased similarly (>6-fold; P training. Resting protein levels of soluble VEGF receptor-1 in interstitial fluid, and of VEGF, Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) and Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in muscle, were unaffected by training, whereas e...

  7. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on response preparation in a Go/No Go Task in children with ADHD: An ERP study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan-Ya Chuang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that acute exercise may benefit children with ADHD by developing appropriate response preparation, particularly in maintaining a stable motor preparatory set prior to performing the given task.

  8. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  9. Influence of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation during exercise-heat stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawka, M.N.; Gonzalez, R.R.; Dennis, R.C.; Young, A.J.; Muza, S.R.; Martin, J.W.; Francesconi, R.P.; Pandolf, K.B.; Valeri, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    We studied the effects of acute erythrocythemia on temperature regulation responses during exercise in the heat. In a double blind study, 6 subjects (Ss) received a 700-ml solution of autologous red blood cells at a 60% Hct, and 3 Ss (control) received a 700-ml saline solution. All Ss attempted a Heat Stress Test (HST) two weeks prior to and 48-h post-transfusion during summer months. After 30 min of rest in a 20 0 C antechamber, the HST consisted of a 120-min exposure (two repeats of 15-min rest and 45-min treadmill walk) in a 35 0 C, 45% rh environment while euhydrated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max) and red cell volume (RCV, 51 Cr) were measured approximately 24 h before each HST. For experimental Ss, an increase in RCV (11%, P 2 max (11%, P < 0.05) was found following transfusion, whereas, differences were not observed in the control Ss. During the HSTs for experimental Ss, metabolic rate as well as steady state rectal and esophageal temperatures were similar, but heat storage tended (P = 0.13) to be lower post-transfusion. Steady state local arm (R + C) was reduced (P < 0.05) with no change in total body sweating rate or local arm evaporative heat loss post-transfusion. For control Ss, thermoregulatory responses were generally not altered post-transfusion. Erythrocythemia may improve steady state sensible heat exchange by allowing a greater volume of blood to be directed to the cutaneous vasculature

  10. Preterm birth and oxidative stress: Effects of acute physical exercise and hypoxia physiological responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès Martin

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth is a global health issue that can induce lifelong medical sequela. Presently, at least one in ten newborns are born prematurely. At birth, preterm newborns exhibit higher levels of oxidative stress (OS due to the inability to face the oxygen rich environment in which they are born into. Moreover, their immature respiratory, digestive, immune and antioxidant defense systems, as well as the potential numerous medical interventions following a preterm birth, such as oxygen resuscitation, nutrition, phototherapy and blood transfusion further contribute to high levels of OS. Although the acute effects seem well established, little is known regarding the long-term effects of preterm birth on OS. This matter is especially important given that chronically elevated OS levels may persist into adulthood and consequently contribute to the development of numerous non-communicable diseases observed in people born preterm such as diabetes, hypertension or lung disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current knowledge regarding the consequences of preterm birth on OS levels from newborn to adulthood. In addition, the effects of physical activity and hypoxia, both known to disrupt redox balance, on OS modulation in preterm individuals are also explored. Keywords: Reactive oxygen species, Antioxidants, Prematurity, Physical exercise, Hypoxia

  11. Cerebrovascular blood oxygenation level dependent pulsatility at baseline and following acute exercise among healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theyers, Athena E; Goldstein, Benjamin I; Metcalfe, Arron Ws; Robertson, Andrew D; MacIntosh, Bradley J

    2018-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is linked to cerebral small vessel damage and neurodegeneration, but barriers to accessing deep cerebrovascular anatomy limit our ability to assess the brain. This study describes an adaptation of a cardiac-related scrubbing method as a means of generating blood oxygenation level-dependent pulsatility maps based on the cardiac cycle. We examine BOLD pulsatility at rest, based on the non-parametric deviation from null metric, as well as changes following acute physiological stress from 20 min of moderate-intensity cycling in 45 healthy adolescents. We evaluate the influence of repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) using simulated and multi-echo empirical data, respectively. There were tissue-specific and voxel-wise BOLD pulsatility decreases 20 min following exercise cessation. BOLD pulsatility detection was comparable over a range of TR and TE values when scan volumes were kept constant; however, short TRs (≤500 ms) and TEs (∼14 ms) acquisitions would yield the most efficient detection. Results suggest cardiac-related BOLD pulsatility may represent a robust and easily adopted method of mapping cerebrovascular pulsatility with voxel-wise resolution.

  12. On the mechanisms that limit oxygen uptake during exercise in acute and chronic hypoxia: role of muscle mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, José A L; Rådegran, Göran; Boushel, Robert

    2009-01-01

    (dye dilution with Cardio-green), leg blood flow (thermodilution), intra-arterial blood pressure and femoral arterial-to-venous differences in blood gases were determined in nine lowlanders studied during incremental exercise using a large (two-legged cycle ergometer exercise: Bike) and a small (one...... altitude acclimatization. Acclimatization improved Bike peak exercise Pa,O2 from 34 +/- 1 in AH to 45 +/- 1 mmHg in CH(P Bike. Acute hypoxia resulted in reduction...... of systemic O2 delivery (46 and 21%) and leg O2 delivery (47 and 26%) during Bike and Knee, respectively, almost matching the corresponding reduction in VO2,peak. Altitude acclimatization restored fully peak systemic and leg O(2) delivery in CH (2.69 +/- 0.27 and 1.28 +/- 0.11 l min(-1), respectively) to sea...

  13. Acute intraperitoneal injection of caffeine improves endurance exercise performance in association with increasing brain dopamine release during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xinyan; Takatsu, Satomi; Wang, Hongli; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine changes of thermoregulation, neurotransmitters in the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH), which is the thermoregulatory center, and endurance exercise performance after the intraperitoneal injection of caffeine in rats. Core body temperature (Tcore), oxygen consumption (VO₂) and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. A microdialysis probe was inserted in the PO/AH, and samples for the measurements of extracellular dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5-HT) levels were collected. During the rest experiment, 1 h after baseline collections in the chamber (23 °C), the rats were intraperitoneally injected with saline, or 3 mg kg(-1) or 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine. The duration of the test was 4 h. During the exercise experiment, baseline collections on the treadmill were obtained for 1 h. One hour before the start of exercise, rats were intraperitoneally injected with either 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine (CAF) or saline (SAL). Animals ran until fatigue at a speed of 18 m min(-1), at a 5% grade, on the treadmill in a normal environment (23 °C). At rest, 3 mg kg(-1) caffeine did not influence Tcore, Ttail, VO₂, extracellular DA, NA and 5-HT. 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine caused significant increases in Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. In addition, 10 mg kg(-1) caffeine increased the run time to fatigue (SAL: 104.4 ± 30.9 min, CAF: 134.0 ± 31.1 min, pcaffeine and exercise increased Tcore, VO₂, Ttail and extracellular DA in the PO/AH. NA increased during exercise, while neither caffeine nor exercise changed 5-HT. These results indicate that caffeine has ergogenic and hyperthermic effects, and these effects may be related to changes of DA release in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on exercise performance and muscle strength in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Kalsen, Anders; Auchenberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to investigate effects of acute and 2-week administration of oral salbutamol on repeated sprint ability, exercise performance, and muscle strength in elite endurance athletes. Twenty male elite athletes [VO2max : 69.4 ± 1.8 (Mean ± SE) mL/min/kg], aged 25.9 ± 1.4 years, were....... deltoideus were measured, followed by three repeated Wingate tests. Exercise performance at 110% of VO2max was determined on a bike ergometer. Acute administration of salbutamol increased peak power during first Wingate test by 4.1 ± 1.7% (P ....05) peak power during first and second Wingate test by 6.4 ± 2.0 and 4.2 ± 1.0%. Neither acute nor 2-week administration of salbutamol had any effect on MVC, exercise performance at 110% of VO2max or on isometric endurance. No differences were observed in the placebo group. In conclusion, salbutamol...

  15. Experimental Effects of Acute Exercise on Iconic Memory, Short-Term Episodic, and Long-Term Episodic Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Danielle; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-11

    The present experiment evaluated the effects of acute exercise on iconic memory and short- and long-term episodic memory. A two-arm, parallel-group randomized experiment was employed ( n = 20 per group; M age = 21 year). The experimental group engaged in an acute bout of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise for 15 min, while the control group engaged in a seated, time-matched computer task. Afterwards, the participants engaged in a paragraph-level episodic memory task (20 min delay and 24 h delay recall) as well as an iconic memory task, which involved 10 trials (at various speeds from 100 ms to 800 ms) of recalling letters from a 3 × 3 array matrix. For iconic memory, there was a significant main effect for time (F = 42.9, p memory scores at both the baseline (19.22 vs. 17.20) and follow-up (18.15 vs. 15.77), but these results were not statistically significant. These findings provide some suggestive evidence hinting towards an iconic memory and episodic benefit from acute exercise engagement.

  16. Acute and chronic effects of sprint interval exercise on postprandial lipemia in women at-risk for the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freese, Eric C; Gist, Nicholas H; Acitelli, Rachelle M; McConnell, Whitni J; Beck, Catherine D; Hausman, Dorothy B; Murrow, Jonathan R; Cureton, Kirk J; Evans, Ellen M

    2015-04-01

    Individuals diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) exhibit elevated postprandial lipemia (PPL). The aims of this investigation were to determine 1) if an acute bout of sprint interval training (SIT) attenuates PPL; and 2) if the attenuation of PPL following 6 wk of SIT is magnified compared with a single session of SIT prior to training in women at-risk for MetS (n = 45; 30-65 yr). Women were randomized to SIT (n = 22) or a nonexercise control (n = 23; CON) for 6 wk. Postprandial responses to a high-fat meal challenge (HFMC) were assessed in the CON group before (B-HFMC) and after (Post-HFMC) without prior exercise and in the SIT group at baseline (B-HFMC) without prior exercise, after an acute bout of SIT (four 30-s all-out sprints with 4-min recovery) prior to (Pre-HFMC), and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC). Responses to the HFMC were assessed by collecting venous blood samples in the fasted state and at 0, 30, 60, 120, and 180 min postprandial. Compared with baseline, an acute bout of SIT before (Pre-HFMC) and after the 6-wk intervention (Post-HFMC) significantly attenuated fasted TG (P exercise to reduce fasted and postprandial TG concentrations in women at-risk for MetS. Six weeks of SIT does not magnify the attenuation of PPL in response to a single session of SIT. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Experimental Effects of Acute Exercise on Iconic Memory, Short-Term Episodic, and Long-Term Episodic Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Yanes

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment evaluated the effects of acute exercise on iconic memory and short- and long-term episodic memory. A two-arm, parallel-group randomized experiment was employed (n = 20 per group; Mage = 21 year. The experimental group engaged in an acute bout of moderate-intensity treadmill exercise for 15 min, while the control group engaged in a seated, time-matched computer task. Afterwards, the participants engaged in a paragraph-level episodic memory task (20 min delay and 24 h delay recall as well as an iconic memory task, which involved 10 trials (at various speeds from 100 ms to 800 ms of recalling letters from a 3 × 3 array matrix. For iconic memory, there was a significant main effect for time (F = 42.9, p < 0.001, η2p = 0.53 and a trend towards a group × time interaction (F = 2.90, p = 0.09, η2p = 0.07, but no main effect for group (F = 0.82, p = 0.37, η2p = 0.02. The experimental group had higher episodic memory scores at both the baseline (19.22 vs. 17.20 and follow-up (18.15 vs. 15.77, but these results were not statistically significant. These findings provide some suggestive evidence hinting towards an iconic memory and episodic benefit from acute exercise engagement.

  18. Influence of acute high-intensity aerobic interval exercise bout on selective attention and short-term memory tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Christiano R R; Tessaro, Victor H; Teixeira, Luis A C; Murakava, Karina; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-02-01

    Acute moderate intensity continuous aerobic exercise can improve specific cognitive functions, such as short-term memory and selective attention. Moreover, high-intensity interval training (HIT) has been recently proposed as a time-efficient alternative to traditional cardiorespiratory exercise. However, considering previous speculations that the exercise intensity affects cognition in a U-shaped fashion, it was hypothesized that a HIT session may impair cognitive performance. Therefore, this study assessed the effects of an acute HIT session on selective attention and short-term memory tasks. 22 healthy middle-aged individuals (M age = 53.7 yr.) engaged in both (1) a HIT session, 10 1 min. cycling bouts at the intensity corresponding to 80% of the reserve heart rate interspersed by 1 min. active pauses cycling at 60% of the reserve heart rate and (2) a control session, consisting of an active condition with low-intensity active stretching exercise. Before and after each experimental session, cognitive performance was assessed by the Victoria Version of the Stroop test (a selective attention test) and the Digit Span test (a short-term memory test). Following the HIT session, the time to complete the Stroop "Color word" test was significantly lower when compared with that of the control session. The performances in the other subtasks of the Stroop test as well as in the Digit Span test were not significantly different. A HIT session can improve cognitive function.

  19. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg∙kg⁻¹) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg∙kg⁻¹) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness and cerebrovascular pulsatility in adults with and without hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefferts, Wesley K; DeBlois, Jacob P; Receno, Candace N; Barreira, Tiago V; Brutsaert, Tom D; Carhart, Robert L; Heffernan, Kevin S

    2018-04-19

    Stiffer central arteries, as seen in hypertension (HTN), foster transmission of pulsatile hemodynamics into fragile cerebral vessels. Aerobic exercise is recommended for adults with HTN, but its effects on arterial stiffness and pulsatility in this group are unclear. This study sought to investigate the effect of acute aerobic exercise on arterial stiffness and cerebrovascular pulsatility in 30 adults with treated HTN and 30 age, sex, and BMI-matched adults without HTN (56 ± 6 years, BMI 28.2 ± 2.9 kg/m; 28 women). Patients underwent hemodynamic measures before/after 30-min cycling (≈55% peak oxygen consumption). Aortic stiffness was measured using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, and carotid artery stiffness was assessed with β-stiffness via ultrasound. Aortic/carotid pulse pressure (aortic via radial generalized transfer function) was measured by tonometry and calibrated to brachial mean pressure and diastolic pressure. Carotid/middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood velocity pulsatility indices were measured using Doppler. Carotid wave intensity analysis was used to derive forward wave intensity (W1). Exercise impacted hemodynamics similarly in HTN compared to no-HTN. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity, MCA pulsatility index, carotid pulsatility index, and W1 increased similarly after exercise in both groups (P < 0.05). Carotid pulse pressure and β-stiffness were unaltered after exercise. Postexercise changes in W1 were positively associated with carotid pulsatility index, which was further associated with MCA pulsatility index. These data suggest adults with treated HTN experience similar increases in aortic stiffness and cerebrovascular hemodynamic pulsatility during early recovery from acute aerobic exercise as their counterparts without HTN.

  1. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  2. The Effect of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Myostastin in Healthy Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meysam Gholamali

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion Plasma Myostatin decreased significantly in the response to endurance exercise, in healthy elderly men. Presumably, according to the results of this study, prescription of endurance exercise may decrease Myostatin and subsequently sarcopenia in elderly people.

  3. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Lotringen, J.H. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact

  4. Effects of acute exercise on lipid content and dietary lipid uptake in liver and skeletal muscle of lean and diabetic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, Sharon; Jonkers, Richard A. M.; Groen, Albert K.; Nicolay, Klaas; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Prompers, Jeanine J.

    2015-01-01

    Insulin resistance is associated with ectopic lipid accumulation. Physical activity improves insulin sensitivity, but the impact of exercise on lipid handling in insulin-resistant tissues remains to be elucidated. The present study characterizes the effects of acute exercise on lipid content and

  5. The effects of acute and chronic exercise on inflammatory markers in children and adults with a chronic inflammatory disease: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Hilde E.; Takken, Tim; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Timmons, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases strike millions of people all over the world, and exercise is often prescribed for these patients to improve overall fitness and quality of life. In healthy individuals, acute and chronic exercise is known to alter inflammatory markers; however, less is known about

  6. The effects of acute and chronic exercise on inflammatory markers in children and adults with a chronic inflammatory disease : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Hilde E.; Takken, Tim; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Timmons, Brian W.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Chronic inflammatory diseases strike millions of people all over the world, and exercise is often prescribed for these patients to improve overall fitness and quality of life. In healthy individuals, acute and chronic exercise is known to alter inflammatory markers; however, less is

  7. Social support and social norms: do both contribute to predicting leisure-time exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okun, Morris A; Ruehlman, Linda; Karoly, Paul; Lutz, Rafer; Fairholme, Chris; Schaub, Rachel

    2003-01-01

    To clarify the contribution of social support and social norms to exercise behavior. A sample of 363 college students completed a questionnaire that assessed social support and social negativity from friends, descriptive and injunctive social norms related to friends, perceived behavioral control, attitude, intention, and leisure-time exercise. Esteem social support was the strongest predictor of total and strenuous leisure-time exercise (P leisure-time exercise. Social support and social norms contribute independently to our understanding of variation in the frequency of strenuous leisure-time exercise.

  8. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  9. An acute exercise session increases self-efficacy in sedentary endometrial cancer survivors and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Daniel; Baum, George; Jovanovic, Jennifer; Carmack, Cindy; Greisinger, Anthony; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2010-11-01

    Self-efficacy can be affected by mastery experiences and somatic sensations. A novel exercise experience and associated sensations may impact self-efficacy and subsequent behaviors. We investigated the effect of a single exercise session on self-efficacy for sedentary endometrial cancer survivors compared with sedentary women of a similar age, but with no cancer history. Twenty survivors and 19 controls completed an exercise session performed as a submaximal cycle ergometry test. Sensations and efficacy were measured before and after exercise. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. Regression models were used to determine predictors of self-efficacy and subsequent exercise. Self-efficacy increased for both survivors and controls, but survivors had a higher rate of increase, and the change predicted subsequent exercise. The association between exercise-related somatic sensations and self-efficacy differed between the 2 groups. A novel exercise experience had a larger effect on self-efficacy and subsequent exercise activity for endometrial cancer survivors than controls. Somatic sensations experienced during exercise may differ for survivors, which may be related to the experience of having cancer. Understanding factors affecting confidence in novel exercise experiences for populations with specific cancer histories is of the utmost importance in the adoption of exercise behaviors.

