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Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections. Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 11/21/2011.
Duggan, Gina M.
ABSTRACT Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, responsible for up to 165 million cases of shigellosis each year. Shigella is also recognised as an exceptional model pathogen to study key issues in cell biology and innate immunity. Several infection models have been useful to explore Shigella biology; however, we still lack information regarding the events taking place during the Shigella infection process in vivo. Here, we discuss a selection of mechanistic insights recently gained from studying Shigella infection of zebrafish (Danio rerio), with a focus on cytoskeleton rearrangements and cellular immunity. We also discuss how infection of zebrafish can be used to investigate new concepts underlying infection control, including emergency granulopoiesis and the use of predatory bacteria to combat antimicrobial resistance. Collectively, these insights illustrate how Shigella infection of zebrafish can provide fundamental advances in our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and vertebrate host defence. This information should also provide vital clues for the discovery of new therapeutic strategies against infectious disease in humans. PMID:29590642
Gina M. Duggan
Full Text Available Shigella is a leading cause of dysentery worldwide, responsible for up to 165 million cases of shigellosis each year. Shigella is also recognised as an exceptional model pathogen to study key issues in cell biology and innate immunity. Several infection models have been useful to explore Shigella biology; however, we still lack information regarding the events taking place during the Shigella infection process in vivo. Here, we discuss a selection of mechanistic insights recently gained from studying Shigella infection of zebrafish (Danio rerio, with a focus on cytoskeleton rearrangements and cellular immunity. We also discuss how infection of zebrafish can be used to investigate new concepts underlying infection control, including emergency granulopoiesis and the use of predatory bacteria to combat antimicrobial resistance. Collectively, these insights illustrate how Shigella infection of zebrafish can provide fundamental advances in our understanding of bacterial pathogenesis and vertebrate host defence. This information should also provide vital clues for the discovery of new therapeutic strategies against infectious disease in humans.
Pavlinac, P B; Denno, D M; John-Stewart, G C; Onchiri, F M; Naulikha, J M; Odundo, E A; Hulseberg, C E; Singa, B O; Manhart, L E; Walson, J L
Shigella is a leading cause of childhood diarrhea mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Current World Health Organization guidelines recommend antibiotics for children in non cholera-endemic areas only in the presence of dysentery, a proxy for suspected Shigella infection. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of the syndromic diagnosis of Shigella-associated diarrhea, we enrolled children aged 6 months to 5 years presenting to 1 of 3 Western Kenya hospitals between November 2011 and July 2014 with acute diarrhea. Stool samples were tested using standard methods for bacterial culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction for pathogenic Escherichia coli. Stepwise multivariable logit models identified factors to increase the sensitivity of syndromic diagnosis. Among 1360 enrolled children, median age was 21 months (interquartile range, 11-37), 3.4% were infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and 16.5% were stunted (height-for-age z-score less than -2). Shigella was identified in 63 children (4.6%), with the most common species being Shigella sonnei (53.8%) and Shigella flexneri (40.4%). Dysentery correctly classified 7 of 63 Shigella cases (sensitivity, 11.1%). Seventy-eight of 1297 children without Shigella had dysentery (specificity, 94.0%). The combination of fecal mucous, age over 23 months, and absence of excessive vomiting identified more children with Shigella-infection (sensitivity, 39.7%) but also indicated antibiotics in more children without microbiologically confirmed Shigella (specificity, 82.7%). Reliance on dysentery as a proxy for Shigella results in the majority of Shigella-infected children not being identified for antibiotics. Field-ready rapid diagnostics or updated evidence-based algorithms are urgently needed to identify children with diarrhea most likely to benefit from antibiotic therapy. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions
Marteyn, Benoit; Gazi, Anastasia; Sansonetti, Philippe
Much is known about the molecular effectors of pathogenicity of gram-negative enteric pathogens, among which Shigella can be considered a model. This is due to its capacity to recapitulate the multiple steps required for a pathogenic microbe to survive close to its mucosal target, colonize and then invade its epithelial surface, cause its inflammatory destruction and simultaneously regulate the extent of the elicited innate response to likely survive the encounter and achieve successful subsequent transmission. These various steps of the infectious process represent an array of successive environmental conditions to which the bacteria need to successfully adapt. These conditions represent the selective pressure that triggered the “arms race” in which Shigella acquired the genetic and molecular effectors of its pathogenic armory, including the regulatory hierarchies that regulate the expression and function of these effectors. They also represent cues through which Shigella achieves the temporo-spatial expression and regulation of its virulence effectors. The role of such environmental cues has recently become obvious in the case of the major virulence effector of Shigella, the type three secretion system (T3SS) and its dedicated secreted virulence effectors. It needs to be better defined for other major virulence components such as the LPS and peptidoglycan which are used as examples here, in addition to the T3SS as models of regulation as it relates to the assembly and functional regulation of complex macromolecular systems of the bacterial surface. This review also stresses the need to better define what the true and relevant environmental conditions can be at the various steps of the progression of infection. The “identity” of the pathogen differs depending whether it is cultivated under in vitro or in vivo conditions. Moreover, this “identity” may quickly change during its progression into the infected tissue. Novel concepts and relevant tools are
Chitradevi, S T S; Kaur, G; Sivaramakrishna, U; Singh, D; Bansal, A
Shigellosis is an acute bacillary diarrheal disease caused by the gram negative bacillus Shigella. The existence of multiple Shigella serotypes and their growing resistance to antibiotics stress the urgent need for the development of vaccine that is protective across all serotypes. Shigella's IpaB antigen is involved in translocon pore formation, promotes bacterial invasion and induces apoptosis in macrophages. S. Typhi GroEL (Hsp 60) is the immunodominant antigen inducing both arms of immunity and has been explored as adjuvant in this study. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant IpaB domain-GroEL fusion protein in mice against lethal Shigella infection. The IpaB domain and GroEL genes were fused using overlap extension PCR and cloned in pRSETA expression vector. Fused gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL-21 cells and the resulting 90 KDa fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization of mice with fusion protein increased the IgG and IgA antibody titers as compared to the group immunized with IpaB and GroEL and control PBS immunized group. Also IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies induced in fusion protein immunized mice were higher than co-immunized group. Significant increase in lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine levels (IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-10), indicates induction of both Th1 and Th2 immune responses in both immunized groups. Immunization with fusion protein protected 90-95% of mice whereas 80-85% survivability was observed in co-immunized group against lethal challenge with S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei. Passive immunization conferred 60-70% protection in mice against all these Shigella species. Organ burden and histopathology studies also revealed significant decrease in lung infection as compared to the co-immunized group. Since IpaB is the conserved dominant molecule in all Shigella species, this study will lead to an ideal platform for the development of safe
Arena, Ellen T; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Marteyn, Benoit S
Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; García Migura, Lourdes; Rahbar, Mohammad
Objectives: In this study, we wanted to assess the level of antimicrobial resistance, the presence of genes encoding resistance to cephalosporins and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR), and genetic relatedness among Shigella isolates obtained from Iranian patients. ; Methods: A total...... of 44 Shigella isolates were collected from Iranian patients admitted to Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2008–10. Of these, 37 were serotyped and characterized by MIC determination. A subset of eight suspected extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers (six Shigella sonnei phase II and two...... Shigella flexneri type 1b) were examined for the presence of genes encoding cephalosporin resistance. The presence of PMQR was assessed in one S. flexneri isolate exhibiting low-level resistance to ciprofloxacin and susceptibility to nalidixic acid. PFGE was performed on 25 S. sonnei phase II isolates...
Baka, S; Spathi, A; Tsouma, I; Kouskouni, E
This report describes a case of urinary tract infection (UTI) due to Shigella sonnei during pregnancy. A 31-year-old pregnant woman was admitted complaining of left-flank tenderness, dysuria, and fever. Following examination, significant laboratory data were collected including increased leukocyte count (10,800/ul with 86% neutrophils) and C-reactive protein (9.6 mg/dl). Urinalysis revealed 30 to 50 leukocytes per high power field while from the quantitative urine culture Shigella sonnei was recovered after 24 h incubation at 37 degrees C. After a two-week course with 750 mg cefuroxime every 8 h, the patient experienced gradual resolution of all symptoms and urinary cultures were negative two weeks and one month, respectively, after completing the therapy. The gestational course was uneventful and the patient delivered a healthy baby girl at term. Shigella sonnei can be responsible for UTI during pregnancy even when no predisposing factors or an apparent source of infection can be identified.
Full Text Available Bacillary dysentery caused by infection with Shigella spp. remains as serious and common health problem throughout the world. It is a highly multi drug resistant organism and rarely identified from the patient at the early stage of infection. S. sonnei is the most frequently isolated species causing shigellosis in industrialized countries. The antigenicity of outer membrane protein of this pathogen expressed during human infection has not been identified to date. We have studied the antigenic outer membrane proteins expressed by S. sonnei, with the aim of identifying presence of specific IgA and IgG in human serum against the candidate protein biomarkers. Three antigenic OMPs sized 33.3, 43.8 and 100.3 kDa were uniquely recognized by IgA and IgG from patients with S. sonnei infection, and did not cross-react with sera from patients with other types of infection. The antigenic proteome data generated in this study are a first for OMPs of S. sonnei, and they provide important insights of human immune responses. Furthermore, numerous prime candidate proteins were identified which will aid the development of new diagnostic tools for the detection of S. sonnei.
Kim, Jae-Ouk; Rho, Semi; Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Heejoo; Song, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ryang Yeo; Kim, Eun Hye; Sinha, Anuradha; Dey, Ayan; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Dong Wook
In developing countries, Shigella is a primary cause of diarrhea in infants and young children. Although antibiotic therapy is an effective treatment for shigellosis, therapeutic options are narrowing due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, preventive vaccination could become the most efficacious approach for controlling shigellosis. We have identified several conserved protein antigens that are shared by multiple Shigella serotypes and species. Among these, one antigen induced cross-protection against experimental shigellosis, and we have named it pan-Shigella surface protein 1 (PSSP-1). PSSP-1-induced protection requires a mucosal administration route and coadministration of an adjuvant. When PSSP-1 was administered intranasally, it induced cross-protection against Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a, 5a, and 6, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Intradermally administered PSSP-1 induced strong serum antibody responses but failed to induce protection in the mouse lung pneumonia model. In contrast, intranasal administration elicited efficient local and systemic antibody responses and production of interleukin 17A and gamma interferon. Interestingly, blood samples from patients with recent-onset shigellosis showed variable but significant mucosal antibody responses to other conserved Shigella protein antigens but not to PSSP-1. We suggest that PSSP-1 is a promising antigen for a broadly protective vaccine against Shigella. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Kotloff, KL; Winickoff, JP; Ivanoff, B; Clemens, JD; Swerdlow, DL; Sansonetti, PJ; Adak, GK; Levine, MM
Few studies provide data on the global morbidity and mortality caused by infection with Shigella spp.; such estimates are needed, however, to plan strategies of prevention and treatment. Here we report the results of a review of the literature published between 1966 and 1997 on Shigella infection.
Murray, Kenya; Reddy, Vasudha; Kornblum, John S; Waechter, HaeNa; Chicaiza, Ludwin F; Rubinstein, Inessa; Balter, Sharon; Greene, Sharon K; Braunstein, Sarah L; Rakeman, Jennifer L; Dentinger, Catherine M
Approximately 20% of Shigella isolates tested in New York City, New York, USA, during 2013-2015 displayed decreased azithromycin susceptibility. Case-patients were older and more frequently male and HIV infected than those with azithromycin-susceptible Shigella infection; 90% identified as men who have sex with men. Clinical interpretation guidelines for azithromycin resistance and outcome studies are needed.
Tickell, Kirkby D; Brander, Rebecca L; Atlas, Hannah E; Pernica, Jeffrey M; Walson, Judd L; Pavlinac, Patricia B
treatment. Shigella infection was associated with mortality (pooled OR 2·8, 95% CI 1·6-4·8; p=0·000) whereas dysentery was not associated with mortality (1·3, 0·7-2·3; p=0·37). Between 1977 and 2016, dysentery identified 1·9-85·9% of confirmed Shigella infections, with sensitivity decreasing over time (p=0·04). Ten (50%) of 20 included antibiotic trials were among children with dysentery, none were placebo-controlled, and two (10%) evaluated antibiotics no longer recommended for acute infectious diarrhoea. Ciprofloxacin showed superior microbiological, but not clinical, effectiveness compared with pivmecillinam, and no superior microbiological and clinical effectiveness compared with gatifloxacin. Substantial heterogeneity was reported for meta-analyses of the Shigella-associated mortality studies (I 2 =78·3%) and dysentery-associated mortality studies (I 2 =73·2%). Too few mortality studies were identified to meaningfully test for publication bias. No evidence of publication bias was found in this analysis of studies of diagnostic value. Current WHO guidelines appear to manage dysentery effectively, but might miss opportunities to reduce mortality among children infected with Shigella who present without bloody stool. Further studies should quantify potential decreases in mortality and morbidity associated with antibiotic therapy for children with non-dysenteric Shigella infection. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and the Center for AIDS Research International Core. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Gaynor, K; Park, S Y; Kanenaka, R; Colindres, R; Mintz, E; Ram, P K; Kitsutani, P; Nakata, M; Wedel, S; Boxrud, D; Jennings, D; Yoshida, H; Tosaka, N; He, H; Ching-Lee, M; Effler, P V
During 22-24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300-1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.
Ashida, Hiroshi; Ogawa, Michinaga; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro
Shigella, Gram-negative bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli, are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery. Although Shigella have neither adherence factors nor flagella required for attaching or accessing the intestinal epithelium, Shigella are capable of colonizing the intestinal epithelium by exploiting epithelial-cell functions and circumventing the host innate immune response. During Shigella infection, they deliver many numbers of effectors through the type III secretion system into the surrounding space and directly into the host-cell cytoplasm. The effectors play pivotal roles from the onset of bacterial infection through to the establishment of the colonization of the intestinal epithelium, such as bacterial invasion, intracellular survival, subversion of the host immune defense response, and maintenance of the infectious foothold. These examples suggest that Shigella have evolved highly sophisticated infectious and intracellular strategies to establish replicative niches in the intestinal epithelium.
George, Christine Marie; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Talukder, Kaisar A; Azmi, Ishrat J; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R Bradley; Sack, David A; Stine, O Colin; Oldja, Lauren; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Subhra; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Bouwer, Edward; Zhang, Xiaotong; Hasan, Trisheeta N; Luna, Sharmin J; Akter, Fatema; Faruque, Abu S G
To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5-361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient's. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient's strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions.
The preparation (designated “ShigActive”) is a bacteriophage cocktail that specifically targets Shigella spp. (significant diarrhea-causing pathogens...phages lytic for Shigella , and we have developed a murine model in which the in vivo efficacy of our 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE AND...10-Apr-2013 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Bacteriophage-based Probiotic Preparation for Managing Shigella
Full Text Available Shigella enteritis remains an important cause of mortality and morbidity in all age groups, in developing as well as developed countries. Owing to the emerging resistance to multiple antibiotics among Shigella spp., it has been recognized as a major global public health concern and warrants constant monitoring of its resistance pattern. We report a case of segmental ileitis caused by non.-ESBL producing multidrug resistant Shigella flexneri in an infant clinically mimicking intussusception, which was effectively treated by ceftriaxone.
Boveé, Lian; Whelan, Jane; Sonder, Gerard J. B.; van Dam, Alje P.; van den Hoek, Anneke
Background: Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school
Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus
Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.
Oaks, E V; Hale, T L; Formal, S B
The serum antibody response to proteins encoded by the virulence-associated plasmid of Shigella flexneri was determined in monkeys challenged with virulent S. flexneri serotype 2a. With water-extractable antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, a significant increase in antibody titer against proteins from a plasmid-carrying, virulent strain of S. flexneri serotype 5 could be demonstrated in convalescent sera. There were minimal antibody titers against proteins from an avirulent (plas...
Full Text Available Shigella flexneri, the pathogen responsible for bacillary dysentery, has evolved multiple strategies to control the inflammatory response. Here, we show that Shigella subverts the subcellular trafficking of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, a key molecule in immune cell recruitment, in a mechanism dependent on the injected bacterial enzyme IpgD and its product, the lipid mediator PI5P. Overexpression of IpgD, but not a phosphatase dead mutant, induced the internalization and the degradation of ICAM-1 in intestinal epithelial cells. Remarkably, addition of permeant PI5P reproduced IpgD effects and led to the inhibition of neutrophil recruitment. Finally, these results were confirmed in an in vivo model of Shigella infection where IpgD-dependent ICAM-1 internalization reduced neutrophil adhesion. In conclusion, we describe here an immune evasion mechanism used by the pathogen Shigella to divert the host cell trafficking machinery in order to reduce immune cell recruitment.
... and one (1.3%) were Yersinia enterocolitica. Shigella isolates had high resistance to sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (97%), tetracycline (83.6%) ampicillin (58.2%) and chloramphenicol (20.9%). The isolates showed low resistance to nalidixic (4.5%) and ciprofloxacin (3.0%) while there was no resistance to ceftriaxone.
Parisot, M; Parez, N; Boukhari, R; Breurec, S; Jolivet, A
French Guiana, a tropical country, is characterised by a young and multi-ethnic population. Difficulties in accessing safe water sources lead to outbreaks of gastroenteritis. The objectives of this study were (1) to describe the microbiological profile of shigella strains isolated in western French Guiana, including antimicrobial susceptibility and the distribution of strains in terms of species and serotypes and (2) to estimate the incidence of shigellosis in children under 5 years old. A retrospective observational study was conducted of 213 cases of shigellosis diagnosed in the biology department of the hospital centre for western French Guiana between 2000 and 2012 in children under 5 years old. The serogroups (formerly known as species) that predominates in French Guiana was Shigella flexneri. No resistance was observed to fluoroquinolones or to third-generation cephalosporins. The average incidence of shigellosis in children under 5 years old in western French Guiana was estimated at 189.6 cases per 100 000 inhabitants per year. Shigellosis is a public health problem in western French Guiana. These infections suggest the difficulties in accessing safe water sources and the lack of public sanitation. A quadrivalent vaccine containing Shigella sonnei and three serotypes of S. flexneri (S. flexneri 2a, 3a and 6) could provide broad coverage against shigella infections.
Full Text Available Shigella infection, the cause of bacillary dysentery, induces caspase-1 activation and cell death in macrophages, but the precise mechanisms of this activation remain poorly understood. We demonstrate here that caspase-1 activation and IL-1beta processing induced by Shigella are mediated through Ipaf, a cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD-like receptor (NLR family, and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a C-terminal caspase recruitment domain (ASC. We also show that Ipaf was critical for pyroptosis, a specialized form of caspase-1-dependent cell death induced in macrophages by bacterial infection, whereas ASC was dispensable. Unlike that observed in Salmonella and Legionella, caspase-1 activation induced by Shigella infection was independent of flagellin. Notably, infection of macrophages with Shigella induced autophagy, which was dramatically increased by the absence of caspase-1 or Ipaf, but not ASC. Autophagy induced by Shigella required an intact bacterial type III secretion system but not VirG protein, a bacterial factor required for autophagy in epithelial-infected cells. Treatment of macrophages with 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, enhanced pyroptosis induced by Shigella infection, suggesting that autophagy protects infected macrophages from pyroptosis. Thus, Ipaf plays a critical role in caspase-1 activation induced by Shigella independently of flagellin. Furthermore, the absence of Ipaf or caspase-1, but not ASC, regulates pyroptosis and the induction of autophagy in Shigella-infected macrophages, providing a novel function for NLR proteins in bacterial-host interactions.
Formal, Samuel B.; LaBrec, E. H.; Kent, T. H.; Falkow, S.
Formal, Samuel B., (Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Washington, D.C.), E. H. LaBrec, T. H. Kent, and S. Falkow. Abortive intestinal infection with an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain. J. Bacteriol. 89:1374–1382. 1965.—The mechanism of the apparent loss of virulence of an Escherichia coli-Shigella flexneri hybrid strain was studied. The parent Shigella strain caused a fatal enteric infection when fed to starved guinea pigs, and signs of dysentery followed its oral administration to monkeys. The hybrid strain failed to produce any apparent symptoms when fed to either of these species. The parent strain was shown to invade the intestinal mucosa of starved guinea pigs. This caused a severe inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria, which progressed to ulceration of the intestinal epithelium and resulted in death of the animal. The hybrid strain also invaded the intestinal mucosa and produced an inflammatory reaction. In this case, the inflammatory reaction subsided, the intestine returned to normal within 4 days after challenge, and the animal survived. Both fluorescent-antibody techniques and in vivo growth studies have shown that the hybrid strain can not maintain itself in the intestinal mucosa. Preliminary studies have indicated that a similar situation also exists in the monkey. It is concluded that the virulence of dysentery bacilli rests not only in the capacity to reach the lamina propria, but also in the ability to multiply in this region. Images PMID:14293011
Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3 and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5, irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009 included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years. Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%: 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38. In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8. In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5 and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3 and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5. Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only
Leigh A Baxt
Full Text Available Shigella spp. are intracytosolic gram-negative pathogens that cause disease by invasion and spread through the colonic mucosa, utilizing host cytoskeletal components to form propulsive actin tails. We have previously identified the host factor Toca-1 as being recruited to intracellular S. flexneri and being required for efficient bacterial actin tail formation. We show that at early times during infection (40 min., the type three-secreted effector protein IcsB recruits Toca-1 to intracellular bacteria and that recruitment of Toca-1 is associated with repression of recruitment of LC3, as well as with repression of recruitment of the autophagy marker NDP52, around these intracellular bacteria. LC3 is best characterized as a marker of autophagosomes, but also marks phagosomal membranes in the process LC3-associated phagocytosis. IcsB has previously been demonstrated to be required for S. flexneri evasion of autophagy at late times during infection (4-6 hr by inhibiting binding of the autophagy protein Atg5 to the Shigella surface protein IcsA (VirG. Our results suggest that IcsB and Toca-1 modulation of LC3 recruitment restricts LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants. Together with published results, our findings suggest that IcsB inhibits innate immune responses in two distinct ways, first, by inhibiting LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants early during infection, and second, by inhibiting autophagy late during infection.
Divya T George
Full Text Available The Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of shigellosis, a diarrhoeal disease also known as bacillary dysentery. S. flexneri infects the colonic and rectal epithelia of its primate host and induces a cascade of inflammatory responses that culminates in the destruction of the host intestinal lining. Molecular characterization of host-pathogen interactions in this infection has been challenging due to the host specificity of S. flexneri strains, as it strictly infects humans and non-human primates. Recent studies have shown that S. flexneri infects the soil dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, however, the interactions between S. flexneri and C. elegans at the cellular level and the cause of nematode death are unknown. Here we attempt to gain insight into the complex host-pathogen interactions between S. flexneri and C. elegans. Using transmission electron microscopy, we show that live S. flexneri cells accumulate in the nematode intestinal lumen, produce outer membrane vesicles and invade nematode intestinal cells. Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis we identified host proteins that are differentially expressed in response to S. flexneri infection. Four of the identified genes, aco-1, cct-2, daf-19 and hsp-60, were knocked down using RNAi and ACO-1, CCT-2 and DAF-19, which were identified as up-regulated in response to S. flexneri infection, were found to be involved in the infection process. aco-1 RNAi worms were more resistant to S. flexneri infection, suggesting S. flexneri-mediated disruption of host iron homeostasis. cct-2 and daf-19 RNAi worms were more susceptible to infection, suggesting that these genes are induced as a protective mechanism by C. elegans. These observations further our understanding of the processes involved in S. flexneri infection of C. elegans, which is immensely beneficial to the routine use of this new in vivo model to study S. flexneri pathogenesis.
Full Text Available Shigella dysenteriae (S.dysenteriae the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades the human colonic epithelium resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. However, the mechanism by which S.dysenteriae infection regulates proinflammatory cytokines during intestinal inflammation is still obscure. In this study, we evaluated whether the interaction of β-catenin and NF-κB regulates proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 by modulating GSK-3β activity during S.dysenteriae infection in rat ileal loop model. Here we demonstrated that S.dysenteriae infection stimulate β-catenin degradation which in turn decreased the association between NF-κB and β-catenin. Also, we showed that S.dysenteriae infection increased GSK-3β kinase activity which in turn phosphorylates β-catenin for its degradation by ubiquitination and upregulates IL-8 through NF-κB activation thereby leading to inflammation. Thus these findings revealed the role of β-catenin/ NF-κB and GSK-3β in modulating the inflammatory response during bacterial infection and also showed that β-catenin acts as a critical regulator of inflammation.
Xia, S.; Xu, B.; Huang, L.
In 2006, 3531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in Henan Province, China. A total of 467 (13.2%) Shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. Seventy-one Shigella flexneri strains were characterized by MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection...
Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing
Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.
Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi
Shigella spp. are the causative agents of food-borne shigellosis, an acute enteric infection. The emergence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Shigella presents an increasing challenge for clinicians in the treatment of shigellosis. Several studies worldwide have characterized the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in clinical Shigella isolates of human origin, however, to date, no such characterization has been reported for Shigella spp. of food origin. In this study, we characterized the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets, and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Twenty-four out of 27 Shigella isolates (88.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. were as follows: Shigella flexneri (66.7%), Shigella sonnei (18.5%), and Shigella dysenteriae (3.7%). The highest resistance was to streptomycin (100.0%), then to kanamycin (95.8%), nalidixic acid (95.8%), tetracycline (95.8%), spectinomycin (93.6%), ampicillin (87.5%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (87.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicated that 11.1% and 74.1% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 77.8% of isolates, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 44.4% of isolates. These data provide useful information to better understand the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Acute pulmonary infection may be caused by a variety of organisms. In some instances they produce a reasonably characteristic, gross pathologic pattern and, therefore, a recognizable roentgenographic pattern. In the subsequent discussions the most common gross anatomic findings in the pneumonias of various causes as reflected in chest roentgenograms will be described. The roentgenographic manifestations of pulmonary infections are so varied that the pattern observed often gives us little information regarding the causative organism. Therefore, in each instance it should be remembered that roentgenographic findings must be correlated with clinical, bacteriological, and laboratory data to ascertain the correct etiologic diagnosis upon which treatment is based. The role of the radiologist is to locate and define the extent of the disease and any complicating findings such as lung abscess and pleural effusion or empyema
Lindsay, Brianna; Saha, Debasish; Sanogo, Doh; Das, Sumon Kumar; Omore, Richard; Farag, Tamer H; Nasrin, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Nataro, James P; Magder, Laurence; Hungerford, Laura; Faruque, A S G; Oundo, Joseph; Hossain, M Anowar; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, Oscar Colin
Molecular identification of the invasion plasmid antigen-H (ipaH) gene has been established as a useful detection mechanism for Shigella spp. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) identified the etiology and burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia using a case-control study and traditional culture techniques. Here, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to identify Shigella spp. in 2,611 stool specimens from GEMS and compared these results to those using culture. Demographic and nutritional characteristics were assessed as possible risk factors. The qPCR identified more cases of shigellosis than culture; however, the distribution of demographic characteristics was similar by both methods. In regression models adjusting for Shigella quantity, age, and site, children who were exclusively breast-fed had significantly lower odds of MSD compared with children who were not breast-fed (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.81). The association between Shigella quantity and MSD increased with age, with a peak in children of 24-35 months of age (OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 4.3-15.7) and the relationship between Shigella quantity and disease was greatest in Bangladesh (OR = 13.2, 95% CI = 7.3-23.8). This study found that qPCR identified more cases of Shigella and age, site, and breast-feeding status were significant risk factors for MSD. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Full Text Available Prevalence of Shigellae serotypes in Bombay was studied from June 1988 to May 1991. A total of 2758 faecal specimens were collected from paediatric patients (< 12 yrs with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 90 Shigella were isolated giving the isolation rate of 3.2%. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (73.3% followed by Shigella dysenteriae (16.6%. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Eighty percent of the Shigellae were multidrug resistant. Present data were compared with the study carried out during the period of 1983-87 from the same institute. A change in the serogroup prevalence was noted wherein Shigella flexneri dominated over Shigella dysenteriae since 1985. Increase in resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was seen in Shigella flexneri strains as compared to previous years.
Jun, Jin Woo; Yun, Sae Kil; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Se Chang
Shigellosis is one of major foodborne pathogens in both developed and developing countries. Although antibiotic therapy is considered an effective treatment for shigellosis, the imprudent use of antibiotics has led to the increase of multiple-antibiotic-resistant Shigella species globally. In this study, we isolated a virulent Podoviridae bacteriophage (phage), pSb-1, that infects Shigella boydii. One-step growth analysis revealed that this phage has a short latent period (15 min) and a large burst size (152.63 PFU/cell), indicating that pSb-1 has good host infectivity and effective lytic activity. The double-stranded DNA genome of pSb-1 is composed of 71,629 bp with a G + C content of 42.74%. The genome encodes 103 putative ORFs, 9 putative promoters, 21 transcriptional terminators, and one tRNA region. Genome sequence analysis of pSb-1 and comparative analysis with the homologous phage EC1-UPM, N4-like phage revealed that there is a high degree of similarity (94%, nucleotide sequence identity) between pSb-1 and EC1-UPM in 73 of the 103 ORFs of pSb-1. The results of this investigation indicate that pSb-1 is a novel virulent N4-like phage infecting S. boydii and that this phage might have potential uses against shigellosis. Copyright © 2014 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Randon J. Gruninger
Full Text Available Background: Shigella species (spp. are a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children worldwide. The recent emergence of quinolone-resistant Shigella spp. gives cause for concern, and South Asia has been identified as a reservoir for global spread. The influence of socioeconomic status on antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, such as those in South Asia, remains unknown. Methods: We used data collected from 2009 to 2014 from a hospital specializing in the treatment of diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to determine the relationship between ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. isolates and measures of socioeconomic status in Bangladeshi children less than 5 years of age. Results: We found 2.7% (230/8, 672 of children who presented with diarrhea had Shigella spp. isolated from their stool, and 50% (115/230 had resistance to ciprofloxacin. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that children from families where the father’s income was in the highest quintile had significantly higher odds of having ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. compared to children in the lowest quintile (OR = 6.1, CI 1.9-19. Factors protective against the development of resistance included access to improved sanitation (OR = 0.27, CI 0.11-0.7, and improved water sources (OR = 0.48, CI 0.25-0.92. We did not find a relationship between ciprofloxacin resistance and other proxies for socioeconomic status, including the presence of animals in the home, nutritional status, paternal education level, and the number of family members in the home. Conclusions: Although the associations between wealth and antimicrobial resistance are not fully understood, possible explanations include increased access and use of antibiotics, greater access to healthcare facilities and thus resistant pathogens, or greater consumption of commercially produced foods prepared with antibiotics.
Li, Yu Lung; Tewari, Deepanker; Yealy, Courtney C; Fardig, David; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M
Shigellosis is a leading cause of enteric infections in the United States. We compared antimicrobial resistance in Shigella infections related to overseas travel (travel-associated) and in those acquired domestically by analyzing antimicrobial resistance patterns, geographic distributions, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns. We tested samples (n = 204) from a collection of isolates recovered from patients in Pennsylvania between 2006 and 2014. Isolates were grouped into travel- and non-travel-associated categories. Eighty-one (79.4%) of the Shigella isolates acquired during international travel were resistant to multiple antibiotics compared to 53 (52.1%) of the infections transmitted in domestic settings. A majority (79.4%) of isolates associated with international travel demonstrated resistance to aminoglycosides and tetracyclines, whereas 47 (46.1%) of the infections acquired domestically were resistant to tetracycline. Almost all isolates (92.2%) transmitted in domestic settings were resistant to aminoglycosides, and 5 isolates from adult male patients were resistant to azithromycin, a drug often used for empiric treatment of severe shigellosis. Twenty (19.6%) isolates associated with illnesses acquired during overseas travel in 4 countries were resistant to quinolones. One S. sonnei PFGE pattern was traced to a multidrug-resistant isolate acquired overseas that had caused a multistate outbreak of shigellosis, suggesting global dissemination of a drug-resistant species. Resistance to certain drugs-for example, tetracycline-increased in both overseas- and domestic-acquired infections during the study period. The prevalence of resistance to macrolides (azithromycin) and third-generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone) was less than 1%; however, efforts to better monitor changes in drug resistance over time combined with increased antimicrobial stewardship are essential at the local, national, and global levels.
Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A
Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887
Arevalillo, Jorge M; Sztein, Marcelo B; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Myron M; Simon, Jakub K
Immunologic correlates of protection are important in vaccine development because they give insight into mechanisms of protection, assist in the identification of promising vaccine candidates, and serve as endpoints in bridging clinical vaccine studies. Our goal is the development of a methodology to identify immunologic correlates of protection using the Shigella challenge as a model. The proposed methodology utilizes the Random Forests (RF) machine learning algorithm as well as Classification and Regression Trees (CART) to detect immune markers that predict protection, identify interactions between variables, and define optimal cutoffs. Logistic regression modeling is applied to estimate the probability of protection and the confidence interval (CI) for such a probability is computed by bootstrapping the logistic regression models. The results demonstrate that the combination of Classification and Regression Trees and Random Forests complements the standard logistic regression and uncovers subtle immune interactions. Specific levels of immunoglobulin IgG antibody in blood on the day of challenge predicted protection in 75% (95% CI 67-86). Of those subjects that did not have blood IgG at or above a defined threshold, 100% were protected if they had IgA antibody secreting cells above a defined threshold. Comparison with the results obtained by applying only logistic regression modeling with standard Akaike Information Criterion for model selection shows the usefulness of the proposed method. Given the complexity of the immune system, the use of machine learning methods may enhance traditional statistical approaches. When applied together, they offer a novel way to quantify important immune correlates of protection that may help the development of vaccines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju
Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants.
Full Text Available In social animals, group living may impact the risk of infectious disease acquisition in two ways. On the one hand, social connectedness puts individuals at greater risk or susceptibility for acquiring enteric pathogens via contact-mediated transmission. Yet conversely, in strongly bonded societies like humans and some nonhuman primates, having close connections and strong social ties of support can also socially buffer individuals against susceptibility or transmissibility of infectious agents. Using social network analyses, we assessed the potentially competing roles of contact-mediated transmission and social buffering on the risk of infection from an enteric bacterial pathogen (Shigella flexneri among captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Our results indicate that, within two macaque groups, individuals possessing more direct and especially indirect connections in their grooming and huddling social networks were less susceptible to infection. These results are in sharp contrast to several previous studies that indicate that increased (direct contact-mediated transmission facilitates infectious disease transmission, including our own findings in a third macaque group in which individuals central in their huddling network and/or which initiated more fights were more likely to be infected. In summary, our findings reveal that an individual’s social connections may increase or decrease its chances of acquiring infectious agents. They extend the applicability of the social buffering hypothesis, beyond just stress and immune-function-related health benefits, to the additional health outcome of infectious disease resistance. Finally, we speculate that the circumstances under which social buffering versus contact-mediated transmission may occur could depend on multiple factors, such as living condition, pathogen-specific transmission routes, and/or an overall social context such as a group’s social stability.
Marudhupandiyan, Shanmugam; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy
The c-Jun N-terminal kinase-mitogen-activated protein kinase (JNK-MAPK) pathway assists in modulating signals for growth, survival, and metabolism, thereby coordinating many cellular events during normal and stress conditions. To understand the role of the JNK-MAPK pathway during bacterial infection, an in vivo model organism Caenorhabditis elegans was used. In order to check the involvement of the JNK-MAPK pathway, the survival rate of C. elegans wild type (WT), and JNK-MAPK pathway mutant worms' upon exposure to selective Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, was studied. Among the pathogens, Shigella flexneri M9OT was found to efficiently colonize inside the WT and JNK-MAPK pathway mutant worms. qPCR studies had suggested that the above pathway-specific genes kgb-2 and jnk-1 were prominently responsible for the immune response elicited by the host during the M9OT infection. In addition, daf-16, which is a major transcription factor of the insulin/insulin growth factor-1 signaling (IIS) pathway, was also found to be involved during the host response. Crosstalk between IIS and JNK-MAPK pathways has probably been involved in the activation of the host immune system, which consequently leads to lifespan extension. Furthermore, it is also observed that daf-16 activation by JNK-MAPK pathway leads to antimicrobial response, by activating lys-7 expression. These findings suggest that JNK-MAPK is not the sole pathway that enhances the immunity of the host. Nonetheless, the IIS pathway bridges the JNK-MAPK pathway that influences in protecting the host in counter to the M9OT infection.
167.  E.V. Oaks, T.L. Hale, S.B. Formal, Serum immune response to Shigella protein antigens in rhesus monkeys and humans infected with Shigella ...cell responses to Shigella antigens elicited in volunteers immunized with live attenuated Shigella flexneri 2a oral vaccine candidates J.K. Simona,b... Shigella ;. B cell memory; Immunoglobulin lgA; Mucosal immunity Abstract We studied the induction of antigen-specific lgA memory B cells (BM) in
Lee, Jae-Il; Kim, Sang-Joon; Park, Chung-Gyu
A 3.4 year-old rhesus macaque weighing 4.5 kg, was suffering from anorexia, acute mucous and bloody diarrhea. On physical examination, the monkey showed a loss of activity, hunched posture, abdominal pain, dehydration, mild gingivitis and unclean anus with discharge. Whole blood was collected for the examination of electrolytes, hematology and serum chemistry; fresh stool was also collected for bacterial culture. Blood profiles showed leukocytosis (14.5 K/?L) and neutrophilia (11.0 K/?L) on c...
Infect. Immun. 72:6012-6022. 103. Suzuki, T., L. Franchi , C. Toma, H. Ashida, M. Ogawa, Y. Yoshikawa, H. Mimuro, N. Inohara, C. Sasakawa, and G... rule out the 106 possibility that a bacterial T3SS effector protein expressed intracellularly also contributes to the induction of JUN...of the point-counting stereological method (79) using an intraocular reticle of 27-mm diameter, covering 3578 μm 2 (Kr409, Klarman Rulings ) (68
Silvia Y Bando
Full Text Available Enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC and Shigellaspp cause bacillary dysentery in humans by invading and multiplying within epithelial cells of the colonic mucosa. Although EIEC and Shigellashare many genetic and biochemical similarities, the illness caused by Shigellais more severe. Thus, genomic and structure-function molecular studies on the biological interactions of these invasive enterobacteria with eukaryotic cells have focused on Shigella rather than EIEC. Here we comparatively studied the interactions of EIEC and of Shigella flexneriwith cultured J774 macrophage-like cells. We evaluated several phenotypes: (i bacterial escape from macrophages after phagocytosis, (ii macrophage death induced by EIEC and S. flexneri, (iii macrophage cytokine expression in response to infection and (iv expression of plasmidial (pINV virulence genes. The results showed thatS. flexneri caused macrophage killing earlier and more intensely than EIEC. Both pathogens induced significant macrophage production of TNF, IL-1 and IL-10 after 7 h of infection. Transcription levels of the gene invasion plasmid antigen-C were lower in EIEC than in S. flexneri throughout the course of the infection; this could explain the diminished virulence of EIEC compared to S. flexneri.
Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.
This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses
Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J
Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....
studied in a monkey model for Shigella infection. The in vitro assays just described have been routinely used to closely examine each of the steps in...to Shigella protein antigens in Rhesus monkeys and humans infected with Shigella spp. Infect. Immun_ 53:57-63. Oaks, E. V. , and K. R. Turbyfill...thesis manuscript ent itled: ~Export of Virulence Faclors from Shigella f/exneri and characterization of the mxi loci. ~ beyond brief excerpts is
Philippe J Sansonetti
Full Text Available Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial species of the family Enterobacteriaceae that causes bacillary dysentery in humans. This acute colitis reflects the capacity of the microorganism to disrupt, invade and cause the inflammatory destruction of the intestinal epithelium. The pathogenesis of the Shigella infection can be seen as a disruption of the homeostatic balance that protects the gut against inflammation in the presence of its commensal flora. This provides the unified view that enteroinvasive pathogens allow for the identification of key signalling molecules and pathways involved in the regulation of intestinal inflammation, and more generally, in the regulation of the innate and adaptive immune response.
Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147
The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.
Experiments in rabbit ileal loops and in rhesus monkeys have shown that shigellae are initially taken up by antigen sampling microfold (M) cells that are...2011) – Table 1 Shigella antigen-specific immune responses and colonization in rhesus monkeys after nasogastric administration of WRSS1, WRSs2...the respective antigens. 3.3. Mucosal responses in rhesus monkeys The mucosal immune response to Shigella LPS, and Invaplex- 50 antigens are summarized
Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella flexneri is the major pathogen causing bacillary dysentery. Fifteen serotypes have been recognized up to now. The genesis of new S. flexneri serotypes is commonly mediated by serotype-converting bacteriophages. Untypeable or novel serotypes from natural infections had been reported worldwide but have not been generated in laboratory. Results A new S. flexneri serotype-serotype 1 d was generated when a S. flexneri serotype Y strain (native LPS was sequentially infected with 2 serotype-converting bacteriophages, SfX first and then SfI. The new serotype 1 d strain agglutinated with both serotype X-specific anti-7;8 grouping serum and serotype 1a-specific anti- I typing serum, and differed from subserotypes 1a, 1b and 1c. Twenty four S. flexneri clinical isolates of serotype X were all converted to serotype 1 d by infection with phage SfI. PCR and sequencing revealed that SfI and SfX were integrated in tandem into the proA-yaiC region of the host chromosome. Conclusions These findings suggest a new S. flexneri serotype could be created in nature. Such a conversion may be constrained by susceptibility of a strain to infection by a given serotype-converting bacteriophage. This finding has significant implications in the emergence of new S. flexneri serotypes in nature.
Chan Edmond CH
Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.
Ma, Edmond S K; Wong, Chris L P; Lai, Kristi T W; Chan, Edmond C H; Yam, W C; Chan, Angus C W
Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.
Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla
The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.
... Legislation Advisory Council Job Opportunities All About NCCIH Health Topics A-Z ... to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. Acute respiratory infections, ...
Scandjlnfect Dis 1993;25(5):569-77.  Oaks EV, Hale TL. Formal SB. Serum immune response to Shigella protein ami- gens in rhesus monkeys and humans...infection with virulent Shigellaflexneri 2a on the resistance of monkeys to subsequent infection with Shigella sonnei. J Infect Dis 1991; 164(September...july 2010 Keywords: Shigella jlexneri lnvaplex Nasal vaccine Shigellosis is a leading cause of diarrhea worldwide prompting vaccine development
Fris, Megan E; Murphy, Erin R
Within the past several years, RNA-mediated regulation (ribo-regulation) has become increasingly recognized for its importance in controlling critical bacterial processes. Regulatory RNA molecules, or riboregulators, are perpetually responsive to changes within the micro-environment of a bacterium. Notably, several characterized riboregulators control virulence in pathogenic bacteria, as is the case for each riboregulator characterized to date in Shigella. The timing of virulence gene expression and the ability of the pathogen to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions is critical to the establishment and progression of infection by Shigella species; ribo-regulators mediate each of these important processes. This mini review will present the current state of knowledge regarding RNA-mediated regulation in Shigella by detailing the characterization and function of each identified riboregulator in these pathogens.
Beyene, Getenet; Tasew, Haimanot
Diarrheal disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species remain major contributors to acute enteric infections. The study was aimed at determining the frequency of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species identified from diarrheic children at Jimma Health Centre, Jimma south west Ethiopia. A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March to November 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data on socio- demographic characteristics. Parasite and bacteria identification as well as susceptibility testing was done using standard parasitological and bacteriological procedures. A total of 260 diarrheal children were included in the study. A total of 129 (49.6%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species. Of these, 107 (41.1%), 6 (2.3%) and 16 (6.2%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species respectively. The dominant isolated parasite was G. lamblia with prevalence of 13.5% followed by A. lumbricoides (11.5%). The least identified parasites were Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species accounting 0.4% each. Multiple parasitic infections were observed in 19 (7.3%) patients. Shigella species showed hundred percent resistances to ampicillin, amoxacillin, and cotrimoxazole. All Salmonella isolates were resistant against amoxicillin. All Shigella and Salmonella species were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The presence of reasonably high amount of intestinal parasite and Salmonella and Shigella species that are drug resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial
Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni
O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David
In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral®), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096
Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon
Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wong, CLP; Yam, WC; Ma, ESK; Chan, ACW; Chan, ECH; Lai, KTW
Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readi...
Anderson, Mark; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Marteyn, Benoit S.
Shigella is a pathovar of Escherichia coli comprising four groups, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella boydii, each of them, with the exception of S.sonnei, comprising several serotypes. Shigella accounts for the majority of dysentery causing infections occurring world-wide each year. Recent advancements in the Shigella field have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host epithelial cell invasion and immune cell function manipulation, mainly using S. flexneri as a model. Host-cell invasion is the final step of the infection process, as Shigella's virulence strategy relies also on its ability to survive hostile conditions during its journey through the gastro-intestinal tract, to compete with the host microbiota and to cross the intestinal mucus layer. Hence, the diversity of the virulence strategies among the different Shigella species has not yet been deeply investigated, which might be an important step to understand the epidemiological spreading of Shigella species worldwide and a key aspect for the validation of novel vaccine candidates. The recent development of high-throughput screening and sequencing methods will facilitate these complex comparison studies. In this review we discuss several of the major avenues that the Shigella research field has taken over the past few years and hopefully gain some insights into the questions that remain surrounding this important human pathogen. PMID:27148494
Temperature Regulation of Shigella Virulence: Identification of Temperature-Regulated Shigella Invasion Genes by the Isolation of inv::lacZ Operon Fusions and the Characterization of the Virulence Gene Regulator virR
conserved in virulent strains of Shigella and EIEC. Evaluation of the serum Immune response to Shigella proteins in Rhesus monkeys and humans revealed...sera from both humans and monkeys following a Shigella infection (Hale et al. , 1985; Oaks et al., 1986). Moreover, Tn5 insertions In various...Microbiology, Washington, D.C. 108. Oaks, E, V,, T, L. Hale, and S. B. Formal. 1986. Serum Immune response to Shigella protein antigens In Rhesus monkeys
Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I
Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while waiting for universal access to water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements. This review article provides a landscape of Shigella vaccine development efforts. No vaccine is yet available, but human and animal challenge-rechallenge trials with virulent Shigella as well as observational studies in Shigella-endemic areas have shown that the incidence of disease decreases following Shigella infection, pointing to biological feasibility of a vaccine. Immunity to Shigella appears to be strain-specific, so a vaccine that covers the most commonly detected strains (i.e., S. flexneri 2a, 3a, 6, and S. sonnei) or a vaccine using cross-species conserved antigens would likely be most effective. Vaccine development and testing may be accelerated by use of animal models, such as the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis or murine pneumonia models. Because there is no correlate of protection, however, human studies will be necessary to evaluate vaccine efficacy prior to deployment. A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization
and invasive Escherichia coli diarrheal disease, acute non-bacterial gastro- enteritis of adults ( parvovirus ) and choler;-j-For all the above-mentioned...with: 1) Enterotoxigenic E. coli. 2) Invasive E. coli. 3) Parvoviruses . 4) Giardia intestinalis. C. To investigate both the non-specific and specific... attenuated .trains of shigell:i for kise as oral vaccines. Presently we are involved ir, evalua. ion of the ’third gene: ioi " of oral shigella
Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Moradzadeh, Mina; Eshaghi, Hamid; Ramezani, Amitis; Haghi Ashtiani, Mohammad Taghi; Keshavarz Valian, Sepideh; Mamishi, Setareh
Gastroenteritis is one of the leading cause of illnesses through the world, especially in developing countries.Salmonella and Shigella infections are considered as the main public health problems in children. The aim of this study was to detect the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella and Shigella spp. among children with gastroenteritis in an Iranian referral hospital. During April 2013 to April 2014, all medical records of children with gastroenteritis admitted to a pediatric medical center were evaluated. Positive stool cultures of children were evaluated and frequency of Salmonella and Shigella spp. and their antimicrobial susceptibility were detected. In this study, 676 patients with the mean age of 24.94 months were enrolled. Eighty-eight (42%) Salmonella spp., 85 (40%) Shigella spp., 33 (16%) E. coli and 5(2%) candida albicans were isolated from 211 positive stool cultures. Among 85 Shigella spp. isolates, S. sonnei, S. flexneri and other Shigella spp. were isolated from 39 (46%) isolates, 36(42%) and 10(12%), respectively. Among 88 isolated Salmonella spp., 36 (41%) isolates were Salmonella Serogroup D, 26 (30%) were Salmonella Serogroup B, 20 (23%) isolates were Salmonella Serogroup C and 6 (7%) were other Salmonella spp. isolates. Thirty-eight percent of Salmonella serogroup B were resistant to nalidixic acid, while higher frequency of nalidixic acid resistant was found in Salmonella serogroup C and Salmonella serogroup D. The higher frequency of ampicillin resistant was found in Shigella spp. than Salmonella spp. High frequency of cefotaxime resistant was seen in S. sonei and S. flexneri (77% and 56%, respectively), whereas more than 90% of Salmonella serogroup B, C and D were susceptible to this antibiotic. In conclusion, Shigella and Salmonella serogroups can be considered as important etiological agents of acute diarrhea in children. Since the prevalence of antibiotic resistance is increasing in recent years in Iran, further
NRUs) in Malawi with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are infected with HIV. There are many similarities in the clinical presentation of SAM and HIV. It is important to identify HIV infected children, in order to improve case management.