  10. Association of diet, exercise, and smoking modification with risk of early cardiovascular events after acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Clara K; Jolly, Sanjit; Rao-Melacini, Purnima; Fox, Keith A A; Anand, Sonia S; Yusuf, Salim

    2010-02-16

    Although preventive drug therapy is a priority after acute coronary syndrome, less is known about adherence to behavioral recommendations. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of adherence to behavioral recommendations in the short term on risk of cardiovascular events. The study population included 18 809 patients from 41 countries enrolled in the Organization to Assess Strategies in Acute Ischemic Syndromes (OASIS) 5 randomized clinical trial. At the 30-day follow-up, patients reported adherence to diet, physical activity, and smoking cessation. Cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiovascular death) and all-cause mortality were documented to 6 months. About one third of smokers persisted in smoking. Adherence to neither diet nor exercise recommendations was reported by 28.5%, adherence to either diet or exercise by 41.6%, and adherence to both by 29.9%. In contrast, 96.1% of subjects reported antiplatelet use, 78.9% reported statin use, and 72.4% reported angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker use. Quitting smoking was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction compared with persistent smoking (odds ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval, 0.36 to 0.89). Diet and exercise adherence was associated with a decreased risk of myocardial infarction compared with nonadherence (odds ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 0.69). Patients who reported persistent smoking and nonadherence to diet and exercise had a 3.8-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.5 to 5.9) increased risk of myocardial infarction/stroke/death compared with never smokers who modified diet and exercise. Adherence to behavioral advice (diet, exercise, and smoking cessation) after acute coronary syndrome was associated with a substantially lower risk of recurrent cardiovascular events. These findings suggest that behavioral modification should be given priority similar to other preventive medications immediately after acute coronary

  11. Acute citrulline malate supplementation improves upper- and lower-body submaximal weightlifting exercise performance in resistance-trained females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Jordan M; Gray, Michelle; Wethington, Lauren N; Stone, Matthew S; Stewart, Rodger W; Moyen, Nicole E

    2017-03-01

    Citrulline malate (CM) is a nonessential amino acid that increases exercise performance in males. However, based on physiological differences between genders, these results cannot be extrapolated to females. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to evaluate effects of acute CM supplementation on upper- and lower-body weightlifting performance in resistance-trained females. Fifteen females (23 ± 3 years) completed two randomized, double-blind trials consuming either CM (8 g dextrose + 8 g CM) or a placebo (8 g dextrose). One hour after supplement consumption, participants performed six sets each of upper- (i.e., bench press) and lower-body (i.e., leg press) exercises to failure at 80 % of previously established one-repetition maximum. Immediately after each set, repetitions completed, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded. Repeated-measures analysis of variance indicated that subjects completed significantly (p = .045) more repetitions throughout upper-body exercise when consuming CM versus placebo (34.1 ± 5.7 vs. 32.9 ± 6.0, respectively). When consuming CM, similar significant (p = .03) improvements in total repetitions completed were observed for lower-body exercise (66.7 ± 30.5 vs. 55.13 ± 20.64, respectively). Overall RPE score was significantly lower (p = .02) in upper-body exercise when subjects consumed CM versus placebo (7.9 ± 0.3 and 8.6 ± 0.2, respectively). The supplement consumed exhibited no significant effects on heart rate at any time point. Acute CM supplementation in females increased upper- and lower-body resistance exercise performance and decreased RPE during upper-body exercise. These data indicate that athletes competing in sports with muscular endurance-based requirements may potentially improve performance by acutely supplementing CM.

  12. Time-Dependent Effects of Acute Exercise on University Students’ Cognitive Performance in Temperate and Cold Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Yu Ji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Few studies have examined the acute exercise-induced changes in cognitive performance in different thermal environments and the time course effects.Objective: Investigate the time-dependent effects of acute exercise on university students’ processing speed, working memory and cognitive flexibility in temperate and cold environments.Method: Twenty male university students (age 23.5 ± 2.0 years with moderate physical activity level participated in a repeated-measures within-subjects design. Processing speed, working memory and cognitive flexibility were assessed using CogState test battery at baseline (BASE, followed by a 45-min rest (REST, immediately after (EX and 30 min after (POST-EX 30-min moderate-intensity treadmill running in both temperate (TEMP; 25°C and cold (COLD; 10°C environments. Mean skin temperature (MST and thermal sensation (TS were also recorded. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA was performed to analyze each variable. Spearman’s rho was used to identify the correlations between MST, TS and cognitive performance.Results: Reaction time (RT of processing speed and working memory decreased immediately after exercise in both conditions (processing speed: p = 0.003; working memory: p = 0.007. The facilitating effects on processing speed disappeared within 30 min after exercise in TEMP (p = 0.163 and COLD (p = 0.667, while improvements on working memory remained 30 min after exercise in TEMP (p = 0.047, but not in COLD (p = 0.663. Though RT of cognitive flexibility reduced in both conditions (p = 0.003, no significance was found between EX and REST (p = 0.135. Increased MST and TS were significantly associated with reductions in processing speed RT (MST: r = -0.341, p < 0.001; TS: r = -0.262, p = 0.001 and working memory RT (MST: r = -0.282, p < 0.001; TS: r = -0.2229, p = 0.005, and improvements in working memory accuracy (MST: r = 0.249, p = 0.002; TS: r = 0.255, p = 0.001.Conclusion: The results demonstrate

  13. Preliminary evidence that exercise dependence is associated with blunted cardiac and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Ginty, Annie T; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2011-02-01

    Low or blunted cardiovascular and cortisol reactions to acute psychological stress have been shown to characterise those with a tobacco or alcohol dependency. The present study tested the hypothesis that exercise dependency would be similarly associated with blunted reactivity. Young female exercisers (N=219) were screened by questionnaire for exercise dependence. Ten women with probable exercise dependence and 10 non dependent controls were selected for laboratory stress testing. Cardiovascular activity and salivary cortisol were measured at rest and in response to a 10-min mental arithmetic stress task. The exercise dependent women showed blunted cardiac reactions to the stress task and blunted cortisol at 10, 20, and 30 minute post stress exposure. These effects could not be accounted for in terms of group differences in stress task performance, nor could the cardiac effects be attributed to group differences in cardio-respiratory fitness. It would seem that low stress reactivity is characteristic of a wide range of dependencies, and is not confined to substance dependence. Our results offer further support for the hypothesis that blunted stress reactivity may be a peripheral marker of a central motivational dysregulation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective action of a hexane crude extract of Pterodon emarginatus fruits against oxidative and nitrosative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Patrícia P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of a hexane crude extract (HCE of Pterodon emarginatus on the oxidative and nitrosative stress induced in skeletal muscle, liver and brain of acutely exercised rats. Methods Adult male rats were subjected to acute exercise by standardized contractions of the tibialis anterior (TA muscle (100 Hz, 15 min and treated orally with the HCE (once or three times with a fixed dose of 498 mg/kg, before and after acute exercise. Serum creatine kinase activity was determined by a kinetic method and macrophage infiltration by histological analyses of TA muscle. Lipid peroxidation was measured as malondialdehyde (MDA levels. Nitric oxide production was evaluated by measuring nitrite formation, using Griess reagent, and nitrotyrosine was assessed by western blotting. Results Serum creatine kinase activities in the controls (111 U/L increased 1 h after acute exercise (443 U/L. Acute exercise also increased the infiltration of macrophages into TA muscle; lipid peroxidation levels in TA muscle (967%, liver (55.5% and brain (108.9%, as well as the nitrite levels by 90.5%, 30.7% and 60%, respectively. The pattern of nitrotyrosine formation was also affected by acute exercise. Treatment with HCE decreased macrophage infiltration, lipid peroxidation, nitrite production and nitrotyrosine levels to control values. Conclusion Acute exercise induced by functional electrical stimulation in rats resulted in increase in lipid peroxidation, nitrite and nitrotyrosine levels in brain, liver and skeletal muscle. The exercise protocol, that involved eccentric muscle contraction, also caused some muscle trauma, associated with over-exertion, leading to inflammation. The extract of P. emarginatus abolished most of these oxidative processes, thus confirming the high antioxidant activity of this oil which infusions are used in folk medicine against inflammatory processes.

  15. Post-exercise cold water immersion attenuates acute anabolic signalling and long-term adaptations in muscle to strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Llion A; Raastad, Truls; Markworth, James F; Figueiredo, Vandre C; Egner, Ingrid M; Shield, Anthony; Cameron-Smith, David; Coombes, Jeff S; Peake, Jonathan M

    2015-09-15

    We investigated functional, morphological and molecular adaptations to strength training exercise and cold water immersion (CWI) through two separate studies. In one study, 21 physically active men strength trained for 12 weeks (2 days per week), with either 10 min of CWI or active recovery (ACT) after each training session. Strength and muscle mass increased more in the ACT group than in the CWI group (P work (19%), type II muscle fibre cross-sectional area (17%) and the number of myonuclei per fibre (26%) increased in the ACT group (all P < 0.05), but not the CWI group. In another study, nine active men performed a bout of single-leg strength exercises on separate days, followed by CWI or ACT. Muscle biopsies were collected before and 2, 24 and 48 h after exercise. The number of satellite cells expressing neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) (10-30%) and paired box protein (Pax7) (20-50%) increased 24-48 h after exercise with ACT. The number of NCAM(+) satellite cells increased 48 h after exercise with CWI. NCAM(+) - and Pax7(+) -positive satellite cell numbers were greater after ACT than after CWI (P < 0.05). Phosphorylation of p70S6 kinase(Thr421/Ser424) increased after exercise in both conditions but was greater after ACT (P < 0.05). These data suggest that CWI attenuates the acute changes in satellite cell numbers and activity of kinases that regulate muscle hypertrophy, which may translate to smaller long-term training gains in muscle strength and hypertrophy. The use of CWI as a regular post-exercise recovery strategy should be reconsidered. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  16. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Rotta Bonfim

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.

  17. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta, E-mail: mrb-unesp@yahoo.com.br [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências da Motricidade, Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Estadual Paulista “Júlio de Mesquita Filho” (UNESP), Rio Claro, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle [Setor de Doenças Neuromusculares, Escola Paulista de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo (UNIFESP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz [Departamento de Educação Física, Faculdade de Ciências, UNESP, Bauru, SP (Brazil)

    2015-04-15

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible.

  18. Treatment of Dyslipidemia with Statins and Physical Exercises: Recent Findings of Skeletal Muscle Responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfim, Mariana Rotta; Oliveira, Acary Souza Bulle; Amaral, Sandra Lia do; Monteiro, Henrique Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Statin treatment in association with physical exercise practice can substantially reduce cardiovascular mortality risk of dyslipidemic individuals, but this practice is associated with myopathic event exacerbation. This study aimed to present the most recent results of specific literature about the effects of statins and its association with physical exercise on skeletal musculature. Thus, a literature review was performed using PubMed and SciELO databases, through the combination of the keywords “statin” AND “exercise” AND “muscle”, restricting the selection to original studies published between January 1990 and November 2013. Sixteen studies evaluating the effects of statins in association with acute or chronic exercises on skeletal muscle were analyzed. Study results indicate that athletes using statins can experience deleterious effects on skeletal muscle, as the exacerbation of skeletal muscle injuries are more frequent with intense training or acute eccentric and strenuous exercises. Moderate physical training, in turn, when associated to statins does not increase creatine kinase levels or pain reports, but improves muscle and metabolic functions as a consequence of training. Therefore, it is suggested that dyslipidemic patients undergoing statin treatment should be exposed to moderate aerobic training in combination to resistance exercises three times a week, and the provision of physical training prior to drug administration is desirable, whenever possible

  19. TO COMPARE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CRYOTHERAPY WITH EXERCISES VERSUS TAPING WITH EXERCISES IN TREATING ACUTE LATERAL ANKLE SPRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh; Ranganath; Sridhar; Rohit; Rajeev; Afrin

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is a common form of sport injuries and it is a leading cause of pain and disability in common man and sportsman worldwide. Rate of this injury is 1 per 10, 000 persons in common man whereas lateral ligament injuries account for 15 to 25% of all sports injuries. Lateral ankle sprains are one of the most common injuries sustained in sports and exercise activities. It is one of the most common soft tissue injury encountered in clinical practice. Compl...

  20. Maternal-fetal acute responses to two moderate-intensity exercise types: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jousilene de Sales Tavares

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective:  This study aims to compare maternal and fetal responses during two physical exercise types. Design:  A randomized clinical trial compared 120 pregnant women, gestational age of 35-37 weeks, 56 exercising on a stationary bicycle (Group A and 64 on a treadmill (Group B. Methods: Participants were monitored for three 20-minute phases: resting, exercise and recovery.  Fetal heart rate (FHR and maternal heart rate (MHR were monitored.  Glucose and lactate levels were evaluated at rest and during exercise. Results:  After the beginning of exercise, maximum lactate (L levels were reached at 20 minutes and never exceeded 4 mmol/l.  FHR decreased by 22 bpm during exercise in relation to resting values, irrespective of the exercise type (p0.05, increasing at 20’ to 32% and 40.6%, respectively, (p>0.05.  The FHR decrease during exercise was accompanied by a simultaneous increase in its variability (p<0.001, nevertheless a rapid return to resting values was observed shortly after exercise end.  Glucose decreased in both groups irrespective of the exercise type (85 mg/dl at rest; 79 mg/dl during exercise and 81 mg/dl during recovery; p<0.001. There were no hypoglycemia cases. Conclusions: FHR variability increase and the rapid return to resting values after exercise suggests that the FHR fall and the presence of bradycardia during exercise is the fetal physiologic response to blood flow redistribution, with maintenance of fetal well-being. Key-words: Exercise; fetal heart rate; glucose; maternal heart rate; pregnancy Clinical Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01383889.

  1. Alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students: A longitudinal test of 2 explanatory models of health behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Heather A; Riley, Elizabeth N; Smith, Gregory T; Milich, Richard; Burris, Jessica L

    2017-01-01

    To help clarify the effect of gender on the bidirectional relationship between alcohol use and strenuous physical activity in college students. Five hundred twenty-four (52% female) college students recruited in August 2008 and 2009 and followed up in April 2009 and April 2011, respectively. Participants reported their alcohol use and strenuous physical activity on 2 occasions (baseline and follow-up) spaced approximately 1 or 2 years apart. For females, alcohol use quantity at baseline was associated with increased strenuous physical activity at 1- and 2-year follow-ups, and alcohol use frequency at baseline was associated with decreased strenuous physical activity at 2-year follow-up. For males, alcohol use frequency at baseline predicted decreased strenuous physical activity at 1-year follow-up. Gender differences may be explained from an eating disorders perspective such that women use physical activity as a compensatory strategy to combat potential weight gain from calories consumed during alcohol use.

  2. The Band Effect – physically strenuous music making increases aesthetic appreciation of music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Hans Fritz

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aesthetic appreciation of music is strongly influenced by cultural background and personal taste. One would expect that this would complicate the utilizability of musical feedback in paradigms, such that music would only be perceived as a reward if it complies to personal aesthetic appreciation. Here we report data where we assessed aesthetic appreciation of music after 1. a physically strenuous music improvisation and 2. after passive music listening (where participants aesthetically assessed similar music. Data are reported from two experiments where different patient groups performed Jymmin, a music feedback method where exercise equipment is modified in such a way that it can be played like musical instruments by modulating musical parameters in a composition software. This combines physical exertion with musical performance in a fashion that has previously been shown to have a number of positive psychological effects such as enhanced mood and reduced perceived exertion. In both experiments aesthetic appreciation of musical presentations during Jymmin and a control condition without musical agency were compared. Data show that both patient groups perceived the musical outcome of their own performance as more aesthetically pleasing than similar music they listened to passively. This suggests that the act of making music (when combined with physical exertion is associated with a positivity bias about the perceived aesthetical quality of the musical outcome. The outcome of personal musical agency thus tends to be perceived as rewarding even if it does not comply with personal aesthetic appreciation. This suggests that musical feedback interventions may not always have to be highly individualized because individual taste may not always be crucial. The results also suggest that the method applied here may be efficient at encouraging music listeners to actively explore new musical styles that they might otherwise be reluctant to listen to (e

  3. Paraventricular hypothalamic adrenoceptors and energy metabolism in exercising rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, Anton J.W.; Steffens, Anton B.; Gaykema, Ron P.A.

    The role of adrenoceptors in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the exercise-induced changes in plasma norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), corticosterone, free fatty acids (FFA), and blood glucose was investigated in rats. Exercise consisted of strenuous swimming against a countercurrent for 15

  4. Cerebral oxygenation is reduced during hyperthermic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nybo, Lars; Volianitis, S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension (P(mito)O(2)) is elevated during moderate exercise, while it is reduced when exercise becomes strenuous, reflecting an elevated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)) combined with hyperventilation-induced attenuation of cerebral blood flo...

  5. Acute Effect of Virtual Reality Exercise Bike Games on College Students' Physiological and Psychological Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Nan; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2017-07-01

    Commercially available virtual reality (VR) exercise systems are extensively used in many health domains among clinical populations. However, evidence regarding the efficacy of this technology on healthy adults' health-related outcomes is unknown. This pilot study compared physiological and psychological responses following exercise on a VR-based exercise bike (VirZoom) and traditional stationary exercise bike. Twelve healthy college students (9 females; M age  = 25.01, SD = ± 4.74; M BMI  = 22.84, SD = ± 3.68) completed two separate 20-minute exercise sessions on the VR-based exercise bike and traditional stationary exercise bike. Blood pressure (BP), ratings of perceived exertion, self-efficacy, and enjoyment were assessed as primary outcomes. Dependent t-tests indicated no significant differences in mean systolic or diastolic BP changes from pre to postexercise between the VR-based exercise and traditional stationary biking sessions (all p > 0.05). Notably, participants reported significantly higher ratings of perceived exertion (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = 0.68) during the traditional exercise biking session compared with VR-based exercise biking session. However, participants had significantly higher self-efficacy (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.83) and enjoyment (p < 0.05, Cohen's d = -0.89) during the VR-based exercise biking session compared with traditional stationary biking. The commercially available VR-based exercise bike (VirZoom) may be considered an effective, enjoyable, and motivating physical activity tool. Further interventions with larger and more diverse samples and examinations of more health-related outcomes are warranted to determine optimal application of VR-based exercise programming among various populations.

  6. Differential effects of acute and regular physical exercise on cognition and affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, M E; Davis, F C; Vantieghem, M R; Whalen, P J; Bucci, D J

    2012-07-26

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either (a) a 4-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, (b) a 4-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, (c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or (d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for 4 weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. Copyright © 2012 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Differential Effects of Acute and Regular Physical Exercise on Cognition and Affect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Davis, F. Caroline; VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Whalen, Paul J.; Bucci, David J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of regular exercise versus a single bout of exercise on cognition, anxiety, and mood were systematically examined in healthy, sedentary young adults who were genotyped to determine brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) allelic status (i.e., Val-Val or Val66Met polymorphism). Participants were evaluated on novel object recognition (NOR) memory and a battery of mental health surveys before and after engaging in either a) a four-week exercise program, with exercise on the final test day, b) a four-week exercise program, without exercise on the final test day, c) a single bout of exercise on the final test day, or d) remaining sedentary between test days. Exercise enhanced object recognition memory and produced a beneficial decrease in perceived stress, but only in participants who exercised for four weeks including the final day of testing. In contrast, a single bout of exercise did not affect recognition memory and resulted in increased perceived stress levels. An additional novel finding was that the improvements on the NOR task were observed exclusively in participants who were homozygous for the BDNF Val allele, indicating that altered activity-dependent release of BDNF in Met allele carriers may attenuate the cognitive benefits of exercise. Importantly, exercise-induced changes in cognition were not correlated with changes in mood/anxiety, suggesting that separate neural systems mediate these effects. These data in humans mirror recent data from our group in rodents. Taken together, these current findings provide new insights into the behavioral and neural mechanisms that mediate the effects of physical exercise on memory and mental health in humans. PMID:22554780

  8. Effect of broccoli extract enriched diet on liver cholesterol oxidation in rats subjected to exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardenia, Vladimiro; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Lorenzini, Antonello; Bandini, Erika; Angeloni, Cristina; Hrelia, Silvana; Malaguti, Marco

    2017-05-01

    The effect of broccoli extract (BE)-enriched diet was studied in order to evaluate its ability to counteract liver cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) induced by acute strenuous exercise in rats. Thirty-two female Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: control diet without exercise (C), BE-enriched diet without exercise (B), control diet with acute exhaustive exercise (S) and BE-enriched diet with acute exhaustive exercise (BS). The study lasted 45days and on the last day, rats of S and BS groups were forced to run until exhaustion on a treadmill. Glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were determined in liver. Exhaustive exercise was clearly responsible for tissue damage, as evidenced by the increase of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) plasma activity in the S group. Moreover, the exercise protocol reduced CAT activity in liver, while it did not affect GST, GR and GPx. BE-enriched diet raised GST, GR and CAT activities in rats of BS group. The main COPs found were 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, cholestanetriol, 24-hydroxycholesterol and 27-hydroxycholesterol. The BE-enriched diet led to reduced cholesterol oxidation following exhaustive exercise; the highest level of COPs was found in the S group, whereas the BS rats showed the lowest amount. This study indicates that the BE-enriched diet increases antioxidant enzyme activities and exerts an antioxidant effect towards cholesterol oxidation in rat liver, suggesting the use of phytochemicals in the prevention of oxidative damage and in the modulation of the redox environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Energy intake over 2 days is unaffected by acute sprint interval exercise despite increased appetite and energy expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Olver, T Dylan; Abbott, Kolten C; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A cumulative effect of reduced energy intake, increased oxygen consumption, and/or increased lipid oxidation could explain the fat loss associated with sprint interval exercise training (SIT). This study assessed the effects of acute sprint interval exercise (SIE) on energy intake, subjective appetite, appetite-related peptides, oxygen consumption, and respiratory exchange ratio over 2 days. Eight men (25 ± 3 years, 79.6 ± 9.7 kg, body fat 13% ± 6%; mean ± SD) completed 2 experimental treatments: SIE and recovery (SIEx) and nonexercise control. Each 34-h treatment consisted of 2 consecutive 10-h test days. Between 0800-1800 h, participants remained in the laboratory for 8 breath-by-breath gas collections, 3 buffet-type meals, 14 appetite ratings, and 4 blood samples for appetite-related peptides. Treatment comparisons were made using 2-way repeated measures ANOVA or t tests. An immediate, albeit short-lived (SIEx (P SIEx (P = 0.04), elicited by the 1491-kJ (22%) greater energy expenditure over the first 24 h (P = 0.01). Despite its effects on oxygen consumption, appetite, and PYY, acute SIE did not affect energy intake. Consequently, if these dietary responses to SIE are sustained with regular SIT, augmentations in oxygen consumption and/or a substrate shift toward increased fat use postexercise are most likely responsible for the observed body fat loss with this type of exercise training.

  10. An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ludyga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20 min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children

  11. The impact of different cooling modalities on the physiological responses in firefighters during strenuous work performed in high environmental temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, David; Reilly, Thomas; Gregson, Warren

    2011-06-01

    This study investigated the impact of ice vests and hand/forearm immersion on accelerating the physiological recovery between two bouts of strenuous exercise in the heat [mean (SD), 49.1(1.3)°C, RH 12 (1)]. On four occasions, eight firefighters completed two 20-min bouts of treadmill walking (5 km h, 7.5% gradient) while wearing standard firefighter protective clothing. Each bout was separated by a 15-min recovery period, during which one of four conditions were administered: ice vest (VEST), hand/forearm immersion (W), ice vest combined with hand/forearm immersion (VEST + W) and control (CON). Core temperature was significantly lower at the end of the recovery period in the VEST + W (37.97 ± 0.23°C) and W (37.96 ± 0.19°C) compared with the VEST (38.21 ± 0.12°C) and CON (38.29 ± 0.25°C) conditions and remained consistently lower throughout the second bout of exercise. Heart rate responses during the recovery period and bout 2 were similar between the VEST + W and W conditions which were significantly lower compared with the VEST and CON which did not differ from each other. Mean skin temperature was significantly lower at the start of bout 2 in the cooling conditions compared with CON; these differences reduced as exercise progressed. These findings demonstrate that hand/forearm immersion (~19°C) is more effective than ice vests in reducing the physiological strain when firefighters re-enter structural fires after short rest periods. Combining ice vests with hand/forearm immersion provides no additional benefit.

  12. IGF-1 colocalizes with muscle satellite cells following acute exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, Amanda; Joanisse, Sophie; Moore, Daniel R; Bellamy, Leeann M; Mitchell, Cameron J; Phillips, Stuart M; Parise, Gianni

    2014-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) regulates stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro. The aim of this study was to quantify the change in satellite cell (SC) specific IGF-1 colocalization following exercise. We observed a significant increase (p IGF-1 colocalization from baseline to 72 h after a bout of resistance exercise. This strongly supports a role for IGF-1 in human SC function following exercise.

  13. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids do not affect the cytokine response to strenuous exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, A.D.; Thorn, Mette; Ostrowski, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    (PUFA), for 6 wk or to receive no supplementation (n = 10) before participating in The Copenhagen Marathon 1998. Blood samples were collected before the race, immediately after, and 1.5 and 3 h postexercise. The fatty acid composition in blood mononuclear cells (BMNC) differed between the fish oil...

  14. Effects of protein in combination with carbohydrate supplements on acute or repeat endurance exercise performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLellan, Tom M; Pasiakos, Stefan M; Lieberman, Harris R

    2014-04-01

    Protein supplements are consumed frequently by athletes and recreationally active adults for various reasons, including improved exercise performance and recovery after exercise. Yet, far too often, the decision to purchase and consume protein supplements is based on marketing claims rather than available evidence-based research. The purpose of this review was to provide a systematic and comprehensive analysis of the literature that tested the hypothesis that protein supplements, when combined with carbohydrate, directly enhance endurance performance by sparing muscle glycogen during exercise and increasing the rate of glycogen restoration during recovery. The analysis was used to create evidence statements based on an accepted strength of recommendation taxonomy. English language articles were searched with PubMed and Google Scholar using protein and supplements together with performance, exercise, competition, and muscle, alone or in combination as keywords. Additional articles were retrieved from reference lists found in these papers. Inclusion criteria specified recruiting healthy active adults less than 50 years of age and evaluating the effects of protein supplements in combination with carbohydrate on endurance performance metrics such as time-to-exhaustion, time-trial, or total power output during sprint intervals. The literature search identified 28 articles, of which 26 incorporated test metrics that permitted exclusive categorization into one of the following sections: ingestion during an acute bout of exercise (n = 11) and ingestion during and after exercise to affect subsequent endurance performance (n = 15). The remaining two articles contained performance metrics that spanned both categories. All papers were read in detail and searched for experimental design confounders such as energy content of the supplements, dietary control, use of trained or untrained participants, number of subjects recruited, direct measures of muscle glycogen utilization and

  15. Exercise and health-related quality of life during the first year following acute stroke. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Birgitta; Stanghelle, Johan K; Lindmark, Birgitta

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of two different physiotherapy exercise regimes in patients after acute stroke on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to investigate how the degree of motor and balance function, gait capacity, activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living influenced HRQoL. A longitudinal randomized controlled stratified trial of two interventions: the intensive exercise groups with scheduled intensive training during four periods of the first year after stroke and the regular exercise group with self-initiated training. There was a tendency of better HRQoL in the regular exercise group on NHP total score (p = 0.05). Patients with low scores in activities of daily living, balance and motor function and inability to perform 6-minute walk test on admission, scored lower on self-perceived health than patients with high scores and ability to perform the walking test. At 1 year post-stroke, total scores on NHP were moderately associated with motor function (r = -0.63), balance (r = -0.56), gait (r = -0.57), activities of daily living (r = -0.57) and instrumental activities of daily living (r = -0.49-0.58). The physical mobility sub-scale of NHP had the strongest association ranging from r = -0.47-0.82. The regular exercise group with self-initiated training seemed to enhance HRQoL more than the intensive exercise group with scheduled intensive training. The degree of motor function, balance, walking capacity and independence in activities of daily living is of importance for perceived HRQoL.

  16. Acute aerobic exercise differentially alters acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness in normal-weight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heden, Timothy D; Liu, Ying; Park, Youngmin; Dellsperger, Kevin C; Kanaley, Jill A

    2013-09-01

    Adiposity alters acylated ghrelin concentrations, but it is unknown whether adiposity alters the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin responses. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether adiposity [normal-weight (NW) vs. obese (Ob)] influences the effect of exercise and feeding on acylated ghrelin, hunger, and fullness. Fourteen NW and 14 Ob individuals completed two trials in a randomized counterbalanced fashion, including a prior exercise trial (EX) and a no exercise trial (NoEX). During the EX trial, the participants performed 1 h of treadmill walking (55-60% peak O2 uptake) during the evening, 12 h before a 4-h standardized mixed meal test. Frequent blood samples were taken and analyzed for acylated ghrelin, and a visual analog scale was used to assess perceived hunger and fullness. In NW individuals, EX, compared with NoEX, reduced fasting acylated ghrelin concentrations by 18% (P = 0.03), and, in response to feeding, the change in acylated ghrelin (P = 0.02) was attenuated by 39%, but perceived hunger and fullness were unaltered. In Ob individuals, despite no changes in fasting or postprandial acylated ghrelin concentrations with EX, postprandial fullness was attenuated by 46% compared with NoEX (P = 0.05). In summary, exercise performed the night before a meal suppresses acylated ghrelin concentrations in NW individuals without altering perceived hunger or fullness. In Ob individuals, despite no changes in acylated ghrelin concentrations, EX reduced the fullness response to the test meal. Acylated ghrelin and perceived fullness responses are differently altered by acute aerobic exercise in NW and Ob individuals.

  17. Does Sport-Drink Use During Exercise Promote an Acute Positive Energy Balance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragusin, Iulian B; Horswill, Craig A

    2016-10-01

    Sports drinks have been implicated in contributing to obesity and chronic diseases by providing surplus calories and excess sugars. Using existing literature we compared energy intake from sports drinks consumed during exercise with the exercise-induced calorie expenditure to determine whether sports drink use might eliminate the energy deficit and jeopardize conditions for improved metabolic fitness. We identified 11 published studies that compared sport drink consumption to placebo during exercise with a primary focused on the effect of sport drinks or total carbohydrate content on enhancing physical performance. Energy expenditure (EE) was calculated using VO 2 , RER, and exercise duration for the exercise protocol. Energy ingestion (EI) was determined using the carbohydrate dosing regimen administered before and during the exercise protocol. A two-tailed t test was used to test whether the energy balance (EI-EE) was different from zero (alpha level = 0.05). Sport drink consumption during aerobic exercise of sufficient duration (≥ 60 min) did not abolish the energy deficit (p sports drinks to enhance performance did not abolish the caloric deficit of aerobic exercise. Sports drinks can be used in accordance with research protocols that typically provide 30-60 g of carbohydrate per hour when exercising at adequate durations for moderate to high intensity and still maintain a substantive caloric deficit.

  18. Short-Term Intensified Cycle Training Alters Acute and Chronic Responses of PGC1α and Cytochrome C Oxidase IV to Exercise in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepto, Nigel K.; Benziane, Boubacar; Wadley, Glenn D.; Chibalin, Alexander V.; Canny, Benedict J.; Eynon, Nir; McConell, Glenn K.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced activation of exercise responsive signalling pathways have been reported in response to acute exercise after training; however little is known about the adaptive responses of the mitochondria. Accordingly, we investigated changes in mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance in response to the same acute exercise before and after 10-d of intensive cycle training. Nine untrained, healthy participants (mean±SD; VO2peak 44.1±17.6 ml/kg/min) performed a 60 min bout of cycling exercise at 164±18 W (72% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest, immediately and 3 h after exercise. The participants then underwent 10-d of cycle training which included four high-intensity interval training sessions (6×5 min; 90–100% VO2peak) and six prolonged moderate-intensity sessions (45–90 min; 75% VO2peak). Participants repeated the pre-training exercise trial at the same absolute work load (64% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle PGC1-α mRNA expression was attenuated as it increased by 11- and 4- fold (Pexercise pre- and post-training, respectively. PGC1-α protein expression increased 1.5 fold (Pexercise pre-training with no further increases after the post-training exercise bout. RIP140 protein abundance was responsive to acute exercise only (Pexercise pre- and post-training. These findings demonstrate that short-term intensified training promotes increased mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance. Furthermore, acute indicators of exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptation appear to be blunted in response to exercise at the same absolute intensity following short-term training. PMID:23285255

  19. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2010-01-01

    in circulation, and on gene expression on these infammatory marker in skeletal muscle (SM) and adipose tissue (AT) biopsies. Material and Methods: 15 lean males and females (BMI 22.4±2 kg/m2) and 16 obese males and females (BMI 31.6±3 kg/m2) exercised for 120 minutes by ergometer bicycling at moderate intensity......Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...... (55-60% of maximal heart rate). Blood samples were obtained at baseline (T0), after 60 minutes of bicycling (T=60), after 120 minutes of bicycling (T=120), whereas biopsies from AT and SM were obtained at T0 and T120. Results: Divided into weight-status, plasma levels of IL-8 and TNFα were at T=120...

  20. Effect of Acute Exercise on AMPK Signaling in Skeletal Muscle of Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Coletta, Dawn K.; Wajcberg, Estela; Balbontin, Gabriela B.; Reyna, Sara M.; Barrientes, John; Eagan, Phyllis A.; Jenkinson, Christopher P.; Cersosimo, Eugenio; DeFronzo, Ralph A.; Sakamoto, Kei; Musi, Nicolas

    2010-01-01

    Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) by exercise induces several cellular processes in muscle. Exercise activation of AMPK is unaffected in lean (BMI ~25 kg/m2) subjects with type 2 diabetes. However, most type 2 diabetic subjects are obese (BMI >30 kg/m2), and exercise stimulation of AMPK is blunted in obese rodents. We examined whether obese type 2 diabetic subjects have impaired exercise stimulation of AMPK, at different signaling levels, spanning from the upstream kinase, LKB1, to the putative AMPK targets, AS160 and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor coactivator (PGC)-1α, involved in glucose transport regulation and mitochondrial biogenesis, respectively. Twelve type 2 diabetic, eight obese, and eight lean subjects exercised on a cycle ergometer for 40 min. Muscle biopsies were done before, during, and after exercise. Subjects underwent this protocol on two occasions, at low (50% VO2max) and moderate (70% VO2max) intensities, with a 4–6 week interval. Exercise had no effect on LKB1 activity. Exercise had a time- and intensity-dependent effect to increase AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Obese and type 2 diabetic subjects had attenuated exercise-stimulated AMPK activity and AS160 phosphorylation. Type 2 diabetic subjects had reduced basal PGC-1 gene expression but normal exercise-induced increases in PGC-1 expression. Our findings suggest that obese type 2 diabetic subjects may need to exercise at higher intensity to stimulate the AMPK-AS160 axis to the same level as lean subjects. PMID:17327455

  1. Effect of acute resistance exercise and sex on human patellar tendon structural and regulatory mRNA expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sullivan, B.E.; Carroll, C.C.; Jemiolo, B.

    2009-01-01

    Sullivan BE, Carroll CC, Jemiolo B, Trappe SW, Magnusson SP, Dossing S, Kjaer M, Trappe TA. Effect of acute resistance exercise and sex on human patellar tendon structural and regulatory mRNA expression. J Appl Physiol 106: 468-475, 2009. First published November 20, 2008; doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.......91341.2008.-Tendon is mainly composed of collagen and an aqueous matrix of proteoglycans that are regulated by enzymes called matrix metalloproteinases ( MMPs) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Although it is known that resistance exercise (RE) and sex influence tendon metabolism...... and mechanical properties, it is uncertain what structural and regulatory components contribute to these responses. We measured the mRNA expression of tendon's main fibrillar collagens (type I and type III) and the main proteoglycans (decorin, biglycan, fibromodulin, and versican) and the regulatory enzymes MMP...

  2. Acute aerobic exercise induces a preferential mobilisation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells into the peripheral blood in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Frankie F; Campbell, John P; Wadley, Alex J; Fisher, James P; Aldred, Sarah; Turner, James E

    2018-05-31

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important sentinel cells of the immune system responsible for presenting antigen to T cells. Exercise is known to cause an acute and transient increase in the frequency of DCs in the bloodstream in humans, yet there are contradictory findings in the literature regarding the phenotypic composition of DCs mobilised during exercise, which may have implications for immune regulation and health. Accordingly, we sought to investigate the composition of DC sub-populations mobilised in response to acute aerobic exercise. Nine healthy males (age, 21.9 ± 3.6 years; height, 177.8 ± 5.4 cm; body mass, 78.9 ± 10.8 kg; body mass index, 24.9 ± 3.3 kg·m 2 ; V̇O 2 MAX , 41.5 ± 5.1 mL·kg·min -1 ) cycled for 20 min at 80% V̇O 2 MAX . Blood was sampled at baseline, during the final minute of exercise and 30 min later. Using flow cytometry, total DCs were defined as Lineage- (CD3, CD19, CD20, CD14, CD56) HLA-DR+ and subsequently identified as plasmacytoid DCs (CD303+) and myeloid DCs (CD303-). Myeloid DCs were analysed for expression of CD1c and CD141 to yield four sub-populations; CD1c-CD141+; CD1c+CD141+; CD1c+CD141- and CD1c-CD141-. Expression of CD205 was also analysed on all DC sub-populations to identify DCs capable of recognising apoptotic and necrotic cells. Total DCs increased by 150% during exercise (F (1,10)  = 60; p < 0.05, η 2  = 0.9). Plasmacytoid DCs mobilised to a greater magnitude than myeloid DCs (195 ± 131% vs. 131 ± 100%; p < 0.05). Among myeloid DCs, CD1c-CD141- cells showed the largest exercise-induced mobilisation (167 ± 122%), with a stepwise pattern observed among the remaining sub-populations: CD1c+CD141- (79 ± 50%), followed by CD1c+CD141+ (44 ± 41%), with the smallest response shown by CD1c-CD141+ cells (23 ± 54%) (p < 0.05). Among myeloid DCs, CD205- cells were the most exercise responsive. All DC subsets returned to resting levels within

  3. Acute effects of exercise intensity on subsequent substrate utilisation, appetite, and energy balance in men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamlan, Ghalia; Bech, Paul; Robertson, M Denise; Collins, Adam L

    2017-12-01

    Exercise is capable of influencing the regulation of energy balance by acutely modulating appetite and energy intake coupled to effects on substrate utilization. Yet, few studies have examined acute effects of exercise intensity on aspects of both energy intake and energy metabolism, independently of energy cost of exercise. Furthermore, little is known as to the gender differences of these effects. One hour after a standardised breakfast, 40 (19 female), healthy participants (BMI 23.6 ± 3.6 kg·m -2 , V̇O 2peak 34.4 ± 6.8 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 ) undertook either high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) consisting of 8 repeated 60 s bouts of cycling at 95% V̇O 2peak or low-intensity continuous cycling (LICC), equivalent to 50% V̇O 2peak , matched for energy cost (∼950 kJ) followed by 90 mins of rest, in a randomised crossover design. Throughout each study visit, satiety was assessed subjectively using visual analogue scales alongside blood metabolites and GLP-1. Energy expenditure and substrate utilization were measured over 75 min postexercise via indirect calorimetry. Energy intake was assessed for 48 h postintervention. No differences in appetite, GLP-1, or energy intakes were observed between HIIC and LICC, with or without stratifying for gender. Significant differences in postexercise nonesterified fatty acid concentrations were observed between intensities in both genders, coupled to a significantly lower respiratory exchange ratio following HIIC (P = 0.0028), with a trend towards greater reductions in respiratory exchange ratioin males (P = 0.079). In conclusion, high-intensity exercise, if energy matched, does not lead to greater appetite or energy intake, but may exert additional beneficial metabolic effects that may be more pronounced in males.

  4. Acute regulation of IGF-I by alterations in post-exercise macronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    This investigation sought to examine the contributions of exercise and nutrient replenishment on in vivo regulation of the insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis components. Eight college-aged males completed three high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols followed by three post-exercise ...