Harmanjit Singh Hira
Full Text Available Background: Dengue infections may present with neurological complications. Whether these are due to neuromuscular disease or electrolyte imbalance is unclear. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients of dengue fever required hospitalization during epidemic in year 2010. Twelve of them presented with acute neuromuscular weakness. We enrolled them for study. Diagnosis of dengue infection based on clinical profile of patients, positive serum IgM ELISA, NS1 antigen, and sero-typing. Complete hemogram, kidney and liver functions, serum electrolytes, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK were tested. In addition, two patients underwent nerve conduction velocity (NCV test and electromyography. Results: Twelve patients were included in the present study. Their age was between 18 and 34 years. Fever, myalgia, and motor weakness of limbs were most common presenting symptoms. Motor weakness developed on 2 nd to 4 th day of illness in 11 of 12 patients. In one patient, it developed on 10 th day of illness. Ten of 12 showed hypokalemia. One was of Guillain-Barré syndrome and other suffered from myositis; they underwent NCV and electromyography. Serum CPK and SGOT raised in 8 out of 12 patients. CPK of patient of myositis was 5098 IU. All of 12 patients had thrombocytopenia. WBC was in normal range. Dengue virus was isolated in three patients, and it was of serotype 1. CSF was normal in all. Within 24 hours, those with hypokalemia recovered by potassium correction. Conclusions: It was concluded that the dengue virus infection led to acute neuromuscular weakness because of hypokalemia, myositis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. It was suggested to look for presence of hypokalemia in such patients.
Full Text Available A case report of a 65-year-old female with a history of right total hip arthroplasty (THA in 2007 and left THA in 2009 was presented. She consulted with our institution for the first time, on December 2013, for right hip pain and fistula on the THA incision. It was managed as a chronic infection, so a two-stage revision was performed. First-time intraoperative cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus (3/5 and Proteus mirabilis (2/5. Three weeks after the second half of the review, it evolved with acute fever and pain in relation to right hip. No antibiotics were used, arthrocentesis was performed, and a coagulase-negative staphylococci multisensible was isolated at the 5th day. Since the germ was different from the first revision, it was decided to perform a one-stage revision. One year after the first review, the patient has no local signs of infection and presents ESV and RPC in normal limits. The indication and management of periprosthetic infections are discussed.
Jun Hyuck Lee
Full Text Available Pathogen-induced reorganization of the host cell cytoskeleton is a common strategy utilized in host cell invasion by many facultative intracellular bacteria, such as Shigella, Listeria, enteroinvasive E. coli and Salmonella. Shigella is an enteroinvasive intracellular pathogen that preferentially infects human epithelial cells and causes bacillary dysentery. Invasion of Shigella into intestinal epithelial cells requires extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton with the aid of pathogenic effector proteins injected into the host cell by the activity of the type III secretion system. These so-called Shigella invasins, including IpaA, IpaC, IpgB1, IpgB2 and IpgD, modulate the actin-regulatory system in a concerted manner to guarantee efficient entry of the bacteria into host cells.
Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy
Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca(2+) responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca(2+) increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca(2+) responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection.
Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy
Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca2+ responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection. PMID:26904514
Full Text Available Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS. Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells towards a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca2+ responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection.
Malysh, N G; Chemych, N D; Zaritsky, A M
Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent. In the etiological structure of acute diarrheal infections there are dominated viruses, of food toxicoinfections--Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae (p < 0.05). Predictors of the complication of epidemiological situation of Shigella infections are the gain in the detection of bacterially contaminated samples of milk and dairy products (r = 0.75), for food toxicoinfections caused by Klebsiellae pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae--pastry with cream and cooking meat products (r = 0.64; r = 0.75). Epizootic situation in the region affects on the salmonellosis incidence rate of the population (r = 0.89). There were revealed correlations between the selection of E. coli bacteria from swabs taken from the enterprises of catering, in child care centers and the levels of incidence rates of salmonellosis, acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (r = 0.59; r = 0.60). Timely detection and sanitation of Shigella carriers are a powerful instrument to reduce the incidence rate of shigellosis (r = 0.83).
Full Text Available Rebecca Arden HarrisDepartment of Family and Social Medicine, Montefiore Medical Center, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, USAThe identification of risk factors for acute respiratory infections (ARI is crucial for designing interventions to both minimize transmission and augment the immune response, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa where poverty-related ARI is still a major cause of preventable death in young children.1 I therefore read with interest Geberetsadik et al’s recent study of the factors associated with ARI in Ethiopian children.2 Their study uses nationally representative data on households and individuals to build a model of the social, demographic, and anthropometric determinants of ARI. A precise understanding of their model, however, requires clarification of several items in their paper.View original paper by Geberetsadik et al.
Bangtrakulnonth, A.; Wong, Danilo Lo Fo; Vieira, Antonio
In Thailand during 1993-2006, a total of 9063 Shigella isolates from different medical centers were serotyped and trends over time and. spatial clustering analyzed. Of 3583 cases with age information, 1315 (37%) cases were from children between 0 and 4 years and 684 (1.9%) from children between 5...... and 8 years. Most infections were recorded during 1993-1994 (> 1500 per year), decreasing to Shigella flexneri accounted for 2241 (65%) of 3474 isolations. This proportion decreased to 64 (36%) of 176 infections in 2006....... Most infections occurred during July and August, and fewest in December. S. flexneri clustered around Bangkok, and Shigella sonnei in southern Thailand. Most S. flexneri infections were caused by serotype 2a (1590 of 4035) followed by serotype var X (1249). For both serotypes, a pronounced decrease...
Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Benn, Christine Stabell; Simonsen, Jacob
To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics.......To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics....
César Cabrera C
Full Text Available Se presenta un caso raro de sepsis por Shigella flexneri en una paciente de 45 años de edad quien estando hospitalizada para el estudio de un tumor cerebral, requirió el uso de manitol y dosis altas de corticoides; luego de ello presenta deposiciones líquidas con moco y sangre, desarrolla síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, luego se aísla Shigella flexneri en el hemocultivo; recibió tratamiento antibiótico con ciprofloxacina. Se describen las características del caso y se comenta de acuerdo con la revisión de literatura.
Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola
Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.
Kesika, Periyanaina; Prasanth, Mani Iyer; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy
To analyze the pathogenesis at both physiological and molecular level using the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans at different developmental stages in response to Shigella spp. and its pathogen associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide. The solid plate and liquid culture-based infection assays revealed that Shigella spp. infects C. elegans and had an impact on the brood size and pharyngeal pumping rate. LPS of Shigella spp. was toxic to C. elegans. qPCR analysis revealed that host innate immune genes have been modulated upon Shigella spp. infections and its LPS challenges. Non-destructive analysis was performed to kinetically assess the alterations in LPS during interaction of Shigella spp. with C. elegans. The modulation of innate immune genes attributed the surrendering of host immune system to Shigella spp. by favoring the infection. LPS appeared to have a major role in Shigella-mediated pathogenesis and Shigella employs a tactic behavior of modifying its LPS content to escape from the recognition of host immune system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Mellouk, Nora; Enninga, Jost
Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes bacillary dysentery in humans. A crucial step of Shigella infection is its invasion of epithelial cells. Using a type III secretion system, Shigella injects several bacterial effectors ultimately leading to bacterial internalization within a vacuole. Then, Shigella escapes rapidly from the vacuole, it replicates within the cytosol and spreads from cell-to-cell. The molecular mechanism of vacuolar rupture used by Shigella has been studied in some detail during the recent years and new paradigms are emerging about the underlying molecular events. For decades, bacterial effector proteins were portrayed as main actors inducing vacuolar rupture. This includes the effector/translocators IpaB and IpaC. More recently, this has been challenged and an implication of the host cell in the process of vacuolar rupture has been put forward. This includes the bacterial subversion of host trafficking regulators, such as the Rab GTPase Rab11. The involvement of the host in determining bacterial vacuolar integrity has also been found for other bacterial pathogens, particularly for Salmonella. Here, we will discuss our current view of host factor and pathogen effector implications during Shigella vacuolar rupture and the steps leading to it.
Full Text Available Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes bacillary dysentery in humans. A crucial step of Shigella infection is its invasion of epithelial cells. Using a type III secretion system, Shigella injects several bacterial effectors ultimately leading to bacterial internalization within a vacuole. Then, Shigella escapes rapidly from the vacuole, it replicates within the cytosol and spreads from cell-to-cell. The molecular mechanism of vacuolar rupture used by Shigella has been studied in some detail during the recent years and new paradigms are emerging about the underlying molecular events. For decades, bacterial effector proteins were portrayed as main actors inducing vacuolar rupture. This includes the effector/translocators IpaB and IpaC. More recently, this has been challenged and an implication of the host cell in the process of vacuolar rupture has been put forward. This includes the bacterial subversion of host trafficking regulators, such as the Rab GTPase Rab11. The involvement of the host in determining bacterial vacuolar integrity has also been found for other bacterial pathogens, particularly for Salmonella. Here, we will discuss our current view of host factor and pathogen effector implications during Shigella vacuolar rupture and the steps leading to it.
Mladenova, Zornitsa; Steyer, Andrej; Steyer, Adela Fratnik; Ganesh, Balasubramanian; Petrov, Petar; Tchervenjakova, Tanja; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren
Paediatric acute gastroenteritis is a global public health problem. Comprehensive laboratory investigation for viral, bacterial and parasitic agents is helpful for improving management of acute gastroenteritis in health care settings and for monitoring and controlling the spread of these infections. Our study aimed to investigate the role of various pathogens in infantile diarrhoea in Bulgaria outside the classical winter epidemics of rotavirus and norovirus. Stool samples from 115 hospitalized children aged 0-3 years collected during summer months were tested for presence of 14 infectious agents - group A rotavirus, astrovirus, Giardia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba using ELISAs; norovirus by real-time RT-PCR; picobirnavirus and sapovirus by RT-PCR; adenovirus using PCR, and Salmonella, Shigella, Escherichia coli, Yersinia and Campylobacter using standard bacterial cultures. Infectious origin was established in a total of 92 cases and 23 samples remained negative. A single pathogen was found in 67 stools, of which rotaviruses were the most prevalent (56.7 %), followed by noroviruses (19.4 %), enteric adenoviruses (7.5 %), astroviruses (6.0 %), bacteria and parasites (4.5 % each) and sapoviruses (1.4 %). Rotavirus predominant genotypes were G4P (46.3 %) and G2P (21.4 %); for astroviruses, type 1a was the most common, while the GII.4/2006b variant was the most prevalent among noroviruses. Bacteria were observed in five cases, with Salmonella sp. as the most prevalent, while parasites were found in ten stool samples, with Giardia intestinalis in five cases. The results demonstrated high morbidity associated with viral infections and that rotavirus and norovirus remain the most common pathogens associated with severe gastroenteritis during summer months in Bulgaria, a country with a temperate climate, and significant molecular diversity among circulating virus strains. © 2015 The Authors.
Novoa-Farías, O; Frati-Munari, A C; Peredo, M A; Flores-Juárez, S; Novoa-García, O; Galicia-Tapia, J; Romero-Carpio, C E
Bacterial resistance may hamper the antimicrobial management of acute gastroenteritis. Bacterial susceptibility to rifaximin, an antibiotic that achieves high fecal concentrations (up to 8,000μg/g), has not been evaluated in Mexico. To determine the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobial agents of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis in Mexico. Bacterial strains were analyzed in stool samples from 1,000 patients with diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. The susceptibility to rifaximin (RIF) was tested by microdilution (<100, <200, <400 and <800μg/ml) and susceptibility to chloramphenicol (CHL), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T-S), neomycin (NEO), furazolidone (FUR), fosfomycin (FOS), ampicillin (AMP) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) was tested by agar diffusion at the concentrations recommended by the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute and the American Society for Microbiology. Isolated bacteria were: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) (EPEC) 531, Shigella 120, non-Typhi Salmonella 117, Aeromonas spp. 80, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 54, Yersinia enterocolitica 20, Campylobacter jejuni 20, Vibrio spp. 20, Plesiomonas shigelloides 20, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC 0:157) 18. The overall cumulative susceptibility to RIF at <100, <200, <400, and <800μg/ml was 70.6, 90.8, 99.3, and 100%, respectively. The overall susceptibility to each antibiotic was: AMP 32.2%, T-S 53.6%, NEO 54.1%, FUR 64.7%, CIP 67.3%, CLO 73%, and FOS 81.3%. The susceptibility to RIF <400 and RIF <800μg/ml was significantly greater than with the other antibiotics (p<0.001). Resistance of enteropathogenic bacteria to various antibiotics used in gastrointestinal infections is high. Rifaximin was active against 99-100% of these enteropathogens at reachable concentrations in the intestine with the recommended dose. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Harskamp, Ralf E.; van Ginkel, Margreet W.
Clinical studies suggest that acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) may be a risk factor for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ARTI is associated with an increased risk for ACS up to 2 weeks prior to a cardiac event. The mechanism that may underlie this association is unclear. Infections are
Kentner, David; Martano, Giuseppe; Callon, Morgane; Chiquet, Petra; Brodmann, Maj; Burton, Olga; Wahlander, Asa; Nanni, Paolo; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Grossmann, Jonas; Limenitakis, Julien; Schlapbach, Ralph; Kiefer, Patrick; Vorholt, Julia A; Hiller, Sebastian; Bumann, Dirk
Shigella flexneri proliferate in infected human epithelial cells at exceptionally high rates. This vigorous growth has important consequences for rapid progression to life-threatening bloody diarrhea, but the underlying metabolic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used metabolomics, proteomics, and genetic experiments to determine host and Shigella metabolism during infection in a cell culture model. The data suggest that infected host cells maintain largely normal fluxes through glycolytic pathways, but the entire output of these pathways is captured by Shigella, most likely in the form of pyruvate. This striking strategy provides Shigella with an abundant favorable energy source, while preserving host cell ATP generation, energy charge maintenance, and survival, despite ongoing vigorous exploitation. Shigella uses a simple three-step pathway to metabolize pyruvate at high rates with acetate as an excreted waste product. The crucial role of this pathway for Shigella intracellular growth suggests targets for antimicrobial chemotherapy of this devastating disease.
Dekker, John; Frank, Karen
Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640
Anthony J. Mannion
Full Text Available Non-human primates (NHPs for biomedical research are commonly infected with Shigella spp. that can cause acute dysentery or chronic episodic diarrhea. These animals are often prophylactically and clinically treated with quinolone antibiotics to eradicate these possible infections. However, chromosomally- and plasmid-mediated antibiotic resistance has become an emerging concern for species in the family Enterobacteriaceae. In this study, five individual isolates of multi-drug resistant Shigella flexneri were isolated from the feces of three macaques. Antibiotic susceptibility testing confirmed resistance or decreased susceptibility to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalosporins, gentamicin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, levofloxacin, and nalidixic acid. S. flexneri isolates were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and this drug was used to eradicate infection in two of the macaques. Plasmid DNA from all isolates was positive for the plasmid-encoded quinolone resistance gene qnrS, but not qnrA and qnrB. Conjugation and transformation of plasmid DNA from several S. flexneri isolates into antibiotic-susceptible Escherichia coli strains conferred the recipients with resistance or decreased susceptibility to quinolones and beta-lactams. Genome sequencing of two representative S. flexneri isolates identified the qnrS gene on a plasmid-like contig. These contigs showed >99% homology to plasmid sequences previously characterized from quinolone-resistant Shigella flexneri 2a and Salmonella enterica strains. Other antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factor genes were also identified in chromosome and plasmid sequences in these genomes. The findings from this study indicate macaques harbor pathogenic S. flexneri strains with chromosomally- and plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in S. flexneri isolated from NHPs and warrants
Full Text Available Bacterial dysentery due to Shigella species is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of Shigella is based on the bacteria's ability to invade and replicate within the colonic epithelium, resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. Although the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Shigella in the colon have been extensively studied, little is known on the effect of wild-type Shigella on the small intestine and the role of the host response in the development of the disease. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge no studies have described the effects of apically administered Shigella flexneri 2a and S. dysenteriae 1 vaccine strains on human small intestinal enterocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the coordinated functional and immunological human epithelial responses evoked by strains of Shigella and candidate vaccines on small intestinal enterocytes. To model the interactions of Shigella with the intestinal mucosa, we apically exposed monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells to increasing bacterial inocula. We monitored changes in paracellular permeability, examined the organization of tight-junctions and the pro-inflammatory response of epithelial cells. Shigella infection of Caco2 monolayers caused severe mucosal damage, apparent as a drastic increase in paracellular permeability and disruption of tight junctions at the cell-cell boundary. Secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-8 was independent of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Shigella vaccine strains elicited a pro-inflammatory response without affecting the intestinal barrier integrity. Our data show that wild-type Shigella infection causes a severe alteration of the barrier function of a small intestinal cell monolayer (a proxy for mucosa and might contribute (along with enterotoxins to the induction of watery diarrhea. Diarrhea may be a mechanism by which the host attempts to eliminate harmful bacteria and transport them
Malo, S; Bjerrum, L; Feja, C; Lallana, M J; Poncel, A; Rabanaque, M J
Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide threat to public health. Acute respiratory tract infections are the main reason for antibiotic prescribing in the Spanish paediatric population. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of antibiotic prescription and their pattern of use in acute respiratory tract infections diagnosed in children in Primary Care in Aragón (Spain). A study was conducted over a 1-year period on children between 0 and 14 years-old, recording all episodes of acute otitis, acute pharyngotonsillitis, non-specific upper respiratory infection, and acute bronchitis. The proportion of episodes within each diagnosis receiving an antibiotic prescription was calculated, and the prescribing pattern was determined. Half (50%) of the children in Aragón were diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection during the study period. Non-specific upper respiratory infection was the most frequent diagnosis. An antibiotic was prescribed in 75% of pharyngotonsillitis episodes, 72% of otitis, 27% of bronchitis, and 16% of non-specific upper respiratory infections. Broad spectrum antibiotics, mainly amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic, were predominantly prescribed. Antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections in children was generally high, and the choice of antibiotics was probably inappropriate in a high percentage of cases. Therefore an improvement in antibiotic prescribing in children appears to be needed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); P. de Vries (Petra)
textabstractSeveral viruses may cause more or less severe acute respiratory infections in man, some of which are followed by systemic infection. Only for influenza and measles are licensed vaccines available at present. The protection induced by influenza vaccines, which are based on inactivated
Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F.; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.
Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve
Westendorp, Willeke F.; Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Vermeij, Frederique; den Hertog, Heleen M.; Dippel, Diederik W. J.; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J.
Background Stroke is the main cause of disability in high income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce infections and improve outcome.
Full Text Available Background: Two to six weeks after primary infection with HIV 50 to 90 percent of patients develop an acute retroviral syndrome which usually presents with mononucleosis or flu-like illness. Due to nonspecific symptoms ARS is frequently misdiagnosed.Patients and methods: Data of Slovenian patients with acute retroviral syndrome is shown, as well as their symptoms, approaches to management and diagnostic particularities of primary HIV infection.Conclusions: The combination of particular symptoms and epidemiological data should lead us to consider the possibility of an early HIV infection.
Chan, Jonathan E; Kapoor, Anil
Herpes zoster (HZ) infection has been reported as a rare cause of acute urinary retention. HZ infection involving sacral, thoracolumbar, and rarely high thoracic dermatomes is believed to occasionally cause motor and sensory neuropathy of the bladder. This is specifically achieved by the interruption of the detrusor reflex causing subsequent bladder atonia. As the course and management of this entity is quite benign, HZ should remain a diagnostic consideration in the management of urinary retention. We report a case of acute urinary retention of approximately 2.5 liters associated with HZ infection and review the proposed pathogenesis and therapeutic considerations in the management of this entity.
Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy
As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading in intestinal epithelium lead to the elicitation of inflammatory responses responsible for the tissue destruction and shedding in the environment for further infection of other hosts. In this article, we highlight specific features of the Shigella arsenal of virulence determinants injected by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) that point to the targeting of intestinal epithelial cells as a discrete route of invasion during the initial event of the infectious process. PMID:24086068
Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi
Acute respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus (HBoV), a novel virus, is recognized to increasingly associate with previously unknown etiology respiratory infections in young children. In this study, the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics of HBoV infections were described in hospitalized Vietnamese pediatric patients. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from patients with acute respiratory infections at the Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Samples were screened for HBoV by PCR and further molecularly characterized by sequencing. HBoV was found in 78 (7.2%) children. Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 66.7% of patients infected with HBoV. Children 12-24 months old were the most affected age group. Infections with HBoV were found year-round, though most cases occurred in the dry season (December-April). HBoV was possible to cause severe diseases as determined by higher rates of hypoxia, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization duration in patients with HBoV infection than in those without (P-value infection with HBoV did not affect the disease severity. The phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene showed minor variations and all HBoV sequences belonged to species 1 (HBoV1). In conclusion, HBoV1 was circulating in Vietnam and detected frequently in young children during dry season. Acute respiratory infections caused by HBoV1 were severe enough for hospitalization, which implied that HBoV1 may have an important role in acute respiratory infections among children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Courtney L Davis
Full Text Available We refine and clinically parameterize a mathematical model of the humoral immune response against Shigella, a diarrheal bacteria that infects 80-165 million people and kills an estimated 600,000 people worldwide each year. Using Latin hypercube sampling and Monte Carlo simulations for parameter estimation, we fit our model to human immune data from two Shigella EcSf2a-2 vaccine trials and a rechallenge study in which antibody and B-cell responses against Shigella's lipopolysaccharide (LPS and O-membrane proteins (OMP were recorded. The clinically grounded model is used to mathematically investigate which key immune mechanisms and bacterial targets confer immunity against Shigella and to predict which humoral immune components should be elicited to create a protective vaccine against Shigella. The model offers insight into why the EcSf2a-2 vaccine had low efficacy and demonstrates that at a group level a humoral immune response induced by EcSf2a-2 vaccine or wild-type challenge against Shigella's LPS or OMP does not appear sufficient for protection. That is, the model predicts an uncontrolled infection of gut epithelial cells that is present across all best-fit model parameterizations when fit to EcSf2a-2 vaccine or wild-type challenge data. Using sensitivity analysis, we explore which model parameter values must be altered to prevent the destructive epithelial invasion by Shigella bacteria and identify four key parameter groups as potential vaccine targets or immune correlates: 1 the rate that Shigella migrates into the lamina propria or epithelium, 2 the rate that memory B cells (BM differentiate into antibody-secreting cells (ASC, 3 the rate at which antibodies are produced by activated ASC, and 4 the Shigella-specific BM carrying capacity. This paper underscores the need for a multifaceted approach in ongoing efforts to design an effective Shigella vaccine.
Davis, Courtney L; Wahid, Rezwanul; Toapanta, Franklin R; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B
We refine and clinically parameterize a mathematical model of the humoral immune response against Shigella, a diarrheal bacteria that infects 80-165 million people and kills an estimated 600,000 people worldwide each year. Using Latin hypercube sampling and Monte Carlo simulations for parameter estimation, we fit our model to human immune data from two Shigella EcSf2a-2 vaccine trials and a rechallenge study in which antibody and B-cell responses against Shigella's lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and O-membrane proteins (OMP) were recorded. The clinically grounded model is used to mathematically investigate which key immune mechanisms and bacterial targets confer immunity against Shigella and to predict which humoral immune components should be elicited to create a protective vaccine against Shigella. The model offers insight into why the EcSf2a-2 vaccine had low efficacy and demonstrates that at a group level a humoral immune response induced by EcSf2a-2 vaccine or wild-type challenge against Shigella's LPS or OMP does not appear sufficient for protection. That is, the model predicts an uncontrolled infection of gut epithelial cells that is present across all best-fit model parameterizations when fit to EcSf2a-2 vaccine or wild-type challenge data. Using sensitivity analysis, we explore which model parameter values must be altered to prevent the destructive epithelial invasion by Shigella bacteria and identify four key parameter groups as potential vaccine targets or immune correlates: 1) the rate that Shigella migrates into the lamina propria or epithelium, 2) the rate that memory B cells (BM) differentiate into antibody-secreting cells (ASC), 3) the rate at which antibodies are produced by activated ASC, and 4) the Shigella-specific BM carrying capacity. This paper underscores the need for a multifaceted approach in ongoing efforts to design an effective Shigella vaccine.
Liu, Stephen; Roberts, Henry; Jiles, Ruth B.; Holmberg, Scott D.
Objectives. Because only a fraction of patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B, and C are reported through national surveillance to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we estimated the true numbers. Methods. We applied a simple probabilistic model to estimate the fraction of patients with acute hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C who would have been symptomatic, would have sought health care tests, and would have been reported to health officials in 2011. Results. For hepatitis A, the frequencies of symptoms (85%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (69%) yielded an estimate of 2730 infections (2.0 infections per reported case). For hepatitis B, the frequencies of symptoms (39%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (45%) indicated 18 730 infections (6.5 infections per reported case). For hepatitis C, the frequency of symptoms among injection drug users (13%) and those infected otherwise (48%), proportion seeking care (88%), and percentage reported (53%) indicated 17 100 infections (12.3 infections per reported case). Conclusions. These adjustment factors will allow state and local health authorities to estimate acute hepatitis infections locally and plan prevention activities accordingly. PMID:24432918
Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Sasakawa, Chihiro
NF-κB plays a central role in modulating innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Therefore, many bacterial pathogens deploy multiple mechanisms to counteract NF-κB activation. The invasion of and subsequent replication of Shigella within epithelial cells is recognized by various pathogen recognition receptors as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors trigger innate defense mechanisms via the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we show the inhibition of the NF-κB activation by the delivery of the IpaH E3 ubiquitin ligase family member IpaH0722 using Shigella's type III secretion system. IpaH0722 dampens the acute inflammatory response by preferentially inhibiting the PKC-mediated activation of NF-κB by ubiquitinating TRAF2, a molecule downstream of PKC, and by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation. PMID:23754945
Jakab, G; Komoly, S; Juhász, E
The history of a young female patient is presented. She developed urine retention of sudden onset as a complication of herpes zoster infection manifested in the sacral dermatomes. Symptomatic and antiviral treatments were introduced with full recovery of bladder function. The correct diagnosis of this rare and benign complication of herpes zoster infection can help to avoid unnecessary and invasive examinations.
Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.
Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor
Imaging is required in only a minority of patients with urinary tract infection. Some patients who present with severe loin pain are imaged because ureteric colic is suspected. If urinary tract infection does not respond normally to antibiotics, imaging is undertaken to check for evidence of renal obstuction or sepsis. Finally, after the acute infection has been treated, imaging is required in some patients to check for factors pre-disposing to renal damage or to relapsing or recurrent infection. This review discusses the appropriate choice of imaging technique to use in each clinical situation and summarises the expected findings. (orig.). With 15 figs., 1 tab
Killackey, Samuel A; Sorbara, Matthew T; Girardin, Stephen E
Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for shigellosis. Over the years, the study of Shigella has provided a greater understanding of how the host responds to bacterial infection, and how bacteria have evolved to effectively counter the host defenses. In this review, we provide an update on some of the most recent advances in our understanding of pivotal processes associated with Shigella infection, including the invasion into host cells, the metabolic changes that occur within the bacterium and the infected cell, cell-to-cell spread mechanisms, autophagy and membrane trafficking, inflammatory signaling and cell death. This recent progress sheds a new light into the mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis, and also more generally provides deeper understanding of the complex interplay between host cells and bacterial pathogens in general.
E. N. Simovan'yan; E. E. Badalyants; L. P. Sizyakina; A. A. Lebedenko; V. B. Denisenko; M. A. Kim
High morbidity rate, frequent development of severe complication forms, unfavorable remote effects for children’s health, insufficient efficacy of the used acute respiratory infection therapy schemes necessitate a treatment program improvement for this group of diseases. A complex clinical-laboratory examination of 72 3-6-year-old children with acute nasopharyngites and bronchites was conducted. Dependence of the disease’s clinical form and course peculiarities from the premorbid setting stat...
Full Text Available The article is about fenspirid (Erespal medication to combat acute respiratory infections (ARI of infants. 94 children aged 1–3 suffering from ARI were observed: of them 64 took fenspirid, 30 children didn't take it (the control group. The research has revealed that fenspirid reduces ARI manifestation even if ARI proceeds along with ordinary or obstructive bronchitis — accordingly, fenspirid can be recommended for a wider usage to cure ARI of infants up to 3 years of age.Key words: fenspirid, infants up to 3 years of age, acute respiratory infection.
Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.
Mattock, Emily; Blocker, Ariel J
Shigella is the major cause of bacillary dysentery world-wide. It is divided into four species, named S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae , and S. boydii , which are distinct genomically and in their ability to cause disease. Shigellosis, the clinical presentation of Shigella infection, is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Shigella 's ability to cause disease has been attributed to virulence factors, which are encoded on chromosomal pathogenicity islands and the virulence plasmid. However, information on these virulence factors is not often brought together to create a detailed picture of infection, and how this translates into shigellosis symptoms. Firstly, Shigella secretes virulence factors that induce severe inflammation and mediate enterotoxic effects on the colon, producing the classic watery diarrhea seen early in infection. Secondly, Shigella injects virulence effectors into epithelial cells via its Type III Secretion System to subvert the host cell structure and function. This allows invasion of epithelial cells, establishing a replicative niche, and causes erratic destruction of the colonic epithelium. Thirdly, Shigella produces effectors to down-regulate inflammation and the innate immune response. This promotes infection and limits the adaptive immune response, causing the host to remain partially susceptible to re-infection. Combinations of these virulence factors may contribute to the different symptoms and infection capabilities of the diverse Shigella species, in addition to distinct transmission patterns. Further investigation of the dominant species causing disease, using whole-genome sequencing and genotyping, will allow comparison and identification of crucial virulence factors and may contribute to the production of a pan- Shigella vaccine.
Zhang, J; Wang, F; Jin, H; Hu, J; Yuan, Z; Shi, W; Yang, X; Meng, J; Xu, X
In 2006 we initiated an enhanced laboratory-based surveillance of Salmonella and Shigella infections in Shanghai, China. A total of 4483 Salmonella and 2226 Shigella isolates were recovered from stool specimens by 2012. In 80 identified Salmonella serovars, Enteritidis (34·5%) and Typhimurium (26·2%) were the most common. Shigella (S.) sonnei accounted for 63·9% of human Shigella infections over the same time period, and replaced S. flexneri to become the primary cause of shigellosis since 2010. Overall, a high level of antimicrobial resistance was observed in Salmonella and Shigella, particularly to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Ciprofloxacin resistance was common in Salmonella Typhimurium (21·0%) and S. flexneri (37·6%). The cephalosporin resistance in both pathogens also increased over the years, ranging from 3·4% to 7·0% in Salmonella, and from 10·4% to 28·6% in Shigella. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials was also identified in a large number of the isolates. This study provides insight into the distribution of Salmonella and Shigella in diarrhoeal diseases.
Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; Ökten, Ayşenur
Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...
Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; Ökten, Ayşenur
Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...
Petrov, Michael M; Petrova, Atanaska; Stanimirova, Irina; Mircheva-Topalova, Marina; Koycheva, Lalka; Velcheva, Rayna; Stoycheva-Vartigova, Mariana; Raycheva, Ralitsa; Asseva, Galina; Petrov, Petar; Kardjeva, Velichka; Murdjeva, Marianna
The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs. In isolates, phenotypically demonstrated as ESBL producers, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the genes bla-CTX-M, bla-SHV, and bla-TEM was performed. Among the 290 tested isolates, only two- Salmonella serotype Livingstone and Shigella flexneri-were phenotypically proven to be ESBL producers. Only 4 strains from the collection of 28, submitted from the NRL "Intestinal Infections" in NCIPD, Sofia, were phenotypically confirmed as ESBL producers. The presence of the bla-CTX-M gene was detected in all of the tested strains (4 from NRL, NCIPD, Sofia, and 2 from the University Hospital St. George, Plovdiv), the bla-SHV gene only in strain S. Livingstone from Plovdiv, and the bla-TEM gene in two from Sofia and one (again S. Livingstone) from Plovdiv. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella isolates from patients hospitalized at the University Hospital St. George, Plovdiv, with acute gastroenteritis demonstrate good susceptibility to the most commonly used antibiotic agents, including azithromycin.
Full Text Available Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is a well-described process that is known to cause severe renal dysfunction, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. HUS is typically associated with toxins (shiga-like and shigella toxin found in strains of E. coli and Shigella spp [1–3]. We present a case of a 27 year-old man with jaundice, thrombocytopenia, and renal dysfunction who was found to have HUS in the setting of Shigella sonnei infection. Outside of developing countries, cases of HUS related to S. sonnei are largely unreported.
Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.
Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264
Full Text Available Fournier’s gangrene is a life-threatening disorder caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacterial infection. We report a case of genital infection as the initial warning sign of acute myeloid leukemia. We were able to prevent progression to Fournier’s gangrene in our patient by immediate intensive therapy with incision, blood transfusions and intravenous administration of antibiotics. This case suggests that hematologists and dermatologists should keep in mind that genital infection can be a first sign of hematologic malignancy.
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the sociodemographic and clinical features of odontogenic infections between hospitalized and nonhospitalized children and to show what were the risk factors in children that could predict the course of odontogenic infection and indicate the need for hospital treatment. The design of our study was of the case-control type. The two study groups consisted of 70 inpatients and 35 outpatients with odontogenic infections who were treated at Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at Clinical Center in Kragujevac, Serbia. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected retrospectively from patients' hospital records. The following characteristics were significantly associated with hospital treatment of children with acute odontogenic infection: living in a village (OR =7.26,[1.43-36.96], multi-spatial infection (OR =0.04, [0.00-0.91], and affection of upper face (OR = 0.01, [0.00-0.86]. Tooth extraction was important intervention in the treatment regimen and reduced frequency of hospitalization (OR=0.07, [0.01-0.70]. The differences between hospitalized and non-hospitalized children were not significant in regard to: ethnicity, employment of parents, anatomical region of infection, side of the facial infection, source of infection (posterior or anterior deciduous or permanent teeth, and treatment (drainage and incision, oral or parenteral antibiotics. In children with acute odontogenic infection it is necessary to do tooth extraction in timely manner, especially if the source of infection is tooth from upper jaw and if it is multi-spatial infection.
Thomas W. Burke
Full Text Available Infection of respiratory mucosa with viral pathogens triggers complex immunologic events in the affected host. We sought to characterize this response through proteomic analysis of nasopharyngeal lavage in human subjects experimentally challenged with influenza A/H3N2 or human rhinovirus, and to develop targeted assays measuring peptides involved in this host response allowing classification of acute respiratory virus infection. Unbiased proteomic discovery analysis identified 3285 peptides corresponding to 438 unique proteins, and revealed that infection with H3N2 induces significant alterations in protein expression. These include proteins involved in acute inflammatory response, innate immune response, and the complement cascade. These data provide insights into the nature of the biological response to viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and the proteins that are dysregulated by viral infection form the basis of signature that accurately classifies the infected state. Verification of this signature using targeted mass spectrometry in independent cohorts of subjects challenged with influenza or rhinovirus demonstrates that it performs with high accuracy (0.8623 AUROC, 75% TPR, 97.46% TNR. With further development as a clinical diagnostic, this signature may have utility in rapid screening for emerging infections, avoidance of inappropriate antibacterial therapy, and more rapid implementation of appropriate therapeutic and public health strategies.
Hong-Ha M Truong
Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug
Khaskheli, M.N.; Baloch, S.
To determine the maternal morbidity in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection. Study Design: Observational, cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Departments of Obstetrics and Gynaecology and Medicine, Liaquat University of Medical and Health Sciences, Jamshoro, Red Crescent General Hospital and Saint Elizabeth Hospital, Hyderabad, from January 2011 to December 2013. Methodology: The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELIZA technique. Pregnant women with other hepatic viral infections were excluded. All medical and obstetric conditions, and mortality were noted on the predesigned proforma. Results: Out of the total 45 admitted pregnant women with hepatitis E viral infection, 22 women (48.9%) had severe morbidity. The most common were hepatic coma in 8 (36.36%) cases and disseminated intravascular coagulation in 14 (63.63%) cases. Highest mortality rate was seen in women with hepatic coma (100%), while in those with disseminated intravascular coagulation, one out of the 14 cases (7.14%) died. Conclusion: The acute viral hepatitis E infection in pregnant women is associated with maternal morbidities and high mortality rate. (author)
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. AIMS: To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB, a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. METHODS: The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from
Sarker, Protim; Ahmed, Sultan; Tiash, Snigdha; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Stromberg, Roger; Andersson, Jan; Bergman, Peter; Gudmundsson, Gudmundur H; Agerberth, Birgitta; Raqib, Rubhana
Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB) reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18) in the large intestinal epithelia. To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB), a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR) and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot). Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from secondary respiratory infections that frequently are the lethal causes in
Conclusions: A considerable proportion of children with an acute enterovirus infection in Guangdong Province, China during 2009–2012 presented no exanthema, and the absence of exanthema was found to be related to death and illness severity for these acute enterovirus infections. Clinicians in China should consider enterovirus as the possible pathogen when treating children with an acute pathogen infection without exanthema.
Henrickson, Sarah E; Manne, Sasikanth; Dolfi, Douglas V; Mansfield, Kathleen D; Parkhouse, Kaela; Mistry, Rakesh D; Alpern, Elizabeth R; Hensley, Scott E; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Coffin, Susan E; Wherry, E John
Acute respiratory tract viral infections (ARTIs) cause significant morbidity and mortality. CD8 T cells are fundamental to host responses, but transcriptional alterations underlying anti-viral mechanisms and links to clinical characteristics remain unclear. CD8 T cell transcriptional circuitry in acutely ill pediatric patients with influenza-like illness was distinct for different viral pathogens. Although changes included expected upregulation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), transcriptional downregulation was prominent upon exposure to innate immune signals in early IFV infection. Network analysis linked changes to severity of infection, asthma, sex, and age. An influenza pediatric signature (IPS) distinguished acute influenza from other ARTIs and outperformed other influenza prediction gene lists. The IPS allowed a deeper investigation of the connection between transcriptional alterations and clinical characteristics of acute illness, including age-based differences in circuits connecting the STAT1/2 pathway to ISGs. A CD8 T cell-focused systems immunology approach in pediatrics identified age-based alterations in ARTI host response pathways. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lampel, Keith A; Formal, Samuel B; Maurelli, Anthony T
The history of Shigella , the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, is a long and fascinating one. This brief historical account starts with descriptions of the disease and its impact on human health from ancient time to the present. Our story of the bacterium starts just before the identification of the dysentery bacillus by Kiyoshi Shiga in 1898 and follows the scientific discoveries and principal scientists who contributed to the elucidation of Shigella pathogenesis in the first 100 years. Over the past century, Shigella has proved to be an outstanding model of an invasive bacterial pathogen and has served as a paradigm for the study of other bacterial pathogens. In addition to invasion of epithelial cells, some of those shared virulence traits include toxin production, multiple-antibiotic resistance, virulence genes encoded on plasmids and bacteriophages, global regulation of virulence genes, pathogenicity islands, intracellular motility, remodeling of host cytoskeleton, inflammation/polymorphonuclear leukocyte signaling, apoptosis induction/inhibition, and "black holes" and antivirulence genes. While there is still much to learn from studying Shigella pathogenesis, what we have learned so far has also contributed greatly to our broader understanding of bacterial pathogenesis.
Katherine Lamba, an infectious disease epidemiologist with the California Department of Public Health, discusses Shiga Toxin producing Shigella sonnei. Created: 7/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID). Date Released: 7/28/2016.
Miura, Fumihiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Takada, Tadahiro; Strasberg, Steven M.; Asbun, Horacio J.; Pitt, Henry A.; Gomi, Harumi; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Schlossberg, David; Han, Ho-Seong; Kim, Myung-Hwan; Hwang, Tsann-Long; Chen, Miin-Fu; Huang, Wayne Shih-Wei; Kiriyama, Seiki; Itoi, Takao; Garden, O. James; Liau, Kui-Hin; Horiguchi, Akihiko; Liu, Keng-Hao; Su, Cheng-Hsi; Gouma, Dirk J.; Belli, Giulio; Dervenis, Christos; Jagannath, Palepu; Chan, Angus C. W.; Lau, Wan Yee; Endo, Itaru; Suzuki, Kenji; Yoon, Yoo-Seok; de Santibañes, Eduardo; Giménez, Mariano Eduardo; Jonas, Eduard; Singh, Harjit; Honda, Goro; Asai, Koji; Mori, Yasuhisa; Wada, Keita; Higuchi, Ryota; Watanabe, Manabu; Rikiyama, Toshiki; Sata, Naohiro; Kano, Nobuyasu; Umezawa, Akiko; Mukai, Shuntaro; Tokumura, Hiromi; Hata, Jiro; Kozaka, Kazuto; Iwashita, Yukio; Hibi, Taizo; Yokoe, Masamichi; Kimura, Taizo; Kitano, Seigo; Inomata, Masafumi; Hirata, Koichi; Sumiyama, Yoshinobu; Inui, Kazuo; Yamamoto, Masakazu
The initial management of patients with suspected acute biliary infection starts with the measurement of vital signs to assess whether or not the situation is urgent. If the case is judged to be urgent, initial medical treatment should be started immediately including respiratory/circulatory
Libster, Romina; Ferolla, Fausto M; Hijano, Diego R; Acosta, Patricio L; Erviti, Anabella; Polack, Fernando P
This study explored whether alcohol consumption during pregnancy increased the risk of life-threatening respiratory infections in children. We prospectively evaluated children under the age of two years admitted to hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina, with severe acute respiratory infections during the winters of 2011 and 2012. Information on maternal alcohol consumption during the third trimester of pregnancy was collected using standardised questionnaires and categorised as never, low if it was once a week and high if it was equal or more than once a week. Of the 3423 children hospitalised with acute respiratory infection, 2089 (63.7%) had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Alcohol consumption during the last trimester was reported by 398 mothers (12.4%) and categorised as low (n = 210, 6.5%) or high (n = 188, 5.9%). A greater effect on life-threatening respiratory infection, defined as oxygen saturation of or up to 87%, was observed with higher alcohol intake due to all viruses and specifically RSV in the logistic regression analyses. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with life-threatening disease, particularly in boys whose adjusted odds ratio rose from 3.67 to 13.52 when their mothers drank alcohol. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was associated with life-threatening respiratory infections in boys. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A
Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.
The result showed that 11.1 per cent of women with acute PID were infected with Chlamydia trachomatis as compared to 4.3 per cent in the control group (odds ratio 2.75: 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-11.7). Neiserria gonorrhoeae was not detected in either of the two groups. Trichomoniasis (10% in PID cases and no ...
Carson, Chelsea M; Phillip, Niju; Miller, Brian J
Schizophrenia is associated with increased infections. We previously found an association between urinary tract infection (UTI) and acute psychosis in adults. The aims of this study were to 1) evaluate the prevalence of UTI at the time of admission in children and adolescents with non-affective psychosis and psychotic depression versus those with non-psychotic major depressive disorder, and 2) compare demographic and clinical features between children and adolescents with acute psychosis with and without comorbid UTI. We performed a retrospective chart review of 227 subjects ages 10-18 who were hospitalized between 2005 and 2014 for an acute episode of DSM-IV non-affective psychosis (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, psychosis NOS, or delusional disorder; n=80), major depressive disorder (MDD) with psychotic features (n=47); or MDD without psychotic features (n=100). The prevalence of UTI was 20% in non-affective psychosis, 9% in MDD with psychotic features, and 13% in non-psychotic MDD. After controlling for potential confounders, UTI was 3.5 times more likely in subjects with non-affective psychosis than non-psychotic MDD (OR=3.5, 95% CI 1.3-9.2, p=0.01). Subjects with UTI had a higher prevalence of manic symptoms, but otherwise there were no associations between clinical characteristics and UTI in acute psychosis. We found an association between UTIs and children and adolescents with acute non-affective psychosis. The results highlight the potential importance of screening for comorbid UTI in patients with acute psychosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dragoi, Ana-Maria; Agaisse, Hervé
Shigella flexneri is an enteropathogenic bacterium responsible for approximately 100 million cases of severe dysentery each year. S. flexneri colonization of the human colonic epithelium is supported by direct spread from cell to cell, which relies on actin-based motility. We have recently uncovered that, in intestinal epithelial cells, S. flexneri actin-based motility is regulated by the Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk). Consequently, treatment with Ibrutinib, a specific Btk inhibitor currently used in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, effectively impaired S. flexneri spread from cell to cell. Thus, therapeutic intervention capitalizing on drugs interfering with host factors supporting the infection process may represent an effective alternative to treatments with antimicrobial compounds.
Barnoy, Shoshana; Gancz, Hanan; Zhu, Yuewei; Honnold, Cary L; Zurawski, Daniel V; Venkatesan, Malabi M
Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols. This study proposes the development of the caterpillar larvae of Galleria mellonella as a simple, inexpensive, informative, and rapid in-vivo model for evaluating virulence and the interaction of Shigella with cells of the insect innate immunity. Virulent Shigella injected through the forelegs causes larvae death. The mortality rates were dependent on the Shigella strain, the infectious dose, and the presence of the virulence plasmid. Wild-type S. flexneri 2a, persisted and replicated within the larvae, resulting in haemocyte cell death, whereas plasmid-cured mutants were rapidly cleared. Histology of the infected larvae in conjunction with fluorescence, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy indicate that S. flexneri reside within a vacuole of the insect haemocytes that ultrastructurally resembles vacuoles described in studies with mouse and human macrophage cell lines. Some of these bacteria-laden vacuoles had double-membranes characteristic of autophagosomes. These results suggest that G. mellonella larvae can be used as an easy-to-use animal model to understand Shigella pathogenesis that requires none of the time and labor-consuming procedures typical of other systems.
Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro
Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.
Full Text Available Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis. Via the type III secretion system (T3SS, Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.
Full Text Available Abstract Between 2002 and 2007, travel related cases of Shigella sonnei and S. flexneri in Alberta, Canada were acquired from Central America, the Indian subcontinent and North America. Of this group, resistance to ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid was identified in isolates from patients who had travelled to the Indian subcontinent. This study provides a Canadian perspective to a growing body of literature linking ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid resistance to travel to the Indian subcontinent. Shigella is a common cause of diarrheal illness in North America with a rate of 2.0 per 100,000 in Canada 1 and a rate of 3.2 per 100,000 in the United States 23. Imported cases of Shigella infections have been reported in developed countries following travel to a foreign or developing country 45 and may be impacted by factors including socio-economic factors 6, food distribution networks 5 and microbiologic factors 7. Across multiple geographic regions, high rates of antimicrobial resistance to multiple agents (e.g. sulfonamides, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole have limited the choices for empiric antimicrobial therapy required to manage Shigella infections and reduce fecal excretion of the bacteria 8910 with descriptions of shifting species dominance and changes in antimicrobial susceptibility 1011. Generally, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei are the dominant species and are heavily impacted by changes in antimicrobial susceptibility 1213. This study identifies the global regions associated with travel-related cases of S. flexneri and S. sonnei in Alberta, Canada and compares antibiotic resistance patterns of these isolates for 2002 to 2007 inclusive. Specimens collected 2002-2007 (inclusive from S. flexneri and S. sonnei infections in Alberta, Canada were included for study. Data collected at time of specimen submission included: date of specimen collection, outbreak association if present, travel
Kim, Yeon-Jeong; Yeo, Sang-Gu; Park, Jae-Hak; Ko, Hyun-Jeong
Shigella was first discovered in 1897 and is a major causative agent of dysenteric diarrhea. The number of affected patients has decreased globally because of improved sanitary conditions; however, Shigella still causes serious problems in many subjects, including young children and the elderly, especially in developing countries. Although antibiotics may be effective, a vaccine would be the most powerful solution to combat shigellosis because of the emergence of drug-resistant strains. However, the development of a vaccine is hampered by several problems. First, there is no suitable animal model that can replace human-based studies for the investigation of the in vivo mechanisms of Shigella vaccines. Mouse, guinea pig, rat, rabbit, and nonhuman primates could be used as models for shigellosis, but they do not represent human shigellosis and each has its own weaknesses. However, a recent murine model based on peritoneal infection with virulent S. flexneri 2a is promising. Moreover, although the inflammatory responses and mechanisms such as pathogenassociated molecular patterns and danger-associated molecular patterns have been studied, the pathology and immunology of Shigella are still not clearly defined. Despite these obstacles, many vaccine candidates have been developed, including live attenuated, killed whole cells, conjugated, and subunit vaccines. The development of Shigella vaccines also demands considerations of the cost, routes of administration, ease of storage (stability), cross-reactivity, safety, and immunogenicity. The main aim of this review is to provide a detailed introduction to the many promising vaccine candidates and animal models currently available, including the newly developed mouse model.
Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, who are at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyze 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI [at least one episode: odds ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.76, P school absence (OR: 0.10; 95% CI = 0.02-0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute URTI (rate ratio: 0
Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of nasal spray Laferobionum® (100,000 IU/ml in children with acute respiratory viral infections. Materials and methods. The study included 84 children aged 12 to 18 years. Children of the main group (42 persons received Laferobionum® spray in addition to the standard treatment for acute respiratory viral infections. The drug was administered to children of 12–14 years for 2 spray doses in each nasal passage 4–5 times a day at regular intervals (with the exception of sleep time, children aged 14–18 years received 3 spray-doses per each nasal passage 5–6 times a day at regular intervals (excluding sleep time. The course of treatment for all subjects was 5 days. Children of the control group received standard treatment for acute respiratory viral infections without Laferobionum®. Objective research included: auscultation of the heart and lungs, examination of the skin and mucous membranes, measurement of heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature. All patients underwent a general blood test, a general urinalysis, identification of the pathogen using the method of direct immunofluorescence (in smears taken from the nasal passages in the laboratory “Medical Diagnostic Center of Dnipropetrovsk Medical Academy”. Results. In the non-epidemic period, the respiratory syncytial virus and adenoviruses were the leading viral pathogens of acute respiratory viral infections. The main clinical manifestations of acute respiratory viral infection in the observed patients were signs of general inflammatory and catarrhal syndromes. All patients had not severe course of the disease. The data of the physical examination performed before the beginning of treatment indicated the absence of clinically significant deviations from the cardiovascular system in the children of the main and control groups. Arterial blood pressure and heart rate in the subjects of both groups were
Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV and Zika virus (ZIKV are members of the Flaviviridae and are predominantly transmitted via mosquito bites. Both viruses are responsible for a growing number of infections in tropical and subtropical regions. DENV infection can cause lethargy with severe morbidity and dengue shock syndrome leading to death in some cases. ZIKV is now linked with Guillain-Barré syndrome and fetal malformations including microcephaly and developmental disorders (congenital Zika syndrome. The protective and pathogenic roles played by the immune response in these infections is unknown. Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT cells are a population of innate T cells with potent anti-bacterial activity. MAIT cells have also been postulated to play a role in the immune response to viral infections. In this study, we evaluated MAIT cell frequency, phenotype, and function in samples from subjects with acute and convalescent DENV infection. We found that in acute DENV infection, MAIT cells had elevated co-expression of the activation markers CD38 and HLA-DR and had a poor IFNγ response following bacterial stimulation. Furthermore, we found that MAIT cells can produce IFNγ in response to in vitro infection with ZIKV. This MAIT cell response was independent of MR1, but dependent on IL-12 and IL-18. Our results suggest that MAIT cells may play an important role in the immune response to Flavivirus infections.
Zhang Shulan; Ke Xiaoyan; Jia Tengzhen
Objective: To occumulatle experience of anti-infection treatment in acute radiation sickness (ARS) induced by medical treatment in order to provide beneficial help for victims of accidental of acute radiation sickness. Methods: The changes of peripheral blood indices, body temperature and clinical symptoms of 17 cases who were clinically irradiated with 6.0-7.2 Gy X-rays were observed both before peripheral blood stem cell transplantation(PBSCT) and after anti-infection treatment. Results: WBC count began to decrease to below 1 x 10 9 /L from the 8th to 10th days after irradiation and maintained at row level for 4 days or for 13.3 days if the patients had not received rhG-CSF treatment. In 29.4% of patients the body temperature was higher than 38.5 degree C. After comprehensive enviromental protection and anti-infection treatment, all patients could successfully tide over the period of bone marrow depression without appearance of the typical critical phase of ARS. Conclusion: PBSCT and rhG-CSF treatment can reduce the time span for reconstruction of bone marrow. Comprehensive enviromental protection and combined anti-infection treatment are key points fm successful treatment. (authors)
Jamdar, Saurabh; Siriwardena, Ajith K
Pancreatic necrosis complicating severe acute pancreatitis is a challenging scenario in contemporary critical care practice; it requires multidisciplinary care in a setting where there is a relatively limited evidence base to support decision making. This commentary provides a concise overview of current management of patients with infected necrosis, focusing on detection, the role of pharmacologic intervention, and the timing and nature of surgical interventions. Fine-needle aspiration of necrosis remains the mainstay for establishment of infection. Pharmacological intervention includes antibiotic therapy as an adjunct to surgical debridement/drainage and, more recently, drotrecogin alfa. Specific concerns remain regarding the suitability of drotrecogin alfa in this setting. Early surgical intervention is unhelpful; surgery is indicated when there is strong evidence for infection of necrotic tissue, with the current trend being toward 'less drastic' surgical interventions. PMID:16356213
Y. Y. Dyakonova
Full Text Available The issue of differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and acute intestinal infections in contemporary medicine remains relevant for clinical practice of surgeons and pediatricians. Late diagnosis of appendicitis results in development of complicated forms of vermiform appendix inflammation. This prolongs operative intervention, duration of antibacterial therapy and duration of a child’s inpatient stay. The article presents clinical observation of three children treated for perforated appendix and generalized purulent peritonitis. The described cases demonstrate the need in multidisciplinary approach and complex diagnosis of patients with such complaints as abdominal pain, fever and diarrhea.
A diagnosis of acute canine African trypanosomosis was made by microscopic examination of blood smear. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) analysis, using primers specifically targeting the human serum resistanceassociated (SRA) gene, revealed a monolytic infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense ...
Fletcher, James L.K.; Valcour, Victor; Kroon, Eugène; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Intasan, Jintana; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Narvid, Jared; Pothisri, Mantana; Allen, Isabel; Krebs, Shelly J.; Slike, Bonnie; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Spudich, Serena
Objective: To determine the incidence, timing, and severity of neurologic findings in acute HIV infection (pre–antibody seroconversion), as well as persistence with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Methods: Participants identified with acute HIV were enrolled, underwent structured neurologic evaluations, immediately initiated cART, and were followed with neurologic evaluations at 4 and 12 weeks. Concurrent brain MRIs and both viral and inflammatory markers in plasma and CSF were obtained. Results: Median estimated HIV infection duration was 19 days (range 3–56) at study entry for the 139 participants evaluated. Seventy-three participants (53%) experienced one or more neurologic findings in the 12 weeks after diagnosis, with one developing a fulminant neurologic manifestation (Guillain-Barré syndrome). A total of 245 neurologic findings were noted, reflecting cognitive symptoms (33%), motor findings (34%), and neuropathy (11%). Nearly half of the neurologic findings (n = 121, 49%) occurred at diagnosis, prior to cART initiation, and most of these (n = 110, 90%) remitted concurrent with 1 month on treatment. Only 9% of neurologic findings (n = 22) persisted at 24 weeks on cART. Nearly all neurologic findings (n = 236, 96%) were categorized as mild in severity. No structural neuroimaging abnormalities were observed. Participants with neurologic findings had a higher mean plasma log10 HIV RNA at diagnosis compared to those without neurologic findings (5.9 vs 5.4; p = 0.006). Conclusions: Acute HIV infection is commonly associated with mild neurologic findings that largely remit while on treatment, and may be mediated by direct viral factors. Severe neurologic manifestations are infrequent in treated acute HIV. PMID:27287217
Bruner, Katherine M.; Murray, Alexandra J.; Pollack, Ross A.; Soliman, Mary G.; Laskey, Sarah B.; Capoferri, Adam A.; Lai, Jun; Strain, Matthew C.; Lada, Steven M.; Hoh, Rebecca; Ho, Ya-Chi; Richman, Douglas D.; Deeks, Steven G.; Siliciano, Janet D.; Siliciano, Robert F.
Although antiretroviral therapy (ART) suppresses viral replication to clinically undetectable levels, HIV-1 persists in CD4+ T cells in a latent form not targeted by the immune system or ART1–5. This latent reservoir is a major barrier to cure. Many individuals initiate ART during chronic infection, and in this setting, most proviruses are defective6. However, the dynamics of the accumulation and persistence of defective proviruses during acute HIV-1 infection are largely unknown. Here we show that defective proviruses accumulate rapidly within the first few weeks of infection to make up over 93% of all proviruses, regardless of how early ART is initiated. Using an unbiased method to amplify near full-length proviral genomes from HIV-1 infected adults treated at different stages of infection, we demonstrate that early ART initiation limits the size of the reservoir but does not profoundly impact the proviral landscape. This analysis allows us to revise our understanding of the composition of proviral populations and estimate the true reservoir size in individuals treated early vs. late in infection. Additionally, we demonstrate that common assays for measuring the reservoir do not correlate with reservoir size. These findings reveal hurdles that must be overcome to successfully analyze future HIV-1 cure strategies. PMID:27500724
Klemparskaya, N.N.; Gorbunova, E.S.; Dobronravova, N.N.
The possibility of using experimental microbe antigenous preparation out of Flexner and Zonne shigellas as a protector and a remedy in the case of gamma irradiation, is investigated. The experiments are carried out on mice of both sexes immunized before or after irradiation by two methods: subcutaneously and enerally. It is found that in most cases investigated, the introduction of the experimental preparation 3, 5, 7 and 10 days before irradiation increases the survivability of animals [ru
Eliana C.A. Benites
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.
Seto, W H; Conly, J M; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Malik, M; Eremin, S
Viruses account for the majority of the acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) globally with a mortality exceeding 4 million deaths per year. The most commonly encountered viruses, in order of frequency, include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus. Current evidence suggests that the major mode of transmission of ARls is through large droplets, but transmission through contact (including hand contamination with subsequent self-inoculation) and infectious respiratory aerosols of various sizes and at short range (coined as "opportunistic" airborne transmission) may also occur for some pathogens. Opportunistic airborne transmission may occur when conducting highrisk aerosol generating procedures and airborne precautions will be required in this setting. General infection control measures effective for all respiratory viral infections are reviewed and followed by discussion on some of the common viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and the recently discovered novel coronavirus.
Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie
We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.
Trombetta, Hygor; Faggion, Heloisa Z; Leotte, Jaqueline; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R R; Raboni, Sonia M
Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are an important cause of respiratory tract infection and are responsible for causing the common cold in the general population. Thus, adequate surveillance of HCoV is essential. This study aimed to analyze the impact of HCoV infections and their relation to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in a hospitalized population in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, and assessed inpatients under investigation for SARI by the hospital epidemiology department, and all patients who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from January 2012 to December 2013 to detect respiratory viruses (RVs). Viral infection was detected by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with primers specific to the subtypes HCoV-229E/NL63 and OC43/HKU1. The overall positivity rate was 58.8% (444/755), and HCoVs were detected in 7.6% (n = 34) of positive samples. Children below two years of age were most frequently affected (62%). Comorbidities were more likely to be associated with HCoVs than with other RVs. Immunosuppression was an independent risk factor for HCoV infection (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.6). Dyspnea was less frequently associated with HCoV infection (p infected with HCoV (9%) died from respiratory infection. HCoVs are important respiratory pathogens, especially in hospitalized children under 2 years of age and in immunosuppressed patients. They may account for a small proportion of SARI diagnoses, increased need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and death.
Full Text Available Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp. has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazole-resistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identification of the bacteria and making antibiotic susceptibility testing in these cases should not be overlooked.
Schaumburg, Frieder; Alabi, Abraham S; Kaba, Harry; Lell, Bertrand; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin P; Kremsner, Peter G; Mellmann, Alexander
Shigella spp. dysentery is widespread in developing countries; the incidence is particularly high in children between 1-2 years of age. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on Shigella spp., with possible negative consequences for recognition and correct treatment choice for this life-threatening bacterial infection. We therefore characterized Shigella spp. isolates from Gabon. The antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, genotypes and mobile genetic elements of Shigella isolates (29 S. flexneri; 5 S. boydii; 3 S. sonnei) from a retrospective strain collection were analyzed. High resistance rates were found for gentamicin and tetracycline (100%, 37/37), cotrimoxazole (92%, 34/37) and ampicillin (84%, 31/37). All isolate harbored ial and ipaH; no isolate produced Shiga toxins (stx1/2); enterotoxins (set1A/B) were only found in S. flexneri (n=19). Multilocus sequence types (MLST) clustered with global clones. A high prevalence of atypical class 1 integrons harboring blaOXA30 and aadA1 were detected in S. flexneri, while all S. sonnei carried class 2 integrons. There is a strong link of Gabonese Shigella spp. isolates with pandemic lineages as they cluster with major global clones and frequently carry atypical class 1 integrons which are frequently reported in Shigella spp. from Asia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Davis, Courtney L.; Wahid, Rezwanul; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Simon, Jakub K.
We establish a mathematical framework for studying immune interactions with Shigella, a bacteria that kills over one million people worldwide every year. The long-term goal of this novel approach is to inform Shigella vaccine design by elucidating which immune components and bacterial targets are crucial for establishing Shigella immunity. Our delay differential equation model focuses on antibody and B cell responses directed against antigens like lipopolysaccharide in Shigella’s outer membrane. We find that antibody-based vaccines targeting only surface antigens cannot elicit sufficient immunity for protection. Additional boosting prior to infection would require a four-orders-of-magnitude increase in antibodies to sufficiently prevent epithelial invasion. However, boosting anti-LPS B memory can confer protection, which suggests these cells may correlate with immunity. We see that IgA antibodies are slightly more effective per molecule than IgG, but more total IgA is required due to spatial functionality. An extension of the model reveals that targeting both LPS and epithelial entry proteins is a promising avenue to advance vaccine development. This paper underscores the importance of multifaceted immune targeting in creating an effective Shigella vaccine. It introduces mathematical models to the Shigella vaccine development effort and lays a foundation for joint theoretical/experimental/clinical approaches to Shigella vaccine design. PMID:23589755
Dribin, Timothy; Files, Matthew D; Rudzinski, Erin R; Kaplan, Ron; Stone, Kimberly P
A previously healthy 3-year-old boy presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain, fever, and emesis. Laboratory and radiologic evaluation for causes of acute abdomen were negative; however, review of the abdominal x-ray demonstrated cardiomegaly with the subsequent diagnosis of pericardial cyst by echocardiogram and computed tomography. The patient underwent surgical decompression and attempted removal of the cystic structure revealing that the cyst originated from the epicardium. His abdominal pain and fever resolved postoperatively and he completed a 3-week course of ceftriaxone for treatment of Propionibacterium acnes infected congenital epicardial cyst. Emergency department physicians must maintain a broad differential in patients with symptoms of acute abdomen to prevent complications from serious cardiac or pulmonary diseases that present with symptoms of referred abdominal pain.
Adriana L Santos
Full Text Available This study performed barcoded multiplex pyrosequencing with a 454 FLX instrument to compare the microbiota of dental root canal infections associated with acute (symptomatic or chronic (asymptomatic apical periodontitis. Analysis of samples from 9 acute abscesses and 8 chronic infections yielded partial 16S rRNA gene sequences that were taxonomically classified into 916 bacterial species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs (at 3% divergence belonging to 67 genera and 13 phyla. The most abundant phyla in acute infections were Firmicutes (52%, Fusobacteria (17% and Bacteroidetes (13%, while in chronic infections the dominant were Firmicutes (59%, Bacteroidetes (14% and Actinobacteria (10%. Members of Fusobacteria were much more prevalent in acute (89% than in chronic cases (50%. The most abundant/prevalent genera in acute infections were Fusobacterium and Parvimonas. Twenty genera were exclusively detected in acute infections and 18 in chronic infections. Only 18% (n = 165 of the OTUs at 3% divergence were shared by acute and chronic infections. Diversity and richness estimators revealed that acute infections were significantly more diverse than chronic infections. Although a high interindividual variation in bacterial communities was observed, many samples tended to group together according to the type of infection (acute or chronic. This study is one of the most comprehensive in-deep comparisons of the microbiota associated with acute and chronic dental root canal infections and highlights the role of diverse polymicrobial communities as the unit of pathogenicity in acute infections. The overall diversity of endodontic infections as revealed by the pyrosequencing technique was much higher than previously reported for endodontic infections.
Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David
Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102
Acute respiratory infections are the most frequent of all infectious diseases. In popular speech common cold, flu (influenza), and pneumonia all denote acute respiratory infections. Elderly people show an increased risk of these infections and their complications. In The Netherlands about 2.000
Gajek, Jacek; Choroszy-Król, Irena; Zyśko, Dorota; Teryks-Wołyniec, Dorota; Halawa, Bogumił
Chlamydia pneumoniae is one of the infectious factors the role of which is considered in the process of atherosclerosis and its complications. Of the study was to assess the incidence of Ch. pneumoniae infection in the patients with acute coronary events. The study was carried out in 36 patients, mean age 61.2 +/- 13.4 years, 27 men and 9 women hospitalised in our Department with the diagnosis of previous or recent acute myocardial infarction. The control group consisted of 19 subjects, aged 61.1 +/- 14.3 years, 10 men and 9 women hospitalised due to other reasons. In all studied patients during the first 24 hours venous blood was taken for the assessment of fibrinogen and C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations and titres of IgA and IgG anti-Ch. pneumoniae antibodies, and pharyngeal swabs were done for Ch. pneumoniae assessment. Positive swab tests were found in 19% of the patients, positive IgG titres in 80% and IgA in 64% of the patients. In the control group the corresponding values were 11, 79, 42%, respectively. In the patients with positive IgG titres, negative IgA titre result was observed in 21% and in the control group in 53% (p < 0.05). The CRP level was significantly higher in the studied patients than in the control group (24.2 vs 4.2 mg/l; p < 0.05). 1. The high percentage of positive serologic tests and rare positive results of pharyngeal swabs indicate a frequent contact with Ch. pneumoniae in human population. 2. Ch. pneumoniae infection exerts no significant influence on the unspecific markers of inflammation. 3. The higher frequency of seroconversion-positive IgG and negative IgA titres--in the control group indicates the role of prolonged or acute Ch. pneumoniae infection in the development or progression of coronary atherosclerosis and its complications.
Brown, Alison E.; Gifford, Robert J.; Clewley, Jonathan P.; Kucherer, Claudia; Masquelier, Bernard; Porter, Kholoud; Balotta, Claudia; Back, Nicole K. T.; Jorgensen, Louise Bruun; de Mendoza, Carmen; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gill, O. Noel; Johnson, Anne M.; Pillay, Deenan; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Bucher, Heiner; Chene, Genevieve; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Sabin, Caroline; Touloumi, Giota; Lodi, Sara; Walker, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Darbyshire, Janet; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Muga, Roberto; Kaldor, John; Kelleher, Tony; Ramacciotti, Tim; Gelgor, Linda; Cooper, David; Smith, Don; Gill, John; Nielsen, Claus; Pedersen, Court; Lutsar, Irja; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Vanhems, Philippe; Boufassa, Faroudy; Hamouda, Osamah; Pantazis, Nikos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Geskus, Ronald; Coutinho, Roel
Phylogenetic reconstructions of transmission events from individuals with acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are conducted to illustrate this group's heightened infectivity. Varied definitions of acute infection and assumptions about observed phylogenetic clusters may produce
Hsiao William WL
Full Text Available Abstract Background Endodontic infections are a leading cause of oro-facial pain and tooth loss in western countries, and may lead to severe life-threatening infections. These infections are polymicrobial with high bacterial diversity. Understanding the spatial transition of microbiota from normal oral cavities through the infected root canal to the acute periapical abscess can improve our knowledge of the pathogenesis of endodontic infections and lead to more effective treatment. We obtained samples from the oral cavity, infected root canal and periapical abscess of 8 patients (5 with localized and 3 with systemic infections. Microbial populations in these samples were analyzed using next-generation sequencing of 16S rRNA amplicons. Bioinformatics tools and statistical tests with rigorous criteria were used to elucidate the spatial transition of the microbiota from normal to diseased sites. Results On average, 10,000 partial 16S rRNA gene sequences were obtained from each sample. All sequences fell into 11 different bacterial phyla. The microbial diversity in root canal and abscess samples was significantly lower than in the oral samples. Streptococcus was the most abundant genus in oral cavities while Prevotella and Fusobacterium were most abundant in diseased samples. The microbiota community structures of root canal and abscess samples were, however, more similar to each other than to the oral cavity microbiota. Using rigorous criteria and novel bioinformatics tools, we found that Granulicatella adiacens, Eubacterium yurii, Prevotella melaninogenica, Prevotella salivae, Streptococcus mitis, and Atopobium rimae were over-represented in diseased samples. Conclusions We used a novel approach and high-throughput methodologies to characterize the microbiota associated normal and diseased oral sites in the same individuals.
The article is about fenspirid (Erespal) medication to combat acute respiratory infections (ARI) of infants. 94 children aged 1–3 suffering from ARI were observed: of them 64 took fenspirid, 30 children didn't take it (the control group). The research has revealed that fenspirid reduces ARI manifestation even if ARI proceeds along with ordinary or obstructive bronchitis — accordingly, fenspirid can be recommended for a wider usage to cure ARI of infants up to 3 years of age.Key words: fenspir...
Rajkumar, Solomon; Narayanaswamy, Geetha; Laude, Teresita Awa
Vulvovaginitis due to Shigella sonnei is reported in a four-year-old child. Shigella sonnei as a rare primary pathogen causing vulvovaginitis, the prolonged nature of the clinical course, and the therapeutic implications of increasing resistance to ampicillin by the organism are discussed. PMID:395325
Zar Heather J
Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.
E. D. Sokolova
Full Text Available The aim of the study is estimate the opportunities of local multi-prime PCR reagents kits in children enteric infections etiological diagnostics amongst the patients with diarrhoea vs traditional bacteriological methods. We used 4 kits of reagents that provide multiple pathogens simultaneous indication in one sample: 1 Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus; 2 Shigella spp./EIEC, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp.; 3 Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; 4 E. coli: EIEC (enteroinvasive, EPEC (enteropathogenic, ETEC (enterotoxigenic, EHEC (enterohaemorrhagic, EAgEC (enteroaggregative. It has been shown that the viral intestinal infections is increased by 14%, bacterial — in 2,5 times. PCR diagnostics identified in 62% of patients the viral gastroenteritis: Rotavirus (52%, Norovirus (9%, Astrovirus (1%. Detected bacterial pathogens PCR markers number proved up to 2.5 times high than according to bacteriological examination. The spectrum of bacterial agents increased due to E. coli and Y. enterocolitica. PCR diagnostics increased detection of Campylobacter up to 2 times. Detected E. coli DNA prevalence: EPEC — 66%, EAgEC, ETEC and EHEC were 31%, 9% and 4%, respectively. DNA Campylobacter spp. and E. coli constituted 2/3 of all findings: Campylobacter spp. (41%, E. coli (24%, Salmonella spp. (19%, Yersinia spp. (11%, Shigella spp./EIEC (5%. The positive results of bacteriological and serological methods duplicate the positive results of PCR diagnostics. In general, the positive results of PCR diagnosis of bacterial pathogens were detected in 46.35% of the examined patients. In 48.4% of patients identified PCR markers viral — bacterial infection, in 5.25% — of bacterial associations, in 11% of them were found the DNA 2–3 bacterial pathogens. The study was shown in children in St. Petersburg in 2012–2014 dominated rotavirus infection, campylobacteriosis and escherichiosis. The prevalence of viral-bacterial confections is more
Kober, C; Richardson, D; Bell, C; Walker-Bone, K
A 44-year-old man who has sex with men presented with a three-month asymmetrical polyarthropathy. He had a positive HIV-1 antibody test consistent with infection acquired more than six months previously. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)-associated DNA was detected from a rectal swab. Following successful treatment for LGV his arthritis resolved completely. Infection with HIV-1 has been hypothesized to cause reactive arthritis but this has been disputed. The most likely diagnosis in this patient was sexually acquired reactive arthritis secondary to LGV infection. As LGV can be asymptomatic and treatment differs from that of the other serovars, screening should be considered in all men who have sex with men (MSM) presenting with acute arthritis, particularly if they are HIV infected.
Wirtz, Tristan; Weber, Timm; Kracker, Sven; Sommermann, Thomas; Rajewsky, Klaus; Yasuda, Tomoharu
Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infects human B cells and drives them into continuous proliferation. Two key viral factors in this process are the latent membrane proteins LMP1 and LMP2A, which mimic constitutively activated CD40 receptor and B-cell receptor signaling, respectively. EBV-infected B cells elicit a powerful T-cell response that clears the infected B cells and leads to life-long immunity. Insufficient immune surveillance of EBV-infected B cells causes life-threatening lymphoproliferative disorders, including mostly germinal center (GC)-derived B-cell lymphomas. We have modeled acute EBV infection of naive and GC B cells in mice through timed expression of LMP1 and LMP2A. Although lethal when induced in all B cells, induction of LMP1 and LMP2A in just a small fraction of naive B cells initiated a phase of rapid B-cell expansion followed by a proliferative T-cell response, clearing the LMP-expressing B cells. Interfering with T-cell activity prevented clearance of LMP-expressing B cells. This was also true for perforin deficiency, which in the human causes a life-threatening EBV-related immunoproliferative syndrome. LMP expression in GC B cells impeded the GC reaction but, upon loss of T-cell surveillance, led to fatal B-cell expansion. Thus, timed expression of LMP1 together with LMP2A in subsets of mouse B cells allows one to study major clinically relevant features of human EBV infection in vivo, opening the way to new therapeutic approaches.
Schleimann, Mariane H; Leth, Steffen; Krarup, Astrid R
We report a case of an adolescent who presented at our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. While the initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis, a secondary and coincidental diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection was made. Concurrent and subsequent clinical and molecular biology findings ...... form the basis of our argument that primary HIV-1 infection was the cause of acute appendicitis in this individual.......We report a case of an adolescent who presented at our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. While the initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis, a secondary and coincidental diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection was made. Concurrent and subsequent clinical and molecular biology findings...
Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Bi Rong; Wu, Taixiang
Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyse 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI (at least one episode: odds ratio (OR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.76, P value school absence (OR 0.10; 95% CI 0.02 to 0.47, very low quality evidence). Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute
Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole
The pig acute phase protein (APP) response to experimental Streptococcus suis (S. suis) infection was mapped by the measurement of the positive APPs C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and major acute phase protein (pig-MAP) and the negative APPs albumin...... and apolipoprotein (Apo) A-I. The aim was to elucidate the differences in the acute phase behaviour of the individual APPs during a typical bacterial septicaemic, infection. Pigs were inoculated subcutaneously with live S. suis serotype 2 and blood was sampled before and on various days post inoculation (p...... the experiment with maximum levels around 10 times the day 0-levels, and pig-MAP was elevated on days 1-12 p.i. with peak levels of around seven times the day 0-levels. Apo A-I was decreased from days 1 to 8 and showed minimum levels of about 40% of day 0-levels around 1-2 days p.i. No clear pattern of changes...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The relationship between public transport use and acquisition of acute respiratory infection (ARI is not well understood but potentially important during epidemics and pandemics. Methods A case-control study performed during the 2008/09 influenza season. Cases (n = 72 consulted a General Practitioner with ARI, and controls with another non-respiratory acute condition (n = 66. Data were obtained on bus or tram usage in the five days preceding illness onset (cases or the five days before consultation (controls alongside demographic details. Multiple logistic regression modelling was used to investigate the association between bus or tram use and ARI, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Recent bus or tram use within five days of symptom onset was associated with an almost six-fold increased risk of consulting for ARI (adjusted OR = 5.94 95% CI 1.33-26.5. The risk of ARI appeared to be modified according to the degree of habitual bus and tram use, but this was not statistically significant (1-3 times/week: adjusted OR = 0.54 (95% CI 0.15-1.95; >3 times/week: 0.37 (95% CI 0.13-1.06. Conclusions We found a statistically significant association between ARI and bus or tram use in the five days before symptom onset. The risk appeared greatest among occasional bus or tram users, but this trend was not statistically significant. However, these data are plausible in relation to the greater likelihood of developing protective antibodies to common respiratory viruses if repeatedly exposed. The findings have differing implications for the control of seasonal acute respiratory infections and for pandemic influenza.
Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge
Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.
Kim, Hyun-Joong; Ryu, Ji-Oh; Song, Ji-Yeon; Kim, Hae-Yeong
In the detection of Shigella species using molecular biological methods, previously known genetic markers for Shigella species were not sufficient to discriminate between Shigella species and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli. The purposes of this study were to screen for genetic markers of the Shigella genus and four Shigella species through comparative genomics and develop a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the detection of shigellae and Shigella species. A total of seven genomic DNA sequences from Shigella species were subjected to comparative genomics for the screening of genetic markers of shigellae and each Shigella species. The primer sets were designed from the screened genetic markers and evaluated using PCR with genomic DNAs from Shigella and other bacterial strains in Enterobacteriaceae. A novel Shigella quintuplex PCR, designed for the detection of Shigella genus, S. dysenteriae, S. boydii, S. flexneri, and S. sonnei, was developed from the evaluated primer sets, and its performance was demonstrated with specifically amplified results from each Shigella species. This Shigella multiplex PCR is the first to be reported with novel genetic markers developed through comparative genomics and may be a useful tool for the accurate detection of the Shigella genus and species from closely related bacteria in clinical microbiology and food safety.
Lai, Qi; Song, Quanwei; Guo, Runsheng; Bi, Haidi; Liu, Xuqiang; Yu, Xiaolong; Zhu, Jianghao; Dai, Min; Zhang, Bin
Currently, many scholars are concerned about the treatment of postoperative infection; however, few have completed multivariate analyses to determine factors that contribute to the risk of infection. Therefore, we conducted a multivariate analysis of a retrospectively collected database to analyze the risk factors for acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery, including fracture fixation, lumbar fusion, and minimally invasive lumbar surgery. We retrospectively reviewed data from patients who underwent lumbar surgery between 2014 and 2016, including lumbar fusion, internal fracture fixation, and minimally invasive surgery in our hospital's spinal surgery unit. Patient demographics, procedures, and wound infection rates were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and risk factors were analyzed using logistic regression analyses. Twenty-six patients (2.81%) experienced acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery in our study. The patients' mean body mass index, smoking history, operative time, blood loss, draining time, and drainage volume in the acute surgical site infection group were significantly different from those in the non-acute surgical site infection group (p operative type in the acute surgical site infection group were significantly different than those in the non-acute surgical site infection group (p operative type, operative time, blood loss, and drainage time were independent predictors of acute surgical site infection following lumbar surgery. In order to reduce the risk of infection following lumbar surgery, patients should be evaluated for the risk factors noted above.
Sinha, Anuradha; Dey, Ayan; Saletti, Giulietta; Samanta, Pradip; Chakraborty, Partha Sarathi; Bhattacharya, M K; Ghosh, Santanu; Ramamurthy, T; Kim, Jae-Ouk; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Dong Wook; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Nandy, Ranjan K
Developing countries are burdened with Shigella diarrhea. Understanding mucosal immune responses associated with natural Shigella infection is important to identify potential correlates of protection and, as such, to design effective vaccines. We performed a comparative analysis of circulating mucosal plasmablasts producing specific antibodies against highly conserved invasive plasmid antigens (IpaC, IpaD20, and IpaD120) and two recently identified surface protein antigens, pan-Shigella surface protein antigen 1 (PSSP1) and PSSP2, common to all virulent Shigella strains. We examined blood and stool specimens from 37 diarrheal patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases & Beliaghata General Hospital, Kolkata, India. The etiological agent of diarrhea was investigated in stool specimens by microbiological methods and real-time PCR. Gut-homing (α4β7 (+)) antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) were isolated from patient blood by means of combined magnetic cell sorting and two-color enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay. Overall, 57% (21 of 37) and 65% (24 of 37) of the patients were positive for Shigella infection by microbiological and real-time PCR assays, respectively. The frequency of α4β7 (+) IgG ASC responders against Ipas was higher than that observed against PSSP1 or PSSP2, regardless of the Shigella serotype isolated from these patients. Thus, α4β7 (+) ASC responses to Ipas may be considered an indirect marker of Shigella infection. The apparent weakness of ASC responses to PSSP1 is consistent with the lack of cross-protection induced by natural Shigella infection. The finding that ASC responses to IpaD develop in patients with recent-onset shigellosis indicates that such responses may not be protective or may wane too rapidly and/or be of insufficient magnitude. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Full Text Available Respiratory infections, relapses of ear, nose, throat infections, acute and chronic bronchial infections — these are the most common infantile infections. Regardless the wide range of medications, treatment of recurrent ENT and respiratory infections is not always effective especially in the group of frequently ill children. This article contains analysis of the necessity of immunomodulation therapy of recurrent respiratory infections as a part of complex prophylaxis and treatment of infants.Key words: children, acute respiratory infection, polyoxidonium, treatment.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2011; 10 (3: 103–107
Vermeij, Jan-Dirk; Westendorp, Willeke F; Dippel, Diederik Wj; van de Beek, Diederik; Nederkoorn, Paul J
Stroke is the main cause of disability in high-income countries and ranks second as a cause of death worldwide. Infections occur frequently after stroke and may adversely affect outcome. Preventive antibiotic therapy in the acute phase of stroke may reduce the incidence of infections and improve outcome. In the previous version of this Cochrane Review, published in 2012, we found that antibiotics did reduce the risk of infection but did not reduce the number of dependent or deceased patients. However, included studies were small and heterogeneous. In 2015, two large clinical trials were published, warranting an update of this Review. To assess the effectiveness and safety of preventive antibiotic therapy in people with ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. We wished to determine whether preventive antibiotic therapy in people with acute stroke:• reduces the risk of a poor functional outcome (dependency and/or death) at follow-up;• reduces the occurrence of infections in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces the occurrence of elevated body temperature (temperature ≥ 38° C) in the acute phase of stroke;• reduces length of hospital stay; or• leads to an increased rate of serious adverse events, such as anaphylactic shock, skin rash, or colonisation with antibiotic-resistant micro-organisms. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (25 June 2017); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 5; 25 June 2017) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE Ovid (1950 to 11 May 2017), and Embase Ovid (1980 to 11 May 2017). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished, and ongoing trials, we searched trials and research registers, scanned reference lists, and contacted trial authors, colleagues, and researchers in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of preventive antibiotic therapy versus control (placebo or open control) in people with acute ischaemic or haemorrhagic stroke. Two review authors independently selected
Kahsay, Atsebaha Gebrekidan; Teklemariam, Zelalem
Shigellosis is recognized as a major global public health problem especially in developing countries particularly in children under-5 years of age. Therefore; the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shigella among diarrheic children under-5 years of age attending at Mekelle health center, north Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among diarrheic children under-5 years of age from March to May, 2012. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Study participants were recruited by convenience sampling technique. Shigella was isolated and identified using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 241 study participants were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Shigella in this study was 13.3% (32/241). High prevalence of Shigella (22.6%) was revealed from the age group of 12-23 months. No Shigella was isolated from the age group of 0-5 months. Majority of the isolates of Shigella were from bloody and mucoid diarrhea. There was high prevalence of Shigella infection in this study. Children among the age group of 12-23 months were highly affected. Therefore; responsible bodies should work hard on preventive measures to reduce or eradicate the problem occurred due to shigellosis.
Full Text Available Shigellosis or bacillary dysentery, an acute bloody diarrhoea, is a major public health burden in developing countries. In the absence of prompt and appropriate treatment, the infection is often fatal, particularly in young malnourished children. Here, we describe a new diagnostic test for rapid detection, in stool, at the bedside of patients, of Shigella flexneri 2a, the most predominant agent of the endemic form of the disease.The test is based on the detection of S.flexneri 2a lipopolysaccharide (LPS using serotype 2a-specific monoclonal antibodies coupled to gold particles and displayed on one-step immunochromatographic dipstick. A concentration as low as 20 ng/ml of LPS is detected in distilled water and in reconstituted stools in under 15 minutes. The threshold of detection corresponds to a concentration of 5x10(7 CFU/ml of S. flexneri 2a, which provides an unequivocal positive reaction in three minutes in distilled water and reconstituted stools. The specificity is 100% when tested with a battery of Shigella and unrelated strains, in culture. When tested in Vietnam, on clinical samples, the specificity and sensitivity were 99.2 and 91.5%, respectively. A decrease of the sensitivity during the evaluation on stool samples was observed after five weeks at room temperature and was due to moistening of the dipsticks caused by the humidity of the air during the fifth week of the evaluation. This drawback is now overcome by improving the packaging and providing dipsticks individually wrapped in waterproof bags.This simple dipstick-bases test represents a powerful tool for case management and epidemiological surveys.
Liu, Chunyan; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Lili; Li, Jianguo; Xie, Zhengde; Xu, Baoping; Yang, Yan; Qian, Suyun; Wang, Jianwei; Shen, Kunling
Human adenoviruses (HAdV) play a significant role in pediatric respiratory tract infections. To date, over 60 types of HAdV have been identified. Here, HAdV types are characterized in children in the Beijing area with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) and the clinical features and laboratory findings of hospitalized HAdV-infected cases are described. Respiratory specimens were collected from pediatric patients with ALRTIs in the emergency department or from those admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital between March 2007 and December 2012. Infections with common respiratory viruses were determined by PCR or RT-PCR. HAdV positive samples were further typed by PCR and sequencing. Among 3356 patients with ALRTIs, 194 (5.8 %) were found to have HAdV infection. HAdV infection was primarily confined to children (88.35 %) less than 5 years of age. A total of 11 different types of HAdV were detected throughout the study period, with HAdV-B7 (49.0 %) and HAdV-B3 (26.3 %) as the most prevalent types, followed by HAdV-C2 (7.7 %) and HAdVC1 (4.6 %). Newly emerging and re-emergent types or variants, HAdV-B55 (n = 5), HAdV-C57 (n = 3), and HAdV-B14p1 (n = 1), were identified. Results also included the reported first case of co-infection with HAdV-C2 and HAdV-C57. Clinical entities of patients with single HAdV infection (n = 49) were similar to those with mixed HAdV/respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (n = 41). Patients with HAdV-B7 infection had longer duration of fever and higher serum levels of muscle enzymes than HAdV-B3-infected patients. During the study period, HAdV-B7 and HAdV-B3 were the predominant types identified in pediatric ALRTIs. HAdV-B7 infection tends to have more severe clinical consequences. The presence of newly emerging types or variants and co-infection with different types of HAdV highlights the need for constant and close surveillance of HAdV infection.
Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico
Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.
Leonor Díaz Rigau
Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Shigella spp. es uno de los agentes causales más importantes de diarrea aguda en los niños. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de serogrupos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a los fármacos de elección y a los alternativos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2006 a partir de 34 cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas en heces de niños menores de 5 años ingresados en el Hospital «Aleida Fernández Chardiet» (Municipio Güines a causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda. RESULTADOS. Los serogrupos encontrados fueron S. sonnei (70,5 % y S. flexneri (29,5 %. Ambos serogrupos mostraron altos niveles de resistencia al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y a la ampicilina, además en las cepas de S. sonnei se encontró resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y en las de S. flexneri al cloranfenicol. Todas las cepas mostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad a la ceftriaxona, norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina. El 70 % de las cepas de S. sonnei fueron multirresistentes. El patrón de multirresistencia (ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfamtetoxazol y ácido nalidíxico se encontró en ambos serogrupos. CONCLUSIONES. La determinación y vigilancia de los patrones de resistencia facilita el control de la política de uso de antibióticos en la región estudiada y previene el surgimiento de cepas resistentes a fármacos de nueva generación.INTRODUCTION: Shigella ssp. is one of the more important causal agents of acute diarrhea in children. Present research has as aim to know serogroups frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility to choice drugs, and to its alternatives. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out between January 2004 and December 2006 of 34 strains of Shigella isolated from children lower than 5 years admitted in "Aleida Fernández Chardiet" Hospital in Güines Municipality by acute diarrheic disease. RESULTS: Serogroups included S. sonnei (70
Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.
Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287
Song, Ming-hui; Zhao, Lin-qing; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Tian, Run
To understand the clinical characteristics of different groups human rhinovirus (HRV)-A, B and C infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing. Respiratory tract specimens (n = 1412) collected from children with ARI during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2012 were tested for HRV by using semi-nested PCR. Gene fragments of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens were sequenced for HRV genotype confirmation. Then epidemiological characteristics of these HRV-positive cases were analyzed. Among these 1412 specimens tested, 103 (7.3%) were HRV positive, including 54 (52.4%) positive for HRV-A, 14 (13.6%) for HRV-B, 35 (34.0%) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis. The positive rates of HRV-A, B and C (2.5%, 16/638; 0.3%, 2/638 and 1.3%, 8/638) in children with acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) were lower than those (5.8%, 36/623; 1.8%, 11/623 and 3.9%, 24/623) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) (P = 0.003, 0.011, 0.003). In children with LRI, the positive rates of HRV-A, C were similar to each other (P = 0.112), and both were higher than that of HRV-B (P = 0.000, P = 0.026). The severity of ARI among children positive for different groups HRV showed no significant difference evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis H test (Hc = 0.044, P > 0.05), as well as that between children co-infected with HRV and other viruses and those infected with HRV only evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum test (Zc = 0.872, P > 0.05). HRV is one of important pathogens for children with ARI, especially LRI in Beijing. The positive rates of HRV-A and HRV-C are similar to each other, and both are higher than that of HRV-B. No significant difference was shown among children with different HRV genotypes by evaluation of the severity of ARI, and co-infections of HRV with other viruses do not significantly increase the severity of ARI.
Xiang, Zichun; Gonzalez, Richard; Wang, Zhong; Ren, Lili; Xiao, Yan; Li, Jianguo; Li, Yongjun; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Jin, Qi; Wang, Jianwei
During August 2006–April 2010, in Beijing, China, 2 rare human enterovirus serotypes, coxsackievirus A21 and enterovirus 68, were detected most frequently in human enterovirus–positive adults with acute respiratory tract infections. Thus, during some years, these 2 viruses cause a substantial proportion of enterovirus-associated adult acute respiratory tract infections.
Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Mueller, Beat
Is the use of procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic decisions in patients with acute upper and lower respiratory tract infections associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with usual care? Among patients with varying types and severity of acute respiratory infection, using procalcitonin to guide decisions about antibiotics is associated with lower rates of antibiotic exposure, antibiotic-related adverse effects, and mortality.
Lokshina, E.; Zajtseva, O.
There is considered the problem of treatment of cough in children with acute respiratory infections in article. In particular, the data on an effective administration of the domestic combined medication framed on basis of medicinal grasses with codeine in complex therapy of acute respiratory infections is presented.
Rusan, M; Klug, T E; Ovesen, T
This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics, m...
series and included 10 with acute and biliary system (Bassily et al., 1989). fascioliasis , 9 with schistosomiasis and I Diagnosing these patients...Farid et al., 1989). Acute Ilosp., Postal Code 11517, Cairo. Egpt. fascioliasis is treated with bithionol, 88 Table: Diagnostic categories of fcver of...diagnosis Infections 80 57 Tuberculosis (32), Salmonellosis (10), Fascioliasis (10), Schistosomiasis (9). Infective Endocarditis (5), Brucellosis (4
Norbeck, Oscar; Isa, Adiba; Pöhlmann, Christoph
Murine models have suggested that CD8+ T-cell responses peak early in acute viral infections and are not sustained, but no evidence for humans has been available. To address this, we longitudinally analyzed the CD8+ T-cell response to human parvovirus B19 in acutely infected individuals. We...... observed striking CD8+ T-cell responses, which were sustained or even increased over many months after the resolution of acute disease, indicating that CD8+ T cells may play a prominent role in the control of parvovirus B19 and other acute viral infections of humans, including potentially those generated...
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear...... if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456...... prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second...
Marcio de Oliveira Silva
Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.
Nadarajah, Jeyaseelan; Madhusudhan, Kumble Seetharama; Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Arun Kumar; Vikram, Naval Kumar
Dengue is a common viral infection worldwide with presentation varying from clinically silent infection to dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and severe fulminant dengue shock syndrome. Neurological manifestation usually results from multisystem dysfunction secondary to vascular leak. Presentation as hemorrhagic encephalitis is very rare. Here we present the case of a 13-year-old female admitted with generalized tonic clonic seizures. Plain computed tomography (CT) scan of head revealed hypodensities in bilateral deep gray matter nuclei and right posterior parietal lobe without any hemorrhage. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serology were positive for IgM and IgG antibodies to dengue viral antigen. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal T2 and fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensities in bilateral cerebral parenchyma including basal ganglia. No hemorrhage was seen. She was managed with steroids. As her clinical condition deteriorated, after being stable for 2 days, repeat MRI was done which revealed development of hemorrhage within the lesions, and diagnosis of acute hemorrhagic encephalitis of dengue viral etiology was made
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.
Schultsz, C.; Qadri, F.; Hossain, S. A.; Ahmed, F.; Ciznar, I.
To study the secretory immune response after Shigella infection, the anti-lipopolysaccharide and anti-Shiga-toxin response in saliva, obtained from children with confirmed shigellosis and healthy children, were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by Western blot. Children with
Hakim, Hana; Dallas, Ronald; Zhou, Yinmei; Pei, Dequing; Cheng, Cheng; Flynn, Patricia M; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima
Knowledge regarding the incidence, clinical course, and impact of respiratory viral infections in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is limited. A retrospective cohort of patients with newly diagnosed ALL who were treated on the Total Therapy XVI protocol at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between 2007 and 2011 was evaluated. Of 223 children, 95 (43%) developed 133 episodes of viral acute respiratory illness (ARI) (incidence, 1.1 per 1000 patient-days). ARI without viral etiology was identified in 65 patients (29%) and no ARI was detected in 63 patients (28%). There were no significant associations noted between race, sex, age, or ALL risk group and the development of ARI. Children receiving induction chemotherapy were found to be at the highest risk of viral ARI (incidence, 2.3 per 1000 patient-days). Influenza virus was the most common virus (38%) followed by respiratory syncytial virus (33%). Of 133 episodes of viral ARI, 61% of patients were hospitalized, 26% experienced a complicated course, 80% had their chemotherapy delayed, and 0.7% of patients died. Twenty-four patients (18%) developed viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), 5 of whom (21%) had complications. Patients with viral LRTI had a significantly lower nadir absolute lymphocyte count; were sicker at the time of presentation; and were more likely to have respiratory syncytial virus, to be hospitalized, and to have their chemotherapy delayed for longer compared with those with viral upper respiratory tract infections. Despite the low incidence of viral ARI in children with ALL, the associated morbidity, mortality, and delay in chemotherapy remain clinically significant. Viral LRTI was especially associated with high morbidity requiring intensive care-level support. Cancer 2016;122:798-805. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
Souza, Patricia Gomes de; Cardoso, Andrey Moreira; Sant'Anna, Clemax Couto; March, Maria de Fátima Bazhuni Pombo
To describe the clinical profile and treatment of Brazilian Guarani indigenous children aged less than five years hospitalized for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI), living in villages in the states from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul. Of the 234 children, 23 were excluded (incomplete data). The analysis was conducted in 211 children. Data were extracted from charts by a form. Based on record of wheezing and x-ray findings, ALRI was classified as bacterial, viral and viral-bacterial. A bivariate analysis was conducted using multinomial regression. Median age was 11 months. From the total sample, the ALRI cases were classified as viral (40.8%), bacterial (35.1%) and viral-bacterial (24.1%). It was verified that 53.1% of hospitalizations did not have clinical-radiological-laboratorial evidence to justify them. In the multinomial regression analysis, the comparison of bacterial and viral-bacterial showed the likelihood of having a cough was 3.1 times higher in the former (95%CI 1.11-8.70), whereas having chest retractions was 61.0% lower (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.16-0.92). Comparing viral with viral-bacterial, the likelihood of being male was 2.2 times higher in the viral (95%CI 1.05-4.69), and of having tachypnea 58.0% lower (OR 0.42, 95%CI 0.19-0.92). Higher proportion of viral processes was identified, as well as viral-bacterial co-infections. Coughing was a symptom indicative of bacterial infection, whereas chest retractions and tachypnea showed viral-bacterial ALRI. Part of the resolution of non-severe ALRI still occurs at hospital level; therefore, we concluded that health services need to implement their programs in order to improve indigenous primary care.