  5. Acute effects of beta blockade and exercise on mood and anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, A; Kendall, M J; Ferner, R; Eagles, C

    1996-09-01

    To measure the previously reported beta blocker induced adverse changes in mood state and anxiety measures, and to determine if prolonged aerobic exercise attenuates such mood modifications. After 4 days of drug treatment with comparable doses of propranolol (40 and 80 mg), metoprolol (50 and 100 mg), or placebo, mood (POMS) and anxiety states (STAI) were assessed in healthy volunteers, before and after 1 h of treadmill walking exercise at 50% maximum oxygen uptake. Compared to placebo, resting "tension", "depression", and "total mood disturbance" were significantly higher on propranolol 80 mg, but all were reduced with exercise. "Fatigue" and "confusion" were also higher on propranolol, and were unaffected by exercise. "Fatigue" was also higher than placebo after exercise on metoprolol 100 mg. "Anxiety" was unaffected by drug treatment or exercise. The evidence that beta blockers, and particularly propranolol, have adverse effects on mood was confirmed. It would be preferable to prescribe a beta blocker which does not adversely alter mood states. However, exercise significantly reduced the measures of "tension" and "depression" which were adversely increased by propranolol. Exercise prescription may therefore not only be compatible with beta blockade, but a highly desirable adjuvant therapy.

  6. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Dalgas, Ulrik; Brolin Gade, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is a well-established part of rehabilitation for people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS), and it has been hypothesized to stimulate an anti-inflammatory environment that might be disease modifying. Yet, investigations on exercise-induced immune responses are scarce and generally not paying...

  7. Lifelong training preserves some redox-regulated adaptive responses after an acute exercise stimulus in aged human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, J N; Sakellariou, G K; Owens, D J; Murray, S; Waldron, S; Gregson, W; Fraser, W D; Burniston, J G; Iwanejko, L A; McArdle, A; Morton, J P; Jackson, M J; Close, G L

    2014-05-01

    Several redox-regulated responses to an acute exercise bout fail in aged animal skeletal muscle, including the ability to upregulate the expression of antioxidant defense enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). These findings are generally derived from studies on sedentary rodent models and thus may be related to reduced physical activity and/or intraspecies differences as opposed to aging per se. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the influence of age and training status on the expression of HSPs, antioxidant enzymes, and NO synthase isoenzymes in quiescent and exercised human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 3 days after an acute high-intensity-interval exercise bout in young trained, young untrained, old trained, and old untrained subjects. Levels of HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS were significantly higher in quiescent muscle of older compared with younger subjects, irrespective of training status. 3-NT levels were elevated in muscles of the old untrained but not the old trained state, suggesting that lifelong training may reduce age-related macromolecule damage. SOD1, CAT, and HSP27 levels were not significantly different between groups. HSP27 content was upregulated in all groups studied postexercise. HSP72 content was upregulated to a greater extent in muscle of trained compared with untrained subjects postexercise, irrespective of age. In contrast to every other group, old untrained subjects failed to upregulate CAT postexercise. Aging was associated with a failure to upregulate SOD2 and a downregulation of PRX5 in muscle postexercise, irrespective of training status. In conclusion, lifelong training is unable to fully prevent the progression toward a more stressed muscular state as evidenced by increased HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS protein levels in quiescent muscle. Moreover, lifelong training preserves some (e.g., CAT) but not all (e.g., SOD2, HSP72, PRX5) of the adaptive redox-regulated responses after an

  8. Acute response of high-intensity and traditional resistance exercise on anaerobic power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austad, Mark A; Gay, Chip R; Murray, Steven R; Pettitt, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    Quantifying the maximal work capacity (W') above the aerobic critical power (CP) has emerged as a method for estimating anaerobic work capacity. Slower cadence, lower-load resistance training (RT), colloquially referred to as high-intensity training (HIT), is purported to be a better metabolic stressor than faster cadence higher-load RT, but to date, this belief has not been supported by research. We compared the acute effects of HIT and traditional RT bouts on average power within a 150-second time period (P(150 s)), CP, and W', as measured from a 3-minute all-out exercise test using cycling ergometry (3 MT). Eight recreationally active male subjects (mean ± SD: age 22 ± 2 years, body mass 85 ± 14 kg, and height 18 ± 9 cm) completed a baseline 3 MT 10 repetition maximum testing on leg press and leg extension machines, and post-bout 3 MTs after an HIT (4:2 second cadence) or a traditional RT bout (1:1 second cadence). Measurements of CP from the 3 MTs were similar between the baseline, post-HIT (α = 0.96), and post-traditional RT bouts (α = 0.98). Neither HIT (269.2 ± 51.3 W) nor traditional RT (275.1 ± 51.3 W) evoked depreciations (p > 0.05) in P(150 s) from the baseline (275.1 ± 45.4 W). Moreover, estimates of W' at the baseline (8.3 ± 3.2 kJ) were unaffected (p > 0.05) either by the HIT (7.6 ± 2.3 kJ) or by the traditional RT (8.3 ± 1.3 kJ) bouts. These data indicate that the 4:2 cadence is insufficient to exhaust a person's capacity for high-intensity work. Longer RT durations, either by slower cadences or by multiple sets, are necessary to evoke substantive declines on W' and should be investigated.

  9. The effects of IQPLUS Focus on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and following acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simbo Sunday

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphatidylserine (PS is a phospholipid found in cell membranes of most animals and plants. PS has been shown to reduce stress and increase performance in runners, cyclists and golfers. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a PS containing formulation on cognitive function, mood and endocrine response before and after intense resistance exercise. Methods 18 lower body, resistance trained, college aged males ingested 14 days of supplement (IQPLUS Focus, providing 400 mg of soy-derived PS and a Placebo (PL, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled, cross-over manner. Following 14 days of supplementation, participants performed an acute bout of lower body resistance training. Mood (Profile of Mood States, POMS and cognitive function (Serial Subtraction Test, SST were measured prior to, 5 minutes after, and 60 minutes after exercise. Venous blood samples were collected prior to, and 5, 15, 25, 40 and 60 minutes after exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for plasma cortisol and testosterone. Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Results PS supplementation significantly reduced the time needed for a correct calculation on the SST by 20% (reduced by 1.27 s per calculation; PL: 6.4 s, PS: 5.13 s; p = 0.001, and reduced the total amount of errors by 39% (PL: 1.28 + .69, PS: .78 + .27, p = 0.53, and increased the amount of correct calculations by 13% (PL: 22.1 + 2.24, PS: 24.9 + 1.52, p = 0.07 prior to or in response to exercise compared to PL. Following exercise, there was no difference in SST scores between PS and PL. There were no significant changes in regards to mood or endocrine response to exercise as a result of PS supplementation. Conclusion PS supplementation significantly increased cognitive function prior to exercise. Improved cognitive function could benefit athletes and non-athletes alike. PS did not appear to affect mood or endocrine response prior to or following resistance

  10. Acute exercise does not modify brain activity and memory performance in APP/PS1 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Miki Stein

    Full Text Available Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer´s disease (AD. With an increasingly aging population, development of affordable screening techniques to determine cognitive status will help identify population-at-risk for further follow-up. Because physical exercise is known to modulate cognitive performance, we used it as a functional test of cognitive health. Mice were submitted to treadmill running at moderate speed for 30 min, and their brain activity was monitored before and after exercise using electrocorticogram (ECG recordings. After exercise, normal, but not APP/PS1 mice, a well established AD model, showed significantly increased ECG theta rhythm. At the same time normal, but not AD mice, showed significantly enhanced performance in a spatial memory test after exercise. Therefore, we postulate that a running bout coupled to pre- and post-exercise brain activity recordings will help identify individuals with cognitive alterations, by determining the presence or absence of exercise-specific changes in brain activity. Work in humans using a bout of moderate exercise plus electroencephalography, a clinically affordable procedure, is warranted.

  11. Acute exercise does not modify brain activity and memory performance in APP/PS1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki Stein, Angelica; Munive, Victor; Fernandez, Ana M; Nuñez, Angel; Torres Aleman, Ignacio

    2017-01-01

    Age is the main risk factor for Alzheimer´s disease (AD). With an increasingly aging population, development of affordable screening techniques to determine cognitive status will help identify population-at-risk for further follow-up. Because physical exercise is known to modulate cognitive performance, we used it as a functional test of cognitive health. Mice were submitted to treadmill running at moderate speed for 30 min, and their brain activity was monitored before and after exercise using electrocorticogram (ECG) recordings. After exercise, normal, but not APP/PS1 mice, a well established AD model, showed significantly increased ECG theta rhythm. At the same time normal, but not AD mice, showed significantly enhanced performance in a spatial memory test after exercise. Therefore, we postulate that a running bout coupled to pre- and post-exercise brain activity recordings will help identify individuals with cognitive alterations, by determining the presence or absence of exercise-specific changes in brain activity. Work in humans using a bout of moderate exercise plus electroencephalography, a clinically affordable procedure, is warranted.

  12. Effects of acute caffeine supplementation on reducing exercise-associated hypoglycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharieva, D P; Miadovnik, L A; Rowan, C P; Gumieniak, R J; Jamnik, V K; Riddell, M C

    2016-04-01

    To determine the effects of acute caffeine ingestion on glycaemia during moderate to vigorous intensity aerobic exercise and in recovery in individuals with Type 1 diabetes. A total of 13 patients with Type 1 diabetes [eight women, five men: mean ± sd age 25.9 ± 8.8 years, BMI 71.9 ± 11.0 kg, maximal oxygen consumption 46.6 ± 12.7 ml/kg/min, body fat 19.9 ± 7.2%, duration of diabetes 14.4 ± 10.1 years and HbA1c 55 ± 8 mmol/mol (7.4 ± 0.8%)] were recruited. Participants ingested capsules that contained gelatin or pure caffeine (6.0 mg/kg body mass) and performed afternoon exercise for 45 min at 60% maximal oxygen consumption on two separate visits with only circulating basal insulin levels. The main finding was that a single caffeine dose attenuates the drop in glycaemia by 1.8 ± 2.8 mmol/l compared with placebo intake during exercise (P=0.056). Continuous glucose monitoring data, however, showed that caffeine was associated with elevated glycaemia at bedtime after exercise, compared with placebo, but lower glucose concentrations in the early morning the next day. Caffeine intake should be considered as another strategy that may modestly attenuate hypoglycaemia in individuals with Type 1 diabetes during exercise, but should be taken with precautionary measures as it may increase the risk of late-onset hypoglycaemia. © 2015 Diabetes UK.

  13. Acute and chronic effects of aerobic exercise on blood pressure in resistant hypertension: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, L S; Santos, A C; Lucena, Jms; Silva, Lgo; Almeida, Aem; Brasileiro-Santos, M S

    2017-06-02

    Resistant hypertension is a specific condition that affects approximately 10% of subjects with hypertension, and is characterized by persistently high blood pressure levels even using therapy of three or more antihypertensive agents or with blood pressure control using therapy with four or more antihypertensive agents. Changes in lifestyle, such as physical exercise, are indicated for controlling blood pressure. However, investigating studies about this therapy in individuals with resistant hypertension are few. This is a randomized controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight patients with resistant hypertension will be submitted to perform four short-term interventions: aerobic exercise sessions (mild-, moderate- and high-intensity) and control session, in random order and on separate days. After the short-term sessions, the patients will be randomly allocated into four groups for 8 weeks of follow-up: mild-, moderate- and high-intensity aerobic exercise, and a control group. The primary outcome is the occurrence of blood pressure reduction (office and ambulatory analysis, and acute and chronic effects). Secondary outcomes are autonomic and hemodynamic mechanisms: cardiac and vasomotor autonomic modulation, spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity, forearm blood flow and vascular resistance. The importance of exercise for hypertension has been known for decades, but little is known about the effects on patients with resistant hypertension. This study will help to understand whether different aerobic exercise intensities can induce different responses, as well as by what mechanisms adjustments in blood pressure levels may occur. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02670681 . Registered on 28 January 2016 (first version); Brazilian Registry Platform Clinical Trials: protocol RBR-5q24zh . Registered on 24 June 2015.

  14. Myocardial infarction is a frequent cause of exercise-related resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a general non-athletic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søholm, Helle; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Lippert, Freddy K; Køber, Lars; Wanscher, Michael; Hassager, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Performing exercise is shown to prevent cardiovascular disease, but the risk of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is temporarily increased during strenuous activity. We examined the etiology and outcome after successfully resuscitated OHCA during exercise in a general non-athletic population. Consecutive patients with OHCA were admitted with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or on-going resuscitation at hospital arrival (2002-2011). Patient charts were reviewed for post-resuscitation data. Exercise was defined as moderate/vigorous physical activity. A total of 1393 OHCA-patients were included with 91(7%) arrests occurring during exercise. Exercise-related OHCA-patients were younger (60 ± 13 vs. 65 ± 15, p<0.001) and predominantly male (96% vs. 69%, p<0.001). The arrest was more frequently witnessed (94% vs. 86%, p=0.02), bystander CPR was more often performed (88% vs. 54%, p<0.001), time to ROSC was shorter (12 min (IQR: 5-19) vs. 15 (9-22), p=0.007) and the primary rhythm was more frequently shock-able (91% vs. 49%, p<0.001) compared to non-exercise patients. Cardiac etiology was the predominant cause of OHCA in both exercise and non-exercise patients (97% vs. 80%, p<0.001) and acute coronary syndrome was more frequent among exercise patients (59% vs. 38%, p<0.001). One-year mortality was 25% vs. 65% (p<0.001), and exercise was even after adjustment associated with a significantly lower mortality (HR=0.40 (95%CI: 0.23-0.72), p=0.002). OHCA occurring during exercise was associated with a significantly lower mortality in successfully resuscitated patients even after adjusting for confounding factors. Acute coronary syndrome was more common among exercise-related cardiac arrest patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential Impact of Acute High-Intensity Exercise on Circulating Endothelial Microparticles and Insulin Resistance between Overweight/Obese Males and Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrer, Cody; Robinson, Emily; Wan, Zhongxiao; Martinez, Nic; Hummel, Michelle L.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; Kilpatrick, Marcus W.; Little, Jonathan P.

    2015-01-01

    Background An acute bout of exercise can improve endothelial function and insulin sensitivity when measured on the day following exercise. Our aim was to compare acute high-intensity continuous exercise (HICE) to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) on circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs) and insulin sensitivity in overweight/obese men and women. Methods Inactive males (BMI = 30 ± 3, 25 ± 6 yr, n = 6) and females (BMI = 28 ± 2, 21 ± 3 yr, n = 7) participated in three experimental trials in a randomized counterbalanced crossover design: 1) No exercise control (Control); 2) HICE (20 min cycling @ just above ventilatory threshold); 3) HIIE (10 X 1-min @ ∼90% peak aerobic power). Exercise conditions were matched for external work and diet was controlled post-exercise. Fasting blood samples were obtained ∼18 hr after each condition. CD62E+ and CD31+/CD42b- EMPs were assessed by flow cytometry and insulin resistance (IR) was estimated by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR). Results There was a significant sex X exercise interaction for CD62E+ EMPs, CD31+/CD42b- EMPs, and HOMA-IR (all Pexercise type. There was a significant increase in HOMA-IR in males but a decrease in females following HIIE compared to Control (Pobese males and females appear to respond differently to acute bouts of high-intensity exercise. A single session of HICE and HIIE reduced circulating EMPs measured on the morning following exercise in males but in females CD62E+ EMPs were increased following HICE. Next day HOMA-IR paradoxically increased in males but was reduced in females following HIIE. Future research is needed to investigate mechanisms responsible for potential differential responses between males and females. PMID:25710559

  16. The acute effects of exercise on cortical excitation and psychosocial outcomes in men treated for prostate cancer: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eSanta Mina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Regular exercise improves psychological wellbeing in men treated for prostate cancer. For this population and among cancer survivors in general, the effect of a single bout of exercise on self-report or objective measures of psychological wellbeing has not been examined. We examined the acute effect of a single bout of exercise on the cortical silent period (CSP and on self-reported mood in men that have received treatment for prostate cancer. Methods: Thirty-six prostate cancer survivors were randomly assigned to 60 minutes of low to moderate intensity exercise or to a control condition. Outcomes were assessed immediately before and after either the exercise or the control condition. Results: No significant differences in baseline CSP or mood were observed following the exercise session or control conditions. Participants with higher scores of trait anxiety had significantly shorter CSP at baseline, as well as those receiving androgen deprivation therapy. Age and baseline CSP had a low-moderate, but significant negative correlation. Changes in CSP following the exercise condition were strongly negatively correlated with changes in self-reported vigor. Conclusions: While we did not observe any acute effect of exercise on the CSP in this population, the associations between CSP and trait anxiety, age, and vigor are novel findings requiring further examination.Implications for Cancer Survivors: Exercise did not acutely affect our participants in measures of psychological wellbeing. Additional mechanisms to explain the chronic psychosocial benefits of exercise previously observed in men with prostate cancer require further exploration.Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01715064 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01715064

  17. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Abou Sawan, Sidney; Mazzulla, Michael; Williamson, Eric; Moore, Daniel R

    2017-07-11

    No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h) and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD)) performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey) or an energy-matched placebo (CHO) immediately post-exercise (0 h), and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery). A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest). Participants ingested [ 15 N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO ( P = 0.064; effect size (ES) = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO) during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO ( P = 0.036) but not in CHO ( P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO), which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76), REP (ES = 0.44), and peak power (ES = 0.55). In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of exercise performance after a strenuous bout of resistance exercise.

  18. Examining exercise dependence symptomatology from a self-determination perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, Jemma; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Duda, Joan L

    2006-11-01

    Background Pulling from Self-Determination Theory (SDT; Deci & Ryan, 1985), this study examined whether individuals classified as 'nondependent-symptomatic' and 'nondependent-asymptomatic' for exercise dependence differed in terms of reported levels of exercise-related psychological need satisfaction, self-determined versus controlling motivation and exercise behavior. In addition, we examined the type of motivational regulations predicting exercise behavior among these different groups, and their role as mediators between psychological need satisfaction and behavioral outcomes. Methods Participants (N = 339) completed measures of exercise-specific psychological need satisfaction, motivational regulations, exercise behavior and exercise dependence. Results Nondependent-symptomatic individuals reported higher levels of competence need satisfaction and all forms of motivational regulation, compared to nondependent-asymptomatic individuals. Introjected regulation approached significance as a positive predictor of strenuous exercise behavior for symptomatic individuals. Identified regulation was a positive predictor of strenuous exercise, and completely mediated the relationship between competence need satisfaction and strenuous exercise behavior, for asymptomatic individuals. Conclusions The findings reinforce the applicability of SDT to understanding the quantity and quality of engagement in exercise.

  19. Effects of acute exercise on pancreatic endocrine function in subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Sine H; Karstoft, Kristian; Winding, Kamilla

    2015-01-01

    We determined the effects of exercise on pancreatic endocrine responses to metabolic stimuli in type 2 diabetic (T2D) subjects and examined the influence of the diabetic status. Fourteen subjects underwent a hyperglycaemic clamp with GLP-1 infusion and arginine injection, the morning after a one.......05-P arginine (P = 0.08). The same trends were seen for low HbA1c subjects. Furthermore, exercise increased GLP-1- and arginine-stimulated insulin secretion (P diabetic......-hour walk or no exercise. Subjects were stratified by high and low quantiles of fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and HbA1c as well as current use/non-use of anti-diabetic medication. In the entire cohort, exercise did not alter insulin secretion, while glucagon levels were increased in all clamp phases (P 

  20. The influence of training status on the drop in muscle strength after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Moerch, L; Kjaer, M

    2009-01-01

    to running exercise immediately after immobilization, the muscle strength of the triceps-surae muscles dropped even further, but just in the immobilized leg (41%; P importance of determining the muscle endurance when evaluating the effect of immobilization on muscle......Skeletal muscles fatigue after exercise, and reductions in maximal force appear. A difference in training status between the legs was introduced by unilateral immobilization of the calf muscles for 2 weeks in young men, who were randomly assigned to two groups, either a RUN group (n = 8......) that was exposed to prolonged exercise (1-h running: individual pace) or a REST group (n = 12) that did no exercise after immobilization. Cross-sectional area (CSA) of the triceps-surae muscles was calculated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force of the plantar flexors...

  1. The Effects Combining Cryocompression Therapy following an Acute Bout of Resistance Exercise on Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William H. DuPont, Brek J. Meuris, Vincent H. Hardesty, Emily C. Barnhart, Landon H. Tompkins, Morricia J.P. Golden, Clayton J. Usher, Paul A. Spence, Lydia K. Caldwell, Emily M. Post, Matthew K. Beeler, William J. Kraemer

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Compression and cold therapy used separately have shown to reduce negative effects of tissue damage. The combining compression and cold therapy (cryocompression as a single recovery modality has yet to be fully examined. To examine the effects of cryocompression on recovery following a bout of heavy resistance exercise, recreationally resistance trained men (n =16 were recruited, matched, and randomly assigned to either a cryocompression group (CRC or control group (CON. Testing was performed before and then immediately after exercise, 60 minutes, 24 hours, and 48 hours after a heavy resistance exercise workout (barbell back squats for 4 sets of 6 reps at 80% 1RM, 90 sec rest between sets, stiff legged deadlifts for 4 sets of 8 reps at 1.0 X body mass with 60 sec rest between sets, 4 sets of 10 eccentric Nordic hamstring curls, 45 sec rest between sets. The CRC group used the CRC system for 20-mins of cryocompression treatment immediately after exercise, 24 hours, and 48 hours after exercise. CON sat quietly for 20-mins at the same time points. Muscle damage [creatine kinase], soreness (visual analog scale, 0-100, pain (McGill Pain Q, 0-5, fatigue, sleep quality, and jump power were significantly (p < 0.05 improved for CRC compared to CON at 24 and 48 hours after exercise. Pain was also significantly lower for CRC compared to CON at 60-mins post exercise. These findings show that cryocompression can enhance recovery and performance following a heavy resistance exercise workout.

  2. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal VLDL-TG metabolism in women. Eleven healthy women (age = 23.5 ± 2.7 yr, body mass index = 21.6 ± 1.4 kg·m-2; mean ± SD) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: (i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123 ± 18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06 ± 0.39 MJ, ∼500 kcal), (ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10 ± 0.41 MJ, and (iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was approximately 30% lower after the exercise trial compared with the control trial (P restriction trial (P = 0.297 vs control). Relative to the control condition, exercise increased the plasma clearance rate of VLDL-TG by 22% (P = 0.001) and reduced hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate by approximately 17% (P = 0.042), whereas hypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P > 0.2). (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction.

  3. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael; Moyna, Niall M; Zderic, Theodore W; O'Gorman, Donal J; McCaffrey, Noel; Carson, Brian P; Hamilton, Marc T

    2012-07-10

    Many of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects. Using a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL). The intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70-120 nm (large) particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43-55 nm (medium) particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29-43 nm) was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state. These findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in LPL activity.

  4. ACUTE PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF EXERCISE PERFORMED AT SELF-SELECTED WORKLOADS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE

    OpenAIRE

    Attila Szabo

    2003-01-01

    Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants’ preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs) took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs) completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants...

  5. Acute and chronic effects of resistance exercise on the testosterone and cortisol responses in obese males: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, C B; Hackney, A C

    2014-01-01

    The biosynthesis and metabolism of testosterone and cortisol are altered by the high levels of adipose tissue and the constant state of low-grade inflammation of obesity. Resistance exercise (REx) has become one of the main lifestyle interventions prescribed to obese individuals due to its ability to positively influence body composition and some biomarkers, such as cholesterol and insulin resistance. Yet, little research has been done in obese examining the effects of REx on the testosterone and blood cortisol responses, two integral hormones in both exercise and obesity. The obese testosterone response to REx and whether or not it is blunted compared to lean individuals remains elusive. Conflicting findings concerning the blood cortisol response have also been reported, likely due to variance in REx protocol and the level of obesity in the participants in studies. Comparatively, both of these hormones have been extremely well studied in untrained lean males, which could be used as a basis for future research in obese males. However, without this endocrinological information, it is unknown if the current acute REx prescriptions are appropriate for eliciting a favorable acute endocrinological response, and ultimately, a positive chronic adaptation in obese males.

  6. [Acute and remote biochemical and physiological effects of exhaustive weightlifting exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minigalin, A D; Shumakov, A R; Baranova, T I; Danilova, M A; Kalinskiĭ, M I; Morozov, V I

    2011-01-01

    The goal of the work was a study of exhaustive weightlifting exercise effect on prolonged changes in physiological and biochemical variables characterized functional status of skeletal muscles. An exercise gave rise to significant blood lactate concentration increase that was indicative of an anaerobic metabolism to be a predominant mechanism of muscle contraction energy supply. A reduction of m. rectus femoris EMG activity (amplitude and frequency), tonus of tension and an increase in tonus of relaxation were found immediately after exercise. Both EMG amplitude and frequency were increased 1 day post-exercise. However, after 3 days of recovery, EMG amplitude and frequency were decreased again and, in parallel, blood serum creatine kinase (CK) activity was significantly increased. After 9 recovery days, all measured variables with the exception of CK were normalized. A significant reverse correlation was found between blood serum lactate concentration and m. rectus femoris EMG activity at the same time points. Blood serum CK activity and m. rectus femoris EMG and tonus variables were observed to be significantly reversely correlated on the 3rd post-exercise day. Presented data demonstrate that exhaustive exercise-induced muscle injury resulted in phase alterations in electrical activity and tonus which correlated with lactate concentration and CK activity in blood serum.

  7. Acute effects of exercise on mood and EEG activity in healthy young subjects: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattari, Eduardo; Portugal, Eduardo; Moraes, Helena; Machado, Sérgio; Santos, Tony M; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalography has been used to establish the relationship among cortical activity, exercise and mood, such as asymmetry, absolute and relative power. The purpose of this study was to systematically review the influence of cortical activity on mood state induced by exercise. The Preferred Reporting Items in Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses was followed in this study. The studies were retrieved from MEDLINE/PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and SciELO. Search was conducted in all databases using the following terms: EEG asymmetry, sLORETA, exercise, with affect, mood and emotions. Based on the defined criteria, a total of 727 articles were found in the search conducted in the literature (666 in Pubmed, 54 in ISI Web of Science, 2 in SciELO and 5 in other data sources). Total of 11 studies were selected which properly met the criteria for this review. Nine out of 11 studies used the frontal asymmetry, four used absolute and relative power and one used sLORETA. With regard to changes in cortical activity and mood induced by exercise, six studies attributed this result to different intensities, one to duration, one to type of exercise and one to fitness level. In general, EEG measures showed contradictory evidence of its ability to predict or modulate psychological mood states through exercise intervention.

  8. Altered insulin response to an acute bout of exercise in pediatric obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Brian D; Leu, Szu-Yun; Oliver, Stacy; Graf, Scott; Vigil, Diana; Galassetti, Pietro

    2014-11-01

    Pediatric obesity typically induces insulin resistance, often later evolving into type 2 diabetes. While exercise, enhancing insulin sensitivity, is broadly used to prevent this transition, it is unknown whether alterations in the exercise insulin response pattern occur in obese children. Therefore, we measured exercise insulin responses in 57 healthy weight (NW), 20 overweight (OW), and 56 obese (Ob) children. Blood samples were drawn before and after 30 min of intermittent (2 min on, 1 min off) cycling at ~80% VO2max. In a smaller group (14 NW, 6 OW, 15 Ob), a high-fat meal was ingested 45 min preexercise. Baseline glycemia was similar and increased slightly and similarly in all groups during exercise. Basal insulin (pmol/L) was significantly higher in Ob vs. other groups; postexercise, insulin increased in NW (+7± 3) and OW (+5 ± 8), but decreased in Ob (-15±5, p feeding caused a rapid rise in insulin, promptly corrected by exercise. In Ob, however, insulin rose again 30 min postexercise. Our data indicates a distinct pattern of exercise-induced insulin modulation in pediatric obesity, possibly modulated by basal insulin concentrations.

  9. Iron status and the acute post-exercise hepcidin response in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Peeling

    Full Text Available This study explored the relationship between serum ferritin and hepcidin in athletes. Baseline serum ferritin levels of 54 athletes from the control trial of five investigations conducted in our laboratory were considered; athletes were grouped according to values 100 μg/L (SF>100. Data pooling resulted in each athlete completing one of five running sessions: (1 8 × 3 min at 85% vVO2peak; (2 5 × 4 min at 90% vVO2peak; (3 90 min continuous at 75% vVO2peak; (4 40 min continuous at 75% vVO2peak; (5 40 min continuous at 65% vVO2peak. Athletes from each running session were represented amongst all four groups; hence, the mean exercise duration and intensity were not different (p>0.05. Venous blood samples were collected pre-, post- and 3 h post-exercise, and were analysed for serum ferritin, iron, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and hepcidin-25. Baseline and post-exercise serum ferritin levels were different between groups (p0.05. Post-exercise IL-6 was significantly elevated compared to baseline within each group (p100; p<0.05. An athlete's iron stores may dictate the baseline hepcidin levels and the magnitude of post-exercise hepcidin response. Low iron stores suppressed post-exercise hepcidin, seemingly overriding any inflammatory-driven increases.

  10. Skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are related to insulin sensitivity and respond to acute exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Brozinick, Joseph T; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Strauss, Allison N; Bacon, Samantha D; Kerege, Anna A; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Wei, Tao; Thomas, Melissa; Kuo, Ming Shang; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-06-01

    Several recent reports indicate that the balance of skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a key determinant of muscle contractile function and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between skeletal muscle PC, PE and insulin sensitivity, and whether PC and PE are dynamically regulated in response to acute exercise in humans. Insulin sensitivity was measured via intravenous glucose tolerance in sedentary obese adults (OB; n = 14), individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 15), and endurance-trained athletes (ATH; n = 15). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after 90 min of cycle ergometry at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max), and 2-h postexercise (recovery). Skeletal muscle PC and PE were measured via infusion-based mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. ATH had greater levels of muscle PC and PE compared with OB and T2D (P insulin sensitivity (both P insulin sensitivity among the entire cohort (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). Muscle PC and PE were altered by exercise, particularly after 2 h of recovery, in a highly group-specific manner. However, muscle PC:PE ratio remained unchanged in all groups. In summary, total muscle PC and PE are positively related to insulin sensitivity while PC:PE ratio is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in humans. A single session of exercise significantly alters skeletal muscle PC and PE levels, but not PC:PE ratio. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Phosphorylation and Lactate Accumulation During Sprint Exercise in Normoxia and Severe Acute Hypoxia: Effects of Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Morales-Alamo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compared to normoxia, during sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia the glycolytic rate is increased leading to greater lactate accumulation, acidification, and oxidative stress. To determine the role played by pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH activation and reactive nitrogen and oxygen species (RNOS in muscle lactate accumulation, nine volunteers performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test on four occasions: two after the ingestion of placebo and another two following the intake of antioxidants, while breathing either hypoxic gas (PIO2 = 75 mmHg or room air (PIO2 = 143 mmHg. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before, immediately after, 30 and 120 min post-sprint. Antioxidants reduced the glycolytic rate without altering performance or VO2. Immediately after the sprints, Ser293- and Ser300-PDH-E1α phosphorylations were reduced to similar levels in all conditions (~66 and 91%, respectively. However, 30 min into recovery Ser293-PDH-E1α phosphorylation reached pre-exercise values while Ser300-PDH-E1α was still reduced by 44%. Thirty minutes after the sprint Ser293-PDH-E1α phosphorylation was greater with antioxidants, resulting in 74% higher muscle lactate concentration. Changes in Ser293 and Ser300-PDH-E1α phosphorylation from pre to immediately after the sprints were linearly related after placebo (r = 0.74, P < 0.001; n = 18, but not after antioxidants ingestion (r = 0.35, P = 0.15. In summary, lactate accumulation during sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia is not caused by a reduced activation of the PDH. The ingestion of antioxidants is associated with increased PDH re-phosphorylation and slower elimination of muscle lactate during the recovery period. Ser293 re-phosphorylates at a faster rate than Ser300-PDH-E1α during the recovery period, suggesting slightly different regulatory mechanisms.

  12. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG metabolism in women. Methods Eleven healthy women (age: 23.5±2.7 years, BMI: 21.6±1.4 kg/m2) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123±18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06±0.39 MJ (~500 kcal)), ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10±0.41 MJ, and iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Results Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was ~30% lower after the exercise trial compared to the control trial (Phypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P>0.2). Conclusion (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction. PMID:23073216

  13. Short-term regular aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress produced by acute in the adipose microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Austin T; Fancher, Ibra S; Sudhahar, Varadarajan; Bian, Jing Tan; Cook, Marc D; Mahmoud, Abeer M; Ali, Mohamed M; Ushio-Fukai, Masuko; Brown, Michael D; Fukai, Tohru; Phillips, Shane A

    2017-05-01

    High blood pressure has been shown to elicit impaired dilation in the vasculature. The purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the mechanisms through which high pressure may elicit vascular dysfunction and determine the mechanisms through which regular aerobic exercise protects arteries against high pressure. Male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to 2 wk of voluntary running (~6 km/day) for comparison with sedentary controls. Hindlimb adipose resistance arteries were dissected from mice for measurements of flow-induced dilation (FID; with or without high intraluminal pressure exposure) or protein expression of NADPH oxidase II (NOX II) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Microvascular endothelial cells were subjected to high physiological laminar shear stress (20 dyn/cm 2 ) or static condition and treated with ANG II + pharmacological inhibitors. Cells were analyzed for the detection of ROS or collected for Western blot determination of NOX II and SOD. Resistance arteries from exercised mice demonstrated preserved FID after high pressure exposure, whereas FID was impaired in control mouse arteries. Inhibition of ANG II or NOX II restored impaired FID in control mouse arteries. High pressure increased superoxide levels in control mouse arteries but not in exercise mouse arteries, which exhibited greater ability to convert superoxide to H 2 O 2 Arteries from exercised mice exhibited less NOX II protein expression, more SOD isoform expression, and less sensitivity to ANG II. Endothelial cells subjected to laminar shear stress exhibited less NOX II subunit expression. In conclusion, aerobic exercise prevents high pressure-induced vascular dysfunction through an improved redox environment in the adipose microvasculature. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We describe potential mechanisms contributing to aerobic exercise-conferred protection against high intravascular pressure. Subcutaneous adipose microvessels from exercise mice express less NADPH oxidase (NOX) II and more superoxide

  14. Endocrine responses and acute mTOR pathway phosphorylation to resistance exercise with leucine and whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MT Lane

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Leucine ingestion reportedly activates the mTOR pathway in skeletal muscle, contributing to a hypertrophy response. The purpose of the study was to compare the post-resistance exercise effects of leucine and whey protein supplementation on endocrine responses and muscle mTOR pathway phosphorylation. On visit 1, subjects (X±SD; n=20; age=27.8±2.8yrs provided baseline blood samples for analysis of cortisol, glucose and insulin; a muscle biopsy of the vastus lateralis muscle to assess mTOR signaling pathway phosphorylation; and were tested for maximum strength on the leg press and leg extension exercises. For visits 2 and 3, subjects were randomized in a double-blind crossover design to ingest either leucine and whey protein (10g+10g; supplement or a non-caloric placebo. During these visits, 5 sets of 10 repetitions were performed on both exercises, immediately followed by ingestion of the supplement or placebo. Blood was sampled 30 min post-, and a muscle biopsy 45 min post-exercise. Western blots quantified total and phosphorylated proteins. Insulin increased (α<.05 with supplementation with no change in glucose compared to placebo. Relative phosphorylation of AKT and rpS6 were greater with leucine and whey supplementation compared to placebo. Supplementation of leucine and whey protein immediately after heavy resistance exercise increases anabolic signaling in human skeletal muscle.

  15. High-Intensity Interval Exercises' Acute Impact on Heart Rate Variability: Comparison Between Whole-Body and Cycle Ergometer Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaun, Gustavo Z; Del Vecchio, Fabrício B

    2018-01-01

    Schaun, GZ and Del Vecchio, FB. High-intensity interval exercises' acute impact on heart rate variability: comparison between whole-body and cycle ergometer protocols. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 223-229, 2018-Study aimed to compare the effects of 2 high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on heart rate variability. Twelve young adult males (23.3 ± 3.9 years, 177.8 ± 7.4 cm, 76.9 ± 12.9 kg) volunteered to participate. In a randomized cross-over design, subjects performed 2 HIIT protocols, 1 on a cycle ergometer (Tabata protocol [TBT]; eight 20-second bouts at 170% Pmax interspersed by 10-second rest) and another with whole-body calisthenic exercises (McRae protocol; eight 20-second all-out intervals interspersed by 10-second rest). Heart rate variability outcomes in the time, frequency, and nonlinear domains were assessed on 3 moments: (a) presession; (b) immediately postsession; and (c) 24 hours postsession. Results revealed that RRmean, Ln rMSSD, Ln high frequency (HF), and Ln low frequency (LF) were significantly reduced immediately postsession (p ≤ 0.001) and returned to baseline 24 h after both protocols. In addition, LF/HF ratio was reduced 24 h postsession (p ≤ 0.01) and SD2 was significantly lower immediately postsession only in TBT. Our main finding was that responses from heart rate autonomic control were similar in both protocols, despite different modes of exercise performed. Specifically, exercises resulted in a high parasympathetic inhibition immediately after session with subsequent recovery within 1 day. These results suggest that subjects were already recovered the day after and can help coaches to better program training sessions with such protocols.

  16. Acute Effect of Intermittent Exercise and Action-Based Video Game Breaks on Math Performance in Preadolescent Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Shannon S; Tooley, Trevor R; Nagy, Matthew R; O'Sullivan, Molly P; Robinson, Leah E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Hasson, Rebecca E

    2018-02-27

    The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of video game breaks and intermittent exercise breaks, performed at varying intensities, on math performance in preadolescent children. A total of 39 children (18 males and 21 females; aged 7-11 y) completed 4 experimental conditions in random order: 8 hours of sitting interrupted with 20 two-minute low-, moderate-, or high-intensity exercise breaks or 20 two-minute sedentary computer game breaks. The intensity of exercise breaks for the low-, moderate-, and high-intensity conditions corresponded with 25%, 50%, and 75% of heart rate reserve, respectively. Math performance was assessed 3 times throughout each condition day using a 90-second math test consisting of 40 single-digit addition and subtraction questions. There were no significant differences in percent change in math scores (correct answers out of attempted) by condition [low: -1.3 (0.8), moderate: 0.1 (1.3), high: -1.8 (0.7), and computer: -2.5 (0.8); P > .05]. There were significant differences in percent change in math scores over the course of the condition days with lower math scores reported at end-of-day test compared with midday test [-2.4 (0.5) vs -0.4 (0.3); P = .01]. There were no significant condition × time, time × age, condition × age, or condition × time × age interactions (all Ps > .05). Action-based video game and exercise breaks elicit the same level of math performance in children; however, time of day may impact this relationship. These findings may have important implications for instructional time in elementary classrooms.