Full Text Available Derek S Sarovich,1,2,* Erin P Price,1,2,* Direk Limmathurotsakul,3 James M Cook,1 Alex T Von Schulze,1 Spenser R Wolken,1 Paul Keim,1 Sharon J Peacock,3,4 Talima Pearson1 1Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; 2Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia; 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterium that causes the disease melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. First-line antibiotic therapy for treating melioidosis is usually the synthetic β-lactam, ceftazidime (CAZ, as almost all B. pseudomallei strains are susceptible to this drug. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, which can lead to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different drug in a timely manner. Serial B. pseudomallei isolates obtained from an acute Thai melioidosis patient infected by a CAZ susceptible strain, who ultimately succumbed to infection despite being on CAZ therapy for the duration of their infection, were analyzed. Isolates that developed CAZ resistance due to a proline to serine change at position 167 in the β-lactamase PenA were identified. Importantly, these CAZ resistant isolates remained sensitive to the alternative melioidosis treatments; namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, and meropenem. Lastly, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays capable of rapidly identifying CAZ resistance in B. pseudomallei isolates at the position 167 mutation site were developed. The ability to rapidly identify the emergence of CAZ resistant B. pseudomallei populations in melioidosis patients will allow timely alterations in treatment strategies
Hsu, Chan-Yang; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Yu, Hsi-Yu
To evaluate the clinical results of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). A total of 44 patients with IE complicated by CVA at admission were retrospectively analyzed in a single medical institute from 2005 to 2011. At the time of admission, 18 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic stroke, and 26 patients were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Fifteen patients received surgical intervention during hospitalization. The hospital mortality rate was 38.9% for the hemorrhagic stroke group and 42.3% for the ischemic stroke group (p = 0.821). The mortality rate was 33.3% for the surgical group and 44.8% for the nonsurgical group (p = 0.531). At 30 days of hospitalization, 45.8% of the patients experienced an adverse event (defined as death due to organ failure, restroke, cardiogenic shock, or septic shock during the treatment period), and the attrition rate was 1.5% per day. Surgery performed after the adverse events increased mortality (80.0%) compared with surgery performed on patients with no adverse events (10.0%; p = 0.017). A Cox regression analysis revealed that creatinine > 2 mg/dL, diabetes, and staphylococcal infection were the risk factors of the adverse events. Early surgical intervention for IE with ischemic stroke may prevent adverse events, particularly in patients with impaired renal function, diabetes, or staphylococcal infection. A delay in operation of > 30 days is recommended after hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, D P; Devanga Ragupathi, N K; Anandan, S; Veeraraghavan, B
Shigellosis represents a major burden of disease in developing countries. A low infectious dose allows the disease to be spread effectively. Although shigellosis is mostly a self-limiting disease, antibiotics are recommended to reduce deaths, disease symptoms and organism-shedding time. However, in India, antimicrobial resistance among the genus Shigella is more common than among any other enteric bacteria. Notably, new serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are reported from various parts of the world. Identification of new subserotypes of Shigella spp. is becoming a major issue as these strains are nontypeable by conventional serotyping. The commercially available antisera may not cover all possible epitopes of the O lipopolysaccharide antigen of Shigella serotypes. Therefore, molecular methods which most closely approach the resolution of full serotyping are necessary to identify such strains. In addition, the knowledge of a prevalent serotype in various geographic regions may assist in formulating strategies such as the development of a vaccine to prevent infection especially when the immunity to disease is serotype specific, and to understand the disease burden caused by new Shigella serotypes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Radhika, M; Saugata, Majumder; Murali, H S; Batra, H V
Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.
de Vrankrijker, Angélica M M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Ciofu, Oana
virus infections in facilitating colonization and infection with P. aeruginosa. A study was undertaken to determine whether respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection could facilitate the initiation of an acute infection with P. aeruginosa in vivo. Balb/c mice were infected intranasally with P......Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals and patients ventilated mechanically and is the major pathogen in patients with cystic fibrosis, in which it causes chronic infections. Epidemiological, in vitro and animal data suggest a role for respiratory....... These results suggest that RSV can facilitate the initiation of acute P. aeruginosa infection without the RSV infection being clinically apparent. This could have implications for treatment strategies to prevent opportunistic P. aeruginosa lung infection....
Guo, Xiangjiao; Wang, Yingfang; Duan, Guangcai; Xue, Zerun; Wang, Linlin; Wang, Pengfei; Qiu, Shaofu; Xi, Yuanlin; Yang, Haiyan
The recently discovered CRISPRs (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins are a novel genetic barrier that limits horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes and the CRISPR loci provide a historical view of the exposure of prokaryotes to a variety of foreign genetic elements. The aim of study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of the CRISPRs in Shigella. A collection of 61 strains of Shigella were screened for the existence of CRISPRs. Three CRISPR loci were identified among 61 shigella strains. CRISPR1/cas loci are detected in 49 strains of shigella. Yet, IS elements were detected in cas gene in some strains. In the remaining 12 Shigella flexneri strains, the CRISPR1/cas locus is deleted and only a cas3' pseudo gene and a repeat sequence are present. The presence of CRISPR2 is frequently accompanied by the emergence of CRISPR1. CRISPR3 loci were present in almost all strains (52/61). The length of CRISPR arrays varied from 1 to 9 spacers. Sequence analysis of the CRISPR arrays revealed that few spacers had matches in the GenBank databases. However, one spacer in CRISPR3 loci matches the cognate cas3 genes and no cas gene was present around CRISPR3 region. Analysis of CRISPR sequences show that CRISPR have little change which makes CRISPR poor genotyping markers. The present study is the first attempt to determine and analyze CRISPRs of shigella isolated from clinical patients.
Goulabchand, Radjiv; Khellaf, Lakhdar; Forestier, Amandine; Costes, Valerie; Foulongne, Vincent; le Quellec, Alain; Guilpain, Philippe
To describe the pathophysiological mechanisms involving cytomegalovirus (CMV) primary infection and natural killer (NK) cell expansion in the development of localized scleroderma. A 43-year-old woman presented acute erythematous discoloration and skin thickening concerning face, neck, trunk, abdomen, and the four limbs, predominantly in proximal areas. Our case did not respond to systemic sclerosis criteria diagnosis. However, skin and muscle biopsy revealed early scleroderma associated with capillary thrombi, and tissue infiltration with NK cells (CD56+/Granzyme B). Scleroderma was attributed to CMV primary infection responsible for cytolytic hepatitis (7-fold over the limit) and circulating NK cell excess. After 6 months of prednisone and a 2-year follow-up, a complete resolution of symptoms was observed. Our observation suggests a potential triggering role of CMV primary infection in the development of scleroderma. Histological features from our observation addresses the role of CMV and NK cells in the development of endothelial damage and fibrotic process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Moesker, F M; van Kampen, J J A; van der Eijk, A A; van Rossum, A M C; de Hoog, M; Schutten, M; Smits, S L; Bodewes, R; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fraaij, P L A
In 2005 human bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in respiratory tract samples of children. The role of HBoV as the single causative agent for respiratory tract infections remains unclear. Detection of HBoV in children with respiratory disease is frequently in combination with other viruses or bacteria. We set up an algorithm to study whether HBoV alone can cause severe acute respiratory tract infection (SARI) in children. The algorithm was developed to exclude cases with no other likely cause than HBoV for the need for admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI. We searched for other viruses by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in these cases and studied their HBoV viral loads. To benchmark our algorithm, the same was applied to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive patients. From our total group of 990 patients who tested positive for a respiratory virus by means of RT-PCR, HBoV and RSV were detected in 178 and 366 children admitted to our hospital. Forty-nine HBoV-positive patients and 72 RSV-positive patients were admitted to the PICU. We found seven single HBoV-infected cases with SARI admitted to PICU (7/49, 14%). They had no other detectable virus by NGS. They had much higher HBoV loads than other patients positive for HBoV. We identified 14 RSV-infected SARI patients with a single RSV infection (14/72, 19%). We conclude that our study provides strong support that HBoV can cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael; Bouadma, Lila; Luyt, Charles E; Wolff, Michel; Chastre, Jean; Tubach, Florence; Kristoffersen, Kristina B; Burkhardt, Olaf; Welte, Tobias; Schroeder, Stefan; Nobre, Vandack; Wei, Long; Bucher, Heiner C; Bhatnagar, Neera; Annane, Djillali; Reinhart, Konrad; Branche, Angela; Damas, Pierre; Nijsten, Maarten W N; de Lange, Dylan W; Deliberato, Rodrigo O; Lima, Stella Ss; Maravić-Stojković, Vera; Verduri, Alessia; Cao, Bin; Shehabi, Yahya; Beishuizen, Albertus; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Corti, Caspar; van Oers, Jos A; Falsey, Ann R; de Jong, Evelien; Oliveira, Carolina F; Beghe, Bianca; Briel, Matthias; Mueller, Beat
BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) comprise of a large and heterogeneous group of infections including bacterial, viral, and other aetiologies. In recent years, procalcitonin (PCT), a blood marker for bacterial infections, has emerged as a promising tool to improve decisions about
Minhas, Parminder S; K Virdi, Jaspreet; Patel, Rajeshkumar
Splenic dysfunction is a major feature of sickle cell disease (SCD) and can manifest as acute splenic sequestration crisis (ASSC), which is the earliest life-threatening complication seen in patients with SCD. Aplastic crisis is another potentially deadly complication of sickle cell disease that develops when erythrocyte production temporarily drops. Infection with parvovirus B-19 frequently causes aplastic crises. These two complications are known to be mutually exclusive due to their classic presentation signs and symptoms but there have been few cases where a patient can have concomitant presentation of both phenomena, which can result in a fatal outcome. These few cases force us to rethink the etiology and subsequent management guidelines of these complications. We present to you a case of an unfortunate 23-year-old female who had both complications occurring at the same time, resulting in death.
Lau, Yee-Ling; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Tan, Lian-Huat; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Fong, Mun-Yik; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Mahmud, Rohela
Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient's condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission.
Full Text Available Although increased capillary permeability is the major clinical feature associated with severe dengue infections the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Dextran clearance methodology has been used to investigate the molecular sieving properties of the microvasculature in clinical situations associated with altered permeability, including during pregnancy and in various renal disorders. In order to better understand the characteristics of the vascular leak associated with dengue we undertook formal dextran clearance studies in Vietnamese dengue patients and healthy volunteers.We carried out serial clearance studies in 15 young adult males with acute dengue and evidence of vascular leakage a during the phase of maximal leakage and b one and three months later, as well as in 16 healthy control subjects. Interestingly we found no difference in the clearance profiles of neutral dextran solutions among the dengue patients at any time-point or in comparison to the healthy volunteers.The surface glycocalyx layer, a fibre-matrix of proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycans, and plasma proteins, forms a complex with the underlying endothelial cells to regulate plasma volume within circumscribed limits. It is likely that during dengue infections loss of plasma proteins from this layer alters the permeability characteristics of the complex; physical and/or electrostatic interactions between the dextran molecules and the glycocalyx structure may temporarily restore normal function, rendering the technique unsuitable for assessing permeability in these patients. The implications for resuscitation of patients with dengue shock syndrome (DSS are potentially important. It is possible that continuous low-dose infusions of dextran may help to stabilize the permeability barrier in patients with profound or refractory shock, reducing the need for repeated boluses, limiting the total colloid volume required. Formal clinical studies should help to assess
Full Text Available Background: Shigellosis is endemic throughout the world and it is among the most common causes of bacterial diarrheal diseases. Antibiotic resistance of Shigella is becoming a progressive problem in world. The aim of this study was the survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran. Material and Methods: This study conducted on 9131 patients with acute diarrheal disease. For isolation of Shigella spp. from stool samples, culture performed on different selective and differential media. After confirmation of bacteria by biochemical tests, susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method according to clinical and laboratory standards (CLSI recomendations. Results: Among 9131 stool samples, Shigella spp. was isolated from 90 cases. Shigella sonnei was the most common isolated species. 92/2 % of isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. In contrast, most of the Shigella spp. was founded to be sensitive to ciprofloxacin, imipenem and third-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: Surveillance programs on antimicrobial resistance not only identify pathogenic bacterial species, by reporting data like serotyping, microorganisms incidence rates, and susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents currently used for treatment, but also contribute to monitoring the intervention strategies including removing organism from reservoirs.
Heath, Jessica L.; Yin, Dwight E.; Wechsler, Daniel S.; Turner, David A.
Disseminated cryptococcal infection is rarely reported in the setting of pediatric acute leukemia, despite the immunocompromised state of these patients. However, when present, disseminated cryptococcal infection poses treatment challenges and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment of invasive fungal disease in a child with acute leukemia requires a delicate balance between anti-fungal and anti-neoplastic therapy. This balance is particularly important early in the course of leukemia, since both the underlying disease and overwhelming infection can be life threatening. We describe the successful management of life-threatening disseminated cryptococcosis in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during induction therapy. PMID:22258349
Martinez-Becerra, Francisco J; Chen, Xiaotong; Dickenson, Nicholas E; Choudhari, Shyamal P; Harrison, Kelly; Clements, John D; Picking, William D; Van De Verg, Lillian L; Walker, Richard I; Picking, Wendy L
Shigellosis is an important disease in the developing world, where about 90 million people become infected with Shigella spp. each year. We previously demonstrated that the type three secretion apparatus (T3SA) proteins IpaB and IpaD are protective antigens in the mouse lethal pulmonary model. In order to simplify vaccine formulation and process development, we have evaluated a vaccine design that incorporates both of these previously tested Shigella antigens into a single polypeptide chain. To determine if this fusion protein (DB fusion) retains the antigenic and protective capacities of IpaB and IpaD, we immunized mice with the DB fusion and compared the immune response to that elicited by the IpaB/IpaD combination vaccine. Purification of the DB fusion required coexpression with IpgC, the IpaB chaperone, and after purification it maintained the highly α-helical characteristics of IpaB and IpaD. The DB fusion also induced comparable immune responses and retained the ability to protect mice against Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei in the lethal pulmonary challenge. It also offered limited protection against S. dysenteriae challenge. Our results show the feasibility of generating a protective Shigella vaccine comprised of the DB fusion.
Martinez-Becerra, Francisco J.; Chen, Xiaotong; Dickenson, Nicholas E.; Choudhari, Shyamal P.; Harrison, Kelly; Clements, John D.; Picking, William D.; Van De Verg, Lillian L.; Walker, Richard I.
Shigellosis is an important disease in the developing world, where about 90 million people become infected with Shigella spp. each year. We previously demonstrated that the type three secretion apparatus (T3SA) proteins IpaB and IpaD are protective antigens in the mouse lethal pulmonary model. In order to simplify vaccine formulation and process development, we have evaluated a vaccine design that incorporates both of these previously tested Shigella antigens into a single polypeptide chain. To determine if this fusion protein (DB fusion) retains the antigenic and protective capacities of IpaB and IpaD, we immunized mice with the DB fusion and compared the immune response to that elicited by the IpaB/IpaD combination vaccine. Purification of the DB fusion required coexpression with IpgC, the IpaB chaperone, and after purification it maintained the highly α-helical characteristics of IpaB and IpaD. The DB fusion also induced comparable immune responses and retained the ability to protect mice against Shigella flexneri and S. sonnei in the lethal pulmonary challenge. It also offered limited protection against S. dysenteriae challenge. Our results show the feasibility of generating a protective Shigella vaccine comprised of the DB fusion. PMID:24060976
Khan, T.A.; Madni, S.A.; Zaidi, A.K.M.
Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are the leading cause of death in young children in Pakistan, responsible for 20-30% of child deaths under age 5 years. This paper summarizes the research and technical development efforts over the last 15 years which have contributed to improving the effectiveness of the case management strategy to reduce mortality from 5' pneumonia in children in Pakistan. Community intervention is viable, effective and practical. Rising antimicrobial resistance among commonly used and A low-cost oral agent is of significant concern. Appropriate monitoring and evaluation of the impact of the ARI control programme is lacking. Lack of funding for programmatic activities, lack of coordination with other child survival programs, inadequate training for community health workers and general practitioners in the private sector, lack of public awareness about seeking timely and appropriate care and insufficient planning and support for ARI in the programmatic activities at provincial and district levels are major hindrances in decreasing the burden of ARI in the country. The recent introduction of the community-based Lady Health Worker (LHW) Programme and WHO and UNICEF-sponsored integrated management of childhood illness initiative present ideal opportunities for re-emphasizing early case detection and appropriate case management of ARI. Ultimately, focusing on preventive strategies such as improving nutrition, reducing indoor pollution, improving mass vaccination, as well as introduction of new vaccines effective against important respiratory pathogens will likely have the most impact on reducing severe ARI and deaths from severe disease. (author)
Salim, Omar Jabbar; Davidson, Amy; Li, Kathy; Leach, John Paul; Heath, Craig
A 59-year-old man presented with feverish illness. His Glasgow Coma Scale was 15, had reduced visual acuity in the left eye with partial left ptosis and mild left hemiparesis with an extensor left plantar. Over 48 hours, he accrued multiple cranial nerves palsies and progressed to a flaccid paralysis necessitating admission to an intensive care unit.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) study showed 20 lymphocytes and raised protein. Viral and bacterial PCRs were negative. Samples for Lyme, blood-borne viruses, syphilis and autoantibodies were also negative. MRI brain showed T2 abnormalities within the brainstem. Nerve conduction studies revealed an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy pattern of Guillian Barre Syndrome (GBS). The patient was treated for both infective and inflammatory causes of brainstem encephalitis and GBS.Retrospective studies confirmed the presence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) RNA in CSF and serum studies showed positive HEV IgG and IgM prior to intravenous infusion. After 3 months of intensive rehabilitation, the patient was discharged home walking with a frame. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp...), used in serological tests to identify Shigella spp. from cultured isolates. The identification aids in...
Swenson, Richard D; Butterfield, James A; Irwin, Timothy J; Zurlo, John J; Davis, Charles M
Acute and acute hematogenous prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are often treated with open debridement and polyethylene exchange (ODPE) in an effort to save the prosthesis, decrease morbidity, and reduce costs. However, failure of ODPE may compromise a subsequent 2-stage treatment. The purpose of this study is to identify patient factors that impact the success of ODPE for acute and acute hematogenous PJIs. A retrospective review examined comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and patient history for patients with successful and failed ODPE treatment for acute perioperative or acute hematogenous periprosthetic hip or knee joint infections. Successful treatment was defined as retaining a well-fixed implant without the need for additional surgery for a minimum of 6-month follow-up with or without lifelong oral maintenance antibiotics. Fifty-three of 72 patients (73.6%) underwent successful ODPE. Of the 19 failures, 14 completed 2-stage revision with one subsequent known failure for recurrent infection. Patients with a Staphylococcus aureus infection were more likely to fail ODPE (48.3% vs 11.6%, P = .0012, odds ratio 7.1, 95% confidence interval 2.3-25.3). Patients with a preoperative hematocrit ≤32.1 were also more likely to fail ODPE (55% vs 16%, P = .0013, odds ratio 6.7, 95% confidence interval 2.2-22.4). When neither risk factor was present, 97.1% of PJIs were successfully treated with ODPE. S aureus infection and preoperative hematocrit ≤32.1 are independent risk factors for ODPE failure. ODPE is a safe alternative to 2-stage revision in patients without preoperative anemia and without S aureus infection. Two-thirds of patients with a failed ODPE were successfully treated with a 2-stage reimplantation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This study aimed to describe the spatial and temporal trends of Shigella incidence rates in Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. It also intended to explore complex risk modes facilitating Shigella transmission.County-level incidence rates were obtained for analysis using geographic information system (GIS tools. Trend surface and incidence maps were established to describe geographic distributions. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis and autocorrelation analysis were used for detecting clusters. Based on the number of monthly Shigella cases, an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model successfully established a time series model. A spatial correlation analysis and a case-control study were conducted to identify risk factors contributing to Shigella transmissions.The far southwestern and northwestern areas of Jiangsu were the most infected. A cluster was detected in southwestern Jiangsu (LLR = 11674.74, P<0.001. The time series model was established as ARIMA (1, 12, 0, which predicted well for cases from August to December, 2011. Highways and water sources potentially caused spatial variation in Shigella development in Jiangsu. The case-control study confirmed not washing hands before dinner (OR = 3.64 and not having access to a safe water source (OR = 2.04 as the main causes of Shigella in Jiangsu Province.Improvement of sanitation and hygiene should be strengthened in economically developed counties, while access to a safe water supply in impoverished areas should be increased at the same time.
Tang, Fenyang; Cheng, Yuejia; Bao, Changjun; Hu, Jianli; Liu, Wendong; Liang, Qi; Wu, Ying; Norris, Jessie; Peng, Zhihang; Yu, Rongbin; Shen, Hongbing; Chen, Feng
This study aimed to describe the spatial and temporal trends of Shigella incidence rates in Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. It also intended to explore complex risk modes facilitating Shigella transmission. County-level incidence rates were obtained for analysis using geographic information system (GIS) tools. Trend surface and incidence maps were established to describe geographic distributions. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis and autocorrelation analysis were used for detecting clusters. Based on the number of monthly Shigella cases, an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model successfully established a time series model. A spatial correlation analysis and a case-control study were conducted to identify risk factors contributing to Shigella transmissions. The far southwestern and northwestern areas of Jiangsu were the most infected. A cluster was detected in southwestern Jiangsu (LLR = 11674.74, PHighways and water sources potentially caused spatial variation in Shigella development in Jiangsu. The case-control study confirmed not washing hands before dinner (OR = 3.64) and not having access to a safe water source (OR = 2.04) as the main causes of Shigella in Jiangsu Province. Improvement of sanitation and hygiene should be strengthened in economically developed counties, while access to a safe water supply in impoverished areas should be increased at the same time.
Liuba, Petru; Pesonen, Erkki; Forslid, Anders
cholesterol) between the groups (p>0.2). CONCLUSION:: Acute infection is associated with impairment of the muscarinic and kinin-related reactivity of coronary circulation. These functional abnormalities are in part prevented by simvastatin through mechanisms unrelated to lipid lowering......BACKGROUND:: The risk for coronary events may rise during acute infection. Perturbation in coronary endothelial function emerges as one important link. We investigated whether simvastatin could protect the coronary arterial function from the adverse effects of acute infection in swine. METHODS......:: Coronary endothelium-dependent and -independent vasomotor responses were assessed by Doppler velocimetry in 12 Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected and 6 sham-infected swine 2 weeks after intratracheal inoculation. Half of animals from the infection group were pre-treated with simvastatin (80mg daily), while...
Larsen, Hans Henrik; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Lundgren, Bettina
with 431 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) by using a real-time PCR assay. In 68 episodes in 67 infants, P. jirovecii was identified. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of a positive signal compared with the first quartile of age (7-49 days) was 47.4 (11.0-203), 8.7 (1......Acquisition of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection early in life has been confirmed by serologic studies. However, no evidence of clinical illness correlated with the primary infection has been found in immunocompetent children. We analyzed 458 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 422 patients hospitalized.......9-39.7), and 0.6 (0.1-6.7) for infants in the second (50-112 days), third (113-265 days), and fourth (268-4,430 days) age quartiles, respectively. Infants with an episode of upper RTI (URTI) were 2.0 (1.05-3.82) times more likely to harbor P. jirovecii than infants with a lower RTI. P. jirovecii may manifest...
Full Text Available The polyamine profile of Shigella, the etiological agent of bacillary dysentery in humans, differs markedly from that of E. coli, its innocuous commensal ancestor. Pathoadaptive mutations such as the loss of cadaverine and the increase of spermidine favour the full expression of the virulent phenotype of Shigella. Spermidine levels affect the expression of the MdtJI complex, a recently identified efflux pump belonging to the small multi-drug resistance family of transporters. In the present study, we have addressed the regulation of the mdtJI operon in Shigella by asking which factors influence its expression as compared to E. coli. In particular, after identifying the mdtJI promoter by primer extension analysis, in vivo transcription assays and gel-retardation experiments were carried out to get insight on the silencing of mdtJI in E. coli. The results indicate that H-NS, a major nucleoid protein, plays a key role in repressing the mdtJI operon by direct binding to the regulatory region. In the Shigella background mdtJI expression is increased by the high levels of spermidine typically found in this microorganism and by VirF, the plasmid-encoded regulator of the Shigella virulence regulatory cascade. We also show that the expression of mdtJI is stimulated by bile components. Functional analyses reveal that MdtJI is able to promote the excretion of putrescine, the spermidine precursor. This leads us to consider the MdtJI complex as a possible safety valve allowing Shigella to maintain spermidine to a level optimally suited to survival within infected macrophages and, at the same time, prevent toxicity due to spermidine over-accumulation.
 They contributed 67 million disability adjusted life years in the ... health sector resources and long-term empiric treatment of ..... women of child bearing ages in order to limit the risks of .... Acute respiratory infection and pneumonia in India:.
Lund, Bendik; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Lausen, Birgitte
Objectives: To investigate association of host genomic variation and risk of infections during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Methods: We explored association of 34 000 singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related primarily to pharmacogenomics and immune function...
Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette
The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... parts of innate host defence reactions remain somewhat elusive. In order to gain new insight into this early host defence response in the context of bacterial infection we studied gene expression changes in peripheral lymphoid tissues as compared to hepatic expression changes, 14-18 h after lung...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...
A. V. Bogdanova
Full Text Available Acute lower respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality in children under five years. Verification of the etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections is necessary for definition of treatment and direction of prevention. Respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B, parainfluenza 1, 2, and 3 and adenovirus are considered the main reasons of acute lower respiratory tract infections. The importance of different viruses depends on countries, district, seasons and ages of children. Analysis of the results of studies from different regions of the world showed fluctuations in frequency of etiology definition of respiratory viruses from 25 to 90%. Respiratory syncytial virus is the main reason of acute lower respiratory tract infections, especially in the group of children up to 1 year.
Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico
Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011-2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role.
Warren-Gash, C; Fragaszy, E; Hayward, AC
: Please cite this paper as: Warren-Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary an...
Full Text Available Objective. To study the peculiarities of acute respiratory disease in children, depending on the presence of hyperplasia of lymphopharyngeal ring (HLR. Materials and methods. A total of 100 children 3–6 years old (the average age of 4 years and 10 months with clinical manifestations of acute respiratory infections. Formed two groups of observations: Group 1 — the children who suffering acute respiratory infections in the background HLR (n=50; Group 2 — the children who suffering acute respiratory infections without HLR (n=50. Results. Have HLR is accompanied by an increase in the duration and severity of acute respiratory infections in children of preschool age. In children HLR doubles the risk of complications from acute respiratory infections, and the possibility of various degrees of conductive hearing loss is three times higher than their peers without HLR. In nasal mucous in children with HLR show a more pronounced inflammatory process in the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract with the direct participation of bacteria in the pathological process. Conclusions. For children of preschool age the presence of HLR is accompanied by an increase in the duration and severity of acute respiratory disease with the development of bacterial complications.
Olmez, Deniz; Boz, Alper; Erkan, Nazif
Varicella zoster is an acute viral infection that results from reactivation of a latent varicella zoster virus. It usually occurs in adult population and immune compromised patients. It rarely occurs in healthy children. Here we present a 14 years old male with varicella zoster that had abdominal pain mimicking acute abdomen to alert others who are consulted for the differentiation of acute abdomen and others who may be consulted for pain management. Keywords Varicella zoster; Abdominal pain
Cosentini, Roberto; Tarsia, Paolo; Canetta, Ciro; Graziadei, Giovanna; Brambilla, Anna Maria; Aliberti, Stefano; Pappalettera, Maria; Tantardini, Francesca; Blasi, Francesco
Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA). The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these acute bacterial infections and the severity of AEBA. We prospectively analysed consecutive patients admitted to the Emergency Department with acute asthma exacerbation. In every patient peak expiratory flow (PEF) measurement was performed on admission, and spirometry during follow-up. Serology for Chlamydophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was performed on admission and after 4-8 weeks. Fifty-eight patients completed the study. Acute atypical infections (AAI) was observed in 22/58 cases; we found single acute C. pneumoniae in 19 cases, single acute M. pneumoniae in 2 cases, and double acute infection in one case. Functional impairment on admission was greater in patients with AAI than in patients without AAI (PEF 205 +/- 104 L/min vs 276 +/- 117 p = 0.02) and persisted until visit 2 (FEV1% 76.30 +/- 24.54 vs FEV1% 92.91 +/- 13.89, p = 0.002). Moreover, the proportion of patients who presented with severe AEBA was significantly greater in the group with AAI than in the group without AAI (15/22 vs 12/36, p = 0.01; OR 4.29, 95% CI 1.38-13.32). Our data suggest an association between acute atypical infection and a more severe AEBA.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are associated with acute exacerbation of bronchial asthma (AEBA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between these acute bacterial infections and the severity of AEBA. Methods We prospectively analysed consecutive patients admitted to the Emergency Department with acute asthma exacerbation. In every patient peak expiratory flow (PEF measurement was performed on admission, and spirometry during follow-up. Serology for Chlamydophila and Mycoplasma pneumoniae was performed on admission and after 4–8 weeks. Results Fifty-eight patients completed the study. Acute atypical infections (AAI was observed in 22/58 cases; we found single acute C. pneumoniae in 19 cases, single acute M. pneumoniae in 2 cases, and double acute infection in one case. Functional impairment on admission was greater in patients with AAI than in patients without AAI (PEF 205 ± 104 L/min vs 276 ± 117 p = 0.02 and persisted until visit 2 (FEV1% 76.30 ± 24.54 vs FEV1% 92.91 ± 13.89, p = 0.002. Moreover, the proportion of patients who presented with severe AEBA was significantly greater in the group with AAI than in the group without AAI (15/22 vs 12/36, p = 0.01; OR 4.29, 95% CI 1.38–13.32. Conclusion Our data suggest an association between acute atypical infection and a more severe AEBA.
Wei, Yahan; Murphy, Erin R
Survival of Shigella within the host is strictly dependent on the ability of the pathogen to acquire essential nutrients, such as iron. As an innate immune defense against invading pathogens, the level of bio-available iron within the human host is maintained at exceeding low levels, by sequestration of the element within heme and other host iron-binding compounds. In response to sequestration mediated iron limitation, Shigella produce multiple iron-uptake systems that each function to facilitate the utilization of a specific host-associated source of nutrient iron. As a mechanism to balance the essential need for iron and the toxicity of the element when in excess, the production of bacterial iron acquisition systems is tightly regulated by a variety of molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the iron-uptake systems produced by Shigella species, their distribution within the genus, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their production.
Jary, Hannah; Simpson, Hope; Havens, Deborah; Manda, Geoffrey; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel; Mortimer, Kevin
Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms. From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults. CRD42015028042.
Full Text Available Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities.Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms.From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis.A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults.CRD42015028042.
Bellan, Steve E.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel
Background The infectivity of the HIV-1 acute phase has been directly measured only once, from a retrospectively identified cohort of serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Rakai, Uganda. Analyses of this cohort underlie the widespread view that the acute phase is highly infectious, even more so than would be predicted from its elevated viral load, and that transmission occurring shortly after infection may therefore compromise interventions that rely on diagnosis and treatment, such as antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP). Here, we re-estimate the duration and relative infectivity of the acute phase, while accounting for several possible sources of bias in published estimates, including the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and unmeasured heterogeneity in risk. Methods and Findings We estimated acute phase infectivity using two approaches. First, we combined viral load trajectories and viral load-infectivity relationships to estimate infectivity trajectories over the course of infection, under the assumption that elevated acute phase infectivity is caused by elevated viral load alone. Second, we estimated the relative hazard of transmission during the acute phase versus the chronic phase (RHacute) and the acute phase duration (d acute) by fitting a couples transmission model to the Rakai retrospective cohort using approximate Bayesian computation. Our model fit the data well and accounted for characteristics overlooked by previous analyses, including individual heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility and the retrospective cohort's exclusion of couples that were recorded as serodiscordant only once before being censored by loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. Finally, we replicated two highly cited analyses of the Rakai data on simulated data to identify biases underlying the discrepancies between previous estimates and our own. From the Rakai data, we estimated RHacute = 5.3 (95% credibility interval [95% CrI]: 0
Hussain, Shaik Abdul; Patil, Girdhari Ramdas; Reddi, Srinu; Yadav, Vidhu; Pothuraju, Ramesh; Singh, Ram Ran Bijoy; Kapila, Suman
The aim of present work was to investigate preventive role of orally administered Aloe vera supplemented probiotic lassi (APL) on Shigella dysenteriae infection in mice. At the end of experimental period (2, 5 and 7 days of challenging), different organs such as spleen, liver, small intestine, large intestine, and peritoneal fluid were collected and assessed for Shigella colonization. Secretary IgA was estimated in intestinal fluid. Blood was collected in heparinized tubes for various haematological studies. Oral administration of APL showed a significant (p Shigella counts (log cfu/mL) in all organs as compared to other treatment groups at different intervals after post feeding. Similarly, secretary IgA antibody levels (μg/mL) in intestinal fluid were significantly (p Shigella dysenteriae induced infection in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K
Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24 h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20 h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp.
Li, Xing-Qiao; Liu, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Tao; Pei, Xiao-Fang
To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation. 10.6% (110/1 039) of these samples were positive for HPIV,including 8 cases of HPIV-1,22 cases of HPIV-2,46 cases of HPIV-3 and 34 cases of HPIV-4. Detectable rate varied among different groups of HPIV according to seasons of the year and ages of patients. No significant differences were found between the positive samples and the reference sequences. Compared with different reference strains of different regions,the genetic distance of nucleotide is the smallest between the strains tested in this study and the reference strains of other provinces and cities in China. In Chengdu region,HPIV virus is highly detected in ARI,all subtypes were detected with HPIV-3 being the main subtype.
Hickie Ian B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute infectious diseases are typically accompanied by non-specific symptoms including fever, malaise, irritability and somnolence that usually resolve on recovery. However, in some individuals these symptoms persist in what is commonly termed post-infective fatigue. The objective of this pilot study was to determine the gene expression correlates of post-infective fatigue following acute Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection. Methods We followed 5 people with acute mononucleosis who developed post-infective fatigue of more than 6 months duration and 5 HLA-matched control subjects who recovered within 3 months. Subjects had peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples collected at varying time points including at diagnosis, then every 2 weeks for 3 months, then every 3 months for a year. Total RNA was extracted from the PBMC samples and hybridized to microarrays spotted with 3,800 oligonucleotides. Results Those who developed post-infective fatigue had gene expression profiles indicative of an altered host response during acute mononucleosis compared to those who recovered uneventfully. Several genes including ISG20 (interferon stimulated gene, DNAJB2 (DnaJ [Hsp40] homolog and CD99, CDK8 (cyclin-dependent kinase 8, E2F2 (E2F transcription factor 2, CDK8 (cyclin-dependent kinase 8, and ACTN2 (actinin, alpha 2, known to be regulated during EBV infection, were differentially expressed in post-infective fatigue cases. Several of the differentially expressed genes affect mitochondrial functions including fatty acid metabolism and the cell cycle. Conclusion These preliminary data provide insights into alterations in gene transcripts associated with the varied clinical outcomes from acute infectious mononucleosis.
The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...
Murk, J. L.; de Vries, A. C.; GeurtsvanKessel, C. H.; Aron, G.; Osterhaus, A. D.; Wolthers, K. C.; Fraaij, P. L.
We here report a 7 year old acute myeloid leukemia patient with persistent spiking fever likely caused by chronic echovirus 20 infection. After immunoglobulin substitution fevers subsided and the virus was cleared. Enterovirus infection should be considered in immunocompromised patients with
Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon
BACKGROUND: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety ...
Morgan, D R; DuPont, H L; Wood, L V; Kohl, S
Intraepithelial lymphocytes were collected from the ileum of adult Hartley strain guinea pigs and used as effector cells in a 60-min bactericidal assay with virulent Shigella sonnei as target cells. Natural killer cytotoxicity (NKC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) were measured and correlated with the resistance of the animals to infection by S. sonnei. Normal guinea pig intraepithelial lymphocytes exhibited mean NKC and ADCC values of 22.8 +/- 5.0 and 34.1 +/- 13.6, respectively. These animals were resistant to oral challenge with virulent S. sonnei. Intraepithelial lymphocytes from guinea pigs which were fasted for 4 days demonstrated NKC and ADCC values similar to those of normal animals (31.0 +/- 8.1 and 41.7 +/- 6.7, respectively). These animals also were resistant to oral challenge. Intraepithelial lymphocytes from guinea pigs which were given 1 ml of deodorized tincture of opium 2 h before cell collection demonstrated deficient NKC (4.7 +/- 4.2) and ADCC (5.3 +/- 4.9) values but remained resistant to infection by S. sonnei. When guinea pigs were fasted for 4 days and given opium, deficient NKC (2.0 +/- 2.0) and ADCC (1.3 +/- 1.3) values were demonstrated; this group of animals was susceptible to infection by S. sonnei (P less than 0.04). These experiments demonstrated that opium treatment depresses one form of gut immunity. When combined with starvation, opium treatment may increase susceptibility to infection by shigellae by modulation of immunity in addition to the effects on gut motility and bacterial flora. PMID:6384044
Yasuda, Tadashi; Nisimatsu, Hidekazu
In athletes, acute bacterial infection is an unusual cause of pain in the sacroiliac joint. Although an entry site for infection is not always evident, the present case of a 15-year-old rugby player suggests the association between right sacroiliac joint infection and skin lesion of atopic dermatitis (AD) infected with group A streptococcus. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed inflammation around the sacroiliac joint with abscess formation. The infection resolved after a course of antibiotics. Because atopic skin lesion is a potential portal of bacteria, treatment for AD is essential for the prevention of pyogenic arthritis in athletes.
McNall, R Y; Head, D R; Pui, C H; Razzouk, B I
Immunocompromised children, including those undergoing chemotherapy treatment of malignant disease, are at particular risk for infection with parvovirus B19. However, these patients' attenuated immune responses may obscure the serologic and clinical manifestations of the infection. The authors describe a patient undergoing induction therapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia whose parvovirus B19 infection was identified by the incidental detection of giant pronormoblasts and absence of normal mature erythroid precursors, characteristic of parvovirus infection, on a routine bone marrow examination. Intravenous immunoglobulin was administered and the patient's aplastic anemia resolved completely within 3 weeks. This highlights the importance of alertness to the possibility of parvovirus infection in children with cancer.
Erickson, John J; Lu, Pengcheng; Wen, Sherry; Hastings, Andrew K; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Joyce, Sebastian; Shyr, Yu; Williams, John V
Acute viral infections typically generate functional effector CD8(+) T cells (TCD8) that aid in pathogen clearance. However, during acute viral lower respiratory infection, lung TCD8 are functionally impaired and do not optimally control viral replication. T cells also become unresponsive to Ag during chronic infections and cancer via signaling by inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). PD-1 also contributes to TCD8 impairment during viral lower respiratory infection, but how it regulates TCD8 impairment and the connection between this state and T cell exhaustion during chronic infections are unknown. In this study, we show that PD-1 operates in a cell-intrinsic manner to impair lung TCD8. In light of this, we compared global gene expression profiles of impaired epitope-specific lung TCD8 to functional spleen TCD8 in the same human metapneumovirus-infected mice. These two populations differentially regulate hundreds of genes, including the upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors by lung TCD8. We then compared the gene expression of TCD8 during human metapneumovirus infection to those in acute or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We find that the immunophenotype of lung TCD8 more closely resembles T cell exhaustion late into chronic infection than do functional effector T cells arising early in acute infection. Finally, we demonstrate that trafficking to the infected lung alone is insufficient for TCD8 impairment or inhibitory receptor upregulation, but that viral Ag-induced TCR signaling is also required. Our results indicate that viral Ag in infected lungs rapidly induces an exhaustion-like state in lung TCD8 characterized by progressive functional impairment and upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
Chicaiza-Ayala, Wilson; Henríquez-Trujillo, Aquiles R; Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Douce, Richard W; Coral-Almeida, Marco
Burden of disease studies intend to improve public health decision-making and to measure social and economic impact in population. The objective of this study was to describe the burden of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Ecuador between 2011 and 2015. Five-year period morbidity and mortality data available from national agencies of statistics was analyzed to estimate the burden of disease attributable to acute respiratory infections. Cases and deaths registered were grouped according to their ICD-10 code into three diagnostic groups: Acute upper respiratory infections (J00-J06), Influenza and pneumonia (J09-J18), and Bronchitis and other acute lower respiratory infections (J20-J22, J85, J86). Disability-adjusted life years stratified by diagnostic and age group were calculated using the "DALY" package for R. The productivity loss in monetary terms was estimated using the human capital method. Over the 5-year period studied there were a total of 14.84 million cases of acute respiratory infections, with 17 757 deaths reported (0.12%). The yearly burden of disease ranged between 98 944 to 118 651 disability-adjusted life years, with an estimated average loss of productivity of US$152.16 million (±19.6) per year. Approximately 99% of the burden can be attributed to years life lost due to premature mortality in population under 5 years old and over 60 years-old. The burden of acute respiratory infections remained steady during the analyzed period. Evidence-based prevention and control policies to tackle acute respiratory infections in Ecuador should focus on the population at extreme ages of life.
Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is an acute lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and seen most commonly in children and young adults. Clinical presentation of the disease is characterized by fever, tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly, whereas serological findings of this benign disorder include positive heterophilic antibody formation (transient increase in heterophilic antibodies and prominence of hematological lymphocytosis of more than 10% of atypical lymphocytes. An EBV infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood, but acute kidney injury can be a rare complication during its course. Most cases recover from the disease completely. Early recognition of EBV infection and estimation of its complication are important for its prognosis. In light of previous literature, we discuss the case evaluated as an EBV infection complicated by acute kidney injury in early childhood and results of tubulointerstitial nephritis shown on a renal biopsy that was later diagnosed as an EBV infection by serological examination.
Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida
In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available The prevalence rate of atopic asthma in children remains high. One of the reasons for lack of control over asthma symptoms is repeated infection. The article describes results from the study of immunomodulating medication inosine pranobex used in treatment of acute respiratory infections in children with atopic asthma. The results obtained prove the efficacy and safety of this medication. The use of this immunomodifier with antiviral activity during the period of acute respiratory infection in children with atopic asthma contributes to shortening of intoxication and catarrhal signs duration, elimination of viral agents. Key words: asthma, acute respiratory infections, immunomodifiers, inosine pranobex, children. (Pediatric Pharmacology. – 2010; 7(3:98-105
Fuke, Toshiya; Abe, Yoshifusa; Hoshino, Akihiro; Oto, Hideyasu; Sakai, Naho; Murayama, Junichiro; Yoshida, Koichiro; Itabashi, Kazuo
Acute upper urinary tract infection may cause sepsis, especially in neonates and infants, mandating the choice of appropriate, effective antibacterials minimizing increasing bacterial resistance. Frequently prescribing broad-spectrum cephalosporinin is one such example. Different antibacterial therapies are initiated clinically due to treatment protocol differences among institutions, disease severity, etc. We studied the efficacy of cefazolin (CEZ), a first-generation cephalosporin, as first-line parenteral treatment in acute upper urinary tract infection. We found that 88.9% of microbial infections have indications for CEZ. CEZ efficacy is 91.3%, and 97.2% of urine cultures show negative results. Escherichia coli sensitivity to antibacterial agents is 90.9% of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) pediatric therapy in acute upper urinary tract infection.
OMP) as an adhesion factor and examine its ability to cross-react with the OMPs of other Shigella species. Methods: OMP was isolated from the bacterium S. flexneri after shaving the pili using a pili bacterial cutter in a solution of 0.5 ...
Steve E Bellan
Full Text Available The infectivity of the HIV-1 acute phase has been directly measured only once, from a retrospectively identified cohort of serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Rakai, Uganda. Analyses of this cohort underlie the widespread view that the acute phase is highly infectious, even more so than would be predicted from its elevated viral load, and that transmission occurring shortly after infection may therefore compromise interventions that rely on diagnosis and treatment, such as antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP. Here, we re-estimate the duration and relative infectivity of the acute phase, while accounting for several possible sources of bias in published estimates, including the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and unmeasured heterogeneity in risk.We estimated acute phase infectivity using two approaches. First, we combined viral load trajectories and viral load-infectivity relationships to estimate infectivity trajectories over the course of infection, under the assumption that elevated acute phase infectivity is caused by elevated viral load alone. Second, we estimated the relative hazard of transmission during the acute phase versus the chronic phase (RHacute and the acute phase duration (dacute by fitting a couples transmission model to the Rakai retrospective cohort using approximate Bayesian computation. Our model fit the data well and accounted for characteristics overlooked by previous analyses, including individual heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility and the retrospective cohort's exclusion of couples that were recorded as serodiscordant only once before being censored by loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. Finally, we replicated two highly cited analyses of the Rakai data on simulated data to identify biases underlying the discrepancies between previous estimates and our own. From the Rakai data, we estimated RHacute = 5.3 (95% credibility interval [95% CrI]: 0.79-57 and dacute
Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok
The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rodríguez Bandera, A I; Mayor Arenal, M; Vorlicka, K; Ruiz Bravo-Burguilllos, E; Montero Vega, D; Vidaurrázaga Díaz-Arcaya, C
Our aim was to describe the epidemiologic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of acute parvovirus B19 infection in adults. This study describes all cases of acute parvovirus B19 infection in patients older than 18 years of age who were treated at Hospital Universitario La Paz in Madrid, Spain, in 2012. Forty-nine adults were treated for acute parvovirus B19 infection. Most were young women who were infected in the spring or early summer. In over half the cases skin lesions were key diagnostic signs.We saw the full range of types of rash of purplish exanthems that were fairly generalized; vasculitis was relatively common (in >18%). Mild or moderate abnormalities in blood counts and indicators of liver dysfunction resolved spontaneously in all but 2 immunocompromised patients, who developed chronic anemia. This is the largest case series of acute parvovirus B19 infection published to date. This infection should be suspected on observing signs of purplish skin rashes, no matter the location or pattern of distribution, or vasculitis, especially if accompanied by fever and joint pain in young women in the spring. Measures to avoid infection should be recommended to individuals at risk. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.
Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo
There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Henriquez, Kelsey M; Hayney, Mary S; Xie, Yaoguo; Zhang, Zhengjun; Barrett, Bruce
Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL-8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of the illness episode using the well-validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Global symptom severity was calculated by the area under the curve (AUC) plotting duration versus WURSS total. Of the specimens tested, 56% were positively identified for one or more of nine different respiratory viruses. During acute respiratory infection illness, both IL-8 and neutrophils positively correlate with AUC (r(s) = 0.082, P = 0.022; r(s) = 0.080, P = 0.030). IL-8 and neutrophils correlate with nasal symptom severity: runny nose (r = 0.13, P = acute respiratory infection. Further research is necessary to determine if the concentration of these or other biomarkers can predict the overall duration and severity of acute respiratory infection illness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Sahl, Jason W; Morris, Carolyn R; Emberger, Jennifer; Fraser, Claire M; Ochieng, John Benjamin; Juma, Jane; Fields, Barry; Breiman, Robert F; Gilmour, Matthew; Nataro, James P; Rasko, David A
Shigellae cause significant diarrheal disease and mortality in humans, as there are approximately 163 million episodes of shigellosis and 1.1 million deaths annually. While significant strides have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, few studies on the genomic content of the Shigella species have been completed. The goal of this study was to characterize the genomic diversity of Shigella species through sequencing of 55 isolates representing members of each of the four Shigella species: S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii, and S. dysenteriae. Phylogeny inferred from 336 available Shigella and Escherichia coli genomes defined exclusive clades of Shigella; conserved genomic markers that can identify each clade were then identified. PCR assays were developed for each clade-specific marker, which was combined with an amplicon for the conserved Shigella invasion antigen, IpaH3, into a multiplex PCR assay. This assay demonstrated high specificity, correctly identifying 218 of 221 presumptive Shigella isolates, and sensitivity, by not identifying any of 151 diverse E. coli isolates incorrectly as Shigella. This new phylogenomics-based PCR assay represents a valuable tool for rapid typing of uncharacterized Shigella isolates and provides a framework that can be utilized for the identification of novel genomic markers from genomic data. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Bing; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Zhao, Xin; Zhong, Li-Li; Zhou, Qiong-Hua; Hou, Yun-De; Duan, Zhao-Jun
The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human coronavirus NL63 infection in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in Changsha. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) samples were collected from 1185 hospitalized children with ALRTI at the People's Hospital of Hunan province, between September 2008 and October 2010. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to screen for coronavirus NL63, which is a 255 bp fragment of a part of N gene. All positive amplification products were confirmed by sequencing and compared with those in GenBank. The overall frequency of coronavirus NL63 infection was 0.8%, 6 (60%) out of the coronavirus NL63 positive patients were detected in summer, 2 in autumn, 1 in spring and winter, respectively. The patients were from 2 months to two and a half years old. The clinical diagnosis was bronchopneumonia (60%), bronchiolitis (30%), and acute laryngotracheal bronchitis (10%). Four of the 10 cases had critical illness, 4 cases had underlying diseases, and 7 cases had mixed infection with other viruses. The homogeneity of coronavirus NL63 with those published in the GenBank at nucleotide levels was 97%-100%. Coronavirus NL63 infection exists in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 infections are common in children under 3 years of age. There is significant difference in the infection rate between the boys and the girls: the boys had higher rate than the girls. The peak of prevalence of the coronavirus NL63 was in summer. A single genetic lineage of coronavirus NL63 was revealed in human subjects in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 may also be one of the lower respiratory pathogen in China.
Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.
The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... locations of the infected lung (necrotic areas, areas bordering on necrotic areas, and from visually unaffected areas). Expression differences was also studied in the liver and in peripheral lymphoid tissue (tracheobronchial lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils) of infected (n=10) and non-infected (n=5) pigs using......-phase proteins was found 14-18h after experimental infection with A. pleuropneumoniae. This firmly establishes that expression of APPs is widely disseminated, involving changes in the expression of APPs at a dynamic scale comparable to the hepatic response. These results suggest that many different cell...
Zhu, Teng; Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Wo, Ying; Zhuang, Lu; Zhang, Pan-He; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wei, Wei; Liu, Wei
To explore the molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) infection in pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections in China. A laboratory surveillance was performed to recruit pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections. WUPyV was detected using real-time PCR and complete genome was sequenced for randomly selected positive nasopharyngeal aspirate. Altogether 122 (7.5%) of 1617 children found to be infected with WUPyV and 88 (72.1%) were coinfected with other viruses during 2012-2015. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 strains from our study formed two new clusters (Id and IIIc) within the Branch I and Branch III, respectively. WUPyV is persistently circulating in China. Surveillance on WUPyV infection in wider areas and long persistence is warranted.
Harbarth; Meyer; Grau; Loutan; Ricou
Incidence of falciparum malaria in developed countries has increased in recent years due to tourism to tropical countries and immigration from Asia and Africa. In Switzerland, about 250 cases of malaria were reported in 1994 to the Federal Office of Health, including three cases with fatal outcome.1 The most commonly described complications of plasmodia infection are cerebral malaria, acute renal failure, and severe anemia with disseminated intravascular coagulation. However, pulmonary involvement occurs in 3 to 10% of cases and represents the most serious complication of this infection, with a lethality of 70%.2,3 Furthermore, a pronounced general immunosuppression has been reported in malaria patients, which may predispose them to opportunistic infections.4 We report a case of Plasmodium falciparum infection complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) with development of systemic cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection leading to death. This evolution implies a severe immune deficiency associated with malaria, as previously suggested in the literature.
National HIV prevention programs in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana must effectively address the infection rate among childbearing women during pregnancy and the postpartum period. This project aims to determine the incidence of HIV infection among pregnant and postpartum women. Researchers from the Botswana ...
Billerbeck, Eva; Wolfisberg, Raphael; Fahnøe, Ulrik
An estimated 71 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of small-animal models has impeded studies of antiviral immune mechanisms. Here we show that an HCV-related hepacivirus discovered in Norway rats can establish high-titer hepatotropic infections in labora...
Warren‐Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C.
Please cite this paper as: Warren‐Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low‐quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower–middle‐income setting. There was high‐quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high‐quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low‐income setting. There was moderate‐ to high‐quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518
Bernard, Abram R; Duarte, Shari M; Kumar, Prashant; Dickenson, Nicholas E
Shigella rely on a type III secretion system as the primary virulence factor for invasion and colonization of human hosts. Although there are an estimated 90 million Shigella infections, annually responsible for more than 100,000 deaths worldwide, challenges isolating and stabilizing many type III secretion system proteins have prevented a full understanding of the Shigella invasion mechanism and additionally slowed progress toward a much needed Shigella vaccine. Here, we show that the non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent N, N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) and non-ionic detergent n-octyl-oligo-oxyethylene efficiently isolated the hydrophobic Shigella translocator protein IpaC from the co-purified IpaC/IpgC chaperone-bound complex. Both detergents resulted in monomeric IpaC that exhibits strong membrane binding and lysis characteristics while the chaperone-bound complex does not, suggesting that the stabilizing detergents provide a means of following IpaC "activation" in vitro. Additionally, biophysical characterization found that LDAO provides significant thermal and temporal stability to IpaC, protecting it for several days at room temperature and brief exposure to temperatures reaching 90°C. In summary, this work identified and characterized conditions that provide stable, membrane active IpaC, providing insight into key interactions with membranes and laying a strong foundation for future vaccine formulation studies taking advantage of the native immunogenicity of IpaC and the stability provided by LDAO. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Martínez, Pamela; Cordero, Jaime; Valverde, Cristián; Unanue, Nancy; Dalmazzo, Roberto; Piemonte, Paula; Vergara, Ivonne; Torres, Juan P
Respiratory viruses are the leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children. It has been reported that viral respiratory co-infection could be associated with severe clinical course. To describe the frequency of viral co-infection in children admitted for AlRI and evaluate whether this co-infection was associated with more severe clinical course. Prospective, descriptive study in pediatric patients who were hospitalized for ARI, with molecular detection of at least 1 respiratory virus in nasopharyngeal sample studied by PCR-Microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. 110 out of 147 patients with detection of > 1 respiratory virus were included. Viral co-infection was detected in 41/110 (37%). 22/110 children (20%) were classified as moderate to severe clinical course and 88/110 (80%) were classified as mild clinical course. In the group of moderate to severe clinical course, viral respiratory co-infection was detected in 6/22 (27.3%), compared to 35/88 (39.8 %) in the mild clinical course group. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the presence of co-infection between groups (p = 0.33). We detected high rates of viral co-infection in children with ARI. It was not possible to demonstrate that viral co-infections were related with severe clinical course in hospitalized children.
Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.
Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection
Alexander A. Baranov
Full Text Available The article is devoted to acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in children. ARVI take one of the leading places in a childhood morbidity structure. The article provides an overview of the clinical guidelines developed and approved by the professional association «Union of Pediatricians of Russia» for acute respiratory infections in children. These guidelines summarize the experience of the leading world and domestic specialists, contain scientific and practical data that correspond to the most relevant trends in the management of children with this pathology. The authors present modern information on the etiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinical findings and differential diagnosis of various nosological forms of acute respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The general (strategic principles of drug-free and drug treatment are discussed in detail.
Mumy, Karen L.; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciarán P.; McCormick, Beth A.
Saccharomyces boulardii is gaining in popularity as a treatment for a variety of diarrheal diseases as well as inflammatory bowel disease. This study was designed to examine the effect of this yeast on infection by Shigella flexneri, a highly infectious and human host-adapted enteric pathogen. We investigated key interactions between the bacteria and host cells in the presence of the yeast in addition to a number of host responses including proinflammatory events and markers. Although the presence of the yeast during infection did not alter the number of bacteria that was able to attach or invade human colon cancer-derived T-84 cells, it did positively impact the tight junction protein zonula occluden-2 and significantly increase the barrier integrity of model epithelia. The yeast also decreased ERK, JNK, and NF-κB activation in response to S. flexneri, events likely responsible for the observed reductions in IL-8 secretion and the transepithelial migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes across T-84 monolayers. These results, suggesting that the yeast allowed for a dampened inflammatory response, were confirmed in vivo utilizing a highly relevant model of human fetal colonic tissue transplanted into scid mice. Furthermore, a cell-free S. boulardii culture supernatant was also capable of reducing IL-8 secretion by infected T-84 cells. These data suggest that although the use of S. boulardii during infection with S. flexneri may alleviate symptoms associated with the inflammatory response of the host, it would not prevent infection. PMID:18032477
Ruane, Lorcan; Buckley, Thomas; Hoo, Soon Y S; Hansen, Peter S; McCormack, Catherine; Shaw, Elizabeth; Fethney, Judith; Tofler, Geoffrey H
Respiratory infection has been associated with an increased short-term risk of myocardial infarction (MI). However, previous studies have predominantly been conducted without angiographic confirmation of MI. The possibility can therefore not be excluded that raised troponin levels or electrocardiogram abnormalities that may be seen with respiratory infections are due to non-ischaemic causes. To investigate the association between respiratory infection and angiographically confirmed MI. Interviews were conducted within 4 days of hospitalisation in 578 patients with angiographically confirmed MI, to assess for recent exposure to respiratory infection symptoms and the usual annual frequency of these symptoms. Using case-crossover methodology, exposure to respiratory infection prior to the onset of MI was compared against the usual frequency of exposure in the past year. Symptoms of respiratory infection were reported by 100 (17%) and 123 (21%) within 7 and 35 days, respectively, prior to MI. The relative risk (RR) for MI occurring within 1-7 days after respiratory infection symptoms was 17.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) 13.2-21.8), and declined with subsequent time periods. In a subgroup analysis, the RR tended to be lower in groups taking regular cardiac medications. For those who reported milder, upper respiratory tract infection symptoms, the RR for the 1-7-day time period was 13.5 (95% CI 10.2-17.7). These findings confirm that respiratory infection can trigger MI. Further study is indicated to identify treatment strategies to decrease this risk, particularly in individuals who may have increased susceptibility. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Full Text Available A tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. In this model tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. To evaluate whether Shigella-induced removal of macrophages may be sufficient for achieving tumor regression we have developed an attenuated strain of S. flexneri (M90TDeltaaroA and infected tumor bearing mice. Two mouse models were employed, xenotransplantation of a murine breast cancer cell line and spontanous breast cancer development in MMTV-HER2 transgenic mice. Quantitative analysis of bacterial tumor targeting demonstrated that attenuated, invasive Shigella flexneri primarily infected TAMs after systemic administration. A single i.v. injection of invasive M90TDeltaaroA resulted in caspase-1 dependent apoptosis of TAMs followed by a 74% reduction in tumors of transgenic MMTV-HER-2 mice 7 days post infection. TAM depletion was sustained and associated with complete tumor regression.These data support TAMs as useful targets for antitumor therapy and highlight attenuated bacterial pathogens as potential tools.
Dec 31, 2011 ... HIV with acute watery diarrhea as a clinical manifesta- tion.5,6,9,10 This study therefore attempts to find out the prevalence of HIV among children admitted into the. Diarrhoea Treatment and Training Unit of the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. This study will help in identifying ...
Full Text Available Previous studies have discovered a lot of immune-related genes responding to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV infection in crustacean. However, little information is available in relation to underlying mechanisms of host responses during the WSSV acute infection stage in naturally infected shrimp. In this study, we employed next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic techniques to observe the transcriptome differences of the shrimp between latent infection stage and acute infection stage. A total of 64,188,426 Illumina reads, including 31,685,758 reads from the latent infection group and 32,502,668 reads from the acute infection group, were generated and assembled into 46,676 unigenes (mean length: 676 bp; range: 200-15,094 bp. Approximately 24,000 peptides were predicted and classified based on homology searches, gene ontology, clusters of orthologous groups of proteins, and biological pathway mapping. Among which, 805 differentially expressed genes were identified and categorized into 11 groups based on their possible function. Genes in the Toll and IMD pathways, the Ras-activated endocytosis process, the RNA interference pathway, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and many other genes, were found to be activated in shrimp from latent infection stage to acute infection stage. The anti-bacterially proPO-activating cascade was firstly uncovered to be probably participated in antiviral process. These genes contain not only members playing function in host defense against WSSV, but also genes utilized by WSSV for its rapid proliferation. In addition, the transcriptome data provides detail information for identifying novel genes in absence of the genome database of shrimp.
Full Text Available Cellular immune responses during acute Hepatitis C virus (HCV and HIV infection are a known correlate of infection outcome. Viral adaptation to these responses via mutation(s within CD8+ T-cell epitopes allows these viruses to subvert host immune control. This study examined HCV evolution in 21 HCV genotype 1-infected subjects to characterise the level of viral adaptation during acute and early HCV infection. Of the total mutations observed 25% were within described CD8+ T-cell epitopes or at viral adaptation sites. Most mutations were maintained into the chronic phase of HCV infection (75%. The lack of reversion of adaptations and high proportion of silent substitutions suggests that HCV has structural and functional limitations that constrain evolution. These results were compared to the pattern of viral evolution observed in 98 subjects during a similar phase in HIV infection from a previous study. In contrast to HCV, evolution during acute HIV infection is marked by high levels of amino acid change relative to silent substitutions, including a higher proportion of adaptations, likely reflecting strong and continued CD8+ T-cell pressure combined with greater plasticity of the virus. Understanding viral escape dynamics for these two viruses is important for effective T cell vaccine design.
Conclusion: Early surgical intervention for IE with ischemic stroke may prevent adverse events, particularly in patients with impaired renal function, diabetes, or staphylococcal infection. A delay in operation of > 30 days is recommended after hemorrhagic stroke.
Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of mortality in developing and industrial countries. Recently the involvement of infectious agents as a risk factor for Acute Coronary syndrome is drafted. So this study was designed to investigate the probable association between Acute Coronary syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection. Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 300 hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of Acute Coronary syndrome (UA and MI and 300 hospitalized patients without the history of coronary heart disease. Anti Helicobacter pylori Antibody level was determined by as an indicator of infection history. Using chi-square and t- test the results were analyzed in SPSS software. Results: Results showed that 79 patients (26.3% in control group and 122 patients (40.6% in case group were seropositive and the difference was significant. Relationship between cronory diseases risk factors and levels of IgG was not significant. Also the results showed that the rate of hypertension in seropositive patients in case group was significantly upper than control group. Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study we can conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection probably is a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome. Thus, further studies are needed to elucidate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Infection aiguë et précoce par le VIH-1 chez les femmes durant la grossesse et la période post-partum en Tanzanie, en Zambie et au Botswana. Les programmes nationaux de prévention du VIH en Tanzanie, en Zambie et au Botswana doivent s'attaquer de manière efficace au taux d'infection des femmes durant la ...
René Simavé Dembele, Elisa Huovinen, Denis Yelbéogo, Markku Kuusi, Guétawendé Sawadogo, Kaisa Haukka, Isidore Bonkoungou, Anja Siitonen, Alfred S. Traoré
Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal infections are one of the major health problems in developing countries. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Methods: A door-to-door survey of selected residents in Ouagadougou city was conducted. Of the Ouagadougou’s 30 districts, nine most populated ones were selected to the study. The residents of these districts have middle incomes as those of the secondary cite of Burkina Faso. Results: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in the 30 days prior to the interview was 77/491 (15.7%: among children 44/223 (19.7% and among adults 33/268 (12.3%. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were the most common symptoms among 33 adult cases while diarrhea and vomiting were the most common among children. None of the cases were hospitalized and a stool sample was taken in three of 77 cases. Medication for gastrointestinal infections was received by 55% percent of adults and 77% of children. Conclusions: Our results shown that antibiotics with and without prescription were the most common medicine used. Washing hands before meals and boiling milk before drinking had a protective effect against gastrointestinal infections. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 45-52
Full Text Available A problem of etiology and pathogenesis of acute respiratory infections in children are observed in this article. Modern approach to management of its treatment in pediatric patients, including often ailing children, is described. Authors give characteristics to main directions of treatment of obstructive syndrome. An experience of anti-inflammatory therapy with fenspiride (eurespal in children of different age is summa ized in this article.Key words: often ailing children, acute respiratory infections, bronchoobstructive syndrome, anti-inflammatory treatment, fenspiride.
Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars; Arpi, Magnus
Objective: To develop quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections, tailored to the Danish general practice setting. Design: A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used. Setting: General practice. Subjects: A panel of nine experts, mainly...... general practitioners, was asked to rate the relevance of 64 quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections based on guidelines. Subsequently, a face-to-face meeting was held to resolve misinterpretations and to achieve consensus. Main outcome measures...
Leon, Luciane Almeida Amado; Alves, Arthur Daniel Rocha; Garcia, Rita de Cássia Nasser Cubel; Melgaço, Juliana Gil; de Paula, Vanessa Salete; Pinto, Marcelo Alves
B19V has been proposed as an etiologic agent for hepatitis, mainly in children, but this is a rare clinical occurrence. In this article, we report a case of non-A-E acute liver failure in an immunocompetent child with B19 infection. The clinical findings of severe anemia and pancytopenia combined with the detection of anti-B19 Immunoglobulin G (IgG), B19 DNA and B19 mRNA in liver indicate a persistent infection and suggest a diagnosis of parvovirus B19-associated acute liver failure.
Kwofie, Theophilus B; Anane, Yaw A; Nkrumah, Bernard; Annan, Augustina; Nguah, Samuel B; Owusu, Michael
Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2%) were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3%) patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV) in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%), Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3) in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8%) and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3). Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36) of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.
Kwofie Theophilus B
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.
Full Text Available The genome of Shigella, a gram negative bacterium which is the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, shares strong homologies with that of its commensal ancestor, Escherichia coli. The acquisition, by lateral gene transfer, of a large plasmid carrying virulence determinants has been a crucial event in the evolution towards the pathogenic lifestyle and has been paralleled by the occurrence of mutations affecting genes, which negatively interfere with the expression of virulence factors. In this context, we have analysed to what extent the presence of the plasmid-encoded virF gene, the major activator of the Shigella regulon for invasive phenotype, has modified the transcriptional profile of E. coli. Combining results from transcriptome assays and comparative genome analyses we show that in E. coli VirF, besides being able to up-regulate several chromosomal genes, which potentially influence bacterial fitness within the host, also activates genes which have been lost by Shigella. We have focused our attention on the speG gene, which encodes spermidine acetyltransferase, an enzyme catalysing the conversion of spermidine into the physiologically inert acetylspermidine, since recent evidence stresses the involvement of polyamines in microbial pathogenesis. Through identification of diverse mutations, which prevent expression of a functional SpeG protein, we show that the speG gene has been silenced by convergent evolution and that its inactivation causes the marked increase of intracellular spermidine in all Shigella spp. This enhances the survival of Shigella under oxidative stress and allows it to better face the adverse conditions it encounters inside macrophage. This is supported by the outcome of infection assays performed in mouse peritoneal macrophages and of a competitive-infection assay on J774 macrophage cell culture. Our observations fully support the pathoadaptive nature of speG inactivation in Shigella and reveal that the accumulation
Hulme, Katrin; Hudson, Joanna L; Rojczyk, Philine; Little, Paul; Moss-Morris, Rona
Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating symptom, preceded by an acute infectious episode in some patients. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors for the development of persistent fatigue after an acute infection, to develop an evidence-based working model of post-infectious fatigue. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE) were searched, from inception to March 2016, for studies which investigated biopsychosocial risk factors of on-going fatigue after an acute infection. Inclusion criteria were: prospective design; biological, psychological or social risk factors; standardised measure of post-infectious fatigue (self-report scales or clinical diagnosis). Studies were excluded if the sample had a pre-existing medical condition, infection was conceptualised as 'vaccination' or they were intervention trials. A narrative synthesis was performed. Eighty-one full texts were screened, of which seventeen were included in the review. Over half included glandular fever populations. Other infections included dengue fever, 'general'/'viral' and Q-fever. Risk factors were summarised under biological, social, behavioural, cognitive and emotional subthemes. Patients' cognitive and behavioural responses to the acute illness, and pre-infection or baseline distress and fatigue were the most consistent risk factors for post-infectious fatigue. An empirical summary model is provided, highlighting the risk factors most consistently associated with persistent fatigue. The components of the model, the possible interaction of risk factors and implications for understanding the fatigue trajectory and informing preventative treatments are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Mitobe, Jiro; Sinha, Ritam; Mitra, Soma; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Saito, Noriko; Shimuta, Ken; Koizumi, Nobuo; Koley, Hemanta
Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.
Lewis, M A; Meechan, C; MacFarlane, T W; Lamey, P J; Kay, E
Information on the presentation of orofacial infections and the use of antimicrobial agents in general dental practice in the United Kingdom was obtained using a postal questionnaire. Six hundred dentists were randomly selected and a total of 340 replies were received, giving a response rate of 57%. The dental practitioners estimated that acute infection was present in only a minority (approximately 5%) of patients. A total of seven different antibiotics were prescribed, in a variety of regimens, for the treatment of bacterial infection. However, the majority of dentists (46-62%) preferred a 5-day course of penicillin (250 mg, qid) for bacterial conditions other than acute ulcerative gingivitis, for which most practitioners (89%) prescribed 3 days of metronidazole (200 mg, tid). Nystatin was the most frequently selected anticandidal agent and topical acyclovir the most popular therapy for Herpes simplex infection.
Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese
This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...
Anderson, Deverick J.; Podgorny, Kelly; Berríos-Torres, Sandra I.; Bratzler, Dale W.; Dellinger, E. Patchen; Greene, Linda; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Saiman, Lisa; Yokoe, Deborah S.; Maragakis, Lisa L.; Kaye, Keith S.
PURPOSE Previously published guidelines are available that provide comprehensive recommendations for detecting and preventing healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). The intent of this document is to highlight practical recommendations in a concise format designed to assist acute care hospitals in implementing and prioritizing their surgical site infection (SSI) prevention efforts. This document updates “Strategies to Prevent Surgical Site Infections in Acute Care Hospitals,”1 published in 2008. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise. The list of endorsing and supporting organizations is presented in the introduction to the 2014 updates.2 PMID:24799638
Cakirca, Mustafa; Karatoprak, Cumali; Ugurlu, Serdal; Zorlu, Mehmet; Kıskaç, Muharrem; Çetin, Güven
Parvovirus B19 infection is often asymptomatic, but clinical expressions may include transient aplastic crisis, erythema infectiosum, non-immune hydrops fetalis, and chronic red cell aplasia. This virus has also been associated with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune connective tissue diseases; however, we could not identify any acute adult myositis case developed after a Parvovirus B19 infection in the literature. For this reason, we would like to present a rare case of acute myositis developed after Parvovirus B19 infection. In patients presenting with symptoms of fever, rash on the legs and myositis, viral infections such as Parvovirus B19 should be kept in mind. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Gray, Miranda D.; Lacher, David W.; Leonard, Susan R.; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; Lampel, Keith A.; Prothery, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Weill, François-Xavier; Maurelli, Anthony T.
Shiga toxins are potent cytotoxins that inhibit host cell protein synthesis, leading to cell death. Classically, these toxins are associated with intestinal infections due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and infections with these strains can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Over the past decade there is increasing recognition that Shiga toxin is produced by additional Shigella species. We recently reported the presence and expression of stx genes in Shigella flexneri 2a clinical isolates. The toxin genes were carried by a new stx-encoding bacteriophage and infection with these strains correlated with recent travel to Haiti or the Dominican Republic. In this study we further explored the epidemiological link to this region by utilizing the French National Reference Center for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella collection to survey the frequency of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French travelers returning from the Caribbean. About 21% of the isolates tested were found to encode and produce Stx. These isolates included strains of S. flexneri 2a, S. flexneri Y, and S. dysenteriae 4. All of the travelers whom were infected with Stx-producing Shigella had recently traveled to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, or French Guiana. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing found that the toxin genes were encoded by a prophage that was highly identical to the phage we identified in our previous study. These findings demonstrate that this new stx-encoding prophage is circulating within that geographical area, has spread to other continents, and is capable of spreading to multiple Shigella serogroups. PMID:25980352
Full Text Available infection does not always result in AE. The risk factors for developing infantile AE upon such infection remain to be determined. Here we report an infant with AE coinfected with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6 and three picornaviruses: coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6, enterovirus D68 (EV-D68, and human parechovirus (HPeV. EV-D68 was vertically transmitted to the infant from his mother. CVA6 and HPeV were likely transmitted to the infant at the nursery school. HHV-6 might have been re-activated in the patient. It remains undetermined which pathogen played the central role in the AE pathogenesis. However, active, simultaneous infection by four viruses likely evoke a cytokine storm, leading to the pathogenesis of AE. Conclusion: Infant cases with active quadruple infection by potentially AE-causing viruses have seldom been reported, partly because systematic nucleic acid-based laboratory tests on picornaviruses are not common. We propose that simultaneous viral infection may serve as a risk factor for the development of AE.
Sharada Raju, Rane; Nalini Vinayak, Kadgi; Madhusudan Bapat, Vishnuprasad; Preeti Balkisanji, Agrawal; Shaila Chandrakant, Puranik
Human parvovirus B19 is highly tropic to human bone marrow and replicates only in erythroid progenitor cells. It is causative agent of transient aplastic crisis in patients with chronic haemolytic anemia. In immunocompromised patients persistent parvovirus B19 infection may develop and it manifests as pure red cell aplasia and chronic anaemia. Bone marrow is characterised morphologically by giant pronormoblast stage with little or no further maturation. We encountered a case of 6 year old HIV positive male child presented with pure red cell aplasia due to parvovirus B19 infection. Bone marrow aspiration cytology revealed giant pronormoblast with prominent intranuclear inclusions led to suspicion of parvovirus B19 infection which was confirmed by DNA PCR. This case is presented to report classical morphological features of parvovirus B19 infection rarely seen on bone marrow examination should warrant the suspicion of human parvovirus B19 infection in the setting of HIV positive patient with repeated transfusions and confirmation should be done by PCR.
Full Text Available Varied clinical presentations of Penicillium marneffei , an opportunistic pathogen in HIV disease has been rarely described in literature. We report a patient with advanced AIDS who presented to us with prolonged fever and had features of an acute abdomen. On radiologic imaging he had features of intestinal obstruction and mesenteric lymphadenitis. A diagnosis was made possible by endoscopic biopsies of the small bowel and bone marrow culture which grew P . Marneffei . He was treated with intravenous amphotericin for 2 weeks followed by oral itraconazole. This case is reported for its rarity and unusual presentation and to sensitise clinicians and microbiologists to consider this as an aetiology in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS who present with acute abdomen, more so in patients from a distinct geographic region - South-East Asia
George, I A; Sudarsanam, T D; Pulimood, A B; Mathews, M S
Varied clinical presentations of Penicillium marneffei, an opportunistic pathogen in HIV disease has been rarely described in literature. We report a patient with advanced AIDS who presented to us with prolonged fever and had features of an acute abdomen. On radiologic imaging he had features of intestinal obstruction and mesenteric lymphadenitis. A diagnosis was made possible by endoscopic biopsies of the small bowel and bone marrow culture which grew P. Marneffei. He was treated with intravenous amphotericin for 2 weeks followed by oral itraconazole. This case is reported for its rarity and unusual presentation and to sensitise clinicians and microbiologists to consider this as an aetiology in patients with advanced HIV/AIDS who present with acute abdomen, more so in patients from a distinct geographic region--South-East Asia.
E. E. Lokshina; O. V. Kravchenko; O. V. Zaytseva
Respiratory infections are frequent in children; consequently evaluation of prophylactic effectiveness of immunomodulators is needed. Objective: to evaluate of clinical, immunological efficacy and safety of pidotimod in complex treatment of children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and obstructive syndrome. Methods: patients 3–10 years old hospitalized with ARI and obstructive syndrome participated the study. Children from first group (n = 30) were treated with pidotimod 400 mg 2 times...
Hilburn, Jessica; Hammond, Brian S; Fendler, Eleanor J; Groziak, Patricia A
Nosocomial infections are a major problem in health care facilities, resulting in extended durations of care, substantial morbidity and mortality, and excess costs. Since alcohol gel hand sanitizers combine high immediate antimicrobial efficacy with ease of use, this study was carried out to determine the effect of the use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer by caregivers on infection types and rates in an acute care facility. Patients were educated about the study through a poster on the unit, and teachable patients were given portable bottles of the alcohol hand gel for bedside use, along with an educational brochure explaining how and why to practice good hand hygiene. Infection rate and type data were collected in 1 unit of a 498-bed acute care facility for 16 months (February 2000 to May 2001). An alcohol gel hand sanitizer was provided and used by caregivers in the orthopedic surgical unit of the facility during this period. The primary infection types (more than 80%) found were urinary tract (UTI) and surgical site (SSI) infections. Infection types and rates for the unit during the period the alcohol hand sanitizer (intervention) was used were compared with the infection types and rates for the same unit when the alcohol hand sanitizer was not used (baseline); the results demonstrated a 36.1% decrease in infection rates for the 10-month period that the hand sanitizer was used. This study indicates that use of an alcohol gel hand sanitizer can decrease infection rates and provide an additional tool for an effective infection control program in acute care facilities.
Keskin, Kudret; Çetinkal, Gökhan; Sığırcı, Serhat; Yıldız, Süleyman Sezai; Çetin, Şükrü; Gürdal, Ahmet; Kocaş, Betül Balaban; Kılıçkesmez, Kadriye Orta
The prevalence of coronary artery disease is on the rise as the life expectancy of the population increases. However, treatment of acute coronary syndrome in the elderly patients has its own problems that have not been thoroughly addressed in the clinical trials. Since these patients are generally fragile and have multiple co-morbidities, the course of acute coronary syndrome can frequently be complicated. Infection, which co-exists either at the initial presentation or is acquired during the hospital stay, is a condition about which there is little published data. Therefore, in our study, we wanted to assess the impact of infection on mortality in octogenarians who have acute coronary syndrome METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the data of 174 octogenarians who had been admitted to the coronary care unit with acute coronary syndrome. All-cause mortality was defined as the primary endpoint of the study. Overall 53 octogenarian patients (30.5%) had an infection along with acute coronary syndrome. The mean duration of follow-up was 10 months (1-25 months). Both in-hospital and long-term mortality were higher in these patients (18.9% vs 6.6%, p = 0.01; 52.8% vs 27.5%, p < 0.01; respectively). Kaplan-Meier analysis also showed lower cumulative survival. (p [log-rank] = 0.002). In multivariate Cox regression analysis; undergoing coronary angiography, infection (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.15-3.34, p = 0.01), left ventricular ejection fraction and maximum C reactive protein levels were found as independent predictors of long-term survival. Infection in octogenarians who were admitted due to acute coronary syndrome was frequent and increased their mortality substantially. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
L. V. Osidak
Full Text Available Thearticle presents the results of years of studies (including biochemical and immunological of the effectiveness of application and prophylaxis (in relation to nosocomial infections and the safety of antiviral chemical preparation Arbidol in 694 children with influenza and influenza-like illness, including the coronavirus infection (43 children and combined lesions of respiratory tract (150, indicating the possible inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy for children with the listed diseases, regardless of the severity and nature of their course. The studies were conducted according to the regulated standard of test conditions and randomized clinical trials.
Conclusion: Concomitant rotavirus and Salmonella infections accounted for 3.7% of cases in this study. Patients in group C (30.0% had a significantly higher incidence of hypokalemia than group R (7.3% or S (8.8%. Group C consisted of 33 cases of the 895 reviewed cases (3.7%. In a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis, concomitant infection with Salmonella should be considered if the child has sustained a high fever (≥ 39°C for over 4 days and a green stool with mucus and blood.
Hosseini Nave, Hossein; Mansouri, Shahla; Emaneini, Mohammad; Moradi, Mohammad
Shigella is one of the important causes of diarrhea worldwide. Shigella has several virulence factors contributing in colonization and invasion of epithelial cells and eventually death of host cells. The present study was performed in order to investigate the distribution of virulence factors genes in Shigella spp. isolated from patients with acute diarrhea in Kerman, Iran as well as the genetic relationship of these isolates. A total of 56 isolates including 31 S. flexneri, 18 S. sonnei and 7 S. boydii were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the presence of 11 virulence genes (ipaH, ial, set1A, set1B, sen, virF, invE, sat, sigA, pic and sepA). Then, the clonal relationship of these strains was analyzed by multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method. All isolates were positive for ipaH gene. The other genes include ial, invE and virF were found in 80.4%, 60.7% and 67.9% of the isolates, respectively. Both set1A and set1B were detected in 32.3% of S. flexneri isolates, whereas 66.1% of the isolates belonging to different serogroup carried sen gene. The sat gene was present in all S. flexneri isolates, but not in the S. sonnei and S. boydii isolates. The result showed, 30.4% of isolates were simultaneously positive and the rest of the isolates were negative for sepA and pic genes. The Shigella isolates were divided into 29 MLVA types. This study, for the first time, investigated distribution of 11 virulence genes in Shigella spp. Our results revealed heterogeneity of virulence genes in different Shigella serogroups. Furthermore, the strains belonging to the same species had little diversity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Tianyu; Finn, Caroline; Parrett, Christopher J; Dhume, Kunal; Hwang, Ji Hae; Sidhom, David; Strutt, Tara M; Li Sip, Yuen Yee; McKinstry, Karl K; Huo, Qun
The ability to rapidly detect and diagnose acute viral infections is crucial for infectious disease control and management. Serology testing for the presence of virus-elicited antibodies in blood is one of the methods used commonly for clinical diagnosis of viral infections. However, standard serology-based tests have a significant limitation: they cannot easily distinguish active from past, historical infections. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is currently infected with a virus or not, and on an optimal course of action, based off of positive serology testing responses. Here, we report a nanoparticle-enabled blood test that can help overcome this major challenge. The new test is based on the analysis of virus-elicited immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody present in the protein corona of a gold nanoparticle surface upon mixing the gold nanoparticles with blood sera. Studies conducted on mouse models of influenza A virus infection show that the test gives positive responses only in the presence of a recent acute viral infection, approximately between day 14 and day 21 following the infection, and becomes negative thereafter. When used together with the traditional serology testing, the nanoparticle test can determine clearly whether a positive serology response is due to a recent or historical viral infection. This new blood test can provide critical clinical information needed to optimize further treatment and/or to determine if further quarantining should be continued.
Hansen, K.R.; Nielsen, L.R.; Lind, Peter
Aims: To investigate whether an immunoglobulin (Ig)G avidity ELISA can be used to differentiate between acute and persistent infection with Salmonella (S.) Dublin in cattle. To determine whether the IgG isotype, IgG(1) and IgG(2) responses in acute and persistent infections differ. Methods...
RESULTS. Demographic characteristics revealed that the prevalence of rhinovirus infection in children showed 38% positivity of which 20 (10.0%) were males while 17 (8.5%) were females. Children between the ages ofO-24 months have the highest prevalence of 45.9% while those older than 96 months have the least.
Yeranosian, Michael G; Arshi, Armin; Terrell, Rodney D; Wang, Jeffrey C; McAllister, David R; Petrigliano, Frank A
An acute infection after arthroscopic shoulder surgery is a rare but serious complication. Previous studies estimating the incidence of infections after arthroscopic surgery have been conducted, but the majority of these had either relatively small study groups or were not specific to shoulder arthroscopic surgery. To investigate the incidence of acute infections after arthroscopic shoulder surgery and compare infection rates by age group, sex, geographic region, and specific procedures. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review of a large insurance company database was performed for all shoulder arthroscopic surgeries performed in the United States between 2004 and 2009 that required additional surgery for infections within 30 days. The data were stratified by sex, age group, and region. Data were also stratified for specific procedures (capsulorrhaphy, treatment for superior labrum anterior-posterior tears, claviculectomy, decompression, and rotator cuff repair) and used to assess the variation in the incidence of infections across different arthroscopic shoulder procedures. Linear regression was used to determine the significance of differences in the data from year to year. χ(2) analysis was used to assess the statistical significance of variations among all groups. Poisson regression analysis with exposure was used to determine significant differences in a pairwise comparison between 2 groups. The total number of arthroscopic shoulder surgeries performed was 165,820, and the number of infections requiring additional surgery was 450, resulting in an overall infection rate of 0.27%. The incidence of infections varied significantly across age groups (P shoulder procedures was 0.27%. The incidence was highest in elderly patients, in the South, and for rotator cuff repair. The incidence was lowest in young patients, in the Midwest, and for capsulorrhaphy. In general, shoulder arthroscopic surgery in this study population had a low rate of
Negligible import of enteric pathogens by newly-arrived asylum seekers and no impact on incidence of notified Salmonella and Shigella infections and outbreaks in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, January 2015 to May 2016.
Ehlkes, Lutz; George, Maja; Knautz, Donald; Burckhardt, Florian; Jahn, Klaus; Vogt, Manfred; Zanger, Philipp
IntroductionThe 2015 refugee crisis raised concerns about an import of infectious diseases affecting the German population. Aims: To evaluate public and individual health benefits of stool screening, and explore whether importation of enteric pathogens by newly-arrived asylum seekers impacts on the host population. Methods : We used data from mandatory stool screening to determine the overall, age, sex, and country-specific prevalence of enteric bacteria and helminths. We used surveillance data to assess whether the number of incoming asylum seekers influenced notifications of salmonellosis and shigellosis in Rhineland-Palatinate. Results : Salmonella were found in 0.2% (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.2-0.3%) of 23,410 samples collected from January 2015 to May 2016. Prevalence was highest in children under 5 years (0.8%; 95% CI: 0.5-1.3%). No Shigella or invasive Salmonella spp. were detected. In a subset of 14,511 samples, the prevalence of helminth infestation was 2.4% (95% CI: 2.1-2.6%), with highest proportions detected in adolescents (4.6%; 95% CI 3.8-5.4%) and among Eritreans (9.3%; 95% CI: 7.0-12.0%); in the latter particularly Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia spp. The increase in asylum applications did not increase notifications of salmonellosis and shigellosis. No transmission from asylum seekers to German residents was notified. Conclusion : Public health risk associated with imported enteric pathogens is very low overall. Addressing individual and public health risks, we recommend replacing stool screening of all newly-arrived asylum seekers by a targeted approach, with target groups and approaches being adapted if necessary. Target groups supported by our data are children, adolescents, and Eritreans.
Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C
Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Løhmann, Ditte J A; Asdahl, Peter H; Abrahamsson, Jonas
BACKGROUND: Children with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) treated similarly show different toxicity and leukemic responses. We investigated associations between neutrophil recovery time after the first induction course, infection and relapse in children treated according to NOPHO-AML 2004 and DB AML...
The Golden Syrian hamster is frequently used as a small animal model to study acute leptospirosis. However, use of this small animal model to study Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infections has not been well documented. Cattle are the normal maintenance hosts of L. borgpetersenii serovar...
Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R; Smith, Davey M; Little, Susan J
We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.
The aim of this study is to find out the usefulness of serial arterial blood pressure measurements in predicting severity and outcome of acute Trypanosoma brucei infection in dogs. Twenty adult dogs of mixed sexes and aged between 2 and 5 years were used for this study. The dogs were of good cardiac health and were ...
Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.
A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,
del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J; Pumarola, Tomás
Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi-mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.
Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe
Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja
Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory
Vlasov, P.A.; Kvacheva, Yu.E.
Lungs of 27 persons who participated in liquidation of Chernobyl accident and died from acute radiation sickness were studied histologically. Pulmonary infections were found, including invasion of viral, bacterial and fungal agents. Being depended on hematopoietic function the inflammatory reactions were areactive during postirradiation aplasia and became typical within the recovery beginning
Gruteke, Paul; Glas, Afina S.; Dierdorp, Mirjam; Vreede, Willem B.; Pilon, Jan-Willem; Bruisten, Sylvia M.
Molecular testing for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) has documented value but limited implementation due to questions that typically slow the acceptance of new tests. This study sought to address these questions and achieve implementation. Rhinovirus was added to a nested multiplex PCR (M-PCR),
Heijnen MLA; Bartelds AIM; Wilbrink B; Verweij C; Bijlsma K; Nat H van der; Boswijk H; Boer AB de; Sprenger MJW; Dorigo-Zetsma JW; NIVEL; CIE; NIVEL; LIS
To provide insight into the virological aetiology of influenza-like illnesses and other acute respiratory infections, nose/throat swabs were taken by 30 general practitioners of the sentinel surveillance network of the Netherlands Institute of Primary Health Care from a random selection of patients
Phuong, Hoang Lan; Nga, Tran T. T.; van Doornum, Gerard J.; Groen, Jan; Binh, Tran Q.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Nams, Nguyen V.; Kager, P. A.; de Vries, Peter J.
To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control
T. A. Chebotareva
Full Text Available The new dosing scheme for the preparation VIFERON®, rectal suppositories for infants of II, III and IV groups of health was suggested. The application of the scheme has resulted in a more pronounced clinical and immunological effects at treatment of influenza and acute respiratory infections compared to the previously used sc heme.
... antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI), impetigo... of antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of ABSSSI, impetigo, and minor cutaneous abscesses. This... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration [Docket No. FDA-2010-D-0433...
Lindblom, Anna; Isa, Adiba; Norbeck, Oscar
Parvovirus B19 is a common, clinically significant pathogen. Reassessment of the viral kinetics after acute infection showed that the virus is not rapidly cleared from healthy hosts, despite early resolution of symptoms. These findings challenge our current conception of the virus' pathogenesis...
Hong, Lijuan; Zhang, Bing; Duan, Guangcai; Liang, Wenjuan; Wang, Yingfang; Chen, Shuaiyin; Yang, Haiyan; Xi, Yuanlin
To analyze the relationship between CRISPR/Cas system and drug-resistance, virulence. To investigate the effect of IS600 on the expression of CRISPR associated gene cse2 in Shigella. CRISPR loci, CRISPR associated gene cse2, drug-resistant genes and virulent genes were detected by PCR in 33 Shigella strains; Trypan Blue counting test was used to detect bacterial virulence; Real-time PCR was used to detect relative mRNA expression of cse2; susceptibilities of Shigella strains were tested by agar diffusion method. Furthermore, we analyzed the relationship between CRISPR loci and drug-resistant genes, virulent genes. The effect of the IS600 on the expression of CRISPR associated gene cse2 was investigated. The mortality of Hela cells infected by Shigella with CRISPR1 loci was significantly lower (PShigella without CRISPR1. The mRNA expression level of cse2 in group with IS600 was significantly (PShigella. Shigella without CRISPR1 has a higher pathogenicity. Due to the insertion of IS600, the mRNA expression level of cse2 was decreased in Shigella.
S. V. Khaliullina
Full Text Available Aim — determine the clinical and laboratory features of acute intestinal infection in children, occurring in conjunction with atopic dermatitis (AD.Material and methods. We conducted a study of «case-control», which included observation of 144 children hospitalized in the infectious hospital with a clinic of acute infectious diarrhea in the period from January to December 2012. In the study group were selected 72 children with atopic dermatitis clinic and acute infectious diarrhea in a couple of which, from the group of patients without burdened premorbid background were selected 72 «controls» matched by sex, age and etiology developed acute intestinal infection. The observation time was 5±2 days, which corresponds to the average length of stay of the child, patients with moderate forms of acute intestinal infection in the hospital.Results and discussion. About 2 times more often than in the control, acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis lesions were characterized by clinic middle and lower gastrointestinal — 31.9% (CI 21,1–42,7 vs. 15.3% (CI 7–23 6, p=0.03. A number of bowel movements 6 or more times per day significantly more frequently observed in children with a combination of acute intestinal infections and atopic dermatitis — 54.1% (CI 42,6–65,6 vs. 33.3% (CI 22,4–43.9 in the control, p=0.011. The duration of diarrhea was higher in the study group (Med 6 IQR 4–7 days and Med 5 IQR 3–6 days, respectively, p=0.046. The proportion of patients with high fever was also higher in the study group than in the controls –15.3% (CI 7–23,6 vs. 2,8% (CI 1–6,6, p=0.016.Conclusion. Acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis have a more pronounced clinical symptoms, which is characterized by clinic enterocolitis, severity and duration of diarrhea syndrome, usually accompanied by a high fever.
von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Henrik Larsen, Hans; Koch, Anders
The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p respiratory support. hMPV is present in young...
Derwich, K.; Andrzejewska, M.; Wachowiak, J.; Mankowski, P.
At present over 70% of children with malignancies can be successfully cured although this is achieved at the cost of increased incidence of major complications. Fungal infections account for some 10% of all infections and, in severely immunosuppressed patients, they are still the cause of a high mortality rate (50-95%). As a result the prevention and treatment of adverse effects of antineoplastic therapy is of the most importance and can be a factor determining the success of such treatment. This paper contains two case reports of adolescent female patients diagnosed with acute leukemia who developed invasive fungal infections (IFI) in the course of intensive chemotherapy. (authors)
Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.
Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 hours of infection in thermally-injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections. P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burned tissue surrounding blood vessels and adipose cells. Although quorum sensing (QS), a bacterial signaling mechanism, coordinates differentiation of biofilms in vitro, wild type and QS-deficient P. aeruginosa formed similar biofilms in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on specific host tissues independent of QS.
Coxeter, Peter D; Mar, Chris Del; Hoffmann, Tammy C
Primary care visits for children with acute respiratory infections frequently result in antibiotic prescriptions, although antibiotics have limited benefits for common acute respiratory infections and can cause harms, including antibiotic resistance. Parental demands are often blamed for antibiotic prescription. We aimed to explore parents' beliefs about antibiotic necessity, quantify their expectations of antibiotic benefit, and report experiences of other management options and exposure to and preferences for shared decision making. We conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews in an Australia-wide community sample of primary caregivers, hereafter referred to as parents, of children aged 1 to 12 years, using random digit dialing of household landline telephones. Of the 14,505 telephone numbers called, 10,340 were eligible numbers; 589 potentially eligible parents were reached, of whom 401 were interviewed. Most believed antibiotics provide benefits for common acute respiratory infections, especially for acute otitis media (92%), although not using them, particularly for acute cough and sore throat, was sometimes acceptable. Parents grossly overestimated the mean benefit of antibiotics on illness symptom duration by 5 to 10 times, and believed they reduce the likelihood of complications. The majority, 78%, recognized antibiotics may cause harm. Recalling the most recent relevant doctor visit, 44% of parents reported at least some discussion about why antibiotics might be used; shared decision making about antibiotic use was inconsistent, while 75% wanted more involvement in future decisions. Some parents have misperceptions about antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections, highlighting the need for improved communication during visits, including shared decision making to address overoptimistic expectations of antibiotics. Such communication should be one of several strategies that is used to reduce antibiotic use. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.
Full Text Available E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2,3, B Mutamba2,3, S Nshemerirwe2,3, MS Kiwuwa4, S Musisi21Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala; 3Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kampala; 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania.Methods: We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals.Results: Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (Χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000. HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06.Conclusion: Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons.Keywords: HIV-related mania, bipolar disorder, HIV infection, Uganda, immunodeficiency virus
Manary, M.; Broadhead, R.
We studied 19 subjects and 15 controls from November 1994 to February 1995. HIV infection is common among this population and HIV testing was done by ELISA of most subjects and controls in the course of their routine clinical care. To determine how HIV infection effects protein metabolism all HIV infected subjects and controls were grouped into a third category and compared to the subjects and controls. After the HIV subgrouping we were left with 13 subjects, 13 controls, and 8 HIV positive patients. KIC enrichments were used to calculate protein synthesis and breakdown, as KIC is believed to reflect intracellular leucine concentrations. Of note in Table 2 is the KIC/Leucine ratio is consistently greater than 1, averaging 1.3 over 16 samples. This is an unexpected finding as the KIC/Leucine ratio has been shown to be constant with a value of about 0.75 over a wide range of conditions. Samples for these eight patients have been evaluated under six different GCMS conditions to verify this unexpected observation. This ratio > 1.0 has been consistently found under all of these conditions. We are not certain what biological phenomenon can explain this, but it calls into question the validity of the four compartment model upon which these calculations are based. It is not unreasonable to expect that children with kwashiorkor metabolize ketoacids differently, and this difference could account for the increased KIC/Leucine ratio. 19 refs, 4 tabs
Auranen, Kari; Syrjänen, Ritva; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi
For considering vaccine-prevention of pneumococcal acute otitis media (PncAOM), relationships between pneumococcal carriage, respiratory infection and PncAOM need to be understood. We analyzed nasopharyngeal samples collected from 329 unvaccinated Finnish children aged 2-24 months at scheduled visits and at visits during respiratory infection in 1994-97. We assessed temporal associations of respiratory infection with pneumococcal acquisition and whether PncAOM hazard depends on the relative timing of acquisition and the infection onset. The data comprised 607 person-years of risk-time for acquisition, 245 person-months of concurrent respiratory infection and carriage, and 119 episodes of PncAOM. The acquisition hazard was 3-fold in the month preceding respiratory sickness (hazard ratio, HR 3.5, 90% credible interval CI 2.9, 4.1) as compared to acquisition in healthy children. Moreover, the PncAOM hazard was markedly higher (HR 3.7, 90% CI 2.4, 5.3) during the first month of carriage acquired around the acute phase of respiratory infection (between 1 month before and 1 week after the sickness onset), as compared to carriage acquired later during sickness. The high proportion (76%) of PncAOM events occurring within 1 month of acquisition was due to frequent acquisition being associated with respiratory infection as well as the susceptibility of such acquisition to cause otitis media.