  17. Transient myocardial ischemia after a first acute myocardial infarction and its relation to clinical characteristics, predischarge exercise testing and cardiac events at one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1993-01-01

    recording 11 +/- 5 days after AMI 23 patients (19%) had 123 ischemic episodes (group 1), whereas 100 patients demonstrated no ischemia (group 2). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression was more prevalent in group 1 (83%) than in group 2 (47%) (p ... as judged from a shorter exercise duration before significant ST-segment depression (5.5 +/- 2.4 vs 7.7 +/- 4.1 minutes; p depression on exercise testing (4.1 +/- 2.6 vs 2.6 +/- 1.6 mm; p exercise test results revealed an impaired hemodynamic......The relation between early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST-segment monitoring, clinical characteristics, predischarge maximal exercise testing and cardiac events was determined in 123 consecutive men (age 55 +/- 8 years) with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). During 36 hours of ambulatory...

  18. Transcranial magnetic stimulation probes the excitability of the primary motor cortex: A framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute whole-body exercise on motor processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Davranche

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of exercise on decision-making performance have been studied using a wide variety of cognitive tasks and exercise interventions. Although the current literature supports a beneficial influence of acute exercise on cognitive performance, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon have not yet been elucidated. We review studies that used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS to probe the excitability of motor structures during whole-body exercise and present a framework to account for the facilitating effects of acute exercise on motor processes. Recent results suggest that, even in the absence of fatigue, the increase in corticospinal excitability classically reported during submaximal and exhausting exercises may be accompanied by a reduction in intracortical inhibition. We propose that reduced intracortical inhibition elicits an adaptive central mechanism that counteracts the progressive reduction in muscle responsiveness caused by peripheral fatigue. Such a reduction would render the motor cortex more sensitive to upstream influences, thus causing increased corticospinal excitability. Furthermore, reduction of intracortical inhibition may account for the more efficient descending drive and for the improvement of reaction time performance during exercise. The adaptive modulation in intracortical inhibition could be implemented through a general increase in reticular activation that would further account for enhanced sensory sensitivity.

  19. Does acute exercise affect the performance of whole-body, psychomotor skills in an inverted-U fashion? A meta-analytic investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Terry; Hale, Beverley J; Corbett, Jo; Robertson, Kevin; Hodgson, Christopher I

    2015-03-15

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine, using meta-analytical measures, whether research into the performance of whole-body, psychomotor tasks following moderate and heavy exercise demonstrates an inverted-U effect. A secondary purpose was to compare the effects of acute exercise on tasks requiring static maintenance of posture versus dynamic, ballistic skills. Moderate intensity exercise was determined as being between 40% and 79% maximum power output (ẆMAX) or equivalent, while ≥80% ẆMAX was considered to be heavy. There was a significant difference (Zdiff=4.29, p=0.001, R(2)=0.42) between the mean effect size for moderate intensity exercise (g=0.15) and that for heavy exercise size (g=-0.86). These data suggest a catastrophe effect during heavy exercise. Mean effect size for static tasks (g=-1.24) was significantly different (Zdiff=3.24, p=0.001, R(2)=0.90) to those for dynamic/ballistic tasks (g=-0.30). The result for the static versus dynamic tasks moderating variables point to perception being more of an issue than peripheral fatigue for maintenance of static posture. The difference between this result and those found in meta-analyses examining the effects of acute exercise on cognition shows that, when perception and action are combined, the complexity of the interaction induces different effects to when cognition is detached from motor performance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Acute resistance exercise modulates microRNA expression profiles: Combined tissue and circulatory targeted analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall F D'Souza

    Full Text Available A subset of short non-coding RNAs, microRNAs (miRs, have been identified in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. Expressed within cells, miRs are also present in circulation (c-miR and have a putative role in cross-tissue signalling. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of a single bout of high intensity resistance exercise (RE on skeletal muscle and circulatory miRs harvested simultaneously. Resistance trained males (n = 9, 24.6 ± 4.9 years undertook a single bout of high volume RE with venous blood and muscle biopsies collected before, 2 and 4hr post-exercise. Real time polymerase chain reaction (Rt-PCR analyses was performed on 30 miRs that have previously been shown to be required for skeletal muscle function. Of these, 6 miRs were significantly altered within muscle following exercise; miR-23a, -133a, -146a, -206, -378b and 486. Analysis of these same miRs in circulation demonstrated minimal alterations with exercise, although c-miR-133a (~4 fold, p = 0.049 and c-miR-149 (~2.4 fold; p = 0.006 were increased 4hr post-exercise. Thus a single bout of RE results in the increased abundance of a subset of miRs within the skeletal muscle, which was not evident in plasma. The lack a qualitative agreement in the response pattern of intramuscular and circulating miR expression suggests the analysis of circulatory miRs is not reflective of the miR responses within skeletal muscle after exercise.

  1. Effect of physical training on the recovery of acute exercise, among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldivia, Marianna; Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes; Myers, Jonathan; Lara, Jorge; Bueno, Leopoldo

    Physical training programs (PTP) have shown several beneficial effects for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly by increasing survival and quality of life. Physiological response during the effort and recovery phases of an exercise testing, is one of the strongest prognostic markers among patients with CVD. A reasonable mechanism that explains those training effects on survival is through the adaptations seen on heart rate recovery (HRR) and oxygen uptake kinetics at the post-exertional phase (RVO 2 ). Compare the HRR and RVO 2 values before and after a PTP in patients with CVD. We studied a cohort of patients included in a cardiac rehabilitation program, whom performed a cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Then, risk stratification and an individualized exercise training program were performed. The exercise training program included 20 sessions of aerobic exercise, 30min a day, five times a week, at moderate intensity. Finally, a second CPX was performed. A total of 215 patients were included. Peak oxygen uptake values rose 2.2±5.2ml/kg/min (p<0.001), HRR increased 1.6±10bpm (p<0.05) and RVO 2 improved -21±98s (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis show that the percentage of maximum heart rate remained statistically associated with HRR increment. Furthermore, diabetes and sedentarism were strongly related to RVO 2 improvement. No correlation between HRR and RVO 2 was found (R 2 =0.002). Physical exercise was associated with a beneficial effect on HRR and RVO 2 . Nevertheless, both variables were statistically unrelated. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute and chronic safety and efficacy of dose dependent creatine nitrate supplementation and exercise performance

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Elfego; Walker, Dillon K.; Simbo, Sunday Y.; Dalton, Ryan; Levers, Kyle; O?Connor, Abigail; Goodenough, Chelsea; Barringer, Nicholas D.; Greenwood, Mike; Rasmussen, Christopher; Smith, Stephen B.; Riechman, Steven E.; Fluckey, James D.; Murano, Peter S.; Earnest, Conrad P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM) and nitrate are popular supplements for improving exercise performance; yet have not been investigated in combination. We performed two studies to determine the safety and exercise performance-characteristics of creatine nitrate (CrN) supplementation. Methods Study 1 participants (N?=?13) ingested 1.5?g CrN (CrN-Low), 3?g CrN (CrN-High), 5?g CrM or a placebo in a randomized, crossover study (7d washout) to determine supplement safety (hepatorenal and musc...

  3. Exercise interventions for patients with pediatric cancer during inpatient acute care: A systematic review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustler, Vanessa; Hagerty, Meaghan; Daeggelmann, Julia; Marjerrison, Stacey; Bloch, Wilhelm; Baumann, Freerk T

    2017-11-01

    Physical inactivity has been shown to exacerbate negative side effects experienced by pediatric patients undergoing cancer therapy. Exercise interventions are being created in response. This review summarizes current exercise intervention data in the inpatient pediatric oncology setting. Two independent reviewers collected literature from three databases, and analyzed data following the PRISMA statement for systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Ten studies were included, representing 204 patients. Good adherence, positive trends in health status, and no adverse events were noted. Common strategies included individual, supervised, combination training with adaptability to meet fluctuating patient abilities. We recommend that general physical activity programming be offered to pediatric oncology inpatients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harrison, Michael

    2012-06-06

    AbstractBackgroundMany of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS), it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects.MethodsUsing a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i) an inactive control trial (CON), ii) exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF), and iii) after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL).ResultsThe intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG) determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large) particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium) particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm) was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state.ConclusionsThese findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in LPL activity.

  5. Lipoprotein particle distribution and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase activity after acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Michael

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many of the metabolic effects of exercise are due to the most recent exercise session. With recent advances in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMRS, it is possible to gain insight about which lipoprotein particles are responsible for mediating exercise effects. Methods Using a randomized cross-over design, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL responses were evaluated in eight men on the morning after i an inactive control trial (CON, ii exercising vigorously on the prior evening for 100 min followed by fasting overnight to maintain an energy and carbohydrate deficit (EX-DEF, and iii after the same exercise session followed by carbohydrate intake to restore muscle glycogen and carbohydrate balance (EX-BAL. Results The intermediate, low and high density lipoprotein particle concentrations did not differ between trials. Fasting triglyceride (TG determined biochemically, and mean VLDL size were lower in EX-DEF but not in EX-BAL compared to CON, primarily due to a reduction in VLDL-TG in the 70–120 nm (large particle range. In contrast, VLDL-TG was lower in both EX-DEF and EX-BAL compared to CON in the 43–55 nm (medium particle range. VLDL-TG in smaller particles (29–43 nm was unaffected by exercise. Because the majority of VLDL particles were in this smallest size range and resistant to change, total VLDL particle concentration was not different between any of these conditions. Skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (LPL activity was also not different across these 3 trials. However, in CON only, the inter-individual differences in LPL activity were inversely correlated with fasting TG, VLDL-TG, total, large and small VLDL particle concentration and VLDL size, indicating a regulatory role for LPL in the non-exercised state. Conclusions These findings reveal a high level of differential regulation between different sized triglyceride-rich lipoproteins following exercise and feeding, in the absence of changes in

  6. Oral neutrophil responses to acute prolonged exercise may not be representative of blood neutrophil responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davison, Glen; Jones, Arwel Wyn

    2015-03-01

    Neutrophil numbers and function (oxidative burst) were assessed in peripheral blood and oral samples before and after prolonged exercise. Blood neutrophil count increased (∼3.5-fold, P < 0.001) and function decreased (30% ± 19% decrease, P = 0.005) postexercise. Oral neutrophil count (P = 0.392) and function (P = 0.334) were unchanged. Agreement between oral and blood neutrophil function responses to exercise was poor. These findings highlight the importance of studying neutrophils within various compartments/sample types.

  7. Cardiorespiratory fitness modulates the acute flow-mediated dilation response following high-intensity but not moderate-intensity exercise in elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Tom G; Perissiou, Maria; Windsor, Mark; Russell, Fraser; Golledge, Jonathan; Green, Daniel J; Askew, Christopher D

    2017-05-01

    Impaired endothelial function is observed with aging and in those with low cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇o 2peak ). Improvements in endothelial function with exercise training are somewhat dependent on the intensity of exercise. While the acute stimulus for this improvement is not completely understood, it may, in part, be due to the flow-mediated dilation (FMD) response to acute exercise. We examined the hypothesis that exercise intensity alters the brachial (systemic) FMD response in elderly men and is modulated by V̇o 2peak Forty-seven elderly men were stratified into lower (V̇o 2peak = 24.3 ± 2.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; n = 27) and higher fit groups (V̇o 2peak = 35.4 ± 5.5 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ; n = 20) after a test of cycling peak power output (PPO). In randomized order, participants undertook moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE; 40% PPO) or high-intensity interval cycling exercise (HIIE; 70% PPO) or no-exercise control. Brachial FMD was assessed at rest and 10 and 60 min after exercise. FMD increased after MICE in both groups {increase of 0.86% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.17-1.56], P = 0.01} and normalized after 60 min. In the lower fit group, FMD was reduced after HIIE [reduction of 0.85% (95% CI, 0.12-1.58), P = 0.02] and remained decreased at 60 min. In the higher fit group, FMD was unchanged immediately after HIIE and increased after 60 min [increase of 1.52% (95% CI, 0.41-2.62), P exercise control, FMD was reduced in both groups after 60 min ( P = 0.05). Exercise intensity alters the acute FMD response in elderly men and V̇o 2peak modulates the FMD response following HIIE but not MICE. The sustained decrease in FMD in the lower fit group following HIIE may represent a signal for vascular adaptation or endothelial fatigue. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study is the first to show that moderate-intensity continuous cycling exercise increased flow-mediated dilation (FMD) transiently before normalization of FMD after 1 h, irrespective of

  8. Acute Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Exercise and Continuous Moderate-Intensity Exercise Elicit a Similar Improvement in 24-h Glycemic Control in Overweight and Obese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Shaw, Christopher S; Banting, Lauren; Levinger, Itamar; Hill, Karen M; McAinch, Andrew J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute exercise reduces postprandial oxidative stress and glycemia; however, the effects of exercise intensity are unclear. We investigated the effect of acute low-volume high-intensity interval-exercise (LV-HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE) on glycemic control and oxidative stress in overweight and obese, inactive adults. Methods: Twenty-seven adults were randomly allocated to perform a single session of LV-HIIE (9 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 1 years; BMI: 29 ± 1 kg·m -2 ; mean ± SEM) or CMIE (8 females, 5 males; age: 30 ± 2.0; BMI: 30 ± 2.0) 1 h after consumption of a standard breakfast. Plasma redox status, glucose and insulin were measured. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) was conducted during the 24-h period before (rest day) and after exercise (exercise day). Results: Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; 29 ±13%, p improvement in 24-h average glucose levels (-5 ± 2%, p improving 24-h glycemic control in overweight and obese adults.

  9. Acute Effects of Exercise Mode on Arterial Stiffness and Wave Reflection in Healthy Young Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doris R. Pierce

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This systematic review and meta-analysis quantified the effect of acute exercise mode on arterial stiffness and wave reflection measures including carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV, augmentation index (AIx, and heart rate corrected AIx (AIx75.Methods: Using standardized terms, database searches from inception until 2017 identified 45 studies. Eligible studies included acute aerobic and/or resistance exercise in healthy adults, pre- and post-intervention measurements or change values, and described their study design. Data from included studies were analyzed and reported in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and PRISMA guidelines. Meta-analytical data were reported via forest plots using absolute differences with 95% confidence intervals with the random effects model accounting for between-study heterogeneity. Reporting bias was assessed via funnel plots and, individual studies were evaluated for bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias. A modified PEDro Scale was applied to appraise methodological concerns inherent to included studies.Results: Acute aerobic exercise failed to change cf-PWV (mean difference: 0.00 ms−1 [95% confidence interval: −0.11, 0.11], p = 0.96, significantly reduced AIx (−4.54% [−7.05, −2.04], p = 0.0004 and significantly increased AIx75 (3.58% [0.56, 6.61], p = 0.02. Contrastingly, acute resistance exercise significantly increased cf-PWV (0.42 ms−1 [0.17, 0.66], p = 0.0008, did not change AIx (1.63% [−3.83, 7.09], p = 0.56, and significantly increased AIx75 (15.02% [8.71, 21.33], p < 0.00001. Significant heterogeneity was evident within all comparisons except cf-PWV following resistance exercise, and several methodological concerns including low applicability of exercise protocols and lack of control intervention were identified.Conclusions: Distinct arterial stiffness and wave reflection responses were identified

  10. Acute exercise in treated phenylketonuria patients : Physical activity and biochemical response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mazzola, Priscila Nicolao; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Schirmbeck, Gabriel Henrique; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Derks, Terry G J; van Spronsen, Francjan J; Dutra-Filho, Carlos Severo; Schwartz, Ida Vanessa Doederlein

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In phenylketonuria, dietary treatment prevents most of the severe brain disease. However, patients have to follow a diet restricted in several natural components, what may cause decreased bone density and obesity. Exercise is known to improve both mental functioning and bone density also

  11. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  12. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  13. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Tom; Giesbrecht, Barry

    2014-01-01

    Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-min intervals over a 2 h 16 min test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention. PMID:25426094

  14. Validity of predicting left ventricular end systolic pressure changes following an acute bout of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappus, Rebecca M; Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D; Cook, Marc D; Hall, Grenita; Harvey, I Shevon; Wilund, Kenneth R; Woods, Jeffrey A; Fernhall, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular end systolic pressure (LV ESP) is important in assessing left ventricular performance and is usually derived from prediction equations. It is unknown whether these equations are accurate at rest or following exercise in a young, healthy population. Measured LV ESP vs. LV ESP values from the prediction equations were compared at rest, 15 min and 30 min following peak aerobic exercise in 60 participants. LV ESP was obtained by applanation tonometry at rest, 15 min post and 30 min post peak cycle exercise. Measured LV ESP was significantly lower (p<0.05) at all time points in comparison to the two calculated values. Measured LV ESP decreased significantly from rest at both the post15 and post30 time points (p<0.05) and changed differently in comparison to the calculated values (significant interaction; p<0.05). The two LV ESP equations were also significantly different from each other (p<0.05) and changed differently over time (significant interaction; p<0.05). The two commonly used prediction equations did not accurately predict either resting or post exercise LV ESP in a young, healthy population. Thus, LV ESP needs to be individually determined in young, healthy participants. Non-invasive measurement through applanation tonometry appears to allow for a more accurate determination of LV ESP. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Acute Maximal Exercise on Circulating Levels of Interleukin-12 during Ramadan Fasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedelmalek, Salma; Souissi, Nizar; Takayuki, Akimoto; Hadouk, Sami; Tabka, Zouhair

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Ramadan fasting on circulating levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12) after a brief maximal exercise. NINE SUBJECTS PERFORMED A WINGATE TEST ON THREE DIFFERENT OCCASIONS: (i) the first week of Ramadan (1WR), (ii) the fourth week of Ramadan (4WR), and (iii) three weeks after Ramadan (AR). Blood samples were taken before, immediately and 60 min after the exercise. Plasma concentrations of IL-12 were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Variance analysis revealed no significant effect of Ramadan on P(peak) and P(mean) during the three testing periods. Considering the effect of Ramadan on plasma concentrations of IL-12, analysis of the variance revealed a significant Ramadan effect (F((2,) (16))=66.27; P effect (F((2,) (16))= 120.66; P Ramadan × time) of test interaction (F((4,) (32))=2.40; P>0.05). For all measures, IL-12 levels were lower during 1WR and 4WR in comparison with AR (P effects, IL-12 levels measured immediately after the exercise were significantly higher than those measured before and at 60 minutes after the exercise (P Ramadan.

  16. Acute changes in arterial stiffness following exercise in people with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Jeyasundar; Swaminathan, Narasimman; Pereira, Natasha M; Henderson, Keiran; Brodie, David A

    This study aims to examine the changes in arterial stiffness immediately following sub-maximal exercise in people with metabolic syndrome. Ninety-four adult participants (19-80 years) with metabolic syndrome gave written consent and were measured for arterial stiffness using a SphygmoCor (SCOR-PVx, Version 8.0, Atcor Medical Private Ltd, USA) immediately before and within 5-10min after an incremental shuttle walk test. The arterial stiffness measures used were pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic pulse pressure (PP), augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AI), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) and ejection duration (ED). There was a significant increase (pexercise. Exercise capacity had a strong inverse correlation with arterial stiffness and age (pExercise capacity is inversely related to arterial stiffness and age in people with metabolic syndrome. Exercise induced changes in arterial stiffness measured using pulse wave analysis is an important tool that provides further evidence in studying cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The miRNA Plasma Signature in Response to Acute Aerobic Exercise and Endurance Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Rinnov, Anders

    2014-01-01

    MiRNAs are potent intracellular posttranscriptional regulators and are also selectively secreted into the circulation in a cell-specific fashion. Global changes in miRNA expression in skeletal muscle in response to endurance exercise training have been reported. Therefore, our aim was to establis...

  18. The effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on carbohydrate metabolism and performance during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Chou, Chieh J; Grathwohl, Dominik; Ross, Alastair B; Cooper, Karen A; Williamson, Gary; Actis-Goretta, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of cocoa-enriched dark chocolate (DC) has been shown to alter glucose and insulin concentration during rest and exercise compared with cocoa-depleted control (CON). However, the impact of DC consumption on exercise metabolism and performance is uncertain. Therefore, we investigated carbohydrate metabolism via stable isotope tracer techniques during exercise after subjects ingested either DC or CON. Sixteen overnight-fasted male cyclists performed a single-blinded, randomized, crossover design trial, after consuming either DC or CON at 2 h prior to 2.5 h of steady-state (SS) exercise (∼45% peak oxygen uptake). This was followed by an ∼15-min time-trial (TT) and 60 min of recovery. [6,6-(2)H2]Glucose and [U-(13)C]glucose were infused during SS to assess glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd). After DC consumption, plasma (-)-glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly (p consumption coincided with high concentrations of epicatechin and (or) theobromine. In summary, DC consumption altered muscle carbohydrate partitioning, between muscle glucose uptake and glycogen oxidation, but did not effect cycling TT performance.

  19. The Effect of Acute Exercise upon Adenosin Deaminase Oxidant and Antioxidant Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafkas, M. Emin; Karabulut, Aysun Bay; Sahin, Armagan; Otlu, Onder; Savas, Seyfi; Aytac, Aylin

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the changes of MDA, glutation (GSH), Adenozine deaminase (ADA) and superoxidase dismutaze (SOD) levels with exercise training in obese middle-aged women (body mass index, MMI [greater than or equal to] 30.0). Twelve obese middle-aged women participated in this study. The descriptive statistics of some of…

  20. Acute exercise and aerobic fitness influence selective attention during visual search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom eBullock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful goal directed behavior relies on a human attention system that is flexible and able to adapt to different conditions of physiological stress. However, the effects of physical activity on multiple aspects of selective attention and whether these effects are mediated by aerobic capacity, remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a prolonged bout of physical activity on visual search performance and perceptual distraction. Two groups of participants completed a hybrid visual search flanker/response competition task in an initial baseline session and then at 17-minute intervals over a 2 hour 16 minute test period. Participants assigned to the exercise group engaged in steady-state aerobic exercise between completing blocks of the visual task, whereas participants assigned to the control group rested in between blocks. The key result was a correlation between individual differences in aerobic capacity and visual search performance, such that those individuals that were more fit performed the search task more quickly. Critically, this relationship only emerged in the exercise group after the physical activity had begun. The relationship was not present in either group at baseline and never emerged in the control group during the test period, suggesting that under these task demands, aerobic capacity may be an important determinant of visual search performance under physical stress. The results enhance current understanding about the relationship between exercise and cognition, and also inform current models of selective attention.

  1. Affect and cortisol mechanisms through which acute exercise attenuates cigarette cravings during a temporary quit attempt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jesus, Stefanie; Prapavessis, Harry

    2018-05-01

    A number of mechanisms have been proposed to explain how exercise attenuates cravings among temporarily abstinent smokers; however, research has presented mixed findings. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanistic role of positive and negative affect and cortisol in the exercise-craving reduction relationship. Adult smokers (N=110, male=56, M age=33.1, M cigarettes/day=15.4) provided baseline affective and cortisol data (T1). After an 18-h period of abstinence, participants were randomized to a passive sitting (PSG) or moderate exercise group (MEG; 40-68% of heart rate reserve) for 10min. Affect and cortisol data were also collected immediately before (T2) and after (T3) the condition. The smoking abstinence manipulation increased cravings (p<0.001, eta=0.40) and negative affect (p<0.001, eta=0.17), as well as decreased positive affect (p<0.001, eta=0.08) and cortisol (trending, p=0.07, η2=0.04). As expected, a significant reduction in cravings from T2 to T3 was found for MEG but not PSG (p<0.001, eta=0.25). Mediation was tested using Sobel and bootstrapping tests with residual change scores of mediators and cravings. Findings showed that both positive and negative affect, but not cortisol, mediated the relationship between exercise and cravings. Understanding the mechanisms by which exercise induces craving reductions will better allow researchers and healthcare professionals to infer causality and implement interventions guided by the processes that yield such desirable outcomes. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Acute effects of a vibration-like stimulus during knee extension exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mileva, Katya N; Naleem, Asif A; Biswas, Santonu K; Marwood, Simon; Bowtell, Joanna L

    2006-07-01

    This study was conducted to test whether a low-frequency vibration-like stimulus (rapid variable resistance) applied during a single session of knee extension exercise would alter muscle performance. Torque, knee joint angle, EMG activity of rectus femoris (RF) and vastus lateralis (VL) muscles, and VL muscle oxygenation status (near-infrared spectroscopy) were recorded during metronome-guided knee extension exercise. Nine healthy adults completed four trials exercising at contraction intensities of 35% (L) or 70% (H) of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in control (no vibration, Vb-) or vibrated condition (superimposed 10-Hz vibration-like stimulus, Vb+). Maximum voluntary contraction and 1RM were tested pre- and postexercise. During 1RM tests, muscle dynamic strength (P=0.02) and power (P=0.05) were significantly higher during vibrated rather than nonvibrated trials, and strength was significantly higher post- than preexercise (P=0.002), except during LVb- trial. Median spectral frequency of VL and RF EMG activity was significantly higher during postexercise than preexercise 1RM test in the vibration trials but unchanged in the control trials (Pvibration superimposition tended to speed muscle deoxygenation rate (P=0.065, 36% effect size) particularly during L trials. Vibration superimposition during knee extension exercise at low contraction intensity enhanced muscle performance. This effect appears to result from adaptation of neural factors such as motor unit excitability (recruitment and firing frequency, conduction velocity of excitation) in response to sensory receptor stimulation. Muscle vibration may increase the training effects derived from light-to-moderate exercise.

  3. Fibromyalgia: anti-inflammatory and stress responses after acute moderate exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bote, Maria Elena; Garcia, Juan Jose; Hinchado, Maria Dolores; Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized in part by an elevated inflammatory status, and "modified exercise" is currently proposed as being a good therapeutic help for these patients. However, the mechanisms involved in the exercise-induced benefits are still poorly understood. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of moderate cycling (45 min at 55% VO2 max) on the inflammatory (serum IL-8; chemotaxis and O2 (-) production by neutrophils; and IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 release by monocytes) and stress (cortisol; NA; and eHsp72) responses in women diagnosed with FM compared with an aged-matched control group of healthy women (HW). IL-8, NA, and eHsp72 were determined by ELISA. Cytokines released by monocytes were determined by Bio-Plex® system (LUMINEX). Cortisol was determined by electrochemoluminiscence, chemotaxis was evaluated in Boyden chambers and O2 (-) production by NBT reduction. In the FM patients, the exercise induced a decrease in the systemic concentration of IL-8, cortisol, NA, and eHsp72; as well as in the neutrophil's chemotaxis and O2 (-) production and in the inflammatory cytokine release by monocytes. This was contrary to the completely expected exercise-induced increase in all those biomarkers in HW. In conclusion, single sessions of moderate cycling can improve the inflammatory status in FM patients, reaching values close to the situation of aged-matched HW at their basal status. The neuroendocrine mechanism seems to be an exercise-induced decrease in the stress response of these patients.

  4. Fibromyalgia: anti-inflammatory and stress responses after acute moderate exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elena Bote

    Full Text Available Fibromyalgia (FM is characterized in part by an elevated inflammatory status, and "modified exercise" is currently proposed as being a good therapeutic help for these patients. However, the mechanisms involved in the exercise-induced benefits are still poorly understood. The objective was to evaluate the effect of a single bout of moderate cycling (45 min at 55% VO2 max on the inflammatory (serum IL-8; chemotaxis and O2 (- production by neutrophils; and IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 release by monocytes and stress (cortisol; NA; and eHsp72 responses in women diagnosed with FM compared with an aged-matched control group of healthy women (HW. IL-8, NA, and eHsp72 were determined by ELISA. Cytokines released by monocytes were determined by Bio-Plex® system (LUMINEX. Cortisol was determined by electrochemoluminiscence, chemotaxis was evaluated in Boyden chambers and O2 (- production by NBT reduction. In the FM patients, the exercise induced a decrease in the systemic concentration of IL-8, cortisol, NA, and eHsp72; as well as in the neutrophil's chemotaxis and O2 (- production and in the inflammatory cytokine release by monocytes. This was contrary to the completely expected exercise-induced increase in all those biomarkers in HW. In conclusion, single sessions of moderate cycling can improve the inflammatory status in FM patients, reaching values close to the situation of aged-matched HW at their basal status. The neuroendocrine mechanism seems to be an exercise-induced decrease in the stress response of these patients.

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... following suggested exercises increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop ... 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank Prop ...

  6. Intense Resistance Exercise Promotes the Acute and Transient Nuclear Translocation of Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier (SUMO-1 in Human Myofibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehlert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein sumoylation is a posttranslational modification triggered by cellular stress. Because general information concerning the role of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO proteins in adult skeletal muscle is sparse, we investigated whether SUMO-1 proteins will be subjected to time-dependent changes in their subcellular localization in sarcoplasmic and nuclear compartments of human type I and II skeletal muscle fibers in response to acute stimulation by resistance exercise (RE. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline (PRE, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h post RE from 6 male subjects subjected to a single bout of one-legged knee extensions. SUMO-1 localization was determined via immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. At baseline SUMO-1 was localized in perinuclear regions of myonuclei. Within 15 and up to 60 min post exercise, nuclear SUMO-1 localization was significantly increased (p < 0.01, declining towards baseline levels within 240 min post exercise. Sarcoplasmic SUMO-1 localization was increased at 15 min post exercise in type I and up to 30 min post RE in type II myofibres. The changing localization of SUMO-1 proteins acutely after intense muscle contractions points to a role for SUMO proteins in the acute regulation of the skeletal muscle proteome after exercise.

  7. The effect of aerobic exercise on treatment-related acute toxicity in men receiving radical external beam radiotherapy for localised prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, G; Windsor, P M; McCowan, C

    2010-09-01

    We retrospectively analysed acute radiation toxicity data for patients who had participated in a randomised controlled study in our centre in order to assess the impact of aerobic exercise on acute rectal and bladder morbidity during treatment. Data from 65 of 66 patients were analysed: 33 allocated into a control group (standard advice) and 33 into an exercise group (aerobic walking for 30 min at least three times per week) during 4 weeks of external beam radiotherapy; one patient in the exercise group withdrew after randomisation before starting radiotherapy. There was a trend towards less severe acute rectal toxicity in the exercise group with a statistically significant difference in mean toxicity scores over the 4 weeks of radiotherapy (P=0.004), with no significant difference in bladder toxicity scores between the two groups (P=0.123). The lack of an association for severity of bladder toxicity could be attributed to the confounding effect of lower urinary tract symptoms from their prostate cancer. Keeping active and being asked to adhere to a well-defined exercise schedule appears to reduce the severity of rectal toxicity during radiotherapy to the prostate.

  8. Differential Effects of Acute (Extenuating and Chronic (Training Exercise on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Status in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Teixeira de Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of a single bout of exercise (acute extenuating with those promoted by an exercise training program (chronic, focusing on low-grade chronic inflammation profile and on oxidative stress status, using the obese ZDF rats as a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks of a swimming training program and after a single bout of acute extenuating exercise. Glycaemic, insulinemic, and lipidic profile (triglycerides, total-cholesterol were evaluated, as well as inflammatory (serum CRPhs, TNF-α, adiponectin and oxidative (lipidic peroxidation and uric acid status. When compared to obese diabetic sedentary rats, the animals submitted to acute exercise presented significantly lower values of glycaemia and insulinaemia, with inflammatory profile and oxidative stress significantly aggravated. The trained animals showed amelioration of glycaemic and lipidic dysmetabolism, accompanied by remarkable reduction of inflammatory and oxidative markers. In conclusion, the results presented herein suggessted that exercise pathogenesis-oriented interventions should not exacerbate underlying inflammatory stress associated with T2DM.

  9. Short Duration Small Sided Football and to a Lesser Extent Whole Body Vibration Exercise Induce Acute Changes in Markers of Bone Turnover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowtell, J. L.; Jackman, S. R.; Scott, S.

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to study whether short-duration vibration exercise or football sessions of two different durations acutely changed plasma markers of bone turnover and muscle strain. Inactive premenopausal women (n = 56) were randomized to complete a single bout of short (FG15) or long duration (FG60) sm...

  10. The Effect of Different Intensities of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Plasma Resistin Concentration and Insulin Resistance Index in Type 2 Diabetic Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziba Davoudi

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: It can be stated that acute exercise with different intensities does not affect resistin action in individuals with diabetes. These results may be due to the constant energy cost which is equivalent to 300 kcal per session, having no influence on the study variables.

  11. Examination of the efficacy of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine ingestion during hydration stress in endurance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Linda M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effect of acute L-alanyl-L-glutamine (AG; Sustamine™ ingestion on performance changes and markers of fluid regulation, immune, inflammatory, oxidative stress, and recovery was examined in response to exhaustive endurance exercise, during and in the absence of dehydration. Methods Ten physically active males (20.8 ± 0.6 y; 176.8 ± 7.2 cm; 77.4 ± 10.5 kg; 12.3 ± 4.6% body fat volunteered to participate in this study. During the first visit (T1 subjects reported to the laboratory in a euhydrated state to provide a baseline (BL blood draw and perform a maximal exercise test. In the four subsequent randomly ordered trials, subjects dehydrated to -2.5% of their baseline body mass. For T2, subjects achieved their goal weight and were not rehydrated. During T3 - T5, subjects reached their goal weight and then rehydrated to 1.5% of their baseline body mass by drinking either water (T3 or two different doses (T4 and T5 of the AG supplement (0.05 g·kg-1 and 0.2 g·kg-1, respectively. Subjects then exercised at a workload that elicited 75% of their VO2 max on a cycle ergometer. During T2 - T5 blood draws occurred once goal body mass was achieved (DHY, immediately prior to the exercise stress (RHY, and immediately following the exercise protocol (IP. Resting 24 hour (24P blood samples were also obtained. Blood samples were analyzed for glutamine, potassium, sodium, aldosterone, arginine vasopressin (AVP, C-reactive protein (CRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, malondialdehyde (MDA, testosterone, cortisol, ACTH, growth hormone and creatine kinase. Statistical evaluation of performance, hormonal and biochemical changes was accomplished using a repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Glutamine concentrations for T5 were significantly higher at RHY and IP than T2 - T4. When examining performance changes (difference between T2 - T5 and T1, significantly greater times to exhaustion occurred during T4 (130.2 ± 340.2 sec and T5 (157.4

  12. Acute and long-term effect of antihypertensive treatment on exercise-induced albuminuria in incipient diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Cramer; Mogensen, C E

    1986-01-01

    . In the acute study, using placebo/metoprolol 10 mg i.v. in patients with normal UAE, the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min was reduced by 17 mmHg +/- 10 (SD) (2p less than 1.0%) and the maximal SBP at 600 kpm/min in the patients with incipient nephropathy was reduced by 15 mmHg +/- 11 (SD) (2p less than 1.......0%). However, no difference was observed in UAE, in patients with normal UAE or those with incipient nephropathy. Five of the patients with incipient nephropathy were followed with repeated exercise tests before and during 2.6 years of antihypertensive treatment, using metoprolol 200 mg/24 h and subsequently...

  13. Acute Exercise and Oxidative Stress: CrossFit™ vs. Treadmill Bout

    OpenAIRE

    Kliszczewicz Brian; John Quindry C.; Daniel Blessing L.; Gretchen Oliver D.; Michael Esco R.; Kyle Taylor J.

    2015-01-01

    CrossFit?, a popular high-intensity training modality, has been the subject of scrutiny, with concerns of elevated risk of injury and health. Despite these concerns empirical evidence regarding physiologic stresses including acute oxidative stress is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute redox response to a CrossFit? bout. Furthermore, these findings were compared to a high-intensity treadmill bout as a point of reference. Ten males 26.4 ? 2.7 yrs havi...

  14. Eccentric exercise: acute and chronic effects on healthy and diseased tendons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaer, Michael; Heinemeier, Katja M

    2014-06-01

    Eccentric exercise can influence tendon mechanical properties and matrix protein synthesis. mRNA for collagen and regulatory factors thereof are upregulated in animal tendons, independent of muscular contraction type, supporting the view that tendon, compared with skeletal muscle, is less sensitive to differences in type and/or amount of mechanical stimulus with regard to expression of collagen, regulatory factors for collagen, and cross-link regulators. In overused (tendinopathic) human tendon, eccentric exercise training has a beneficial effect, but the mechanism by which this is elicited is unknown, and slow concentric loading appears to have similar beneficial effects. It may be that tendinopathic regions, as long as they are subjected to a certain magnitude of load at a slow speed, independent of whether this is eccentric or concentric in nature, can reestablish their normal tendon fibril alignment and cell morphology. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  15. ACUTE EFFECTS OF STATIC STRETCHING, DYNAMIC EXERCISES, AND HIGH VOLUME UPPER EXTREMITY PLYOMETRIC ACTIVITY ON TENNIS SERVE PERFORMANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ertugrul Gelen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of static stretching; dynamic exercises and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity on tennis serve performance. Twenty-six elite young tennis players (15.1 ± 4.2 years, 167.9 ± 5.8 cm and 61.6 ± 8.1 kg performed 4 different warm-up (WU routines in a random order on non-consecutive days. The WU methods consisted of traditional WU (jogging, rally and serve practice (TRAD; traditional WU and static stretching (TRSS; traditional WU and dynamic exercise (TRDE; and traditional WU and high volume upper extremity plyometric activity (TRPLYP. Following each WU session, subjects were tested on a tennis serve ball speed test. TRAD, TRSS, TRDE and TRPLYO were compared by repeated measurement analyses of variance and post-hoc comparisons. In this study a 1 to 3 percent increase in tennis serve ball speed was recorded in TRDE and TRPLYO when compared to TRAD (p 0.05. ICCs for ball speed showed strong reliability (0.82 to 0.93 for the ball speed measurements.The results of this study indicate that dynamic and high volume upper extremity plyometric WU activities are likely beneficial to serve speed of elite junior tennis players.

  16. Esmolol acutely alters oxygen supply-demand balance in exercising muscles of healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, David N; Luck, J Carter; Maman, Stephan R; Leuenberger, Urs A; Muller, Matthew D

    2018-04-01

    Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonists (β blockers) reduce systemic O 2 delivery and blood pressure (BP) during exercise, but the subsequent effects on O 2 extraction within the active limb muscles are unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of the fast-acting, β 1 selective blocker esmolol on systemic hemodynamics and leg muscle O 2 saturation (near infrared spectroscopy, NIRS) during submaximal leg ergometry. Our main hypothesis was that esmolol would augment exercise-induced reductions in leg muscle O 2 saturation. Eight healthy adults (6 men, 2 women; 23-67 year) performed light and moderate intensity bouts of recumbent leg cycling before (PRE), during (β 1 -blocked), and 45 min following (POST) intravenous infusion of esmolol. Oxygen uptake, heart rate (HR), BP, and O 2 saturation (SmO 2 ) of the vastus lateralis (VL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles were measured continuously. Esmolol attenuated the increases in HR and systolic BP during light (-12 ± 9 bpm and -26 ± 12 mmHg vs. PRE) and moderate intensity (-20 ± 10 bpm and -40 ± 18 mmHg vs. PRE) cycling (all P Exercise-induced reductions in SmO 2 occurred to a greater extent during the β 1 -blockade trial in both the VL (P = 0.001 vs. PRE) and MG muscles (P = 0.022 vs. PRE). HR, SBP and SmO 2 were restored during POST (all P exercising muscles of healthy humans. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  17. Effect of Losartan on the Acute Response of Human Elderly Skeletal Muscle to Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette Flindt; Andersen, Jesper L; Schjerling, Peter

    2018-01-01

    targets, with no specific effect of losartan on these. However, when compared with placebo, Losartan intake resulted in a greater suppression of myostatin mRNA. CONCLUSION: In general, there does not appear to be any effect of AT1R blocking upon satellite cell number or myogenic pathways in elderly men...... in the days after one bout of heavy resistance exercise. However, the greater suppression of myostatin may prove to be beneficial over a long term intervention designed to induce hypertrophy....