Abera, Bayeh; Yitayew, Gashaw; Amare, Hiwot
Food handlers play a major role in the transmission of Salmonella serotype Typhi (S. Typhi), Shigella, and intestinal parasites. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers at Bahir Dar University, Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2014. Stool samples from 410 food handlers were examined for bacterial pathogens and parasites. Pearson's Chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, and bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used where appropriate. The prevalence of S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites among food handlers was 11 (2.7%), 5 (1.2%), and 53 (12.9%), respectively. Among eight intestinal parasites identified, the two most prevalent intestinal parasites were hookworm 26 (6.3%) and G. lamblia 13 (3.1%). Male food handlers were more likely to be positive than were female food handlers for S. Typhi and intestinal parasites. Furthermore, food handlers who had a history of regular medical checkups were less infected with intestinal parasites. Being male (AOR: 2.1, 95% CI: 1.2, 4.4) and not attending medical checkups (AOR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.4, 6.1) were independent predictors of intestinal parasitic infection in food handlers. Male food handlers were reluctant to have regular parasitological examinations. There was a high proportion of food handlers with S. Typhi, Shigella, and intestinal parasites in their faces. Special emphasis should be placed on S. Typhicarriers and male food handlers. Education and periodical medical checkups for intestinal parasites and S. Typhi should be considered as intervention measures.
Kamaladasa, A.; Wickramasinghe, N.; Adikari, T. N.; Gomes, L.; Shyamali, N. L. A.; Salio, M.; Cerundolo, V.; Ogg, G. S.
Summary Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are capable of rapid activation and production of cytokines upon recognition of antigenic lipids presented by CD1d molecules. They have been shown to play a significant role in many viral infections and were observed to be highly activated in patients with acute dengue infection. In order to characterize further their role in dengue infection, we investigated the proportion of iNKT cells and their phenotype in adult patients with acute dengue infection. The functionality of iNKT cells in patients was investigated by both interferon (IFN)‐γ and interleukin (IL)−4 ex‐vivo enzyme‐linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assays following stimulation with alpha‐galactosyl‐ceramide (αGalCer). We found that circulating iNKT cell proportions were significantly higher (P = 0·03) in patients with acute dengue when compared to healthy individuals and were predominantly of the CD4+ subset. iNKT cells of patients with acute dengue had reduced proportions expressing CD8α and CD161 when compared to healthy individuals. The iNKT cells of patients were highly activated and iNKT activation correlated significantly with dengue virus‐specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G antibody levels. iNKT cells expressing Bcl‐6 (P = 0·0003) and both Bcl‐6 and inducible T cell co‐stimulator (ICOS) (P = 0·006) were increased significantly in patients when compared to healthy individuals. Therefore, our data suggest that in acute dengue infection there is an expansion of highly activated CD4+ iNKT cells, with reduced expression of CD161 markers. PMID:26874822
Sailasuta, Napapon; Ross, William; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chalermchai, Thep; DeGruttola, Victor; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Pothisri, Mantana; Busovaca, Edgar; Ratto-Kim, Silvia; Jagodzinski, Linda; Spudich, Serena; Michael, Nelson; Kim, Jerome H; Valcour, Victor
Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (tCHO), creatine (CR), myoinositol (MI), and glutamate and glutamine (GLX) were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31) and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26) and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10) from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM), frontal white matter (FWM), occipital gray matter (OGM), and basal ganglia (BG). Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART. After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection) compared to control (p = 0.0014), as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023). A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022) with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months. We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury.
Jiang, Yi; Liu, Xing-Lian; Xing, Fu-Qiang; Yang, Ju-Sheng; Tu, Hong
To identify whether there is an association between an acute attack of childhood bronchial asthma and Chlamydia pneumoniae (CP) infection. Serum specific antibodies IgM and IgG to CP were detected by ELISA in 120 asthmatic children with an acute attack and 82 healthy children. Anti-CP IgM was demonstrated in 22 cases (18.3%) and anti-CP IgG was demonstrated in 32 cases (26.7%) out of the 120 asthmatic patients. The incidence of CP infection in asthmatic children was significantly higher than that in healthy controls (3.7%) (P attack of asthma in 15 cases out of the 32 cases with CP infection, but 17 cases required glucocorticoid inhalation treatment together with anti-CP infection treatment (macrolide antibiotics, eg. azithromycin) for remission of asthma attack. There may be a link between an acute attack of childhood asthma and CP infection. It is thus necessary to detect the CP-specific antibodies in asthmatic children for proper treatment.
Adriana M. C. Canavaci
Full Text Available In the present work we examine the contribution of 5-lipoxygenase- (5-LO- derived lipid mediators to immune responses during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 5-LO gene knockout (5-LO−/− mice and wild-type (WT mice. Compared with WT mice, the 5-LO−/− mice developed less parasitemia/tissue parasitism, less inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a lower mortality. This resistance of 5-LO−/− mice correlated with several differences in the immune response to infection, including reduced PGE2 synthesis; sustained capacity of splenocytes to produce high levels of interleukin (IL-12 early in the infection; enhanced splenocyte production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ; rapid T-cell polarization to secrete high quantities of IFN-γ and low quantities of IL-10; and greater numbers of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow memory effector T cells at the end of the acute phase of infection. The high mortality in WT mice was associated with increased production of LTB4/LTC4, T cell bias to produce IFN-γ, high levels of serum nitrite, and marked protein extravasation into the peritoneal cavity, although survival was improved by treatment with a cys-LT receptor 1 antagonist. These data also provide evidence that 5-LO-derived mediators negatively affect host survival during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.
Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M
This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Neutropenia following chemotherapy regimens in leukemia patients is of major concern since it makes these patients vulnerable to infections. If we can identify which germs are causing these infections, they can be annihilated or, at least, the most appropriate antibiotic therapy can be started immediately, even before we have the results of the culture. This retrospective multi-center study took place in 2012 and included patients with acute leukemia who had already undergone chemotherapy and who had been febrile for at least 16 hours. In order to assess the type of infection, different environments were chosen and the results were compared by t-test and x2 tests. This study took place in four hospitals in Tehran and Ahwaz, Iran. The study population was made up of 89 patients: 37 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 52 with acute myeloid leukemia. The results revealed that blood was the most common site of infection. From all our positive cultures, it was seen that 85.4% of them had gram-negative bacteria with a dominance of E. coli of 25.8% over the other colonies. Also, antibiograms revealed the sensitivity of almost all the gram-negatives to amino glycosides. In contrast with most of the literature, in our patients, gram-negatives are the most common cause of infection and, therefore, administering amino glycosides would be the safest antibiotic therapy to prescribe before culture results are available.
Isa, A; Lundqvist, A; Lindblom, A
The aim of this study was to characterize the proinflammatory and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine responses during acute parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and determine whether an imbalance of the Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern is related to persistent B19 infection. Cytokines were quantified by multiplex beads...... immunoassay in serum from B19-infected patients and controls. The cytokine responses were correlated with B19 serology, quantitative B19 DNA levels and clinical symptoms. In addition to a proinflammatory response, elevated levels of the Th1 type of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and IL-15 were evident...... at time of the initial peak of B19 viral load in a few patients during acute infection. This pattern was seen in the absence of an interferon (IFN)-gamma response. During follow-up (20-130 weeks post-acute infection) some of these patients had a sustained Th1 cytokine response. The Th1 cytokine response...
Waller K Persson
Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3 once daily for 2 consecutive days, II 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals.
Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Full Text Available Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal.
Case, Heather B; Dickenson, Nicholas E
Shigella rely entirely on the action of a single type three secretion system (T3SS) to support cellular invasion of colonic epithelial cells and to circumvent host immune responses. The ATPase Spa47 resides at the base of the Shigella needle-like type three secretion apparatus (T3SA), supporting protein secretion through the apparatus and providing a likely means for native virulence regulation by Shigella and a much needed target for non-antibiotic therapeutics to treat Shigella infections. Here, we show that MxiN is a differential regulator of Spa47 and that its regulatory impact is determined by the oligomeric state of the Spa47 ATPase, with which it interacts. In vitro and in vivo characterization shows that interaction of MxiN with Spa47 requires the six N-terminal residues of Spa47 that are also necessary for stable Spa47 oligomer formation and activation. This interaction with MxiN negatively influences the activity of Spa47 oligomers while upregulating the ATPase activity of monomeric Spa47. Detailed kinetic analyses of monomeric and oligomeric Spa47 in the presence and absence of MxiN uncover additional mechanistic insights into the regulation of Spa47 by MxiN, suggesting that the MxiN/Spa47 species resulting from interaction with monomeric and oligomeric Spa47 are functionally distinct and that both could be involved in Shigella T3SS regulation. Uncovering regulation of Spa47 by MxiN addresses an important gap in the current understanding of how Shigella controls T3SA activity and provides the first description of differential T3SS ATPase regulation by a native T3SS protein.
Siva P. Sontineni
Full Text Available Objective. To identify the role of thrombolytic therapy in acute embolic stroke due to infective endocarditis. Design. Case report. Setting. University hospital. Patient. A 70-year-old male presented with acute onset aphasia and hemiparesis due to infective endocarditis. His head computerized tomographic scan revealed left parietal sulcal effacement. He was given intravenous tissue plasminogen activator with significant resolution of the neurologic deficits without complications. Main Outcome Measures. Physical examination, National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, radiologic examination results. Conclusions. Thrombolytic therapy in selected cases of stroke due to infective endocarditis manifesting as major neurologic deficits can be considered as an option after careful consideration of risks and benefits. The basis for such favorable response rests in the presence of fibrin as a major constituent of the vegetation. The risk of precipitating hemorrhage with thrombolytic therapy especially with large infarcts and mycotic aneurysms should be weighed against the benefits of averting a major neurologic deficit.
Płusa, T; Nawacka, D
Fenspiride is an antiinflammatory drug targeted for the respiratory tract. In our study clinical efficacy and tolerance of drug were evaluated in 392 adult patients with acute respiratory tract infections. According to clinical criteria all observed symptoms were classified as mild, moderate and severe. The most of observed patients were included into moderate symptom score. Cough and nose obturation were dominant symptoms. All noticed changes in the upper respiratory tract were decreased after fenspiride therapy in 7 days trial. In 168 observed patients systemic and in 60 local acting antibiotics were successfully applied. Excellent tolerance of fenspiride was documented in 59% and good tolerance --in 34% of patients. Observed adverse reactions were classified as mild and in 20 patients fenspiride was rejected. Authors suggest that fenspiride therapy is save and successful in patient with acute respiratory tract infection. Good results in patients with bronchitis in decreasing of bronchospasm indicate fenspiride as a good tool in bronchial infection.
Seyed Ahmad Tabatabaei
Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the practicability of a new algorithm in decreasing the rate of incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate antibiotic usage in pediatric Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI. Materials and Methods: Children between 1 month to15 years brought to outpatient clinics of a children′s hospital with acute respiratory symptoms were managed according to the steps recommended in the algorithm. Results: Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, and undifferentiated ARTI accounted for 82%, 14.5%, and 3.5% of 1 209 cases, respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed in 33%; for: Common cold, 4.1%; Sinusitis, 85.7%; Otitis media, 96.9%; Pharyngotonsillitis, 63.3%; Croup, 6.5%; Bronchitis, 15.6%; Pertussis-like syndrome, 82.1%; Bronchiolitis, 4.1%; and Pneumonia, 50%. Conclusion: Implementation of the ARTIs algorithm is practicable and can help to reduce diagnostic errors and rate of antibiotic prescription in children with ARTIs.
Isa, Adiba; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Norbeck, Oscar
BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously. METHODS AND FINDINGS......: The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of viraemia......, with T cell populations specific for individual epitopes comprising up to 4% of CD8+ T cells. B19-specific T cells developed and maintained an activated CD38+ phenotype, with strong expression of perforin and CD57 and downregulation of CD28 and CD27. These cells possessed strong effector function...
Falcone, Marco; Concia, Ercole; Giusti, Massimo; Mazzone, Antonino; Santini, Claudio; Stefani, Stefania; Violi, Francesco
Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) are a common cause of hospital admission among elderly patients, and traditionally have been divided into complicated and uncomplicated SSTIs. In 2010, the FDA provided a new classification of these infections, and a new category of disease, named acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), has been proposed as an independent clinical entity. ABSSSIs include three entities: cellulitis and erysipelas, wound infections, and major cutaneous abscesses This paper revises the epidemiology of SSTIs and ABSSSIs with regard to etiologies, diagnostic techniques, and clinical presentation in the hospital settings. Particular attention is owed to frail patients with multiple comorbidities and underlying significant disease states, hospitalized on internal medicine wards or residing in nursing homes, who appear to be at increased risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and treatment failures. Management of ABSSSIs and SSTIs, including evaluation of the hemodynamic state, surgical intervention and treatment with appropriate antibiotic therapy are extensively discussed.
Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is a major cause of respiratory infections in school-aged children. Most M. pneumonia infections in adults involve the respiratory tract. Extrapulmonary manifestations of M. pneumonia infection may be found in the skin, cardiovascular, neurologic and hematologic systems. Concomitant liver disease is rare in adults. Here, we report an unusual case of a patient who presented with fever and abdominal pain, but without pulmonary manifestations. The laboratory work-up demonstrated a hepatocellular pattern of acute hepatitis caused by M. pneumonia infection. Symptoms subsided and laboratory parameters improved with antibiotics treatment. Thus, this case can help raise clinicians' awareness of the possibility of M. pneumonia infection, with or without lung involvement, as a part of the evaluation of undetermined hepatitis.
von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper
The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young.......6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...
Dronda, F; Parras, F; Martínez, J L; Baquero, F
A case of Shigella sonnei bacteremia in a 65-year-old patient suffering from diabetes mellitus is discussed. The isolated strain had plasmid-mediated serum resistance and excreted aerobactin. The presence of diabetes mellitus as an underlying disease and the production by the Shigella sonnei isolate of factors related to bacterial invasion may have contributed to the bacteremic episode.
Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...
Full Text Available Hayate Nakagawa, Hidetaka Noma, Osamu Kotake, Ryosuke Motohashi, Kanako Yasuda, Masahiko Shimura Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan Background: A few reports have described ocular complications of influenza A infection, such as impaired ocular movement, parasympathetic ocular nerve, keratitis, macular lesion, and frosted branch angiitis. We encountered a rare case of acute anterior uveitis and optic neuritis associated with influenza A infection. Case presentation: A 70-year-old man presented with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. A rapid diagnostic test showed a positive result for influenza A. At the same time, he developed ocular symptoms including blurred vision with optic disk edema and hemorrhage in the left eye, and bilateral red eyes. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed on aqueous humor sample detected no viral infection. Visual field testing with a Goldmann perimeter showed central and paracentral scotomas in the left eye. In addition to antiviral agent (oseltamivir phosphate 75 mg, the patient was prescribed topical prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension eye drops every 5 hours and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone 1,000 mg daily for 3 days. Two months later, his best-corrected visual acuity improved to 20/50 with regression of visual field defects in his left eye. Conclusion: We report a case of bilateral acute anterior uveitis and unilateral optic neuritis concomitant with influenza A infection. Topical and systemic corticosteroids were effective to resolve acute anterior uveitis and neuritis. Analysis of aqueous humor sample suggested that acute anterior uveitis and optic neuritis in this case were not caused by influenza A virus infection per se but by autoimmune mechanism. Keywords: optic neuritis, anterior uveitis, influenza virus, multiplex polymerase chain reaction
Singer, S M; Nash, T E
We have studied immune mechanisms responsible for control of acute Giardia lamblia and Giardia muris infections in adult mice. Association of chronic G. lamblia infection with hypogammaglobulinemia and experimental infections of mice with G. muris have led to the hypothesis that antibodies are required to control these infections. We directly tested this hypothesis by infecting B-cell-deficient mice with either G. lamblia or G. muris. Both wild-type mice and B-cell-deficient mice eliminated the vast majority of parasites between 1 and 2 weeks postinfection with G. lamblia. G. muris was also eliminated in both wild-type and B-cell-deficient mice. In contrast, T-cell-deficient and scid mice failed to control G. lamblia infections, as has been shown previously for G. muris. Treatment of wild-type or B-cell-deficient mice with antibodies to CD4 also prevented elimination of G. lamblia, confirming a role for T cells in controlling infections. By infecting mice deficient in either alphabeta- or gammadelta-T-cell receptor (TCR)-expressing T cells, we show that the alphabeta-TCR-expressing T cells are required to control parasites but that the gammadelta-TCR-expressing T cells are not. Finally, infections in mice deficient in production of gamma interferon or interleukin 4 (IL-4) and mice deficient in responding to IL-4 and IL-13 revealed that neither the Th1 nor the Th2 subset is absolutely required for protection from G. lamblia. We conclude that a T-cell-dependent mechanism is essential for controlling acute Giardia infections and that this mechanism is independent of antibody and B cells.
The, Hao Chung; Thanh, Duy Pham; Holt, Kathryn E; Thomson, Nicholas R; Baker, Stephen
Shigella spp. are some of the key pathogens responsible for the global burden of diarrhoeal disease. These facultative intracellular bacteria belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae, together with other intestinal pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. The genus Shigella comprises four different species, each consisting of several serogroups, all of which show phenotypic similarity, including invasive pathogenicity. DNA sequencing suggests that this similarity results from the convergent evolution of different Shigella spp. founders. Here, we review the evolutionary relationships between Shigella spp. and E . coli, and we highlight how the genomic plasticity of these bacteria and their acquisition of a distinctive virulence plasmid have enabled the development of such highly specialized pathogens. Furthermore, we discuss the insights that genotyping and whole-genome sequencing have provided into the phylogenetics and intercontinental spread of Shigella spp.
Pizarro-Cerdá, Javier; Charbit, Alain; Enninga, Jost; Lafont, Frank; Cossart, Pascale
Bacterial pathogens display an impressive arsenal of molecular mechanisms that allow survival in diverse host niches. Subversion of plasma membrane and cytoskeletal functions are common themes associated to infection by both extracellular and intracellular pathogens. Moreover, intracellular pathogens modify the structure/stability of their membrane-bound compartments and escape degradation from phagocytic or autophagic pathways. Here, we review the manipulation of host membranes by Listeria monocytogenes, Francisella tularensis, Shigella flexneri and Yersinia spp. These four bacterial model pathogens exemplify generalized strategies as well as specific features observed during bacterial infection processes. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Chang, W L William; Gonzalez, Denise F; Kieu, Hung T; Castillo, Luis D; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Shacklett, Barbara L; Barry, Peter A; Sparger, Ellen E
Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP) model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques. We then utilized the expanded panel to analyze B cell alterations associated with aging and acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in the NHP model. In the aging study, distinct patterns of B cell subset frequencies were observed for macaques aged one to five years compared to those between ages 5 and 30 years. In the SIV infection study, B cell frequencies and absolute number were dramatically reduced following acute infection, but recovered within four weeks of infection. Thereafter, the frequencies of activated memory B cells progressively increased; these were significantly correlated with the magnitude of SIV-specific IgG responses, and coincided with impaired maturation of anti-SIV antibody avidity, as previously reported for HIV-1 infection. These observations further validate the NHP model for investigation of mechanisms responsible for B cells alterations associated with immunosenescence and infectious disease.
Bresnahan, Kara A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.
Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host’s homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatigue) and systemic effects of the APR. Cytokines act to increase energy and protein requirements to manifest fever and support hepatic acute phase protein (APP) production. Blood concentrations of glucose and lipid are augmented to provide energy to immune cells in response to cytokines. Additionally, infection decreases intestinal absorption of nutrients and can cause direct loss of micronutrients. Traditional indicators of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status are altered during the APR, leading to inaccurate estimations of deficiency in populations with a high or unknown prevalence of infection. Blood concentrations of APPs can be measured in nutrition interventions to assess the time stage and severity of infection and correct for the APR; however, standardized cutoffs for nutrition applications are needed. Protein-energy malnutrition leads to increased gut permeability to pathogens, abnormal immune cell populations, and impaired APP response. Micronutrient deficiencies cause specific immune impairments that affect both innate and adaptive responses. This review describes the antagonistic interaction between the APR and nutritional status and emphasizes the need for integrated interventions to address undernutrition and to reduce disease burden in developing countries. PMID:25398733
Full Text Available HIV/SIV infections break down the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa and lead to chronic immune activation and associated disease progression. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs, distinguishable by high expression of NKp44 and RORγt, play key roles in mucosal defense and homeostasis, but are depleted from gastrointestinal (GI tract large bowel during chronic SIV infection. However, less is known about the kinetics of ILC loss, or if it occurs systemically. In acute SIV infection, we found a massive, up to 8-fold, loss of NKp44+ILCs in all mucosae as early as day 6 post-infection, which was sustained through chronic disease. Interestingly, no loss of ILCs was observed in mucosa-draining lymph nodes. In contrast, classical NK cells were not depleted either from gut or draining lymph nodes. Both ILCs and NK cells exhibited significantly increased levels of apoptosis as measured by increased Annexin-V expression, but while classical NK cells also showed increased proliferation, ILCs did not. Interestingly, ILCs, which are normally noncytolytic, dramatically upregulated cytotoxic functions in acute and chronic infection and acquired a polyfunctional phenotype secreting IFN-γ, MIP1-β, and TNF-α, but decreased production of the prototypical cytokine, IL-17. Classical NK cells had less dramatic functional change, but upregulated perforin expression and increased cytotoxic potential. Finally, we show that numerical and functional loss of ILCs was due to increased apoptosis and ROR γt suppression induced by inflammatory cytokines in the gut milieu. Herein we demonstrate the first evidence for acute, systemic, and permanent loss of mucosal ILCs during SIV infection associated with reduction of IL-17. The massive reduction of ILCs involves apoptosis without compensatory de novo development/proliferation, but the full mechanism of depletion and the impact of functional change so early in infection remain unclear.
Taylor, D.N.; Echeverria, P.; Pitarangsi, C.; Seriwatana, J.; Sethabutr, O.; Bodhidatta, L.; Brown, C.; Herrmann, J.E.; Blacklow, N.R.
The epidemiology and etiology of acute diarrheal disease were determined in a Hmong refugee camp on the Thai-Laotian border from April 11 to May 14, 1985. DNA hybridization techniques were used to detect Shigella species, enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, and enterotoxigenic E. coli. A monoclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect rotavirus, and standard microbiology was used to detect other enteropathogens. The age-specific diarrheal disease rates were 47 episodes per month per 1000 children less than five years old and 113 episodes per month per 1000 children less than one year old. Rotavirus, enterotoxigenic E. coli, Campylobacter, and Cryptosporidium were the predominant pathogens in children less than two years old. The DNA probe hybridized with 94% of 31 specimens identified as enterotoxigenic E. coli by the standard assays and with none of the specimens in which the standard assays were negative. The probe for Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli hybridized in eight of 10 stools that contained Shigella and four of 314 stools from which Shigella and enteroinvasive E. coli were not isolated. The use of DNA probes allows specimens to be collected in remote areas with a minimum amount of equipment and technical expertise so that they can be easily transported to a central laboratory for further processing.
Moesker, Fleur M; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fraaij, Pieter L A
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified.
Mworozi Edison A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotavirus remains the commonest cause of severe dehydrating diarrhea among children worldwide. Children in developing countries die more because of several factors including poorer access to hydration therapy and greater prevalence of malnutrition. Hitherto, the magnitude of rotavirus disease in Uganda has remained unknown. This study was therefore done to determine the prevalence and factors associated with rotavirus infection among children aged 3-59 months admitted with acute diarrhea to paediatric emergency ward of Mulago Hospital, Uganda Methods Three hundred and ninety children, aged between 3-59 months with acute diarrhoea were recruited. The clinical history, socio-demographic characteristics, physical examination findings and laboratory investigations were recorded. Stool samples were tested for rotavirus antigens using the DAKO IDEIA rotavirus EIA detection kit. Results The prevalence of rotavirus infection was 45.4%. On multivariate analysis rotavirus was significantly associated with a higher education (above secondary level of the mother [OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-2.7]; dehydration [OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.1-3.0] and breastfeeding [OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.0]. Although age was significantly associated with rotavirus on bivariate analysis; this association disappeared on multivariate analysis. No significant association was found between rotavirus infection and nutritional status, HIV status and attendance of day care or school. Conclusions Rotavirus infection is highly prevalent among children with acute diarrhoea admitted to Mulago Hospital in Uganda.
E. I. Novikova
Full Text Available This article discusses the current issues in the pediatric practice of seasonal incidence of children with acute respiratory infections. The basic etiological aspects of this pathology, specific clinical symptoms typical for different pathogens, causes of bursts of disease in certain periods are described. Special attention is paid to the tactics of antipyretic therapy in different groups of children with fever and acute respiratory diseases, understand the typical errors in its appointment. The author discusses the domestic and foreign results of using ibuprofen to relieve fever in children with this pathology, comparative efficacy and safety data of ibuprofen with other analgesics-antipyretics.
Independently, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and infectious mononucleosis are not uncommon in the pediatric population, but acute onset of OSA, as a respiratory complication in the setting of acute EBV infection is extremely uncommon. Previous reports of this clinical entity are sparse and from nearly two decades ago. Urgent adenotonsillectomy was commonly advocated. This complication may be managed medically with systemic corticosteroids and non-invasive continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), and a case is presented to highlight an updated management approach to this rarely encountered clinical problem in children. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ueda, J.; Kobayashi, Y.; Hara, K.; Kishino, B.; Fushimi, H.; Sawada, S.; Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka; Osaka National Hospital; Kansai Medical Univ.
A fistula between the left pyriform sinus and the left thyroid gland region has been reported to be the route of infection in several cases of acute suppurative thyroiditis. Another four patients with acute suppurative thyroiditis have been encountered in whom a fistula from the hypopharynx was demonstrated radiographically. In three patients the fistulous tract was situated on the right side, and in one of these cases the fistula originated from the epiglottic vallecula rather than the pyriform sinus. These locations have not been reported earlier. Endoscopic examination was valuable for confirming the diagnosis. (orig.)
Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Mir, Mohammed Ramzan; Ahmed, Molvi Sajjad; Afzal, Suhail; Butt, Mohammed Farooq; Badoo, A. R.; Dar, Irshad Tabasum; Hussain, Anwar
The Ilizarov method has been studied extensively in the management of non-union of long bones. In most cases this involves filling of defects present primarily or after débridement by bone transport. Acute docking over gaps longer than 2 cm has not been adequately studied, however. The purpose of this paper is to report the efficacy of acute peg in hole docking as a bone graft-sparing modality in the management of infected non-union of long bones.
Dhar, Shabir Ahmed; Mir, Mohammed Ramzan; Ahmed, Molvi Sajjad; Afzal, Suhail; Butt, Mohammed Farooq; Badoo, A R; Dar, Irshad Tabasum; Hussain, Anwar
The Ilizarov method has been studied extensively in the management of non-union of long bones. In most cases this involves filling of defects present primarily or after débridement by bone transport. Acute docking over gaps longer than 2 cm has not been adequately studied, however. The purpose of this paper is to report the efficacy of acute peg in hole docking as a bone graft-sparing modality in the management of infected non-union of long bones.
Wu, Zegang; Li, Yan; Gu, Jian; Zheng, Hongyun; Tong, Yongqing; Wu, Qing
Acute respiratory infection is the major cause of disease and death in children, particularly in developing countries. However, the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria that exist in many of these countries remains incompletely characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the spectrum of pathogenic viruses and atypical bacteria associated with acute respiratory infection in children under the age of 16. A total of 10 435 serum sera specimens were collected from hospitalized children presenting with acute respiratory infection symptoms. Indirect immunofluorescence assays were performed to detect immunoglobulin M antibodies against nine common pathogens: mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila, coxiella burnetii and chamydophila pneumonia. Of the 10 435 specimens examined, 7046 tested positive for at least one pathogen. Among all of the tested pathogens, mycoplasma pneumonia had the highest detection rate (56.9%). Influenza virus A and influenza virus B epidemics occurred during both winter and summer. The detection rate of respiratory syncytial virus and adenovirus was higher in spring. Cases of mixed infection were more complex: 4136 specimens (39.6%) tested positive for ≥2 pathogens. There were statistically significant difference in detection rates of mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, influenza virus A, legionella pneumophila and chamydophila pneumonia among different age groups (P acute respiratory infection among children in Hubei of China were mycoplasma pneumonia, influenza virus B and respiratory syncytial virus. The detection rates for each pathogen displayed specific seasonal and age group variations. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
Sunkavalli, Ushasree; Aguilar, Carmen; Silva, Ricardo Jorge; Sharan, Malvika; Cruz, Ana Rita; Tawk, Caroline; Maudet, Claire; Mano, Miguel; Eulalio, Ana
MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication. Using a combination of transcriptome analysis and targeted high-content RNAi screening, we identify UNC5C as a direct target of miR-29b-2-5p and show its pivotal role in the modulation of Shigella binding to host cells. MiR-29b-2-5p, through repression of UNC5C, strongly enhances filopodia formation thus increasing Shigella capture and promoting bacterial invasion. The increase of filopodia formation mediated by miR-29b-2-5p is dependent on RhoF and Cdc42 Rho-GTPases. Interestingly, the levels of miR-29b-2-5p, but not of other mature microRNAs from the same precursor, are decreased upon Shigella replication at late times post-infection, through degradation of the mature microRNA by the exonuclease PNPT1. While the relatively high basal levels of miR-29b-2-5p at the start of infection ensure efficient Shigella capture by host cell filopodia, dampening of miR-29b-2-5p levels later during infection may constitute a bacterial strategy to favor a balanced intracellular replication to avoid premature cell death and favor dissemination to neighboring cells, or alternatively, part of the host response to counteract Shigella infection. Overall, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of microRNAs, and in particular miR-29b-2-5p, in the interaction of Shigella with host cells.
Full Text Available MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication. Using a combination of transcriptome analysis and targeted high-content RNAi screening, we identify UNC5C as a direct target of miR-29b-2-5p and show its pivotal role in the modulation of Shigella binding to host cells. MiR-29b-2-5p, through repression of UNC5C, strongly enhances filopodia formation thus increasing Shigella capture and promoting bacterial invasion. The increase of filopodia formation mediated by miR-29b-2-5p is dependent on RhoF and Cdc42 Rho-GTPases. Interestingly, the levels of miR-29b-2-5p, but not of other mature microRNAs from the same precursor, are decreased upon Shigella replication at late times post-infection, through degradation of the mature microRNA by the exonuclease PNPT1. While the relatively high basal levels of miR-29b-2-5p at the start of infection ensure efficient Shigella capture by host cell filopodia, dampening of miR-29b-2-5p levels later during infection may constitute a bacterial strategy to favor a balanced intracellular replication to avoid premature cell death and favor dissemination to neighboring cells, or alternatively, part of the host response to counteract Shigella infection. Overall, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of microRNAs, and in particular miR-29b-2-5p, in the interaction of Shigella with host cells.
Walker, Richard I
Despite improvements to water quality, sanitation, and the implementation of current prevention and treatment interventions, diarrhea remains a major cause of illness and death, especially among children less than five years of age in the developing world. Rotavirus vaccines have already begun making a real impact on diarrhea, but several more enteric vaccines will be necessary to achieve broader reductions of illness and death. Among the many causes of diarrheal disease, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shigella are the two most important bacterial pathogens for which there are no currently licensed vaccines. Vaccines against these two pathogens could greatly reduce the impact of disease caused by these infections. This review describes the approaches to ETEC and Shigella vaccines that are currently under development, including a range of both cellular and subunit approaches for each pathogen. In addition, the review discusses strategies for maximizing the potential benefit of these vaccines, which includes the feasibility of co-administration, consolidation, and combination of vaccine candidates, as well as issues related to effective administration of enteric vaccines to infants. Recent impact studies indicate that ETEC and Shigella vaccines could significantly benefit global public health. Either vaccine, particularly if they could be combined together or with another enteric vaccine, would be an extremely valuable tool for saving lives and promoting the health of infants and children in the developing world, as well as potentially providing protection to travelers and military personnel visiting endemic areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; Scribano, Daniela; Limongi, Dolores; Petrucca, Andrea; Cannavacciuolo, Sonia; Schippa, Serena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Grossi, Milena; Nicoletti, Mauro
Through the action of the type three secretion system (T3SS) Shigella flexneri delivers several effectors into host cells to promote cellular invasion, multiplication and to exploit host-cell signaling pathways to modulate the host innate immune response. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of many type III effectors, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the OspB effector is still poorly characterized. In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection. Indeed, we demonstrate that, during the first hour of infection, OspB is required for full activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Activation of cPLA(2) ultimately leads to the production and secretion of PMN chemoattractant metabolite(s) uncoupled with release of IL-8. Moreover, we also present evidence that OspB is required for the development of the full and promptly inflammatory reaction characteristic of S. flexneri wild-type infection in vivo. Based on OspB and OspF similarity (both effectors share similar transcription regulation, temporal secretion into host cells and nuclear localization) we hypothesized that OspB and OspF effectors may form a pair aimed at modulating the host cell response throughout the infection process, with opposite effects. A model is presented to illustrate how OspB activity would promote S. flexneri invasion and bacterial dissemination at early critical phases of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
He, Yao; Jiang, Yong; Xing, Yu-bin; Zhong, Guang-lin; Wang, Lei; Sun, Zheng-ji; Jia, Hong; Chang, Qing; Wang, Yong; Ni, Bin; Chen, Shi-ping
To study the transmission route of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) nosocomial infection. Ten identified SARS patients were selected from a general hospital in March. Survey was carried out through a standardized questionnaire provided by Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Contents of the questionnaire would include: history of contact with SARS patient, route of infection, methods used for protection and so on. (1) Distribution os SARS patients were confined to 3 wards: 4, 5, and 6 on the 7, 8, 12, 13 and 14 floors in the west unit of the inpatient building. Most of the inpatients were elderly and having severe original diseases. (2) Index patients were the first generation source of transmission and they infected inpatients and medical staff, making them the second generation. People with latent infection who had close contact with SARS patients might also serve as the possible source of transmission. (3) The major transmission routes were: near distant droplet infection and close contact infection. There was also a clue to the probability of aerosol or droplet nuclei infection through air-conditioning and ventilation system. Nosocomial infection appeared to be the main characteristic of the SARS epidemic in the early stage of this hospital. Other than close contact and near space airborne transmission of SARS virus, the possibility of long-distance aerosol transmission called for further epidemiological and experimental studies in the future.
Field, Hugh J.; Bell, Susanne E.; Elion, Gertrude B.; Nash, Anthony A.; Wildy, Peter
Systemic treatment of mice with the nucleoside analog 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acycloguanosine [aciclovir]) was found to be highly effective against acute type 1 herpes simplex virus infection of the pinna. The drug ablated clinical signs and reduced virus replication both in tissue local to the inoculation site and within the nervous system. Provided that moderate-sized virus inocula were used, acycloguanosine treatment reduced or prevented the establishment of a latent infection in the dorsal root ganglia relating to the sensory nerve supply of the ear. However, although it aborted artificially produced infections in dorsal root ganglia, acycloguanosine was found not to be effective against the latent infection once established. This finding strongly indicated that latent herpes simplex virus in mice can exist in a nonreplicating form. PMID:464587
Field, H J; Bell, S E; Elion, G B; Nash, A A; Wildy, P
Systemic treatment of mice with the nucleoside analog 9-(2-hydroxyethoxymethyl)guanine (acycloguanosine [aciclovir]) was found to be highly effective against acute type 1 herpes simplex virus infection of the pinna. The drug ablated clinical signs and reduced virus replication both in tissue local to the inoculation site and within the nervous system. Provided that moderate-sized virus inocula were used, acycloguanosine treatment reduced or prevented the establishment of a latent infection in the dorsal root ganglia relating to the sensory nerve supply of the ear. However, although it aborted artificially produced infections in dorsal root ganglia, acycloguanosine was found not to be effective against the latent infection once established. This finding strongly indicated that latent herpes simplex virus in mice can exist in a nonreplicating form.
Mostowy, Serge; Boucontet, Laurent; Mazon Moya, Maria J.; Sirianni, Andrea; Boudinot, Pierre; Hollinshead, Michael; Cossart, Pascale; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Colucci-Guyon, Emma
Autophagy, an ancient and highly conserved intracellular degradation process, is viewed as a critical component of innate immunity because of its ability to deliver cytosolic bacteria to the lysosome. However, the role of bacterial autophagy in vivo remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a vertebrate model for the study of infections because it is optically accessible at the larval stages when the innate immune system is already functional. Here, we have characterized the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to Shigella flexneri, a paradigm for bacterial autophagy, and have used this model to study Shigella-phagocyte interactions in vivo. Depending on the dose, S. flexneri injected in zebrafish larvae were either cleared in a few days or resulted in a progressive and ultimately fatal infection. Using high resolution live imaging, we found that S. flexneri were rapidly engulfed by macrophages and neutrophils; moreover we discovered a scavenger role for neutrophils in eliminating infected dead macrophages and non-immune cell types that failed to control Shigella infection. We observed that intracellular S. flexneri could escape to the cytosol, induce septin caging and be targeted to autophagy in vivo. Depletion of p62 (sequestosome 1 or SQSTM1), an adaptor protein critical for bacterial autophagy in vitro, significantly increased bacterial burden and host susceptibility to infection. These results show the zebrafish larva as a new model for the study of S. flexneri interaction with phagocytes, and the manipulation of autophagy for anti-bacterial therapy in vivo. PMID:24039575
Li, Yamin; Zhou, Weimin; Zhao, Yanjie; Wang, Yanqun; Xie, Zhengde; Lou, Yongliang; Tan, Wenjie
Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) have been recognised as pathogens that cause a broad spectrum of diseases. The studies on HAdV infection among children with severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) are limited. To investigate the prevalence, epidemiology, and genotype of HAdV among children with SARI in China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPAs) or induced sputum (IS) was collected from hospitalised children with SARIs in Beijing (representing Northern China; n = 259) and Zhejiang Province (representing Eastern China; n = 293) from 2007 to 2010. The prevalence of HAdV was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by sequence typing of PCR fragments that targeted the second half of the hexon gene. In addition, co-infection with other human respiratory viruses, related epidemiological profiles and clinical presentations were investigated. In total, 76 (13.8%) of 552 SARI patients were positive for HAdV, and the infection rates of HAdV in Northern and Eastern China were 20.1% (n = 52) and 8.2% (n = 24), respectively. HAdV co-infection with other respiratory viruses was frequent (infection rates: Northern China, 90.4%; Eastern China, 70.8%). The peak seasons for HAdV-B infection was winter and spring. Additionally, members of multiple species (Human mastadenovirus B, C, D and E) were circulating among paediatric patients with SARI, of which HAdV-B (34/52; 65.4%) and HAdV-C (20/24, 83.3%) were the most predominant in Northern and Eastern China, respectively. These findings provide a benchmark for future epidemiology and prevention strategies for HAdV.
Lane, Courtney R; Sutton, Brett; Valcanis, Mary; Kirk, Martyn; Walker, Cathryn; Lalor, Karin; Stephens, Nicola
Knowledge of relationships between antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella isolates and travel destination or other risk factors can assist clinicians in determining appropriate antibiotic therapy prior to susceptibility testing. We describe relationships between resistance patterns and risk factors for acquisition in Shigella isolates using routinely collected data for notified cases of shigellosis between 2008 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. We included all shigellosis patients notified during the study period, where Shigella isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Cases were interviewed to collect data on risk factors, including recent travel. Data were analyzed using Stata 13.1 to examine associations between risk factors and resistant strains. Of the 500 cases of shigellosis, 249 were associated with overseas travel and 210 were locally acquired. Forty-six of 51 isolates of Indian origin displayed decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates of Indonesian origin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-six travel-related isolates were resistant to all tested oral antimicrobials. Male-to-male sexual contact was the primary risk factor for 80% (120/150) of locally acquired infections among adult males, characterized by distinct periodic Shigella sonnei outbreaks. Clinicians should consider travel destination as a marker for resistance to common antimicrobials in returning travelers, where severe disease requires empirical treatment prior to receipt of individual sensitivity testing results. Repeated outbreaks of locally acquired shigellosis among men who have sex with men highlight the importance of prevention and control measures in this high-risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail firstname.lastname@example.org.
Sayed, H.A.; Talaat, S.M.; El-Mahallawy, H.A.; Kaddah, A.M.; Ismael, H.T.
Acute leukemia is the most common pediatric malignancy. Despite the significant progress in the treatment of infectious complications, infection-related morbidity and mortality continue to be of great importance. Prompt initiation of the appropriate empiric antibiotic treatment has improved infection outcome. The aim of the present study is to assess the type, frequency, and severity of infectious complications in a cohort of pediatric cancer patients treated at a single medical institution. We also aim to identify factors affecting bloodstream infections in newly diagnosed ALL and AML pediatric patients during the induction phase of treatment. Patients and Methods: This study was carried out at the Department of Pediatric Oncology, National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, during the time period from January 1st to June 30th 2007. Inclusion criteria were pediatric age group (from 0-16 years), newly diagnosed acute leukemia, positive blood culture and documented site of infection. Data were analyzed using the SPSS package version 15. A p-value £0.05 was considered significant. Results: This is a retrospective study including 100 newly diagnosed cases of acute leukemia. Fifty-four patients had ALL, and 46 patients had AML. 348 infectious episodes were recorded. Blood stream infections (BSI) occurred once or twice in 32%, 3-4 episodes in 58%, and five or more episodes in 10% of the cases. Gram-positive cocci were the most frequently observed cause of BSI, accounting for 77.9% of the total isolates followed by Gram negative organisms seen in 18.9% and mixed infections in 8%. The majority of the episodes (n= 208, 58.4%) responded to first-line empirical antibiotic therapy. Conclusion: Clinical and laboratory risk factors could be identified and can help prediction of serious BSI.
Full Text Available Human parvovirus B19 (B19 is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously.The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of viraemia, with T cell populations specific for individual epitopes comprising up to 4% of CD8+ T cells. B19-specific T cells developed and maintained an activated CD38+ phenotype, with strong expression of perforin and CD57 and downregulation of CD28 and CD27. These cells possessed strong effector function and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low.This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute" human viral infection inducing a persistent activated CD8+ T cell response. The likely explanation--analogous to that for cytomegalovirus infection--is that this persistent response is due to low-level antigen exposure. CD8+ T cells may contribute to the long-term control of this significant pathogen and should be considered during vaccine development.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19 is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The number and phenotype of B19-specific CD8+ T cell responses during and after acute adult infection was studied using HLA-peptide multimeric complexes. Surprisingly, these responses increased in magnitude over the first year post-infection despite resolution of clinical symptoms and control of viraemia, with T cell populations specific for individual epitopes comprising up to 4% of CD8+ T cells. B19-specific T cells developed and maintained an activated CD38+ phenotype, with strong expression of perforin and CD57 and downregulation of CD28 and CD27. These cells possessed strong effector function and intact proliferative capacity. Individuals tested many years after infection exhibited lower frequencies of B19-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes, typically 0.05%-0.5% of CD8+ T cells, which were perforin, CD38, and CCR7 low. CONCLUSION: This is the first example to our knowledge of an "acute" human viral infection inducing a persistent activated CD8+ T cell response. The likely explanation--analogous to that for cytomegalovirus infection--is that this persistent response is due to low-level antigen exposure. CD8+ T cells may contribute to the long-term control of this significant pathogen and should be considered during vaccine development.
Full Text Available Background and objective Mediastinal infection is a serious infection of mediastinal connective tissue, with more complications and higher mortality. Application of broad-spectrum antibiotics and nutritional support, early sufficient drainage is the key to successful treatment. In the mode of drainage, this paper discusses the application of continuous negative pressure drainage technique to treat acute anterior mediastinal infection of severe mouth pharynx source, and the good results are summarized and shared. Methods In January to December in 2017, a total of 17 cases treated acute mediastinal infection is derived from the throat, has formed a mediastinal abscess, surgery adopts retrosternal counterpart negative pressure drainage way, namely the sternum nest and free sternum xiphoid process under the incision on the first mediastinal clearance, make breakthrough and placed drainage device, suture closed wound, continuous negative pressure drainage, negative pressure using 3 cm-5 cm water column. Results Among the 17 patients, 14 patients were relieved by continuous negative pressure drainage, and then the drainage tube was removed. In 2 cases, the infection broke into the right thoracic cavity, and the closed drainage caused the negative pressure to disappear, and the negative pressure drainage was replaced by the conventional drainage, and the drainage tube was removed after the drainage tube was clear. One patient had formed a mediastinal abscess incision drainage time later, complicated with septic shock and sepsis, resulting in the death of multiple organ failure. Conclusion The traditional treatment of severe acute mediastinal infection is sternal incision and drainage. Continuous negative pressure drainage adequate drainage of mediastinal can relieve patients' pain, effusion, and avoid the dressing out repeatedly. It is an effective method. However, there are limitations in this method, which need to be further optimized.
In the anemia which accompanies infection by Leucocytozoon simondi in Pekin ducks there was a far greater loss of erythrocytes than could be accounted for as a result of direct physical rupture by the parasite. Erythrocyte loss began at the same time the 1st parasites appeared in the blood and was severest just prior to maximum parasitemia. Blood replacement and parasite loss occurred simultaneously. Examination of the spleen and bone marrow revealed that erythrophagocytosis was not the cause of anemia as reported for infections of Plasmodium, Babesia and Anaplasma. An anti-erythrocyte (A-E) factor was found in the serum of acutely infected ducks which agglutinated and hemolyzed normal untreated duck erythrocytes as well as infected cells. This A-E factor appeared when the 1st red cell loss was detected and reached its maximum titer just prior to the greatest red cell loss. Titers of the A-E factor were determined using normal uninfected erythrocytes at temperatures between 4 and 42 C. Cells agglutinated below 25 C and hemolyzed at 37 and 42 C. These results indicated that the A-E factor could be responsible for loss of cells other than those which were infected and could thus produce an excess loss of red cells. Attempts to implicate the A-E factor as an autoantibody were all negative. The A-E factor was present in the gamma fraction of acute serum but no anamnestic response could be detected when recovered ducks were reinfected. Anemia was never as severe in reinfections as in primary infections. The A-E factor also never reached as high a titer and was removed from the circulation very rapidly in reinfected ducks. It is concluded that red cell loss in ducks with acute Leucocytozoon disease results from intravascular hemolysis rather than erythrophagocytosis. The A-E factor responsible for hemolysis is more likely a parasite product rather than autoantibody.
Salgado-Pabón, Wilmara; Breshears, Laura; Spaulding, Adam R; Merriman, Joseph A; Stach, Christopher S; Horswill, Alexander R; Peterson, Marnie L; Schlievert, Patrick M
Infective endocarditis and kidney infections are serious complications of Staphylococcus aureus sepsis. We investigated the role of superantigens (SAgs) in the development of lethal sepsis, infective endocarditis, and kidney infections. SAgs cause toxic shock syndrome, but it is unclear if SAgs contribute to infective endocarditis and kidney infections secondary to sepsis. We show in the methicillin-resistant S. aureus strain MW2 that lethal sepsis, infective endocarditis, and kidney infections in rabbits are critically dependent on high-level SAgs. In contrast, the isogenic strain lacking staphylococcal enterotoxin C (SEC), the major SAg in this strain, is attenuated in virulence, while complementation restores disease production. SAgs' role in infective endocarditis appears to be both superantigenicity and direct endothelial cell stimulation. Maintenance of elevated blood pressure by fluid therapy significantly protects from infective endocarditis, possibly through preventing bacterial accumulation on valves and increased SAg elimination. These data should facilitate better methods to manage these serious illnesses. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reported in 2007 that Staphylococcus aureus is the most significant cause of serious infectious diseases in the United States (R. M. Klevens, M. A. Morrison, J. Nadle, S. Petit, K. Gershman, et al., JAMA 298:1763-1771, 2007). Among these infections are sepsis, infective endocarditis, and acute kidney injury. Infective endocarditis occurs in 30 to 60% of patients with S. aureus bacteremia and carries a mortality rate of 40 to 50%. Over the past decades, infective endocarditis outcomes have not improved, and infection rates are steadily increasing (D. H. Bor, S. Woolhandler, R. Nardin, J. Brusch, D. U. Himmelstein, PLoS One 8:e60033, 2013). There is little understanding of the S. aureus virulence factors that are key for infective endocarditis development and kidney abscess formation. We demonstrate that
Jody A Rule
Full Text Available Because acute liver failure (ALF patients share many clinical features with severe sepsis and septic shock, identifying bacterial infection clinically in ALF patients is challenging. Procalcitonin (PCT has proven to be a useful marker in detecting bacterial infection. We sought to determine whether PCT discriminated between presence and absence of infection in patients with ALF.Retrospective analysis of data and samples of 115 ALF patients from the United States Acute Liver Failure Study Group randomly selected from 1863 patients were classified for disease severity and ALF etiology. Twenty uninfected chronic liver disease (CLD subjects served as controls.Procalcitonin concentrations in most samples were elevated, with median values for all ALF groups near or above a 2.0 ng/mL cut-off that generally indicates severe sepsis. While PCT concentrations increased somewhat with apparent liver injury severity, there were no differences in PCT levels between the pre-defined severity groups-non-SIRS and SIRS groups with no documented infections and Severe Sepsis and Septic Shock groups with documented infections, (p = 0.169. PCT values from CLD patients differed from all ALF groups (median CLD PCT value 0.104 ng/mL, (p ≤0.001. Subjects with acetaminophen (APAP toxicity, many without evidence of infection, demonstrated median PCT >2.0 ng/mL, regardless of SIRS features, while some culture positive subjects had PCT values <2.0 ng/mL.While PCT appears to be a robust assay for detecting bacterial infection in the general population, there was poor discrimination between ALF patients with or without bacterial infection presumably because of the massive inflammation observed. Severe hepatocyte necrosis with inflammation results in elevated PCT levels, rendering this biomarker unreliable in the ALF setting.
Clerici, Giacomo; Faglia, Ezio
Ischemia and infection are the most important factors affecting the prognosis of foot ulcerations in diabetic patients. To improve the outcome of these patients, it is necessary to aggressively treat 2 important pathologies--namely, occlusive arterial disease affecting the tibial and femoral arteries and infection of the ischemic diabetic foot. Each of these 2 conditions may lead to major limb amputation, and the presence of both critical limb ischemia (CLI) and acute deep infection is a major risk factor for lower-extremity amputation. Thus, the management of diabetic foot ulcers requires specific therapeutic approaches that vary significantly depending on whether foot lesions are complicated by infection and/or ischemia. A multidisciplinary team approach is the key to successful treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer: ischemic diabetic foot ulcers complicated by acute deep infection pose serious treatment challenges because high levels of skill, organization, accuracy, and timing of intervention are required to maximize the chances of limb salvage: these complex issues are better managed by a multidisciplinary clinical group. © The Author(s) 2014.
Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Dermatomyositis has been described in the setting of lyme infection in only nine previous case reports. Although lyme disease is known to induce typical clinical findings that are observed in various collagen vascular diseases, to our knowledge, we believe that our case is the first presentation of acute lyme disease associated with amyopathic dermatomyositis, which was then followed by severe and fatal interstitial pulmonary fibrosis only two months later. Case presentation We present a case of a 64-year-old African-American man with multiple medical problems who was diagnosed with acute lyme infection after presenting with the pathognomonic rash and confirmatory serology. In spite of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for lyme infection, he developed unexpected amyopathic dermatomyositis and then interstitial lung disease. Conclusions This case illustrates a potential for lyme disease to produce clinical syndromes that may be indistinguishable from primary connective tissue diseases. An atypical and sequential presentation (dermatomyositis and interstitial lung disease of a common disease (lyme infection is discussed. This case illustrates that in patients who are diagnosed with lyme infection who subsequently develop atypical muscular, respiratory or other systemic complaints, the possibility of severe rheumatological and pulmonary complications should be considered.
Chertkov, K.S.; Revskaya, E.A.
The therapeutic efficiency of sulacillin (combination of ampicillin antibiotic with beta-lactamase sulbactam inhibitor) used for prevention and treatment of infections complications of the acute radiation disease (ARD) is considered. It is shown that sulacillin antiinfections effect essentially exceeds the activity of ampicillin by treatment of irradiated mice infected with a beta-lactamase-producing strain of Kl pneumoniae. Inclusion of the sulacillin as a principal antibiotic into the ARD therapeutic scheme provides for the 66.6 % survival of dogs at LD 90/45 [ru
Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis (NF-1 patients have an increased risk of developing malignancies most commonly rhabdomyosarcomas, optic gliomas, brain tumors and non-lymphocytic leukemias. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has been infrequently reported in association with NF-1. We describe a rare association of NF-1, T-lineage ALL and parvovirus infection in a 12-year-old child. In addition, it is also to emphasize that a high index of suspicion should be kept for parvovirus B19 infection as a cause of bicytopenia/pancytopenia in ALL patients following induction chemotherapy.
Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars; Arpi, Magnus
Objective: To develop quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections, tailored to the Danish general practice setting. Design: A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used. Setting: General practice. Subjects: A panel of nine experts, mainly...... general practitioners, was asked to rate the relevance of 64 quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections based on guidelines. Subsequently, a face-to-face meeting was held to resolve misinterpretations and to achieve consensus. Main outcome measures...... indicators focusing on the diagnostic process and 19 indicators focusing on the decision about antibiotic treatment and choice of antibiotics, respectively. Conclusion: These newly developed quality indicators may be used to strengthen Danish general practitioners’ focus on their management of patients...
Sakuma, Masato; Nakahara, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Uchimura, Masato; Sekiya, Zin; Setoguchi, Asuka; Endo, Yasuyuki
We present a clinical overview of a dog with acute onset of Hepatozoon canis infection. A stray female beagle dog of unknown age was referred to Kagoshima University showing anemia. Blood tests revealed the presence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, hyperproteinemia, polyclonal gammopathy, hypoalbuminemia, and elevated creatine kinase and alkaline phosphatase activities. In addition, capsule-like organisms were detected in the cytoplasm of approximately 50% of neutrophils in blood smears. H. canis infection was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing analyses. Amplified DNA fragments revealed 100% identity to the 18S ribosomal RNA gene of H. canis. The clinical symptoms improved after the administration of antibiotics. Hepatozoonosis in dogs is rare, but veterinarians should be alert to its possible acute onset.
Papa, Anna; Testa, Theodolinda; Papadopoulou, Elpida
West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 emerged in Greece in 2010 and since then outbreaks in humans have been reported for four consecutive years. Laboratory diagnosis is based mainly on serology. A real-time RT-PCR was applied on urine samples obtained from 35 patients with acute WNV infection. WNV RNA was detected in 40% of the samples with cycle threshold (CT) values ranging from 26.95 to 39.89 (mean 33.11). WNV was isolated from two of four urine samples with low CT (sample shipment and storage conditions are very important for virus detection and isolation. The usefulness of the WNV RNA detection in urine as a diagnostic tool of acute WNV infections is discussed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available This trial studied effectiveness and safety of pidotimoid (Imunorix in complex treatment of children with acute respiratory infection (ARI. Treatment with pidotimoid during 2 weeks (n = 30 resulted in lesser duration of fever and intoxication symptoms, and symptoms of laryngo-tracheitis, compared to control group (n = 30. Besides, children from pidotimoid group showed more rapid transformation of dry cough to hydrated cough, and decrease of its intensity. This beneficial change was accompanied by improvement of microbiocenosis. Effectiveness of pidotimoid was estimated by 73% of doctors as «good» (67% in control group. There was no any complication, related to treatment with this medication. The rate of repeated cases of ARI was three times lower then in control group in 6 months. All patients with ARI had no recurrent laryngeal stenosis.Key words: frequently ailing children, acute respiratory infection, treatment, prophylaxis, pidotimoid.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(2:27-33
Full Text Available An open controlled comparative research was conducted on 263 children with acute respiratory infection (ARI in order to evaluate the clinical effectiveness, acceptability and safety of plant based preparation that contains ivy leaf extract. It was established that prescribing the preparation during the first days of disease reduced the duration of dry and inefficient cough, improved sputum rheology and bronchial tree drainage function, reduced bronchial obstruction intensity, reduced the need for prescribing bronchial spasmolitics less necessary and decreased Staybin term. Compared to other antibcough medicines, plant based preparation with ivy leaf extract has quicker effect (effective on the 1st–3rd day.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, cough, treatment.
Nguyen, T K P; Nguyen, D V; Truong, T N H; Tran, M D; Graham, S M; Marais, B J
To assess the acute respiratory infection (ARI) disease spectrum, duration of hospitalisation and outcome in children hospitalised with an ARI in Viet Nam. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of ARI admissions to primary (Hoa Vang District Hospital), secondary (Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children) and tertiary (National Hospital of Paediatrics in Ha Noi) level hospitals in Viet Nam over 12 months (01/09/2015 to 31/08/2016). Acute respiratory infections accounted for 27.9% (37 436/134 061) of all paediatric admissions; nearly half (47.6%) of all children admitted to Hoa Vang District Hospital. Most (64.6%) of children hospitalised with an ARI were Viet Nam, characterised by prolonged hospitalisation for relatively mild disease. There is huge potential to reduce unnecessary hospital admission and cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are widespread in children regardless of age and region of living; they are characterized with big amount of infectious agents and absence of a trend to morbidity decrease. Drugs for nonspecific prophylaxis (immunostimulators and immunomodulatory agents are frequently used for prevention of ARI. There are plenty of immunomodulating agents; the wellstudied medication with systemic action with good efficacy and safety in pediatric practice is ribosomal-proteoglycan complex. The article presents the description of clinical experience of treatment with this complex in pediatric practice.Key words: children, acute respiratory infections, prophylaxis, treatment, ribosomal complex.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(6:127-130
Procop, Gary W; Wallace, Jacqueline D; Tuohy, Marion J; Lasalvia, Margret M; Addison, Rachel M; Reller, L Barth
Salmonella and Shigella species are routinely sought in stool specimens submitted for culture. It is a common practice to screen lactose-negative colonies by using triple sugar iron agar, lysine iron agar, and Christensen urea agar to determine if further identification is necessary. We designed and evaluated a novel combination of media, which are layered in a single tube, for screening isolates suspected to possibly represent Salmonella or Shigella. We tested this media combination with 106 Salmonella, 56 Shigella, and 56 other gram-negative bacilli. All Salmonella and Shigella isolates tested were appropriately characterized as possible Salmonella or Shigella by using an algorithm developed for use with this media combination. Similarly, 53 (95%) of 56 other gram-negative bacilli were appropriately screened as non -Salmonella and non -Shigella isolates. This unique media combination provides the most important biochemical reactions needed to screen for Salmonella and Shigella in a single-tube format, which decreases labor by two thirds (ie, 1 tube is inoculated vs 3).
Shoji, H.; Kusuhara, T.; Honda, Y.; Hino, H.; Kojima, K.; Abe, T.; Watanabe, M.
A 25-year-old women had a fever, left cervical lymphadenopathy, neurological symptoms and signs, CSF pleocytosis and persistent high serum antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); she had a recurrence 1 year later. She was thought to have relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic EBV infection. MRI revealed abnormalities, mainly in the right basal ganglia and left midbrain. At the time of the recurrence, further abnormalities appeared in the opposite basal ganglia and right cerebral white matter. (orig.)
Shoji, H.; Kusuhara, T.; Honda, Y.; Hino, H. (1. Dept. (Neurology) of Internal Medicine, Kurume Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Kojima, K.; Abe, T. (Dept. of Radiology, Kurume Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Watanabe, M. (Dept. of Neurosurgery, Koyanagi Hospital, Saga (Japan))
A 25-year-old women had a fever, left cervical lymphadenopathy, neurological symptoms and signs, CSF pleocytosis and persistent high serum antibodies to the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV); she had a recurrence 1 year later. She was thought to have relapsing acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with chronic EBV infection. MRI revealed abnormalities, mainly in the right basal ganglia and left midbrain. At the time of the recurrence, further abnormalities appeared in the opposite basal ganglia and right cerebral white matter. (orig.).
mohammad saeed sasan
Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI are the main cause for antibiotic (AB use in all age groups specially the first two years of life. The local information about the pattern of AB prescription in ARI is a necessary part for any program which aims logical use of AB. The current study was designed to find the frequency and types of AB administration for ARI in young children (
Rowlinson, Emily; Dueger, Erica; Mansour, Adel; Azzazy, Nahed; Mansour, Hoda; Peters, Lisa; Rosenstock, Summer; Hamid, Sarah; Said, Mayar M.; Geneidy, Mohamed; Abd Allah, Monier; Kandeel, Amr
Introduction Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) are responsible for nearly two million childhood deaths worldwide. A limited number of studies have been published on the epidemiology of viral respiratory pathogens in Egypt. Methods A total of 6113 hospitalized patients >1?month of age with suspected ARI were enrolled between June 23, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Naso? and oropharyngeal specimens were collected and tested for influenza A and B, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus...
Background Acute cholestatic hepatitis without features of infectious mononucleosis is a rare presentation of primary Epstein?Barr infection, with only several cases previously reported in the medical literature. Early investigation for Epstein?Barr virus in febrile patients with deranged liver function tests and no demonstrable biliary obstruction on imaging can expedite both diagnosis and treatment, thereby avoiding costly or invasive procedures such as liver biopsy. Case presentation A 59-...
Mjihdi, Abdelkarim; Lambot, Marie-Alexandra; Stewart, Ian J.; Detournay, Olivier; Noël, Jean-Christophe; Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine
Pathogens may impair reproduction in association or not with congenital infections. We have investigated the effect of acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan agent of Chagas’ disease in Latin America, on reproduction of mice. Although mating of infected mice occurred at a normal rate, 80% of them did not become gravid. In the few gravid infected mice, implantation numbers were as in uninfected control mice, but 28% of fetuses resorbed. Such infertility and early fetal losses we...
Jagušić, Maja; Slović, Anamarija; Ljubin-Sternak, Sunčanica; Mlinarić-Galinović, Gordana; Forčić, Dubravko
Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is recognized as a global and frequent cause of acute respiratory tract infections among people of all ages. The objectives of this study were molecular epidemiology and evolutionary analysis of HMPV strains which produced moderate and severe acute respiratory tract infections in children in Croatia during four consecutive seasons (2011-2014). A total of 117 HMPV-positive samples collected from hospitalized pediatric patients presenting with acute respiratory tract infections and tested by direct immunofluorescence assay were first analyzed by amplifying a part of the F gene. Sixteen samples were further analyzed based on complete F, G, and SH gene sequences. HMPV genome was identified in 92 of 117 samples (78%) and the circulation of multiple lineages of HMPV was confirmed. In 2011, 2012, and 2014, subgroups A2 and B2 co-circulated, while B1 gained prevalence in 2013 and 2014. The study established the presence of a novel subcluster A2c in Croatia. This subcluster has only recently been detected in East and Southeast Asia. This study provides new insights into epidemiology and genetic diversity of HMPV in this part of Europe. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Leung, Janice M; Tiew, Pei Yee; Mac Aogáin, Micheál; Budden, Kurtis F; Yong, Valerie Fei Lee; Thomas, Sangeeta S; Pethe, Kevin; Hansbro, Philip M; Chotirmall, Sanjay H
COPD is a major global concern, increasingly so in the context of ageing populations. The role of infections in disease pathogenesis and progression is known to be important, yet the mechanisms involved remain to be fully elucidated. While COPD pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae are strongly associated with acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), the clinical relevance of these pathogens in stable COPD patients remains unclear. Immune responses in stable and colonized COPD patients are comparable to those detected in AECOPD, supporting a role for chronic colonization in COPD pathogenesis through perpetuation of deleterious immune responses. Advances in molecular diagnostics and metagenomics now allow the assessment of microbe-COPD interactions with unprecedented personalization and precision, revealing changes in microbiota associated with the COPD disease state. As microbial changes associated with AECOPD, disease severity and therapeutic intervention become apparent, a renewed focus has been placed on the microbiology of COPD and the characterization of the lung microbiome in both its acute and chronic states. Characterization of bacterial, viral and fungal microbiota as part of the lung microbiome has the potential to reveal previously unrecognized prognostic markers of COPD that predict disease outcome or infection susceptibility. Addressing such knowledge gaps will ultimately lead to a more complete understanding of the microbe-host interplay in COPD. This will permit clearer distinctions between acute and chronic infections and more granular patient stratification that will enable better management of these features and of COPD. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.
N. F. Plavunov
Full Text Available Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections have a great social significance during epidemic rise of morbidity and demand differential diagnosis of pneumonia with bacterial etiology and consultation with an infectious disease doctor in case of seeing patients in non-core hospitals. This article highlights the problem of influenza and acute respiratory viral infections’ early diagnosis. Clinical manifestations of influenza and other respiratory extremely similar. The differential diagnosis must take into account the presence of mixed infection in the same patient. According to the results of consultative infectious ambulance teams in 2014-2016, quality of diagnostics of this infectious pathology was examined. Observed deaths in persons later seeking medical treatment, not receiving timely antiviral therapy and related to high-risk groups: patients with obesity, chronic alcohol intoxication, diabetes, pregnant women. Influenza and acute viral respiratory infections, more complicated by pneumonia, people in the older age group, indicating the need for timely medical evacuation of patients older than 60 years. In some cases, in the diagnosis of influenza was helped by the results of laboratory studies (especially the trend to leukopenia and a positive rapid test. It should be noted that a negative rapid test for influenza was not a reason for exclusion of the diagnosis “influenza”.
Polov'ian, E S; Chemich, N D; Moskalenko, R A; Romaniuk, A N
At the present stage of infectionist practice in the treatment of acute intestinal infections caused by opportunistic microorganisms, colloidal silver is used with a particle size of 25 nm as an alternative to conventional causal therapy. In 32 rats, distributed in 4 groups of 8 animals each (intact; healthy, got colloidal silver; with a modeled acute intestinal infection in the basic treatment and with the addition of colloidal silver), histological examination was performed of small and large intestine of rats. Oral administration of colloidal silver at a dose of 0.02 mg/day to intact rats did not lead to changes in morphometric parameters compared to the norm, and during early convalescence in rats with acute intestinal infections were observed destructive and compensatory changes in the intestine, which depended on the treatment regimen. With the introduction of colloidal silver decreased activity of the inflammatory process and the severity of morphological changes in tissues of small and large intestine, indicating that the positive effect of study drug compared with baseline therapy.
Allman, Windy; Chung, Wendy; Mejias, Asuncion; Ardura, Monica; Glaser, Casey; Wittkowski, Knut M.; Piqueras, Bernard; Banchereau, Jacques; Palucka, A. Karolina; Chaussabel, Damien
Each infectious agent represents a unique combination of pathogen-associated molecular patterns that interact with specific pattern-recognition receptors expressed on immune cells. Therefore, we surmised that the blood immune cells of individuals with different infections might bear discriminative transcriptional signatures. Gene expression profiles were obtained for 131 peripheral blood samples from pediatric patients with acute infections caused by influenza A virus, Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) or Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae) bacteria. Thirty-five genes were identified that best discriminate patients with influenza A virus infection from patients with either E coli or S pneumoniae infection. These genes classified with 95% accuracy (35 of 37 samples) an independent set of patients with either influenza A, E coli, or S pneumoniae infection. A different signature discriminated patients with E coli versus S aureus infections with 85% accuracy (34 of 40). Furthermore, distinctive gene expression patterns were observed in patients presenting with respiratory infections of different etiologies. Thus, microarray analyses of patient peripheral blood leukocytes might assist in the differential diagnosis of infectious diseases. PMID:17105821
Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.
A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time coronary...... angiography. A total of 48 HIV-infected patients were identified from a national database. Coronary angiography showed that the HIV-infected patients had significantly fewer lesions with classification B2/C than the 2 control groups (p...
Ahn, Jong Gyun; Choi, Seong Yeol; Kim, Dong Soo; Kim, Ki Hwan
Human bocavirus (HBoV) was first recognized in respiratory samples in 2005. The clinical importance of HBoV infection remains unclear. This report describes the clinical features and molecular phylogeny of HBoV isolates in children with acute respiratory infections. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained from 1,528 children with acute respiratory infections between 2010 and 2011. Respiratory samples were screened for HBoV by multiplex PCR. A phylogenetic analysis of the HBoV VP1/VP2 gene was also undertaken. HBoV was detected in 187 (12.2%) of the 1,528 patients with a peak incidence of infection observed in patients aged 12-24 months. Coinfection with other respiratory viruses was observed in 107 (57.2%) of the HBoV-positive children. The peak of HBoV activity occurred during the month of June in both 2010 and 2011. A higher previous history of wheezing (P = 0.016), a higher frequency of chest retraction (P respiratory symptom score (P = 0.002), and a longer duration of hospital stay (P = 0.021) were observed in HBoV-positive children compared with the HBoV-negative group. Phylogenetic analysis showed all 187 HBoV-positive isolates were identified as HBoV 1, indicating minimal sequence variations among the isolates. A single lineage of HBoV 1 was found to have circulated in children with acute respiratory infections between 2010 and 2011 and was associated with several clinical characteristics including age, seasonality, and clinical severity with retraction, wheezing, and longer hospitalization. The clinical relevance of the minimal sequence variations of HBoV remains to be determined. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Verbakel, Jan Y; Lemiengre, Marieke B; De Burghgraeve, Tine; De Sutter, An; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bullens, Dominique M A; Shinkins, Bethany; Van den Bruel, Ann; Buntinx, Frank
Acute infection is the most common presentation of children in primary care with only few having a serious infection (eg, sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia). To avoid complications or death, early recognition and adequate referral are essential. Clinical prediction rules have the potential to improve diagnostic decision-making for rare but serious conditions. In this study, we aimed to validate a recently developed decision tree in a new but similar population. Diagnostic accuracy study validating a clinical prediction rule. Acutely ill children presenting to ambulatory care in Flanders, Belgium, consisting of general practice and paediatric assessment in outpatient clinics or the emergency department. Physicians were asked to score the decision tree in every child. The outcome of interest was hospital admission for at least 24 h with a serious infection within 5 days after initial presentation. We report the diagnostic accuracy of the decision tree in sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios and predictive values. In total, 8962 acute illness episodes were included, of which 283 lead to admission to hospital with a serious infection. Sensitivity of the decision tree was 100% (95% CI 71.5% to 100%) at a specificity of 83.6% (95% CI 82.3% to 84.9%) in the general practitioner setting with 17% of children testing positive. In the paediatric outpatient and emergency department setting, sensitivities were below 92%, with specificities below 44.8%. In an independent validation cohort, this clinical prediction rule has shown to be extremely sensitive to identify children at risk of hospital admission for a serious infection in general practice, making it suitable for ruling out. NCT02024282. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.
Desport, Moira; Tenaya, I.W. Masa; McLachlan, Alexander; McNab, Tegan J.; Rachmat, Judhi; Hartaningsih, Nining; Wilcox, Graham E.
Jembrana disease virus (JDV) is an unusual bovine lentivirus which causes a non-follicular proliferation of lymphocytes, a transient immunosuppression and a delayed humoral response in infected Bali cattle in Indonesia. A double-immunofluorescent labeling method was developed to identify the subset of mononuclear cells in which the viral capsid protein could be detected. Viral antigen was present in pleomorphic centroblast-like cells which were identified as IgG-containing cells, including plasma cells, in lymphoid tissues. There was no evidence of infection of CD3 + T-cells or MAC387 + monocytes in tissues but large vacuolated cells with a macrophage-like morphology in the lung were found to contain viral antigen although they could not be shown conclusively to be infected. The tropism of JDV for mature IgG-containing cells may be relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of Jembrana disease, the delayed antibody responses and the genetic composition of this atypical lentivirus.
Anh, Ha Do Lien; van Doorn, H. Rogier; Nghiem, My Ngoc; Bryant, Juliet E.; Hoang, Thanh Hang Thi; Do, Quang Ha; Le van, Tan; Tran, Tan Thanh; Wills, Bridget; van Nguyen, Vinh Chau; Vo, Minh Hien; Vo, Cong Khanh; Nguyen, Minh Dung; Farrar, Jeremy; Tran, Tinh Hien; de Jong, Menno D.
Background: The dominant viral etiologies responsible for acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are poorly understood, particularly among hospitalized children in resource-limited tropical countries where morbidity and mortality caused by ARIs are highest. Improved etiological insight is needed to
Glomerulonephritis - acute; Acute glomerulonephritis; Nephritis syndrome - acute ... Acute nephritic syndrome is often caused by an immune response triggered by an infection or other disease. Common causes in children ...
Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Gettayacamin, Montip; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J
Shigellosis is a worldwide disease, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and the passage of blood- and mucus-streaked stools. Rhesus monkeys and other primates are the only animals that are naturally susceptible to shigellosis. A suitable animal model is required for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccines candidates. In this study, the minimal dose of Shigella dysenteriae1 1617 strain required to produce dysentery in four of five (80% attack rate) monkeys using an escalating dose range for three groups [2 × 10(8) , 2 × 10(9) and 2 × 10(10) colony forming unit (CFU)] was determined. In addition, the monkeys were re-infected. The identified optimal challenge dose was 2 × 10(9) CFU; this dose elicited 60% protection in monkeys when they were re-challenged with a one log higher dose (2 × 10(10) CFU). The challenge dose, 2 × 10(10) CFU, produced severe dysentery in all monkeys, with one monkey dying within 24 h, elicited 100% protection when re-challenged with the same dose. All monkeys exhibited immune responses. This study concludes that the rhesus monkey model closely mimics the disease and immune response seen in humans and is a suitable animal model for the pre-clinical evaluation of Shigella vaccine candidates. Prior infection with the 1617 strain can protect monkeys against subsequent re-challenges with homologous strains. © 2013 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhang, Xiaobo; Liu, Lijuan; Shi, Peng; Jiang, Gaoli; Jia, Pin; Wang, Chuankai; Wang, Libo; Qian, Liling
To investigate the clinical epidemiologic characteristics and analyze risk factors for acute respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in hospitalized infants with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). ALRI infants admitted to Children's Hospital of Fudan University from March 1st, 2011 to February 29th, 2012, were enrolled in this study. Patient information included demographic characteristics, feeding history, family status, clinical presentation, accessory examination, treatment and prognosis. According to the etiology of ALRI infants, we compared the seasonal distribution, demographic characteristics, household characteristics and underlying diseases between RSV-positive patients and RSV-negative patients. Univariate and multiple Logistic regression analyses were used to determine factors that were associated with risk of RSV infection. Among 1 726 ALRI infants, there were 913 RSV-positive infants (52.9%). The occurrence of RSV infection had a seasonal variation, with a peak in winter (59.1%). The median (P25, P75) age of RSV infants was 64 (21-155) days. The gestational age (GA) and body weight (BW) was (37.5 ± 2.4) weeks and (3.07 ± 0.66) kg, respectively. The male/female ratio among these was 1.9: 1. RSV infection was more popular among infants in the families with smoking members, crowded living conditions, history of atopic mother. Differences of the proportion of patients with underlying disease between RSV-positive and negative groups were statistically significant (59.4% vs. 54.2%, P infection were: GAinfection (OR = 1.351, 95%CI: 1.024-1.783; OR = 1.713, 95%CI: 1.332-2.204). Multivariate logistic regression determined the factors increasing the risk of RSV infection were: underlying CHD (OR = 1.298, 95%CI: 1.002-1.681), mother with atopic diseases (OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.237-2.520), autumn or winter infection (OR = 1.481, 95%CI: 1.105-1.985; OR = 1.766, 95%CI: 1.358-2.296). The prevalence of RSV infection was the highest in winter, while
Al?Abdallat, Mohammad; Dawson, Patrick; Haddadin, Aktham Jeries; El?Shoubary, Waleed; Dueger, Erica; Al?Sanouri, Tarek; Said, Mayar M.; Talaat, Maha
Background Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Influenza typically contributes substantially to the burden of ARI, but only limited data are available on influenza activity and seasonality in Jordan. Methods Syndromic case definitions were used to identify individuals with severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) admitted to four sentinel hospitals in Jordan. Demographic and clinical data were collected. Nasopharyngeal and oropharyngea...
Acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) is a common cause of acute kidney injury and is characterised by a dense interstitial cellular infiltrate, which has not been well defined. Previous studies have demonstrated a correlation between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and AIN. The purpose of our study was to define the nature of the interstitial immune infiltrate and to investigate the possibility of renal infection with EBV.
Neiman-Zenevich, Jana; Stuart, Sarah; Abdel-Nour, Mena; Girardin, Stephen E; Mogridge, Jeremy
Activation of the innate immune receptor NLRP1B leads to the formation of an inflammasome, which induces autoproteolytic processing of pro-caspase-1, and ultimately to the release of inflammatory cytokines and to the execution of pyroptosis. One of the signals to which NLRP1B responds is metabolic stress that occurs in cells deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors. NLRP1B might therefore sense microbial infection, as intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri cause metabolic stress as a result of nutrient scavenging and host cell damage. Here we addressed whether these pathogens activate the NLRP1B inflammasome. We found that Listeria infection activated the NLRP1B inflammasome in a reconstituted fibroblast model. Activation of NLRP1B by Listeria was diminished in an NLRP1B mutant shown previously to be defective at detecting energy stress and was dependent on the expression of listeriolysin O (LLO), a protein required for vacuolar escape. Infections of either Listeria or Shigella activated NLRP1B in the RAW264.7 murine macrophage line, which expresses endogenous NLRP1B. We conclude that NLRP1B senses cellular infection by distinct invasive pathogens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.
SÃ¶ren L. Becker
Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO has been used successfully for the treatment of patients with respiratory failure due to severe infections. Although rare, parasites can also cause severe pulmonary disease. Tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus give rise to the development of cystic structures in the liver, lungs, and other organs. Acute cyst rupture leads to potentially life-threatening infection, and affected patients may deteriorate rapidly. The case of a young woman from Bulgaria who was admitted to hospital with severe dyspnoea, progressive chest pain, and haemoptysis is described. Computed tomography of the chest was pathognomonic for cystic echinococcosis with acute cyst rupture. Following deterioration on mechanical ventilation, she was cannulated for veno-venous ECMO. The patientâs condition improved considerably, and she was weaned successfully from ECMO and mechanical ventilation. Following lobectomy of the affected left lower lobe, the patient was discharged home in good condition. This appears to be the first report of the successful use of ECMO as salvage treatment for a severe manifestation of a helminthic disease. Due to recent migration to Western Europe, the number of patients presenting with respiratory failure due to pulmonary echinococcosis with cyst rupture is likely to increase. Keywords: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO, Infection, Echinococcosis, Echinococcus granulosus, Hydatid disease, Infection
Bickel, Amitai; Gurevits, Michael; Vamos, Ronny; Ivry, Simon; Eitan, Arieh
To assess the influence of hyperoxygenation on surgical site infection by using the most homogeneous study population. A randomized, prospective, controlled trial. Department of surgery in a government hospital. A total of 210 patients who underwent open surgery for acute appendicitis. In the study group, patients received 80% oxygen during anesthesia, followed by high-flow oxygen for 2 hours in the recovery room. The control group received 30% oxygen, as usual. Open appendectomy via incision in the right lower quadrant of the abdomen. Surgical site infection, mainly assessed by the ASEPSIS (additional treatment, serous discharge, erythema, purulent discharge, separation of deep tissues, isolation of bacteria, and stay in hospital prolonged >14 days) system score. Surgical site infections were recorded in 6 of 107 patients (5.6%) in the study group vs 14 of 103 patients (13.6%) in the control group (P = .04). Significant differences in the ASEPSIS score were also found. The mean hospital stay was longer in the control group (2.92 days) compared with the study group (2.51 days) (P = .01). The use of supplemental oxygen is advantageous in operations for acute appendicitis by reducing surgical site infection rate and hospital stay. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01002365.
Yokoe, Deborah S; Anderson, Deverick J; Berenholtz, Sean M; Calfee, David P; Dubberke, Erik R; Ellingson, Katherine D; Gerding, Dale N; Haas, Janet P; Kaye, Keith S; Klompas, Michael; Lo, Evelyn; Marschall, Jonas; Mermel, Leonard A; Nicolle, Lindsay E; Salgado, Cassandra D; Bryant, Kristina; Classen, David; Crist, Katrina; Deloney, Valerie M; Fishman, Neil O; Foster, Nancy; Goldmann, Donald A; Humphreys, Eve; Jernigan, John A; Padberg, Jennifer; Perl, Trish M; Podgorny, Kelly; Septimus, Edward J; VanAmringe, Margaret; Weaver, Tom; Weinstein, Robert A; Wise, Robert; Maragakis, Lisa L
Since the publication of "A Compendium of Strategies to Prevent Healthcare-Associated Infections in Acute Care Hospitals" in 2008, prevention of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) has become a national priority. Despite improvements, preventable HAIs continue to occur. The 2014 updates to the Compendium were created to provide acute care hospitals with up-to-date, practical, expert guidance to assist in prioritizing and implementing their HAI prevention efforts. They are the product of a highly collaborative effort led by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA), the American Hospital Association (AHA), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI), the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS), the Society for Critical Care Medicine (SCCM), the Society for Hospital Medicine (SHM), and the Surgical Infection Society (SIS).
F. Jam-Afzon S. Modarres
Full Text Available Adenoviruses are one of the most important etiological agents of serious gastroenteritis among infants and young children. Fecal specimens from patients with an acute gastroenteritis were evaluated for the presence of adenovirus (Ad40, 41 from April 2002 to February 2004. During the study, 1052 samples were collected from children under the age of 5 years in six educational and therapeutic pediatric centers. The specimens were tested for adenovirus (Ad40, 41 by EIA technique in the Virology Department of Pasteur Institute of Iran. Adenoviruses (Ad40, 41 were detected from 27(2.6% samples, but were not detected in 150 samples of healthy control group. In this study the highest rate of adenovirus was found in children aged 6 to 12 months (40.7%, but the male to female ratio inpatients was approximately equal. Adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infections peaked in the winter as 48.1% was detected from December to March. There were a statistically significant difference between age and infection (P < 0.001, also between season with adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infection (P = 0.005. Breast-feeding had a protective action against adenovirus (Ad40, 41 infection. This study revealed that enteric adenovirus (Ad40, 41 is an etiological agent of acute gastroenteritis among children in Tehran.
caused in some cases by infection with enterovirus D68. We found that among the patients whose symptoms were previously attributed to enterovirus D68...distribution is unlimited. Re-analysis of metagenomic sequences from acute flaccidmyelitis patients reveals alternatives to enterovirus D68...Street Baltimore, MD 21218 -2685 ABSTRACT Re-analysis of metagenomic sequences from acute flaccidmyelitis patients reveals alternatives to enterovirus
Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC is a rare complication of Epstein Barr virus (EBV infection, with only a few cases reported among pediatric population. This clinical condition is frequently associated with a favorable outcome and, usually, a surgical intervention is not required. We report a 16-year-old girl who presented with AAC following primary EBV infection. The diagnosis of AAC was documented by clinical and ultrasonographic examination, whereas EBV infection was confirmed serologically. A conservative treatment was performed, with a careful monitoring and serial ultrasonographic examinations, which led to the clinical improvement of the patient. Pediatricians should be aware of the possible association between EBV and AAC, in order to offer the patients an appropriate management strategy.
Full Text Available Disseminated abscesses due to group G β-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae were observed in a 57-year-old cirrhotic patient with the skin being the putative way of entry for the pathogen. S. dysgalactiae is a rare agent in human infections responsible for acute pyogenic meningitis. The mortality rate associated with S. dysgalactiae bacteraemia and meningitis may be as high as 50%, particularly in the presence of endocarditis or brain abscesses. In our patient, main sites of infections were meningitis and ventriculitis, spondylodiscitis, septic arthritis, and soft-tissue infections. In contrast, no endocarditis was evidenced. Cirrhosis-related immune suppression was considered as a pathophysiological cofactor for the condition. Fortunately, clinical status improved after long-term (3 months antimicrobial therapy.
Felix, Alvina Clara; Souza, Nathalia C Santiago; Figueiredo, Walter M; Costa, Angela A; Inenami, Marta; da Silva, Rosangela M G; Levi, José Eduardo; Pannuti, Claudio Sergio; Romano, Camila Malta
Several countries have local transmission of multiple arboviruses, in particular, dengue and Zika viruses, which have recently spread through many American countries. Cross reactivity among Flaviviruses is high and present a challenge for accurate identification of the infecting agent. Thus, we evaluated the level of cross reactivity of anti-dengue IgM/G Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA) from three manufacturers against 122 serum samples obtained at two time-points from 61 patients with non-dengue confirmed Zika virus infection. All anti-dengue ELISAs cross reacted with serum from patients with acute Zika infection at some level and a worrisome number of seroconversion for dengue IgG and IgM was observed. These findings may impact the interpretation of currently standard criteria for dengue diagnosis in endemic regions. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
The porcine acute phase response to infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein, major acute phase protein and serum amyloid a protein are sensitive indicators of infection
Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Klausen, Joan; Nielsen, J.P.
response peaking at around 2 days after infection. Haptoglobin, C-reactive protein (CRP), and major acute phase protein (MAP) responded with large increases in serum levels, preceding the development of specific antibodies by 4-5 days. Serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was also strongly induced. The increase......, kinetics of induction and normalization were different between these proteins. It is concluded that experimental Ap-infection by the aerosol route induces a typical acute phase reaction in the pig, and that pig Hp, CRP, MAP, and SAA are major acute phase reactants. These findings indicate the possibility...
Kumar, Prawin; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R; Mishra, Vishnu S; Islam, Mojahidul; Randev, Shivani; Mukherjee, Aparna; Chaudhry, Rama; Kapil, Arti; Ram Jat, Kana; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil K
There is paucity of studies on etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants. The objective of this study is to document incidence and etiology of ARI in infants, their seasonal variability and association of clinical profile with etiology. A birth cohort was followed for the first year of life; for each episode of ARI, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected to identify the causative respiratory virus(es) using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. For lower respiratory tract infections blood culture, serum procalcitonin, serum antibodies to Mycoplasma and Chlamydia and urinary Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen were also assayed. A total of 503 ARI episodes were documented in 310 infants for an incidence rate of 1.8 episodes per infant per year. Of these, samples were processed in 395 episodes (upper respiratory tract infection: 377; lower respiratory tract infection: 18). One or more viruses were detected in 250 (63.3%) episodes and viral coinfections in 72 (18.2%) episodes. Rhinovirus was the most common virus [105 (42%)] followed by respiratory syncytial virus [50 (20%)], parainfluenza virus [42 (16.8%)] and coronavirus [44 (17.6%)]. In lower respiratory tract infections, viral infections were detected in 12 (66.7%) episodes, bacterial infections in 17 (94.4%) episodes and mixed bacterial-viral infections in 8 (44.4%) episodes. Peak incidence of viruses was observed during February-March and September-November. There was no significant difference in symptom duration with virus types. In this cohort of infants, ARI incidence was 1.8 episodes per year per infant; 95% were upper respiratory tract infections. Viruses were identified in 63.3% episodes, and the most common viruses detected were rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus.
Felix C Ringshausen
Full Text Available Felix C Ringshausen1, Ai-Yui M Tan1, Tobias Allander2, Irmgard Borg1, Umut Arinir1, Juliane Kronsbein1, Barbara M Hauptmeier1, Gerhard Schultze-Werninghaus1, Gernot Rohde11Clinical Research Group “Significance of viral infections in chronic respiratory diseases of children and adults,” University Hospital Bergmannsheil, Department of Internal Medicine III–Pneumology, Allergology and Sleep Medicine, Bochum, Germany; 2Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, and Department of Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, SwedenObjective: Human bocavirus (HBoV is a recently discovered parvovirus associated with acute respiratory tract infections in children. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency and clinical relevance of HBoV infection in adult patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AE-COPD.Methods: We retrospectively tested 212 COPD patients, 141 (66.5% with AE-COPD and 71 (33.5% with stable disease, of whom nasal lavage and induced sputum had been obtained for the presence of HBoV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA. The specificity of positive polymerase chain reaction results was confirmed by sequencing.Results: Two hundred two of 212 patients for whom PCR results were available both for nasal lavage and induced sputum samples were eligible for data analysis. HBoV DNA was detected in three patients (1.5%. Of those, only one patient had AE-COPD. Thus, the frequency of HBoV infection demonstrated to be low in both AE-COPD (0.8% and stable COPD (2.9%. HBoV was found in two sputum and one nasal lavage sample in different patients, respectively. Sequencing revealed >99% sequence identity with the reference strain.Conclusion: HBoV detection was infrequent. Since we detected HBoV in both upper and lower respiratory tract specimens and in AE-COPD as well as stable disease, a major role of HBoV infection in adults with AE-COPD is unlikely
Jefferis, Joanna; Perera, Rafael; Everitt, Hazel; van Weert, Henk; Rietveld, Remco; Glasziou, Paul; Rose, Peter
Background Acute infective conjunctivitis is a common problem in primary care, traditionally managed with topical antibiotics. A number of clinical trials have questioned the benefit of topical antibiotics for patients with acute infective conjunctivitis Aim To determine the benefit of antibiotics for the treatment of acute infective conjunctivitis in primary care and which subgroups benefit most Design An individual patient data meta-analysis Method Relevant trials were identified and individual patient data gathered for meta-analysis and subgroup analysis Results Three eligible trials were identified. Individual patient data were available from all primary care trials and data were available for analysis in 622 patients. Eighty per cent (246/308) of patients who received antibiotics and 74% (233/314) of controls were cured at day 7. There was a significant benefit of antibiotics versus control for cure at seven days in all cases combined (risk difference 0.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.01 to 0.14). Subgroups that showed a significant benefit from antibiotics were patients with purulent discharge (risk difference 0.09, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.17) and patients with mild severity of red eye (risk difference 0.10, 95% CI = 0.02 to 0.18), while the type of control used (placebo drops versus nothing) showed a statistically significant interaction (P=0.03) Conclusion Acute conjunctivitis seen in primary care can be thought of as a self-limiting condition, with most patients getting better regardless of antibiotic therapy. Patients with purulent discharge or a mild severity of red eye may have a small benefit from antibiotics. Prescribing practices need to be updated, taking into account these results PMID:22152728
Kandeel Amr M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of risk factors of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in Egypt is crucial to develop appropriate prevention strategies. Methods We conducted a case–control study, June 2007-September 2008, to investigate risk factors for acute HCV infection in Egypt among 86 patients and 287 age and gender matched controls identified in two infectious disease hospitals in Cairo and Alexandria. Case-patients were defined as: any patient with symptoms of acute hepatitis; lab tested positive for HCV antibodies and negative for HBsAg, HBc IgM, HAV IgM; and 7-fold increase in the upper limit of transaminase levels. Controls were selected from patients’ visitors with negative viral hepatitis markers. Subjects were interviewed about previous exposures within six months, including community-acquired and health-care associated practices. Results Case-patients were more likely than controls to have received injection with a reused syringe (OR=23.1, CI 4.7-153, to have been in prison (OR=21.5, CI 2.5-479.6, to have received IV fluids in a hospital (OR=13.8, CI 5.3-37.2, to have been an IV drug user (OR=12.1, CI 4.6-33.1, to have had minimal surgical procedures (OR=9.7, CI 4.2-22.4, to have received IV fluid as an outpatient (OR=8, CI 4–16.2, or to have been admitted to hospital (OR=7.9, CI 4.2-15 within the last 6 months. Multivariate analysis indicated that unsafe health facility practices are the main risk factors associated with transmission of HCV infection in Egypt. Conclusion In Egypt, focusing acute HCV prevention measures on health-care settings would have a beneficial impact.
Full Text Available Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.
Full Text Available Bacillus cereus infection is rarely associated with actual infection and for this reason single positive blood culture is usually regarded as contamination . However it may cause a number of infections, such catheter-related blood stream infections. Significant catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI caused by Bacillus spp. are mainly due to B.cereus and have been predominantly reported in immunocompromised hosts1 . Catheter removal is generally advised for management of infection. In this report, catheter-related bacteremia caused by B.cereus in a patient with acute lymphoblastıc leukemia (ALL in Istanbul Medical Faculty was presented.A 44-year old man presented with fatigue, weight loss, epistaxis and high fever. A double-lumen Hickman–catheter (Bard 12.0 Fr, Round Dual Lumen was inserted by surgical cut-down to access the right subclavian vein which would be necessary for allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Three weeks later the patient presented with high fever and headache. Bacillus spp. was isolated from the cathether while blood culture obtained from the peripheral vein remained negative. The bacterial identification was confirmed as B.cereus using VITEK identification system It has been reported Bacillus cereus septicemia may be fatal in immunocompromised hosts despite broad-spectrum appropriate treatment10. Catheter removal is essential for prevention of recurrent bacteremia. Long-term cathater salvage should be reserved for appropriate patient group.
Cyr, Derek D.; Lucas, Joseph E.; Zaas, Aimee K.; Woods, Christopher W.; Newby, L. Kristin; Kraus, William E.; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S.
Background Influenza infection is associated with myocardial infarction (MI), suggesting that respiratory viral infection may induce biologic pathways that contribute to MI. We tested the hypotheses that 1) a validated blood gene expression signature of respiratory viral infection (viral GES) was associated with MI and 2) respiratory viral exposure changes levels of a validated platelet gene expression signature (platelet GES) of platelet function in response to aspirin that is associated with MI. Methods A previously defined viral GES was projected into blood RNA data from 594 patients undergoing elective cardiac catheterization and used to classify patients as having evidence of viral infection or not and tested for association with acute MI using logistic regression. A previously defined platelet GES was projected into blood RNA data from 81 healthy subjects before and after exposure to four respiratory viruses: Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) (n=20), Human Rhinovirus (HRV) (n=20), Influenza A virus subtype H1N1 (H1N1) (n=24), Influenza A Virus subtype H3N2 (H3N2) (n=17). We tested for the change in platelet GES with viral exposure using linear mixed-effects regression and by symptom status. Results In the catheterization cohort, 32 patients had evidence of viral infection based upon the viral GES, of which 25% (8/32) had MI versus 12.2% (69/567) among those without evidence of viral infection (OR 2.3; CI [1.03-5.5], p=0.04). In the infection cohorts, only H1N1 exposure increased platelet GES over time (time course p-value = 1e-04). Conclusions A viral GES of non-specific, respiratory viral infection was associated with acute MI; 18% of the top 49 genes in the viral GES are involved with hemostasis and/or platelet aggregation. Separately, H1N1 exposure, but not exposure to other respiratory viruses, increased a platelet GES previously shown to be associated with MI. Together, these results highlight specific genes and pathways that link viral infection
Mar 1, 2018 ... species, Vibrio cholera, Yersinia enterocolitica, and Aeromonas species), enteroparasites (Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium species and Entamoeba histolytica), and viruses (adenovirus, Norwalk virus, and rotavirus) (5). Among the bacterial causative agents,. Salmonella and Shigella remain the major.
Al-Osail, Aisha M; Al-Zahrani, Ibrahim M; Al-Abdulwahab, Abdullah A; Alhajri, Sarah M; Al-Osail, Emad M; Al-Hwiesh, Abdullah K; Al-Muhanna, Fahad A
Infective endocarditis is one of the most common infections among intravenous drug addicts. Its complications can affect many systems, and these can include acute renal failure. There is a scarcity of cases in the literature related to acute renal failure secondary to infective endocarditis treated with peritoneal dialysis. In this paper, the case of a 48-year-old Saudi male is reported, who presented with features suggestive of infective endocarditis and who developed acute kidney injury that was treated successfully with high tidal volume automated peritoneal dialysis. To our knowledge, this is the second report of such an association in the literature. A 48-year-old Saudi gentleman diagnosed to have a glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and hepatitis C infection for the last 9 years, presented to the emergency department with a history of fever of 2 days' duration. On examination: his temperature = 41 °C, there was clubbing of the fingers bilaterally and a pansystolic murmur in the left parasternal area. The results of the blood cultures and echocardiogram were supportive of the diagnosis of infective endocarditis, and the patient subsequently developed acute kidney injury, and his creatinine reached 5.2 mg/dl, a level for which dialysis is essential for the patient to survive. High tidal volume automated peritoneal dialysis is highly effective as a renal replacement therapy in acute renal failure secondary to infective endocarditis if no contraindication is present.
Ein, Sigmund H; Sandler, Anthony
The purpose of this study was to determine the best wound infection prophylaxis in pediatric acute appendicitis. From 1969 to 1995 inclusive, 453 consecutive pediatric patients at the same children's hospital had an appendix with acute inflammation (acute appendicitis) removed by the same staff surgeon and his resident. The stump was not inverted, and chromic catgut was used throughout. No intraperitoneal antibiotics, irrigation, or drains were used, and the skin closure was with silk sutures initially and then with staples since 1986. The infants and children were divided into 6 consecutive groups of 52 to 96 patients, with each group lasting 2 to 5 years. The wound treatment groups were as follows: no treatment, drain or pack, drain or pack plus antibiotic powder, antibiotic powder, preoperative intravenous antibiotic plus antibiotic powder, and preoperative intravenous antibiotic. The wound Penrose drain, one half-inch gauze pack, and/or antibiotic powder (ampicillin, 1977-1981; cefoxitin, 1982-1995) were all placed in the subcutaneous space. There were a total of 50 (11%) wound infections (pus) that occurred between 4 and 40 days when no antibiotic powder was used and 2 to 14 days with antibiotic powder. In all 6 groups of patients, no organism was grown in most (80%) infections and Escherichia coli was the second commonest (12%). The serous ooze, which occurred only with the use of antibiotic powder (8%), was seen between 6 and 18 days, and no organism was ever cultured. The patients with preoperative (or intraoperative) intravenous antibiotics (cefoxitin) plus wound antibiotic powder (cefoxitin) had the lowest infection rate (2.5%). When this group was compared with the baseline group 1 (no treatment), it was the only group in which wound treatment made a significant difference (P = .003).
Full Text Available The macrophage is the natural niche of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. In order to combat oxidative and nitrosative stresses and persist in macrophages successfully, M. tuberculosis is endowed with a very efficient antioxidant complex. Amongst these antioxidant enzymes, TpX is the only one in M. tuberculosis with sequence homology to thiol peroxidase. Previous reports have demonstrated that the M. tuberculosis TpX protein functions as a peroxidase in vitro. It is the dominant antioxidant which protects M. tuberculosis against oxidative and nitrosative stresses. The level of the protein increases in oxidative stress. To determine the roles of tpx gene in M. tuberculosis survival and virulence in vivo, we constructed an M. tuberculosis strain lacking the gene. The characteristics of the mutant were examined in an in vitro stationary phase model, in response to stresses; in murine bone marrow derived macrophages and in an acute and an immune resistant model of murine tuberculosis. The tpx mutant became sensitive to H(2O(2 and NO compared to the wild type strain. Enzymatic analysis using bacterial extracts from the WT and the tpx mutant demonstrated that the mutant contains reduced peroxidase activity. As a result of this, the mutant failed to grow and survive in macrophages. The growth deficiency in macrophages became more pronounced after interferon-gamma activation. In contrast, its growth was significantly restored in the macrophages of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS or NOS2 knockout mice. Moreover, the tpx mutant was impaired in its ability to initiate an acute infection and to maintain a persistent infection. Its virulence was attenuated. Our results demonstrated that tpx is required for M. tuberculosis to deal with oxidative and nitrosative stresses, to survive in macrophages and to establish acute and persistent infections in animal tuberculosis models.
Jonathan E McDunn
Full Text Available Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness.A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor.Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic background, gender, and pathogen. Prospective clinical trials are indicated
Mahdeye Azadi Aghdam
Full Text Available Background: Shigella species are the common etiologic agents of bacterial dysentery. Many epidemiological studies have shown that breastfeeding may protect infants against intestinal infections. Among the components of milk, glycosylated proteins inhibit the adhesion of enteric pathogens in the laboratory. Immunoglobulins mainly secretory immunoglobulin A, glycosylated compounds, and oligosaccharides of breast milk are associated with protection against different intestinal pathogens. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different proteins of breast milk and powdered milk on the invasion of Shigella colonies. Materials and Methods: To accomplish this goal, breast milk samples were provided from two donors in the first 6 months of breastfeeding and powdered milk with different brands were obtained from the market. Then the proteins were extracted by precipitation using ammonium sulfate and dialysis using dialysis bag and protein bands were separated through SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Finally, the obtained milk proteins through Hela cells culture were tested and evaluated for the adhesion and invasion of the Shigella. Results: Our results revealed that the adhesion and invasion of Shigella stains were more inhibited by low concentrations of breast milk proteins in comparison with powdered milk. This concentration was about 2.75 mg/mL for the proteins of breast milk and 0.5 mg/mL for the proteins of powdered milk and this inhibition in different dilutions of breast milk was 71.21% and those of powdered milk was 27.19% in average. There was a significant difference between breast milk and powdered milk (P < 0.5 considering their inhibitory behavior. Conclusion: The results revealed that the components of breast milk inhibit the adhesion and consequently invasion of Shigella and inhibit bacterial dysentery.
Pinaud, Laurie; Ferrari, Mariana L.; Friedman, Robin; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Phalipon, Armelle; Sansonetti, Philippe J.
Many human Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express a Type Three Secretion Apparatus (T3SA), including among the most notorious Shigella spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). These bacteria express on their surface multiple copies of the T3SA that mediate the delivery into host cells of specific protein substrates critical to pathogenesis. Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens responsible for human bacillary dysentery. The effector function of several Shigella T3SA substrates has largely been studied but their potential cellular targets are far from having been comprehensively delineated. In addition, it is likely that some T3SA substrates have escaped scrutiny as yet. Indeed, sequencing of the virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri has revealed numerous open reading frames with unknown functions that could encode additional T3SA substrates. Taking advantage of label-free mass spectrometry detection of proteins secreted by a constitutively secreting strain of S. flexneri, we identified five novel substrates of the T3SA. We further confirmed their secretion through the T3SA and translocation into host cells using β-lactamase assays. The coding sequences of two of these novel T3SA substrates (Orf13 and Orf131a) have a guanine-cytosine content comparable to those of T3SA components and effectors. The three other T3SA substrates identified (Orf48, Orf86 and Orf176) have significant homology with antitoxin moieties of type II Toxin-Antitoxin systems usually implicated in the maintenance of low copy plasmids. While Orf13 and Orf131a might constitute new virulence effectors contributing to S. flexneri pathogenicity, potential roles for the translocation into host cells of antitoxins or antitoxin-like proteins during Shigella infection are discussed. PMID:29073283
Full Text Available Many human Gram-negative bacterial pathogens express a Type Three Secretion Apparatus (T3SA, including among the most notorious Shigella spp., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC. These bacteria express on their surface multiple copies of the T3SA that mediate the delivery into host cells of specific protein substrates critical to pathogenesis. Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens responsible for human bacillary dysentery. The effector function of several Shigella T3SA substrates has largely been studied but their potential cellular targets are far from having been comprehensively delineated. In addition, it is likely that some T3SA substrates have escaped scrutiny as yet. Indeed, sequencing of the virulence plasmid of Shigella flexneri has revealed numerous open reading frames with unknown functions that could encode additional T3SA substrates. Taking advantage of label-free mass spectrometry detection of proteins secreted by a constitutively secreting strain of S. flexneri, we identified five novel substrates of the T3SA. We further confirmed their secretion through the T3SA and translocation into host cells using β-lactamase assays. The coding sequences of two of these novel T3SA substrates (Orf13 and Orf131a have a guanine-cytosine content comparable to those of T3SA components and effectors. The three other T3SA substrates identified (Orf48, Orf86 and Orf176 have significant homology with antitoxin moieties of type II Toxin-Antitoxin systems usually implicated in the maintenance of low copy plasmids. While Orf13 and Orf131a might constitute new virulence effectors contributing to S. flexneri pathogenicity, potential roles for the translocation into host cells of antitoxins or antitoxin-like proteins during Shigella infection are discussed.
Cremer, Jeroen; Hofstraat, Sanne H I; van Heiningen, Francoise; Veldhuijzen, Irene K; van Benthem, Birgit H B; Benschop, Kimberley S M
Genetic variation within hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), in particular within the major hydrophobic region (MHR), is related to immune/vaccine and test failures and can have a significant impact on the vaccination and diagnosis of acute infection. This study shows, for the first time, variation among acute cases and compares the amino acid variation within the HBsAg between acute and chronic infections. We analyzed the virus isolated from 1231 acute and 585 chronic cases reported to an anonymized public health surveillance database between 2004 and 2014 in The Netherlands. HBsAg analysis revealed the circulation of 6 genotypes (Gt); GtA was the dominant genotype followed by GtD among both acute (68.2% and 17.4%, respectively) and chronic (34.9% and 34.2%, respectively) cases. Variation was the highest among chronic strains compared to that among acute strains. Both acute and chronic GtD showed the highest variation compared to that of other genotypes (P < .01). Substitutions within the MHR were found in 8.5% of the acute strains and 18.6% of the chronic strains. Specific MHR substitutions described to have an impact on vaccine/immune escape and/or HBsAg test failure were found among 4.1% of the acute strains and 7.0% of the chronic strains. In conclusion, we show a high variation of HBsAg among acute and chronic hepatitis B virus-infected cases in The Netherlands, in particular among those infected with GtD, and compare, for the first time, variation in frequencies between acute and chronic cases. Additional studies on the impact of these variations on vaccination and test failure need to be conducted, as well as whether HBsAg false-negative variants have been missed. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Medical Virology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP have suggested to be suitable inflammatory markers for bovine mastitis. The aim of the study was to investigate acute phase markers along with clinical parameters in two consecutive intramammary challenges with Escherichia coli and to evaluate the possible carry-over effect when same animals are used in an experimental model. Methods Mastitis was induced with a dose of 1500 cfu of E. coli in one quarter of six cows and inoculation repeated in another quarter after an interval of 14 days. Concentrations of acute phase proteins haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid A (SAA and lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP were determined in serum and milk. Results In both challenges all cows became infected and developed clinical mastitis within 12 hours of inoculation. Clinical disease and acute phase response was generally milder in the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in milk started to increase 12 hours after inoculation and peaked at 60 hours after the first challenge and at 44 hours after the second challenge. Concentrations of SAA in serum increased more slowly and peaked at the same times as in milk; concentrations in serum were about one third of those in milk. Hp started to increase in milk similarly and peaked at 36–44 hours. In serum, the concentration of Hp peaked at 60–68 hours and was twice as high as in milk. LBP concentrations in milk and serum started to increase after 12 hours and peaked at 36 hours, being higher in milk. The concentrations of acute phase proteins in serum and milk in the E. coli infection model were much higher than those recorded in experiments using Gram-positive pathogens, indicating the severe inflammation induced by E. coli. Conclusion Acute phase proteins would be useful parameters as mastitis indicators and to assess the severity of mastitis. If repeated experimental intramammary
Dinesh K Dhanwal
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Acute and chronic central nervous system (CNS infections are not uncommon in tropical countries and are associated with high morbidity and mortality if specific targeted therapy is not instituted in time. Effects of tubercular meningitis, a form of chronic meningitis on hypothalamic pituitary axis, are well known both at the time of diagnosis and after few months to years of illness. However, there are few reports of pituitary dysfunction in subjects with acute CNS infections. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating the pituitary hormonal profile in patients with nonmycobacterial acute meningitis at the time of presentation. Materials and Methods: This prospective case series study included 30 untreated adult patients with acute meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or encephalitis, due to various nonmycobacterial agents, admitted and registered with Lok Nayak Hospital, Maulana Aazd Medical College, New Delhi, between September 2007 and March 2009. Patients with preexisting endocrine diseases, tubercular meningitis and patients on steroids were carefully excluded from the study. The basal pituitary hormonal profile was measured by the electrochemilumniscence technique for serum cortisol, luetinizing hormone (LH, follicular stimulating hormone (FSH, prolactin (PRL, thyrotropin (TSH, free tri-iodothyronine (fT3, and free thyroxine (fT4. Results: The cases (n = 30 comprised of patients with acute pyogenic meningitis (n = 23, viral meningoencephalitis (n = 4, brain abscess (n = 2, and cryptococcal meningitis (n = 1. The mean age of patients was 28.97 ± 11.306 years. Out of 30 patients, 14 (46.7% were males and 16 (58.1% were females. Adrenal insufficiency both absolute and relative was seen in seven (23.3% and hyperprolactinemia was seen in nine (30.0% of the patients. One study subject had central hypothyroidism and seven (23.3 showed low levels of LH and/or FSH. None of patients showed clinical features suggestive of
Full Text Available Background. Today, there is a tendency to increase in Epstein-Barr virus infection (EBVI morbidity. The purpose of the study was to identify the incidence and features of atypical forms of acute EBVI in children. Material and methods. We have examined 28 children aged 6 months to 18 years with EBVI who were monitored in pediatric polyclinic. The activity of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase, levels of bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, markers of viral hepatitis were evaluated. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was performed with determination of blood markers of EBV (immunoglobulin (Ig M viral capsid antigen (VCA, IgG early antigen, IgG VCA, avidity and cytomegalovirus (CMV (IgM, IgG, avidity, EBV deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA, CMV DNA; polymerase chain reaction was used for serological diagnosis. The data were processed by statistical analysis using Statistica 6 program. Results. In 71.4 % of cases, EBVI had usual course and moderate severity. The atypical forms of acute EBVI were observed in 28.5 % of cases. Clinically atypical forms began mainly from signs of acute respiratory infections followed by lesions of the internal organs (liver and heart, in particular, in children under 1 year of age, and changes in liver functional tests. Conclusions. The incidence of atypical forms of EBVI is 28.5 %. Atypical forms of EBVI are more common in infants and adolescents and associated with the damage to the internal organs (liver and heart.
Full Text Available The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi circulates in the blood upon infection and invades a variety of cells. Parasites intensively multiply during the acute phase of infection and persist lifelong at low levels in tissues and blood during the chronic phase. Natural killer (NK and NKT cells play an important role in the immune control of T. cruzi infection, mainly by releasing the cytokine IFN-γ that activates the microbicidal action of macrophages and other cells and shapes a protective type 1 immune response. The mechanisms by which immune cells are regulated to produce IFN-γ during T. cruzi infection are still incompletely understood. Here, we show that urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA is induced early upon T. cruzi infection, and remains elevated until day 20 post inoculation. We previously demonstrated that the inhibitory receptor Ly49E, which is expressed, among others, on NK and NKT cells, is triggered by uPA. Therefore, we compared wild type (WT to Ly49E knockout (KO mice for their control of experimental T. cruzi infection. Our results show that young, i.e. 4- and 6-week-old, Ly49E KO mice control the infection better than WT mice, indicated by a lower parasite load and less cachexia. The beneficial effect of Ly49E depletion is more obvious in 4-week-old male than in female mice and weakens in 8-week-old mice. In young mice, the lower T. cruzi parasitemia in Ly49E KO mice is paralleled by higher IFN-γ production compared to their WT controls. Our data indicate that Ly49E receptor expression inhibits the immune control of T. cruzi infection. This is the first demonstration that the inhibitory Ly49E receptor can interfere with the immune response to a pathogen in vivo.
Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael; Bouadma, Lila; Luyt, Charles E; Wolff, Michel; Chastre, Jean; Tubach, Florence; Kristoffersen, Kristina B; Burkhardt, Olaf; Welte, Tobias; Schroeder, Stefan; Nobre, Vandack; Wei, Long; Bucher, Heiner C; Annane, Djillali; Reinhart, Konrad; Falsey, Ann R; Branche, Angela; Damas, Pierre; Nijsten, Maarten W N; de Lange, Dylan W.; Deliberato, Rodrigo O; Oliveira, Carolina F; Maravić-Stojković, Vera; Verduri, Alessia; Beghé, Bianca; Cao, Bin; Shehabi, Yahya; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Corti, Caspar; van Oers, Jos A H; Beishuizen, Albertus; Girbes, Armand R.J.; de Jong, Evelien; Briel, Matthias; Mueller, Beat
Background: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety of
Kyncl, J.; Paget, W.J.; Havlickova, M.; Kriz, B.
Respiratory virus activity is detected in Europe each winter, yet the precise timing and size of this activity is highly unpredictable. The impact of influenza infection and/or acute respiratory infection in European countries is continuously monitored through a variety of surveillance systems. All
Sander, L.E.; Sackett, S.D.; Dierssen, U.; Beraza, N.; Linke, R.; Müller, M.R.; Blander, J.M.; Tacke, F.; Trautwein, C.
Acute-phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and antiinflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined.
Sander, Leif E.; Dutton Sackett, Sara; Dierssen, Uta; Beraza, Naiara; Linke, Reinhold P.; Muller, Michael; Magarian Blander, Julie; Tacke, Frank; Trautwein, Christian
Acute phase proteins (APPs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins produced mainly in the liver in response to infection and inflammation. Despite vast pro- and anti-inflammatory properties ascribed to individual APPs, their collective function during infections remains poorly defined.
Koraka, P.; Murgue, B.; Deparis, X.; Gorp, E. van; Setiati, T.E.; Osterhaus, A.D.; Groen, J.
Approximately 1,000 million infections with dengue viruses are estimated to occur annually. The majority of the cases develop mild disease, whereas only small proportion of the infected individuals develop severe hemorrhagic manifestations at the end of the acute phase of illness. In this study, the
Diepolder, H. M.; Gerlach, J. T.; Zachoval, R.; Hoffmann, R. M.; Jung, M. C.; Wierenga, E. A.; Scholz, S.; Santantonio, T.; Houghton, M.; Southwood, S.; Sette, A.; Pape, G. R.
In acute hepatitis C virus infection, 50 to 70% of patients develop chronic disease. Considering the low rate of spontaneous viral clearance during chronic hepatitis C infection, the first few months of interaction between the patient's immune system and the viral population seem to be crucial in
Lhocine, Nouara; Andrieux, Alexandra; Nigro, Giulia; Mounier, Joëlle
Disruption of the sumoylation/desumoylation equilibrium is associated with several disease states such as cancer and infections, however the mechanisms regulating the global SUMO balance remain poorly defined. Here, we show that infection by Shigella flexneri, the causative agent of human bacillary dysentery, switches off host sumoylation during epithelial cell infection in vitro and in vivo and that this effect is mainly mediated by a calcium/calpain-induced cleavage of the SUMO E1 enzyme SAE2, thus leading to sumoylation inhibition. Furthermore, we describe a mechanism by which Shigella promotes its own invasion by altering the sumoylation state of RhoGDIα, a master negative regulator of RhoGTPase activity and actin polymerization. Together, our data suggest that SUMO modification is essential to restrain pathogenic bacterial entry by limiting cytoskeletal rearrangement induced by bacterial effectors. Moreover, these findings identify calcium-activated calpains as powerful modulators of cellular sumoylation levels with potentially broad implications in several physiological and pathological situations. PMID:29231810
Hirayama, Yoshimichi; Saito, Yoshiaki; Maegaki, Yoshihiro
Development of infection-associated acute encephalopathy (AE) is precipitated by several factors, including viral agents, age, and genetic polymorphisms. In addition, children with prior underlying neurological disorders can also present with AE. We reviewed 55 children with AE who were referred to hospitals participating in the Status Epilepticus Study Group from 1988 to 2013. AE was classified into eight subtypes: acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD); hemiconvulsion-hemiplegia syndrome (HH); acute necrotizing encephalopathy; hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSES); clinically mild encephalitis/encephalopathy with a reversible splenial lesion; acute encephalitis with refractory, repetitive partial seizures; Reye-like syndrome; and unclassified. Of the 55 AE cases, 14 (25.4%) had underlying neurological disorders, including perinatal insults (n=6) and genetic syndrome and/or brain malformations (n=8). These preceding morbidities were relatively common in AESD (6/18, 33.3%), HH (3/9, 33.3%), and HSES (3/6, 50.0%). History of epilepsy or febrile seizures were frequent in HH cases (4/9, 44.4%), whereas they were rare in other AE subtypes. Among the AE subgroups, HH, HSES, and AESD frequently emerged in preceding etiologies with augmented neuronal excitability. These subgroups may have distinct pathomechanism from the "cytokine storm" mediated AEs during childhood. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Hang Khanh Le; Nguyen, Son Vu; Nguyen, Anh Phuong; Hoang, Phuong Mai Vu; Le, Thanh Thi; Nguyen, Thach Co; Hoang, Huong Thu; Vuong, Cuong Duc; Tran, Loan Thi Thanh; Le, Mai Quynh
Severe acute respiratory infections (SARI) are leading causes of hospitalization, morbidity, and mortality in children worldwide. The aim of this study was to identify viral pathogens responsible for SARI in northern Vietnam in the period from 2011 to 2014. Throat swabs and tracheal aspirates were collected from SARI patients according to WHO guidelines. The presence of 13 different viral pathogens (influenza A[H1N1]pdm09; A/H3N2; A/H5; A/H7 and B; para influenza 1,2,3; RSV; HMPV; adeno; severe acute respiratory syndrome-CoV and rhino) was tested by conventional/real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. During the study period, 975 samples were collected and tested. More than 30% (32.1%, 313 samples) of the samples showed evidence of infection with influenza viruses, including A/H3N2 (48 samples), A (H1N1) pdm09 (221 samples), influenza B (42 samples), and co-infection of A (H1N1) pdm09 or A/H3N2 and influenza B (2 samples). Other respiratory pathogens were detected in 101 samples, including rhinovirus (73 samples), adenovirus (10 samples), hMPV (9 samples), parainfluenza 3 (5 samples), parainfluenza 2 (3 samples), and RSV (1 sample). Influenza A/H5, A/H7, or SARS-CoV were not detected. Respiratory viral infection, particularly infection of influenza and rhinoviruses, were associated with high rates of SARI hospitalization, and future studies correlating the clinical aspects are needed to design interventions, including targeted vaccination.
Joseph B Margolick
Full Text Available It has been proposed that initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART very soon after establishment of HIV infection may be beneficial by improving host control of HIV replication and delaying disease progression.People with documented HIV infection of less than 12 months' duration in Baltimore MD and seven Canadian sites were randomized to either a observation and deferred ART, or b immediate treatment with ART for 12 months. All subjects not receiving ART were followed quarterly and permanent ART was initiated according to contemporaneous treatment guidelines. The endpoint of the trial was total ART-free time from study entry until initiation of permanent ART.One hundred thirteen people were randomized, 56 to the observation arm and 57 to the immediate treatment arm. Twenty-three had acute (<2 months infection and 90 early (2-12 months infection. Of those randomized to the immediate treatment arm, 37 completed 12 months of ART according to protocol, 9 declined to stop ART after 12 months, and 11 were nonadherent to the protocol or lost to follow-up. Comparing those in the observation arm to either those who completed 12 months of ART or all 56 who were randomized to immediate ART, there was no significant difference between the arms in treatment-free interval after study entry, which was about 18 months in both arms.This study did not find a benefit from administration of a brief, time-limited (12-month course of ART in acute or early HIV infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00106171.
Swingler, George H
Knowledge of the accuracy of chest radiograph findings in acute lower respiratory infection in children is important when making clinical decisions. I conducted a systematic review of agreement between and within observers in the detection of radiographic features of acute lower respiratory infections in children, and described the quality of the design and reporting of studies, whether included or excluded from the review. Included studies were those of observer variation in the interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children (neonatal nurseries excluded) in which radiographs were read independently and a clinical population was studied. I searched MEDLINE, HealthSTAR and HSRPROJ databases (1966 to 1999), handsearched the reference lists of identified papers and contacted authors of identified studies. I performed the data extraction alone. Ten studies of observer interpretation of radiographic features of lower respiratory infection in children were identified. Seven of the studies satisfied four or more of the seven design and reporting criteria. Six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. Inter-observer agreement varied with the radiographic feature examined. Kappa statistics ranged from around 0.80 for individual radiographic features to 0.27–0.38 for bacterial vs viral etiology. Little information was identified on observer agreement on radiographic features of lower respiratory tract infections in children. Agreement varied with the features assessed from 'fair' to 'very good'. Aspects of the quality of the methods and reporting need attention in future studies, particularly the description of criteria for radiographic features
Raué, Hans-Peter; Slifka, Mark K
Previous studies have shown that T cells, which are genetically deficient in CTLA-4/CD152 expression, will proliferate uncontrollably, resulting in lethal autoimmune disease. This and other evidence indicate that CTLA-4 plays a critical role in the negative regulation of effector T cell function. In contrast to expectations, BrdU incorporation experiments demonstrated that CTLA-4 expression was associated with normal or even enhanced in vivo proliferation of virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells following acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus or vaccinia virus infection. When compared with CTLA-4- T cells directly ex vivo, CTLA-4+ T cells also exhibited normal antiviral effector functions following stimulation with peptide-coated cells, virus-infected cells, plate-bound anti-CD3/anti-CTLA-4, or the cytokines IL-12 and IL-18. Together, this indicates that CTLA-4 does not directly inhibit antiviral T cell expansion or T cell effector functions, at least not under the normal physiological conditions associated with either of these two acute viral infections.
E. E. Lokshina
Full Text Available Aim: to study clinical efficacy, tolerance and safety of a new pelleted ibuprofen form for children in treatment of fever in patients with acute respiratory tract infection. Patients and methods: children aged from 6 to 12 years old with clinical manifestation of respiratory tract infections and requiring antipyretic treatment were included into the study. Children (n = 50 were administered ibuprofen at a single dose of 5–10 mg/kg of body weight, not more than 3–4 times per day. The efficacy assessment included time needed for temperature decrease (assessment was performed in 15, 30 and 60 minutes and duration of the antipyretic effect (assessment in 6, 8 and 12 hours. Rapidity of analgesic effect in children with ear ache, headache and myalgias was performed in 15, 30, 60 minutes and 6, 8 and 12 hours after the drug intake. Results: antipyretic effect of pelleted ibuprofen for children begins in 15 minutes after its intake. Stable temperature decrease during the first 6 hours was observed in 58% of children (the mean temperature was 37,1 ± 0,3 and maintained up for 12 hours. Relief of pain intensity was established in 62,1% of patients during the first 3 hours, and in 37,9% the pain syndrome was arrested completely. Conclusions: the new pelleted form of ibuprofen for children was proved to have high clinical efficacy and safety in treatment of fever in children with acute respiratory tract infections.
Full Text Available Background. Infectious diseases seem to be an important and independent risk factor for renal failure, but the underlying mechanism of renal involvement during some kinds of infectious diseases is still unclear, even if the literature data report immunomediated and/or autoimmune mechanisms to explain the pathogenic relationship between the two diseases. In paediatric patients, Chlamydia pneumoniae is a rare cause of renal complications and it may manifest in several ways, mainly involving the respiratory system, even if also renal and glomerulalr complications, have been described. Case Diagnosis/Treatment. Herein we report a case of a 3-year-old child who developed an acute glomerulonephritis that was chronologically, clinically, and biologically related to a previous Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. On our knowledge, in the literature it is the youngest patient with renal involvement during course of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection ever reported. Conclusions. The present case supports the hypothesis of a rather close causal relationship between this infective agent and renal and glomerular symptoms occurred in this child, during an acute episode of respiratory disease.
Hendaus, Mohamed A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H; Khalifa, Mohamed S; Muneer, Eshan; Chandra, Prem
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the prevalence of urinary tract infection in infants and children with bronchiolitis. METHODS: A retrospective cross-sectional study involving patients zero to 24 months of age who were hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis was conducted. RESULTS: A total of 835 paediatric patients with acute bronchiolitis were admitted to the paediatric ward between January 2010 and December 2012. The mean (± SD) age at diagnosis was 3.47±2.99 months. There were 325 (39%) girls and 510 (61%) boys. For the purpose of data analysis, the patient population was divided into three groups: group 1 included children hospitalized with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis; group 2 included children hospitalized with clinical bronchiolitis with no virus detected; and group 3 included children hospitalized with clinical bronchiolitis due to a respiratory virus other than RSV. Results revealed that urinary tract infection was present in 10% of patients, and was most common in group 3 (13.4%) followed by group 2 (9.7%), and was least common in group 1 (6%) (P=0.030). CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of a urinary tract infection should be considered in a febrile child with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis, particularly if the trigger is a respiratory virus other than RSV. PMID:26175566
Hara, Satoshi; Hirata, Masayoshi; Ito, Kiyoaki; Mizushima, Ichiro; Fujii, Hiroshi; Yamada, Kazunori; Nagata, Michio; Kawano, Mitsuhiro
Human parvovirus B19 infection causes a variety of glomerular diseases such as post-infectious acute glomerulonephritis and collapsing glomerulopathy. Although each of these appears independently, it has not been fully determined why parvovirus B19 provokes such a variety of different glomerular phenotypes. Here, we report a 68-year-old Japanese man who showed endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis admixed with podocytopathy in association with parvovirus B19 infection. The patient showed acute onset of heavy proteinuria, microscopic hematuria and kidney dysfunction with arthralgia and oliguria after close contact with a person suffering from erythema infectiosum. In the kidney biopsy specimen, glomeruli revealed diffuse and global endocapillary infiltration of inflammatory cells, with some also showing tuft collapse with aberrant vacuolation, swelling, and hyperplasia of glomerular epithelial cells. Immunofluorescence revealed dense granular C3 deposition that resembled the "starry sky pattern". Intravenous glucocorticoid pulse therapy followed by oral prednisolone and cyclosporine combination therapy resulted in considerable amelioration of the kidney dysfunction and urinary abnormalities. The present case reveals that parvovirus B19 infection can induce different glomerular phenotypes even in the same kidney structure. This finding may provide hints useful for the further elucidation of the pathogenesis of parvovirus B19-induced glomerular lesions. © 2018 Japanese Society of Pathology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Hellmuth, Joanna; Colby, Donn; Valcour, Victor; Suttichom, Duanghathai; Spudich, Serena; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Sailasuta, Napapon; Allen, Isabel; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Slike, Bonnie; Ochi, Derek; Paul, Robert
This observational study of 123 Thai participants sought to determine the rate and severity of affective symptoms during acute HIV infection (AHI) and possible associations to disease mechanisms. At diagnosis, just prior to starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), AHI participants completed assessments of depression and anxiety symptoms that were repeated at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Blood markers of HIV infection and immune activation were measured at study entry, with optional cerebrospinal fluid measures. A high frequency of participants reported symptoms that exceeded published thresholds supportive of depression (55.0%) and anxiety (65.8%) at diagnosis, with significant reductions after starting cART. Meeting a threshold for clinically relevant depressive symptoms at study entry was associated with higher baseline plasma HIV RNA (5.98 vs. 5.50, t = 2.46, p = 0.015), lower CD4 counts (328 vs. 436 cells/mm 3 , t = 3.46, p = 0.001), and higher plasma neopterin, a marker of macrophage activation (2694 vs. 1730 pg/mL, Mann-Whitney U = 152.5, p = 0.011). Controlling for plasma HIV RNA and CD4 count, higher baseline plasma neopterin correlated with worse initial depression and anxiety scores. Depression and anxiety symptoms are frequent in acute HIV infection, associate with plasma immune activation, and can improve concurrent with cART.
Wu, Xiaohui; Yan, Tianyuan; Liu, Yunhong; Wang, Jingna; Li, Yingxia; Wang, Shuhui
The economic burden associated nosocomial infections (NIs) in patients with acute leukemia (AL) in China was unclear. A prospective study was conducted to quantify the medical cost burden of NIs among AL patients. Nine hundred ninety-four patients diagnosed with AL between January 2011 and December 2013 were included. Relevant necessary information was extracted from the hospital information system and hospital infection surveillance system. The primary outcome was incidence of NIs and the secondary was economic burden results, including extra medical costs and prolonged length of stay (LOS). We estimated the total incremental cost of NIs by comparing all-cause health care costs in patients with versus without infections. Prolonged duration of stay was compared in patients with different infections. Of 994 patients with AL, 277 (27.9%) experienced NIs. NI was associated with a total incremental cost of $3,092 per patient ($5,227 vs $2,135; P economic burden on patients with AL. The study highlights the influence of NIs on LOS and health care costs and appeal to the establishment of prophylactic measures for NIs to reduce the unnecessary waste of medical resources in the long run. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acute HIV infection (AHI is a critical phase of infection when irreparable damage to the immune system occurs and subjects are very infectious. We studied subjects with AHI prospectively to develop better treatment and public health interventions. METHODS: Cross-sectional screening was employed to detect HIV RNA positive, antibody negative subjects. Date of HIV acquisition was estimated from clinical history and correlated with sequence diversity assessed by single genome amplification (SGA. Twenty-two cytokines/chemokines were measured from enrollment through week 24. RESULTS: Thirty-seven AHI subjects were studied. In 7 participants with limited exposure windows, the median exposure to HIV occurred 14 days before symptom onset. Lack of viral sequence diversification confirmed the short duration of infection. Transmission dates estimated by SGA/sequencing using molecular clock models correlated with transmission dates estimated by symptom onset in individuals infected with single HIV variants (mean of 28 versus 33 days. Only 10 of 22 cytokines/chemokines were significantly elevated among AHI participants at enrollment compared to uninfected controls, and only 4 participants remained seronegative at enrollment. DISCUSSION: The results emphasize the difficulty in recruiting subjects early in AHI. Viral sequence diversity proved accurate in estimating time of infection. Regardless of aggressive screening, peak viremia and inflammation occurred before enrollment and potential intervention. Given the personal and public health importance, improved AHI detection is urgently needed.
Guillaume, Vanessa; Wong, K. Thong; Looi, R.Y.; Georges-Courbot, Marie-Claude; Barrot, Laura; Buckland, Robin; Wild, T. Fabian; Horvat, Branka
Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are recently-emerged, closely related and highly pathogenic paramyxoviruses. We have analysed here the pathogenesis of the acute HeV infection using the new animal model, golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus), which is highly susceptible to HeV infection. HeV-specific RNA and viral antigens were found in multiple organs and virus was isolated from different tissues. Dual pathogenic mechanism was observed: parenchymal infection in various organs, including the brain, with vasculitis and multinucleated syncytia in many blood vessels. Furthermore, monoclonal antibodies specific for the NiV fusion protein neutralized HeV in vitro and efficiently protected hamsters from HeV if given before infection. These results reveal the similarities between HeV and NiV pathogenesis, particularly in affecting both respiratory and neuronal system. They demonstrate that hamster presents a convenient novel animal model to study HeV infection, opening new perspectives to evaluate vaccine and therapeutic approaches against this emergent infectious disease.
Ishihara, Yuko; Kanda, Junya; Tanaka, Kaori; Nakano, Hirofumi; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Yamasaki, Ryoko; Kawamura, Koji; Sakamoto, Kana; Ashizawa, Masahiro; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Kikuchi, Misato; Nakasone, Hideki; Yamazaki, Rie; Kako, Shinichi; Nishida, Junji; Watanabe, Kunitomo; Kanda, Yoshinobu
We report a case of severe oral infection with a high fever due to Lactobacillus rhamnosus during induction chemotherapy for acute myeloid leukemia. The patient did not improve on treatment with meropenem, clindamycin, or vancomycin until neutrophil recovery. Since L. rhamnosus GG is used in dairy products, and the patient ingested dairy products daily before starting chemotherapy, we suspected an association between the ingestion of dairy products and the development of infection. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis using two different restriction enzymes showed that the strain isolated from the patient was identical to the L. rhamnosus GG strain isolated from dairy products and ATCC #53103. This was confirmed by a PCR assay with species-specific L. rhamnosus GG primers. Since Lactobacillus infection, particularly L. rhamnosus infection, can be fatal in immunocompromised hosts, we should consider Lactobacillus as a causative organism when Gram-positive rods are detected during treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics and vancomycin. The causal association between the ingestion of dairy products containing Lactobacillus and Lactobacillus infection in immunocompromised hosts warrants further study.
Full Text Available The article describes actual pediatric problem — frequent development of respiratory infections in children. Authors present the results of Russian multicenter study of effectiveness and safety of pidotimod (Imunorix in frequently ailing children. It was shown that treatment with pidotimod during 30 days resulted in decreased rate of acute respiratory infections and their complications including ones with necessity of antibacterial therapy compared to children from control group. The dynamics of immunological rates in blood serum was studied.Key words: frequently ailing children, acute respiratory infections, prophylaxis, pidotimod.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2010;9(2:40-44
Full Text Available There it is described a comprehensive program of physical rehabilitation, which aims at the prevention of acute respiratory diseases in children of primary school age. The research involved 106 children aged 6-9 years. Comprehensive program of physical rehabilitation included: aromafitotherapy and cryomassage of feet. The research proves that using of the mentioned methods leads to improving health, a significant decrease in throat hyperemia, cough and nasal discharge. It also helps to normalize the indices of breathing and physical development of children. More visible effect was observed while using the essential oils of sage and composition of essential oils (sage, lavender, mint. It is proved that the use of aromafitotherapy and cryomassage of feet helps to reduce the frequency of acute respiratory infections and exacerbations of chronic diseases of children upper respiratory organs at age of 6-12 months. It significantly reduces the number of days when children have to be absent at school because of illness.
Ribeiro, Joana; Ferreira, Delfim; Arrabalde, Célia; Almeida, Sandra; Baldaque, Inês; Sousa, Hugo
To characterize the prevalence of rotavirus (RV) and adenovirus (AdV) infections in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis. The presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was evaluated in 509 stool samples obtained between January 2009 and December 2010 from 200 immunocompromised patients (83 females and 117 males; median age 21 years old, range 0-72. The diagnosis of infection was performed as a routine procedure and the presence of RV and AdV (serotypes 40 and 41) was determined by immunochromatography using the RIDA(®) Quick Rota-Adeno-Kombi kit (r-Biopharm, Darmstadt, Germany). The data analysis and description of seasonal frequencies were performed using computer software IBM(®) SPSS(®) (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) Statistics version 20.0 for Mac. The frequencies of infection were compared into different age and gender groups by χ(2) test. The study revealed 12.4% AdV positive samples and 0.8% RV positive samples, which correspond to a prevalence of 6.5% and 1.5%, respectively. AdV was more frequent between October 2009 and April 2010, while RV was identified in April 2010 and July 2010. The stool analysis revealed that from the 509 samples, 63 (12.4%) were positive for AdV and 4 (0.8%) positive for RV, which by resuming the information of each patient, lead to an overall prevalence of AdV and RV of 6.5% (13/200 patients) and 1.5% (3/200 patients), respectively. The stratification of the analysis regarding age groups showed a tendency to an increased prevalence of infection in paediatric patients between 0-10 years old. Considering the seasonal distribution of these infections, our study revealed that AdV infection was more frequent between October 2009 and April 2010, while RV infection was characterized by two distinct peaks (April 2010 and July 2010). The overall prevalence of AdV and RV infection in immunocompromised patients with acute gastroenteritis was 8% and AdV was the most prevalent agent.
Demirkan, Eda; Kırdar, Sevin; Ceylan, Emel; Yenigün, Ayşe; Kurt Ömürlü, İmran
Rhinovirus (RV) is one of the most frequent causative agent of acute respiratory tract infections in the world. The virus may cause a mild cold, as well as more serious clinical symptoms in patients with immune system deficiency or comorbidities. Rhinoviruses have been identified by molecular methods under three types: RV-A, RV-B and RV-C. In most of the cases, it was reported that RV-A and RV-C were related with lower respiratory tract infections and asthma exacerbations, while RV-B was rarely reported in lower respiratory tract infections. The main objective of this study was to investigate RV species by sequence analysis in nasopharyngeal samples in pediatric and adult patients who were admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections and to establish the relationship between species and age, gender and clinical diagnosis of the patients. Secondly, it was planned to emphasize the efficiency of the sequence analysis method in the determination of RV species. One hundred twenty seven patients (children and adults) who were followed up with acute respiratory tract infections in our university hospital were evaluated between January 2014 and January 2016. Viral loads were determined by quantitative real-time PCR in RV positive patients detected by a commercial kit in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. Thirty-one samples whose viral loads could not be determined were excluded from the study. The remaining 96 samples (50 children and 46 adults) were retested by conventional PCR using the target of VP4/VP2 gene region. A total of 65 samples (32 adults and 33 children) with the bands (549 bp) corresponding to the VP4/VP2 gene regions after the conventional PCR were analyzed by DNA sequencing. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbour-joining method. After sequence analysis it was determined that 28 (43.07%) were RV-A, 7 (10.76%) were RV-B and 28 (43.07%) were RV-C; and moreover one of each enterovirus (EV) species EV-D68 (1.53%) and EV-C (1
Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars
Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456,532 antibiotic prescriptions issued between July 2012 and June 2013. Pneumonia was the most common indication with 178,354 prescriptions (39%), followed by acute tonsillitis (21%) and acute otitis media (19%). In total, penicillin V accounted for 58% of all prescriptions, followed by macrolides (18%) and amoxicillin (15%). The use of second-line agents increased with age for all indications, and comprised more than 40% of the prescriptions in patients aged >75 years. Women were more often prescribed antibiotics regardless of clinical indication. This is the first Danish study to characterise antibiotic prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second-line agents like macrolides and amoxicillin with or without clavulanic acid are overused. Strategies to improve the quality of antibiotic prescribing especially for pneumonia, acute otitis media and acute rhinosinusitis are warranted. TRACKING THE OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS: Better adherence to guidelines for prescribing antibiotics for different respiratory tract infections are warranted in Danish general practice. The over-use of antibiotics, particularly so
Lanford, Robert E; Feng, Zongdi; Chavez, Deborah; Guerra, Bernadette; Brasky, Kathleen M; Zhou, Yan; Yamane, Daisuke; Perelson, Alan S; Walker, Christopher M; Lemon, Stanley M
Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is an hepatotropic human picornavirus that is associated only with acute infection. Its pathogenesis is not well understood because there are few studies in animal models using modern methodologies. We characterized HAV infections in three chimpanzees, quantifying viral RNA by quantitative RT-PCR and examining critical aspects of the innate immune response including intrahepatic IFN-stimulated gene expression. We compared these infection profiles with similar studies of chimpanzees infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV), an hepatotropic flavivirus that frequently causes persistent infection. Surprisingly, HAV-infected animals exhibited very limited induction of type I IFN-stimulated genes in the liver compared with chimpanzees with acute resolving HCV infection, despite similar levels of viremia and 100-fold greater quantities of viral RNA in the liver. Minimal IFN-stimulated gene 15 and IFIT1 responses peaked 1-2 wk after HAV challenge and then subsided despite continuing high hepatic viral RNA. An acute inflammatory response at 3-4 wk correlated with the appearance of virus-specific antibodies and apoptosis and proliferation of hepatocytes. Despite this, HAV RNA persisted in the liver for months, remaining present long after clearance from serum and feces and revealing dramatic differences in the kinetics of clearance in the three compartments. Viral RNA was detected in the liver for significantly longer (35 to >48 wk) than HCV RNA in animals with acute resolving HCV infection (10-20 wk). Collectively, these findings indicate that HAV is far stealthier than HCV early in the course of acute resolving infection. HAV infections represent a distinctly different paradigm in virus-host interactions within the liver.
Roth, Daniel E; Gaffey, Michelle F; Smith-Romero, Evelyn; Fitzpatrick, Tiffany; Morris, Shaun K
To explore the variability in childhood acute respiratory infection case definitions for research in low-income settings where there is limited access to laboratory or radiologic investigations. We conducted a systematic review of community-based, longitudinal studies in South Asia published from January 1990 to August 2013, in which childhood acute respiratory infection outcomes were reported. Case definitions were classified by their label (e.g. pneumonia, acute lower respiratory infection) and clinical content 'signatures' (array of clinical features that would be always present, conditionally present or always absent among cases). Case definition heterogeneity was primarily assessed by the number of unique case definitions overall and by label. We also compared case definition-specific acute respiratory infection incidence rates for studies reporting incidence rates for multiple case definitions. In 56 eligible studies, we found 124 acute respiratory infection case definitions. Of 90 case definitions for which clinical content was explicitly defined, 66 (73%) were unique. There was a high degree of content heterogeneity among case definitions with the same label, and some content signatures were assigned multiple labels. Within studies for which incidence rates were reported for multiple case definitions, variation in content was always associated with a change in incidence rate, even when the content differed by a single clinical feature. There has been a wide variability in case definition label and content combinations to define acute upper and lower respiratory infections in children in community-based studies in South Asia over the past two decades. These inconsistencies have important implications for the synthesis and translation of knowledge regarding the prevention and treatment of childhood acute respiratory infection. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to assess the efficacy of bacterial lysate for prevention of acute respiratory infections. The article provides results of monitoring children in the orphanage who were administered the medication of this group as a prophylactic drug against acute respiratory infections. Children also from orphanages who were not administered the medication were selected as a control group. It was found that out of 80 children who underwent preventive treatment, only 26 children fell ill, while out of 80 children in the control group so did 78 orphans. The results achieved allowed the topical immunologic response modifier to be recommended as a general preventive medication for wide use in children in the period of seasonal respiratory infection incidence rate pickup.Key words: influenza, acute respiratory infections, preventive treatment, children.
Graziella V Direnzo
Full Text Available Amphibians vary in their response to infection by the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd. Highly susceptible species are the first to decline and/or disappear once Bd arrives at a site. These competent hosts likely facilitate Bd proliferation because of ineffective innate and/or acquired immune defenses. We show that Atelopus zeteki, a highly susceptible species that has undergone substantial population declines throughout its range, rapidly and exponentially increases skin Bd infection intensity, achieving intensities that are several orders of magnitude greater than most other species reported. We experimentally infected individuals that were never exposed to Bd (n = 5 or previously exposed to an attenuated Bd strain (JEL427-P39; n = 3. Within seven days post-inoculation, the average Bd infection intensity was 18,213 zoospores (SE: 9,010; range: 0 to 66,928. Both average Bd infection intensity and zoospore output (i.e., the number of zoospores released per minute by an infected individual increased exponentially until time of death (t50 = 7.018, p<0.001, t46 = 3.164, p = 0.001, respectively. Mean Bd infection intensity and zoospore output at death were 4,334,422 zoospores (SE: 1,236,431 and 23.55 zoospores per minute (SE: 22.78, respectively, with as many as 9,584,158 zoospores on a single individual. The daily percent increases in Bd infection intensity and zoospore output were 35.4% (SE: 0.05 and 13.1% (SE: 0.04, respectively. We also found that Bd infection intensity and zoospore output were positively correlated (t43 = 3.926, p<0.001. All animals died between 22 and 33 days post-inoculation (mean: 28.88; SE: 1.58. Prior Bd infection had no effect on survival, Bd infection intensity, or zoospore output. We conclude that A. zeteki, a highly susceptible amphibian species, may be an acute supershedder. Our results can inform epidemiological models to estimate Bd outbreak probability, especially as they relate
Tsatsralt-Od, Bira; Takahashi, Masaharu; Endo, Kazunori; Buyankhuu, Osorjin; Baatarkhuu, Oidov; Nishizawa, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Hiroaki
One hundred ten consecutive patients (60 males and 50 females; age, mean +/- standard deviation [SD], 22.6 +/- 6.4 years; range 16-48 years) who were clinically diagnosed with sporadic acute hepatitis between December 2004 and January 2005 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, were studied. IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus were detected in 18 patients (16.4%), IgM antibodies to hepatitis B core (anti-HBc IgM) in 38 patients (34.5%) including two patients with concurrent hepatitis delta virus (HDV) infection, and hepatitis C virus RNA in nine patients (8.2%). There were 30 hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers who had detectable hepatitis B surface antigen and antibodies to HDV but were negative for anti-HBc IgM, suggesting that they acquired type D acute hepatitis due to superinfection of HDV on a background of chronic HBV infection. None had IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus (HEV). Consequently, 16.4, 32.7, 6.4, 1.8, and 27.3% of the patients were diagnosed as having acute hepatitis of type A, B, C, type B + D (HBV/HDV coinfection), and type D (superinfection of HDV), respectively. The cause of hepatitis was not known in the remaining 17 patients (15.5%). All 18 HAV isolates were genotyped as IA, all 9 HCV isolates were genotyped as 1b, and all 32 HDV isolates were classified into genotype I. The distribution of HBV genotypes among the 67 HBV isolates was A (1.5%, n = 1) and D (98.5%, n = 66). The present study indicates that de novo infections of HAV, HBV, HCV, and HDV are prevalent among young adults in Mongolia. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Montagner, Francisco; Jacinto, Rogério Castilho; Correa Signoretti, Fernanda Graziela; Scheffer de Mattos, Vanessa; Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida
Susceptibility to beta-lactamic agents has changed among anaerobic isolates from acute endodontic infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in Prevotella spp., Porphyromonas spp., and Parviomonas micra strains and show its phenotypic expression. Root canal samples from teeth with acute endodontic infections were collected and Porphyromonas, Prevotella, and Parvimonas micra strains were isolated and microbiologically identified with conventional culture techniques. The susceptibility of the isolates was determined by the minimum inhibitory concentration of benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate using the E-test method (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden). The presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene was determined through primer-specific polymerase chain reaction. The nitrocefin test was used to determine the expression of the lactamase enzyme. Prevotella disiens, Prevotella oralis, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and P. micra strains were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, and amoxicillin + clavulanate. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was detected in 2 of 29 isolates (6.9%). Simultaneous detection of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene and lactamase production was observed for 1 Prevotella buccalis strain. The gene was in 1 P. micra strain but was not expressed. Three strains were positive for lactamase production, but the cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected through polymerase chain reaction. There is a low prevalence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene and its expression in Porphyromonas spp., Prevotella spp., and P. micra strains isolated from acute endodontic infections. Genetic and phenotypic screening must be performed simultaneously to best describe additional mechanisms involved in lactamic resistance for strict anaerobes. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Amitoj Singh Chhina
Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Acute respiratory infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in under - five children in developing countries. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the various risk factors, clinical profile and outcome of acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI in children aged 2 month to 5 years. OBJECTIVE : clinical features, laborato ry assessment and morbidity and mortality pattern associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections in children aged 2 months to 5 years. METHODS: 100 ALRI cases fulfilling WHO criteria for pneumonia, in the age group of 2 month to 5 years were evaluated for clinical profile as per a predesigned proforma in a rural medical college. RESULTS : Of cases 61% were infants and remaining 39%12 - 60 months age group, males outnumbered females with sex ratio of 1.3;1. Elevated total leukocyte counts for age were observed in only 22% of cases, of these 3% were having pneumonia, 9% severe pneumonia and 10% very severe pneumonia. Signif