  18. Exercise Enhances the Behavioral Responses to Acute Stress in an Animal Model of PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jay R; Ostfeld, Ishay; Kaplan, Zeev; Zohar, Joseph; Cohen, Hagit

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the effects of endurance exercise on the behavioral response to stress and patterns of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neuropeptide Y (NPY), and δ-opioid receptor (phospho-DOR) expression in the hippocampus. Animals ran on a treadmill at 15 m·min, 5 min·d gradually increasing to 20 min·d, 5 d·wk for 6 wk. After training, one group of animals was exposed to a predator scent stress (PSS) protocol for 10 min. Outcome measurements included behavior in an elevated plus-maze (EPM) and acoustic startle response (ASR) 7 d after exposure to stress. Immunohistochemical technique was used to detect the expression of the BDNF, NPY, and phospho-DOR in the hippocampus 8 d after exposure. Sedentary animals exposed to PSS were observed to have a greater incidence of extreme behavior responses including higher anxiety, less total activity in the EPM, and greater amplitude in the ASR than unexposed and/or trained animals. Exercise-trained animals exposed to PSS developed a resiliency to the stress, reflected by significantly greater total activity in the EPM, reduced anxiety, and reduced ASR compared to the sedentary, exposed animals. Exercise in the absence of stress significantly elevated the expression of BDNF and phospho-DOR, whereas exposure to PSS resulted in a significant decline in the expression of NPY, BDNF, and phospho-DOR. Trained animals that were exposed maintained expression of BDNF, NPY, and phospho-DOR in most subregions of the hippocampus. Results indicated that endurance training provided a mechanism to promote resilience and/or recovery from stress. In addition, exercise increased expression of BDNF, NPY, and DOR signaling in the hippocampus that was associated with the greater resiliency seen in the trained animals.

  19. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreuder, Tim H A; van Lotringen, Jaap H; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-09-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact of endothelin receptor blockade (bosentan) on exercise-induced blood flow in the brachial artery and on pre- and postexercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients (n = 9, 60 ± 7 years old) and control subjects (n = 10, 60 ± 5 years old). Subjects reported twice to the laboratory to perform hand-grip exercise in the presence of endothelin receptor blockade or placebo. We examined brachial artery endothelial function (via flow-mediated dilatation) before and after exercise, as well as blood flow during exercise. Endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.046), but not in control subjects (P = 0.309). Exercise increased shear rate across the exercise protocol, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Exercise did not alter brachial artery diameter in either group, but endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger brachial artery diameter in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.033). Exercise significantly increased brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in both groups, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Endothelin receptor blockade increased exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow in type 2 diabetes patients, but not in control subjects. Despite this effect of endothelin receptor blockade on blood flow, we found no impact on baseline or post-exercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients or control subjects, possibly related to normalization of the shear stimulus during exercise. The successful increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients through endothelin receptor blockade may have beneficial effects in

  20. No inflammatory gene-expression response to acute exercise in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pingel, Jessica; Fredberg, Ulrich; Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer

    2013-01-01

    Although histology data favour the view of a degenerative nature of tendinopathy, indirect support for inflammatory reactions to loading in affected tendons exists. The purpose of the present study was to elucidate whether inflammatory signalling responses after acute mechanical loading were more...

  1. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  2. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  3. Sympathoadrenal influence on glucose, FFA, and insulin levels in exercising rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, A.J.W.; Steffens, A.B.; Bouritius, H.; Dreteler, G.H.; Bruntink, R.; Remie, R.; Zaagsma, J.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of sympathoadrenal manipulations on the exercise-induced alterations in blood glucose, plasma free fatty acids (FFA), and insulin were investigated in intact and adrenodemedullated rats. Exercise consisted of strenuous swimming against a countercurrent for 15 min. Before, during, and

  4. Experience affects exercise-induced changes in catecholamines, glucose, and FFA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheurink, A.J.W.; Steffens, A.B.; Dreteler, G.H.; Benthem, L.; Bruntink, R.

    The interference of the experimental conditions on the exercise-induced alterations in plasma catecholamines, plasma free fatty acids, and glucose and insulin concentrations was investigated in rats. Exercise consisted of strenuous swimming against a countercurrent (0.22 m/s) for 15 min in a pool

  5. Differences in the acute effects of aerobic and resistance exercise in subjects with type 2 diabetes: results from the RAED2 Randomized Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Bacchi

    Full Text Available Both aerobic (AER and resistance (RES training, if maintained over a period of several months, reduce HbA1c levels in type 2 diabetes subjects. However, it is still unknown whether the short-term effects of these types of exercise on blood glucose are similar. Our objective was to assess whether there may be a difference in acute blood glucose changes after a single bout of AER or RES exercise.Twenty-five patients participating in the RAED2 Study, a RCT comparing AER and RES training in diabetic subjects, were submitted to continuous glucose monitoring during a 60-min exercise session and over the following 47 h. These measurements were performed after 10.9+0.4 weeks of training. Glucose concentration areas under the curve (AUC during exercise, the subsequent night, and the 24-h period following exercise, as well as the corresponding periods of the non-exercise day, were assessed. Moreover, the low (LBGI and high (HBGI blood glucose indices, which summarize the duration and extent of hypoglycaemia or hyperglycaemia, respectively, were measured.AER and RES training similarly reduced HbA1c. Forty-eight hour glucose AUC was similar in both groups. However, a comparison of glucose AUC during the 60-min exercise period and the corresponding period of the non-exercise day showed that glucose levels were lower during exercise in the AER but not in the RES group (time-by-group interaction p = 0.04. Similar differences were observed in the nocturnal periods (time-by-group interaction p = 0.02. Accordingly, nocturnal LBGI was higher in the exercise day than in the non-exercise day in the AER (p = 0.012 but not in the RES group (p = 0.62.Although AER and RES training have similar long-term metabolic effects in diabetic subjects, the acute effects of single bouts of these exercise types differ, with a potential increase in late-onset hypoglycaemia risk after AER exercise.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01182948.

  6. A televideo exercise and nutrition program for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in maintenance therapy: design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson CA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cheryl A Gibson,1 Keith J August,2 Jerry L Greene,3 Stephen D Herrmann,4 Jaehoon Lee,5 Susan P Harvey,6 Kate Lambourne,3 Debra K Sullivan7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Division of General and Geriatric Medicine, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA; 2Children's Mercy Hospital, MO, USA; 3Department of Health, Sport, and Exercise Sciences, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 4Children's Health Research Center, Sanford Research, SD, USA; 5Institute for Measurement, Methodology, Analysis and Policy, Texas Tech University, TX, USA; 6Center for Research on Learning, University of Kansas, KS, USA; 7Department of Dietetics and Nutrition, University of Kansas Medical Center, KS, USA Abstract: Changes in nutrient intake and decreased exercise resulting from cancer therapies as well as their side effects may be contributing factors in the increased body weight and differences in physical fitness observed in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. This article will describe the study protocol for an intervention program designed to improve the physical activity and nutrition behaviors of ALL survivors. Twenty-four children aged between 4 years and 12 years with ALL will be randomized to a 6-month technology-based exercise and nutrition program (TLC4ALLKids or to enhanced usual care (eUC. The participants randomized to the TLC4ALLKids will participate in weekly, 1-hour coaching sessions on nutrition and physical activity and 1-hour physical activity classes delivered by group video conferencing. Participants will be provided with iPad tablets loaded with video conferencing software and the Healthy Lifestyle Tracking calendar to track daily nutrition and physical activity goals and weight. Both groups will be provided with Fitbit™ Zip to monitor physical activity. To assess feasibility, participant recruitment (achievement of proposed sample size, attendance (per weekly online sessions/assessment sessions, and adherence (number of

  7. Acute high-intensity interval exercise induces comparable levels of circulating cell-free DNA and Interleukin-6 in obese and normal-weight individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandi, Peter J; Fico, Brandon G; Whitehurst, Michael; Zourdos, Michael C; Bao, Fanchen; Dodge, Katelyn M; Rodriguez, Alexandra L; Pena, Gabriel; Huang, Chun-Jung

    2018-06-01

    Obesity is associated with lipid aggregation in adipocytes and macrophage infiltration, leading to increased oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations have been observed in clinical conditions of systemic inflammation. While the beneficial effects of regular physical activity on the release of circulating cfDNA still remain unknown, acute intense exercise has been shown to increase inflammatory cytokines and cfDNA concentrations in normal-weight individuals. Therefore, the primary purpose of this study was to examine the effect of acute high-intensity interval Exercise (HIIE) on plasma cfDNA and interleukin-6 (IL-6) responses in obese and normal-weight subjects. Fourteen male subjects (7 obese and 7 normal-weight) participated in an acute HIIE protocol (30 min, 4x4min @ 80% - 90% of VO 2max ) on a treadmill. Between HIIE intervals, subjects performed 3 min of active recovery at 50-60% VO 2max . Blood samples were collected prior to, immediately following exercise, and one hour into recovery for measurements of plasma cfDNA and IL-6. Our results demonstrated a significant elevation in plasma cfDNA immediately following acute HIIE in both obese and normal-weight subjects. A comparable elevation in the concentration of plasma IL-6 was also found between two groups in response to acute HIIE. Furthermore, the level of plasma cfDNA was not correlated with IL-6 either at baseline or in response to acute HIIE. These findings may support the utilization of HIIE as a time-efficient exercise protocol to understand the obesity-associated cfDNA and inflammatory responses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Prognostic value of an electrocardiogram at rest and exercise test in patients admitted with suspected acute myocardial infarction, in whom the diagnosis is not confirmed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J K; Hommel, E; Hansen, J F

    1987-01-01

    . Impaired prognosis was found in patients with negative T waves or ST depression at rest or with ST--T abnormalities or angina pectoris during exercise. Patients with ST depression or elevation, Q wave or intraventricular block at rest. ST abnormalities during exercise or both constituted a high-risk group......The prognosis following discharge in 217 patients admitted with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) due to chest pain, but in whom AMI was not confirmed, was related to the electrocardiogram (ECG) at rest and a symptom-limited exercise test. The patients were followed for 12 to 24 months...... in the ECG at rest and during exercise can be used to identify high and low risk patients....

  9. Nutritional compensation to exercise- vs. diet-induced acute energy deficit in adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thivel, David; Doucet, Eric; Julian, Valérie; Cardenoux, Charlotte; Boirie, Yves; Duclos, Martine

    2017-07-01

    To compare the energy and macronutrient intake responses to equivalent energy deficits induced by diet (food restriction) and exercise in adolescents with obesity. Fourteen 12-15years old obese adolescents completed three experimental conditions (08:00am to 07:30pm) in a randomized crossover design: i) control session (CON); ii) diet-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EI), iii) and an exercise-induced 25% energy depletion (Def-EX). The sessions order was either CON/Def-EI/Def-EX or CON/Def-EX/Def-EI as the deficit corresponded to 25% of the energy ingested at lunch on the control day (CON) and was imposed either by exercise (Def-EX) or diet (Def-EI). Ad libitum EI and macronutrients preferences were assessed at dinner and appetite sensations assessed using visual analogue scales. Mean BMI was 36.6±5.0kg/m 2 (z-BMI: 2.40±0.29). The individually calibrated 25% energy deficit represented 254±92kcal. Ad libitum EI was significantly higher during both Def-EX (971±225kcal) and Def-EI (949±246kcal) compared with CON (742±297) (pexercise and the control session (EI Def-EX - EI CON) (r=-0,643 pexercise- or diet-induced energy deficits could lead to similar EI compensation in obese adolescents but this EI compensation might be influenced by the magnitude of the deficit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Black grape extract supplementation attenuates blood oxidative stress in response to acute exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Skarpańska-Stejnborn

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The flavonoid-rich active compound in grapes is claimed to be one of the most important natural products. Hence, the objective of our research was to study parameters of the prooxidative-antioxidative balance in athletes supplied with Panace-Vid 2000® preparation consisting of black wine grape extract (Vitis vinifera. The study was carried out on 22 male rowers. The subjects from the supplemented group (n=10 were given one gelatin capsule containing Panace-Vid 2000® three times a day, for six weeks, while the control group (n=12 was given placebo. Before and after the supplementation period, the athletes performed a physical exercise test on the rowing ergometer; varying between 40 and 90% of maximal aerobic power. Each 3-min exercise session was followed by thirty seconds of rest. Blood was sampled from the rowers before the exercise test, one minute after its completion, and after a 24-h recovery period. The activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase was determined and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was measured in the hemolysate of red blood cells. The Total Antioxidant Capacity was determined in the blood plasma. The concentration of lactic acid was measured in the whole blood. An analysis of the results revealed that the supply of grape extract, in the form of Panace-Vid 2000® preparation, contributed to a significant increase in plasma antioxidative capacity and to an insignificant increase in superoxide dismutase, as well as a lower activity of glutathione peroxidase and reduced concentration of lipid peroxidation product levels.

  11. Nutritional compensation to exercise- vs. diet-induced acute energy deficit in adolescents with obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Thivel , David; Doucet , Eric; Julian , Valérie; Cardenoux , Charlotte; Boirie , Yves; Duclos , Martine

    2017-01-01

    This article belongs to a special issueConference: 24th Annual Meeting of the Society-for-the-Study-of-Ingestive-Behavior (SSIB)Location: Porto, PORTUGALDate: JUL 12-16, 2016Sponsor(s):Soc Study Ingest BehavThe authors want to thank the adolescents who took part in the study as well as Miss Nais Petiot and Miss Audrey Marion for their help; BACKGROUND: To compare the energy and macronutrient intake responses to equivalent energy deficits induced by diet (food restriction) and exercise in adol...

  12. Acute whole-body cooling for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Brendon P; Casa, Douglas J; Ganio, Matthew S; Lopez, Rebecca M; Yeargin, Susan W; Armstrong, Lawrence E; Maresh, Carl M

    2009-01-01

    To assess existing original research addressing the efficiency of whole-body cooling modalities in the treatment of exertional hyperthermia. During April 2007, we searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, SportDiscus, CINAHL, and Cochrane Reviews databases as well as ProQuest for theses and dissertations to identify research studies evaluating whole-body cooling treatments without limits. Key words were cooling, cryotherapy, water immersion, cold-water immersion, ice-water immersion, icing, fanning, bath, baths, cooling modality, heat illness, heat illnesses, exertional heatstroke, exertional heat stroke, heat exhaustion, hyperthermia, hyperthermic, hyperpyrexia, exercise, exertion, running, football, military, runners, marathoner, physical activity, marathoning, soccer, and tennis. Two independent reviewers graded each study on the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale. Seven of 89 research articles met all inclusion criteria and a minimum score of 4 out of 10 on the PEDro scale. After an extensive and critical review of the available research on whole-body cooling for the treatment of exertional hyperthermia, we concluded that ice-water immersion provides the most efficient cooling. Further research comparing whole-body cooling modalities is needed to identify other acceptable means. When ice-water immersion is not possible, continual dousing with water combined with fanning the patient is an alternative method until more advanced cooling means can be used. Until future investigators identify other acceptable whole-body cooling modalities for exercise-induced hyperthermia, ice-water immersion and cold-water immersion are the methods proven to have the fastest cooling rates.

  13. Experimental effects of acute exercise and music listening on cognitive creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend previous experimental work suggesting that both exercise and music-based interventions may influence creativity processes, by investigating the independent influences of exercise or music stimuli on verbal creative performances in the laboratory environment. 32 students at the University of Mississippi participated in this within-subject intervention, which included three laboratory visits per participant. Individuals participated in three 15-min, randomized experimental conditions: Treadmill walking, self-selected music, or a seated control period, and subsequently completed four creativity assessments during each visit (three tests of divergent thinking, and one test of convergent thinking), with the order of divergent thinking tasks counterbalanced. Creativity task performance was independently scored across four dependent parameters, which included fluency (i.e., total number of ideas), flexibility (i.e., total number of categories), originality (i.e., responses thought of by music on verbal creativity performance. The present study further highlights the critical need for improvement in the assessment and evaluation of laboratory-assessed cognitive creativity. Methodological strategies must be examined and refined for the meaningful and credible measurement and interpretation of experimental creativity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Acute Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen) supplementation does not alleviate physical fatigue during exercise: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Huang, Tzu-Zung; Chang, Wen-Hsin; Tseng, Yi-Chun; Wu, Yu-Tse; Hsu, Mei-Chich

    2016-01-01

    The purple mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana), known as the "queen of fruit," is widely consumed and unique not only because of its outstanding appearance and flavor but also its remarkable and diverse pharmacological effects. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of acute mangosteen supplementation on physical fatigue during exercise. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study was carried out by 12 healthy adults. The participants were randomly assigned to receive acute oral administration of either 250 mL of the mangosteen-based juice (supplementation treatment; 305 mg of α-mangostin and 278 mg of hydroxycitric acid) or a placebo (control treatment) 1 h before cycle ergometer exercise. Time to exhaustion, heart rate, Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion score, blood biochemical markers (namely ammonia, cortisol, creatine kinase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, glucose, and lactate), muscle dynamic stiffness, and Profile of Mood States (POMS) were evaluated and recorded. The results showed all parameters we examined were significantly altered by the exercise challenge, which demonstrated they directly reflected the condition of fatigue. However, there were no differences between the two treatments besides a positive impact on the POMS examination. The occurrence of physical fatigue depends on multiple underlying mechanisms. We concluded that acute mangosteen supplementation had no impact on alleviating physical fatigue during exercise.

  15. Increased oxidative stress and anaerobic energy release, but blunted Thr172-AMPKα phosphorylation, in response to sprint exercise in severe acute hypoxia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Alamo, David; Ponce-González, Jesús Gustavo; Guadalupe-Grau, Amelia; Rodríguez-García, Lorena; Santana, Alfredo; Cusso, Maria Roser; Guerrero, Mario; Guerra, Borja; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, José A L

    2012-09-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a major mediator of the exercise response and a molecular target to improve insulin sensitivity. To determine if the anaerobic component of the exercise response, which is exaggerated when sprint is performed in severe acute hypoxia, influences sprint exercise-elicited Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, 10 volunteers performed a single 30-s sprint (Wingate test) in normoxia and in severe acute hypoxia (inspired Po(2): 75 mmHg). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and immediately after 30 and 120 min postsprint. Mean power output and O(2) consumption were 6% and 37%, respectively, lower in hypoxia than in normoxia. O(2) deficit and muscle lactate accumulation were greater in hypoxia than in normoxia. Carbonylated skeletal muscle and plasma proteins were increased after the sprint in hypoxia. Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation was increased by 3.1-fold 30 min after the sprint in normoxia. This effect was prevented by hypoxia. The NAD(+)-to-NADH.H(+) ratio was reduced (by 24-fold) after the sprints, with a greater reduction in hypoxia than in normoxia (P exercise in human skeletal muscle is altered in severe acute hypoxia, which abrogated Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation, likely due to lower LKB1 activation by SIRT1.

  16. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise