WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute shigella infection

  1. Shigella Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your hands before touching other people and before handling food. (Anyone with a diarrhea should not prepare food ... should be kept away from other kids. Proper handling, storage, and preparation of food can also help prevent Shigella infections. Cold foods ...

  2. Investigating Shigella sonnei Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-11-17

    Dr. Nancy Strockbine, Chief of the Escherichia and Shigella Reference Unit at CDC, discusses Shigella sonnei infections.  Created: 11/17/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/21/2011.

  3. Imaging macropinosomes during Shigella infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühn, Sonja; Lopez-Montero, Noelia; Chang, Yuen-Yan; Sartori-Rupp, Anna; Enninga, Jost

    2017-08-15

    Macropinocytosis is the uptake of extracellular fluid within vesicles of varying size that takes place during numerous cellular processes in a large variety of cells. A growing number of pathogens, including viruses, parasites, and bacteria are known to induce macropinocytosis during their entry into targeted host cells. We have recently discovered that the human enteroinvasive, bacterial pathogen Shigella causes in situ macropinosome formation during its entry into epithelial cells. These infection-associated macropinosomes are not generated to ingest the bacteria, but are instead involved in Shigella's intracellular niche formation. They make contacts with the phagocytosed shigellae to promote vacuolar membrane rupture and their cytosolic release. Here, we provide an overview of the different imaging approaches that are currently used to analyze macropinocytosis during infectious processes with a focus on Shigella entry. We detail the advantages and disadvantages of genetically encoded reporters as well as chemical probes to trace fluid phase uptake. In addition, we report how such reporters can be combined with ultrastructural approaches for correlative light electron microscopy either in thin sections or within large volumes. The combined imaging techniques introduced here provide a detailed characterization of macropinosomes during bacterial entry, which, apart from Shigella, are relevant for numerous other ones, including Salmonella, Brucella or Mycobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Treatment of shigella infections: why sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Treatment options for many infections are becoming limited due to globally emerging antibiotic resistance. Globally, resistance of shigella ... treated with these antibiotics.There is need to train health care workers on the proper management of acute bloody diarrhoea and the importance of adhering to the clinical guidelines.

  5. Update on molecular epidemiology of Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Ila F N; Havt, Alexandre; Lima, Aldo A M

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are important etiologic agents of diarrhea worldwide. This review summarizes the recent findings on the epidemiology, diagnosis, virulence genes, and pathobiology of Shigella infection. Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei have been identified as the main serogroups circulating in developing and developed countries, respectively. However, a shift in the dominant species from S. flexneri to S. sonnei has been observed in countries that have experienced recent improvements in socioeconomic conditions. Despite the increasing usage of molecular methods in the diagnosis and virulence characterization of Shigella strains, researchers have been unsuccessful in finding a specific target gene for this bacillus. New research has demonstrated the role of proteins whose expressions are temperature-regulated, as well as genes involved in the processes of adhesion, invasion, dissemination, and inflammation, aiding in the clarification of the complex pathobiology of shigellosis. Knowledge about the epidemiologic profile of circulating serogroups of Shigella and an understanding of its pathobiology as well as of the virulence genes is important for the development of preventive measures and interventions to reduce the worldwide spread of shigellosis.

  6. Shigella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteyn, Benoit; Gazi, Anastasia; Sansonetti, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Much is known about the molecular effectors of pathogenicity of gram-negative enteric pathogens, among which Shigella can be considered a model. This is due to its capacity to recapitulate the multiple steps required for a pathogenic microbe to survive close to its mucosal target, colonize and then invade its epithelial surface, cause its inflammatory destruction and simultaneously regulate the extent of the elicited innate response to likely survive the encounter and achieve successful subsequent transmission. These various steps of the infectious process represent an array of successive environmental conditions to which the bacteria need to successfully adapt. These conditions represent the selective pressure that triggered the “arms race” in which Shigella acquired the genetic and molecular effectors of its pathogenic armory, including the regulatory hierarchies that regulate the expression and function of these effectors. They also represent cues through which Shigella achieves the temporo-spatial expression and regulation of its virulence effectors. The role of such environmental cues has recently become obvious in the case of the major virulence effector of Shigella, the type three secretion system (T3SS) and its dedicated secreted virulence effectors. It needs to be better defined for other major virulence components such as the LPS and peptidoglycan which are used as examples here, in addition to the T3SS as models of regulation as it relates to the assembly and functional regulation of complex macromolecular systems of the bacterial surface. This review also stresses the need to better define what the true and relevant environmental conditions can be at the various steps of the progression of infection. The “identity” of the pathogen differs depending whether it is cultivated under in vitro or in vivo conditions. Moreover, this “identity” may quickly change during its progression into the infected tissue. Novel concepts and relevant tools are

  7. The infectious hypoxia: occurrence and causes during Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, Ellen T; Tinevez, Jean-Yves; Nigro, Giulia; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Marteyn, Benoit S

    2017-03-01

    Hypoxia is defined as a tissue oxygenation status below physiological needs. During Shigella infection, an infectious hypoxia is induced within foci of infection. In this review, we discuss how Shigella physiology and virulence are modulated and how the main recruited immune cells, the neutrophils, adapt to this environment. Copyright © 2016 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Antimicrobial-resistant Shigella infections from Iran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajbakhsh, Mercedeh; García Migura, Lourdes; Rahbar, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    of 44 Shigella isolates were collected from Iranian patients admitted to Milad Hospital, Tehran, Iran, during 2008–10. Of these, 37 were serotyped and characterized by MIC determination. A subset of eight suspected extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producers (six Shigella sonnei phase II and two...... or the presence of an endemic clone in Iran. ; Conclusions: This is the first known description of ESBL-producing and AmpC β-lactamase-producing Shigella and of PMQR Shigella in Iran. The emergence of CTX-15, CMY-2 and qnrS1 genes may compromise the treatment of shigellosis. Strategies to minimize the spread...

  9. Serum neopterin is elevated in patients infected with Shigella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Kirnpal-Kaur

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neopterin is produced by human macrophages/monocytes when stimulated with interferon-gamma. Production of neopterin is found in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and urine of patients with infections by viruses, intracellular bacteria and parasites, autoimmune diseases, malignant tumors and patients in allograft rejection episodes. Methods In this study, the level of neopterin was determined in serum samples obtained from patients infected with Shigella (all four species and healthy individuals. The study population comprised of 14 patients infected with Shigella and 14 normal controls. Serum neopterin was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results The mean of serum neopterin concentration was 36.32 ± 9.71 nmol/L among patients infected with Shigella and 2.88 ± 0.77 nmol/L in the control group. The mean serum neopterin levels were significantly higher in the test group as compared to the normal group (p = 0.002. Conclusion This study revealed that neopterin was elevated in patients infected with Shigella.

  10. Role of Shigella infection in endometriosis: a novel hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodati, V L; Govindan, S; Movva, S; Ponnala, S; Hasan, Q

    2008-01-01

    Endometriosis is the presence of endometrial cells and stroma at ectopic sites outside the uterine cavity. The natural history of endometriosis is uncertain, its etiology unknown, the clinical presentation inconsistent, diagnosis difficult and the treatment poorly standardized. It causes significant morbidity due to pelvic pain and infertility among 15-25% of women during their reproductive age. The benign disease causes peritoneal inflammation, fibrosis, adhesions and ovarian cysts but displays features of malignancy, like neo-vascularization, local invasion and distant metastasis. Mechanical, hormonal, immunological, environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in its etiology but provide inconclusive explanations. Present study was carried out on ectopic and eutopic endometriotic tissue specimens collected during laproscopy/laprotomy from cases of endometriosis. mRNA was isolated from the tissues and converted to cDNA by RT and subsequently subjected to differential display Polymerase Chain Reaction using seven sets of arbitrary primers. A unique band was identified only in the ectopic endometriotic tissue, which was sequenced. BLAST search results revealed sequence homology to shigella bacterial DNA leading us to hypothesize that infection may be playing a role in the etiology of endometriosis. This is the first report implicating the role of bacterial infection in the etiology of endometriosis. Shigella is known to invade the mucosa of the colon through the feco-oral route causing Shigellosis. The pathogenesis of shigellosis involves inflammation, ulceration, haemorrhage, tissue destruction and fibrosis of the colonic mucosa resulting in abdominal pain and diarrhoea/dysentery, this is similar to the pathogenesis of endometriosis which also involves inflammation, haemorrhage, tissue destruction and fibrotic adhesions of the pelvic peritoneum resulting in abdominal pain and infertility. The non-motile shigella bacteria invade the deeper mucosal layers

  11. Shigella outer membrane protein PSSP-1 is broadly protective against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Ouk; Rho, Semi; Kim, Su Hee; Kim, Heejoo; Song, Hyo Jin; Kim, Eun Jin; Kim, Ryang Yeo; Kim, Eun Hye; Sinha, Anuradha; Dey, Ayan; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Nandy, Ranjan Kumar; Czerkinsky, Cecil; Kim, Dong Wook

    2015-04-01

    In developing countries, Shigella is a primary cause of diarrhea in infants and young children. Although antibiotic therapy is an effective treatment for shigellosis, therapeutic options are narrowing due to the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Thus, preventive vaccination could become the most efficacious approach for controlling shigellosis. We have identified several conserved protein antigens that are shared by multiple Shigella serotypes and species. Among these, one antigen induced cross-protection against experimental shigellosis, and we have named it pan-Shigella surface protein 1 (PSSP-1). PSSP-1-induced protection requires a mucosal administration route and coadministration of an adjuvant. When PSSP-1 was administered intranasally, it induced cross-protection against Shigella flexneri serotypes 2a, 5a, and 6, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1. Intradermally administered PSSP-1 induced strong serum antibody responses but failed to induce protection in the mouse lung pneumonia model. In contrast, intranasal administration elicited efficient local and systemic antibody responses and production of interleukin 17A and gamma interferon. Interestingly, blood samples from patients with recent-onset shigellosis showed variable but significant mucosal antibody responses to other conserved Shigella protein antigens but not to PSSP-1. We suggest that PSSP-1 is a promising antigen for a broadly protective vaccine against Shigella. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Global burden of Shigella infections : implications for vaccine development and implementation of control strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotloff, KL; Winickoff, JP; Ivanoff, B; Clemens, JD; Swerdlow, DL; Sansonetti, PJ; Adak, GK; Levine, MM

    1999-01-01

    Few studies provide data on the global morbidity and mortality caused by infection with Shigella spp.; such estimates are needed, however, to plan strategies of prevention and treatment. Here we report the results of a review of the literature published between 1966 and 1997 on Shigella infection.

  13. Clinical Predictors of Shigella and Campylobacter Infection in Children in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Timothy; Ye, Xiangyang; Stockmann, Chris; Cohen, Daniel; Leber, Amy; Daly, Judy; Jackson, Jami; Selvarangan, Rangaraj; Kanwar, Neena; Bender, Jeffery; Bard, Jennifer Dien; Festekjian, Ara; Duffy, Susan; Larsen, Chari; Baca, Tanya; Holmberg, Kristen; Bourzac, Kevin; Chapin, Kimberle C; Pavia, Andrew; Leung, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Infectious gastroenteritis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. While most episodes are self-limiting, for select pathogens such as Shigella and Campylobacter, etiological diagnosis may allow effective antimicrobial therapy and aid public health interventions. Unfortunately, clinical predictors of such pathogens are not well established and are based on small studies using bacterial culture for identification. Methods We used prospectively collected data from a multi-center study of pediatric gastroenteritis employing multi-pathogen molecular diagnostics to determine clinical predictors associated with 1) Shigella and 2) Shigella or Campylobacter infection. We used machine learning algorithms for clinical predictor identification, then performed logistic regression on features extracted plus pre-selected variables of interest. Results Of 993 children enrolled with acute diarrhea, we detected Shigella spp. in 56 (5.6%) and Campylobacter spp. in 24 (2.4%). Compared with children who had neither pathogen detected (of whom, >70% had ≥1 potential pathogen identified), bloody diarrhea (odds ratio 4.0), headache (OR 2.2), fever (OR 7.1), summer (OR 3.3), and sick contact with GI illness (OR 2.2), were positively associated with Shigella, and out-of-state travel (OR 0.3) and vomiting and/or nausea (OR 0.4) were negatively associated (Table). For Shigella or Campylobacter, predictors were similar but season was no longer significantly associated with infection. Conclusion These results can create prediction models and assist clinicians with identifying patients who would benefit from diagnostic testing and earlier antibiotic treatment. This may curtail unnecessary antibiotic use, and help to direct and target appropriate use of stool diagnostics. Disclosures A. Leber, BioFIre Diagnostics: Research Contractor and Scientific Advisor, Research support, Speaker honorarium and Travel expenses J. Daly, Biofire: Grant

  14. Shigella infection interferes with SUMOylation and increases PML-NB number.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima M Sidik

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is a severe diarrheal disease that affects hundreds of thousands of individuals resulting in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Shigellosis is caused by Shigella spp., a gram-negative bacterium that uses a Type 3 Secretion System (T3SS to deliver effector proteins into the cytosol of infected human cells. Shigella infection triggers multiple signaling programs that result in a robust host transcriptional response that includes the induction of multiple proinflammatory cytokines. PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs are dynamic subnuclear structures that coordinate immune signaling programs and have a demonstrated role in controlling viral infection. We show that PML-NB number increases upon Shigella infection. We examined the effects of Shigella infection on SUMOylation and found that upon Shigella infection the localization of SUMOylated proteins is altered and the level of SUMOylated proteins decreases. Although Shigella infection does not alter the abundance of SUMO activating enzymes SAE1 or SAE2, it dramatically decreases the level of the SUMO conjugating enzyme Ubc9. All Shigella-induced alterations to the SUMOylation system are dependent upon a T3SS. Thus, we demonstrate that Shigella uses one or more T3SS effectors to influence both PML-NB number and the SUMOylation machinery in human cells.

  15. International foodborne outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection in airline passengers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaynor, K; Park, S Y; Kanenaka, R; Colindres, R; Mintz, E; Ram, P K; Kitsutani, P; Nakata, M; Wedel, S; Boxrud, D; Jennings, D; Yoshida, H; Tosaka, N; He, H; Ching-Lee, M; Effler, P V

    2009-03-01

    During 22-24 August 2004, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infection affected air travellers who departed from Hawaii. Forty-seven passengers with culture-confirmed shigellosis and 116 probable cases who travelled on 12 flights dispersed to Japan, Australia, 22 US states, and American Samoa. All flights were served by one caterer. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis of all 29 S. sonnei isolates yielded patterns that matched within one band. Food histories and menu reviews identified raw carrot served onboard as the likely vehicle of infection. Attack rates for diarrhoea on three surveyed flights with confirmed cases were 54% (110/204), 32% (20/63), and 12% (8/67). A total of 2700 meals were served on flights with confirmed cases; using attack rates observed on surveyed flights, we estimated that 300-1500 passengers were infected. This outbreak illustrates the risk of rapid, global spread of illness from a point-source at a major airline hub.

  16. Characterisation of early mucosal and neuronal lesions following Shigella flexneri infection in human colon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Coron

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Shigella, an enteroinvasive bacteria induces a major inflammatory response responsible for acute rectocolitis in humans. However, early effect of Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri infection upon the human mucosa and its microenvironement, in particular the enteric nervous system, remains currently unknown. Therefore, in this study, we sought to characterize ex vivo the early events of shigellosis in a model of human colonic explants. In particular, we aimed at identifying factors produced by S. flexneri and responsible for the lesions of the barrier. We also aimed at determining the putative lesions of the enteric nervous system induced by S. flexneri. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We first showed that, following 3 h of infection, the invasive but not the non-invasive strain of S. flexneri induced significant desquamation of the intestinal epithelial barrier and a reduction of epithelial height. These changes were significantly reduced following infection with SepA deficient S. flexneri strains. Secondly, S. flexneri induced rapid neuronal morphological alterations suggestive of cell death in enteric submucosal neurones. These alterations were associated with a significant increase in the proportion of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP immunoreactive (IR neurons but not in total VIP levels. The NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 blocked neuronal morphological changes induced by S. flexneri, but not the increase in the proportion of VIP-IR. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This human explant model can be used to gain better insight into the early pathogenic events following S. flexneri infection and the mechanisms involved.

  17. Shigella Infections in Household Contacts of Pediatric Shigellosis Patients in Rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Christine Marie; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Talukder, Kaisar A; Azmi, Ishrat J; Perin, Jamie; Sack, R Bradley; Sack, David A; Stine, O Colin; Oldja, Lauren; Shahnaij, Mohammad; Chakraborty, Subhra; Parvin, Tahmina; Bhuyian, Sazzadul Islam; Bouwer, Edward; Zhang, Xiaotong; Hasan, Trisheeta N; Luna, Sharmin J; Akter, Fatema; Faruque, Abu S G

    2015-11-01

    To examine rates of Shigella infections in household contacts of pediatric shigellosis patients, we followed contacts and controls prospectively for 1 week after the index patient obtained care. Household contacts of patients were 44 times more likely to develop a Shigella infection than were control contacts (odds ratio 44.7, 95% CI 5.5-361.6); 29 (94%) household contacts of shigellosis patients were infected with the same species and serotype as the index patient's. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis showed that 14 (88%) of 16 with infected contacts had strains that were indistinguishable from or closely related to the index patient's strain. Latrine area fly counts were higher in patient households compared with control households, and 2 patient household water samples were positive for Shigella. We show high susceptibility of household contacts of shigellosis patients to Shigella infections and found environmental risk factors to be targeted in future interventions.

  18. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal outpatients in Mekelle hospital, Northern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Atsebaha; Dejene, Tsehaye Asmelash; Kahsay, Getahun; Wasihun, Araya Gebreysus

    2015-10-28

    Emergence of increased antimicrobial resistance of Shigella species is a global challenge, particularly in developing countries where increased misuse of antimicrobial agents occurs. There is no published data in the study area on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Shigella among acute diarrheal patients. This study was therefore, under taken to fill this gap. Using cross sectional study method, stool specimens were collected from 216 patients with acute diarrhea at Mekelle Hospital from August to November 2014. Standard bacteriological methods were used to isolate and determine the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates, and data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. Out of the total 216 participants, Shigella was isolated from 15 (6.9 %) of the participants. Ten (66.7 %) of the positive isolates were from children Shigella showed 100, 86.7 and 66.7 % resistance to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole respectively. Low levels of resistance were observed for norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin (6.7 % each). Overall, 80 % of the isolates showed multidrug resistance. Shigella isolates were highly resistant to amoxicillin, amoxicillin and cotrimoxazole. However, ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin were effective. Antibiotic surveillance is needed to prevent further emergence of drug resistant Shigella strains. More has to be done in the availability of latrine, supply of safe drinking water to the community to reduce the disease burden.

  19. A synthetic carbohydrate-protein conjugate vaccine candidate against Shigella flexneri 2a infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalipon, Armelle; Tanguy, Myriam; Grandjean, Cyrille; Guerreiro, Catherine; Bélot, Frédéric; Cohen, Dani; Sansonetti, Philippe J; Mulard, Laurence A

    2009-02-15

    The protective Ag of Shigella, the Gram-negative enteroinvasive bacterium causing bacillary dysentery, or shigellosis, is its O-specific polysaccharide (O-SP) domain of the LPS, the major bacterial surface component. As an alternative to the development of detoxified LPS-based conjugate vaccines, recent effort was put into the investigation of neoglycoproteins encompassing synthetic oligosaccharides mimicking the protective Ags of the O-SP. We previously reported that when coupled to tetanus toxoid via single point attachment, a synthetic pentadecasaccharide representing three biological repeating units of the O-SP of Shigella flexneri 2a (SF2a), one of the most common Shigella serotypes, elicits a better serum anti-LPS 2a Ab response in mice than shorter synthetic O-SP sequences. In this study, we show that the pentadecasaccharide-induced anti-LPS 2a Abs protect passively administered naive mice from Shigella infection. Therefore, this three repeating units sequence, which is recognized by anti-SF2a sera from infected patients, acts as a functional mimic of the native polysaccharide Ag. Analyses of parameters influencing immunogenicity revealed that an investigational SF2a vaccine displaying a pentadecasaccharide:tetanus toxoid molar loading of 14:1 triggers a high and sustained anti-LPS Ab response, without inducing anti-linker Ab, when administered four times at a dose corresponding to 1 mug of carbohydrate. In addition, the profile of the anti-LPS Ab response, dominated by IgG1 production (Th2-type response), mimics that observed in human upon natural SF2a infection. This synthetic carbohydrate-based conjugate may be a candidate for a SF2a vaccine.

  20. Risk factors for secondary transmission of Shigella infection within households: implications for current prevention policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boveé Lian

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Internationally, guidelines to prevent secondary transmission of Shigella infection vary widely. Cases, their contacts with diarrhoea, and those in certain occupational groups are frequently excluded from work, school, or daycare. In the Netherlands, all contacts attending pre-school (age 0–3 and junior classes in primary school (age 4–5, irrespective of symptoms, are also excluded pending microbiological clearance. We identified risk factors for secondary Shigella infection (SSI within households and evaluated infection control policy in this regard. Methods This retrospective cohort study of households where a laboratory confirmed Shigella case was reported in Amsterdam (2002–2009 included all households at high risk for SSI (i.e. any household member under 16 years. Cases were classified as primary, co-primary or SSIs. Using univariable and multivariable binomial regression with clustered robust standard errors to account for household clustering, we examined case and contact factors (Shigella serotype, ethnicity, age, sex, household size, symptoms associated with SSI in contacts within households. Results SSI occurred in 25/ 337 contacts (7.4%: 20% were asymptomatic, 68% were female, and median age was 14 years (IQR: 4–38. In a multivariable model adjusted for case and household factors, only diarrhoea in contacts was associated with SSI (IRR 8.0, 95% CI:2.7-23.8. In a second model, factors predictive of SSI in contacts were the age of case (0–3 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.5, 95% CI:1.1-5.5 and 4–5 years (IRRcase≥6 years:2.2, 95% CI:1.1-4.3 and household size (>6 persons (IRR2-4 persons 3.4, 95% CI:1.2-9.5. Conclusions To identify symptomatic and asymptomatic SSI, faecal screening should be targeted at all household contacts of preschool cases (0–3 years and cases attending junior class in primary school (4–5 years and any household contact with diarrhoea. If screening was limited to these groups, only

  1. Lactobacilli facilitate maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity during Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Guhapriya; Murali, Malliga Raman; Devaraj, S Niranjali

    2009-03-01

    Lactobacilli are used in various dairy products and fermented foods for their potential health beneficial effects. Recently we reported the protective role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus during Shigella dysenteriae 1 infection. Nevertheless, investigations on the membrane-stabilizing effect of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus have not been done. Hence, the present study evaluated the effect of L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus on the maintenance of intestinal membrane integrity during S. dysenteriae 1-induced diarrhea in rats. Rats were divided into eight groups (n = 6 in each group). Induced rats received single oral dose of S. dysenteriae (12 x 10(8) colony-forming units [cfu]/mL). Treated rats received L. rhamnosus (1 x 10(7)cfu/mL) or L. acidophilus (1 x 10(7)cfu/mL) orally for 4 d, alone or in combination, followed by Shigella administration. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the assay of membrane-bound adenosine triphosphatases (Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-ATPase, and total ATPase), immunoblot analysis of tight junctional proteins (claudin-1 and occludin), and transmission electron microscopic studies were performed. Induced rats showed a significant (P dysenteriae 1 infection.

  2. Incidence, clinical presentation, and antimicrobial resistance trends in Salmonella and Shigella infections from children in Yucatan, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Mussaret B; Estrada-García, Teresa; Campos, Freddy D; Chim, Rodolfo; Arjona, Francisco; Leon, Magda; Michell, Alba; Chaussabel, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Salmonella and Shigella cause significant morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Increased antimicrobial resistance results in greater burden of disease. From 2005 to 2011, Salmonella and Shigella isolates collected from ill children at a major hospital in Yucatan, Mexico, were subjected to serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing by disk diffusion and agar dilution. The identification of bla CTX, bla CMY, bla SHV, bla TEM, and bla OXA and qnr resistance genes was conducted by PCR and sequencing. Among 2344 children with acute gastroenteritis, salmonellosis decreased from 17.7% in 2005 to 11.2% in 2011 (p Yucatan Peninsula. While Shigella resistance to clinically important antibiotics remained unchanged, resistance to most of these, except ciprofloxacin, declined in Salmonella. bla CMY-2 and qnr genes are common in Salmonella isolates.

  3. Host and bacterial proteins that repress recruitment of LC3 to Shigella early during infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leigh A Baxt

    Full Text Available Shigella spp. are intracytosolic gram-negative pathogens that cause disease by invasion and spread through the colonic mucosa, utilizing host cytoskeletal components to form propulsive actin tails. We have previously identified the host factor Toca-1 as being recruited to intracellular S. flexneri and being required for efficient bacterial actin tail formation. We show that at early times during infection (40 min., the type three-secreted effector protein IcsB recruits Toca-1 to intracellular bacteria and that recruitment of Toca-1 is associated with repression of recruitment of LC3, as well as with repression of recruitment of the autophagy marker NDP52, around these intracellular bacteria. LC3 is best characterized as a marker of autophagosomes, but also marks phagosomal membranes in the process LC3-associated phagocytosis. IcsB has previously been demonstrated to be required for S. flexneri evasion of autophagy at late times during infection (4-6 hr by inhibiting binding of the autophagy protein Atg5 to the Shigella surface protein IcsA (VirG. Our results suggest that IcsB and Toca-1 modulation of LC3 recruitment restricts LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants. Together with published results, our findings suggest that IcsB inhibits innate immune responses in two distinct ways, first, by inhibiting LC3-associated phagocytosis and/or LC3 recruitment to vacuolar membrane remnants early during infection, and second, by inhibiting autophagy late during infection.

  4. Shigella flexneri serotype 1 infections in men who have sex with men in Vancouver, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmer, A; Romney, M G; Gustafson, R; Sandhu, J; Chu, T; Ng, C; Hoang, L; Champagne, S; Hull, M W

    2015-03-01

    Outbreaks of shigellosis have been documented in men who have sex with men (MSM), associated with interpersonal transmission and underlying HIV infection. We observed a rise in Shigella flexneri isolates identified in a downtown tertiary-care hospital laboratory located within the city centre community health area (CHA-1) of Vancouver, Canada. The objectives of this study were to evaluate clinical outcomes of shigellosis cases among MSM admitted to hospital and to evaluate trends in Shigella cases within Vancouver, Canada. Adult rates of shigellosis were analysed by gender and health region, from 2005 to 2011, followed by retrospective chart review of all hospital laboratory-identified S. flexneri cases from 2008 to 2012. Serotyping and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were performed on these isolates. Although shigellosis rates in men within CHA-1 did not change from 2005 to 2011 (range 33.4-68.5 per 100 000; P = 0.74), they were significantly higher than in other regions within the city of Vancouver (P ≤ 0.001) and the province of British Columbia (P ≤ 0.001). Shigella flexneri rates in men within CHA-1 increased significantly (range 2.3-51.4 per 100 000; P Vancouver (P ≤ 0.01). Seventy-nine isolates of S. flexneri from 72 patients were identified by a single hospital laboratory. All patients were male and predominantly MSM (91.7%) and HIV-infected (86.1%), with most (92.6%) demonstrating CD4 counts ≥ 200 cells/μL. In total, 38.0% required hospitalization. Most (87.3%) had S. flexneri serotype 1 infection, with 72.9% of these representing a single PFGE pattern. We identified high levels of transmission of a primarily clonal strain of S. flexneri serotype 1 in our local MSM population, resulting in a substantial burden of illness and health care resource use secondary to hospital admissions. © 2014 British HIV Association.

  5. Shigella flexneri Infection in Caenorhabditis elegans: Cytopathological Examination and Identification of Host Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Divya T.; Behm, Carolyn A.; Hall, David H.; Mathesius, Ulrike; Rug, Melanie; Nguyen, Ken C. Q.; Verma, Naresh K.

    2014-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterium Shigella flexneri is the causative agent of shigellosis, a diarrhoeal disease also known as bacillary dysentery. S. flexneri infects the colonic and rectal epithelia of its primate host and induces a cascade of inflammatory responses that culminates in the destruction of the host intestinal lining. Molecular characterization of host-pathogen interactions in this infection has been challenging due to the host specificity of S. flexneri strains, as it strictly infects humans and non-human primates. Recent studies have shown that S. flexneri infects the soil dwelling nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, however, the interactions between S. flexneri and C. elegans at the cellular level and the cause of nematode death are unknown. Here we attempt to gain insight into the complex host-pathogen interactions between S. flexneri and C. elegans. Using transmission electron microscopy, we show that live S. flexneri cells accumulate in the nematode intestinal lumen, produce outer membrane vesicles and invade nematode intestinal cells. Using two-dimensional differential in-gel electrophoresis we identified host proteins that are differentially expressed in response to S. flexneri infection. Four of the identified genes, aco-1, cct-2, daf-19 and hsp-60, were knocked down using RNAi and ACO-1, CCT-2 and DAF-19, which were identified as up-regulated in response to S. flexneri infection, were found to be involved in the infection process. aco-1 RNAi worms were more resistant to S. flexneri infection, suggesting S. flexneri-mediated disruption of host iron homeostasis. cct-2 and daf-19 RNAi worms were more susceptible to infection, suggesting that these genes are induced as a protective mechanism by C. elegans. These observations further our understanding of the processes involved in S. flexneri infection of C. elegans, which is immensely beneficial to the routine use of this new in vivo model to study S. flexneri pathogenesis. PMID:25187942

  6. Bacterial Internalization, Localization, and Effectors Shape the Epithelial Immune Response during Shigella flexneri Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippmann, Juliane; Gwinner, Frederik; Rey, Camille; Tamir, Uyanga; Law, Helen K W; Schwikowski, Benno; Enninga, Jost

    2015-09-01

    Intracellular pathogens are differentially sensed by the compartmentalized host immune system. Nevertheless, gene expression studies of infected cells commonly average the immune responses, neglecting the precise pathogen localization. To overcome this limitation, we dissected the transcriptional immune response to Shigella flexneri across different infection stages in bulk and single cells. This identified six distinct transcriptional profiles characterizing the dynamic, multilayered host response in both bystander and infected cells. These profiles were regulated by external and internal danger signals, as well as whether bacteria were membrane bound or cytosolic. We found that bacterial internalization triggers a complex, effector-independent response in bystander cells, possibly to compensate for the undermined host gene expression in infected cells caused by bacterial effectors, particularly OspF. Single-cell analysis revealed an important bacterial strategy to subvert host responses in infected cells, demonstrating that OspF disrupts concomitant gene expression of proinflammatory, apoptosis, and stress pathways within cells. This study points to novel mechanisms through which bacterial internalization, localization, and injected effectors orchestrate immune response transcriptional signatures. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Shigella dysenteriae infection activates proinflammatory response through β-catenin/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopal, Ashidha; Chidambaram, Iyer Soumya; Devaraj, Niranjali; Devaraj, Halagowder

    2017-01-01

    Shigella dysenteriae (S.dysenteriae) the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades the human colonic epithelium resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. However, the mechanism by which S.dysenteriae infection regulates proinflammatory cytokines during intestinal inflammation is still obscure. In this study, we evaluated whether the interaction of β-catenin and NF-κB regulates proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-8 by modulating GSK-3β activity during S.dysenteriae infection in rat ileal loop model. Here we demonstrated that S.dysenteriae infection stimulate β-catenin degradation which in turn decreased the association between NF-κB and β-catenin. Also, we showed that S.dysenteriae infection increased GSK-3β kinase activity which in turn phosphorylates β-catenin for its degradation by ubiquitination and upregulates IL-8 through NF-κB activation thereby leading to inflammation. Thus these findings revealed the role of β-catenin/ NF-κB and GSK-3β in modulating the inflammatory response during bacterial infection and also showed that β-catenin acts as a critical regulator of inflammation.

  8. Shigella flexneri type III secreted effector OspF reveals new crosstalks of proinflammatory signaling pathways during bacterial infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Reiterer Veronika; Grossniklaus Lars; Tschon Therese; Kasper Christoph Alexander; Sorg Isabel; Arrieumerlou Cécile

    2011-01-01

    Shigella flexneri type III secreted effector OspF harbors a phosphothreonine lyase activity that irreversibly dephosphorylates MAP kinases (MAPKs) p38 and ERK in infected epithelial cells and thereby dampens innate immunity. Whereas this activity has been well characterized the impact of OspF on other host signaling pathways that control inflammation was unknown. Here we report that OspF potentiates the activation of the MAPK JNK and the transcription factor NF ?B during S. flexneri infection...

  9. Systems-Level Overview of Host Protein Phosphorylation During Shigella flexneri Infection Revealed by Phosphoproteomics*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Christoph; Ahrné, Erik; Kasper, Christoph A.; Tschon, Therese; Sorg, Isabel; Dreier, Roland F.; Schmidt, Alexander; Arrieumerlou, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans. During infection, several injected effector proteins promote bacterial internalization, and interfere with multiple host cell responses. To obtain a systems-level overview of host signaling during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein phosphorylation by liquid chromatography-tandem MS and identified several hundred of proteins undergoing a phosphorylation change during the first hours of infection. Functional bioinformatic analysis revealed that they were mostly related to the cytoskeleton, transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle. Fuzzy c-means clustering identified six temporal profiles of phosphorylation and a functional module composed of ATM-phosphorylated proteins related to genotoxic stress. Pathway enrichment analysis defined mTOR as the most overrepresented pathway. We showed that mTOR complex 1 and 2 were required for S6 kinase and AKT activation, respectively. Comparison with a published phosphoproteome of Salmonella typhimurium-infected cells revealed a large subset of coregulated phosphoproteins. Finally, we showed that S. flexneri effector OspF affected the phosphorylation of several hundred proteins, thereby demonstrating the wide-reaching impact of a single bacterial effector on the host signaling network. PMID:23828894

  10. Systems-level overview of host protein phosphorylation during Shigella flexneri infection revealed by phosphoproteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, Christoph; Ahrné, Erik; Kasper, Christoph A; Tschon, Therese; Sorg, Isabel; Dreier, Roland F; Schmidt, Alexander; Arrieumerlou, Cécile

    2013-10-01

    The enteroinvasive bacterium Shigella flexneri invades the intestinal epithelium of humans. During infection, several injected effector proteins promote bacterial internalization, and interfere with multiple host cell responses. To obtain a systems-level overview of host signaling during infection, we analyzed the global dynamics of protein phosphorylation by liquid chromatography-tandem MS and identified several hundred of proteins undergoing a phosphorylation change during the first hours of infection. Functional bioinformatic analysis revealed that they were mostly related to the cytoskeleton, transcription, signal transduction, and cell cycle. Fuzzy c-means clustering identified six temporal profiles of phosphorylation and a functional module composed of ATM-phosphorylated proteins related to genotoxic stress. Pathway enrichment analysis defined mTOR as the most overrepresented pathway. We showed that mTOR complex 1 and 2 were required for S6 kinase and AKT activation, respectively. Comparison with a published phosphoproteome of Salmonella typhimurium-infected cells revealed a large subset of coregulated phosphoproteins. Finally, we showed that S. flexneri effector OspF affected the phosphorylation of several hundred proteins, thereby demonstrating the wide-reaching impact of a single bacterial effector on the host signaling network.

  11. Prevalence and characterization of human Shigella infections in Henan Province, China, in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, S.; Xu, B.; Huang, L.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, 3531 fecal samples were collected from patients with diarrhea in Henan Province, China. A total of 467 (13.2%) Shigella strains were isolated and serotyped. Seventy-one Shigella flexneri strains were characterized by MIC determination, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and detection...

  12. Shigella sonnei Vaccine Candidates WRSs2 and WRSs3 Are as Immunogenic as WRSS1, a Clinically Tested Vaccine Candidate, in a Primate Model of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Brown AW, Wallace SM, Jones E, Asher LV, Pattarini D, et al. Immune response to and histopathology of Campylobacter jejuni infection in ferrets...WRSs3 a b s t r a c t Shigella causes diarrhea and dysentery through contaminated food and water. Shigella sonnei live vaccine...results in diarrhea , fever, dysentery and considerable gastrointestinal and constitutional symptoms. The low infective dose of 10–100 bacteria, and high

  13. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Run; Yang, Xia; Chen, Lu; Chang, Hong-tao; Liu, Hong-ying; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Xin-wei; Wang, Chuan-qing

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  14. Pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Run Shi

    Full Text Available Shigellosis in chickens was first reported in 2004. This study aimed to determine the pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens and the possibility of cross-infection between humans and chickens. The pathogenicity of Shigella in chickens was examined via infection of three-day-old SPF chickens with Shigella strain ZD02 isolated from a human patient. The virulence and invasiveness were examined by infection of the chicken intestines and primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed Shigella can cause death via intraperitoneal injection in SPF chickens, but only induce depression via crop injection. Immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy revealed the Shigella can invade the intestinal epithelia. Immunohistochemistry of the primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells infected with Shigella showed the bacteria were internalized into the epithelial cells. Electron microscopy also confirmed that Shigella invaded primary chicken intestinal epithelia and was encapsulated by phagosome-like membranes. Our data demonstrate that Shigella can invade primary chicken intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and chicken intestinal mucosa in vivo, resulting in pathogenicity and even death. The findings suggest Shigella isolated from human or chicken share similar pathogenicity as well as the possibility of human-poultry cross-infection, which is of public health significance.

  15. Molecular characterization of multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. of food origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ashraf M; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-02-02

    Shigella spp. are the causative agents of food-borne shigellosis, an acute enteric infection. The emergence of multidrug-resistant clinical isolates of Shigella presents an increasing challenge for clinicians in the treatment of shigellosis. Several studies worldwide have characterized the molecular basis of antibiotic resistance in clinical Shigella isolates of human origin, however, to date, no such characterization has been reported for Shigella spp. of food origin. In this study, we characterized the genetic basis of multidrug resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from 1600 food samples (800 meat products and 800 dairy products) collected from different street venders, butchers, retail markets, and slaughterhouses in Egypt. Twenty-four out of 27 Shigella isolates (88.9%) showed multidrug resistance phenotypes to at least three classes of antimicrobials. The multidrug-resistant Shigella spp. were as follows: Shigella flexneri (66.7%), Shigella sonnei (18.5%), and Shigella dysenteriae (3.7%). The highest resistance was to streptomycin (100.0%), then to kanamycin (95.8%), nalidixic acid (95.8%), tetracycline (95.8%), spectinomycin (93.6%), ampicillin (87.5%), and sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (87.5%). PCR and DNA sequencing were used to screen and characterize integrons and antibiotic resistance genes. Our results indicated that 11.1% and 74.1% of isolates were positive for class 1 and class 2 integrons, respectively. Beta-lactamase-encoding genes were identified in 77.8% of isolates, and plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes were identified in 44.4% of isolates. These data provide useful information to better understand the molecular basis of antimicrobial resistance in Shigella spp. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the molecular characterization of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. isolated from food. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Differential Response of the Cynomolgus Macaque Gut Microbiota to Shigella Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seekatz, Anna M.; Panda, Aruna; Rasko, David A.; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Eloe-Fadrosh, Emiley A.; Khan, Abdul Q.; Liu, Zhenqiu; Shipley, Steven T.; DeTolla, Louis J.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fraser, Claire M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the role of gut microbiota in response to live oral vaccines against enteric pathogens. We examined the effect of immunization with an oral live-attenuated Shigella dysenteriae 1 vaccine and challenge with wild-type S. dysenteriae 1 on the fecal microbiota of cynomolgus macaques using 16 S rRNA analysis of fecal samples. Multi-dimensional cluster analysis identified different bacterial community types within macaques from geographically distinct locations. The fecal microbiota of Mauritian macaques, observed to be genetically distinct, harbored a high-diversity community and responded differently to Shigella immunization, as well as challenge compared to the microbiota in non-Mauritian macaques. While both macaque populations exhibited anti-Shigella antibody responses, clinical shigellosis was observed only among non-Mauritian macaques. These studies highlight the importance of further investigation into the possible protective role of the microbiota against enteric pathogens and consideration of host genetic backgrounds in conducting vaccine studies. PMID:23755118

  17. Association Between Shigella Infection and Diarrhea Varies Based on Location and Age of Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Brianna; Saha, Debasish; Sanogo, Doh; Das, Sumon Kumar; Omore, Richard; Farag, Tamer H; Nasrin, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M; Kotloff, Karen; Nataro, James P; Magder, Laurence; Hungerford, Laura; Faruque, A S G; Oundo, Joseph; Hossain, M Anowar; Adeyemi, Mitchell; Stine, Oscar Colin

    2015-11-01

    Molecular identification of the invasion plasmid antigen-H (ipaH) gene has been established as a useful detection mechanism for Shigella spp. The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) identified the etiology and burden of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia using a case-control study and traditional culture techniques. Here, we used quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to identify Shigella spp. in 2,611 stool specimens from GEMS and compared these results to those using culture. Demographic and nutritional characteristics were assessed as possible risk factors. The qPCR identified more cases of shigellosis than culture; however, the distribution of demographic characteristics was similar by both methods. In regression models adjusting for Shigella quantity, age, and site, children who were exclusively breast-fed had significantly lower odds of MSD compared with children who were not breast-fed (odds ratio [OR] = 0.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.28-0.81). The association between Shigella quantity and MSD increased with age, with a peak in children of 24-35 months of age (OR = 8.2, 95% CI = 4.3-15.7) and the relationship between Shigella quantity and disease was greatest in Bangladesh (OR = 13.2, 95% CI = 7.3-23.8). This study found that qPCR identified more cases of Shigella and age, site, and breast-feeding status were significant risk factors for MSD. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Serogroup prevalence of Shigellae in Bombay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonawala M

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available Prevalence of Shigellae serotypes in Bombay was studied from June 1988 to May 1991. A total of 2758 faecal specimens were collected from paediatric patients (< 12 yrs with acute gastroenteritis. A total of 90 Shigella were isolated giving the isolation rate of 3.2%. Shigella flexneri was the predominant serogroup (73.3% followed by Shigella dysenteriae (16.6%. All the isolates were sensitive to nalidixic acid. Eighty percent of the Shigellae were multidrug resistant. Present data were compared with the study carried out during the period of 1983-87 from the same institute. A change in the serogroup prevalence was noted wherein Shigella flexneri dominated over Shigella dysenteriae since 1985. Increase in resistance to ampicillin and cotrimoxazole was seen in Shigella flexneri strains as compared to previous years.

  19. Socioeconomic Determinants of Ciprofloxacin-Resistant Shigella Infections in Bangladeshi Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randon J. Gruninger

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigella species (spp. are a leading cause of moderate to severe diarrhea in children worldwide. The recent emergence of quinolone-resistant Shigella spp. gives cause for concern, and South Asia has been identified as a reservoir for global spread. The influence of socioeconomic status on antimicrobial resistance in developing countries, such as those in South Asia, remains unknown. Methods: We used data collected from 2009 to 2014 from a hospital specializing in the treatment of diarrhea in Dhaka, Bangladesh, to determine the relationship between ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. isolates and measures of socioeconomic status in Bangladeshi children less than 5 years of age. Results: We found 2.7% (230/8, 672 of children who presented with diarrhea had Shigella spp. isolated from their stool, and 50% (115/230 had resistance to ciprofloxacin. Using multivariable logistic regression analysis, we found that children from families where the father’s income was in the highest quintile had significantly higher odds of having ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella spp. compared to children in the lowest quintile (OR = 6.1, CI 1.9-19. Factors protective against the development of resistance included access to improved sanitation (OR = 0.27, CI 0.11-0.7, and improved water sources (OR = 0.48, CI 0.25-0.92. We did not find a relationship between ciprofloxacin resistance and other proxies for socioeconomic status, including the presence of animals in the home, nutritional status, paternal education level, and the number of family members in the home. Conclusions: Although the associations between wealth and antimicrobial resistance are not fully understood, possible explanations include increased access and use of antibiotics, greater access to healthcare facilities and thus resistant pathogens, or greater consumption of commercially produced foods prepared with antibiotics.

  20. Invasion of HEp-2 cells by Shigella spp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidi, Sajjad

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: infection is an important global health problem in developing countries where hygiene is poor and hence shigellosis is a main cause of diarrhoea-associated mortality and morbidity, particularly in children under the age of five. The bacterial entry into colon and rectal epithelial cells has been named ‘bacterium-directed phagocytosis’. This term highlights that the bacteria actively stimulate their own uptake into non-professional phagocytes. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the invasion of HEp-2 cells by spp. isolated from acute pediatric diarrhea in Tehran, Iran.Methods: Three-hundred and ten non-duplicative diarrheal stool samples were collected from the children admitted to Children’s Medical Center in Tehran, Iran. Samples were cultured and suspected colonies were identified by routine microbiological and biochemical tests. The invasion of the two isolated spp. to HEp-2 cells was studied.Results: Of 310 stool samples, 16 (5.2% spp. were isolated, including seven (43.7% and nine (56.3% . Four (44.4% and seven (42.8% showed invasive phenotype to HEp-2.Conclusion: and are reported as the most prevalent spp. in nature which infect humans. Invasion of various cell lines gives the chance of survival to spp. This ability causes more virulent infections in the host. Despite costly and time consuming cell culture techniques, the current method described in this paper is reliable for detecting invasive behavior of spp. Results have also shown that not all the spp. are able to invade intestinal epithelial cells.

  1. The worldwide spread of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, C-S; Izumiya, H; Kawamura, M; Liao, Y-S; Su, Y-S; Wu, H-H; Chen, W-C; Lo, Y-C

    2016-04-01

    Ciprofloxacin-resistant shigellosis outbreaks among men who have sex with men (MSM) have not been reported in Asia. During 3 March to 6 May 2015, the Notifiable Disease Surveillance System detected nine non-imported Shigella sonnei infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) -infected Taiwanese MSM. We conducted a molecular epidemiological investigation using a 1 : 5 matched case-control study and laboratory characterizations for the isolates. Of the nine patients, four reported engagement in oral-anal sex before illness onset. Shigellosis was associated with a syphilis report within 12 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 8.6; 95% CI 1.05-70.3) and no HIV outpatient follow-up within 12 months (aOR 22.3; 95% CI 2.5-201). Shigella sonnei isolates from the nine patients were all ciprofloxacin-resistant and the resistance was associated with S83L and D87G mutations in gyrA and S80I mutation in parC. The nine outbreak isolates were discriminated into two closely related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) genotypes and seven 8-locus multilocus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA8) types that suggest multiple sources of infections for the outbreak and possible under-recognition of infection among Taiwanese MSM. The outbreak isolates were characterized to be variants of the intercontinentally transmitted SS18.1 clone, which falls into the globally prevalent phylogenetic sub-lineage IIIb. Inter-database pattern similarity searching indicated that the two PFGE genotypes had emerged in the USA and Japan. The epidemiological characteristics of this outbreak suggest roles of risky sexual behaviours or networks in S. sonnei transmission. We urge enhanced surveillance and risk-reduction interventions regionally against the interplay of HIV and shigellosis among MSM. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alteration of HLA-B27 Peptide Presentation after Infection of Transfected Murine L Cells by Shigella flexneri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisgérault, Florence; Mounier, Joëlle; Tieng, Vannary; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Khalil-Daher, Iman; Schmid, Michel; Sansonetti, Philippe; Charron, Dominique; Toubert, Antoine

    1998-01-01

    Shigella flexneri is a triggering agent for reactive arthritis in HLA-B27-susceptible individuals. Considering the intracellular multiplication of bacteria, it seems likely that bacterial peptides may be presented by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I pathway. To examine this hypothesis, we infected HLA-B*2705- and/or human β2-microglobulin-transfected murine L-cell lines with M90T, an invasive strain of S. flexneri. Bacterial infection induced no detectable modifications in the biosynthesis and expression level of HLA-B27, as assessed by immunoprecipitation, Northern blot analysis, and flow cytometry. Using confocal microscopy, we observed that bacterial infection induced a clustering of HLA-B27 molecules during macropinocytosis and before bacterial dissemination from cell to cell. Peptides naturally bound to HLA-B27 molecules were acid eluted from infected cells and separated by high-performance liquid chromatography. Major differences were observed in high-performance liquid chromatography profiles and in the nature of peptides presented following bacterial infection. Although most of the antigens presented were not accessed by Edman degradation, we obtained two sequences partially homologous to bacterial proteins. These peptides lacked the major HLA-B27 peptide anchor (Arg) at position 2, and one had an unusual length of 14 amino acids. These data suggest that alterations in the peptide presentation by HLA-B27 occur during infection, which could be relevant to the pathogenesis of HLA-B27-related arthritis. PMID:9712804

  3. Outbreaks of Shigella sonnei infections in Denmark and Australia linked to consumption of imported raw baby corn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, H.C.; Ethelberg, S.; Olsen, K.E.P.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections in Denmark and Australia associated with imported baby corn from one packing shed in Thailand. We reviewed nationwide surveillance and undertook case finding, food trace-back and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental...... samples. A recall of baby corn and sugar snaps was based on descriptive epidemiological evidence. In Denmark, we undertook a retrospective cohort study in one workplace. In total, 215 cases were laboratory-confirmed in Denmark, and 12 in Australia. In a multivariable analysis, baby corn was the only...... independent risk factor. Antibiotic resistance and PFGE outbreak profiles in Denmark and Australia were indistinguishable, linking the outbreaks. Although we did not detect S. sonnei in baby corn, we isolated high levels of other enteric pathogens. We identified a packing shed in Thailand that supplied baby...

  4. Possibility of acute intestinal food-borne infections holiatry: approach with combined pre- and probiotic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Sydorchuk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the study of the efficiency of using contemporary combined prebiotic and probiotic as the component of the holiatry in patients with acute intestinal infection. Clinical and microbiological efficiency of combined pre- and probiotic is well-proven as a bacterial preparation, that could corrects the abnormal intestine microbiocenosis from the first days of acute intestinal disease, caused by salmonella, shigella, citrobacter, proteus, pathogenic staphylococcus. Combined pre- and probiotic can be recommended in the holiatry for patients of different age and sex in case of acute diarrhea syndrome of probably infectious origin.

  5. Shigella flexneri type III secreted effector OspF reveals new crosstalks of proinflammatory signaling pathways during bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiterer, Veronika; Grossniklaus, Lars; Tschon, Therese; Kasper, Christoph Alexander; Sorg, Isabel; Arrieumerlou, Cécile

    2011-07-01

    Shigella flexneri type III secreted effector OspF harbors a phosphothreonine lyase activity that irreversibly dephosphorylates MAP kinases (MAPKs) p38 and ERK in infected epithelial cells and thereby, dampens innate immunity. Whereas this activity has been well characterized, the impact of OspF on other host signaling pathways that control inflammation was unknown. Here we report that OspF potentiates the activation of the MAPK JNK and the transcription factor NF-κB during S. flexneri infection. This unexpected effect of OspF was dependent on the phosphothreonine lyase activity of OspF on p38, and resulted from the disruption of a negative feedback loop regulation between p38 and TGF-beta activated kinase 1 (TAK1), mediated via the phosphorylation of TAK1-binding protein 1. Interestingly, potentiated JNK activation was not associated with enhanced c-Jun signaling as OspF also inhibits c-Jun expression at the transcriptional level. Altogether, our data reveal the impact of OspF on the activation of NF-κB, JNK and c-Jun, and demonstrate the existence of a negative feedback loop regulation between p38 and TAK1 during S. flexneri infection. Furthermore, this study validates the use of bacterial effectors as molecular tools to identify the crosstalks that connect important host signaling pathways induced upon bacterial infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Use of multiple markers for investigation of an epidemic of Shigella sonnei infections in Monroe County, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagupsky, P; Loeffelholz, M; Bell, K; Menegus, M A

    1991-12-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility patterns, plasmid profiles, and endonuclease restriction analysis of plasmid DNA were used in the investigation of an epidemic of Shigella sonnei infections in Monroe County, New York, in 1988 and 1989. The epidemic peaked during the winter, included the simultaneous transmission of the disease from person to person and from common food sources, and especially affected inhabitants of the poor, inner-city neighborhoods, young children of both sexes, and women. Resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, encoded in a 70-MDa plasmid, was found in most of the examined isolates. Unexpectedly, isolates from patients involved in a food-borne outbreak exhibited three different antibiotic susceptibility patterns, suggesting deletion of antibiotic resistance determinants in some strains. Antibiograms clearly separated food-borne outbreak-related and non-foodborne outbreak-related strains, distinguished more strains than did the plasmid profiles, and were useful in tracing the dissemination of individual isolates in the community. Restriction endonuclease analysis substantially increased the discriminatory value of plasmid profiles and validated the antibiogram results. The present study illustrates the complexity of epidemics of S. sonnei infections and shows the value of combining different biological markers in the investigation.

  7. Co-administration of rIpaB domain of Shigella with rGroEL of S. Typhi enhances the immune responses and protective efficacy against Shigella infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitradevi, Sekar Tamil Selvi; Kaur, Gurpreet; Uppalapati, Sivaramakrishna; Yadav, Anandprakash; Singh, Dependrapratap; Bansal, Anju

    2015-11-01

    Shigella species cause severe bacillary dysentery in humans and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The Invasion plasmid antigen (IpaB) protein, which is conserved across all Shigella spp., induces macrophage cell death and is required to invade host cells. The present study evaluates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant (r) domain region of IpaB (rIpaB) of S. flexneri. rIpaB was administered either alone or was co-administered with the rGroEL (heat shock protein 60) protein from S. Typhi as an adjuvant in a mouse model of intranasal immunization. The IpaB domain region (37 kDa) of S. flexneri was amplified from an invasion plasmid, cloned, expressed in BL21 Escherichia coli cells and purified. Immunization with the rIpaB domain alone stimulated both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Furthermore, robust antibody (IgG, IgA) and T-cell responses were induced when the rIpaB domain was co-administered with rGroEL. Antibody isotyping revealed higher IgG1 and IgG2a antibody titers and increased interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) secretion in the co-administered group. Immunization of mice with the rIpaB domain alone protected 60%-70% of the mice from lethal infection by S. flexneri, S. boydii and S. sonnei, whereas co-administration with rGroEL increased the protective efficacy to 80%-85%. Organ burden and histopathological studies also revealed a significant reduction in lung infection in the co-immunized mice compared with mice immunized with the rIpaB domain alone. This study emphasizes that the co-administration of the rIpaB domain and rGroEL protein improves immune responses in mice and increases protective efficacy against Shigella infection. This is also the first report to evaluate the potential of the GroEL (Hsp 60) protein of S. Typhi as an adjuvant molecule, thereby overcoming the need for commercial adjuvants.

  8. Social buffering and contact transmission: network connections have beneficial and detrimental effects on Shigella infection risk among captive rhesus macaques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Balasubramaniam

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In social animals, group living may impact the risk of infectious disease acquisition in two ways. On the one hand, social connectedness puts individuals at greater risk or susceptibility for acquiring enteric pathogens via contact-mediated transmission. Yet conversely, in strongly bonded societies like humans and some nonhuman primates, having close connections and strong social ties of support can also socially buffer individuals against susceptibility or transmissibility of infectious agents. Using social network analyses, we assessed the potentially competing roles of contact-mediated transmission and social buffering on the risk of infection from an enteric bacterial pathogen (Shigella flexneri among captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. Our results indicate that, within two macaque groups, individuals possessing more direct and especially indirect connections in their grooming and huddling social networks were less susceptible to infection. These results are in sharp contrast to several previous studies that indicate that increased (direct contact-mediated transmission facilitates infectious disease transmission, including our own findings in a third macaque group in which individuals central in their huddling network and/or which initiated more fights were more likely to be infected. In summary, our findings reveal that an individual’s social connections may increase or decrease its chances of acquiring infectious agents. They extend the applicability of the social buffering hypothesis, beyond just stress and immune-function-related health benefits, to the additional health outcome of infectious disease resistance. Finally, we speculate that the circumstances under which social buffering versus contact-mediated transmission may occur could depend on multiple factors, such as living condition, pathogen-specific transmission routes, and/or an overall social context such as a group’s social stability.

  9. Severe acute malnutrition and infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kelsey D J; Berkley, James A

    2014-01-01

    Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is associated with increased severity of common infectious diseases, and death amongst children with SAM is almost always as a result of infection. The diagnosis and management of infection are often different in malnourished versus well-nourished children. The objectives of this brief are to outline the evidence underpinning important practical questions relating to the management of infectious diseases in children with SAM and to highlight research gaps. Overall, the evidence base for many aspects covered in this brief is very poor. The brief addresses antimicrobials; antipyretics; tuberculosis; HIV; malaria; pneumonia; diarrhoea; sepsis; measles; urinary tract infection; nosocomial Infections; soil transmitted helminths; skin infections and pharmacology in the context of SAM. The brief is structured into sets of clinical questions, which we hope will maximise the relevance to contemporary practice. PMID:25475887

  10. Detection of classic and invasive E. coli and Shigella serotypes in stools by indirect immunofluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldely de Oliveira Dias

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available IIF in the detection of invasive and classic enteropathogenic E. coli and Shigella serotypes was compared with traditional coproculture methods. IIP results agreed with the coproculture findings in 128 out of 140 cases tested for enteropathogenic E. coli (91% and in 108 out of 112 for Shigella (96%. All cases with positive reactions by coproculture were confirmed by IIP. In the control group it were obtained by IIF 12 cases with positive reactions for enteropathogenic E. coli and 4 cases for Shigella, including two cases of mixed infection by E. coli 026/Sh. dysenteriae and E. coli 0124/Sh. dysenteriae. It was discussed the high sensitivity and specificity of the IIF when compared with the traditional methods, being suggested that IIF is a valuable tool in epidemiological studies involving these organisms and an important aid in the stablishment of an early presumptive diagnosis of the acute infantile diarrhea.

  11. Acute calcific tendinitis simulating tendon sheath infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omololu, B; Alonge, T O; Ogunlade, S O

    2001-01-01

    Tendon sheath infection has catastrophic consequences if not diagnosed. We present acute calcific tendinitis, a simulator of tendon sheath infection with a good prognosis in a 14 year old athletic tennis player.

  12. Early infection and prognosis after acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Reith, J

    2001-01-01

    Infection is a frequent complication in the early course of acute stroke and may adversely affect stroke outcome. In the present study, we investigate early infection developing in patients within 3 days of admission to the hospital and its independent relation to recovery and stroke outcome....... In addition, we identify predictors for early infections, infection subtypes, and their relation to initial stroke severity....

  13. Acute focal infections of dental origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, Ingar; van Winkelhoff, Arie J.

    This article describes the most important pus-producing acute oral infections (dental infections) that can spread extra-orally. Most of these infections are spread by bacteria entering the bloodstream. However, dental infections have a number of other pathways for dissemination. By forming abscesses

  14. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute Toxoplasma gondii Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, Ayse; Tanir, Gonul; Ozkan, Mehpare; Oguz, Melek; Yıldız, Yasemin Tasci

    2013-03-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system, which principally affects the brain and spinal cord. It usually follows a benign infection or vaccination in children. Although a number of infectious agents have been implicated in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been described previously in children. Acquired T. gondii infection presents with lymphadenopathy and fever and usually spontaneously resolves in immunocompetent patients. We describe a previously healthy 10-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection, the symptoms of which initially began with nuchal stiffness, difficulty in walking, and urinary and stool incontinence; he later had development of motor and sensory impairment in both lower extremities and classical magnetic resonance imaging lesions suggestive of the disease. The patient recovered completely after the specific therapy for acquired T. gondii infection and pulse prednisolone. Although acute acquired Toxoplasma gondii infection has not been reported previously in association with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, clinicians should keep in mind this uncommon cause of a common disease when evaluating a patient with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of Shigella dysenteriae type 1 hybrid vaccine candidates

    OpenAIRE

    Fält, Inger

    1995-01-01

    Shigellae is endemic in many developing countries in the world and a major cause of childhooddiarrheal morbidity and mortality. Infections caused by Shigella dysenteriae type 1 areparticularly severe. The major virulence factors in Shigella dysenteriae type 1 are the cellenvelope lipopolysaccharide, the invasion peptide antigens and the Shiga toxin. Little is knownof the relative importance of each of the virulence factors and their role in protective immunity.In this study, the expression of...

  16. The prevalence and antimicrobial responses of Shigella isolates in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Out of the 391 subjects included in the study, 199(63.8%) HIV seropositive and 113 seronegative patients had acute and chronic diarrhoea while 79 were HIV seropositive without diarrhoea. Of the 27 (8.7) Shigella isolates taken from the diarrhea patients, 11 (3.5%) were from HIV positive subjects. All Shigella ...

  17. In vitro adhesion and invasion inhibition of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei clinical strains by human milk proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giugliano Loreny

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shigella is the etiological agent of shigellosis, a disease responsible for more than 500,000 deaths of children per year, in developing countries. These pathogens colonize the intestinal colon, invade, spreading to the other enterocytes. Breastfeeding plays a very important role in protecting infants from intestinal infections. Amongst milk compounds, glycosylated proteins prevent the adhesion of many enteropathogens in vitro. The aim of this work was to determine the effect of human milk proteins on the colonization potential of Shigella dysenteriae, S. flexneri and S. sonnei. To fulfill this purpose, pooled milk samples from five donors, were fractionated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography. Using tissue culture, the milk fractions obtained were tested in Shigella adhesion and invasion assays. Results Our revealed showed that both adhesion and invasion of Shigella species were inhibited by low concentration of secretory immunoglobulin A, lactoferrin and free secretory component. This work also showed that, these proteins bind to superficial and whole-cell Shigella proteins. Conclusions Our findings suggest that human milk may act inhibiting adhesion and, consequently, invasion of Shigella, thereafter preventing shigellosis in infants.

  18. Selective deletion of CD8(+) cells upregulated by caspases-1 via IL-18 in mice immunized with major outer membrane protein of Shigella dysenteriae 1 following infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Ashim Kumar; Sinha, Ajoy Kumar; Adhikari, Rushita; Maiti, Pradip; Mukherjee, Joydeep; Panda, Arpita; Saha, Dhira Rani

    2010-05-01

    Mucosal lymphoid changes were observed in cryopreserved rectal tissues obtained from BALB/c mice infected with Shigella dysenteriae 1, immunized with 57-kDa major antigenic outer membrane protein, and infection after immunization. Our data suggested that caspase-3 is downregulated in CD4(+) cells of immunized BALB/c mice following infection with substantial increased expression of interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon (IFN)-gamma, while caspase-1 is upregulated in CD8(+) cells with decreased expression of IL-4 and IL-10. This indicated an involvement of Fas-mediated lytic pathway for selective deletion of CD8(+) cells out of CD3(+) T cells. IL-18 promotes inflammation and induces IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha as the expression of IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha cytokines was evident in this study. It is assumed that the role of caspase-1 in inducing the CD4+ T cell activity increased with IL-18 rather than CD8+ suppressor cell activity. Bcl-2 is capable of inhibiting the Fas/Fas-L-mediated cell death for helper cells. Overall, the findings indicate that majority of the apoptotic cells were CD8(+) T cells in the groups of infection following immunization, and there might be a selective deletion of T lymphocytes mediated by caspase-1 via IL-18.

  19. Isolation rate and drug resistance patterns of Shigella species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High prevalence of Shigella spp. with multiple antibiotic resistance isolates were observed in this study. Ciprofloxacin may be used as a drug of choice for empirical treatment for Shigella infections. Regular, systematic monitoring of diarrheal cases is also needed to identify changes in the prevalence and antimicrobial ...

  20. Samonella-and Shigella-induced ileitis: CT findings in four patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balthazar, E.J.; Charles, H.W.; Megibow, A.J. [New York Univ. Tisch-Bellevue Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1996-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and illustrate the CT appearance of four cases of acute terminal ileitis induced by nontyphoidal Salmonella and Shigella infection and to review the radiographic and endoscopic findings of these entities. The medical records, CT examinations, and small bowel examinations of three patients with Salmonella ileitis and one patient with Shigella ileitis were retrospectively reviewed. CT examinations were done in four patients, colonoscopy in three patients, and small bowel examinations in two patients. Stool cultures established the diagnosis of nontyphoidal Salmonella enteritis in three patients and Shigella enteritis in one patient. The patients symptoms and clinical findings resolved promptly following supportive therapy and appropriate antibiotic therapy. CT showed slight circumferential and homogeneous thickening of the terminal ileum over a segment of 10-15 cm in patients with Salmonella ileitis. Associated mild thickening of the wall of the colon was present in addition. Small bowel examination performed in one patient revealed a spastic terminal ileum with thickened mucosal folds. Colonoscopy revealed acute colitis involving the colon diffusely in one case, but sparing the distal 50 cm of the colon in one case. CT showed more pronounced thickening of the terminal ileum and a target configuration in the patient with Shigella ileitis. Small bowel examination revealed narrowing, irregular contour, several large nodular defects, and a severely ulcerated mucosa affecting the terminal ileum. Colonoscopy revealed a normal colon and large ulcerations with fibro-purulent exudate in the terminal ileum. In patients with severe Salmonella or Shigella infections or persistent and/or confusing clinical presentations, CT can play a complementary but important role in the initial diagnostic evaluation. 20 refs., 2 figs.

  1. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS: THERAPEUTICAL TACTICS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.N. Surkov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections are quite common among children. Their clinical presentations include intoxication syndrome (drowsiness, low appetite, fever etc, infectious toxic syndrome (toxicosis with exicosis, neurotoxicosi, hypovolemic or infectious-toxic shockand diarrhea syndrome. Sometimes intestinal infections can be quite severe and even lethal. However disease duration and outcome depend on timelines and adequacy of prescribed treatment. Main guidelines of intestinal infections treatment include probiotics. That is why the right choice of probiotics is important for a pediatrician. The article contains basic information upon etiopathogenesis, classification, diagnostic criteria and acute pediatric intestinal infections treatment guidelines.Key words: acute intestinal infections, etiopathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, treatment, probiotics, children. (Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. — 2011; 10 (6: 141–147

  2. Acute respiratory infections at children

    OpenAIRE

    Delyagin, V.

    2009-01-01

    The common signs of virus respiratory diseases, role of pathological inclination to infections, value of immunodeficiency are presented at lecture. Features of most often meeting respiratory virus infections are given.

  3. Blastoschizomyces capitatus infection in acute leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Sanchez, I; Anguita, J; Martín-Rabadan, P; Muñoz, P; Serrano, D; Escudero, A; Pintado, T

    2000-09-01

    Blastoschizomyces capitatus (BC), a filamentous fungus of genus Trichosporum, is as an important opportunistic pathogen in the compromised host. Within the past 10 years, 47 cases of BC infection have been published. Most of the patients had acute leukemia (AL) or related disorders and had received chemotherapy treatment. Due to BC's resistance to currently used antifungal agents, this infection represents a therapeutic challenge and serious complication in the treatment of hematology malignancies. Here we report our experience with BC infection in four patients with acute leukemia or related disorders.

  4. [Associated infections in acute bronchopulmonary infections in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykova, E A; Vorob'ev, A A; Bokovoĭ, A G; Karazhas, N V; Evseeva, L F

    2003-01-01

    A total of 189 children with bacterial complications of the acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI)--primarily with pneumonia and bronchitis--were dynamically examined for typical and atypical pneumotropic causative agents of the infection process (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Pneumocystis carini, and Citomegalovirus). A high frequency rate of the associative infection involving mycoplasmas and pneumocysts was registered (45-50%); it was lower in the cases involving Chlamydias, hemophilic bacteria, pneumococcus, and cytomegalovirus--up to 25-30%. No sharp difference was found between the indices of an infection degree and those of an active clinical infectious process involving the same pneumotropic agent: the biggest difference was observed in Chlamydia infections (9.4%) and the lowest one--in mycoplasma infections (3%). A dynamic comparison of different classes of immunoglobulins revealed that, in acute bronchitis and pneumonias, the Chlamydia and cytomegalovirus infections are, primarily, of the persistent nature; the hemophilic and pneumocystic infections are of a mixed nature; and the pneumococcus one is of the acute nature. The Mycoplasma infection, which is more often encountered in pre-school children, is of the primary type with a trend towards a prolonged clinical course. All pneumonias had a typical clinical course; the clinical picture was compared in 128 patients with the etiological factor (including a description of characteristic symptoms).

  5. Riboregulators: Fine-Tuning Virulence in Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fris, Megan E; Murphy, Erin R

    2016-01-01

    Within the past several years, RNA-mediated regulation (ribo-regulation) has become increasingly recognized for its importance in controlling critical bacterial processes. Regulatory RNA molecules, or riboregulators, are perpetually responsive to changes within the micro-environment of a bacterium. Notably, several characterized riboregulators control virulence in pathogenic bacteria, as is the case for each riboregulator characterized to date in Shigella. The timing of virulence gene expression and the ability of the pathogen to adapt to rapidly changing environmental conditions is critical to the establishment and progression of infection by Shigella species; ribo-regulators mediate each of these important processes. This mini review will present the current state of knowledge regarding RNA-mediated regulation in Shigella by detailing the characterization and function of each identified riboregulator in these pathogens.

  6. Kocuria kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Edmond CH

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kocuria, previously classified into the genus of Micrococcus, is commonly found on human skin. Two species, K. rosea and K. kristinae, are etiologically associated with catheter-related bacteremia. Case presentation We describe the first case of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis. The microorganism was isolated from the bile of a 56-year old Chinese man who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. He developed post-operative fever that resolved readily after levofloxacin treatment. Conclusion Our report of K. kristinae infection associated with acute cholecystitis expands the clinical spectrum of infections caused by this group of bacteria. With increasing number of recent reports describing the association between Kocuria spp. and infectious diseases, the significance of their isolation from clinical specimens cannot be underestimated. A complete picture of infections related to Kocuria spp. will have to await the documentation of more clinical cases.

  7. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral(®)), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed.

  8. Vaccines for viral and bacterial pathogens causing acute gastroenteritis: Part II: Vaccines for Shigella, Salmonella, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) enterohemorragic E. coli (EHEC) and Campylobacter jejuni

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Ryan, Miguel; Vidal, Roberto; del Canto, Felipe; Carlos Salazar, Juan; Montero, David

    2015-01-01

    In Part II we discuss the following bacterial pathogens: Shigella, Salmonella (non-typhoidal), diarrheogenic E. coli (enterotoxigenic and enterohemorragic) and Campylobacter jejuni. In contrast to the enteric viruses and Vibrio cholerae discussed in Part I of this series, for the bacterial pathogens described here there is only one licensed vaccine, developed primarily for Vibrio cholerae and which provides moderate protection against enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) (Dukoral®), as well as a few additional candidates in advanced stages of development for ETEC and one candidate for Shigella spp. Numerous vaccine candidates in earlier stages of development are discussed. PMID:25715096

  9. Prevalence of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species among diarrheal children in Jimma health center, Jimma southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyene, Getenet; Tasew, Haimanot

    2014-02-05

    Diarrheal disease continues to be an important cause of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries including Ethiopia. Globally, intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species remain major contributors to acute enteric infections. The study was aimed at determining the frequency of intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species identified from diarrheic children at Jimma Health Centre, Jimma south west Ethiopia. A health institution based cross sectional study was conducted from March to November 2012. A structured questionnaire was used for collection of data on socio- demographic characteristics. Parasite and bacteria identification as well as susceptibility testing was done using standard parasitological and bacteriological procedures. A total of 260 diarrheal children were included in the study. A total of 129 (49.6%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species. Of these, 107 (41.1%), 6 (2.3%) and 16 (6.2%) samples were positive for intestinal parasite, Shigella and Salmonella species respectively. The dominant isolated parasite was G. lamblia with prevalence of 13.5% followed by A. lumbricoides (11.5%). The least identified parasites were Schistosoma mansoni and Taenia species accounting 0.4% each. Multiple parasitic infections were observed in 19 (7.3%) patients. Shigella species showed hundred percent resistances to ampicillin, amoxacillin, and cotrimoxazole. All Salmonella isolates were resistant against amoxicillin. All Shigella and Salmonella species were susceptible to ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin and gentamycin. The presence of reasonably high amount of intestinal parasite and Salmonella and Shigella species that are drug resistance to the commonly prescribed drugs is a treat to the children and community at large. Therefore, measures including health education, improvement of safe water supply, sanitation facilities and continuous monitoring of microbiological and antimicrobial

  10. PREVENTION OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Karneeva

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of inflammatory diseases of the upper airways and eardrum remains relevant and associated both with high prevalence of this pathology and likelihood of developing complications. Inflammation of nasal cavity’s mucosal lining causes discomfort, while chronic dysfunction of nasal breathing significantly reduces the patient’s quality of life. Difficulty in nasal breathing of newborns and infants results in quite severe complications. Nearly 70% of acute respiratory infections cases in children are complicated with acute inflammation of eardrum, 90% of children under 3 years once develop secretory otitis media, 50% of them have several cases of eardrum inflammation.Key words: acute respiratory infections, otitis, treatment, children.

  11. Colon in acute intestinal infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino, Alfredo; Buccigrossi, Vittoria; Armellino, Carla

    2009-04-01

    The colon is actively implicated in intestinal infections not only as a target of enteric pathogens and their products but also as a target organ for treatment. In the presence of diarrhea, both of osmotic and secretory nature, the colon reacts with homeostatic mechanisms to increase ion absorption. These mechanisms can be effectively exploited to decrease fluid discharge. A model of intestinal infections using rotavirus (RV) in colonic cells was set up and used to define a dual model of secretory and osmotic diarrhea in sequence. Using this model, antidiarrheal drugs were tested, namely zinc and the enkephalinase inhibitor racecadotril. Zinc was able to decrease the enterotoxic activity responsible for secretory diarrhea. It also inhibited the cytotoxic effect of RV. The mechanism of zinc was related at least in part to the activation of MAPK activity, but also a direct antiviral effect was observed. Racecadotril showed a potent and selective inhibition of active secretion, being particularly effective in the first phase of RV diarrhea. The use of drugs active at the colonic level, therefore, offers effective options to treat intestinal infections in childhood. In addition, the colon is the natural site of colonic microflora, a target of probiotic therapy, which is the first line of approach recommended by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition to treat infectious diarrhea.

  12. Shigella Diversity and Changing Landscape: Insights for the Twenty-First Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark; Sansonetti, Philippe J.; Marteyn, Benoit S.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a pathovar of Escherichia coli comprising four groups, Shigella flexneri, Shigella sonnei, Shigella dysenteriae, and Shigella boydii, each of them, with the exception of S.sonnei, comprising several serotypes. Shigella accounts for the majority of dysentery causing infections occurring world-wide each year. Recent advancements in the Shigella field have led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying host epithelial cell invasion and immune cell function manipulation, mainly using S. flexneri as a model. Host-cell invasion is the final step of the infection process, as Shigella's virulence strategy relies also on its ability to survive hostile conditions during its journey through the gastro-intestinal tract, to compete with the host microbiota and to cross the intestinal mucus layer. Hence, the diversity of the virulence strategies among the different Shigella species has not yet been deeply investigated, which might be an important step to understand the epidemiological spreading of Shigella species worldwide and a key aspect for the validation of novel vaccine candidates. The recent development of high-throughput screening and sequencing methods will facilitate these complex comparison studies. In this review we discuss several of the major avenues that the Shigella research field has taken over the past few years and hopefully gain some insights into the questions that remain surrounding this important human pathogen. PMID:27148494

  13. Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... R S T U V W X Y Z Meditation or Exercise May Help Acute Respiratory Infections, Study ... According to a recent study, exercising or practicing meditation may be effective in reducing acute respiratory infections. ...

  14. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis After Human Parechovirus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermeier, Patrick E; Karsch, Katharina; Hoppe, Christian; Seeber, Lea; Schneider, Joanna; Mühlhans, Susann; Chen, Xi; Tief, Franziska; Kaindl, Angela M; Weschke, Bernhard; Böttcher, Sindy; Diedrich, Sabine; Rath, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease occurring several weeks after viral infection. Enteroviruses have been described as potential triggers of ADEM, but the closely related parechoviruses have not. The objective of the study is to assess the prevalence and disease presentation of ADEM after parechovirus infection in a syndromic surveillance program for pediatric infection/inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS). The surveillance was conducted at the Charité Department of Pediatrics in Berlin, Germany, from November 2010 to November 2014. All hospitalized children meeting predefined case criteria underwent highly standardized prospective clinical assessments based on the published case definitions, including for ADEM. Stool samples were independently analyzed by enterovirus and parechovirus real-time polymerase chain reaction at the Robert Koch Institute. Of 105,557 patients screened, 774 (0.7%) fulfilled entry criteria for CNS infection/inflammation, with 114 cases ascertained as ADEM. Parechoviruses were detected in 2.5% of patients with CNS infection/inflammation, including 1 case fulfilling ADEM case criteria with the highest level of diagnostic certainty. We report a first case of ADEM after parechovirus infection in a 5-year-old female presenting with acute hemiparesis 2 weeks after a respiratory illness. Parechovirus disease should be included in the differential diagnosis of ADEM.

  15. Infections in acute leukemia in Indian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: In the present study acute leukemic children were studied to determine the incidence and principal site of infection, correlation with absolute neutrophil count, causative organisms and to standardize the initial empirical anti microbial therapy. Materials and methods: A total 40 children in the age group 6 month to 12 year with acute leukemia relapse were included in this study. A total 82 infectious episodes including 61 febrile episodes were investigated for infectious etiology. Results: We found that the frequency of infections increased significantly with the degree of immunocompromisation specially neutropenia (ANC < 500/cmm. The skin and soft tissue was the commonest site of infection (26.83%, followed by respiratory tract (21.95%. Staphylococcus nonhemolytic coagulase-negative (34%, followed by Klebsiella (17% were the most common organisms isolated from blood. Staphylococcus non-hemolytic coagulase-negative was also the commonest isolate (26% from other sites of infection. Most strains were sensitive to Cloxacillin, cephalosporin and aminoglycosides. Conclusion: For the treatment of febrile episodes, empirical use of beta-lactamase resistant penicillin e.g. Cloxacillin or cephalosporin combined with an aminoglycosides with a broad spectrum antifungal like fluconazole in selective cases at the first sign of infection is recommended. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2013, Vol-9, No-1, 40-47 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v9i1.9672

  16. Status of vaccine research and development for Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Sachin; Wierzba, Thomas; Walker, Richard I

    2016-06-03

    Shigella are gram-negative bacteria that cause severe diarrhea and dysentery. In 2013, Shigella infections caused an estimated 34,400 deaths in children less than five years old and, in 2010, an estimated 40,000 deaths in persons older than five years globally. New disease burden estimates from newly deployed molecular diagnostic assays with increased sensitivity suggest that Shigella-associated morbidity may be much greater than previous disease estimates from culture-based methods. Primary prevention of this disease should be based on universal provision of potable water and sanitation methods and improved personal and food hygiene. However, an efficacious and low-cost vaccine would complement and accelerate disease reduction while waiting for universal access to water, sanitation, and hygiene improvements. This review article provides a landscape of Shigella vaccine development efforts. No vaccine is yet available, but human and animal challenge-rechallenge trials with virulent Shigella as well as observational studies in Shigella-endemic areas have shown that the incidence of disease decreases following Shigella infection, pointing to biological feasibility of a vaccine. Immunity to Shigella appears to be strain-specific, so a vaccine that covers the most commonly detected strains (i.e., S. flexneri 2a, 3a, 6, and S. sonnei) or a vaccine using cross-species conserved antigens would likely be most effective. Vaccine development and testing may be accelerated by use of animal models, such as the guinea pig keratoconjunctivitis or murine pneumonia models. Because there is no correlate of protection, however, human studies will be necessary to evaluate vaccine efficacy prior to deployment. A diversity of Shigella vaccine constructs are under development, including live attenuated, formalin-killed whole-cell, glycoconjugate, subunit, and novel antigen vaccines (e.g., Type III secretion system and outer membrane proteins). Copyright © 2016 World Health Organization

  17. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in dengue viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Sulaiman, Wan Aliaa; Inche Mat, Liyana Najwa; Hashim, Hasnur Zaman; Hoo, Fan Kee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Vasudevan, Ramachandran; Mohamed, Mohd Hazmi; Basri, Hamidon

    2017-09-01

    Dengue is the most common arboviral disease affecting many countries worldwide. An RNA virus from the flaviviridae family, dengue has four antigenically distinct serotypes (DEN-1-DEN-4). Neurological involvement in dengue can be classified into dengue encephalopathy immune-mediated syndromes, encephalitis, neuromuscular or dengue muscle dysfunction and neuro-ophthalmic involvement. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune mediated acute demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system following recent infection or vaccination. This monophasic illness is characterised by multifocal white matter involvement. Many dengue studies and case reports have linked ADEM with dengue virus infection but the association is still not clear. Therefore, this article is to review and discuss concerning ADEM in dengue as an immune-medicated neurological complication; and the management strategy required based on recent literature. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. PREVENTION OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    O.V. Karneeva

    2009-01-01

    The issue of inflammatory diseases of the upper airways and eardrum remains relevant and associated both with high prevalence of this pathology and likelihood of developing complications. Inflammation of nasal cavity’s mucosal lining causes discomfort, while chronic dysfunction of nasal breathing significantly reduces the patient’s quality of life. Difficulty in nasal breathing of newborns and infants results in quite severe complications. Nearly 70% of acute respiratory infections cases in c...

  19. Pattern of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pattern of acute respiratory infections in hospitalized children under five years of age in Jos Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Acute respiratory infections are the commonest cause of acute morbidity in children especially those under five in the developing countries. ... prevalence of 43.5/1000 person per year (39/897).

  20. Sepsis por shigella flexneri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Cabrera C

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta un caso raro de sepsis por Shigella flexneri en una paciente de 45 años de edad quien estando hospitalizada para el estudio de un tumor cerebral, requirió el uso de manitol y dosis altas de corticoides; luego de ello presenta deposiciones líquidas con moco y sangre, desarrolla síndrome de respuesta inflamatoria sistémica, luego se aísla Shigella flexneri en el hemocultivo; recibió tratamiento antibiótico con ciprofloxacina. Se describen las características del caso y se comenta de acuerdo con la revisión de literatura.

  1. How Shigella Utilizes Ca(2+) Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca(2+) responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca(2+) increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca(2+) overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca(2+) responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection.

  2. How Shigella Utilizes Ca2+ Jagged Edge Signals during Invasion of Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, Mariette; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery invades intestinal epithelial cells using a type III secretion system (T3SS). Through the injection of type III effectors, Shigella manipulates the actin cytoskeleton to induce its internalization in epithelial cells. At early invasion stages, Shigella induces atypical Ca2+ responses confined at entry sites allowing local cytoskeletal remodeling for bacteria engulfment. Global Ca2+ increase in the cell triggers the opening of connexin hemichannels at the plasma membrane that releases ATP in the extracellular milieu, favoring Shigella invasion and spreading through purinergic receptor signaling. During intracellular replication, Shigella regulates inflammatory and death pathways to disseminate within the epithelium. At later stages of infection, Shigella downregulates hemichannel opening and the release of extracellular ATP to dampen inflammatory signals. To avoid premature cell death, Shigella activates cell survival by upregulating the PI3K/Akt pathway and downregulating the levels of p53. Furthermore, Shigella interferes with pro-apoptotic caspases, and orients infected cells toward a slow necrotic cell death linked to mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. In this review, we will focus on the role of Ca2+ responses and their regulation by Shigella during the different stages of bacterial infection. PMID:26904514

  3. Invasive fungal infections in acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Vijaya R; Viola, George M; Ferrajoli, Alessandra

    2011-08-01

    Invasive fungal infection (IFI) is among the leading causes for morbidity, mortality, and economic burden for patients with acute leukemia. In the past few decades, the incidence of IFI has increased dramatically. The certainty of diagnosis of IFI is based on host factors, clinical evidence, and microbiological examination. Advancement in molecular diagnostic modalities (e.g. non-culture-based serum biomarkers such as β-glucan or galactomannan assays) and high-resolution radiological imaging has improved our diagnostic approach. The early use of these diagnostic tests assists in the early initiation of preemptive therapy. Nonetheless, the complexity of IFI in patients with leukemia and the limitations of these diagnostic tools still mandate astute clinical acumen. Its management has been further complicated by the increasing frequency of infection by non-Aspergillus molds (e.g. zygomycosis) and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal pathogens. In addition, even though the antifungal armamentarium has expanded rapidly in the past few decades, the associated mortality remains high. The decision to initiate antifungal treatment and the choice of anti-fungal therapy requires careful consideration of several factors (e.g. risk stratification, local fungal epidemiologic patterns, concomitant comorbidities, drug-drug interactions, prior history of antifungal use, overall cost, and the pharmacologic profile of the antifungal agents). In order to optimize our diagnostic and therapeutic management of IFI in patients with acute leukemia, further basic research and clinical trials are desperately needed.

  4. Phage inactivation of foodborne Shigella on ready-to-eat spiced chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Ran; Bao, Hongduo

    2013-01-01

    Shigellosis, also called bacillary dysentery, is an infectious disease caused by Shigella species, including Shigella flexneri, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, and Shigella boydii. Infection with S. flexneri can result in epidemics, and Shigella-contaminated food is often the source of infection, such as ready-to-eat spiced chicken and duck. Therefore, we investigated the ability of Shigella phages to inhibit pathogenic Shigella spp. in ready-to-eat spiced chicken. Food samples were inoculated with individual species (1 × 10(4) cfu/g) or a mixture (S. flexneri 2a, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei) to a total concentration of 3 × 10(4) cfu/g. Single phages or a phage cocktail were added thereafter (1 × 10(8) pfu/g or 3 × 10(8) pfu/g), respectively, and samples were incubated at 4°C for 72 h. In general, the application of more phages (3 × 10(8) pfu/g) was the most effective treatment. Phages could reduce bacterial counts by up to 2 log(10)/g after 48 h incubation when treated with the cocktail, and after 72 h the host could not be detected. Similarly, the host in spiced chicken treated with single phage was also sharply reduced after 72 h incubation. The results suggest that an obligately virulent phage cocktail, such as S. flexneri, S. dysenteriae, and S. sonnei phages, can effectively reduce potential contamination of Shigella spp. in ready-to-eat chicken products.

  5. Cytosolic Access of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens: The Shigella Paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellouk, Nora; Enninga, Jost

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes bacillary dysentery in humans. A crucial step of Shigella infection is its invasion of epithelial cells. Using a type III secretion system, Shigella injects several bacterial effectors ultimately leading to bacterial internalization within a vacuole. Then, Shigella escapes rapidly from the vacuole, it replicates within the cytosol and spreads from cell-to-cell. The molecular mechanism of vacuolar rupture used by Shigella has been studied in some detail during the recent years and new paradigms are emerging about the underlying molecular events. For decades, bacterial effector proteins were portrayed as main actors inducing vacuolar rupture. This includes the effector/translocators IpaB and IpaC. More recently, this has been challenged and an implication of the host cell in the process of vacuolar rupture has been put forward. This includes the bacterial subversion of host trafficking regulators, such as the Rab GTPase Rab11. The involvement of the host in determining bacterial vacuolar integrity has also been found for other bacterial pathogens, particularly for Salmonella. Here, we will discuss our current view of host factor and pathogen effector implications during Shigella vacuolar rupture and the steps leading to it.

  6. Keratitis due to Shigella flexneri.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muytjens, H.L.; Eggink, C.A.; Dijkman, F.C.A.P.; Bakkers, J.M.J.E.; Melchers, W.J.G.

    2006-01-01

    Multiresistant Shigella flexneri isolates were cultured from the cornea and stool of a girl. Genetic analysis showed the isolates were identical. Shigella spp. are rare causes of ulcerative keratitis; there have only been 14 published cases since 1943. Although prognosis after local treatment is

  7. Modulation of Caenorhabditis elegans immune response and modification of Shigella endotoxin upon interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesika, Periyanaina; Prasanth, Mani Iyer; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy

    2015-04-01

    To analyze the pathogenesis at both physiological and molecular level using the model organism, Caenorhabditis elegans at different developmental stages in response to Shigella spp. and its pathogen associated molecular patterns such as lipopolysaccharide. The solid plate and liquid culture-based infection assays revealed that Shigella spp. infects C. elegans and had an impact on the brood size and pharyngeal pumping rate. LPS of Shigella spp. was toxic to C. elegans. qPCR analysis revealed that host innate immune genes have been modulated upon Shigella spp. infections and its LPS challenges. Non-destructive analysis was performed to kinetically assess the alterations in LPS during interaction of Shigella spp. with C. elegans. The modulation of innate immune genes attributed the surrendering of host immune system to Shigella spp. by favoring the infection. LPS appeared to have a major role in Shigella-mediated pathogenesis and Shigella employs a tactic behavior of modifying its LPS content to escape from the recognition of host immune system. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. [INCIDENCE, PREDISPOSING RISK FACTORS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT AND SPREADING OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN THE NORTH-EASTERN REGION OF UKRAINE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malysh, N G; Chemych, N D; Zaritsky, A M

    2016-01-01

    Using data of the branch statistical reporting of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service in Sumy region and Sumy Regional State Laboratory of Veterinary Medicine, the incidence rate, modern risk factors for the development and spreading of acute infectious diarrheas were determined in the North-Eastern region of Ukraine. Under the current conditions incidence rate indices of acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections are within the range of 159.8-193.6 per 100 thousands. pop. Seasonal and epidemical rises are associated with a species of the agent. In the etiological structure of acute diarrheal infections there are dominated viruses, of food toxicoinfections--Klebsiellae pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Enterobacter cloacae (p < 0.05). Predictors of the complication of epidemiological situation of Shigella infections are the gain in the detection of bacterially contaminated samples of milk and dairy products (r = 0.75), for food toxicoinfections caused by Klebsiellae pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae--pastry with cream and cooking meat products (r = 0.64; r = 0.75). Epizootic situation in the region affects on the salmonellosis incidence rate of the population (r = 0.89). There were revealed correlations between the selection of E. coli bacteria from swabs taken from the enterprises of catering, in child care centers and the levels of incidence rates of salmonellosis, acute intestinal infections of unknown etiology (r = 0.59; r = 0.60). Timely detection and sanitation of Shigella carriers are a powerful instrument to reduce the incidence rate of shigellosis (r = 0.83).

  9. Acanthamoeba castellanii an environmental host for Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Amir; Abd, Hadi; Edvinsson, Benjamin; Sandström, Gunnar

    2009-01-01

    The interaction between Shigella dysenteriae or Shigella sonnei and Acanthamoeba castellanii was studied by viable counts, gentamicin assay and electron microscopy. The result showed that Shigella dysenteriae or Shigella sonnei grew and survived in the presence of amoebae for more than 3 weeks. Gentamicin assay showed that the Shigella were viable inside the Acanthamoeba castellanii which was confirmed by electron microscopy that showed the Shigella localized in the cytoplasm of the Acanthamoeba castellanii. In conclusion, the relationship between Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella sonnei with Acanthamoeba castellanii is symbiotic, and accordingly free-living amoebae may serve as a transmission reservoir for Shigella in water.

  10. Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, John; Frank, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Salmonella, Shigella, and Yersinia cause a well-characterized spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from asymptomatic carriage to hemorrhagic colitis and fatal typhoidal fever. These pathogens are responsible for millions of cases of food-borne illness in the U.S. each year, with substantial costs measured in hospitalizations and lost productivity. In the developing world, illness caused by these pathogens is not only more prevalent, but is also associated with a greater case-fatality rate. Classical methods for identification rely on selective media and serology, but newer methods based on mass spectrometry and PCR show great promise for routine clinical testing. PMID:26004640

  11. Oral rehydration therapy of acute enteric infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Zacharenko

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of holding rehydration therapy in acute intestinal infections in both civilian and military care facilities showed that the civilian centers of this type of therapy was appointed by 84,5% of patients, and in the military – 50,16%. The average duration of oral rehydration therapy was 4,0 days at the easy degree of weight, at middle – 5,3 and at a heavy flow – 5,7 days. On average, in easy degree of weight, patients received 1423.7 ml of liquid, at middle – 1092.6 ml at and a heavy flow - 1652.2 ml. Value for patients receiving only oral rehydration solution to patients who received only the infusion therapy and to receive both types of therapy was 1: 6,8: 2,4. Officinal drugs accounted for 62% of all appointments, often used Rehydron (47,7% and ORS (16,5%.

  12. PAIN RELIEVED USING EXTRA ANATOMY PATHWAY IN ACUTE INFECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Abdurachman, Abdurachman

    2015-01-01

    Acute infection is characterized especially by pain as major complaint of patients. In this following case report, it will be shown that pain cause of acute infection can be relieved using acupuncture technique. Acupuncture use meridian as extra anatomy pathway.

  13. Clustering of acute respiratory infection hospitalizations in childcare facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Benn, Christine Stabell; Simonsen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics.......To estimate how risk of acute respiratory infection (ARI) hospitalization in children attending childcare facilities with a recently (within 1 month) hospitalized child is affected by gender, age and other characteristics....

  14. RATIONAL ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN OUTPATIENT CLINIC

    OpenAIRE

    M.G. Lukashevich

    2008-01-01

    An epidemiology and clinical symptomatology of frequently occurred acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI) and opportunities of treatment of patients with these diseases in outpatient clinics are described. New information about effectiveness and safety of antiviral medications in treatment and prophylaxis of ARVI in children are discussed.Key words: children, acute respiratory viral infections, antiviral medications, interferon, interferon inductors.

  15. RATIONAL ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN OUTPATIENT CLINIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Lukashevich

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemiology and clinical symptomatology of frequently occurred acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI and opportunities of treatment of patients with these diseases in outpatient clinics are described. New information about effectiveness and safety of antiviral medications in treatment and prophylaxis of ARVI in children are discussed.Key words: children, acute respiratory viral infections, antiviral medications, interferon, interferon inductors.

  16. Shigella reroutes host cell central metabolism to obtain high-flux nutrient supply for vigorous intracellular growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kentner, David; Martano, Giuseppe; Callon, Morgane; Chiquet, Petra; Brodmann, Maj; Burton, Olga; Wahlander, Asa; Nanni, Paolo; Delmotte, Nathanaël; Grossmann, Jonas; Limenitakis, Julien; Schlapbach, Ralph; Kiefer, Patrick; Vorholt, Julia A; Hiller, Sebastian; Bumann, Dirk

    2014-07-08

    Shigella flexneri proliferate in infected human epithelial cells at exceptionally high rates. This vigorous growth has important consequences for rapid progression to life-threatening bloody diarrhea, but the underlying metabolic mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we used metabolomics, proteomics, and genetic experiments to determine host and Shigella metabolism during infection in a cell culture model. The data suggest that infected host cells maintain largely normal fluxes through glycolytic pathways, but the entire output of these pathways is captured by Shigella, most likely in the form of pyruvate. This striking strategy provides Shigella with an abundant favorable energy source, while preserving host cell ATP generation, energy charge maintenance, and survival, despite ongoing vigorous exploitation. Shigella uses a simple three-step pathway to metabolize pyruvate at high rates with acetate as an excreted waste product. The crucial role of this pathway for Shigella intracellular growth suggests targets for antimicrobial chemotherapy of this devastating disease.

  17. Clinical Features of Adult Patients with Acute Hepatitis B Virus Infection Progressing to Chronic Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojiro Michitaka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Information regarding the progression of acute hepatitis B virus (HBV infection to chronic infection in adults is scarce. Methods. Twenty-five adult patients with acute HBV infection (14 men and 11 women, 18–84 years old, whose clinical features progressed to those of chronic infection (group A or did not (group B, were studied retrospectively. Results. There were 3 and 22 patients in groups A and B, respectively. Two of the 3 patients of group A lacked the typical symptoms of acute hepatitis. No differences were found between groups with respect to age, sex, or HBV genotypes. However, total bilirubin and alanine aminotransaminase levels were significantly lower in group A. Conclusions. Three of the 25 adult patients with acute HBV infection progressed to chronic infection. Hepatitis was mild in these patients. Patients with mild acute hepatitis B or unapparent HBV infection may have a higher risk of progressing to chronic infection.

  18. Self-Reported Mental Health Predicts Acute Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, Lizzie; Barrett, Bruce; Chase, Joseph; Brown, Roger; Ewers, Tola

    2015-06-01

    Poor mental health conditions, including stress and depression, have been recognized as a risk factor for the development of acute respiratory infection. Very few studies have considered the role of general mental health in acute respiratory infection occurrence. The aim of this analysis is to determine if overall mental health, as assessed by the mental component of the Short Form 12 Health Survey, predicts incidence, duration, or severity of acute respiratory infection. Data utilized for this analysis came from the National Institute of Health-funded Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection (MEPARI) and MEPARI-2 randomized controlled trials examining the effects of meditation or exercise on acute respiratory infection among adults aged > 30 years in Madison, Wisconsin. A Kendall tau rank correlation compared the Short Form 12 mental component, completed by participants at baseline, with acute respiratory infection incidence, duration, and area-under-the-curve (global) severity, as assessed by the Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey. Participants were recruited from Madison, Wis, using advertisements in local media. Short Form 12 mental health scores significantly predicted incidence (P = 0.037) of acute respiratory infection, but not duration (P = 0.077) or severity (P = 0.073). The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) negative emotion measure significantly predicted global severity (P = 0.036), but not incidence (P = 0.081) or duration (P = 0.125). Mindful Attention Awareness Scale scores significantly predicted incidence of acute respiratory infection (P = 0.040), but not duration (P = 0.053) or severity (P = 0.70). The PHQ-9, PSS-10, and PANAS positive measures did not show significant predictive associations with any of the acute respiratory infection outcomes. Self-reported overall mental health, as measured by the mental component of Short Form 12, predicts acute respiratory infection incidence.

  19. Acute aortic regurgitation due to infective endocarditis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia M Cortés

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute aortic regurgitation (AAR due to infective endocarditis (IE is a serious disease and usually requires surgical treatment. Our study aims to compare the clinical, echocardiographic, and microbiological characteristics as well as in-hospital outcome of patients with AAR according to the severity of heart failure (HF and to evaluate predictors of in-hospital mortality in a tertiary centre. In a prospective analysis, we compared patients with NYHA functional class I-II HF (G1 vs. functional class III-IV HF (G2. From 06/92 to 07/16, 439 patients with IE were hospitalized; 86 presented AAR: (G1, 39: 45.4% y G2, 47: 54.7%. The G1 had higher prosthetic IE (43.6% vs. 17%, p 0.01. All G2 patients had dyspnoea vs. 30.8% of the G1 (p < 0.0001. There were no differences in clinical, echocardiographic and microbiological characteristics. Surgical treatment was indicated mainly due to infection extension or valvular dysfunction in G1 and HF in G2. In-hospital mortality was 15.4% vs. 27.7% (G1 and G2 respectively p NS. In multivariate analysis, health care-associated acquisition (p 0.001, negative blood cultures (p 0.004, and functional class III-IV HF (p 0.039 were in-hospital mortality predictors. One-fifth of the patients with EI had AAR. Half of them had severe HF which needed emergency surgery and the remaining needed surgery for extension of the infection and / or valvular dysfunction. Both groups remain to have high surgical and in-hospital mortality. Health care-associated acquisition, negative blood cultures and advanced HF were predictors of in-hospital mortality

  20. Effect of Wild-Type Shigella Species and Attenuated Shigella Vaccine Candidates on Small Intestinal Barrier Function, Antigen Trafficking, and Cytokine Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Maria; Levine, Myron M.

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial dysentery due to Shigella species is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of Shigella is based on the bacteria's ability to invade and replicate within the colonic epithelium, resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. Although the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Shigella in the colon have been extensively studied, little is known on the effect of wild-type Shigella on the small intestine and the role of the host response in the development of the disease. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge no studies have described the effects of apically administered Shigella flexneri 2a and S. dysenteriae 1 vaccine strains on human small intestinal enterocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the coordinated functional and immunological human epithelial responses evoked by strains of Shigella and candidate vaccines on small intestinal enterocytes. To model the interactions of Shigella with the intestinal mucosa, we apically exposed monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells to increasing bacterial inocula. We monitored changes in paracellular permeability, examined the organization of tight-junctions and the pro-inflammatory response of epithelial cells. Shigella infection of Caco2 monolayers caused severe mucosal damage, apparent as a drastic increase in paracellular permeability and disruption of tight junctions at the cell-cell boundary. Secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-8 was independent of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Shigella vaccine strains elicited a pro-inflammatory response without affecting the intestinal barrier integrity. Our data show that wild-type Shigella infection causes a severe alteration of the barrier function of a small intestinal cell monolayer (a proxy for mucosa) and might contribute (along with enterotoxins) to the induction of watery diarrhea. Diarrhea may be a mechanism by which the host attempts to eliminate harmful bacteria and transport them from the small to

  1. Effect of wild-type Shigella species and attenuated Shigella vaccine candidates on small intestinal barrier function, antigen trafficking, and cytokine release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fiorentino

    Full Text Available Bacterial dysentery due to Shigella species is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The pathogenesis of Shigella is based on the bacteria's ability to invade and replicate within the colonic epithelium, resulting in severe intestinal inflammatory response and epithelial destruction. Although the mechanisms of pathogenesis of Shigella in the colon have been extensively studied, little is known on the effect of wild-type Shigella on the small intestine and the role of the host response in the development of the disease. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge no studies have described the effects of apically administered Shigella flexneri 2a and S. dysenteriae 1 vaccine strains on human small intestinal enterocytes. The aim of this study was to assess the coordinated functional and immunological human epithelial responses evoked by strains of Shigella and candidate vaccines on small intestinal enterocytes. To model the interactions of Shigella with the intestinal mucosa, we apically exposed monolayers of human intestinal Caco2 cells to increasing bacterial inocula. We monitored changes in paracellular permeability, examined the organization of tight-junctions and the pro-inflammatory response of epithelial cells. Shigella infection of Caco2 monolayers caused severe mucosal damage, apparent as a drastic increase in paracellular permeability and disruption of tight junctions at the cell-cell boundary. Secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-8 was independent of epithelial barrier dysfunction. Shigella vaccine strains elicited a pro-inflammatory response without affecting the intestinal barrier integrity. Our data show that wild-type Shigella infection causes a severe alteration of the barrier function of a small intestinal cell monolayer (a proxy for mucosa and might contribute (along with enterotoxins to the induction of watery diarrhea. Diarrhea may be a mechanism by which the host attempts to eliminate harmful bacteria and transport them

  2. Susceptibility of bacteria isolated from acute gastrointestinal infections to rifaximin and other antimicrobial agents in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoa-Farías, O; Frati-Munari, A C; Peredo, M A; Flores-Juárez, S; Novoa-García, O; Galicia-Tapia, J; Romero-Carpio, C E

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial resistance may hamper the antimicrobial management of acute gastroenteritis. Bacterial susceptibility to rifaximin, an antibiotic that achieves high fecal concentrations (up to 8,000μg/g), has not been evaluated in Mexico. To determine the susceptibility to rifaximin and other antimicrobial agents of enteropathogenic bacteria isolated from patients with acute gastroenteritis in Mexico. Bacterial strains were analyzed in stool samples from 1,000 patients with diagnosis of acute gastroenteritis. The susceptibility to rifaximin (RIF) was tested by microdilution (<100, <200, <400 and <800μg/ml) and susceptibility to chloramphenicol (CHL), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (T-S), neomycin (NEO), furazolidone (FUR), fosfomycin (FOS), ampicillin (AMP) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) was tested by agar diffusion at the concentrations recommended by the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute and the American Society for Microbiology. Isolated bacteria were: enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) (EPEC) 531, Shigella 120, non-Typhi Salmonella 117, Aeromonas spp. 80, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) 54, Yersinia enterocolitica 20, Campylobacter jejuni 20, Vibrio spp. 20, Plesiomonas shigelloides 20, and enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC 0:157) 18. The overall cumulative susceptibility to RIF at <100, <200, <400, and <800μg/ml was 70.6, 90.8, 99.3, and 100%, respectively. The overall susceptibility to each antibiotic was: AMP 32.2%, T-S 53.6%, NEO 54.1%, FUR 64.7%, CIP 67.3%, CLO 73%, and FOS 81.3%. The susceptibility to RIF <400 and RIF <800μg/ml was significantly greater than with the other antibiotics (p<0.001). Resistance of enteropathogenic bacteria to various antibiotics used in gastrointestinal infections is high. Rifaximin was active against 99-100% of these enteropathogens at reachable concentrations in the intestine with the recommended dose. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Vitamin D supplementation effective in preventing acute respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-31

    Studies have consistently shown low levels of vitamin D make people more susceptible to respiratory infections. Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of ill health and mortality. Observational studies have shown that people with low levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, the major circulating vitamin D metabolite, are susceptible to respiratory infection.

  4. Acute respiratory tract infections: a potential trigger for the acute coronary syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harskamp, Ralf E.; van Ginkel, Margreet W.

    2008-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) may be a risk factor for the acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ARTI is associated with an increased risk for ACS up to 2 weeks prior to a cardiac event. The mechanism that may underlie this association is unclear. Infections are

  5. Differential host immune responses to epidemic and endemic strains of Shigella dysenteriae type I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Mohammad Abu; Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Sarker, Protim; Agerberth, Birgitta; Talukder, Kaisar Ali; Raqib, Rubhana

    2011-10-01

    Shigella dysenteriae type 1 causes devastating epidemics in developing countries with high case-fatality rates in all age-groups. The aim of the study was to compare host immune responses to epidemic (T2218) and endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1. Shigellacidal activity of serum from rabbits immunized with epidemic or endemic strains, S. dysenteriae type 1-infected patients, and healthy adult controls from Shigella-endemic and non-endemic regions was measured. Immunogenic cross-reactivity of antibodies against Shigella antigens was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Oxidative burst and phagocytic responses of monocytes and neutrophils to selected S. dysenteriae type 1 strains were assessed by flow cytometry. Rabbit antisera against epidemic strain were less effective in killing heterologous bacteria compared to endemic antisera (p=0.0002). Patients showed an increased serum shigellacidal response after two weeks of onset of diarrhoea compared to the acute stage (3-4 days after onset) against their respective homologous strains; the response against T2218 and heterologous endemic S. dysenteriae type 1 strains was not significant. The serum shigellacidal response against all the S. dysenteriae type 1 strains was similar among healthy controls from endemic and non-endemic regions and was comparable with the acute stage response by patients. Compared to endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1, T2218 was significantly resistant to phagocytosis by both monocytes and neutrophils. No obvious differences were obtained in the induction of oxidative burst activity and cathelicidin-mediated killing. Cross-reactivity of antibody against antigens present in the epidemic and endemic strains showed some differences in protein/peptide complexity and intensity by Western blot analysis. In summary, epidemic T2218 strain was more resistant to antibody-mediated defenses, namely phagocytosis and shigellacidal activity, compared to endemic S. dysenteriae type 1 strains. Part of

  6. Differential Host Immune Responses to Epidemic and Endemic Strains of Shigella dysenteriae Type 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Mohammad Abu; Ahmad, Shaikh Meshbahuddin; Rekha, Rokeya Sultana; Sarker, Protim; Agerberth, Birgitta; Talukder, Kaisar Ali

    2011-01-01

    Shigella dysenteriae type 1 causes devastating epidemics in developing countries with high case-fatality rates in all age-groups. The aim of the study was to compare host immune responses to epidemic (T2218) and endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1. Shigellacidal activity of serum from rabbits immunized with epidemic or endemic strains, S. dysenteriae type 1-infected patients, and healthy adult controls from Shigella endemic and non-endemic regions was measured. Immunogenic cross-reactivity of antibodies against Shigella antigens was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Oxidative burst and phagocytic responses of monocytes and neutrophils to selected S. dysenteriae type 1 strains were assessed by flow cytometry. Rabbit antisera against epidemic strain were less effective in killing heterologous bacteria compared to endemic antisera (p=0.0002). Patients showed an increased serum shigellacidal response after two weeks of onset of diarrhoea compared to the acute stage (3-4 days after onset) against their respective homologous strains; the response against T2218 and heterologous endemic S. dysenteriae type 1 strains was not significant. The serum shigellacidal response against all the S. dysenteriae type 1 strains was similar among healthy controls from endemic and non-endemic regions and was comparable with the acute stage response by patients. Compared to endemic strains of S. dysenteriae type 1, T2218 was significantly resistant to phagocytosis by both monocytes and neutrophils. No obvious differences were obtained in the induction of oxidative burst activity and cathelicidin-mediated killing. Cross-reactivity of antibody against antigens present in the epidemic and endemic strains showed some differences in protein/peptide complexity and intensity by Western blot analysis. In summary, epidemic T2218 strain was more resistant to antibody-mediated defenses, namely phagocytosis and shigellacidal activity, compared to endemic S. dysenteriae type 1 strains. Part of

  7. Towards targeted screening for acute HIV infections in British Columbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Malcolm; Cook, Darrel A; Gilbert, Mark; Krajden, Mel; Haag, Devon; Tsang, Peggy; Wong, Elsie; Brooks, James I; Merks, Harriet; Rekart, Michael L

    2011-08-09

    Our objective was to describe the characteristics of acute and established HIV infections diagnosed in the Canadian province of British Columbia. Province-wide HIV testing and surveillance data were analyzed to inform recommendations for targeted use of screening algorithms to detect acute HIV infections. Acute HIV infection was defined as a confirmed reactive HIV p24 antigen test (or HIV nucleic acid test), a non-reactive or reactive HIV EIA screening test and a non-reactive or indeterminate Western Blot. Characteristics of unique individuals were identified from the British Columbia HIV/AIDS Surveillance System. Primary drug resistance and HIV subtypes were identified by analyzing HIV pol sequences from residual sera from newly infected individuals. From February 2006 to October 2008, 61 individuals met the acute HIV infection case definition, representing 6.2% of the 987 newly diagnosed HIV infections during the analysis period. Acute HIV infection cases were more likely to be men who have sex with men (crude OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.01-2.89], to have had a documented previous negative HIV test result (crude OR 2.89; 95% CI 1.52-5.51), and to have reported a reason for testing due to suspected seroconversion symptoms (crude OR 5.16; 95% CI 2.88-9.23). HIV subtypes and rates of transmitted drug resistance across all classes of drugs were similar in persons with both acute and established HIV infections. Targeted screening to detect acute HIV infection is a logical public health response to the HIV epidemic. Our findings suggest that acute HIV infection screening strategies, in our setting, are helpful for early diagnosis in men who have sex with men, in persons with seroconversion symptoms and in previously negative repeat testers.

  8. [Infections in the child with acute leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, J M; Jiménez, E; Jiménez, R

    1981-01-01

    One hundred and twenty-five febrile episodes in 82 children with acute leukemia were studied; 46% of the patients were from urban and 54% from rural areas. The origin of the fever was identified in 91% of the episodes, prevailing pneumonia, septicemia, chickenpox and herpes zoster. The etiological agent was identified in 46% of the cases. A viral predominance was evident, and among them varicela-zoster, following in importance gram-negative bacteria. Histoplasma capsulatum and Pneumocystis carinii were isolated in two occassions each. Sepsis was found more frequently in children with active leukemia than in those in remission (p less than 0.001). Forty-four febrile episodes occurred in patients with less than 1,000 neutrophils/ul. The daily-risk rate of infection was higher in children fom rural than in those from urban areas (p less than 0.001). After clinical and laboratory studies, methicillin and gentamicin were used, in addition to carbenicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole is selected cases. This treatment was effective in 86% of the cases. Twelve (15%) children died, 6 of whom were in remission at that moment.

  9. Lactobacilli inhibit Shigella dysenteriae 1 induced pro-inflammatory response and cytotoxicity in host cells via impediment of Shigella-host interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, G; Murali, M R; Niranjali Devaraj, S

    2010-01-01

    Shigella dysenteriae Type 1 dysentery is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children from less developed and developing countries. The present study explores the hypothesis that lactobacilli protect the host cell during S. dysenteriae Type 1 infection and its mechanism of action. Caco-2 cells incubated for 1h with Lactobacillus rhamnosus or Lactobacillus acidophilus at the multiplicity of infection of 100, either alone or in combination followed by addition of Shigella at the same multiplicity of infection for 5h served as treatment groups. Cells incubated with Shigella without lactobacilli addition served as infected cells. At the end of experimental period, cells were processed suitably to enumerate adherent and internalized Shigella. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was performed to assess mRNA expression of interleukin-8 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha. Immunoblot for heat shock protein-70 and cytotoxicity assay were performed. Pretreatment with the combination of lactobacilli significantly (pShigella coupled with reduced expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-8 in host cells. L. rhamnosus and L. acidophilus, synergistically offered better protection during S. dysenteriae Type 1 infection by efficiently inhibiting adherence and internalization of Shigella coupled with inhibition of pro-inflammatory response. Copyright (c) 2009 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between hyposalivation and acute respiratory infection in dental outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwabuchi, Hiroshi; Fujibayashi, Takashi; Yamane, Gen-yuki; Imai, Hirohisa; Nakao, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Hyposalivation may affect respiratory disease because the mouth serves as the entrance to the respiratory apparatus, as well as to the digestive tract. Patients with acute respiratory infection generally have a favorable prognosis and a short natural course. However, in cases in which the host has lowered resistance, such as in elderly patients, the infection may develop into pneumonia. A prospective study was performed to examine the relationship between hyposalivation, which is common in elderly patients, and acute respiratory infection, which tends to become severe in elderly patients. The subjects were 323 male and female patients ≥40 years old who lived in Utsunomiya City and surrounding areas and regularly visited the Department of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Tochigi National Hospital. A 6-month follow-up survey was performed to examine development of acute respiratory infection. Age, sex, and known risk factors were also investigated. Hyposalivation was defined as a saliva production (saliva secretion rate) of ≤0.6 ml/min. Multivariate analysis adjusted for age and sex was performed to examine potential risk factors associated with the development of acute respiratory infection. Data were analyzed for 278 subjects who completed the follow-up survey. The incidence of acute respiratory infection was 60.4%, while hyposalivation was present in 96 subjects (35.5%). Multivariate analysis showed that the incidence of acute respiratory infection was higher in subjects with hyposalivation than in those without hyposalivation (adjusted odds ratio 1.761, p = 0.048). The results of this study suggest that hyposalivation may be a risk factor for acute respiratory infection. This also suggests that improvement of hyposalivation might prevent acute respiratory infection. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Growth and survival of Shigella flexneri in commonly consumed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The incidence of shigellosis is on the increase in Nigeria and foods have been strongly implicated as vehicles of transmission of infection. In this study the survival and growth of Shigella flexneri were investigated in foods that are commonly consumed in the country which include cooked rice, beef, cooked beans, fish, ...

  12. Acute pancreatitis complicating acute hepatitis A virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Rokaya; El-Karaksy, Hanaa

    2012-12-01

    Acute pancreatitis complicating acute hepatitis A is very rare especially in children. We report here an 11 year old female patient with picture of acute hepatitis proved to be caused by hepatitis A. One week later patient's condition worsened, she was jaundiced, with persistent vomiting and looked acutely ill and uncomfortable with severe steady abdominal pain mainly in the epigastrium and upper quadrants. Acute pancreatitis was suspected and proved by a clinical picture associated with elevated serum amylase and serum lipase and by MRCP. The patient was managed conservatively with gradual clinical and laboratory improvement, and she was discharged after one week in a good clinical condition. Copyright © 2012 Arab Journal of Gastroenterology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Inside Story of Shigella Invasion of Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carayol, Nathalie; Tran Van Nhieu, Guy

    2013-01-01

    As opposed to other invasive pathogens that reside into host cells in a parasitic mode, Shigella, the causative agent of bacillary dysentery, invades the colonic mucosa but does not penetrate further to survive into deeper tissues. Instead, Shigella invades, replicates, and disseminates within the colonic mucosa. Bacterial invasion and spreading in intestinal epithelium lead to the elicitation of inflammatory responses responsible for the tissue destruction and shedding in the environment for further infection of other hosts. In this article, we highlight specific features of the Shigella arsenal of virulence determinants injected by a type III secretion apparatus (T3SA) that point to the targeting of intestinal epithelial cells as a discrete route of invasion during the initial event of the infectious process. PMID:24086068

  14. Acute Renal Failure in Dengue Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakrani, Girish Pamappa; Subramanyam, Nambakam Tanuja

    2017-01-01

    Acute Renal Failure (RF) is a rare but well recognized complication of Dengue Infection (DI). There has been paucity of published data regarding renal involvement in DI. The aim of the present study was to elucidate different clinical presentations, disease outcomes of DI. To study the frequency, severity and predictors of RF in DI. Patients diagnosed either as Dengue Fever (DF) or Dengue Haemorrhagic Fever/Dengue Shock Syndrome (DHF/DSS) respectively were enrolled for this study. The diagnostic criteria for DI were febrile illness associated with one of the following: 1) detection of dengue-specific IgM capture antibody or Non-Structural Protein1 (NS1) antigen; or 2) a four-fold or greater increase of dengue-specific IgG capture antibody by ELISA and haemoagglutination inhibition assay. Patients were diagnosed as having Acute RF, if serum creatinine was >1.2 mg/dl or who showed improvement by 50% in serum creatinine from the initial value. It is an observational study of medical charts, data of age, gender, and medical history of any underlying diseases in association with the severity of DI of each patient recorded. All of the laboratory results were collected. Parameters that influenced the clinical presentations and outcomes for development of classical DF or DHF/DSS in patients with or without RF were analysed and compared. Descriptive and inferential statistical analysis was carried. The Statistical software namely SAS 9.2, SPSS 15.0, Stata 10.1, Med Calc 9.0.1, Systat 12.0 and R environment ver.2.11.1 were used. Most common symptoms were fever followed by headache and pain in abdomen. Among the patients with RF, all patients had recovery. The patients with DHF/DSS were more susceptible to develop renal failure compared to DF group. There were statistically significant higher frequencies of renal failure, haemoconcentration, thrombocytopenia, low serum cholesterol. Patients in the RF group also had significantly higher percentages of shock, haemoconcentration

  15. APPROACHES TO COMBINED THERAPY OF ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.G. Soboleva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of combined therapy of acute intestinal infections in children with lactulose and pancreatine in prebiotic dose are discussed in this article. Authors showed advantages of combined treatment: significant shortening of terms of symptoms stopping and children’s recovery.Key words: children, acute intestinal infections, lactulose, pancreatine.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. – 2010;9(3:102-106

  16. ANTI – SHIGELLA DYSENTERIAE ACTIVITY BY PROBIOTIC LACTIC ACID BACTERIA (PEDIOCOCCUS PENTOSACEUS; AN IN VITRO STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srividya D.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis caused by Shigella is prevalent throughout the world with approximately 164.7 million cases, of which 163.2 million are in developing countries as per the World Health Organization report. In the current study the effect of a known Probiotic Lactic acid Bacteria (PLB Pediococcus pentosaceus, a previously reported strain of PLB from our laboratory on gastroenteric pathogen – Shigella dysenteriae was studied and its mode of action was established. In agar diffusion tests PLB lysate showed larger inhibition zones of S. dysenteriae than a known Shigella susceptible antibiotic ampicillin which shows a better potentiality of PLB lysate over standard antibiotic. Further the effect of PLB lysate on Shigella dysenteriae lysis was confirmed by electrophoretic and microscopic study. PLB lysate at 250 μg/mL protein concentration inhibited ~70% of Shigella dysenteriae growth in vitro. A significant protection was observed against the cellular damage caused by Shigella dysenteriae lysate. Red blood cells and buccal cells protection against the lysis induced by Shigella dysenteriae lysate substantiated the cytoprotective role of PLB, thus PLB can be an effective natural agent against Shigella mediated infection.

  17. A clinically parameterized mathematical model of Shigella immunity to inform vaccine design.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtney L Davis

    Full Text Available We refine and clinically parameterize a mathematical model of the humoral immune response against Shigella, a diarrheal bacteria that infects 80-165 million people and kills an estimated 600,000 people worldwide each year. Using Latin hypercube sampling and Monte Carlo simulations for parameter estimation, we fit our model to human immune data from two Shigella EcSf2a-2 vaccine trials and a rechallenge study in which antibody and B-cell responses against Shigella's lipopolysaccharide (LPS and O-membrane proteins (OMP were recorded. The clinically grounded model is used to mathematically investigate which key immune mechanisms and bacterial targets confer immunity against Shigella and to predict which humoral immune components should be elicited to create a protective vaccine against Shigella. The model offers insight into why the EcSf2a-2 vaccine had low efficacy and demonstrates that at a group level a humoral immune response induced by EcSf2a-2 vaccine or wild-type challenge against Shigella's LPS or OMP does not appear sufficient for protection. That is, the model predicts an uncontrolled infection of gut epithelial cells that is present across all best-fit model parameterizations when fit to EcSf2a-2 vaccine or wild-type challenge data. Using sensitivity analysis, we explore which model parameter values must be altered to prevent the destructive epithelial invasion by Shigella bacteria and identify four key parameter groups as potential vaccine targets or immune correlates: 1 the rate that Shigella migrates into the lamina propria or epithelium, 2 the rate that memory B cells (BM differentiate into antibody-secreting cells (ASC, 3 the rate at which antibodies are produced by activated ASC, and 4 the Shigella-specific BM carrying capacity. This paper underscores the need for a multifaceted approach in ongoing efforts to design an effective Shigella vaccine.

  18. [Antibiotic prescribing in acute respiratory tract infections in general practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malo, S; Bjerrum, L; Feja, C; Lallana, M J; Poncel, A; Rabanaque, M J

    2015-06-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide threat to public health. Acute respiratory tract infections are the main reason for antibiotic prescribing in the Spanish paediatric population. The aim of the study was to describe the frequency of antibiotic prescription and their pattern of use in acute respiratory tract infections diagnosed in children in Primary Care in Aragón (Spain). A study was conducted over a 1-year period on children between 0 and 14 years-old, recording all episodes of acute otitis, acute pharyngotonsillitis, non-specific upper respiratory infection, and acute bronchitis. The proportion of episodes within each diagnosis receiving an antibiotic prescription was calculated, and the prescribing pattern was determined. Half (50%) of the children in Aragón were diagnosed with a respiratory tract infection during the study period. Non-specific upper respiratory infection was the most frequent diagnosis. An antibiotic was prescribed in 75% of pharyngotonsillitis episodes, 72% of otitis, 27% of bronchitis, and 16% of non-specific upper respiratory infections. Broad spectrum antibiotics, mainly amoxicillin and amoxicillin-clavulanic, were predominantly prescribed. Antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections in children was generally high, and the choice of antibiotics was probably inappropriate in a high percentage of cases. Therefore an improvement in antibiotic prescribing in children appears to be needed. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Shigella IpaH0722 E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Effector Targets TRAF2 to Inhibit PKC–NF-κB Activity in Invaded Epithelial Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Nakano, Hiroyasu; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2013-01-01

    NF-κB plays a central role in modulating innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Therefore, many bacterial pathogens deploy multiple mechanisms to counteract NF-κB activation. The invasion of and subsequent replication of Shigella within epithelial cells is recognized by various pathogen recognition receptors as pathogen-associated molecular patterns. These receptors trigger innate defense mechanisms via the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Here, we show the inhibition of the NF-κB activation by the delivery of the IpaH E3 ubiquitin ligase family member IpaH0722 using Shigella's type III secretion system. IpaH0722 dampens the acute inflammatory response by preferentially inhibiting the PKC-mediated activation of NF-κB by ubiquitinating TRAF2, a molecule downstream of PKC, and by promoting its proteasome-dependent degradation. PMID:23754945

  20. Features associated with underlying HIV infection in severe acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Up to half of all children presenting to Nutrition Rehabilitation Units (NRUs) in Malawi with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are infected with HIV. There are many ... A history of recurrent respiratory infection (OR 9.6, 4.8-18.6), persistent fever, recent outpatient attendance, or hospital admission were also associated with HIV.

  1. Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during Pregnancy and Postpartum Period in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana. National HIV prevention programs in Tanzania, Zambia, and Botswana must effectively address the infection rate among childbearing women during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  2. Features associated with underlying HIV infection in severe acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Introduction. Up to half of all children presenting to Nutrition. Rehabilitation Units (NRUs) in Malawi with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are infected with HIV. There are many similarities in the clinical presentation of SAM and HIV. It is important to identify HIV infected children, in order to improve case management ...

  3. Cellular Aspects of Shigella Pathogenesis: Focus on the Manipulation of Host Cell Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killackey, Samuel A; Sorbara, Matthew T; Girardin, Stephen E

    2016-01-01

    Shigella is a Gram-negative bacterium that is responsible for shigellosis. Over the years, the study of Shigella has provided a greater understanding of how the host responds to bacterial infection, and how bacteria have evolved to effectively counter the host defenses. In this review, we provide an update on some of the most recent advances in our understanding of pivotal processes associated with Shigella infection, including the invasion into host cells, the metabolic changes that occur within the bacterium and the infected cell, cell-to-cell spread mechanisms, autophagy and membrane trafficking, inflammatory signaling and cell death. This recent progress sheds a new light into the mechanisms underlying Shigella pathogenesis, and also more generally provides deeper understanding of the complex interplay between host cells and bacterial pathogens in general.

  4. Two Cases of Vulvovaginitis Caused by Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei: a Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bayramoğlu, Gülçin; Aydın, Faruk; Karagüzel, Gülay; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; ÖKTEN, Ayşenur

    2012-01-01

    Vulvovaginitis caused by Shigella species (Shigella spp.) has rarely been reported. This paper describes two cases of prepubertal vulvovaginitis, presenting with a bloody and purulent vaginal discharge, separately caused by ampicillin-resistant Shigella flexneri and trimethoprim-sulfomethoxazoleresistant Shigella sonnei. Our conclusions are that Shigella spp. is the potential cause of vulvovaginitis in prepubertal girls in developing countries where these pathogens are endemic, and identifica...

  5. Neuro-intensive care of patients with acute CNS infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, J David; Tyler, Kenneth L

    2012-01-01

    Infections in the central nervous system (CNS) are caused by a wide range of microorganisms resulting in distinct clinical syndromes including meningitis, encephalitis, and pyogenic infections, such as empyema and brain abscess. Bacterial and viral infections in the CNS can be rapidly fatal and can result in severe disability in survivors. Appropriate identification and acute management of these infections often occurs in a critical care setting and is vital to improving outcomes in this group of patients. This review of diagnosis and management of acute bacterial and viral infections in the CNS provides a general approach to patients with a suspected CNS infection and also provides a more detailed review of the diagnosis and management of patients with suspected bacterial meningitis, viral encephalitis, brain abscess, and subdural empyema.

  6. Acute retroviral syndrome in Slovenian patients infected with HIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Pirš

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Two to six weeks after primary infection with HIV 50 to 90 percent of patients develop an acute retroviral syndrome which usually presents with mononucleosis or flu-like illness. Due to nonspecific symptoms ARS is frequently misdiagnosed.Patients and methods: Data of Slovenian patients with acute retroviral syndrome is shown, as well as their symptoms, approaches to management and diagnostic particularities of primary HIV infection.Conclusions: The combination of particular symptoms and epidemiological data should lead us to consider the possibility of an early HIV infection.

  7. Human Hendra virus infection causes acute and relapsing encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, K T; Robertson, T; Ong, B B; Chong, J W; Yaiw, K C; Wang, L F; Ansford, A J; Tannenberg, A

    2009-06-01

    To study the pathology of two cases of human Hendra virus infection, one with no clinical encephalitis and one with relapsing encephalitis. Autopsy tissues were investigated by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. In the patient with acute pulmonary syndrome but not clinical acute encephalitis, vasculitis was found in the brain, lung, heart and kidney. Occasionally, viral antigens were demonstrated in vascular walls but multinucleated endothelial syncytia were absent. In the lung, there was severe inflammation, necrosis and viral antigens in type II pneumocytes and macrophages. The rare kidney glomerulus showed inflammation and viral antigens in capillary walls and podocytes. Discrete necrotic/vacuolar plaques in the brain parenchyma were associated with antigens and viral RNA. Brain inflammation was mild although CD68(+) microglia/macrophages were significantly increased. Cytoplasmic viral inclusions and antigens and viral RNA in neurones and ependyma suggested viral replication. In the case of relapsing encephalitis, there was severe widespread meningoencephalitis characterized by neuronal loss, macrophages and other inflammatory cells, reactive blood vessels and perivascular cuffing. Antigens and viral RNA were mainly found in neurones. Vasculitis was absent in all the tissues examined. The case of acute Hendra virus infection demonstrated evidence of systemic infection and acute encephalitis. The case of relapsing Hendra virus encephalitis showed no signs of extraneural infection but in the brain, extensive inflammation and infected neurones were observed. Hendra virus can cause acute and relapsing encephalitis and the findings suggest that the pathology and pathogenesis are similar to Nipah virus infection.

  8. Levofloxacin in Preventing Infection in Young Patients With Acute Leukemia Receiving Chemotherapy or Undergoing Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-05

    Acute Leukemias of Ambiguous Lineage; Bacterial Infection; Diarrhea; Fungal Infection; Musculoskeletal Complications; Neutropenia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  9. How Do the Virulence Factors of Shigella Work Together to Cause Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattock, Emily; Blocker, Ariel J

    2017-01-01

    Shigella is the major cause of bacillary dysentery world-wide. It is divided into four species, named S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. dysenteriae, and S. boydii, which are distinct genomically and in their ability to cause disease. Shigellosis, the clinical presentation of Shigella infection, is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. Shigella's ability to cause disease has been attributed to virulence factors, which are encoded on chromosomal pathogenicity islands and the virulence plasmid. However, information on these virulence factors is not often brought together to create a detailed picture of infection, and how this translates into shigellosis symptoms. Firstly, Shigella secretes virulence factors that induce severe inflammation and mediate enterotoxic effects on the colon, producing the classic watery diarrhea seen early in infection. Secondly, Shigella injects virulence effectors into epithelial cells via its Type III Secretion System to subvert the host cell structure and function. This allows invasion of epithelial cells, establishing a replicative niche, and causes erratic destruction of the colonic epithelium. Thirdly, Shigella produces effectors to down-regulate inflammation and the innate immune response. This promotes infection and limits the adaptive immune response, causing the host to remain partially susceptible to re-infection. Combinations of these virulence factors may contribute to the different symptoms and infection capabilities of the diverse Shigella species, in addition to distinct transmission patterns. Further investigation of the dominant species causing disease, using whole-genome sequencing and genotyping, will allow comparison and identification of crucial virulence factors and may contribute to the production of a pan-Shigella vaccine.

  10. Laboratory monitoring of bacterial gastroenteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella in Shanghai, China 2006-2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J; Wang, F; Jin, H; Hu, J; Yuan, Z; Shi, W; Yang, X; Meng, J; Xu, X

    2015-02-01

    In 2006 we initiated an enhanced laboratory-based surveillance of Salmonella and Shigella infections in Shanghai, China. A total of 4483 Salmonella and 2226 Shigella isolates were recovered from stool specimens by 2012. In 80 identified Salmonella serovars, Enteritidis (34·5%) and Typhimurium (26·2%) were the most common. Shigella (S.) sonnei accounted for 63·9% of human Shigella infections over the same time period, and replaced S. flexneri to become the primary cause of shigellosis since 2010. Overall, a high level of antimicrobial resistance was observed in Salmonella and Shigella, particularly to nalidixic acid, ampicillin, and tetracycline. Ciprofloxacin resistance was common in Salmonella Typhimurium (21·0%) and S. flexneri (37·6%). The cephalosporin resistance in both pathogens also increased over the years, ranging from 3·4% to 7·0% in Salmonella, and from 10·4% to 28·6% in Shigella. Resistance to multiple antimicrobials was also identified in a large number of the isolates. This study provides insight into the distribution of Salmonella and Shigella in diarrhoeal diseases.

  11. Differential expression of gastric MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells: TFF3-wired IL1 β/Akt crosstalk-induced mucosal immune response against Shigella dysenteriae infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Devaraj, Halagowder; Devaraj, Sivasithamparam Niranjali

    2012-02-01

    An understanding of the signaling mechanism(s) that regulate the differential expression of gastric mucin MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells would contribute significantly to investigations of its role in colonic mucosa infected with the bacterial pathogen Shigella dysenteriae. Here we show that S. dysenteriae-Sinduced expression of interleukin-1β upregulates MUC2 expression and the differential expression of MUC5AC. Differential expression of MUC5AC involves crosstalk between interleukin-1β and Akt, whereby the trefoil factor family peptide TFF3 activates Akt by phosphorylation of EGFR. TFF3 also downregulates E-cadherin expression, causing accumulation of β-catenin in the cytosol. Phosphorylation of GSK-3β (inactivated) by activated Akt inhibits ubiquitylation of β-catenin, leading to its nuclear translocation, which then induces the expression of MUC5AC and cyclin D1. Accumulation of cyclin D1 alters the cell cycle, promoting cell survival and proliferation. Human colon HT29MTX cells, which overexpress MUC5AC, were resistant to adherence and invasion of S. dysenteriae when compared with other mucin-secreting HT29 cell types. Thus, during infection with S. dysenteriae, crosstalk between interleukin-1β and Akt wired by TFF3 induces expression of MUC5AC in colonic epithelial cells. Differentially expressed gastric MUC5AC aids in mucosal clearance of S. dysenteriae, inhibiting adherence and invasion of the pathogen to colonic epithelial cells, which protects the host.

  12. Вocavirus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Krasnova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The review presents the data on the most important causative factors of acute gastroenteritis in children and on relatively new pathogens, such as bocavirus (HBoV, considering modern potential for verification of viral disorders. Human HBoV, belonging to Parvoviridae family, has been isolated from nasopharyngeal discharge in children with acute respiratory viral infection in 2005. Later on it was registered as a respiratory pathogen. Despite symptoms of an acute respiratory disease, HBoVinfected patients frequently present with acute gastroenteritis. In various regions of the world, fecal HBoV DNA has been found in children with acute intestinal infection by means of the polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing. Molecular genetic studies showed the presence of 4 genetically different viral types. HBoV genotype 1 is more frequently found in nasopharyngeal smears from children with acute respiratory viral infection, whereas HBoV genotypes 2, 3, and 4 are isolated from feces in those with acute gastroenteritis. If HBoV is an intestinal pathogen, remain an unresolved issue. There is a  high rate of HBoV co-infection (up to 60% and more with other intestinal viruses in children with acute gastroenteritis. High fecal DNA titers found in the studies in children with acute gastroenteritis have shown that HBoV is not only present in the bowel, but also is replicating there. The importance of studies on characteristics of molecular evolution of bocavirus is undoubted, while there are gaps in knowledge on its life cycle, mechanisms of genome replication; there is neither cultivation technique for this virus, nor animal models for disorders it may cause. The assay for anti-HBoV detection in human serum has been studied only in acute respiratory disease; high rates of HBoV seropositive patients and high antibody titers have been found in children correlating with a high viral load. It could be relevant to study prevalence and genetic variance

  13. Human bocavirus in children with acute respiratory infections in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dinh Nguyen; Nguyen, Tran Quynh Nhu; Nguyen, Tuan Anh; Hayakawa, Satoshi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Ushijima, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Human bocavirus (HBoV), a novel virus, is recognized to increasingly associate with previously unknown etiology respiratory infections in young children. In this study, the epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characteristics of HBoV infections were described in hospitalized Vietnamese pediatric patients. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1,082 nasopharyngeal swab samples were obtained from patients with acute respiratory infections at the Children's Hospital 2, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Samples were screened for HBoV by PCR and further molecularly characterized by sequencing. HBoV was found in 78 (7.2%) children. Co-infection with other viruses was observed in 66.7% of patients infected with HBoV. Children 12-24 months old were the most affected age group. Infections with HBoV were found year-round, though most cases occurred in the dry season (December-April). HBoV was possible to cause severe diseases as determined by higher rates of hypoxia, pneumonia, and longer hospitalization duration in patients with HBoV infection than in those without (P-value infection with HBoV did not affect the disease severity. The phylogenetic analysis of partial VP1 gene showed minor variations and all HBoV sequences belonged to species 1 (HBoV1). In conclusion, HBoV1 was circulating in Vietnam and detected frequently in young children during dry season. Acute respiratory infections caused by HBoV1 were severe enough for hospitalization, which implied that HBoV1 may have an important role in acute respiratory infections among children. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Evaluation of antimicrobial resistance among Salmonella and Shigella isolates in the University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Michael M; Petrova, Atanaska; Stanimirova, Irina; Mircheva-Topalova, Marina; Koycheva, Lalka; Velcheva, Rayna; Stoycheva-Vartigova, Mariana; Raycheva, Ralitsa; Asseva, Galina; Petrov, Petar; Kardjeva, Velichka; Murdjeva, Marianna

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this work is to study the epidemiology and antimicrobial resistance to the most commonly used antibiotics for the treatment of acute gastroenteritis caused by Salmonella and Shigella at the largest Bulgarian hospital-University Hospital "St. George," Plovdiv-for the period 2009-2013. Two hundred ninety strains were in vitro tested for resistance to 15 antimicrobial agents. The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) was demonstrated by a variety of specialized tests. For comparison, a collection of 28 strains submitted by the National Reference Laboratory (NRL) "Enteric Infections" at the National Center of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases (NCIPD), Sofia, was also tested for the production of ESBLs. In isolates, phenotypically demonstrated as ESBL producers, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the genes bla-CTX-M, bla-SHV, and bla-TEM was performed. Among the 290 tested isolates, only two- Salmonella serotype Livingstone and Shigella flexneri-were phenotypically proven to be ESBL producers. Only 4 strains from the collection of 28, submitted from the NRL "Intestinal Infections" in NCIPD, Sofia, were phenotypically confirmed as ESBL producers. The presence of the bla-CTX-M gene was detected in all of the tested strains (4 from NRL, NCIPD, Sofia, and 2 from the University Hospital St. George, Plovdiv), the bla-SHV gene only in strain S. Livingstone from Plovdiv, and the bla-TEM gene in two from Sofia and one (again S. Livingstone) from Plovdiv. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella isolates from patients hospitalized at the University Hospital St. George, Plovdiv, with acute gastroenteritis demonstrate good susceptibility to the most commonly used antibiotic agents, including azithromycin.

  15. Estimating Acute Viral Hepatitis Infections From Nationally Reported Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Stephen; Roberts, Henry; Jiles, Ruth B.; Holmberg, Scott D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Because only a fraction of patients with acute viral hepatitis A, B, and C are reported through national surveillance to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, we estimated the true numbers. Methods. We applied a simple probabilistic model to estimate the fraction of patients with acute hepatitis A, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C who would have been symptomatic, would have sought health care tests, and would have been reported to health officials in 2011. Results. For hepatitis A, the frequencies of symptoms (85%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (69%) yielded an estimate of 2730 infections (2.0 infections per reported case). For hepatitis B, the frequencies of symptoms (39%), care seeking (88%), and reporting (45%) indicated 18 730 infections (6.5 infections per reported case). For hepatitis C, the frequency of symptoms among injection drug users (13%) and those infected otherwise (48%), proportion seeking care (88%), and percentage reported (53%) indicated 17 100 infections (12.3 infections per reported case). Conclusions. These adjustment factors will allow state and local health authorities to estimate acute hepatitis infections locally and plan prevention activities accordingly. PMID:24432918

  16. Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Proposal for Acute Endodontic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keine, Kátia Cristina; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Pereira, Kamila Figueiredo; Diniz, Ana Carolina Soares; Tonetto, Mateus Rodrigues; Galoza, Marina Oliveira Gonçalves; Magro, Miriam Graziele; de Barros, Yolanda Benedita Abadia Martins; Bandéca, Matheus Coelho; de Andrade, Marcelo Ferrarezi

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the main lesions that simulate clinically and propose a treatment protocol for acute endodontic infection. Signs and clinical symptoms of periodontal abscess, gingival abscess, odontoma, herpes simplex, pericoronitis, acute pulpitis and necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis (NUG/NUP) were described and compared with acute endodontic infections. A treatment protocol was described by optimizing the procedures in access cavity, microbial decontamination and detoxification of the root canal, apical debridement, intracanal and systemic medication and surgical drainage procedures. The convenience of the use of 5.25% sodium hypochlorite, root canal instrumentation using a crown-down technique, intracanal medication with 2% chlorhexidine or triple antibiotic paste and the convenience of the use of antibiotics, analgesics, and surgical drainage to solve cases of acute dentoalveolar abscess was discussed.

  17. Improvement of prophylax and treatment of acute respiratory viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yershov F.I.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to estimate prophylactic and clinical efficacy of cycloferon concerning acute respiratory viral infection among military men in the period of formation of military units. Material and methods. 1300 military men were under observation in the period of formation of military units. There was calculated efficiency coefficient. Index of efficiency, and severity of disease, frequency of development and character of complications were established. Results. It is established that application of both prophylactic and clinical course of tablet of cycloferon in the period of seasonal increase of morbidity of acute respiratory viral infection in the period of formation of military units enables to increase significantly efficiency of prophylactic and clinical activities, to decrease morbidity, frequency of severe and complicated forms of disease. Conclusion. According to these results, the perspectives of cycloferon use in prophylaxis and treatment of acute respiratory viral infection in the closed units were worked out.

  18. Screening for acute HIV infection in South Africa: finding acute and chronic disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Chetty, Senica; Giddy, Janet; Reddy, Shabashini; Bishop, Karen; Lu, Zhigang; Losina, Elena; Freedberg, Kenneth A.; Walensky, Rochelle P.

    2010-01-01

    Background The yield of screening for acute HIV infection among general medical patients in resource-scarce settings remains unclear. Our objective was to evaluate a strategy of pooled HIV plasma RNA to diagnose acute HIV infection in patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests in Durban, South Africa. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients with negative or discordant rapid HIV antibody tests from a routine HIV screening program in an outpatient department in Durban with an HIV prevalence of 48%. Study participants underwent venipuncture for pooled qualitative HIV RNA, and if positive, quantitative RNA, enzyme immunoassay and Western Blot (WB). Patients with negative or indeterminate WB and positive quantitative HIV RNA were considered acutely infected. Those with chronic infection (positive RNA and WB) despite negative or discordant rapid HIV tests were considered false negative rapid antibody tests. Results Nine hundred ninety-four participants were enrolled with either negative (N=976) or discordant (N=18) rapid test results. Eleven (1.1%, 95% CI: 0.6–2.0%) had acute HIV infection. Of the 994 patients, an additional 20 (2.0%, 95% CI: 1.3–.3.1%) had chronic HIV infection (false negative rapid test). Conclusions One percent of outpatients with negative or discordant rapid HIV tests in Durban, South Africa had acute HIV infection readily detectable through pooled serum HIV RNA screening. Pooled RNA testing also identified an additional 2% of patients with chronic HIV infection. HIV RNA screening has the potential to identify both acute and chronic HIV infections that are otherwise missed by standard HIV testing algorithms. PMID:20553336

  19. Shigella Sonnei and Shiga Toxin

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-07-28

    Katherine Lamba, an infectious disease epidemiologist with the California Department of Public Health, discusses Shiga Toxin producing Shigella sonnei.  Created: 7/28/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 7/28/2016.

  20. [The microbiological aspects of using enterosorbents in acute intestinal infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L G

    1993-07-01

    We observed 60 patients with acute Flexner's dysentery and salmonellosis. Complex treatment included enterosorbents; enterosgel, activated carbon and polyfepan. The results showed that co-administration of enterosgel as compared to that of activated carbon and polyfepan resulted in more vigorous elimination of pathogens. In patients with acute dysentery enterosgel when used at the background of nitroflurane therapy potentiated the latter. Enterosorbents improved also body resistance in enteric infections.

  1. Pericardial Tamponade in an Adult Suffering from Acute Mumps Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Kahlfuss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report a case of a 51-year-old man with acute pericardial tamponade requiring emergency pericardiocentesis after he suffered from sore throat, headache, malaise, and sweats for two weeks. Serological analyses revealed increased mumps IgM and IgG indicating an acute mumps infection whereas other bacterial and viral infections were excluded. In addition, MRI revealed atypical swelling of the left submandibular gland. Whereas mumps has become a rare entity in children due to comprehensive vaccination regimens in western civilizations, our case highlights mumps as an important differential diagnosis also in adults, where the virus can induce life-threatening complications such as pericardial tamponade.

  2. Adaptive immune responses during Shigella dysenteriae type 1 infection: an in vitro stimulation with 57 kDa major antigenic OMP in the presence of anti-CD3 antibody.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagchi, Ashim Kumar; Sinha, Ajoy Kumar; Adhikari, Rushita; Mukherjee, Joydeep

    2010-05-01

    An effort was made to understand the role of the 57 kDa major antigenic fraction of Shigella outer membrane protein (OMP) in the presence of T-cell antigen receptor in activation of adaptive immune responses of the cell mediated immune (CMI) restored patients. The expression of HLA-DR/CD4 out of CD3(+) T-cells was significantly dominant over the HLA-DR/CD8 and comparable to unstimulated cells of infected or healthy controls. CD4(+) T-cell activation together with HLA-DR is associated with the expression of CD25(+) (IL2Ralpha) for IL-2 growth factors with decreased IL-4 levels, required for maintaining the homeostasis of CD4(+) T cell. Furthermore, the positive expression of the CD45 antigen is possibly required for acquiring the memory for CD4(+) cells signals and facilitates the interaction with CD54 antigen. As a result, antigen-specific secondary signal is generated for B-cell activation to produce IgG2a and IgG2b. This suggests that antibody mediated-adaptive immune responses are generated due to anti-CD3 induced helper T-cell activity. The above mentioned findings reflect that the antigen alone might not exacerbate the selective T-cell responses. But these antigens in the presence of anti-CD3 antibody might help to elicit adaptive immune response via T-cell receptor (TCR) activation.

  3. Phenylbutyrate counteracts Shigella mediated downregulation of cathelicidin in rabbit lung and intestinal epithelia: a potential therapeutic strategy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Protim Sarker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cathelicidins and defensins are endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs that are downregulated in the mucosal epithelia of the large intestine in shigellosis. Oral treatment of Shigella infected rabbits with sodium butyrate (NaB reduces clinical severity and counteracts the downregulation of cathelicidin (CAP-18 in the large intestinal epithelia. AIMS: To develop novel regimen for treating infectious diseases by inducing innate immunity, we selected sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PB, a registered drug for a metabolic disorder as a potential therapeutic candidate in a rabbit model of shigellosis. Since acute respiratory infections often cause secondary complications during shigellosis, the systemic effect of PB and NaB on CAP-18 expression in respiratory epithelia was also evaluated. METHODS: The readouts were clinical outcomes, CAP-18 expression in mucosa of colon, rectum, lung and trachea (immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR and release of the CAP-18 peptide/protein in stool (Western blot. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Significant downregulation of CAP-18 expression in the epithelia of rectum and colon, the site of Shigella infection was confirmed. Interestingly, reduced expression of CAP-18 was also noticed in the epithelia of lung and trachea, indicating a systemic effect of the infection. This suggests a causative link to acute respiratory infections during shigellosis. Oral treatment with PB resulted in reduced clinical illness and upregulation of CAP-18 in the epithelium of rectum. Both PB and NaB counteracted the downregulation of CAP-18 in lung epithelium. The drug effect is suggested to be systemic as intravenous administration of NaB could also upregulate CAP-18 in the epithelia of lung, rectum and colon. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that PB has treatment potential in human shigellosis. Enhancement of CAP-18 in the mucosal epithelia of the respiratory tract by PB or NaB is a novel discovery. This could mediate protection from

  4. Acute hepatitis A virus infections in British Gurkha soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Chris A; Ross, D A; Bailey, M S

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections are endemic in most developing countries, including Nepal and Afghanistan, and may cause outbreaks in military personnel. Previously, more than 99% of new British Gurkha recruits were already immune to HAV because of prior infection, but this may be declining due to improved living conditions in their countries of origin. Acute HAV infections have occurred in Gurkha soldiers serving in Afghanistan, which made them unfit for duty for 2-3 months. In one case, early serological diagnosis was impeded by IgM results against both HAV and HEV that were caused by cross-reactivity or persistence from a previous infection. These cases have led to a policy change whereby all Gurkha recruits are now tested for previous HAV infection and if negative they are offered vaccination. Meanwhile, HEV infection remains a significant threat in Nepal and Afghanistan with low levels of background immunity and no commercially available vaccine.

  5. Quantitative PCR for Detection of Shigella Improves Ascertainment of Shigella Burden in Children with Moderate-to-Severe Diarrhea in Low-Income Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochieng, John B.; Ikumapayi, Usman N.; Toure, Aliou; Ahmed, Dilruba; Li, Shan; Panchalingam, Sandra; Levine, Myron M.; Kotloff, Karen; Rasko, David A.; Morris, Carolyn R.; Juma, Jane; Fields, Barry S.; Dione, Michel; Malle, Dramane; Becker, Stephen M.; Houpt, Eric R.; Nataro, James P.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Pop, Mihai; Oundo, Joe; Antonio, Martin; Hossain, Anowar; Tamboura, Boubou; Stine, O. Colin

    2013-01-01

    Estimates of the prevalence of Shigella spp. are limited by the suboptimal sensitivity of current diagnostic and surveillance methods. We used a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay to detect Shigella in the stool samples of 3,533 children aged Shigella ipaH gene. Using MSD as the reference standard, we determined the optimal cutpoint to be 2.9 × 104 ipaH copies per 100 ng of stool DNA for set 1 (n = 877). One hundred fifty-eight (18%) specimens yielded >2.9 × 104 ipaH copies. Ninety (10%) specimens were positive by traditional culture for Shigella. Individuals with ≥2.9 × 104 ipaH copies have 5.6-times-higher odds of having diarrhea than those with Shigella infection increased from 9.6% (n = 129) for culture to 17.6% (n = 262) for qPCR when employing our cutpoint. We suggest that qPCR with a cutpoint of approximately 1.4 × 104 ipaH copies be the new reference standard for the detection and diagnosis of shigellosis in children in low-income countries. The acceptance of this new standard would substantially increase the fraction of MSD cases that are attributable to Shigella. PMID:23536399

  6. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances Post-Infection Sleep and Promotes Survival during Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264

  7. Topical Issues of Acute Intestinal Infections in Recent Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.I. Bobrovitskaya

    2014-02-01

    Material and Methods. The study has been carried out on the academic base of pediatric infectious departments of Donetsk region and Donetsk Regional Laboratory Center of State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of Ukraine. Comparative analysis of etiologic specified acute intestinal infections in children was carried out over the period of 1996–2012.

  8. effect of improved stoves on prevalence of acute respiration infection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    2000-01-01

    Jan 1, 2000 ... EFFECT OF IMPROVED STOVES ON PREVALENCE OF ACUTE RESPIRATION INFECTION AND CONJUNCTIVITIS AMONG CHILDREN AND .... These pollutants are known to adversely affect the respiratory system and the conjunctiva. There is evidence to suggest that use of improved stoves in ...

  9. Infective endocarditis presenting as acute coronary syndrome | El ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We report tow cases of infective endocarditis (IE) presenting as acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Case 1: A 60-year-old man with the diagnosis of mitral IE complicated by an ST segment elevation myocardial infarction. Primary percutaneous coronary intervention with aspiration of the thrombus at the distal leftanterior ...

  10. Urinary Tract Infection in Children with Acute Glomerulonephritis in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This is a prospective study of 47 cases of acute glomerunephritis seen in paediatric ward of Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano over a 5year period; they were evaluated for prevalence of urinary tract infection, urine specimen were obtained by midstream urine following careful cleaning of the orifices with chlorhexidine.

  11. Prevalence of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Children with Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    Prevalence of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Children with. Acute Respiratory Symptoms in Ilorin, Nigeria. Olatunji Matthew Kolawole\\ Busayo Joseph Adeyemf1 and Aishat Abdulrahman. Gobir2. 1lnfectious Diseases and Environmental Health Research Group, Department of Microbiology,. Faculty of Life Sciences ...

  12. Acute otitis media complicating upper respiratory tract infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Upper respiratory tract infections (UTRIs), which may be complicated by acute otitis media (AOM), account for a large number of visits to the primary physician especially in the developed world. Materials and Methods: This study aims to determine the knowledge and treatment outcomes of UTRIs complicated ...

  13. Determinants of acute respiratory infections in Soweto - a population ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) are an important cause of infant morbidity in both developing and developed countries, and they are the leading cause of death in poorer parts of the world. Respiratory viruses appear to be the most frequent microbiological pathogens, especially respiratory syncytial virus.

  14. A Case Report of Infective Endocarditic Induced Acute Renal Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    h. Homayonfar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Prevalence of infective endocarditic induced renal failure is 1-3% and is one of the causes of deterioration of patient or cessation of antibiotic therapy and also delay in treatment duration and medical response. Case Report: Our patient is a 48 year old man with infective endocarditis who had been under treatment by antibiotics (cefteriaxone, gentamycin and vencomycin and experienced renal failure after 7days of treatment initiation. After ruling out some causes of renal failure in endocarditis such as glumerolonephritis, septic emboli and acute tubular necrosis, acute drug induced interstitial nephritis was documented. Conclusion: In this case, acute drug induced interstitial nephritis was the final diagnosis and after cessation of related drugs (in these case antibiotics and starting corticosteroids and en-doxane plus, improvement of medical condition and lab data was observed. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2013; 20 (4:333-336

  15. Atypical presentations of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Ansuya; Paruk, Hoosain; Bhagwan, Bhupendra; Moodley, Anand

    2017-02-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a monophasic demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system associated with various viral infections including HIV infection. We present the findings of seven HIV-infected patients with mild to moderate immunosuppression presenting with atypical features. Four patients had a multiphasic course; three patients had tumefactive lesions, and two patients had corpus callosum lesions. Two patients with the multiphasic course also had tumefactive lesions. Their clinical and radiological findings are presented. Despite the few cases, we propose that the dysimmune process lying between marked immunosuppression (CD4  500 cells/μL) might be responsible for these atypical presentations.

  16. Factors associated with hospitalization of children with acute odontogenic infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klačar Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the sociodemographic and clinical features of odontogenic infections between hospitalized and nonhospitalized children and to show what were the risk factors in children that could predict the course of odontogenic infection and indicate the need for hospital treatment. The design of our study was of the case-control type. The two study groups consisted of 70 inpatients and 35 outpatients with odontogenic infections who were treated at Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Department of Maxillofacial Surgery at Clinical Center in Kragujevac, Serbia. Clinical and sociodemographic data were collected retrospectively from patients' hospital records. The following characteristics were significantly associated with hospital treatment of children with acute odontogenic infection: living in a village (OR =7.26,[1.43-36.96], multi-spatial infection (OR =0.04, [0.00-0.91], and affection of upper face (OR = 0.01, [0.00-0.86]. Tooth extraction was important intervention in the treatment regimen and reduced frequency of hospitalization (OR=0.07, [0.01-0.70]. The differences between hospitalized and non-hospitalized children were not significant in regard to: ethnicity, employment of parents, anatomical region of infection, side of the facial infection, source of infection (posterior or anterior deciduous or permanent teeth, and treatment (drainage and incision, oral or parenteral antibiotics. In children with acute odontogenic infection it is necessary to do tooth extraction in timely manner, especially if the source of infection is tooth from upper jaw and if it is multi-spatial infection.

  17. Antibacterial and Drug Synergistic Activities of Mentha longifolia Essential Oil Against Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Makvandi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Microbial infections such as shigellosis are one of the major health challenges in Iran, especially in Khuzestan province in the south west of Iran. Objective: According to the importance of medicinal plants in the treatment of many infectious diseases, and as a valuable alternative for antibiotics, the aim of this research was to assess the antibacterial and drug synergistic activities of the essential oil from Mentha longifolia, a local plant, against Shigella flexneri and Shigella sonnei as the main causes of shigellosis. Materials and Methods: The M. longifolia essential oil was extracted from the leaves. The antibacterial activities of the essential oil against clinical and standard S. flexneri and S. sonnei strains were detected by the disk diffusion and micro-broth dilution methods. Results: The essential oil of M. longifolia had the most significant antibacterial activity against the clinical strain of S. flexneri. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of 1024 with a concentration of 0.8 mg/mL of essential oil was detected in both the standard and clinical S. flexneri and S. sonnei strains. The essential oil of M. longifolia showed the highest synergistic effect on gentamicin and ampicillin in the clinical isolates of S. flexneri. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the essential oil of M. longifolia alone or in combination with antimicrobial agents may be useful in the treatment of bacterial infections. In addition, M. longifolia may increase the effect of antibiotics and resolve other antibiotic resistance problems.

  18. Shigella hacks host immune responses by reprogramming the host epigenome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2014-11-18

    Bacterial pathogens alter host transcriptional programs to promote infection. Shigella OspF is an essential virulence protein with a unique phosphothreonine lyase activity. A new study in The EMBO Journal (Harouz et al, 2014) reveals a novel function of OspF: targeting of heterochromatin protein 1γ (HP1γ) and downregulation of a subset of immune genes. These results illustrate how bacterial pathogens exploit epigenetic modifications to counteract host immune responses.

  19. Nasopharyngeal Protein Biomarkers of Acute Respiratory Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W. Burke

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Infection of respiratory mucosa with viral pathogens triggers complex immunologic events in the affected host. We sought to characterize this response through proteomic analysis of nasopharyngeal lavage in human subjects experimentally challenged with influenza A/H3N2 or human rhinovirus, and to develop targeted assays measuring peptides involved in this host response allowing classification of acute respiratory virus infection. Unbiased proteomic discovery analysis identified 3285 peptides corresponding to 438 unique proteins, and revealed that infection with H3N2 induces significant alterations in protein expression. These include proteins involved in acute inflammatory response, innate immune response, and the complement cascade. These data provide insights into the nature of the biological response to viral infection of the upper respiratory tract, and the proteins that are dysregulated by viral infection form the basis of signature that accurately classifies the infected state. Verification of this signature using targeted mass spectrometry in independent cohorts of subjects challenged with influenza or rhinovirus demonstrates that it performs with high accuracy (0.8623 AUROC, 75% TPR, 97.46% TNR. With further development as a clinical diagnostic, this signature may have utility in rapid screening for emerging infections, avoidance of inappropriate antibacterial therapy, and more rapid implementation of appropriate therapeutic and public health strategies.

  20. Sentinel surveillance of HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance, acute infection and recent infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Ha M Truong

    Full Text Available HIV-1 acute infection, recent infection and transmitted drug resistance screening was integrated into voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT services to enhance the existing surveillance program in San Francisco. This study describes newly-diagnosed HIV cases and characterizes correlates associated with infection.A consecutive sample of persons presenting for HIV VCT at the municipal sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic from 2004 to 2006 (N = 9,868 were evaluated by standard enzyme-linked immunoassays (EIA. HIV antibody-positive specimens were characterized as recent infections using a less-sensitive EIA. HIV-RNA pooled testing was performed on HIV antibody-negative specimens to identify acute infections. HIV antibody-positive and acute infection specimens were evaluated for drug resistance by sequence analysis. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to evaluate associations. The 380 newly-diagnosed HIV cases included 29 acute infections, 128 recent infections, and 47 drug-resistant cases, with no significant increases or decreases in prevalence over the three years studied. HIV-1 transmitted drug resistance prevalence was 11.0% in 2004, 13.4% in 2005 and 14.9% in 2006 (p = 0.36. Resistance to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI was the most common pattern detected, present in 28 cases of resistance (59.6%. Among MSM, recent infection was associated with amphetamine use (AOR = 2.67; p<0.001, unprotected anal intercourse (AOR = 2.27; p<0.001, sex with a known HIV-infected partner (AOR = 1.64; p = 0.02, and history of gonorrhea (AOR = 1.62; p = 0.03.New HIV diagnoses, recent infections, acute infections and transmitted drug resistance prevalence remained stable between 2004 and 2006. Resistance to NNRTI comprised more than half of the drug-resistant cases, a worrisome finding given its role as the backbone of first-line antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco as well as worldwide. The integration of HIV-1 drug

  1. Massive Hemolysis Causing Renal Failure in Acute Hepatitis E Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Pragya; Malik, Sarthak; Mallick, Bipadabhanjan; Sharma, Vishal; Rana, Surinder S

    2016-12-28

    Acute viral hepatitis is usually a self-limiting illness. However, it can lead to complications that can be life-threatening, such as acute liver failure. Glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in the setting of acute viral hepatitis can lead to a massive hemolysis, manifesting as acute kidney injury and markedly raised bilirubin levels; although cases are rare. Here, we report such a case. The patient had a viral hepatitis E infection and presented with kidney injury requiring dialysis. Examination showed very high mixed hyperbilirubinemia due to massive intravascular hemolysis. The patient experienced a long, protracted course of illness, requiring renal replacement therapy with other supportive management, which led to improvement over a period of four weeks. This case highlights the importance of recognizing associated hemolysis in a patient with viral hepatitis who presents with very high bilirubin levels or associated kidney injury. Such patients will require aggressive supportive care with prompt fluid and electrolyte management.

  2. Aichi virus infection in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaikkonen, S; Räsänen, S; Rämet, M; Vesikari, T

    2010-08-01

    Aichi virus has been proposed as a novel causative agent of acute gastroenteritis. In addition to several Asian countries, South America and Africa, Aichi virus has also recently been found in Europe. Our objective was to study the causative role of Aichi virus in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland. We analysed 595 stool specimens from infants in an efficacy trial of rotavirus vaccine and 468 stool specimens from children in a hospital-based epidemiological and aetiological study of acute gastroenteritis. The screening was done by nested reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction amplifying a 519-bp segment and a 223-bp segment in the 3CD junction region of non-structural proteins. Aichi virus was detected in five stool samples (0.5%), of which four were co-infections with other gastroenteritis viruses. Two Aichi virus genotypes, A and B, were found. Aichi virus appears to be rare in children with acute gastroenteritis in Finland.

  3. The Shigella human challenge model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, C K; Thura, N; Ranallo, R T; Riddle, M S

    2013-02-01

    Shigella is an important bacterial cause of infectious diarrhoea globally. The Shigella human challenge model has been used since 1946 for a variety of objectives including understanding disease pathogenesis, human immune responses and allowing for an early assessment of vaccine efficacy. A systematic review of the literature regarding experimental shigellosis in human subjects was conducted. Summative estimates were calculated by strain and dose. While a total of 19 studies evaluating nine strains at doses ranging from 10 to 1 × 1010 colony-forming units were identified, most studies utilized the S. sonnei strain 53G and the S. flexneri strain 2457T. Inoculum solution and pre-inoculation buffering has varied over time although diarrhoea attack rates do not appear to increase above 75-80%, and dysentery rates remain fairly constant, highlighting the need for additional dose-ranging studies. Expansion of the model to include additional strains from different serotypes will elucidate serotype and strain-specific outcome variability.

  4. Effects of astaxanthin in mice acutely infected with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Contreras-Ortiz José María Eloy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available During Trypanosoma cruzi infection, oxidative stress is considered a contributing factor for dilated cardiomyopathy development. In this study, the effects of astaxanthin (ASTX were evaluated as an alternative drug treatment for Chagas disease in a mouse model during the acute infection phase, given its anti-inflammatory, immunomodulating, and anti-oxidative properties. ASTX was tested in vitro in parasites grown axenically and in co-culture with Vero cells. In vivo tests were performed in BALB/c mice (4–6 weeks old infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and supplemented with ASTX (10 mg/kg/day and/or nifurtimox (NFMX; 100 mg/kg/day. Results show that ASTX has some detrimental effects on axenically cultured parasites, but not when cultured with mammalian cell monolayers. In vivo, ASTX did not have any therapeutic value against acute Trypanosoma cruzi infection, used either alone or in combination with NFMX. Infected animals treated with NFMX or ASTX/NFMX survived the experimental period (60 days, while infected animals treated only with ASTX died before day 30 post-infection. ASTX did not show any effect on the control of parasitemia; however, it was associated with an increment in focal heart lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, a reduced number of amastigote nests in cardiac tissue, and less hyperplasic spleen follicles when compared to control groups. Unexpectedly, ASTX showed a negative effect in infected animals co-treated with NFMX. An increment in parasitemia duration was observed, possibly due to ASTX blocking of free radicals, an anti-parasitic mechanism of NFMX. In conclusion, astaxanthin is not recommended during the acute phase of Chagas disease, either alone or in combination with nifurtimox.

  5. Shigella IpaH Family Effectors as a Versatile Model for Studying Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    Shigella spp. are highly adapted human pathogens that cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis). Via the type III secretion system (T3SS), Shigella deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) that are responsible for pathogenesis, with functions including pyroptosis, invasion of the epithelial cells, intracellular survival, and evasion of host immune responses. Intriguingly, T3SS effector activity and strategies are not unique to Shigella, but are shared by many other bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella, Yersinia, and enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC). Therefore, studying Shigella T3SS effectors will not only improve our understanding of bacterial infection systems, but also provide a molecular basis for developing live bacterial vaccines and antibacterial drugs. One of Shigella T3SS effectors, IpaH family proteins, which have E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and are widely conserved among other bacterial pathogens, are very relevant because they promote bacterial survival by triggering cell death and modulating the host immune responses. Here, we describe selected examples of Shigella pathogenesis, with particular emphasis on the roles of IpaH family effectors, which shed new light on bacterial survival strategies and provide clues about how to overcome bacterial infections.

  6. The Galleria mellonella larvae as an in vivo model for evaluation of Shigella virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoy, Shoshana; Gancz, Hanan; Zhu, Yuewei; Honnold, Cary L; Zurawski, Daniel V; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2017-07-04

    Shigella spp. causing bacterial diarrhea and dysentery are human enteroinvasive bacterial pathogens that are orally transmitted through contaminated food and water and cause bacillary dysentery. Although natural Shigella infections are restricted to humans and primates, several smaller animal models are used to analyze individual steps in pathogenesis. No animal model fully duplicates the human response and sustaining the models requires expensive animals, costly maintenance of animal facilities, veterinary services and approved animal protocols. This study proposes the development of the caterpillar larvae of Galleria mellonella as a simple, inexpensive, informative, and rapid in-vivo model for evaluating virulence and the interaction of Shigella with cells of the insect innate immunity. Virulent Shigella injected through the forelegs causes larvae death. The mortality rates were dependent on the Shigella strain, the infectious dose, and the presence of the virulence plasmid. Wild-type S. flexneri 2a, persisted and replicated within the larvae, resulting in haemocyte cell death, whereas plasmid-cured mutants were rapidly cleared. Histology of the infected larvae in conjunction with fluorescence, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy indicate that S. flexneri reside within a vacuole of the insect haemocytes that ultrastructurally resembles vacuoles described in studies with mouse and human macrophage cell lines. Some of these bacteria-laden vacuoles had double-membranes characteristic of autophagosomes. These results suggest that G. mellonella larvae can be used as an easy-to-use animal model to understand Shigella pathogenesis that requires none of the time and labor-consuming procedures typical of other systems.

  7. Risk areas and neighborhood-level risk factors for Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Shigella flexneri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emch, Michael; Ali, Mohammad; Yunus, Mohammad

    2008-03-01

    Annually, there are 165 million cases of shigellosis resulting in 1.1 million deaths in the developing world. Two species of the causative agent, Shigella dysenteriae 1 and Shigella flexneri, are responsible for acute diarrheal illness. Vaccines are being developed against both but many questions remain about the disease burden, distribution of species in space and time, and community-level risk factors. This study answers two questions. What are the differences in neighborhood-level risk factors between S. dysenteriae 1 and S. flexneri? Does shigellosis caused by the two different species occur in the same neighborhoods and are those high-risk neighborhoods persistent in time? Cases from a hospital in rural Bangladesh were assigned to one of the two shigellosis types and age-matched individuals were randomly chosen from the community to be controls. Information was collected for neighborhood-level variables hypothesized to be related to shigellosis. During the 3-year study period, there were 161 cases of S. dysenteriae 1 and 225 cases of S. flexneri. Incidence of both types was highest in children under 2 followed by children from 2 to 5. The location of S. dysenteriae 1 risk varies in time but S. flexneri risk areas were persistent in time. Neighborhoods near bazaars with many non-septic latrines were at highest risk for S. dysenteriae 1. S. flexneri was most common in flood-controlled areas. S. dysenteriae 1 risk is more related to hygiene and sanitation and S. flexneri is more related to the environment.

  8. [Acute intestinal infections: current and upcoming vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlich, Paul; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2013-01-01

    Currently, only a few licensed vaccines against intestinal infections are available. Existing vaccines have shown good efficacy when used by travelers in industrialized countries. However, these vaccines have lower efficacy in endemic areas with high prevalence of enteric pathogens. Current vaccines are too expensive to be efficiently distributed in endemic countries. Immune correlates of protection are not well defined for current licensed vaccines. A better understanding of protection mechanisms at the intestinal mucosal surfaces should allow the development of more efficient vaccines. Gut physiology and microbial composition play an important role in both physical integrity and immunological status of the gastro-intestinal tract. These parameters can partially explain the disparities observed in current vaccines efficiency. Several next-generation vaccines combined or not with adjuvant able to promote a strong mucosal response in the intestine, are under preclinical and clinical investigations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Probenecid reduces infection and inflammation in acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonnenberg, Bodo; Tschernig, Thomas; Voss, Meike; Bischoff, Markus; Meier, Carola; Schirmer, Stephan H; Langer, Frank; Bals, Robert; Beisswenger, Christoph

    2014-07-01

    The activation of inflammasome signaling mediates pathology of acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia. This suggests that the inflammasome might represent a target to limit the pathological consequences of acute P. aeruginosa lung infection. Pannexin-1 (Px1) channels mediate the activation of caspase-1 and release of IL-1β induced by P2X7 receptor activation. The approved drug probenecid is an inhibitor of Px1 and ATP release. In this study, we demonstrate that probenecid reduces infection and inflammation in acute P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Treatment of mice prior to infection with P. aeruginosa resulted in an enhanced clearance of P. aeruginosa and reduced levels of inflammatory mediators, such as IL-1β. In addition, probenecid inhibited the release of inflammatory mediators in murine alveolar macrophages and human U937 cell-derived macrophages upon bacterial infection but not in human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, Px1 blockade via probenecid treatment may be a therapeutic option in P. aeruginosa pneumonia by improving bacterial clearance and reducing negative consequences of inflammation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Up-regulation of MUC2 and IL-1β expression in human colonic epithelial cells by Shigella and its interaction with mucins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Radhakrishnan; Bharathi Raja, Subramaniya; Devaraj, Halagowder; Devaraj, Sivasitambaram Niranjali

    2011-01-01

    The entire gastrointestinal tract is protected by a mucous layer, which contains complex glycoproteins called mucins. MUC2 is one such mucin that protects the colonic mucosa from invading microbes. The initial interaction between microbes and mucins is an important step for microbial pathogenesis. Hence, it was of interest to investigate the relationship between host (mucin) and pathogen interaction, including Shigella induced expression of MUC2 and IL-1β during shigellosis. The mucin-Shigella interaction was revealed by an in vitro mucin-binding assay. Invasion of Shigella dysenteriae into HT-29 cells was analyzed by Transmission electron microscopy. Shigella induced mucin and IL-1β expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence. The clinical isolates of Shigella were found to be virulent by a congo-red binding assay. The in vitro mucin-binding assay revealed both Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri have binding affinity in the increasing order of: guinea pig small intestinal mucinShigella dysenteriae into HT-29 cells occurs within 2 hours. Interestingly, in Shigella dysenteriae infected conditions, significant increases in mRNA expression of MUC2 and IL-1β were observed in a time dependent manner. Further, immunofluorescence analysis of MUC2 shows more positive cells in Shigella dysenteriae treated cells than untreated cells. Our study concludes that the Shigella species specifically binds to guinea pig colonic mucin, but not to guinea pig small intestinal mucin. The guinea pig colonic mucin showed a greater binding parameter (R), and more saturable binding, suggesting the presence of a finite number of receptor binding sites in the colonic mucin of the host. In addition, modification of mucins with TFMS and sodium metaperiodate significantly reduced mucin-bacterial binding; suggesting that the mucin-Shigella interaction occurs through carbohydrate epitopes on the mucin backbones. Overproduction of MUC2 may alter adherence and invasion of

  11. Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients with Acute Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Hua Hsiao

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Invasive fungal infections, a serious problem among cancer patients, are increasing in incidence, and can cause morbidity and mortality. Such infections may hinder additional treatment, especially for patients with leukemia. We report here our experiences in the management of invasive fungal infection in patients with acute leukemia. A total of 18 patients were enrolled in the study: 12 had microabscesses of the liver and/or spleen and/or kidneys; four had sinonasal infections; and two had pulmonary infections. Most of the patients (88.9% received amphotericin B during treatment for fungal infection. Thirteen patients achieved complete response without evidence of fungal infection in follow-up. In the study, there were 11 mortalities, including five patients who died during therapy and six who later died as a result of relapse or refractoriness of the leukemia. We suggest that many patients may have a good response to antifungal therapy, and that fungal infection does not have to preclude additional chemotherapy after proper management. The state of the underlying disease has a strong impact on outcome.

  12. Alcohol during pregnancy worsens acute respiratory infections in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libster, Romina; Ferolla, Fausto M; Hijano, Diego R; Acosta, Patricio L; Erviti, Anabella; Polack, Fernando P

    2015-11-01

    This study explored whether alcohol consumption during pregnancy increased the risk of life-threatening respiratory infections in children. We prospectively evaluated children under the age of two years admitted to hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina, with severe acute respiratory infections during the winters of 2011 and 2012. Information on maternal alcohol consumption during the third trimester of pregnancy was collected using standardised questionnaires and categorised as never, low if it was once a week and high if it was equal or more than once a week. Of the 3423 children hospitalised with acute respiratory infection, 2089 (63.7%) had respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). Alcohol consumption during the last trimester was reported by 398 mothers (12.4%) and categorised as low (n = 210, 6.5%) or high (n = 188, 5.9%). A greater effect on life-threatening respiratory infection, defined as oxygen saturation of or up to 87%, was observed with higher alcohol intake due to all viruses and specifically RSV in the logistic regression analyses. Alcohol consumption was strongly associated with life-threatening disease, particularly in boys whose adjusted odds ratio rose from 3.67 to 13.52 when their mothers drank alcohol. Alcohol consumption during pregnancy was associated with life-threatening respiratory infections in boys. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.

  14. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus. © The Author(s), 2015.

  15. Applying Mathematical Tools to Accelerate Vaccine Development: Modeling Shigella Immune Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Courtney L.; Wahid, Rezwanul; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Simon, Jakub K.

    2013-01-01

    We establish a mathematical framework for studying immune interactions with Shigella, a bacteria that kills over one million people worldwide every year. The long-term goal of this novel approach is to inform Shigella vaccine design by elucidating which immune components and bacterial targets are crucial for establishing Shigella immunity. Our delay differential equation model focuses on antibody and B cell responses directed against antigens like lipopolysaccharide in Shigella’s outer membrane. We find that antibody-based vaccines targeting only surface antigens cannot elicit sufficient immunity for protection. Additional boosting prior to infection would require a four-orders-of-magnitude increase in antibodies to sufficiently prevent epithelial invasion. However, boosting anti-LPS B memory can confer protection, which suggests these cells may correlate with immunity. We see that IgA antibodies are slightly more effective per molecule than IgG, but more total IgA is required due to spatial functionality. An extension of the model reveals that targeting both LPS and epithelial entry proteins is a promising avenue to advance vaccine development. This paper underscores the importance of multifaceted immune targeting in creating an effective Shigella vaccine. It introduces mathematical models to the Shigella vaccine development effort and lays a foundation for joint theoretical/experimental/clinical approaches to Shigella vaccine design. PMID:23589755

  16. Molecular characterization of Shigella spp. from patients in Gabon 2011-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumburg, Frieder; Alabi, Abraham S; Kaba, Harry; Lell, Bertrand; Becker, Karsten; Grobusch, Martin P; Kremsner, Peter G; Mellmann, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Shigella spp. dysentery is widespread in developing countries; the incidence is particularly high in children between 1-2 years of age. In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on Shigella spp., with possible negative consequences for recognition and correct treatment choice for this life-threatening bacterial infection. We therefore characterized Shigella spp. isolates from Gabon. The antimicrobial resistance, virulence factors, genotypes and mobile genetic elements of Shigella isolates (29 S. flexneri; 5 S. boydii; 3 S. sonnei) from a retrospective strain collection were analyzed. High resistance rates were found for gentamicin and tetracycline (100%, 37/37), cotrimoxazole (92%, 34/37) and ampicillin (84%, 31/37). All isolate harbored ial and ipaH; no isolate produced Shiga toxins (stx1/2); enterotoxins (set1A/B) were only found in S. flexneri (n=19). Multilocus sequence types (MLST) clustered with global clones. A high prevalence of atypical class 1 integrons harboring blaOXA30 and aadA1 were detected in S. flexneri, while all S. sonnei carried class 2 integrons. There is a strong link of Gabonese Shigella spp. isolates with pandemic lineages as they cluster with major global clones and frequently carry atypical class 1 integrons which are frequently reported in Shigella spp. from Asia. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Detection of Acute HIV-1 Infection by RT-LAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Donna L; Sullivan, Vickie; Owen, S Michele; Curtis, Kelly A

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, cost-effective diagnostic test for the detection of acute HIV-1 infection is highly desired. Isothermal amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), exhibit characteristics that are ideal for the development of a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) because they are quick, easy to perform and do not require complex, dedicated equipment and laboratory space. In this study, we assessed the ability of the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay to detect acute HIV infection as compared to a representative rapid antibody test and several FDA-approved laboratory-based assays. The HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay detected seroconverting individuals one to three weeks earlier than a rapid HIV antibody test and up to two weeks earlier than a lab-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab) combo enzyme immunoassay (EIA). RT-LAMP was not as sensitive as a lab-based qualitative RNA assay, which could be attributed to the significantly smaller nucleic acid input volume. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of detecting acute HIV infection using the RT-LAMP assay. The availability of a rapid NAAT, such as the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay, at the point of care (POC) or in laboratories that do not have access to large platform NAAT could increase the percentage of individuals who receive an acute HIV infection status or confirmation of their HIV status, while immediately linking them to counseling and medical care. In addition, early knowledge of HIV status could lead to reduced high-risk behavior at a time when individuals are at a higher risk for transmitting the virus.

  18. Detection of Acute HIV-1 Infection by RT-LAMP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna L Rudolph

    Full Text Available A rapid, cost-effective diagnostic test for the detection of acute HIV-1 infection is highly desired. Isothermal amplification techniques, such as reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP, exhibit characteristics that are ideal for the development of a rapid nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT because they are quick, easy to perform and do not require complex, dedicated equipment and laboratory space. In this study, we assessed the ability of the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay to detect acute HIV infection as compared to a representative rapid antibody test and several FDA-approved laboratory-based assays. The HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay detected seroconverting individuals one to three weeks earlier than a rapid HIV antibody test and up to two weeks earlier than a lab-based antigen/antibody (Ag/Ab combo enzyme immunoassay (EIA. RT-LAMP was not as sensitive as a lab-based qualitative RNA assay, which could be attributed to the significantly smaller nucleic acid input volume. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of detecting acute HIV infection using the RT-LAMP assay. The availability of a rapid NAAT, such as the HIV-1 RT-LAMP assay, at the point of care (POC or in laboratories that do not have access to large platform NAAT could increase the percentage of individuals who receive an acute HIV infection status or confirmation of their HIV status, while immediately linking them to counseling and medical care. In addition, early knowledge of HIV status could lead to reduced high-risk behavior at a time when individuals are at a higher risk for transmitting the virus.

  19. Pteropine orthoreovirus infection among out-patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voon, Kenny; Tan, Yeh Fong; Leong, Pooi Pooi; Teng, Cheong Lieng; Gunnasekaran, Rajasekaran; Ujang, Kamsiah; Chua, Kaw Bing; Wang, Lin-Fa

    2015-12-01

    This study aims to assess the incidence rate of Pteropine orthreovirus (PRV) infection in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in a suburban setting in Malaysia, where bats are known to be present in the neighborhood. Using molecular detection of PRVs directly from oropharyngeal swabs, our study demonstrates that PRV is among one of the common causative agents of acute URTI with cough and sore throat as the commonest presenting clinical features. Phylogenetic analysis on partial major outer and inner capsid proteins shows that these PRV strains are closely related to Melaka and Kampar viruses previously isolated in Malaysia. Further study is required to determine the public health significance of PRV infection in Southeast Asia, especially in cases where co-infection with other pathogens may potentially lead to different clinical outcomes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Probiotics for preventing acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Qiukui; Dong, Bi Rong; Wu, Taixiang

    2015-02-03

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyse 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI (at least one episode: odds ratio (OR) 0.53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37 to 0.76, P value Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute URTI (rate ratio 0.83; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.05, P value = 0.12, very low

  1. Cochrane Commentary: Probiotics For Prevention of Acute Upper Respiratory Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quick, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Probiotics may improve a person's health by regulating their immune function. Some trials have shown that probiotic strains can prevent respiratory infections. Even though the previous version of our review showed benefits of probiotics for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), several new studies have been published. To assess the effectiveness and safety of probiotics (any specified strain or dose), compared with placebo, in the prevention of acute URTIs in people of all ages, who are at risk of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1950 to July week 3, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to July 2014), Web of Science (1900 to July 2014), the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database, which includes the China Biological Medicine Database (from 1978 to July 2014), the Chinese Medicine Popular Science Literature Database (from 2000 to July 2014) and the Masters Degree Dissertation of Beijing Union Medical College Database (from 1981 to July 2014). We also searched the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) and ClinicalTrials.gov for completed and ongoing trials on 31 July 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics with placebo to prevent acute URTIs. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and quality of trials, and extracted data using the standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 13 RCTs, although we could only extract data to meta-analyze 12 trials, which involved 3720 participants including children, adults (aged around 40 years) and older people. We found that probiotics were better than placebo when measuring the number of participants experiencing episodes of acute URTI [at least one episode: odds ratio (OR): 0.53; 95% CI = 0.37-0.76, P Probiotics and placebo were similar when measuring the rate ratio of episodes of acute URTI (rate ratio: 0.83; 95% CI = 0.66-1.05, P = .12, very low quality evidence) and adverse

  2. Characterization and complete genome sequence of the Shigella bacteriophage pSf-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Jin Woo; Kim, Ji Hyung; Shin, Sang Phil; Han, Jee Eun; Chai, Ji Young; Park, Se Chang

    2013-12-01

    Shigellosis is a global health problem, and Shigella flexneri is the major cause of this disease. In this study, we isolated a virulent Siphoviridae bacteriophage (phage), pSf-1, that infects S. flexneri. This phage was isolated from the Han River in Korea and was found to infect S. flexneri, Shigella boydii, and Shigella sonnei. One-step growth analysis revealed that this phage has a short latent period (10 min) and a large burst size (86.86 PFU/cell), indicating that pSf-1 has good host infectivity and effective lytic activity. The double-stranded DNA genome of pSf-1 is composed of 51,821 bp with a G + C content of 44.02%. The genome encodes 94 putative ORFs, 71 putative promoters, and 60 transcriptional terminator regions. Genome sequence analysis of pSf-1 and comparative analysis with the homologous Shigella phage Shfl1 revealed that there is a high degree of similarity between pSf-1 and Shfl1 in 54 of the 94 ORFs of pSf-1. The results of this investigation indicate that pSf-1 is a novel Shigella phage and that this phage might have potential uses against shigellosis. Copyright © 2013 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. ACUTE INTESTINAL INFECTION AS A DISGUISE OF ACUTE APPENDICITIS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Y. Dyakonova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The issue of differential diagnosis of acute appendicitis and acute intestinal infections in contemporary medicine remains relevant for clinical practice of surgeons and pediatricians. Late diagnosis of appendicitis results in development of complicated forms of vermiform appendix inflammation. This prolongs operative intervention, duration of antibacterial therapy and duration of a child’s inpatient stay. The article presents clinical observation of three children treated for perforated appendix and generalized purulent peritonitis. The described cases demonstrate the need in multidisciplinary approach and complex diagnosis of patients with such complaints as abdominal pain, fever and diarrhea.

  4. Human Metapneumovirus Infection and Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Alina; McLaren, Rodney; Saunders, Paul; Karakash, Scarlett; Minkoff, Howard

    2017-09-01

    Human metapneumovirus has recently been recognized as an important cause of severe respiratory viral infections and of viral infections in patients admitted to intensive care units. Little is known about the course of this infection in pregnancy. A late-preterm primigravid woman was admitted to the intensive care unit for acute respiratory distress syndrome and subsequently diagnosed with human metapneumovirus. Because of worsening maternal respiratory status, she was intubated and a primary cesarean delivery was performed. The patient's respiratory status continued to decline postpartum, and she ultimately required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. She was treated supportively until her respiratory status improved, at which time she was extubated and weaned off extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and subsequently discharged home. Human metapneumovirus can lead to severe respiratory illness during pregnancy.

  5. Neurologic signs and symptoms frequently manifest in acute HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Joanna; Fletcher, James L K; Valcour, Victor; Kroon, Eugène; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Intasan, Jintana; Lerdlum, Sukalaya; Narvid, Jared; Pothisri, Mantana; Allen, Isabel; Krebs, Shelly J; Slike, Bonnie; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Puttamaswin, Suwanna; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Spudich, Serena

    2016-07-12

    To determine the incidence, timing, and severity of neurologic findings in acute HIV infection (pre-antibody seroconversion), as well as persistence with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). Participants identified with acute HIV were enrolled, underwent structured neurologic evaluations, immediately initiated cART, and were followed with neurologic evaluations at 4 and 12 weeks. Concurrent brain MRIs and both viral and inflammatory markers in plasma and CSF were obtained. Median estimated HIV infection duration was 19 days (range 3-56) at study entry for the 139 participants evaluated. Seventy-three participants (53%) experienced one or more neurologic findings in the 12 weeks after diagnosis, with one developing a fulminant neurologic manifestation (Guillain-Barré syndrome). A total of 245 neurologic findings were noted, reflecting cognitive symptoms (33%), motor findings (34%), and neuropathy (11%). Nearly half of the neurologic findings (n = 121, 49%) occurred at diagnosis, prior to cART initiation, and most of these (n = 110, 90%) remitted concurrent with 1 month on treatment. Only 9% of neurologic findings (n = 22) persisted at 24 weeks on cART. Nearly all neurologic findings (n = 236, 96%) were categorized as mild in severity. No structural neuroimaging abnormalities were observed. Participants with neurologic findings had a higher mean plasma log10 HIV RNA at diagnosis compared to those without neurologic findings (5.9 vs 5.4; p = 0.006). Acute HIV infection is commonly associated with mild neurologic findings that largely remit while on treatment, and may be mediated by direct viral factors. Severe neurologic manifestations are infrequent in treated acute HIV. © 2016 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Primary pneumocystis infection in infants hospitalized with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Hans Henrik; von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Lundgren, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    with 431 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection (RTI) by using a real-time PCR assay. In 68 episodes in 67 infants, P. jirovecii was identified. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of a positive signal compared with the first quartile of age (7-49 days) was 47.4 (11.0-203), 8.7 (1......Acquisition of Pneumocystis jirovecii infection early in life has been confirmed by serologic studies. However, no evidence of clinical illness correlated with the primary infection has been found in immunocompetent children. We analyzed 458 nasopharyngeal aspirates from 422 patients hospitalized...

  7. Detection of classic and invasive E. coli and Shigella serotypes in stools by indirect immunofluorescence Detecção de E. coli enteropatogênica clássica e invasora e Shigella em fezes por imunofluorescência indireta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldely de Oliveira Dias

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available IIF in the detection of invasive and classic enteropathogenic E. coli and Shigella serotypes was compared with traditional coproculture methods. IIP results agreed with the coproculture findings in 128 out of 140 cases tested for enteropathogenic E. coli (91% and in 108 out of 112 for Shigella (96%. All cases with positive reactions by coproculture were confirmed by IIP. In the control group it were obtained by IIF 12 cases with positive reactions for enteropathogenic E. coli and 4 cases for Shigella, including two cases of mixed infection by E. coli 026/Sh. dysenteriae and E. coli 0124/Sh. dysenteriae. It was discussed the high sensitivity and specificity of the IIF when compared with the traditional methods, being suggested that IIF is a valuable tool in epidemiological studies involving these organisms and an important aid in the stablishment of an early presumptive diagnosis of the acute infantile diarrhea.A imunofluorescência indireta (IFI de sorotipos enteropatogênicos clássicos e invasores de E. coli e de Shigella foi comparada com os métodos tradicionais de coprocultura e soroaglutinação. Os resultados da IFI concordaram com os da coprocultura em 128 dos 140 casos testados para E. coli enteropatogênica (91% e em 108 dos 112 testados para Shigella (96%. Todos os casos com reações positivas por coprocultura foram confirmados por IFI. No grupo controle, onde não haviam sido isolados tais patógenos por coprocultura, foram evidenciados por IFI, 12 casos com reações positivas para E. coli enteropatogênica e 4 para Shigella, incluindo-se 2 com infecção mista: E. coli 026/Sh. dysenteriae e E. coli 0124/Sh. dysenteriae. Foi discutida a alta sensibilidade e especificidade da IFI quando comparada aos métodos tradicionais, sendo sugerido o valor desta técnica em estudos epidemiológicos envolvendo os microrganismos em questão e sua importância no estabelecimento de diagnóstico precoce na diarréia infantil aguda.

  8. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana C.A. Benites

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI and/or fever. METHODS: cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc and University Hospital (HU, Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland, and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B, rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ2 or Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3% was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%, respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%, and coronavirus (6.8%. Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7 were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. CONCLUSIONS: the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs.

  9. Acute respiratory viral infections in pediatric cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benites, Eliana C A; Cabrini, Dayane P; Silva, Andrea C B; Silva, Juliana C; Catalan, Daniel T; Berezin, Eitan N; Cardoso, Maria R A; Passos, Saulo D

    2014-01-01

    to estimate the prevalence of infection by respiratory viruses in pediatric patients with cancer and acute respiratory infection (ARI) and/or fever. cross-sectional study, from January 2011 to December 2012. The secretions of nasopharyngeal aspirates were analyzed in children younger than 21 years with acute respiratory infections. Patients were treated at the Grupo em Defesa da Criança Com Câncer (Grendacc) and University Hospital (HU), Jundiaí, SP. The rapid test was used for detection of influenza virus (Kit Biotrin, Inc. Ireland), and real-time multiplex polymerase chain reaction (FTD, Respiratory pathogens, multiplex Fast Trade Kit, Malta) for detection of influenza virus (H1N1, B), rhinovirus, parainfluenza virus, adenovirus, respiratory syncytial virus, human parechovirus, bocavirus, metapneumovirus, and human coronavirus. The prevalence of viral infection was estimated and association tests were used (χ(2) or Fisher's exact test). 104 samples of nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were analyzed. The median age was 12 ± 5.2 years, 51% males, 68% whites, 32% had repeated ARIs, 32% prior antibiotic use, 19.8% cough, and 8% contact with ARIs. A total of 94.3% were in good general status. Acute lymphocytic leukemia (42.3%) was the most prevalent neoplasia. Respiratory viruses were detected in 50 samples: rhinoviruses (23.1%), respiratory syncytial virus AB (8.7%), and coronavirus (6.8%). Co-detection occurred in 19% of cases with 2 viruses and in 3% of those with 3 viruses, and was more frequent between rhinovirus and coronavirus 43. Fever in neutropenic patients was observed in 13%, of which four (30.7) were positive for viruses. There were no deaths. the prevalence of respiratory viruses was relevant in the infectious episode, with no increase in morbidity and mortality. Viral co-detection was frequent in patients with cancer and ARIs. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Mitochondria mediate septin cage assembly to promote autophagy of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirianni, Andrea; Krokowski, Sina; Lobato-Márquez, Damián; Buranyi, Stephen; Pfanzelter, Julia; Galea, Dieter; Willis, Alexandra; Culley, Siân; Henriques, Ricardo; Larrouy-Maumus, Gerald; Hollinshead, Michael; Sancho-Shimizu, Vanessa; Way, Michael; Mostowy, Serge

    2016-07-01

    Septins, cytoskeletal proteins with well-characterised roles in cytokinesis, form cage-like structures around cytosolic Shigella flexneri and promote their targeting to autophagosomes. However, the processes underlying septin cage assembly, and whether they influence S. flexneri proliferation, remain to be established. Using single-cell analysis, we show that the septin cages inhibit S. flexneri proliferation. To study mechanisms of septin cage assembly, we used proteomics and found mitochondrial proteins associate with septins in S. flexneri-infected cells. Strikingly, mitochondria associated with S. flexneri promote septin assembly into cages that entrap bacteria for autophagy. We demonstrate that the cytosolic GTPase dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) interacts with septins to enhance mitochondrial fission. To avoid autophagy, actin-polymerising Shigella fragment mitochondria to escape from septin caging. Our results demonstrate a role for mitochondria in anti-Shigella autophagy and uncover a fundamental link between septin assembly and mitochondria. © 2016 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  11. Acute exacerbation in chronic hepatitis B virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio Vieira Santos

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available A case of an acute exacerbation of liver injury in a chronic HBV infected young male is reported. The correlation between the severe symptomatic hepatitis is done with the histopathologic findings of extense areas of bridging necrosis on the Iwer biopsy. The serological pattern for markers of HBV (HBsAg +, anti HBs g -, HBeAg -, anti HBe +, anti HBcIgG + and IgM - confirm a chronic infection, ana the authors propose that the episode of severe hepatitis relates to the recent spontaneous seroconvertion of HBe Ag to anti HBe. Other causes of hepatitis were excluded, and the control liver biopsy (6 months later showed normalization of hepatic architecture and absence of markers of viral replication in tissue and serum. A review of literature is done in an attempt to elucidate the diagnostic possibilities in this case, with emphasis on new immunoassays useful in differentiating between acute hepatitis B and acute exacerbation of a chronic hepatitis by the same virus.

  12. Infection prevention and control measures for acute respiratory infections in healthcare settings: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, W H; Conly, J M; Pessoa-Silva, C L; Malik, M; Eremin, S

    2013-01-01

    Viruses account for the majority of the acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) globally with a mortality exceeding 4 million deaths per year. The most commonly encountered viruses, in order of frequency, include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza and adenovirus. Current evidence suggests that the major mode of transmission of ARls is through large droplets, but transmission through contact (including hand contamination with subsequent self-inoculation) and infectious respiratory aerosols of various sizes and at short range (coined as "opportunistic" airborne transmission) may also occur for some pathogens. Opportunistic airborne transmission may occur when conducting highrisk aerosol generating procedures and airborne precautions will be required in this setting. General infection control measures effective for all respiratory viral infections are reviewed and followed by discussion on some of the common viruses, including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus and the recently discovered novel coronavirus.

  13. Respiratory metapneumoviral infection without co-infection in association with acute and chronic lung allograft dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dosanjh A

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amrita DosanjhDepartment of Pediatrics, Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, CA, USABackground: Metapneumoviral respiratory infection is a community-acquired respiratory viral (CARV infection. Lung transplantation recipients exposed to CARV are at risk for development of allograft rejection. The cellular and molecular pathways initiated by viral infection leading to allograft dysfunction are not completely understood. The aim of this study was to identify human metapneumoviral (hMPV cases in association with allograft rejection.Methods: A literature search was conducted to identify cases of both hMPV and allograft rejection within 6 months of the initial infection. This resulted in 1,007 lung transplantation recipients, with a total of 2,883 samples identified. Of these, 57 demonstrated isolated hMPV without co-infection with other agents.Results: The results of the study indicate that 35% of acute hMPV infections without co-infection, at the time of detection by molecular diagnostic platforms, were associated with acute cellular rejection within 3 months. There were 9.4% of the cases subsequently associated with chronic allograft dysfunction/bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome, which was collectively termed chronic rejection for purposes of analysis. In conclusion, the prompt identification of isolated hMPV from lung transplantation patients is an important treatable risk factor for subsequent allograft dysfunction. The cellular and molecular pathogenesis of viral-induced allograft rejection remains a topic of future study.Keywords: viral infection, bronchiolitis obliterans, acute cellular rejection, allograft, lung, metapneumovirus

  14. Impact of Infection Prevention and Control Initiatives on Acute Respiratory Infections in a Pediatric Long-Term Care Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Meghan T; Jackson, Olivia; Cohen, Bevin; Hutcheon, Gordon; Saiman, Lisa; Larson, Elaine; Neu, Natalie

    2016-07-01

    We evaluated the collective impact of several infection prevention and control initiatives aimed at reducing acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in a pediatric long-term care facility. ARIs did not decrease overall, though the proportion of infections associated with outbreaks and average number of cases per outbreak decreased. Influenza rates decreased significantly. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:859-862.

  15. Human coronavirus and severe acute respiratory infection in Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trombetta, Hygor; Faggion, Heloisa Z; Leotte, Jaqueline; Nogueira, Meri B; Vidal, Luine R R; Raboni, Sonia M

    2016-05-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are an important cause of respiratory tract infection and are responsible for causing the common cold in the general population. Thus, adequate surveillance of HCoV is essential. This study aimed to analyze the impact of HCoV infections and their relation to severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) in a hospitalized population in Southern Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, and assessed inpatients under investigation for SARI by the hospital epidemiology department, and all patients who had nasopharyngeal aspirates collected from January 2012 to December 2013 to detect respiratory viruses (RVs). Viral infection was detected by multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), with primers specific to the subtypes HCoV-229E/NL63 and OC43/HKU1. The overall positivity rate was 58.8% (444/755), and HCoVs were detected in 7.6% (n = 34) of positive samples. Children below two years of age were most frequently affected (62%). Comorbidities were more likely to be associated with HCoVs than with other RVs. Immunosuppression was an independent risk factor for HCoV infection (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.6-7.6). Dyspnea was less frequently associated with HCoV infection (p infected with HCoV (9%) died from respiratory infection. HCoVs are important respiratory pathogens, especially in hospitalized children under 2 years of age and in immunosuppressed patients. They may account for a small proportion of SARI diagnoses, increased need for mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit admission, and death.

  16. Limited durability of viral control following treated acute HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Kaufmann

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Early treatment of acute HIV infection with highly active antiretroviral therapy, followed by supervised treatment interruption (STI, has been associated with at least transient control of viremia. However, the durability of such control remains unclear. Here we present longitudinal follow-up of a single-arm, open-label study assessing the impact of STI in the setting of acute HIV-1 infection.Fourteen patients were treated during acute HIV-1 infection and subsequently subjected to an STI protocol that required retreatment if viral load exceeded 50,000 RNA copies/ml plasma or remained above 5,000 copies/ml for more than three consecutive weeks. Eleven of 14 (79% patients were able to achieve viral loads of less than 5,000 RNA copies/ml for at least 90 d following one, two, or three interruptions of treatment. However, a gradual increase in viremia and decline in CD4+ T cell counts was observed in most individuals. By an intention-to-treat analysis, eight (57%, six (43%, and three (21% of 14 patients achieved a maximal period of control of 180, 360, and 720 d, respectively, despite augmentation of HIV-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses. The magnitude of HIV-1-specific cellular immune responses before treatment interruption did not predict duration of viremia control. The small sample size and lack of concurrent untreated controls preclude assessment of possible clinical benefit despite failure to control viremia by study criteria.These data indicate that despite initial control of viremia, durable viral control to less than 5,000 RNA copies/ml plasma in patients following treated acute HIV-1 infection occurs infrequently. Determination of whether early treatment leads to overall clinical benefit will require a larger and randomized clinical trial. These data may be relevant to current efforts to develop an HIV-1 vaccine designed to retard disease progression rather than prevent infection since they indicate that durable maintenance of low

  17. The adenoviral infections in children admitted to hospital with pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis or respiratory viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecu, Cristina; Mihai, Maria E; Alexandrescu, Viorel I; Orăşanu, Dumitru; Zapucioiu, Carmen; Matei, Dumitru; Craiu, M; Cochino, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the percent of infections with adenovirus (ADV) in children who had pneumonia, acute bronchiolitis or viral respiratory infections and were admitted to two pediatrics hospitals in Bucharest (Grigore Alexandrescu Hospital and Alfred Rusescu Hospital). 70 children aged one month - five years, admitted to the above mentioned pediatrics hospitals in Bucharest, who were negative for the Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) and the human Metapneumovirus (hMPV) by Reverse Transcription -Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). 48 of them presented pneumonia upon admission to hospital, 6--acute bronchiolitis and 16 respiratory viral infections. Samples (nasal swabs) were taken from patients and introduced in viral transport medium. RT-PCR for RSV and hMPV, Multiplex PCR by seeplex multi-detection system with Seeplex RV/PB 18 ASE Detection for detection of 5 pneumonial bacteria and Real-Time PCR, Duplica Real Time Adenovirus Detection for ADV. Of the total 70 patients negative for RSV, hMPV and 5 pneumonial bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila), 10 were ADV positive; none of the children < 6 months (N = 16) presented ADV infection. In the 6 months - 2 years group (N = 35), 6 were ADV positive. In the 2 - 5 years group (N = 19), 4 were ADV positive. The percent of ADV infections in children hospitalized with acute respiratory infections (ARI) caused by neither RSV or hMPV is 14.2%. ADV is most frequently encountered in the 6 months - 2 years and then 2 - 5 years groups, but the most severe pneumonia forms can be seen in the 6 months - 2 years group. In children < 6 months with acute bronchiolitis ADV was not found to be an etiologic agent.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF ACUTE DIARRHEAL INFECTION PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malysh N.G.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Microbiocenosis of human body also differs in extreme multicomponents and diverse content of microflora representatives forming its part. According to the biotype of bacterial contamination certain inter-bacterial relations are formed, which is reflected in the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of appropriate microbial landscape. Analysis of numerous microbial association manifestations allows evaluating changes in the pathogen properties influenced by associative microbiota. Work objective - based on the study ecological features of microorganisms isolated from intestine of patients with acute intestinal infections and apparently healthy people, identify potential risk factors for diarrheal infections. Materials & methods. A retrospective epidemiological analysis of acute diarrheal infections incidence was conducted during 2004-2013, using the statistics of the Main Department of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of Ukraine in Sumy region. The intestinal microflora of 93 patients with acute diarrheal infections and 60 persons of the control group (apparently healthy people. As the result 130 bacterial cultures were allocated. Permanence rate was used to estimate biocenosis. Relationships between microbiocenosis members were investigated by determining degree of bond conjunction in associations, using Jaccard coefficient (g. Results & discussion. In 2005-2014 acute diarrheal infection incidence rates of Sumy region population were within 163.7 - 193.6 per 100 people without tendency to decrease. Acute intestinal infections and food toxicoinfections caused by opportunistic pathogens and viruses (p<0.05 dominated in nosological structure. In 35.5 % of cases diarrheal infections were of polyetiological nature. Noroviruses in associations with Candida bacteriaand fungi most often occurred (p<0.05 in the intestinal biotypes. Permanence rate of K. pneumonia, noroviruses, S. aureus, C. albicans was the highest and

  19. Analysis and genetic manipulation of Shigella virulence determinants for vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, S D; Sekizaki, T; Gonzalez-Carrero, M I; Timmis, K N

    1988-04-01

    Shigellosis is a major public health problem in developing countries. Current epidemics of Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 strains are particularly serious and are characterized by high mortality rates. A high proportion of the isolates are resistant to many of the antibiotics currently in use in these countries, a feature which seriously compromises clinical treatment of the infections. Efficacious vaccines are thus urgently needed. Basic studies on Shigella virulence factors, infections in laboratory models, and host responses has led to the development of several strategies for the production of vaccines. All of these are live oral vaccines involving bacteria capable of at least limited survival in the animal intestine and of carrying selected antigens to the mucosal immune system. One type of vaccine involves non-pathogenic shigellae, attenuated either by introduction of a requirement for aromatic amino acids (aroD) or by loss of the large plasmid that specifies bacterial invasion of the mucosal epithelium. S. dysenteriae 1 strains under development as vaccines need to be engineered to eliminate high level Shiga toxin production, and a rapid and effective method to achieve this was recently elaborated. The second type of vaccine is represented by hybrid strains consisting of a carrier organism, such as an attenuated Salmonella or an Escherichia coli K-12 strain carrying the Shigella invasion plasmid, and the selected foreign antigen that it produces, in all cases so far the Shigella O antigen polysaccharide.

  20. Serogrupos y susceptibilidad antimicrobiana en cepas de Shigella Serogroups and antimicrobial susceptibility in Shigella strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Díaz Rigau

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Shigella spp. es uno de los agentes causales más importantes de diarrea aguda en los niños. La presente investigación tuvo como objetivo conocer la frecuencia de serogrupos y la susceptibilidad antimicrobiana a los fármacos de elección y a los alternativos. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo y retrospectivo entre enero de 2004 y diciembre de 2006 a partir de 34 cepas de Shigella spp. aisladas en heces de niños menores de 5 años ingresados en el Hospital «Aleida Fernández Chardiet» (Municipio Güines a causa de enfermedad diarreica aguda. RESULTADOS. Los serogrupos encontrados fueron S. sonnei (70,5 % y S. flexneri (29,5 %. Ambos serogrupos mostraron altos niveles de resistencia al trimetoprim-sulfametoxazol y a la ampicilina, además en las cepas de S. sonnei se encontró resistencia al ácido nalidíxico y en las de S. flexneri al cloranfenicol. Todas las cepas mostraron altos porcentajes de sensibilidad a la ceftriaxona, norfloxacina y ciprofloxacina. El 70 % de las cepas de S. sonnei fueron multirresistentes. El patrón de multirresistencia (ampicilina, trimetoprim-sulfamtetoxazol y ácido nalidíxico se encontró en ambos serogrupos. CONCLUSIONES. La determinación y vigilancia de los patrones de resistencia facilita el control de la política de uso de antibióticos en la región estudiada y previene el surgimiento de cepas resistentes a fármacos de nueva generación.INTRODUCTION: Shigella ssp. is one of the more important causal agents of acute diarrhea in children. Present research has as aim to know serogroups frequency and antimicrobial susceptibility to choice drugs, and to its alternatives. METHODS: A descriptive retrospective study was carried out between January 2004 and December 2006 of 34 strains of Shigella isolated from children lower than 5 years admitted in "Aleida Fernández Chardiet" Hospital in Güines Municipality by acute diarrheic disease. RESULTS: Serogroups included S. sonnei (70

  1. Progress and pitfalls in Shigella vaccine research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Eileen M.; Pasetti, Marcela F.; Sztein, Marcelo B.; Fasano, Alessio; Kotloff, Karen L.; Levine, Myron M.

    2013-01-01

    Renewed awareness of the significant morbidity and mortality that Shigella causes among young children in developing countries combined with technological innovations in vaccinology has led to the development of novel vaccine strategies in the past five years. Along with advancement of classical vaccines in clinical trials and new sophisticated measurements of immunological responses, much new data has been produced lending promise to the potential for production of safe and effective Shigella vaccines. Herein we review the recent progress in Shigella vaccine development within the framework of persistent obstacles. PMID:23419287

  2. Prevalence of Shigella among diarrheic children under-5 years of age attending at Mekelle health center, north Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Atsebaha Gebrekidan; Teklemariam, Zelalem

    2015-12-15

    Shigellosis is recognized as a major global public health problem especially in developing countries particularly in children under-5 years of age. Therefore; the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Shigella among diarrheic children under-5 years of age attending at Mekelle health center, north Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among diarrheic children under-5 years of age from March to May, 2012. Structured questionnaire was used to collect the data. Study participants were recruited by convenience sampling technique. Shigella was isolated and identified using standard bacteriological techniques. A total of 241 study participants were included in the study. The overall prevalence of Shigella in this study was 13.3% (32/241). High prevalence of Shigella (22.6%) was revealed from the age group of 12-23 months. No Shigella was isolated from the age group of 0-5 months. Majority of the isolates of Shigella were from bloody and mucoid diarrhea. There was high prevalence of Shigella infection in this study. Children among the age group of 12-23 months were highly affected. Therefore; responsible bodies should work hard on preventive measures to reduce or eradicate the problem occurred due to shigellosis.

  3. Acute respiratory infections in elderly people: the role of micronutrients and lifestyle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections are the most frequent of all infectious diseases. In popular speech common cold, flu (influenza), and pneumonia all denote acute respiratory infections. Elderly people show an increased risk of these infections and their complications. In The Netherlands about 2.000

  4. The Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of Acute and Recurrent Pediatric Urinary Tract Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becknell, Brian; Schober, Megan; Korbel, Lindsey; Spencer, John David

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is one of the most common bacterial infections encountered by pediatricians. Currently, the diagnosis and management of acute urinary tract infection and recurrent urinary tract infection in children remains controversial. Recently published guidelines and large clinical trials have attempted to clarify UTI diagnostic and management strategies. In this manuscript, we review the diagnosis and management of acute and recurrent urinary tract infection in the pediatric population. PMID:25421102

  5. Phylogenetic reconstruction of transmission events from individuals with acute HIV infection: toward more-rigorous epidemiological definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brown, Alison E.; Gifford, Robert J.; Clewley, Jonathan P.; Kucherer, Claudia; Masquelier, Bernard; Porter, Kholoud; Balotta, Claudia; Back, Nicole K. T.; Jorgensen, Louise Bruun; de Mendoza, Carmen; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Gill, O. Noel; Johnson, Anne M.; Pillay, Deenan; del Amo, Julia; Meyer, Laurence; Bucher, Heiner; Chene, Genevieve; Prins, Maria; Rosinska, Magda; Sabin, Caroline; Touloumi, Giota; Lodi, Sara; Walker, Sarah; Babiker, Abdel; Darbyshire, Janet; de Luca, Andrea; Fisher, Martin; Muga, Roberto; Kaldor, John; Kelleher, Tony; Ramacciotti, Tim; Gelgor, Linda; Cooper, David; Smith, Don; Gill, John; Nielsen, Claus; Pedersen, Court; Lutsar, Irja; Dabis, Francois; Thiebaut, Rodolphe; Costagliola, Dominique; Guiguet, Marguerite; Vanhems, Philippe; Boufassa, Faroudy; Hamouda, Osamah; Pantazis, Nikos; Hatzakis, Angelos; Paraskevis, Dimitrios; Karafoulidou, Anastasia; Rezza, Giovanni; Dorrucci, Maria; Longo, Benedetta; van Asten, Liselotte; van der Bij, Akke; Geskus, Ronald; Coutinho, Roel; Sannes, Mette; Brubakk, Oddbjorn; Eskild, Anne; Bruun, Johan N.; Camacho, Ricardo; Smolskaya, Tatyana; Garcia de Olalla, Patricia; del Romero, Jorge; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Hernandez Aguado, Ildefonso; Rickenbach, Martin; Francioli, Patrick; Malyuta, Ruslan; Brettle, Ray; Delpech, Valerie; Lattimore, Sam; Murphy, Gary; Parry, John; Gill, Noel; Lee, Christine; Johnson, Anne; Phillips, Andrew; Jaffe, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions of transmission events from individuals with acute human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are conducted to illustrate this group's heightened infectivity. Varied definitions of acute infection and assumptions about observed phylogenetic clusters may produce

  6. Towards a Multiscale Model of Acute HIV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anass Bouchnita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV infection of humans represents a complex biological system and a great challenge to public health. Novel approaches for the analysis and prediction of the infection dynamics based on a multi-scale integration of virus ontogeny and immune reactions are needed to deal with the systems’ complexity. The aim of our study is: (1 to formulate a multi-scale mathematical model of HIV infection; (2 to implement the model computationally following a hybrid approach; and (3 to calibrate the model by estimating the parameter values enabling one to reproduce the “standard” observed dynamics of HIV infection in blood during the acute phase of primary infection. The modeling approach integrates the processes of infection spread and immune responses in Lymph Nodes (LN to that observed in blood. The spatio-temporal population dynamics of T lymphocytes in LN in response to HIV infection is governed by equations linking an intracellular regulation of the lymphocyte fate by intercellular cytokine fields. We describe the balance of proliferation, differentiation and death at a single cell level as a consequence of gene activation via multiple signaling pathways activated by IL-2, IFNa and FasL. Distinct activation thresholds are used in the model to relate different modes of cellular responses to the hierarchy of the relative levels of the cytokines. We specify a reference set of model parameter values for the fundamental processes in lymph nodes that ensures a reasonable agreement with viral load and CD4+ T cell dynamics in blood.

  7. Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pavić, Ivan; Jurković, Marija; Paštar, Zrinjka

    2012-01-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections (ARTI) are the most common cause of childhood morbidity and an important public health problem. The aim of this study was to identify the significant risk factors for ARTI in children. The study took place in Ivankovo which is a rural area of Eastern Slavonia and with small socio-economic differences. The study population were 159 children who were 3–5 years old at the time of the study, and who were registrated at doctor’s office Ivankovo. The s...

  8. The Acute Respiratory Infection Quality Dashboard: a performance measurement reporting tool in an electronic health record

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Linder, Jeffrey A; Jung, Eunice; Housman, Dan; Eskin, Michael S; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Middleton, Blackford; Einbinder, Jonathan S

    2007-01-01

    .... The Acute Respiratory Infection Quality Dashboard (ARI QD) for LMR users is a secure web report for performance measurement of an acute condition delivered through a central data warehouse and custom-built reporting tool...

  9. Genome sequencing, annotation and comparative genomic analysis of Shigella dysenteriae strain SD1D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Gurwinder; Sathyabama, Sathyaseelan; Arora, Amit; Verma, Sheenam; Mubin, Nida; Agrewala, Javed N; Mayilraj, Shanmugam

    2014-01-01

    Shigellosis is an acute form of gastroenteritis caused by the bacteria belonging to the genus Shigella. It is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality in children. Shigella belongs to the family Enterobactericeae, which is a Gram-negative and rod shaped bacterium. In the present study, we report the draft genome of Shigella dysenteriae strain SD1D, which was isolated from the stool sample of a healthy individual. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence and phylogenetic analysis, the strain SD1D was identified as Shigella dysenteriae. The draft genome of SD1D consisted of 45, 93, 159 bp with a G + C content of 50.7%, 4, 960 predicted CDSs, 75 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. The final assembly contained 146 contigs of total length 45, 93, 159 bp with N50 contig length of 77, 053 bp; the largest contig assembled measured 3, 85, 550 bp. We have for the first time performed the whole genome sequencing of Shigella dysenteriae strain SD1D. The comparative genomic analysis revealed several genes responsible for the pathogenesis, virulence, defense, resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, multidrug resistance efflux pumps and other genomic features of the bacterium.

  10. The current epidemiology and clinical decisions surrounding acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaas, Aimee K; Garner, Bronwen H; Tsalik, Ephraim L; Burke, Thomas; Woods, Christopher W; Ginsburg, Geoffrey S

    2014-10-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a common diagnosis in outpatient and emergent care settings. Currently available diagnostics are limited, creating uncertainty in the use of antibacterial, antiviral, or supportive care. Up to 72% of ambulatory care patients with ARI are treated with an antibacterial, despite only a small fraction actually needing one. Antibiotic overuse is not restricted to ambulatory care: ARI accounts for approximately 5 million emergency department (ED) visits annually in the USA, where 52-61% of such patients receive antibiotics. Thus, an accurate test for the presence or absence of viral or bacterial infection is needed. In this review, we focus on recent research showing that the host-response (genomic, proteomic, or miRNA) can accomplish this task. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Germinal center dynamics during acute and chronic infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Samantha; Ciupe, Stanca M

    2017-06-01

    The ability of the immune system to clear pathogens is limited during chronic virus infections where potent long-lived plasma and memory B-cells are produced only after germinal center B-cells undergo many rounds of somatic hypermutations. In this paper, we investigate the mechanisms of germinal center B-cell formation by developing mathematical models for the dynamics of B-cell somatic hypermutations. We use the models to determine how B-cell selection and competition for T follicular helper cells and antigen influences the size and composition of germinal centers in acute and chronic infections. We predict that the T follicular helper cells are a limiting resource in driving large numbers of somatic hypermutations and present possible mechanisms that can revert this limitation in the presence of non-mutating and mutating antigen.

  12. ACUTE ENTERIC INFECTIONS POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION ASSAY IN PEDIATRIC PRACTICE: OPPORTUNITIES AND CHALLENGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Sokolova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is estimate the opportunities of local multi-prime PCR reagents kits in children enteric infections etiological diagnostics amongst the patients with diarrhoea vs traditional bacteriological methods. We used 4 kits of reagents that provide multiple pathogens simultaneous indication in one sample: 1 Rotavirus, Norovirus, Astrovirus; 2 Shigella spp./EIEC, Salmonella spp., Campylobacter spp.; 3 Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis; 4 E. coli: EIEC (enteroinvasive, EPEC (enteropathogenic, ETEC (enterotoxigenic, EHEC (enterohaemorrhagic, EAgEC (enteroaggregative. It has been shown that the viral intestinal infections is increased by 14%, bacterial — in 2,5 times. PCR diagnostics identified in 62% of patients the viral gastroenteritis: Rotavirus (52%, Norovirus (9%, Astrovirus (1%. Detected bacterial pathogens PCR markers number proved up to 2.5 times high than according to bacteriological examination. The spectrum of bacterial agents increased due to E. coli and Y. enterocolitica. PCR diagnostics increased detection of Campylobacter up to 2 times. Detected E. coli DNA prevalence: EPEC — 66%, EAgEC, ETEC and EHEC were 31%, 9% and 4%, respectively. DNA Campylobacter spp. and E. coli constituted 2/3 of all findings: Campylobacter spp. (41%, E. coli (24%, Salmonella spp. (19%, Yersinia spp. (11%, Shigella spp./EIEC (5%. The positive results of bacteriological and serological methods duplicate the positive results of PCR diagnostics. In general, the positive results of PCR diagnosis of bacterial pathogens were detected in 46.35% of the examined patients. In 48.4% of patients identified PCR markers viral — bacterial infection, in 5.25% — of bacterial associations, in 11% of them were found the DNA 2–3 bacterial pathogens. The study was shown in children in St. Petersburg in 2012–2014 dominated rotavirus infection, campylobacteriosis and escherichiosis. The prevalence of viral-bacterial confections is more

  13. Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zar Heather J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infections caused by human rhinoviruses (HRVs are important triggers of wheezing in young children. Wheezy illness has increasingly been recognised as an important cause of morbidity in African children, but there is little information on the contribution of HRV to this. The aim of this study was to determine the role of HRV as a cause of acute wheezing in South African children. Methods Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test. Results HRV was detected in 128 (58.2% of children, most (72% of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35% were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2% were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52% followed by HRV-A (37% and HRV-B (11%. Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16% of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28% of HRV-negative samples. Conclusion HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.

  14. RESPIRATORY SYNCYTIAL VIRUS INFECTION AMONG YOUNG CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milani

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infections in infants,and also an important factor for hospitalization during the winter months. To determine the prevalence and importance of RSV as a cause of acute lower respiratory tract infection, we carried out a prospective study during 5 months period from November to March 1998 in 6 pediatric hospitals. A nasopharyngeal aspirate was obtained for detection of RSV in all cases. Sociodemographic data, clinical signs, diagnosis and hospital admissions were documented. During this study period, 365 young infants (51.5% male, 48.5% female with respiratory tract infection were visited in 6 hospitals. The median age of patients was 24 months (range: 1 month to 5 years.RSV infection was found in 70 out of 365 patients (19.18%.Among the 70 children with RSV infection, 29 patients (41.42% were under 12 months of age.The main clinical manifestations of RSV infection were cough (88.57% and coryza (78.57%. There were no significant differences between patients who were tested positive for RSV and those who were tested negative with regard to demographic variables and clinical diagnoses. This study indicates that RSV is an important cause of respiratory tract infection in infants and young children .Distinguishing RSV from other respiratory infection is difficult because of the similarity in clinical presentation among children.

  15. MODERN POSSIBILITIES AND PRINCIPLES OF RATIONAL TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA AND OTHER ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Zaplatnikov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern possibilities and principles of rational treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory infection in children are demonstrated in this article. Epidemiology and etiology characteristics of acute respiratory infections during the period of seasonal morbidity of 2012–2013 and early period of 2013–2014 epidemic season are analyzed. The issues of safe and effective use of various etiotropic and symptomatic agents in influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of non-influenza etiology in children are discussed.

  16. MODERN POSSIBILITIES AND PRINCIPLES OF RATIONAL TREATMENT OF INFLUENZA AND OTHER ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS IN CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    A. L. Zaplatnikov; E. I. Burtseva; A. A. Girina; N. V. Koroid; E. A. Garina

    2014-01-01

    Modern possibilities and principles of rational treatment of influenza and other acute respiratory infection in children are demonstrated in this article. Epidemiology and etiology characteristics of acute respiratory infections during the period of seasonal morbidity of 2012–2013 and early period of 2013–2014 epidemic season are analyzed. The issues of safe and effective use of various etiotropic and symptomatic agents in influenza and acute respiratory viral infections of non-influenza etio...

  17. Recent Toxoplasmosis Infection With Acute Myopericarditis and Persistent Troponin Elevation in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roubille, François; Roubille, Camille; Lattuca, Benoît; Gervasoni, Richard; Vernhet-Kovacsik, Hélène; Leclercq, Florence

    2012-08-01

    Although often considered as "begnin", acute infections in young healthy adults can lead to heart inflammation, including acute myocarditis. We report a rare case of myopericarditis in a young immunocompetent adult, in the context of recent toxoplasmosis infection. Clinical presentation was common acute pericarditis, but with risk biomarkers: high troponin I levels and multiple inflammation-compatible images on MR-scan. Diagnosis of myopericarditis was established. In spite of spontaneous favourable clinical evolution, troponin remained elevated. MR-scan is shown; acute myocarditis in the context of an acute toxoplasmosis infection is discussed.

  18. Gastrointestinal and extra-intestinal manifestations of childhood shigellosis in a region where all four species of Shigella are endemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Wasif A; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Bennish, Michael L

    2013-01-01

    To determine the clinical manifestations and outcome of shigellosis among children infected with different species of Shigella. We identified all patients Shigella admitted to the icddr, b Dhaka hospital during one year. Study staff reviewed admission records and repeated the physical examinations and history of patients daily. Of 792 children with shigellosis 63% were infected with S. flexneri, 20% with S. dysenteriae type 1, 10% with S. boydii, 4% with S. sonnei, and 3% with S. dysenteriae types 2-10. Children infected with S. dysenteriae type 1, when compared to children infected with other species, were significantly (PShigella, but are most common with S. dysenteriae type 1. Among these inpatient children, the risk of death was high with infection of any of the four Shigella species.

  19. Duration of day-care attendance and acute respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Costa Fuchs

    Full Text Available Day-care attendance accounts for an increased frequency of acute respiratory infections (ARI, in numbers of both episodes and hospitalizations. In addition to day-care exposure, risk factors include age, siblings, and crowding. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between duration of day-care exposure and ARI. A cross-sectional study was carried out to compared ARI rates for children exposed to day care and children cared for at home. Children with at least one parent working in a hospital were sampled from the hospital-run day-care center and those cared for at home. An acute respiratory infection was defined as the presence of two or more signs or symptoms in the previous two weeks. Children exposed to the day-care center for 12 to 50 hours a week had a three to five times greater risk of developing ARI than those staying at home. This risk was assessed independently, taking socioeconomic status, age, and number of siblings into account. Risk of respiratory illness and day-care attendance has been described elsewhere, but this study presents original findings related to duration of exposure. With a view towards reducing risk of ARI, improvements should be made in institutional day-care centers in Brazil, where family day care is still not available.

  20. Duration of day-care attendance and acute respiratory infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs Sandra Costa

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Day-care attendance accounts for an increased frequency of acute respiratory infections (ARI, in numbers of both episodes and hospitalizations. In addition to day-care exposure, risk factors include age, siblings, and crowding. The purpose of this study was to investigate a possible association between duration of day-care exposure and ARI. A cross-sectional study was carried out to compared ARI rates for children exposed to day care and children cared for at home. Children with at least one parent working in a hospital were sampled from the hospital-run day-care center and those cared for at home. An acute respiratory infection was defined as the presence of two or more signs or symptoms in the previous two weeks. Children exposed to the day-care center for 12 to 50 hours a week had a three to five times greater risk of developing ARI than those staying at home. This risk was assessed independently, taking socioeconomic status, age, and number of siblings into account. Risk of respiratory illness and day-care attendance has been described elsewhere, but this study presents original findings related to duration of exposure. With a view towards reducing risk of ARI, improvements should be made in institutional day-care centers in Brazil, where family day care is still not available.

  1. Evaluation of commercial antisera for Shigella serogrouping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, J; Gosselin, F; Ismaïl, J; Lorange, M; Lior, H; Woodward, D

    1995-08-01

    Shigella serogrouping antisera from six companies (Becton Dickinson, Denka, Difco, Murex, Roach, and Sanofi-Pasteur) intended for the slide agglutination test and those of the Wellcolex Colour Shigella latex agglutination test were evaluated to identify quality products for Shigella identification. Forty-six reference Shigella strains (one for each serotype and species), 50 clinical strains (21 S. flexneri, 21 S. sonnei, 4 S. dysenteriae, 4 S. boydii) representing the most prevalent species and serotypes encountered in Quebec, and 9 non-Shigella strains were tested according to the manufacturers' instructions. A 3+ reaction (> or = 75% agglutination) was considered positive for the slide agglutination tests. Sensitivity varied from 47% (Roach) to 94% (Difco). For the 105 strains tested, accuracy ranged from 53% (Roach) to 91% (Wellcolex). Specificity varied from 97 to 100% for group A antisera, from 96 to 100% for group B antisera, from 88 to 100% for group C antisera, and from 95 to 99% for group D antisera. The costs of reagents required to test one strain varied from $3.50 to $13.20 (in Canadian dollars). In conclusion, Roach reagents proved to be unsatisfactory for Shigella serogrouping. Among those from the remaining companies, the Denka, Difco, and Wellcolex reagents met a performance standard of 90% accuracy.

  2. Detection and analysis of CRISPRs of Shigella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiangjiao; Wang, Yingfang; Duan, Guangcai; Xue, Zerun; Wang, Linlin; Wang, Pengfei; Qiu, Shaofu; Xi, Yuanlin; Yang, Haiyan

    2015-01-01

    The recently discovered CRISPRs (Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats) and Cas (CRISPR-associated) proteins are a novel genetic barrier that limits horizontal gene transfer in prokaryotes and the CRISPR loci provide a historical view of the exposure of prokaryotes to a variety of foreign genetic elements. The aim of study was to investigate the occurrence and distribution of the CRISPRs in Shigella. A collection of 61 strains of Shigella were screened for the existence of CRISPRs. Three CRISPR loci were identified among 61 shigella strains. CRISPR1/cas loci are detected in 49 strains of shigella. Yet, IS elements were detected in cas gene in some strains. In the remaining 12 Shigella flexneri strains, the CRISPR1/cas locus is deleted and only a cas3' pseudo gene and a repeat sequence are present. The presence of CRISPR2 is frequently accompanied by the emergence of CRISPR1. CRISPR3 loci were present in almost all strains (52/61). The length of CRISPR arrays varied from 1 to 9 spacers. Sequence analysis of the CRISPR arrays revealed that few spacers had matches in the GenBank databases. However, one spacer in CRISPR3 loci matches the cognate cas3 genes and no cas gene was present around CRISPR3 region. Analysis of CRISPR sequences show that CRISPR have little change which makes CRISPR poor genotyping markers. The present study is the first attempt to determine and analyze CRISPRs of shigella isolated from clinical patients.

  3. Comparative study of attachment to and invasion of epithelial cell lines by Shigella dysenteriae.

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, A.; Leon, M A; Palchaudhuri, S

    1990-01-01

    Henle 407 and HeLa cells were compared as hosts for Shigella dysenteriae at a low multiplicity of infection. Efficiency of attachment and invasion without centrifugation, as well as selectivity for pathogenic over nonpathogenic S. dysenteriae without Congo red, were much greater for Henle 407 cells than for HeLa cells.

  4. Shigella-specific IgA in saliva of children with bacillary dysentery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schultsz, C.; Qadri, F.; Hossain, S. A.; Ahmed, F.; Ciznar, I.

    1992-01-01

    To study the secretory immune response after Shigella infection, the anti-lipopolysaccharide and anti-Shiga-toxin response in saliva, obtained from children with confirmed shigellosis and healthy children, were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and by Western blot. Children with

  5. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Radhika

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC. The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  6. Update on: Shigella new serogroups/serotypes and their antimicrobial resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, D P; Devanga Ragupathi, N K; Anandan, S; Veeraraghavan, B

    2017-01-01

    Shigellosis represents a major burden of disease in developing countries. A low infectious dose allows the disease to be spread effectively. Although shigellosis is mostly a self-limiting disease, antibiotics are recommended to reduce deaths, disease symptoms and organism-shedding time. However, in India, antimicrobial resistance among the genus Shigella is more common than among any other enteric bacteria. Notably, new serotypes or subserotypes in Shigella are reported from various parts of the world. Identification of new subserotypes of Shigella spp. is becoming a major issue as these strains are nontypeable by conventional serotyping. The commercially available antisera may not cover all possible epitopes of the O lipopolysaccharide antigen of Shigella serotypes. Therefore, molecular methods which most closely approach the resolution of full serotyping are necessary to identify such strains. In addition, the knowledge of a prevalent serotype in various geographic regions may assist in formulating strategies such as the development of a vaccine to prevent infection especially when the immunity to disease is serotype specific, and to understand the disease burden caused by new Shigella serotypes. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. A novel multiplex PCR for the simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhika, M; Saugata, Majumder; Murali, H S; Batra, H V

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica and Shigella species are commonly associated with food and water borne infections leading to gastrointestinal diseases. The present work was undertaken to develop a sensitive and reliable PCR based detection system for simultaneous detection of Salmonella enterica and Shigella at species level. For this the conserved regions of specific genes namely ipaH1, ipaH, wbgZ, wzy and invA were targeted for detection of Shigella genus, S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and Salmonella enterica respectively along with an internal amplification control (IAC). The results showed that twenty Salmonella and eleven Shigella spp., were accurately identified by the assay without showing non-specificity against closely related other Enterobacteriaceae organisms and also against other pathogens. Further evaluation of multiplex PCR was undertaken on 50 natural samples of chicken, eggs and poultry litter and results compared with conventional culture isolation and identification procedure. The multiplex PCR identified the presence of Salmonella and Shigella strains with a short pre-enrichment step of 5 h in peptone water and the same samples were processed by conventional procedures for comparison. Therefore, this reported multiplex PCR can serve as an alternative to the tedious time-consuming procedure of culture and identification in food safety laboratories.

  8. Changes in HIV RNA and CD4 cell count after acute HCV infection in chronically HIV-infected individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gras, Luuk; de Wolf, Frank; Smit, Colette; Prins, Maria; van der Meer, Jan T. M.; Vanhommerig, Joost W.; Zwinderman, Aeilko H.; Schinkel, Janke; Geskus, Ronald B.; Kuijpers, T. W.; Scherpbier, H. J.; Godfried, M. H.; Reiss, P.; van der Poll, T.; Nellen, F. J. B.; Lange, J. M. A.; Geerlings, S. E.; van Vugt, M.; Pajkrt, D.; Bos, J. C.; van der Valk, M.; Wiersinga, W. J.; Goorhuis, A.; Hovius, J. W. R.; Lowe, S.; Oude Lashof, A.; Posthouwer, D.; Pronk, M. J. H.; Ammerlaan, H. S. M.; van der Ende, M. E.; de Vries-Sluijs, T. E. M. S.; Schurink, C. A. M.; Nouwen, J. L.; Verbon, A.; Rijnders, B. J. A.; van Gorp, E. C. M.; van der Feltz, M.; Driessen, G. J. A.; van Rossum, A. M. C.; Branger, J.; Schippers, E. F.; van Nieuwkoop, C.; van Elzakker, E. P.; Groeneveld, H. P.; Bouwhuis, J. W.; Soetekouw, R.; ten Kate, R. W.; Kroon, F. P.; van Dissel, J. T.; Arend, S. M.; de Boer, M. G. J.; Jolink, H.; Vollaard, A. M.; Bauer, M. P.; den Hollander, J. G.; Pogany, K.; van Twillert, G.; Kortmann, W.; Cohen Stuart, J. W. T.; Diederen, B. M. W.; Leyten, E. M. S.; Gelinck, L. B. S.; Kootstra, G. J.; Delsing, C. E.; Brinkman, K.; Blok, W. L.; Frissen, P. H. J.; Schouten, W. E. M.; van den Berk, G. E. L.; van Kasteren, M. E. E.; Brouwer, A. E.; Veenstra, J.; Lettinga, K. D.; Mulder, J. W.; Vrouenraets, S. M. E.; Lauw, F. N.; van Eeden, A.; Verhagen, D. W. M.; Sprenger, H. G.; Scholvinck, E. H.; van Assen, S.; Bierman, W. F. W.; Wilting, K. R.; Stienstra, Y.; Koopmans, P. P.; Keuter, M.; van der Ven, A. J. A. M.; ter Hofstede, H. J. M.; Dofferhoff, A. S. M.; Warris, A.; van Crevel, R.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Mudrikova, T.; Schneider, M. M. E.; Ellerbroek, P. M.; Oosterheert, J. J.; Arends, J. E.; Wassenberg, W. W. M.; Barth, R. E.; van Agtmael, M. A.; Perenboom, R. M.; Claessen, F. A. P.; Bomers, M.; Peters, E. J. G.; Geelen, S. P. M.; Wolfs, T. F. W.; Bont, L. J.; Richter, C.; van der Berg, J. P.; Gisolf, E. H.; van den Berge, M.; Stegeman, A.; van Vonderen, M. G. A.; van Houte, D. P. F.; Weijer, S.; el Moussaoui, R.; Winkel, C.; Muskiet, F.; Durand, N. N.; Voigt, R.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the impact of acute hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection on HIV-1 disease progression. We investigated CD4 cell count and HIV RNA concentration changes after HCV infection in individuals chronically infected with HIV-1. We selected individuals that had the last negative and

  9. Cytomegalovirus infection presenting as acute periodontal infection in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, C L; Winkler, J R; Heinic, G S; Daniels, T E; Yee, K; Greenspan, D

    1993-04-01

    During childhood, many people acquire primary infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV), one of the herpes viruses. If they later become immunosuppressed, such as occurs with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, CMV is likely to become reactivated. Severe disease caused by CMV is life-threatening in the HIV-infected population. CMV retinitis, gastritis, colitis, pneumonia, encephalitis and hepatitis have all been reported, but oral lesions due to infection with CMV are rarely reported. We report a case of oral CMV infection which at first was clinically indistinguishable from HIV-associated periodontal disease.

  10. Adenovirus infection in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China, 2007 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chunyan; Xiao, Yan; Zhang, Jing; Ren, Lili; Li, Jianguo; Xie, Zhengde; Xu, Baoping; Yang, Yan; Qian, Suyun; Wang, Jianwei; Shen, Kunling

    2015-10-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdV) play a significant role in pediatric respiratory tract infections. To date, over 60 types of HAdV have been identified. Here, HAdV types are characterized in children in the Beijing area with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRTIs) and the clinical features and laboratory findings of hospitalized HAdV-infected cases are described. Respiratory specimens were collected from pediatric patients with ALRTIs in the emergency department or from those admitted to Beijing Children's Hospital between March 2007 and December 2012. Infections with common respiratory viruses were determined by PCR or RT-PCR. HAdV positive samples were further typed by PCR and sequencing. Among 3356 patients with ALRTIs, 194 (5.8 %) were found to have HAdV infection. HAdV infection was primarily confined to children (88.35 %) less than 5 years of age. A total of 11 different types of HAdV were detected throughout the study period, with HAdV-B7 (49.0 %) and HAdV-B3 (26.3 %) as the most prevalent types, followed by HAdV-C2 (7.7 %) and HAdVC1 (4.6 %). Newly emerging and re-emergent types or variants, HAdV-B55 (n = 5), HAdV-C57 (n = 3), and HAdV-B14p1 (n = 1), were identified. Results also included the reported first case of co-infection with HAdV-C2 and HAdV-C57. Clinical entities of patients with single HAdV infection (n = 49) were similar to those with mixed HAdV/respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections (n = 41). Patients with HAdV-B7 infection had longer duration of fever and higher serum levels of muscle enzymes than HAdV-B3-infected patients. During the study period, HAdV-B7 and HAdV-B3 were the predominant types identified in pediatric ALRTIs. HAdV-B7 infection tends to have more severe clinical consequences. The presence of newly emerging types or variants and co-infection with different types of HAdV highlights the need for constant and close surveillance of HAdV infection.

  11. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Background Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. Methods A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1–4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A—F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011–2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12–24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV—Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV—bocavirus / bocavirus—influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12–24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis. PMID:26332375

  12. Viral Co-Infections in Pediatric Patients Hospitalized with Lower Tract Acute Respiratory Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Gormley, Stuart; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2015-01-01

    Molecular techniques can often reveal a broader range of pathogens in respiratory infections. We aim to investigate the prevalence and age pattern of viral co-infection in children hospitalized with lower tract acute respiratory infection (LT-ARI), using molecular techniques. A nested polymerase chain reaction approach was used to detect Influenza (A, B), metapneumovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), parainfluenza (1-4), rhinovirus, adenovirus (A-F), bocavirus and coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, OC43) in respiratory samples of children with acute respiratory infection prospectively admitted to any of the GENDRES network hospitals between 2011-2013. The results were corroborated in an independent cohort collected in the UK. A total of 204 and 97 nasopharyngeal samples were collected in the GENDRES and UK cohorts, respectively. In both cohorts, RSV was the most frequent pathogen (52.9% and 36.1% of the cohorts, respectively). Co-infection with multiple viruses was found in 92 samples (45.1%) and 29 samples (29.9%), respectively; this was most frequent in the 12-24 months age group. The most frequently observed co-infection patterns were RSV-Rhinovirus (23 patients, 11.3%, GENDRES cohort) and RSV-bocavirus / bocavirus-influenza (5 patients, 5.2%, UK cohort). The presence of more than one virus in pediatric patients admitted to hospital with LT-ARI is very frequent and seems to peak at 12-24 months of age. The clinical significance of these findings is unclear but should warrant further analysis.

  13. Acute-phase response in Babesia canis and Dirofilaria immitis co-infections in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanović, Zorana; Ilić, Anja; Andrić, Jelena Francuski; Radonjić, Vladimir; Beletić, Anđelo; Filipović, Milica Kovačević

    2017-10-01

    Babesia canis and Dirofilaria immitis are emerging and geographically overlapping vector-borne pathogens in dogs. Infection with B. canis leads to acute-phase response (APR) that can be mild to severe and results in either non-complicated or complicated forms of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine whether acute B. canis infection is more severe in dogs with underlying asymptomatic D. immitis infection. Dogs of both sexes, different ages and breeds, with naturally occurring mono-infections with B. canis (n=13) and D. immitis (n=18) and co-infected dogs (n=7) were enrolled as well as healthy controls (n=15). Routine haematology and biochemistry, agarose gel electrophoresis (agEF) protein fraction separation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serum amyloid A (SAA) were performed. Based on clinical and laboratory findings, sepsis was diagnosed in the majority of dogs with acute B. canis infection with or without underlying asymptomatic D. immitis infection. Overall, haematology, biochemistry and agEF pattern changes were induced and dictated by acute B. canis infection whether or not the dogs had an asymptomatic D. immitis infection. D. immitis infection slightly influenced the level of anaemia, slightly aggravated the level of dehydration and increased the concentration of γ-globulins in acute-phase B. canis infection. D. immitis infection prevented B. canis-induced leukopenia. SAA equally increased in dogs with acute B. canis infection with or without underlying D. immitis infection. The level of SAA was not changed in dogs with asymptomatic D. immitis when compared to the controls. In conclusion, asymptomatic D. immitis infection does not influence overall APR after acute B. canis infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Fulminant Aeromonas hydrophila infection during acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, Vassilios; Poniros, Nikolaos; Katsibardi, Karerina; Charissiadou, Athina-Eleni; Anastasopoulos, John; Polychronopoulou, Sophia

    2012-04-01

    Aeromonas hydrophila septicemia has a fulminant course and it has been usually reported in immunocompromised hosts and rarely among children with leukemia. High morbidity and mortality is associated with A hydrophila infections. We describe the case of a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who presented with septicemia due to A hydrophila. The patient presented with fever and skin discoloration during a febrile neutropenia episode, which rapidly evolved into bacteremia and extensive thigh suppuration, fasciitis, and myonecrosis. Apart from antibiotic treatment, surgical debridement to relieve compartment pressure and prevent further lower extremity compromise was promptly performed. Despite long delays in chemotherapy and an extensive tissue gap, primary closure of the involved area was possible with full cosmetic and functional limb recovery, and the patient has remained in clinical remission for more than 7 years. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. [Different species of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ming-hui; Zhao, Lin-qing; Qian, Yuan; Zhu, Ru-nan; Deng, Jie; Wang, Fang; Sun, Yu; Tian, Run

    2013-12-01

    To understand the clinical characteristics of different groups human rhinovirus (HRV)-A, B and C infection in children with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) in Beijing. Respiratory tract specimens (n = 1412) collected from children with ARI during Jan. 2011 to Dec. 2012 were tested for HRV by using semi-nested PCR. Gene fragments of VP4/VP2 capsid protein amplified from HRV positive specimens were sequenced for HRV genotype confirmation. Then epidemiological characteristics of these HRV-positive cases were analyzed. Among these 1412 specimens tested, 103 (7.3%) were HRV positive, including 54 (52.4%) positive for HRV-A, 14 (13.6%) for HRV-B, 35 (34.0%) for HRV-C determined by sequence analysis. The positive rates of HRV-A, B and C (2.5%, 16/638; 0.3%, 2/638 and 1.3%, 8/638) in children with acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) were lower than those (5.8%, 36/623; 1.8%, 11/623 and 3.9%, 24/623) in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRI) (P = 0.003, 0.011, 0.003). In children with LRI, the positive rates of HRV-A, C were similar to each other (P = 0.112), and both were higher than that of HRV-B (P = 0.000, P = 0.026). The severity of ARI among children positive for different groups HRV showed no significant difference evaluated by Kruskal-Wallis H test (Hc = 0.044, P > 0.05), as well as that between children co-infected with HRV and other viruses and those infected with HRV only evaluated by Wilcoxon rank sum test (Zc = 0.872, P > 0.05). HRV is one of important pathogens for children with ARI, especially LRI in Beijing. The positive rates of HRV-A and HRV-C are similar to each other, and both are higher than that of HRV-B. No significant difference was shown among children with different HRV genotypes by evaluation of the severity of ARI, and co-infections of HRV with other viruses do not significantly increase the severity of ARI.

  16. Characterisation of antibiotic prescriptions for acute respiratory tract infections in Danish general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Rune; Hansen, Malene Plejdrup; Saust, Laura Trolle

    2017-01-01

    Inappropriate use of antibiotics is contributing to the increasing rates of antimicrobial resistance. Several Danish guidelines on antibiotic prescribing for acute respiratory tract infections in general practice have been issued to promote rational prescribing of antibiotics, however it is unclear...... if these recommendations are followed. We aimed to characterise the pattern of antibiotic prescriptions for patients diagnosed with acute respiratory tract infections, by means of electronic prescriptions, labeled with clinical indications, from Danish general practice. Acute respiratory tract infections accounted for 456...... prescription patterns for acute respiratory tract infections by data linkage of clinical indications. The findings confirm that penicillin V is the most commonly prescribed antibiotic agent for treatment of patients with an acute respiratory tract infection in Danish general practice. However, second...

  17. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden,Stephen G.S.; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission ...

  18. Prevalence of respiratory syncytial virus infection among hospitalized children presenting with acute lower respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Soham; Shamsundar, Ranjani; Shet, Anita; Chawan, Rashmi; Srinivasa, Hiresave

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of RSV among hospitalized young children presenting with ALRI in Bangalore, India. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) antigen detection was performed by direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) staining on 77 nasopharyngeal wash samples collected from hospitalized children below 2 years of age with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRI). Out of 77 samples tested for RSV with DFA, 17 (22.1%) were found RSV-positive with a mean age of 8.24 ± 7.21 months (M:F = 1.8:1). Three children had congenital cardiac disease and one child had a history of prematurity. One child had re-infection within one month of primary infection. RSV-infected children were more likely to have a diagnosis of bronchiolitis than RSV-negative children (p infection is a significant cause of morbidity among children presenting with ALRI in southern India. In resource-limited settings, DFA can be used as an important tool for rapid detection of RSV and can potentially eliminate prolonged hospitalization and unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  19. Acute HIV infection with rapid progression to AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio de Oliveira Silva

    Full Text Available Acute HIV infection is rarely recognized as the signs and symptoms are normally unspecific and can persist for days or weeks. The normal HIV course is characterized by a progressive loss of CD4+ cells, which normally leads to severe immunodeficiency after a variable time interval. The mean time from initial infection to development of clinical AIDS is approximately 8-10 years, but it is variable among individuals and depends on a complex interaction between virus and host. Here we describe an extraordinary case of a man who developed Pneumocisits jiroveci pneumonia within one month after sexual exposure to HIV-1, and then presented with 3 consecutive CD4 counts bellow 200 cells/mm³ within 3 months, with no other opportunistic disease. Although antiretroviral therapy (AZT+3TC+ATZ/r was started, with full adherence of the patient, and genotyping indicating no primary antiretroviral resistance mutations, he required more than six months to have a CD4 restoration to levels above 200 cells/mm³ and 10 months to HIV-RNA to become undetectable.

  20. Acute respiratory infections among returning Hajj pilgrims-Jordan, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abdallat, Mohammad Mousa; Rha, Brian; Alqasrawi, Sultan; Payne, Daniel C; Iblan, Ibrahim; Binder, Alison M; Haddadin, Aktham; Nsour, Mohannad Al; Alsanouri, Tarek; Mofleh, Jawad; Whitaker, Brett; Lindstrom, Stephen L; Tong, Suxiang; Ali, Sami Sheikh; Dahl, Rebecca Moritz; Berman, LaShondra; Zhang, Jing; Erdman, Dean D; Gerber, Susan I

    2017-04-01

    The emergence of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has prompted enhanced surveillance for respiratory infections among pilgrims returning from the Hajj, one of the largest annual mass gatherings in the world. To describe the epidemiology and etiologies of respiratory illnesses among pilgrims returning to Jordan after the 2014 Hajj. Surveillance for respiratory illness among pilgrims returning to Jordan after the 2014 Hajj was conducted at sentinel health care facilities using epidemiologic surveys and molecular diagnostic testing of upper respiratory specimens for multiple respiratory pathogens, including MERS-CoV. Among the 125 subjects, 58% tested positive for at least one virus; 47% tested positive for rhino/enterovirus. No cases of MERS-CoV were detected. The majority of pilgrims returning to Jordan from the 2014 Hajj with respiratory illness were determined to have a viral etiology, but none were due to MERS-CoV. A greater understanding of the epidemiology of acute respiratory infections among returning travelers to other countries after Hajj should help optimize surveillance systems and inform public health response practices. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Association between chronic dental infection and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willershausen, Brita; Kasaj, Adrian; Willershausen, Ines; Zahorka, Denisa; Briseño, Benjamin; Blettner, Maria; Genth-Zotz, Sabine; Münzel, Thomas

    2009-05-01

    In patients with cardiovascular diseases several risk factors such as high blood pressure, diabetes, smoking and drinking habits, genetic disposition, and chronic inflammation must be considered. The aim of this study was to investigate whether there is a correlation between dental origin infections and the presence of an acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A total of 125 patients who had experienced a myocardial infarction and 125 healthy individuals were included in this study. The oral examination was carried out following the consent of the ethics committee and the National Board for Radiation Protection and included the number of teeth, endodontically treated teeth, periodontal screening index (PSI), clinical attachment level, and radiographic apical lesions (radiograph examination). The medical examination included, among others, blood glucose level, C-reactive protein (CRP) serum levels, and leukocyte number. The study demonstrated that patients with AMI exhibited an unfavorable dental state of health. After statistical adjustment for age, gender, and smoking, they exhibited a significantly higher number of missing teeth (P = .001), less teeth with root canal fillings (P = .0015), a higher number of radiologic apical lesions (P = .001), and a higher PSI value (P = .001) compared with individuals without myocardial infarction. The medical data showed a nonsignificant correlation between CRP and the number of radiologic apical lesions. This study presents evidence that patients who have experienced myocardial infarction also exhibit an unfavorable dental state of health in comparison to healthy patients and suggests an association between chronic oral infections and myocardial infarction.

  2. Encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by a viral infection in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab Mahmoud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.

  3. Saline nasal irrigation for acute upper respiratory tract infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, David; Mitchell, Ben; Williams, Christopher P; Spurling, Geoffrey K P

    2015-04-20

    Acute upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), including the common cold and rhinosinusitis, are common afflictions that cause discomfort and debilitation and contribute significantly to workplace absenteeism. Treatment is generally by antipyretic and decongestant drugs and sometimes antibiotics, even though most infections are viral. Nasal irrigation with saline is often employed as an adjunct treatment for URTI symptoms despite a relative lack of evidence for benefit in this clinical setting. This review is an update of the Cochrane review by Kassel et al, which found that saline was probably effective in reducing the severity of some symptoms associated with acute URTIs. To assess the effects of saline nasal irrigation for treating the symptoms of acute URTIs. We searched CENTRAL (2014, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1966 to July week 5, 2014), EMBASE (1974 to August 2014), CINAHL (1982 to August 2014), AMED (1985 to August 2014) and LILACS (1982 to August 2014). Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing topical nasal saline treatment to other interventions in adults and children with clinically diagnosed acute URTIs. Two review authors (DK, BM) independently assessed trial quality with the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool and extracted data. We analysed all data using the Cochrane Review Manager software. Due to the large variability of outcome measures only a small number of outcomes could be pooled for statistical analysis. We identified five RCTs that randomised 544 children (three studies) and 205 adults (exclusively from two studies). They all compared saline irrigation to routine care or other nose sprays, rather than placebo. We included two new trials in this update, which did not contribute data of sufficient size or quality to materially change the original findings. Most trials were small and we judged them to be of low quality, contributing to an unclear risk of bias. Most outcome measures differed greatly between included studies and therefore could not be

  4. Acute respiratory infections in children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakim, Hana; Dallas, Ronald; Zhou, Yinmei; Pei, Dequing; Cheng, Cheng; Flynn, Patricia M; Pui, Ching-Hon; Jeha, Sima

    2016-03-01

    Knowledge regarding the incidence, clinical course, and impact of respiratory viral infections in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is limited. A retrospective cohort of patients with newly diagnosed ALL who were treated on the Total Therapy XVI protocol at St Jude Children's Research Hospital between 2007 and 2011 was evaluated. Of 223 children, 95 (43%) developed 133 episodes of viral acute respiratory illness (ARI) (incidence, 1.1 per 1000 patient-days). ARI without viral etiology was identified in 65 patients (29%) and no ARI was detected in 63 patients (28%). There were no significant associations noted between race, sex, age, or ALL risk group and the development of ARI. Children receiving induction chemotherapy were found to be at the highest risk of viral ARI (incidence, 2.3 per 1000 patient-days). Influenza virus was the most common virus (38%) followed by respiratory syncytial virus (33%). Of 133 episodes of viral ARI, 61% of patients were hospitalized, 26% experienced a complicated course, 80% had their chemotherapy delayed, and 0.7% of patients died. Twenty-four patients (18%) developed viral lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), 5 of whom (21%) had complications. Patients with viral LRTI had a significantly lower nadir absolute lymphocyte count; were sicker at the time of presentation; and were more likely to have respiratory syncytial virus, to be hospitalized, and to have their chemotherapy delayed for longer compared with those with viral upper respiratory tract infections. Despite the low incidence of viral ARI in children with ALL, the associated morbidity, mortality, and delay in chemotherapy remain clinically significant. Viral LRTI was especially associated with high morbidity requiring intensive care-level support. Cancer 2016;122:798-805. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  5. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance in Salmonella and Shigella Species Isolated from Outpatients, Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfahun Lamboro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in Jimma University Specialized Hospital, Southwest Ethiopia. Cross-sectional study was conducted involving a total of 176 outpatients. Stool specimens from both adult and pediatric outpatients were collected and analyzed for the presence of presumptive Salmonella and Shigella colonies followed by confirmation by biochemical tests. Pure cultures of Salmonella and Shigella species were further subjected to test for antibiotic resistance against the commonly used antibiotics. Furthermore, growth potential of the isolates in selected foods items was assessed following standard procedures. The result indicated that the prevalence of Salmonella and Shigella among outpatients in the study area was 19 (10.8% and 2 (1.1%, respectively. In addition, Salmonella species were resistant to ampicillin (100% followed by tetracycline (47.4% and nalidixic acid (26.3% while Shigella species were highly resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline (100%, each. Multidrug resistance towards maximum of four drugs was observed in both pathogens. The pathogens were observed growing to their infective dose within 24 hours. In conclusion, Salmonella and Shigella are still among microbes of public health importance in the study area. Thus, this calls for frequent monitory and evaluation of their prevalence and drug resistance patterns besides awareness development on water sanitation and hygienic food handling practices to the public at large.

  6. Spatio-temporal trends and risk factors for Shigella from 2001 to 2011 in Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenyang Tang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the spatial and temporal trends of Shigella incidence rates in Jiangsu Province, People's Republic of China. It also intended to explore complex risk modes facilitating Shigella transmission. METHODS: County-level incidence rates were obtained for analysis using geographic information system (GIS tools. Trend surface and incidence maps were established to describe geographic distributions. Spatio-temporal cluster analysis and autocorrelation analysis were used for detecting clusters. Based on the number of monthly Shigella cases, an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA model successfully established a time series model. A spatial correlation analysis and a case-control study were conducted to identify risk factors contributing to Shigella transmissions. RESULTS: The far southwestern and northwestern areas of Jiangsu were the most infected. A cluster was detected in southwestern Jiangsu (LLR = 11674.74, P<0.001. The time series model was established as ARIMA (1, 12, 0, which predicted well for cases from August to December, 2011. Highways and water sources potentially caused spatial variation in Shigella development in Jiangsu. The case-control study confirmed not washing hands before dinner (OR = 3.64 and not having access to a safe water source (OR = 2.04 as the main causes of Shigella in Jiangsu Province. CONCLUSION: Improvement of sanitation and hygiene should be strengthened in economically developed counties, while access to a safe water supply in impoverished areas should be increased at the same time.

  7. Surveillance for Hospitalized Acute Respiratory Infection in Guatemala

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verani, Jennifer R.; McCracken, John; Arvelo, Wences; Estevez, Alejandra; Lopez, Maria Renee; Reyes, Lissette; Moir, Juan Carlos; Bernart, Chris; Moscoso, Fabiola; Gray, Jennifer; Olsen, Sonja J.; Lindblade, Kim A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory infections (ARI) are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4%) cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7%) among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6%) of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0%) had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9%) case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000), followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000). These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and death due to

  8. Surveillance for hospitalized acute respiratory infection in Guatemala.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer R Verani

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory infections (ARI are an important cause of illness and death worldwide, yet data on the etiology of ARI and the population-level burden in developing countries are limited. Surveillance for ARI was conducted at two hospitals in Guatemala. Patients admitted with at least one sign of acute infection and one sign or symptom of respiratory illness met the criteria for a case of hospitalized ARI. Nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs were collected and tested by polymerase chain reaction for adenovirus, parainfluenza virus types 1,2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza A and B viruses, human metapneumovirus, Chlamydia pneumioniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. Urine specimens were tested for Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen. Blood culture and chest radiograph were done at the discretion of the treating physician. Between November 2007 and December 2011, 3,964 case-patients were enrolled. While cases occurred among all age groups, 2,396 (60.4% cases occurred in children <5 years old and 463 (11.7% among adults ≥65 years old. Viruses were found in 52.6% of all case-patients and 71.8% of those aged <1 year old; the most frequently detected was respiratory syncytial virus, affecting 26.4% of case-patients. Urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae performed for case-patients ≥15 years old was positive in 15.1% of those tested. Among 2,364 (59.6% of case-patients with a radiograph, 907 (40.0% had findings suggestive of bacterial pneumonia. Overall, 230 (5.9% case-patients died during the hospitalization. Using population denominators, the observed hospitalized ARI incidence was 128 cases per 100,000, with the highest rates seen among children <1 year old (1,703 per 100,000, followed by adults ≥65 years old (292 per 100,000. These data, which demonstrate a substantial burden of hospitalized ARI in Guatemala due to a variety of pathogens, can help guide public health policies aimed at reducing the burden of illness and

  9. 21 CFR 866.3660 - Shigella spp. serological reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shigella spp. serological reagents. 866.3660... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3660 Shigella spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Shigella spp. serological reagents are devices that consist of...

  10. Clinical experience of infective endocarditis complicated by acute cerebrovascular accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chan-Yang; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Yu, Hsi-Yu

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the clinical results of patients with infective endocarditis (IE) complicated by acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). A total of 44 patients with IE complicated by CVA at admission were retrospectively analyzed in a single medical institute from 2005 to 2011. At the time of admission, 18 patients were diagnosed with hemorrhagic stroke, and 26 patients were diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Fifteen patients received surgical intervention during hospitalization. The hospital mortality rate was 38.9% for the hemorrhagic stroke group and 42.3% for the ischemic stroke group (p = 0.821). The mortality rate was 33.3% for the surgical group and 44.8% for the nonsurgical group (p = 0.531). At 30 days of hospitalization, 45.8% of the patients experienced an adverse event (defined as death due to organ failure, restroke, cardiogenic shock, or septic shock during the treatment period), and the attrition rate was 1.5% per day. Surgery performed after the adverse events increased mortality (80.0%) compared with surgery performed on patients with no adverse events (10.0%; p = 0.017). A Cox regression analysis revealed that creatinine > 2 mg/dL, diabetes, and staphylococcal infection were the risk factors of the adverse events. Early surgical intervention for IE with ischemic stroke may prevent adverse events, particularly in patients with impaired renal function, diabetes, or staphylococcal infection. A delay in operation of > 30 days is recommended after hemorrhagic stroke. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  11. Acute onset myopericarditis as unusual presentation of primary HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandi, Giacomo; Calza, Leonardo; Girometti, Nicolò; Manfredi, Roberto; Musumeci, Giuseppina; Bon, Isabella; Re, Maria Carla

    2017-02-01

    A 30-year-old man was admitted to hospital after complaining of a retrosternal burning pain, radiating to the jugular region, and to both upper limbs. An electrocardiography examination showed a ST segment elevation involving the lower-lateral leads. A trans-thoracic ultrasonography showed findings compatible with an acute myopericarditis. All performed serological testings excluded other recent infections with cardiac tropism. Among screening tests, a peripheral lymphocyte subset analysis was performed and an inversion of the CD4/CD8 ratio was found. Therefore, HIV testing was performed and proved positive for HIV-1 antibodies. The discovery of a primary HIV infection with involvement of a vital organ led us to start HAART. On day 20, our patient underwent a right heart catheterization and endomyocardial biopsy. During the following days, the clinical conditions of our patient improved, and a further heart ultrasonography documented a mild pericardial thickening as a result of the recent myopericarditis. Also the evolving changes of ECG were compatible with a benign evolution of myopericarditis. The histopathologic studies revealed a mild fibrosis of the myocardial right ventricular tissue, and inflammatory findings compatible with a recent myocarditis. At the real-time PCR analysis on bioptic sample, only HHV6 DNA and HIV-DNA were reactive. An immunofluorescence staining was performed to highlight the HIV p24 protein and a positive signal was detected in myocardial tissue. Considering the low avidity level of the anti-HIV IgG antibodies and the positivity of HIV-DNA in the endomyocardial tissue, we believe that the clinical manifestation presented can be referred to the recent primary HIV-infection.

  12. Development of ceftazidime resistance in an acute Burkholderia pseudomallei infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarovich DS

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Derek S Sarovich,1,2,* Erin P Price,1,2,* Direk Limmathurotsakul,3 James M Cook,1 Alex T Von Schulze,1 Spenser R Wolken,1 Paul Keim,1 Sharon J Peacock,3,4 Talima Pearson1 1Center for Microbial Genetics and Genomics, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ, USA; 2Tropical and Emerging Infectious Diseases Division, Menzies School of Health Research, Darwin, Australia; 3Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Faculty of Tropical Medicine, Mahidol University, Bangkok, Thailand; 4Department of Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom*These authors contributed equally to this workAbstract: Burkholderia pseudomallei, a bacterium that causes the disease melioidosis, is intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. First-line antibiotic therapy for treating melioidosis is usually the synthetic β-lactam, ceftazidime (CAZ, as almost all B. pseudomallei strains are susceptible to this drug. However, acquired CAZ resistance can develop in vivo during treatment with CAZ, which can lead to mortality if therapy is not switched to a different drug in a timely manner. Serial B. pseudomallei isolates obtained from an acute Thai melioidosis patient infected by a CAZ susceptible strain, who ultimately succumbed to infection despite being on CAZ therapy for the duration of their infection, were analyzed. Isolates that developed CAZ resistance due to a proline to serine change at position 167 in the β-lactamase PenA were identified. Importantly, these CAZ resistant isolates remained sensitive to the alternative melioidosis treatments; namely, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, and meropenem. Lastly, real-time polymerase chain reaction-based assays capable of rapidly identifying CAZ resistance in B. pseudomallei isolates at the position 167 mutation site were developed. The ability to rapidly identify the emergence of CAZ resistant B. pseudomallei populations in melioidosis patients will allow timely alterations in treatment strategies

  13. Nontyphoidal salmonella infection in children with acute gastroenteritis: prevalence, serotypes, and antimicrobial resistance in Shanghai, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuefang; Xie, Xinbao; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xiangshi; Chang, Hailing; Wang, Chuanqing; Wang, Aiming; He, Yanlei; Yu, Hui; Wang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Mei

    2014-03-01

    Information about nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection in children is limited in mainland China. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance patterns of NTS infection in children in Shanghai. All cases with probable bacterial diarrhea were enrolled from the enteric clinic of a tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2010 and December 2011. Salmonella isolation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were conducted by the microbiological laboratory. NTS were recovered from 316 (17.2%) of 1833 cases with isolation rate exceeding Campylobacter (7.1%) and Shigella (5.7%). NTS infection was prevalent year-round with a seasonal peak during summer and autumn. The median age of children with NTS gastroenteritis was 18 months. Fever and blood-in-stool were reported in 52.5% and 42.7% of cases, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis (38.9%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (29.7%) were the most common serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed 60.5% of isolates resistant to ≥1 clinically important antibiotics. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 5.5% and 7.1%-11.7% of isolates, respectively. NTS is a major enteropathogen responsible for bacterial gastroenteritis in children in Shanghai. Resistance to the current first-line antibiotics is of concern. Ongoing surveillance for NTS infection and antibiotic resistance is needed to control this pathogen in Shanghai.

  14. Aetiology of Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Hospitalised Children in Cyprus

    OpenAIRE

    Richter, Jan; Panayiotou, Christakis; Tryfonos, Christina; Koptides, Dana; Koliou, Maria; Kalogirou, Nikolas; Georgiou, Eleni; Christodoulou, Christina

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve clinical management and prevention of viral infections in hospitalised children improved etiological insight is needed. The aim of the present study was to assess the spectrum of respiratory viral pathogens in children admitted to hospital with acute respiratory tract infections in Cyprus. For this purpose nasopharyngeal swab samples from 424 children less than 12 years of age with acute respiratory tract infections were collected over three epidemic seasons and were analy...

  15. Shigella Iron Acquisition Systems and their Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yahan; Murphy, Erin R

    2016-01-01

    Survival of Shigella within the host is strictly dependent on the ability of the pathogen to acquire essential nutrients, such as iron. As an innate immune defense against invading pathogens, the level of bio-available iron within the human host is maintained at exceeding low levels, by sequestration of the element within heme and other host iron-binding compounds. In response to sequestration mediated iron limitation, Shigella produce multiple iron-uptake systems that each function to facilitate the utilization of a specific host-associated source of nutrient iron. As a mechanism to balance the essential need for iron and the toxicity of the element when in excess, the production of bacterial iron acquisition systems is tightly regulated by a variety of molecular mechanisms. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge on the iron-uptake systems produced by Shigella species, their distribution within the genus, and the molecular mechanisms that regulate their production.

  16. The survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahla Abbaspour

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Shigellosis is endemic throughout the world and it is among the most common causes of bacterial diarrheal diseases. Antibiotic resistance of Shigella is becoming a progressive problem in world. The aim of this study was the survey of shigellosis frequency and determination of antibiotic resistance profile of isolated strains from infected children in Tehran. Material and Methods: This study conducted on 9131 patients with acute diarrheal disease. For isolation of Shigella spp. from stool samples, culture performed on different selective and differential media. After confirmation of bacteria by biochemical tests, susceptibility testing was done by disc diffusion method according to clinical and laboratory standards (CLSI recomendations. Results: Among 9131 stool samples, Shigella spp. was isolated from 90 cases. Shigella sonnei was the most common isolated species. 92/2 % of isolates were resistant to cotrimoxazole. In contrast, most of the Shigella spp. was founded to be sensitive to ciprofloxacin, imipenem and third-generation cephalosporins. Conclusion: Surveillance programs on antimicrobial resistance not only identify pathogenic bacterial species, by reporting data like serotyping, microorganisms incidence rates, and susceptibility to the antimicrobial agents currently used for treatment, but also contribute to monitoring the intervention strategies including removing organism from reservoirs.

  17. Local and disseminated acute phase response during bacterial respiratory infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Heegaard, Peter M. H.

    2010-01-01

    The acute phase response is playing an important role, aiming to restore the healthy state after tissue injury, inflammation and infection. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other parts of innate defense reactions remain somewhat elusive. Expression of acute phase...... proteins (APP) outside the liver is increasingly recognized, still little is known of extra-hepatic production of APP in pigs. 14-18 h after experimental infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae, causing acute pleuropneumonia in pigs, we studied local APP gene expression changes in different...... differentially expressed between infected and control animals. We demonstrated that acute pleuropneumonia caused by A. pleuropneumoniae leads to a rapid disseminated local intra-lung APP response, also in apparently unaffected areas of the infected lung. Further extrahepatic expression of several acute...

  18. Human bocavirus infection as a cause of severe acute respiratory tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, F M; van Kampen, J J A; van der Eijk, A A; van Rossum, A M C; de Hoog, M; Schutten, M; Smits, S L; Bodewes, R; Osterhaus, A D M E; Fraaij, P L A

    2015-10-01

    In 2005 human bocavirus (HBoV) was discovered in respiratory tract samples of children. The role of HBoV as the single causative agent for respiratory tract infections remains unclear. Detection of HBoV in children with respiratory disease is frequently in combination with other viruses or bacteria. We set up an algorithm to study whether HBoV alone can cause severe acute respiratory tract infection (SARI) in children. The algorithm was developed to exclude cases with no other likely cause than HBoV for the need for admission to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with SARI. We searched for other viruses by next-generation sequencing (NGS) in these cases and studied their HBoV viral loads. To benchmark our algorithm, the same was applied to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)-positive patients. From our total group of 990 patients who tested positive for a respiratory virus by means of RT-PCR, HBoV and RSV were detected in 178 and 366 children admitted to our hospital. Forty-nine HBoV-positive patients and 72 RSV-positive patients were admitted to the PICU. We found seven single HBoV-infected cases with SARI admitted to PICU (7/49, 14%). They had no other detectable virus by NGS. They had much higher HBoV loads than other patients positive for HBoV. We identified 14 RSV-infected SARI patients with a single RSV infection (14/72, 19%). We conclude that our study provides strong support that HBoV can cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections. Copyright © 2015 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Procalcitonin to initiate or discontinue antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon; Christ-Crain, Mirjam; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael; Bouadma, Lila; Luyt, Charles E; Wolff, Michel; Chastre, Jean; Tubach, Florence; Kristoffersen, Kristina B; Burkhardt, Olaf; Welte, Tobias; Schroeder, Stefan; Nobre, Vandack; Wei, Long; Bucher, Heiner C; Bhatnagar, Neera; Annane, Djillali; Reinhart, Konrad; Branche, Angela; Damas, Pierre; Nijsten, Maarten W N; de Lange, Dylan W|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304815497; Deliberato, Rodrigo O; Lima, Stella Ss; Maravić-Stojković, Vera; Verduri, Alessia; Cao, Bin; Shehabi, Yahya; Beishuizen, Albertus; Jensen, Jens-Ulrik S; Corti, Caspar; van Oers, Jos A; Falsey, Ann R; de Jong, Evelien; Oliveira, Carolina F; Beghe, Bianca; Briel, Matthias; Mueller, Beat

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs) comprise of a large and heterogeneous group of infections including bacterial, viral, and other aetiologies. In recent years, procalcitonin (PCT), a blood marker for bacterial infections, has emerged as a promising tool to improve decisions about

  20. The porcine acute phase protein response to acute clinical and subclinical experimental infection with Streptococcus suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Nanna Skall; Tegtmeier, C.; Andresen, Lars Ole

    2006-01-01

    .i.), until the pigs were killed and autopsied on day 14 p.i. Clinical signs (fever and lameness) were observed in four of the five inoculated pigs from day 2 p.i., and these pigs also had arthritic lesions at autopsy. CRP and SAA showed fast increases in serum concentrations, CRP being elevated from days 1...... signs and no arthritic lesions showed an APP response comparable to that of the other, clinically affected pigs. Thus, both acute clinical and subclinical S. suis infection could be revealed by the measurement of one or more of the APPs CRP, SAA, Hp, pig-MAP and Apo A-I. The combined measurement of two...

  1. Characterization of Shigella sonnei in Malaysia, an increasingly prevalent etiologic agent of local shigellosis cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Xiu Pei; Chiou, Chien Shun; Ajam, Noni; Watanabe, Haruo; Ahmad, Norazah; Thong, Kwai Lin

    2012-05-20

    Shigellosis is a major public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. It is an acute intestinal infection caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella, with a minimum infective dose as low as 10-100 bacterial cells. Increasing prevalence of Shigella sonnei as the etiologic agent of shigellosis in Malaysia has been reported. As there is limited information on the genetic background of S. sonnei in Malaysia, this study aimed to characterize Malaysian S. sonnei and to evaluate the prospect of using multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) for subtyping of local S. sonnei. Forty non-repeat clinical strains of S. sonnei isolated during the years 1997-2000, and 2007-2009 were studied. The strains were isolated from stools of patients in different hospitals from different regions in Malaysia. These epidemiologically unrelated strains were characterized using biotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and MLVA. The two biotypes identified in this study were biotype a (n = 29, 73%) and biotype g (n = 11, 27%). All the 40 strains were sensitive to kanamycin, ceftriaxone and ciprofloxacin. Highest resistance rate was observed for streptomycin (67.5%), followed by tetracycline (40%) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (37.5%). All the S. sonnei biotype g strains had a core resistance type of streptomycin - trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole - tetracycline whereas the 29 biotype a strains were subtyped into eight resistotypes. All the strains were equally distinguishable by PFGE and MLVA. Overall, PFGE analysis indicated that S. sonnei biotype a strains were genetically more diverse than biotype g strains. Cluster analysis by MLVA was better in grouping the strains according to biotypes, was reflective of the epidemiological information and was equally discriminative as PFGE. The S. sonnei strains circulating in Malaysia throughout the period studied were derived from different clones given

  2. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rens Zonneveld

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  3. Rapid and widely disseminated acute phase protein response after experimental bacterial infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Kerstin; Mortensen, Shila; Boye, Mette

    2009-01-01

    The acute phase protein response is a well-described generalized early host response to tissue injury, inflammation and infection, observed as pronounced changes in the concentrations of a number of circulating serum proteins. The biological function of this response and its interplay with other...... infection in pigs. The lung infection was established with the pig specific respiratory pathogen Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae. Quantitative real-time PCR based expression analysis were performed on samples from liver, tracheobronchial lymph node, tonsils, spleen and on blood leukocytes, supplemented...... with measurements of interleukin-6 and selected acute phase proteins in serum. C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A were clearly induced 14-18 h after infection. Extrahepatic expression of acute phase proteins was found to be dramatically altered as a result of the lung infection with an extrahepatic acute phase...

  4. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Wilschut, Jan C; Vreden, Stephen G S; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission to the hospital. It remains unclear whether the fatal outcomes were due to acute Zika virus infection alone or to the combination with exacerbated underlying prior disease or co-infection. Nonetheless, the severity of these cases implies that increased awareness for atypical presentations of Zika virus infection, and careful clinical assessment of patients with symptoms of Zika, is warranted during current and future outbreaks.

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure from Plasmodium ovale infection with fatal outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Yee-Ling; Lee, Wenn-Chyau; Tan, Lian-Huat; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Syed Omar, Sharifah Faridah; Fong, Mun-Yik; Cheong, Fei-Wen; Mahmud, Rohela

    2013-11-04

    Plasmodium ovale is one of the causative agents of human malaria. Plasmodium ovale infection has long been thought to be non-fatal. Due to its lower morbidity, P. ovale receives little attention in malaria research. Two Malaysians went to Nigeria for two weeks. After returning to Malaysia, they fell sick and were admitted to different hospitals. Plasmodium ovale parasites were identified from blood smears of these patients. The species identification was further confirmed with nested PCR. One of them was successfully treated with no incident of relapse within 12-month medical follow-up. The other patient came down with malaria-induced respiratory complication during the course of treatment. Although parasites were cleared off the circulation, the patient's condition worsened. He succumbed to multiple complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure. Sequencing of the malaria parasite DNA from both cases, followed by multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic tree construction suggested that the causative agent for both malaria cases was P. ovale curtisi. In this report, the differences between both cases were discussed, and the potential capability of P. ovale in causing severe complications and death as seen in this case report was highlighted. Plasmodium ovale is potentially capable of causing severe complications, if not death. Complete travel and clinical history of malaria patient are vital for successful diagnoses and treatment. Monitoring of respiratory and renal function of malaria patients, regardless of the species of malaria parasites involved is crucial during the course of hospital admission.

  6. Intracellular and membrane-damaging activities of methyl gallate isolated from Terminalia chebula against multidrug-resistant Shigella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharyya, Saurabh; Sarkar, Prodipta; Saha, Dhira R; Patra, Amarendra; Ramamurthy, T; Bag, Prasanta K

    2015-08-01

    Shigella spp. (Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei) cause bacillary dysentery (shigellosis), which is characterized by bloody mucous diarrhoea. Although a variety of antibiotics have been effective for treatment of shigellosis, options are becoming limited due to globally emerging drug resistance. In the present study, in vitro antibacterial activity of methyl gallate (MG) isolated from Terminalia chebula was determined by performing MIC, minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetic studies. Bacterial membrane-damaging activity of MG was determined by membrane perturbation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Cellular drug accumulation, cell infection and assessment of intracellular activities of MG and reference antibiotics were performed using HeLa cell cultures. The bactericidal activity of MG against multidrug-resistant (MDR) Shigella spp. in comparison with other commonly used drugs including fluoroquinolone was demonstrated here. TEM findings in the present study revealed that MG caused the total disintegration of inner and outer membranes, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents of S. dysenteriae. The level of accumulation of MG and tetracycline in HeLa cells incubated for 24  h was relatively higher than that of ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (ratio of intracellular concentration/extracellular concentration of antibiotic for MG and tetracycline>ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid). The viable number of intracellular S. dysenteriae was decreased in a time-dependent manner in the presence of MG (4 × MBC) and reduced to zero within 20  h. The significant intracellular activities of MG suggested that it could potentially be used as an effective antibacterial agent for the treatment of severe infections caused by MDR Shigella spp.

  7. Quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in general practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saust, Laura Trolle; Bjerrum, Lars; Arpi, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To develop quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections, tailored to the Danish general practice setting. Design: A RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method was used. Setting: General practice. Subjects: A panel of nine experts, mainly...... general practitioners, was asked to rate the relevance of 64 quality indicators for the diagnosis and antibiotic treatment of acute respiratory tract infections based on guidelines. Subsequently, a face-to-face meeting was held to resolve misinterpretations and to achieve consensus. Main outcome measures...... with acute respiratory tract infections and to identify where there is a need for future quality improvements....

  8. Profiling acute respiratory tract infections in children from Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARI are leading global cause of under-five mortality and morbidity. Objective: To elicit the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among under-five children. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was undertaken in 21 registered urban slums of Guwahati in Assam to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with ARI among 370 under-five children from 184 households and 370 families. Results: The prevalence of ARI was found to be 26.22%; infants and female children were more affected. Majority of the ARI cases were from nuclear families (84.54%, living in kutcha houses (90.72% with inadequate ventilation (84.54%, overcrowded living condition (81.44%, with kitchen attached to the living room (65.98% and using biomass fuel for cooking (89.69%. ARI was significantly associated with ventilation, location of kitchen in household; presence of overcrowding, nutritional status, and primary immunization status also had impacts on ARI. Conclusion: The present study had identified a high prevalence of the disease among under-fives. It also pointed out various socio-demographic, nutritional, and environmental modifiable risk factors which can be tackled by effective education of the community.

  9. Bacteriophage preparation lytic for Shigella significantly reduces Shigella sonnei contamination in various foods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitzan Soffer

    Full Text Available ShigaShield™ is a phage preparation composed of five lytic bacteriophages that specifically target pathogenic Shigella species found in contaminated waters and foods. In this study, we examined the efficacy of various doses (9x105-9x107 PFU/g of ShigaShield™ in removing experimentally added Shigella on deli meat, smoked salmon, pre-cooked chicken, lettuce, melon and yogurt. The highest dose (2x107 or 9x107 PFU/g of ShigaShield™ applied to each food type resulted in at least 1 log (90% reduction of Shigella in all the food types. There was significant (P<0.01 reduction in the Shigella levels in all phage treated foods compared to controls, except for the lowest phage dose (9x105 PFU/g on melon where reduction was only ca. 45% (0.25 log. The genomes of each component phage in the cocktail were fully sequenced and analyzed, and they were found not to contain any "undesirable genes" including those listed in the US Code for Federal Regulations (40 CFR Ch1. Our data suggest that ShigaShield™ (and similar phage preparations with potent lytic activity against Shigella spp. may offer a safe and effective approach for reducing the levels of Shigella in various foods that may be contaminated with the bacterium.

  10. Antibodies against Shigella flexneri adhesion molecule outer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    OMP) as an adhesion factor and examine its ability to cross-react with the OMPs of other Shigella species. Methods: OMP was isolated from the bacterium S. flexneri after shaving the pili using a pili bacterial cutter in a solution of 0.5 ...

  11. Recovery from an acute infection in C. elegans requires the GATA transcription factor ELT-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Brian; Aballay, Alejandro

    2014-10-01

    The mechanisms involved in the recognition of microbial pathogens and activation of the immune system have been extensively studied. However, the mechanisms involved in the recovery phase of an infection are incompletely characterized at both the cellular and physiological levels. Here, we establish a Caenorhabditis elegans-Salmonella enterica model of acute infection and antibiotic treatment for studying biological changes during the resolution phase of an infection. Using whole genome expression profiles of acutely infected animals, we found that genes that are markers of innate immunity are down-regulated upon recovery, while genes involved in xenobiotic detoxification, redox regulation, and cellular homeostasis are up-regulated. In silico analyses demonstrated that genes altered during recovery from infection were transcriptionally regulated by conserved transcription factors, including GATA/ELT-2, FOXO/DAF-16, and Nrf/SKN-1. Finally, we found that recovery from an acute bacterial infection is dependent on ELT-2 activity.

  12. Protective effects of simvastatin on coronary artery function in swine with acute infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liuba, Petru; Pesonen, Erkki; Forslid, Anders

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND:: The risk for coronary events may rise during acute infection. Perturbation in coronary endothelial function emerges as one important link. We investigated whether simvastatin could protect the coronary arterial function from the adverse effects of acute infection in swine. METHODS...... cholesterol) between the groups (p>0.2). CONCLUSION:: Acute infection is associated with impairment of the muscarinic and kinin-related reactivity of coronary circulation. These functional abnormalities are in part prevented by simvastatin through mechanisms unrelated to lipid lowering......:: Coronary endothelium-dependent and -independent vasomotor responses were assessed by Doppler velocimetry in 12 Chlamydia pneumoniae-infected and 6 sham-infected swine 2 weeks after intratracheal inoculation. Half of animals from the infection group were pre-treated with simvastatin (80mg daily), while...

  13. SYMPTOMATIC THERAPY OF COUGH DURING SEASONAL INCREASE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS PREVALENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. S. Volkov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cough is the main symptom of the respiratory tract disorders. Mostly it occurs in viral, bacterial and mixed (viral and bacterial respiratory tract infections. The highest rates of respiratory tract infections are among children: it is known that children have respiratory tract infections 3–4 times as much as adults. Available drugs used in acute respiratory tract infections are numerous and various and cover almost all methods of influence on the infectious process. Nowadays the problem of usage of effective and at the same time safe agents in acute respiratory tract infections in children is very topical. The modern approaches to treatment of acute respiratory tract infections in children are discussed in the article. A special attention is given to symptomatic therapy. The authors describe the approaches to treatment of cough according to its character, intensity and other characteristics.

  14. Caspofungin Acetate or Fluconazole in Preventing Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients With Acute Myeloid Leukemia Who Are Undergoing Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-31

    Adult Acute Megakaryoblastic Leukemia (M7); Adult Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Adult Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Adult Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Adult Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With 11q23 (MLL) Abnormalities; Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Del(5q); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With Inv(16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(16;16)(p13;q22); Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia With t(8;21)(q22;q22); Adult Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Adult Erythroleukemia (M6a); Adult Pure Erythroid Leukemia (M6b); Childhood Acute Erythroleukemia (M6); Childhood Acute Megakaryocytic Leukemia (M7); Childhood Acute Minimally Differentiated Myeloid Leukemia (M0); Childhood Acute Monoblastic Leukemia (M5a); Childhood Acute Monocytic Leukemia (M5b); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia With Maturation (M2); Childhood Acute Myeloblastic Leukemia Without Maturation (M1); Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia in Remission; Childhood Acute Myelomonocytic Leukemia (M4); Fungal Infection; Neutropenia; Recurrent Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Recurrent Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Secondary Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Adult Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Untreated Childhood Acute Myeloid Leukemia and Other Myeloid Malignancies

  15. Burden of Food-Related Illness Caused by Resistant Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.: Harbingers of Multistate Outbreaks in 2012 and 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Mehdi Soltan Dallal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries, Salmonella and Shigella species are frequently found to cause gastroenteritis outbreaks. Objectives: We describe nationwide data on infections with Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp. in Iran. Materials and methods: During a two-year period (2012 to 2013, rectal-swab samples were analyzed for the presence of bacteria. Sensitivity of the bacterial isolates to antimicrobial agents was tested according to clinical and laboratory standards institute (CLSI guidelines. Results: Twenty-nine states reported 249 outbreaks of foodborne illnesses. In total, 1055 patients (604 males and 451 females, age range: 60 years were enrolled in this study, of whom 18 died. Seventy-four culture-confirmed cases of infection with Salmonella spp. were identified, of which 10.8%, 6.8%, 68.9%, and 13.5% corresponded to Salmonella serotype A, B, C, or D respectively. Similarly, Shigella spp. were responsible for 118 cases of the foodborne illnesses; among them, Shigella sonnei (with 105 cases, 89% was the leading serovar. Ciprofloxacin (100% was the most effective antibacterial agent against Salmonella spp. followed by amikacin. Nalidixic acid and gentamycin were the least effective antibacterial agents against Salmonella spp. Similarly, Shigella spp. were also highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin (100%, whereas tetracycline and ampicillin were the least effective antibacterial agents against Shigella spp. Conclusions: These are the first recognized and confirmed outbreaks of foodborne illnesses in Iran. Salmonella and Shigella infections represent a considerable disease burden in our country. Therefore, efforts to reduce transmission of these pathogens via food and other routes must be implemented on a national scale. It is noteworthy that the outbreaks of Shigella and Salmonella infections in our country also pose a threat of antibiotic resistance.

  16. Nef gene evolution from a single transmitted strain in acute SIV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bimber Benjamin N

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The acute phase of immunodeficiency virus infection plays a crucial role in determining steady-state virus load and subsequent progression of disease in both humans and nonhuman primates. The acute period is also the time when vaccine-mediated effects on host immunity are likely to exert their major effects on virus infection. Recently we developed a Monte-Carlo (MC simulation with mathematical analysis of viral evolution during primary HIV-1 infection that enables classification of new HIV-1 infections originating from multiple versus single transmitted viral strains and the estimation of time elapsed following infection. Results A total of 322 SIV nef SIV sequences, collected during the first 3 weeks following experimental infection of two rhesus macaques with the SIVmac239 clone, were analyzed and found to display a comparable level of genetic diversity, 0.015% to 0.052%, with that of env sequences from acute HIV-1 infection, 0.005% to 0.127%. We confirmed that the acute HIV-1 infection model correctly identified the experimental SIV infections in rhesus macaques as "homogenous" infections, initiated by a single founder strain. The consensus sequence of the sampled strains corresponded to the transmitted sequence as the model predicted. However, measured sequential decrease in diversity at day 7, 11, and 18 post infection violated the model assumption, neutral evolution without any selection. Conclusion While nef gene evolution over the first 3 weeks of SIV infection originating from a single transmitted strain showed a comparable rate of sequence evolution to that observed during acute HIV-1 infection, a purifying selection for the founder nef gene was observed during the early phase of experimental infection of a nonhuman primate.

  17. Up-regulation of MUC2 and IL-1β expression in human colonic epithelial cells by Shigella and its interaction with mucins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Prakash

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The entire gastrointestinal tract is protected by a mucous layer, which contains complex glycoproteins called mucins. MUC2 is one such mucin that protects the colonic mucosa from invading microbes. The initial interaction between microbes and mucins is an important step for microbial pathogenesis. Hence, it was of interest to investigate the relationship between host (mucin and pathogen interaction, including Shigella induced expression of MUC2 and IL-1β during shigellosis. METHODS: The mucin-Shigella interaction was revealed by an in vitro mucin-binding assay. Invasion of Shigella dysenteriae into HT-29 cells was analyzed by Transmission electron microscopy. Shigella induced mucin and IL-1β expression were analyzed by RT-PCR and Immunofluorescence. RESULTS: The clinical isolates of Shigella were found to be virulent by a congo-red binding assay. The in vitro mucin-binding assay revealed both Shigella dysenteriae and Shigella flexneri have binding affinity in the increasing order of: guinea pig small intestinal mucinShigella dysenteriae into HT-29 cells occurs within 2 hours. Interestingly, in Shigella dysenteriae infected conditions, significant increases in mRNA expression of MUC2 and IL-1β were observed in a time dependent manner. Further, immunofluorescence analysis of MUC2 shows more positive cells in Shigella dysenteriae treated cells than untreated cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our study concludes that the Shigella species specifically binds to guinea pig colonic mucin, but not to guinea pig small intestinal mucin. The guinea pig colonic mucin showed a greater binding parameter (R, and more saturable binding, suggesting the presence of a finite number of receptor binding sites in the colonic mucin of the host. In addition, modification of mucins with TFMS and sodium metaperiodate significantly reduced mucin-bacterial binding; suggesting that the mucin-Shigella interaction

  18. SYMPTOMATIC THERAPY OF COUGH DURING SEASONAL INCREASE OF ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS PREVALENCE

    OpenAIRE

    K. S. Volkov; L. S. Namazova-Baranova; N. I. Voznesenskaya; V. A. Barannik; K. E. Efendieva

    2014-01-01

    Cough is the main symptom of the respiratory tract disorders. Mostly it occurs in viral, bacterial and mixed (viral and bacterial) respiratory tract infections. The highest rates of respiratory tract infections are among children: it is known that children have respiratory tract infections 3–4 times as much as adults. Available drugs used in acute respiratory tract infections are numerous and various and cover almost all methods of influence on the infectious process. Nowadays the problem of ...

  19. Salmonella, Shigella and growth potential of other food-borne pathogens in Ethiopian street vended foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleta, D; Ashenafi, M

    2001-11-01

    To evaluate the bacteriological safety of food items sold by street vendors with regard to Salmonella and Shigella and to assess the growth potential of some foodborne pathogens in some street foods. Collection of street-vended foods and laboratory based microbiological analysis. Microbiology Laboratory, Department of Biology, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Most of the street food samples had aerobic mesophilic counts >10(7) cfu/g. Nine "kitfo" and one "egg sandwich" samples yielded Salmonella. Shigella was isolated from three "macaroni" samples. The Salmonella isolates were sensitive to all ten drugs tested but the Shigella isolates had multiple resistance against five drugs. In a challenge study, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Staphylococcus aureus grew in street-vended food samples to hazardous levels within eight to twelve hours. Street foods are heavily contaminated with micro-organisms and are potential sources of food borne infections. Health hazards from street foods may be significantly minimised by consumption within four hours of preparation.

  20. Acute exacerbation of chronic hepatitis B virus infection in renal transplant patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christini Takemi Emori

    2014-11-01

    Conclusions: Acute exacerbation was a frequent and severe event in HBV-infected renal transplant patients. Prophylactic/preemptive therapy with antiviral drugs should be indicated for all HBsAg-positive renal transplant patients.

  1. Psychosocial factors and susceptibility to or outcome of acute respiratory tract infections [Review article

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falagas, M.E; Karamanidou, C; Kastoris, A.C; Karlis, G; Rafailidis, P.I

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the literature to assess the possible effect that psychosocial variables may have on the susceptibility and/or outcome of acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs).METHODS...

  2. New diagnostic biomarker in acute diarrhea due to bacterial infection in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan M. Al-Asy

    2017-06-01

    Conclusions: Both serum PCT and sTREM-1 are valuable in the early diagnosis of acute bacterial infection-induced diarrhea in children, and there was markedly higher diagnostic discriminatory power for sTREM-1.

  3. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebey-López, Miriam; Herberg, Jethro; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin; Martinón-Torres, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011-2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role.

  4. Adaptations in the physiological heterogeneity and viability of Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri and Salmonella typhimurium, after exposure to simulated gastric acid fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Atheesha; Barnard, Tobias George

    2017-12-01

    Stomach acidity is an important barrier of the human body to protect itself from microbial pathogens entering the small intestine and causing infection. This study examined the survival adaptations of non-acid adapted diarrheal Shigella and Salmonella strains in an environment mimicking the human stomach. The bacterial responses to the challenge of acidic simulated gastric fluid were studied using flow cytometry physiological heterogeneity, membrane integrity and survival (culturability) respectively. Flow cytometry showed that bacterial cells, when exposed to gastric fluid, transformed distinctly, into physiologically heterogeneous sub-populations: intact, stressed and damaged cells, when stained with propidium iodide and thiazole orange. Shigella and Salmonella cells became membrane compromised during initial acid shock (0-30 min), and 80% of these cells shifted to the stressed state throughout gastric fluid exposure. Approximately 10-30% of bacterial strains remained culturable after 60 min of gastric fluid exposure at pH 2.5-4.5, with the percentage increasing with an inoculum size of 102 CFU/ml. This ability of non-acid adapted Shigella and Salmonella sp. to adapt and survive low pH gastric fluid, even though the bacterial numbers decreased or changed to a stressed state, further supports the possible risk of infection when consumed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Acupuncture, Moxibustion and Chinese herbs in prevention of nosocomial infection in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident

    OpenAIRE

    Fiser, Lucia

    2017-01-01

    Background: Nosocomial infection is a current medical issue, particularly in patients with acute cerebrovascular accident. The present study purpose is toevaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture, Chinese herbs and moxibustion in prophylaxis of nosocomial infections in patients with acute cerebrovasculardisease. Material and methods: The study was carried out on a group of 100 patients. Valuing the efficiency of acupuncture, moxibustion and Chinese herbs inthe prevention of nosocomial inf...

  6. Study of maternal and prenatal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection

    OpenAIRE

    Sunita Mishra; Rajesh Kumar Jha; Ratna Thakur; Sindhuja Tiwari

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis E Virus (HEV) is a major aspect of hepatitis and death in the developing countries and asymmetrical source of deaths in among of pregnant women. The objective of this study was to determine the maternal and prenatal outcome in pregnant women with acute hepatitis E viral infection in Malwa, India. Methods: Observational, cross-sectional study. The study population was pregnant women with acute hepatitis E infection confirmed by ELISA technique. Pregnant women with othe...

  7. First report of Dientamoeba fragilis infection explaining acute non-specific abdominal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Vassalou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dientamoeba fragilis is now considered a potentially emerging gastrointestinal pathogen in both developing and developed countries. We first report an autochthonous case of D. fragilis infection in Greece. A 49-year-old female with acute non-specific abdominal pain required emergency surgical admission for active observation and repeated assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute unexplained abdominal pain finally attributed to D. fragilis infection using microscopic and molecular methods.

  8. First report of Dientamoeba fragilis infection explaining acute non-specific abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassalou, E; Vassalos, C M; Spanakos, G; Fotopoulos, A; Dounias, G; Kalofolias, P; Vrioni, G; Tsakris, A

    2016-01-01

    Dientamoeba fragilis is now considered a potentially emerging gastrointestinal pathogen in both developing and developed countries. We first report an autochthonous case of D. fragilis infection in Greece. A 49-year-old female with acute non-specific abdominal pain required emergency surgical admission for active observation and repeated assessment. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of acute unexplained abdominal pain finally attributed to D. fragilis infection using microscopic and molecular methods.

  9. First case report of acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis following Plasmodium vivax infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Venugopal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE, Hurst′s disease is a rare hyperacute variant of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM characterized by severe, rapidly progressive clinical illness and hemorrhagic necrosis of white matter. Like ADEM, it is often preceded by viral illness or vaccination. Plasmodium vivax infection is usually uncomplicated and non-fatal with only a handful of reports of central nervous system complications. In this article, we report a previously unknown association between AHLE and P. vivax infection.

  10. Influenza cases from Surveillance Acute Respiratory Infection in Indonesia, 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krisna N. A Pangesti

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang:Infeksi Saluran Pernafasan Akut Berat (SARI atau pneumonia memiliki kontribusi besar dalam morbiditas dan mortalitas, namun Indonesia masih belum memiliki data epidemiologi yang cukup. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pola epidemiologi virus influenza sebagai etiologi kasus SARI.Metode:Analisis ini didasarkan pada surveilans sentinel SARI yang dilakukan oleh Pusat Biomedis dan Teknologi Dasar Kesehatan (Pusat BTDK pada sembilan rumah sakit di sembilan provinsi di Indonesia pada tahun 2011. Setiap pasien yang memenuhi kriteria SARI diikutsertakan dalam penelitian ini. Usap tenggorok dan hidung, serta serum diambil dan diperiksa di laboratorium Virologi Pusat BTDK untuk menentukan etiologinya. RT-PCR digunakan untuk mendeteksi jenis dan subtipe virus influenza dari usap tenggorok/hidung.Hasil:Sebanyak 333 kasus SARI didapatkan dari sembilan rumah sakit sentinel. Sebanyak 6% kasus yang positif influenza melalui pemeriksaan RT-PCR. Dari seluruh kasus SARI, proporsi influenza A adalah 5% dan influenza B 1%. Influenza A subtipe H1N1pdm09 mendominasi influenza musiman yang beredar di Indonesia dari kasus SARI.Kesimpulan:Virus Influenza musiman didapat dari kasus-kasus SARI namun jumlahnya tidak terlalu banyak. Oleh karena itu, penyebab lain dari kasus SARI masih perlu diteliti. (Health Science Indones 2014;1:7-11Kata kunci: SARI, Surveilans, InfluenzaAbstractBackground: Severe Acute Respiratory Infection (SARI or pneumonia has a major contribution in the morbidity and mortality, however, Indonesia still has lack of its epidemiology. The aim of the study is to know the epidemiological pattern of influenza virus as the etiology of SARI cases. Methods:This analysis based on the sentinel surveillanceSARI conducted by Center for Biomedical and Basic Technology of Health (CBBTH of Indonesia carried out at nine hospitals in nine provinces in 2011.Every patient who met the criteria of SARI was included in this study

  11. Defining the phylogenomics of Shigella species: a pathway to diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahl, Jason W; Morris, Carolyn R; Emberger, Jennifer; Fraser, Claire M; Ochieng, John Benjamin; Juma, Jane; Fields, Barry; Breiman, Robert F; Gilmour, Matthew; Nataro, James P; Rasko, David A

    2015-03-01

    Shigellae cause significant diarrheal disease and mortality in humans, as there are approximately 163 million episodes of shigellosis and 1.1 million deaths annually. While significant strides have been made in the understanding of the pathogenesis, few studies on the genomic content of the Shigella species have been completed. The goal of this study was to characterize the genomic diversity of Shigella species through sequencing of 55 isolates representing members of each of the four Shigella species: S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii, and S. dysenteriae. Phylogeny inferred from 336 available Shigella and Escherichia coli genomes defined exclusive clades of Shigella; conserved genomic markers that can identify each clade were then identified. PCR assays were developed for each clade-specific marker, which was combined with an amplicon for the conserved Shigella invasion antigen, IpaH3, into a multiplex PCR assay. This assay demonstrated high specificity, correctly identifying 218 of 221 presumptive Shigella isolates, and sensitivity, by not identifying any of 151 diverse E. coli isolates incorrectly as Shigella. This new phylogenomics-based PCR assay represents a valuable tool for rapid typing of uncharacterized Shigella isolates and provides a framework that can be utilized for the identification of novel genomic markers from genomic data. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Acute Appendicitis as the Initial Clinical Presentation of Primary HIV-1 Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schleimann, Mariane H; Leth, Steffen; Krarup, Astrid R

    2018-01-01

    We report a case of an adolescent who presented at our emergency department with acute abdominal pain. While the initial diagnosis was acute appendicitis, a secondary and coincidental diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection was made. Concurrent and subsequent clinical and molecular biology findings...

  13. Differentiation of Acute Q Fever from Other Infections in Patients Presenting to Hospitals, the Netherlands(1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijmel, S.P.; Krijger, E.; Delsing, C.E.; Sprong, T.; Nabuurs-Franssen, M.H.; Bleeker-Rovers, C.P.

    2015-01-01

    Differentiating acute Q fever from infections caused by other pathogens is essential. We conducted a retrospective case-control study to evaluate differences in clinical signs, symptoms, and outcomes for 82 patients with acute Q fever and 52 control patients who had pneumonia, fever and lower

  14. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Jary

    Full Text Available Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities.Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms.From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis.A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults.CRD42015028042.

  15. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jary, Hannah; Simpson, Hope; Havens, Deborah; Manda, Geoffrey; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms. From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults. CRD42015028042.

  16. Viral acute lower respiratory infections impair CD8+ T cells through PD-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Hastings, Andrew K; Tollefson, Sharon J; Johnson, Monika; Downing, Melissa B; Boyd, Kelli L; Johnson, Joyce E; Kim, Annette S; Joyce, Sebastian; Williams, John V

    2012-08-01

    Viruses are leading causes of severe acute lower respiratory infections (LRIs). These infections evoke incomplete immunity, as individuals can be repeatedly reinfected throughout life. We report that acute viral LRI causes rapid pulmonary CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (TCD8) functional impairment via programmed death-1/programmed death ligand-1 (PD-1/PD-L1) signaling, a pathway previously associated with prolonged antigenic stimulation during chronic infections and cancer. PD-1-mediated TCD8 impairment occurred acutely in mice following infection with human metapneumovirus or influenza virus. Viral antigen was sufficient for PD-1 upregulation, but induction of PD-L1 was required for impairment. During secondary viral infection or epitope-only challenge, memory TCD8 rapidly reexpressed PD-1 and exhibited severe functional impairment. Inhibition of PD-1 signaling using monoclonal antibody blockade prevented TCD8 impairment, reduced viral titers during primary infection, and enhanced protection of immunized mice against challenge infection. Additionally, PD-1 and PD-L1 were upregulated in the lungs of patients with 2009 H1N1 influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, or parainfluenza virus infection. These results indicate that PD-1 mediates TCD8 functional impairment during acute viral infection and may contribute to recurrent viral LRIs. Therefore, the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway may represent a therapeutic target in the treatment of respiratory viruses.

  17. Etiological characteristics and practical lessons of a major outbreak of acute intestinal infection among migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yakovlev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections remain a significant problem for the majority of economically developed countries. Acute intestinal infection disease incidence in the structure of infectious pathology steadily ranks the 2nd place after acute virus respiratory infections. The urgency of the acute intestinal infections problem is connected with the frequent occurrence of clusters of cases ( outbreaks .The last mass and the largest in the last 20 years outbreak of acute intestinal infection , was detected in St. Petersburg in 2013. The Russian Federation takes one of the first places in the world in the number of migrants. The usage of food , stored or cooked with violation of sanitary rules contributes to infection and a high prevalence of intestinal infections among migrants. In the process of medical care when analysing the outbreak among migrants a number of requirements and problems was revealed; solving these problems will make it possible to stop similar epidemic situations during the shortest period and at the lowest cost.

  18. Etiological characteristics and practical lessons of a major outbreak of acute intestinal infection among migrant workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Yakovlev

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute intestinal infections remain a significant problem for the majority of economically developed countries. Acute intestinal infection disease incidence in the structure of infectious pathology steadily ranks the 2nd place after acute virus respiratory infections. The urgency of the acute intestinal infections problem is connected with the frequent occurrence of clusters of cases ( outbreaks .The last mass and the largest in the last 20 years outbreak of acute intestinal infection , was detected in St. Petersburg in 2013. The Russian Federation takes one of the first places in the world in the number of migrants. The usage of food , stored or ooked with violation of sanitary rules contributes to infection and a high prevalence of intestinal infections among migrants. In the process of medical care when analysing the outbreak among migrants a number of requirements and problems was revealed; solving these problems will make it possible to stop similar epidemic situations during the shortest period and at the lowest cost.

  19. [Detection and Analysis of Human Parainfluenza Virus Infection in Hospitalized Adults with Acute Respiratory Tract Infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xing-Qiao; Liu, Xue-Wei; Zhou, Tao; Pei, Xiao-Fang

    2017-11-01

    To investigate the prevalence and gene characteristics of different groups of human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) infection in hospitalized adults with acute respiratory tract infections (ARI). RT-PCR was used to detect HPIV hemagglutinin (HA) DNA,which was extracted from sputum samples of 1 039 adult patients with ARI from March,2014 to June,2016. The HA gene amplified from randomly selected positive samples were sequenced to analyze the homology and variation. 10.6% (110/1 039) of these samples were positive for HPIV,including 8 cases of HPIV-1,22 cases of HPIV-2,46 cases of HPIV-3 and 34 cases of HPIV-4. Detectable rate varied among different groups of HPIV according to seasons of the year and ages of patients. No significant differences were found between the positive samples and the reference sequences. Compared with different reference strains of different regions,the genetic distance of nucleotide is the smallest between the strains tested in this study and the reference strains of other provinces and cities in China. In Chengdu region,HPIV virus is highly detected in ARI,all subtypes were detected with HPIV-3 being the main subtype.

  20. Chikungunya virus infection amongst the acute encephalitis syndrome cases in West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Taraphdar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV infection from the acute encephalitis syndrome cases is an uncommon form and has been observed in the year 2010-11 from West Bengal, India. The case-1 and case-2 had the acute encephalitis syndrome; case-3 was of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis whereas the case-4 had the symptoms of meningo-encephalopathy with bulbar involvement. We are reporting four cases with neurological complications involving central nervous system (CNS due to CHIKV infection from this state for the first time. The virus has spread almost every districts of this state rapidly. At this stage, these cases are public health threat.

  1. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of perianal infections in adult patients with acute leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Yuan; Cheng, Aristine; Huang, Shang-Yi; Sheng, Wang-Huei; Liu, Jia-Hau; Ko, Bo-Sheng; Yao, Ming; Chou, Wen-Chien; Lin, Hui-Chi; Chen, Yee-Chun; Tsay, Woei; Tang, Jih-Luh; Chang, Shan-Chwen; Tien, Hwei-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Perianal infection is a common problem for patients with acute leukemia. However, neutropenia and bleeding tendency are relatively contraindicated to surgical intervention. The epidemiology, microbiology, clinical manifestations and outcomes of perianal infection in leukemic patients are also rarely discussed. The medical records of 1102 adult patients with acute leukemia at a tertiary medical center in Taiwan between 2001 and 2010 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. The prevalence of perianal infection was 6.7% (74 of 1102) in adult patients with acute leukemia. Twenty-three (31%) of the 74 patients had recurrent episodes of perianal infections. Patients with acute myeloid leukemia had higher recurrent rates than acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients (p = 0.028). More than half (n = 61, 53%) of the perianal infections were caused by gram-negative bacilli, followed by gram-positive cocci (n = 36, 31%), anaerobes (n = 18, 15%) and Candida (n = 1, 1%) from pus culture. Eighteen patients experienced bacteremia (n = 24) or candidemia (n = 1). Overall 41 (68%) of 60 patients had polymicrobial infection. Escherichia coli (25%) was the most common micro-organism isolated, followed by Enterococcus species (22%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (13%), and Bacteroides species (11%). Twenty-five (34%) of 74 patients received surgical intervention. Acute leukemia patients with surgically managed anal fistulas tended to have fewer recurrences (p = 0.067). Four (5%) patients died within 30 days after diagnosis of perianal infection. Univariate analysis of 30-day survival revealed the elderly (≧ 65 years) (p = 0.015) and patients with shock (pleukemia. Empirical broad-spectrum antibiotics with anaerobic coverage should be considered. Shock independently predicted 30-day crude mortality. Surgical intervention for perianal infection remains challenging in patients with acute leukemia.

  2. Comparison of the efficacy of ceftibuten and norfloxacin in the treatment of acute gastrointestinal infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolasart, P; Eampokalap, B; Ratanasrithong, M

    1999-12-01

    A prospective randomized study was conducted at an infectious disease hospital in Thailand. Ceftibuten was compared with norfloxacin, both given orally for five days for treatment of acute gastroenteritis in children. One hundred and seventy cases were included in the study. Eighty-eight cases were treated with ceftibuten and eighty-two cases with norfloxacin. The baseline characteristics of the patients in both treatment groups were similar. The results showed that mean durations of diarrhea in the ceftibuten and norfloxacin groups were 2.48 days and 2.29 days, respectively, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (p > 0.05). There were Salmonella spp and Shigella spp isolated in both treatment groups and all were susceptible to both antibiotics. The mean durations of Salmonella diarrhea in the ceftibuten and norfloxacin groups were 2.7 and 2.2 days, respectively, while those of Shigella diarrhea were 2.3 days and 2.0 days, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in either comparison (p > 0.05). Neither complications nor clinical relapses were observed after both antibiotics' treatment.

  3. HIV Infection in hospitalized under-5 children with acute watery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2011-12-31

    Dec 31, 2011 ... Five of them presented within 48 hours of diarrhoea . Associated illness. Three had malaria while two had acute respiratory infec- tion in addition to acute diarrhea. Past Medical History. Two had been admitted earlier for febrile illness but no previous history of blood transfusion. None had a chronic illness.

  4. Development of Chronic and Acute Golden Syrian Hamster Infection Models with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The golden Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) is frequently used as a model to study virulence for several species of Leptospira. Onset of an acute, lethal infection following infection with several pathogenic Leptospira species has been widely adopted for vaccine testing. An important exceptio...

  5. Urticaria and Periorbital Edema as Prodromal Presenting Signs of Acute Hepatitis B Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Aalsburg, Rob; de Pagter, Anne P. J.; van Genderen, Perry J.

    2011-01-01

    A 34-year-old patient presented with giant, transient urticarial skin lesions and periorbital edema after a 3-month stay in DR Congo. Retrospective analysis of stored samples revealed that these signs were prodromal manifestations of acute hepatitis B infection. The hepatitis B infection was

  6. Effect of procalcitonin-guided antibiotic treatment on mortality in acute respiratory infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Wirz, Yannick; Sager, Ramon

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In February, 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration approved the blood infection marker procalcitonin for guiding antibiotic therapy in patients with acute respiratory infections. This meta-analysis of patient data from 26 randomised controlled trials was designed to assess safety ...

  7. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis in 7 dogs from Saskatchewan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjaergaard, Astrid B; Carr, Anthony P; Gaunt, M Casey

    2016-09-01

    Seven dogs diagnosed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) infection in association with acute gastroenteritis are described. Disease severity ranged from mild in adults to fatal disease in young dogs. Enteropathogenic E. coli infection should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in dogs with diarrhea.

  8. Prevalence of human coronaviruses in adults with acute respiratory tract infections in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Lili; Gonzalez, Richard; Xu, Jin; Xiao, Yan; Li, Yongjun; Zhou, Hongli; Li, Jianguo; Yang, Qingqing; Zhang, Jing; Chen, Lan; Wang, Wei; Vernet, Guy; Paranhos-Baccalà, Gláucia; Wang, Zhong; Wang, Jianwei

    2011-02-01

    Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are a common etiological agent of acute respiratory tract infections. HCoV infections, especially those caused by the two HCoVs identified most recently, NL63 and HKU-1, have not been characterized fully. To evaluate the prevalence and clinical presentations of HKU1 and NL63 in adults with acute respiratory tract infections, an investigation of HCoV infections in Beijing, China from 2005 to 2009 was performed by using reverse transcriptase PCR assays and sequencing analysis. Among 8,396 respiratory specimens studied, 87 (1%) clinical samples were positive for HCoVs, of which 50 samples (0.6% of the total) were positive for HCoV-OC43, 15 (0.2%) for HCoV-229E, 14 (0.2%) for HCoV-HKU1, and 8 (0.1%) for HCoV-NL63. The prevalence of HCoV infection in adults exhibited distinct seasonal fluctuations during the study period. In addition, patients positive for HCoV-229E infections were more likely to be co-infected with other respiratory viruses. Enterovirus, rhinovirus, and parainfluenza virus type 3 were the most common viruses found in patients with HCoV infections. The demographic and clinical data present in this study of HCoV infections in adults with acute respiratory tract infections should improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of HCoVs. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kun; Langevin, Stanley; O'Hern, Corey S; Shattuck, Mark D; Ogle, Serenity; Forero, Adriana; Morrison, Juliet; Slayden, Richard; Katze, Michael G; Kirby, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET) on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2) gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The development of clinical

  10. Anomaly Detection in Host Signaling Pathways for the Early Prognosis of Acute Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Wang

    Full Text Available Clinical diagnosis of acute infectious diseases during the early stages of infection is critical to administering the appropriate treatment to improve the disease outcome. We present a data driven analysis of the human cellular response to respiratory viruses including influenza, respiratory syncytia virus, and human rhinovirus, and compared this with the response to the bacterial endotoxin, Lipopolysaccharides (LPS. Using an anomaly detection framework we identified pathways that clearly distinguish between asymptomatic and symptomatic patients infected with the four different respiratory viruses and that accurately diagnosed patients exposed to a bacterial infection. Connectivity pathway analysis comparing the viral and bacterial diagnostic signatures identified host cellular pathways that were unique to patients exposed to LPS endotoxin indicating this type of analysis could be used to identify host biomarkers that can differentiate clinical etiologies of acute infection. We applied the Multivariate State Estimation Technique (MSET on two human influenza (H1N1 and H3N2 gene expression data sets to define host networks perturbed in the asymptomatic phase of infection. Our analysis identified pathways in the respiratory virus diagnostic signature as prognostic biomarkers that triggered prior to clinical presentation of acute symptoms. These early warning pathways correctly predicted that almost half of the subjects would become symptomatic in less than forty hours post-infection and that three of the 18 subjects would become symptomatic after only 8 hours. These results provide a proof-of-concept for utility of anomaly detection algorithms to classify host pathway signatures that can identify presymptomatic signatures of acute diseases and differentiate between etiologies of infection. On a global scale, acute respiratory infections cause a significant proportion of human co-morbidities and account for 4.25 million deaths annually. The

  11. Beta-lactamase activity in Shigella sonnei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, A; Neu, H C

    1976-05-01

    The basis of ampicillin resistance in Shigella sonnei was analyzed for a number of isolates. Most isolates that were resistant to ampicillin and cephalothin failed to transfer resistance. Isolates resistant to cephalothin and ampicillin were inhibited by mecillinam, cefamandole, and cefoxitin. Six strains were selected for study. These differed on the basis of inhibition by 10 beta-lactam antibiotics and on differences in beta-lactamase activity. There was no correlation between the inhibitory concentration of antibiotic and the amount of antibiotic hydrolyzed. Use of sodium chloride and cloxacillin inhibition and acrylamide electrophoresis demonstrated that ampicillin resistance in Shigella is mediated by a number of different beta-lactamases. Organisms can contain more than one type of beta-lactamase.

  12. Estimations of a degree of steroid induced leukocytosis in patients with acute infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenkel, Amit; Kachko, Eric; Cohen, Karin; Novack, Victor; Maimon, Nimrod

    2017-10-07

    Glucocorticosteroids (GCS) are known to cause the hematologic effect of leukocytosis and neutrophilia. Leukocytosis is a key parameter in establishing the diagnosis of sepsis and in the estimation of its severity. To quantify the effect of chronic or acute GCS treatment on the level of leukocytosis in patients with acute infectious process. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with an acute infection hospitalized in tertiary medical center between the years 2003-2014. Patients were classified into three categories: chronic GCS treatment, acute GCS treatment, no GCS treatment. The primary outcome was the maximal WBC count within the first 24h from admission. We identified 5468 patients with acute infection: 333 of them with chronic GCS treatment, 213 with acute GCS treatment and 4922 with no GCS treatment. The overall maximal leukocytes count was higher in GCS therapy groups: 15.4±8.3×109/L for the acute GCS treatment, 14.9±7.4×109/L for chronic GCS treatment and 12.9±6.4×109/L for the no GCS group (P<0.001). In patients with acute infections chronically treated with GCS, an increase in the WBC is at average of 5×109/L. These data must be taken into consideration while using the level of leukocytosis as a parameter in the diagnosis of the infectious process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. An outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae in Sweden, May-June 2009, with sugar snaps as the suspected source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfdahl, M; Ivarsson, S; Andersson, S; Långmark, J; Plym-Forshell, L

    2009-07-16

    We report an outbreak of Shigella dysenteriae type 2 infections during May-June 2009 in Sweden, involving 47 suspected cases of whom 35 were laboratory-confirmed. The epidemiological investigation based on interviews with the patients pointed at sugar snaps from Kenya as the source. Shigella was not detected in samples of sugar snaps. However, Escherichia coli was confirmed in three of four samples indicating contamination by faecal material. During April to May 2009 outbreaks with Shigella connected to sugar snaps from Kenya were reported from Norway and Denmark. In the three countries trace back of the indicated sugar snaps revealed a complex system with several involved import companies and distributers. In Sweden one wholesale company was identified and connections were seen to the Danish trace back. These three outbreaks question whether the existing international certification and quality standards that are in place to prevent products from contamination by faecal pathogens are strict enough.

  14. Remediation of intramacrophageal Shigella dysenteriae type 1 by probiotic lactobacilli isolated from human infants' stool samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trikha, Radhika; Rishi, Praveen; Tewari, Rupinder

    2017-05-01

    Shigella dysenteriae is one of the most virulent pathogens causing bacillary dysentery and is responsible for high mortality in infants. To reduce the load of antibiotic therapy for treating shigellosis, this study was carried out to assess the ex vivo effect of novel probiotic lactobacilli, isolated from infant's stool samples, on killing S. dysenteriae type 1 residing in the rat macrophages. Stool samples from infants were collected, processed for the isolation of lactobacilli and screened for the probiotic attributes (acid tolerance, bile tolerance, ability to adhere intestinal cells and anti-S. dysenteriae activity). The effect of cell-free supernatant of lactobacilli on Shigella- infected macrophages in terms of phagocytic ability, extent of lipid peroxidation, nitrite, superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels was evaluated. Based on the probiotic attributes, three lactobacilli were isolated from the stool samples of infants. Using classical and molecular tools, these isolates were identified as Lactobacillus pentosus, L. Paraplantarum and L. rhamnosus. All the three lactobacilli had the ability to kill intramacrophage S. dysentriae type 1. The anti-Shigella activity of the probiotic lactobacilli was attributed to increased antioxidative ability and decreased free radical production by the infected macrophages. Probiotic cocktail of L. pentosus, L. paraplantarum and L. rhamnosus showed ex vivo killing of S. dysenteriae residing inside the rat macrophages significantly. This cocktail has the potential to be used as a natural alternative for treating S. dysenteriae infection, especially in infants, however, further studies need to be done to confirm these finding in vivo.

  15. Shigella mediated depletion of macrophages in a murine breast cancer model is associated with tumor regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Galmbacher

    Full Text Available A tumor promoting role of macrophages has been described for a transgenic murine breast cancer model. In this model tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs represent a major component of the leukocytic infiltrate and are associated with tumor progression. Shigella flexneri is a bacterial pathogen known to specificly induce apotosis in macrophages. To evaluate whether Shigella-induced removal of macrophages may be sufficient for achieving tumor regression we have developed an attenuated strain of S. flexneri (M90TDeltaaroA and infected tumor bearing mice. Two mouse models were employed, xenotransplantation of a murine breast cancer cell line and spontanous breast cancer development in MMTV-HER2 transgenic mice. Quantitative analysis of bacterial tumor targeting demonstrated that attenuated, invasive Shigella flexneri primarily infected TAMs after systemic administration. A single i.v. injection of invasive M90TDeltaaroA resulted in caspase-1 dependent apoptosis of TAMs followed by a 74% reduction in tumors of transgenic MMTV-HER-2 mice 7 days post infection. TAM depletion was sustained and associated with complete tumor regression.These data support TAMs as useful targets for antitumor therapy and highlight attenuated bacterial pathogens as potential tools.

  16. Multiple Acute Infection by Anisakis: A Case Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimamura, Yuto; Ishii, Naoki; Ego, Mai; Nakano, Kaoru; Ikeya, Takashi; Nakamura, Kenji; Takagi, Koichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki; Fujita, Yoshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    The ingestion of raw seafood infected with nematode larvae of the Anisakidae family can lead to gastric anisakiasis. The majority of the infections involve a single larva, however, there have been instances of multiple infection. The incidence rate and the characteristics of multiple infection by Anisakis remain poorly understood. We herein present a case of parasitization by multiple Anisakis larvae and describe 14 cases of multiple parasitization representing the largest reported case series to date. Endoscopists should therefore be aware of the potential for multiple infection by Anisakis and the need for a thorough inspection of all parts of the stomach when encountering such cases.

  17. Superinfection exclusion is absent during acute Junin virus infection of Vero and A549 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Raphaël; Kirchhausen, Tomas

    2015-11-09

    Many viruses have evolved strategies of so-called "superinfection exclusion" to prevent re-infection of a cell that the same virus has already infected. Although Old World arenavirus infection results in down-regulation of its viral receptor and thus superinfection exclusion, whether New World arenaviruses have evolved such a mechanism remains unclear. Here we show that acute infection by the New World Junin virus (JUNV) failed to down-regulate the transferrin receptor and did not induce superinfection exclusion. We observed that Vero cells infected by a first round of JUNV (Candid1 strain) preserve an ability to internalize new incoming JUNV particles that is comparable to that of non-infected cells. Moreover, we developed a dual infection assay with the wild-type Candid1 JUNV and a recombinant JUNV-GFP virus to discriminate between first and second infections at the transcriptional and translational levels. We found that Vero and A549 cells already infected by JUNV were fully competent to transcribe viral RNA from a second round of infection. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis of viral protein expression indicated that viral translation was normal, regardless of whether cells were previously infected or not. We conclude that in acutely infected cells, Junin virus lacks a superinfection exclusion mechanism.

  18. Routine laboratory screening for acute and recent HIV infection in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jesse L; Segura, Eddy R; Montano, Silvia M; Leon, Segundo R; Kochel, Tadeusz; Salvatierra, Hector J; Alcantara, Jorge; Cáceres, Carlos F; Coates, Thomas J; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2010-12-01

    Before implementing screening programmes for acute HIV infection in developing countries, key issues, including cost, feasibility and public health impact, must be determined. Fourth-generation enzyme immunoassay (EIA) was compared with HIV-1 RNA PCR for the detection of acute and early HIV infection in counselling and testing populations in Lima, Peru. Adults presenting for HIV testing at designated clinics in Lima-Callao, Peru were offered additional screening for acute HIV infection. All serum samples were tested with fourth-generation Ag/Ab EIA and confirmed by line immunoassay. Negative specimens were combined into 50-sample pools for HIV-1 RNA screening by PCR analysis in standard pooling algorithms. RNA-positive samples were retested with a third-generation EIA to evaluate the relative sensitivity of standard testing procedures. Between 2007 and 2008 1191 participants were recruited. The prevalence of HIV infection was 3.2% (38/1191; 95% CI 2.2% to 4.2%) overall and 10.5% (25/237; 95% CI 6.6% to 14.5%) among men who reported sex with men (MSM). The prevalence of acute or recent HIV infection was 0.2% (95% CI 0% to 0.4%) overall and 0.8% (95% CI 0% to 2.0%) among MSM. Compared with third-generation EIA testing, both fourth-generation EIA and RNA PCR increased the rate of HIV case identification by 5.3% overall and by 8.0% within the subpopulation of MSM. Screening for acute HIV infection within Peru's resource-limited public health system was acceptable and detected a high prevalence of acute and recent HIV infection among MSM. Additional efforts are needed to screen for, and prevent, transmission of HIV among MSM in Peru during the acute seroconversion stage.

  19. Undernutrition, the Acute Phase Response to Infection, and Its Effects on Micronutrient Status Indicators12

    OpenAIRE

    Bresnahan, Kara A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-01-01

    Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host’s homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatig...

  20. Acute Viral Respiratory Infection Rapidly Induces a CD8+ T Cell Exhaustion-like Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, John J; Lu, Pengcheng; Wen, Sherry; Hastings, Andrew K; Gilchuk, Pavlo; Joyce, Sebastian; Shyr, Yu; Williams, John V

    2015-11-01

    Acute viral infections typically generate functional effector CD8(+) T cells (TCD8) that aid in pathogen clearance. However, during acute viral lower respiratory infection, lung TCD8 are functionally impaired and do not optimally control viral replication. T cells also become unresponsive to Ag during chronic infections and cancer via signaling by inhibitory receptors such as programmed cell death-1 (PD-1). PD-1 also contributes to TCD8 impairment during viral lower respiratory infection, but how it regulates TCD8 impairment and the connection between this state and T cell exhaustion during chronic infections are unknown. In this study, we show that PD-1 operates in a cell-intrinsic manner to impair lung TCD8. In light of this, we compared global gene expression profiles of impaired epitope-specific lung TCD8 to functional spleen TCD8 in the same human metapneumovirus-infected mice. These two populations differentially regulate hundreds of genes, including the upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors by lung TCD8. We then compared the gene expression of TCD8 during human metapneumovirus infection to those in acute or chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. We find that the immunophenotype of lung TCD8 more closely resembles T cell exhaustion late into chronic infection than do functional effector T cells arising early in acute infection. Finally, we demonstrate that trafficking to the infected lung alone is insufficient for TCD8 impairment or inhibitory receptor upregulation, but that viral Ag-induced TCR signaling is also required. Our results indicate that viral Ag in infected lungs rapidly induces an exhaustion-like state in lung TCD8 characterized by progressive functional impairment and upregulation of numerous inhibitory receptors. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  1. Acute Kidney Injury Complicated Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ozgurhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is an acute lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and seen most commonly in children and young adults. Clinical presentation of the disease is characterized by fever, tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly, whereas serological findings of this benign disorder include positive heterophilic antibody formation (transient increase in heterophilic antibodies and prominence of hematological lymphocytosis of more than 10% of atypical lymphocytes. An EBV infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood, but acute kidney injury can be a rare complication during its course. Most cases recover from the disease completely. Early recognition of EBV infection and estimation of its complication are important for its prognosis. In light of previous literature, we discuss the case evaluated as an EBV infection complicated by acute kidney injury in early childhood and results of tubulointerstitial nephritis shown on a renal biopsy that was later diagnosed as an EBV infection by serological examination.

  2. Acute viral infections of the central nervous system, 2014-2016, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Papadopoulou, Elpida

    2017-11-23

    In order to investigate the viral etiology of acute infections of central nervous system (CNS), multiplex and single PCRs combined with serology for arboviruses were applied on samples from 132 hospitalized patients in Greece during May 2014-December 2016. A viral pathogen was detected in 52 of 132 (39.4%) cases with acute CNS infection. Enteroviruses predominated (15/52, 28.8%), followed by West Nile virus (9/52, 17.3%). Phleboviruses, varicella-zoster virus, and Epstein-Barr virus accounted for 15.4%, 13.5%, and 11.5% of the cases, respectively. The study gives an insight into the etiology of viral CNS infections in a Mediterranean country, where arboviruses should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute CNS infections. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Does Viral Co-Infection Influence the Severity of Acute Respiratory Infection in Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199

  4. Does chronic hepatitis B infection affect the clinical course of acute hepatitis A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Su Rin; Moh, In Ho; Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Jin Bae; Park, Sang Hoon; Kim, Hyoung Su; Jang, Myung Kuk; Lee, Myung Seok

    2013-01-01

    The impact of chronic hepatitis B on the clinical outcome of acute hepatitis A remains controversial. The aim of present study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A in cases with underlying chronic hepatitis B compared to cases of acute hepatitis A alone. Data on 758 patients with acute hepatitis A admitted at two university-affiliated hospitals were reviewed. Patients were classified into three groups: group A, patients with both acute hepatitis A and underlying chronic hepatitis B (n = 27); group B, patients infected by acute hepatitis A alone whose sexes and ages were matched with patients in group A (n  = 54); and group C, patients with acute hepatitis A alone (n = 731). None of the demographic features of group A were significantly different from those of group B or C, except for the proportion of males and body weight, which differed from group C. When comparing to group B, clinical symptoms were more frequent, and higher total bilirubin and lower albumin levels were observed in group A. When comparing to group C, the albumin levels were lower in group A. There were no differences in the duration of hospital stay, occurrence of acute kidney injury, acute liver failure, prolonged cholestasis, or relapsing hepatitis. This study revealed that clinical symptoms and laboratory findings were less favorable for patients with acute hepatitis A and chronic hepatitis B compared to those with acute hepatitis A alone. However, there were no differences in fatal outcomes or serious complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. An attenuated Shigella mutant lacking the RNA-binding protein Hfq provides cross-protection against Shigella strains of broad serotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitobe, Jiro; Sinha, Ritam; Mitra, Soma; Nag, Dhrubajyoti; Saito, Noriko; Shimuta, Ken; Koizumi, Nobuo; Koley, Hemanta

    2017-07-01

    Few live attenuated vaccines protect against multiple serotypes of bacterial pathogen because host serotype-specific immune responses are limited to the serotype present in the vaccine strain. Here, immunization with a mutant of Shigella flexneri 2a protected guinea pigs against subsequent infection by S. dysenteriae type 1 and S. sonnei strains. This deletion mutant lacked the RNA-binding protein Hfq leading to increased expression of the type III secretion system via loss of regulation, resulting in attenuation of cell viability through repression of stress response sigma factors. Such increased antigen production and simultaneous attenuation were expected to elicit protective immunity against Shigella strains of heterologous serotypes. Thus, the vaccine potential of this mutant was tested in two guinea pig models of shigellosis. Animals vaccinated in the left eye showed fewer symptoms upon subsequent challenge via the right eye, and even survived subsequent intestinal challenge. In addition, oral vaccination effectively induced production of immunoglobulins without severe side effects, again protecting all animals against subsequent intestinal challenge with S. dysenteriae type 1 or S. sonnei strains. Antibodies against common virulence proteins and the O-antigen of S. flexneri 2a were detected by immunofluorescence microscopy. Reaction of antibodies with various strains, including enteroinvasive Escherichia coli, suggested that common virulence proteins induced protective immunity against a range of serotypes. Therefore, vaccination is expected to cover not only the most prevalent serotypes of S. sonnei and S. flexneri 2a, but also various Shigella strains, including S. dysenteriae type 1, which produces Shiga toxin.

  6. Tetherin/BST-2 promotes dendritic cell activation and function during acute retrovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sam X; Barrett, Bradley S; Guo, Kejun; Kassiotis, George; Hasenkrug, Kim J; Dittmer, Ulf; Gibbert, Kathrin; Santiago, Mario L

    2016-02-05

    Tetherin/BST-2 is a host restriction factor that inhibits retrovirus release from infected cells in vitro by tethering nascent virions to the plasma membrane. However, contradictory data exists on whether Tetherin inhibits acute retrovirus infection in vivo. Previously, we reported that Tetherin-mediated inhibition of Friend retrovirus (FV) replication at 2 weeks post-infection correlated with stronger natural killer, CD4+ T and CD8+ T cell responses. Here, we further investigated the role of Tetherin in counteracting retrovirus replication in vivo. FV infection levels were similar between wild-type (WT) and Tetherin KO mice at 3 to 7 days post-infection despite removal of a potent restriction factor, Apobec3/Rfv3. However, during this phase of acute infection, Tetherin enhanced myeloid dendritic cell (DC) function. DCs from infected, but not uninfected, WT mice expressed significantly higher MHC class II and the co-stimulatory molecule CD80 compared to Tetherin KO DCs. Tetherin-associated DC activation during acute FV infection correlated with stronger NK cell responses. Furthermore, Tetherin+ DCs from FV-infected mice more strongly stimulated FV-specific CD4+ T cells ex vivo compared to Tetherin KO DCs. The results link the antiretroviral and immunomodulatory activity of Tetherin in vivo to improved DC activation and MHC class II antigen presentation.

  7. Clinical experience of infective endocarditis complicated by acute cerebrovascular accidents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hsu, Chan-Yang; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Wang, Shoei-Shen; Chen, Yih-Sharng; Yu, Hsi-Yu

    ...) complicated by acute cerebrovascular accidents (CVAs). Methods: A total of 44 patients with IE complicated by CVA at admission were retrospectively analyzed in a single medical institute from 2005 to 2011...

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, and mixed acute lower respiratory infections in children in a developing country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo

    2015-05-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Prospective Study of Acute HIV-1 Infection in Adults in East Africa and Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Merlin L.; Eller, Leigh A.; Kibuuka, Hannah; Rono, Kathleen; Maganga, Lucas; Nitayaphan, Sorachai; Kroon, Eugene; Sawe, Fred K.; Sinei, Samuel; Sriplienchan, Somchai; Jagodzinski, Linda L.; Malia, Jennifer; Manak, Mark; de Souza, Mark S.; Tovanabutra, Sodsai; Sanders-Buell, Eric; Rolland, Morgane; Dorsey-Spitz, Julie; Eller, Michael A.; Milazzo, Mark; Li, Qun; Lewandowski, Andrew; Wu, Hao; Swann, Edith; O'Connell, Robert J.; Peel, Sheila; Dawson, Peter; Kim, Jerome H.; Michael, Nelson L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Acute human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is a major contributor to transmission of HIV-1. An understanding of acute HIV-1 infection may be important in the development of treatment strategies to eradicate HIV-1 or achieve a functional cure. Methods We performed twice-weekly qualitative plasma HIV-1 RNA nucleic acid testing in 2276 volunteers who were at high risk for HIV-1 infection. For participants in whom acute HIV-1 infection was detected, clinical observations, quantitative measurements of plasma HIV-1 RNA levels (to assess viremia) and HIV antibodies, and results of immunophenotyping of lymphocytes were obtained twice weekly. Results Fifty of 112 volunteers with acute HIV-1 infection had two or more blood samples collected before HIV-1 antibodies were detected. The median peak viremia (6.7 log10 copies per milliliter) occurred 13 days after the first sample showed reactivity on nucleic acid testing. Reactivity on an enzyme immunoassay occurred at a median of 14 days. The nadir of viremia (4.3 log10 copies per milliliter) occurred at a median of 31 days and was nearly equivalent to the viral-load set point, the steady-state viremia that persists durably after resolution of acute viremia (median plasma HIV-1 RNA level, 4.4 log10 copies per milliliter). The peak viremia and downslope were correlated with the viral-load set point. Clinical manifestations of acute HIV-1 infection were most common just before and at the time of peak viremia. A median of one symptom of acute HIV-1 infection was recorded at a median of two study visits, and a median of one sign of acute HIV-1 infection was recorded at a median of three visits. Conclusions The viral-load set point occurred at a median of 31 days after the first detection of plasma viremia and correlated with peak viremia. Few symptoms and signs were observed during acute HIV-1 infection, and they were most common before peak viremia. (Funded by the Department of Defense and the National

  10. ACUTE URINARY INFECTIONS AMONG CHILDREN AND THEIR ANTIBACTERIAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.L. Chashchina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the findings as to the peculiarities of clinical manifestations and diagnostics of urinary infection in childhood. The researchers provide the information on the urinary infection agent structure and e. coli resistance frequency (most widely spread agent towards the antibacterial medications. They have also offered recommendations for rational antibiotic therapy.Key words: urinary infection, children, e. coli, cephalosporin of iii generation, ceftibuten.

  11. Prevalence of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French Travelers Returning from the Caribbean: An Emerging Pathogen with International Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Miranda D.; Lacher, David W.; Leonard, Susan R.; Abbott, Jason; Zhao, Shaohua; Lampel, Keith A.; Prothery, Estelle; Gouali, Malika; Weill, François-Xavier; Maurelli, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    Shiga toxins are potent cytotoxins that inhibit host cell protein synthesis, leading to cell death. Classically, these toxins are associated with intestinal infections due to Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1 and infections with these strains can lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome. Over the past decade there is increasing recognition that Shiga toxin is produced by additional Shigella species. We recently reported the presence and expression of stx genes in Shigella flexneri 2a clinical isolates. The toxin genes were carried by a new stx-encoding bacteriophage and infection with these strains correlated with recent travel to Haiti or the Dominican Republic. In this study we further explored the epidemiological link to this region by utilizing the French National Reference Center for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella collection to survey the frequency of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French travelers returning from the Caribbean. About 21% of the isolates tested were found to encode and produce Stx. These isolates included strains of S. flexneri 2a, S. flexneri Y, and S. dysenteriae 4. All of the travelers whom were infected with Stx-producing Shigella had recently traveled to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, or French Guiana. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing found that the toxin genes were encoded by a prophage that was highly identical to the phage we identified in our previous study. These findings demonstrate that this new stx-encoding prophage is circulating within that geographical area, has spread to other continents, and is capable of spreading to multiple Shigella serogroups. PMID:25980352

  12. Prevalence of Shiga toxin-producing Shigella species isolated from French travellers returning from the Caribbean: an emerging pathogen with international implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, M D; Lacher, D W; Leonard, S R; Abbott, J; Zhao, S; Lampel, K A; Prothery, E; Gouali, M; Weill, F-X; Maurelli, A T

    2015-08-01

    Shiga toxins (Stxs) are potent cytotoxins that inhibit host cell protein synthesis, leading to cell death. Classically, these toxins are associated with intestinal infections due to Stx-producing Escherichia coli or Shigella dysenteriae serotype 1, and infections with these strains can lead to haemolytic-uraemic syndrome. Over the past decade, there has been increasing recognition that Stx is produced by additional Shigella species. We recently reported the presence and expression of stx genes in Shigella flexneri 2a clinical isolates. The toxin genes were carried by a new stx-encoding bacteriophage, and infection with these strains correlated with recent travel to Haiti or the Dominican Republic. In this study, we further explored the epidemiological link to this region by utilizing the French National Reference Centre for Escherichia coli, Shigella and Salmonella collection to survey the frequency of Stx-producing Shigella species isolated from French travellers returning from the Caribbean. Approximately 21% of the isolates tested were found to encode and produce Stx. These isolates included strains of S. flexneri 2a, S. flexneri Y, and S. dysenteriae 4. All of the travellers who were infected with Stx-producing Shigella had recently travelled to Haiti, the Dominican Republic, or French Guiana. Furthermore, whole genome sequencing showed that the toxin genes were encoded by a prophage that was highly identical to the phage that we identified in our previous study. These findings demonstrate that this new stx-encoding prophage is circulating within that geographical area, has spread to other continents, and is capable of spreading to multiple Shigella serogroups. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Mouse models of acute and chronic hepacivirus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Billerbeck, Eva; Wolfisberg, Raphael; Fahnøe, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    An estimated 71 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of small-animal models has impeded studies of antiviral immune mechanisms. Here we show that an HCV-related hepacivirus discovered in Norway rats can establish high-titer hepatotropic infections in labora......An estimated 71 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). The lack of small-animal models has impeded studies of antiviral immune mechanisms. Here we show that an HCV-related hepacivirus discovered in Norway rats can establish high-titer hepatotropic infections...

  14. Treatment outcomes of oral sitafloxacin in acute complicated urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manosuthi, Weerawat; Wiboonchutikul, Surasak

    2016-01-01

    Data on the success rate of sitafloxacin treatment in acute complicated urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis are limited. To determine the success rate of a new oral fluoroquinolone, sitafloxacin, in acute complicated urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis. A prospective study of 30 patients who were diagnosed with acute complicated urinary tract infection and pyelonephritis was conducted. Oral sitafloxacin 50 mg twice a day was given for 7 days. All patients were followed up at baseline, day 7, and day 14. The patient sample included 67 % females; the mean ± SD age was 49 ± 13 years. Twenty-one (70 %) patients had acute pyelonephritis and 9 (30 %) had complicated urinary tract infections. Twenty-two patients were positive for uropathogens. The most frequently isolated pathogen was E. coli 11 non-extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing and 5 ESBL-producing strains. Of the 22 isolated uropathogens, 19 (86 %) isolates were sensitive to sitafloxacin. At day 14, 29 of 30 (97 %) were clinically cured and 21 of 22 (95 %) were microbiologically cured. No patients discontinued sitafloxacin due to adverse events. These results support the use of oral sitafloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis. However, further larger studies are required to confirm these results.

  15. Association of interleukin-8 and neutrophils with nasal symptom severity during acute respiratory infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriquez, Kelsey M; Hayney, Mary S; Xie, Yaoguo; Zhang, Zhengjun; Barrett, Bruce

    2015-02-01

    Using a large data set (n = 811), the relationship between acute respiratory infection illness severity and inflammatory biomarkers was investigated to determine whether certain symptoms are correlated more closely than others with the inflammatory biomarkers, interleukin-8 (IL-8) and nasal neutrophils. Participants with community acquired acute respiratory infection underwent nasal lavage for IL-8 and neutrophil testing, in addition to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods for the detection and identification of respiratory viruses. Information about symptoms was obtained throughout the duration of the illness episode using the well-validated Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey (WURSS-21). Global symptom severity was calculated by the area under the curve (AUC) plotting duration versus WURSS total. Of the specimens tested, 56% were positively identified for one or more of nine different respiratory viruses. During acute respiratory infection illness, both IL-8 and neutrophils positively correlate with AUC (r(s) = 0.082, P = 0.022; r(s)  = 0.080, P = 0.030). IL-8 and neutrophils correlate with nasal symptom severity: runny nose (r = 0.13, P = acute respiratory infection. Further research is necessary to determine if the concentration of these or other biomarkers can predict the overall duration and severity of acute respiratory infection illness. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Microbial load, prevalence and antibiograms of salmonella and Shigella in lettuce and green peppers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guchi, Biniam; Ashenafi, Mogessie

    2010-03-01

    Human food borne infections traditionally are acquired through the ingestion of foods of animal origin. Fresh fruits and vegetables are major vehicles for the transmission of the food-borne infections. In Ethiopia, there is a tradition of consuming raw vegetables, particularly lettuce and green pepper, without adequate treatment. The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial load of fresh lettuce and green pepper, used as salad vegetables, and to assess the prevalence and antibiotic resistance of Salmonella and Shigella spp. isolated from lettuce and green pepper. A total of eighty samples of lettuce and green peppers were purchased from different outlets in Addis Ababa and analyzed for their load of various microbial groups and flora analysis was conducted following standard microbiological methods. The presence of Salmonella and Shigella and their antibiotic resistance was also determined. Over 90% of the vegetable samples had aerobic mesophilic counts of ≥ log 6 cfu/g. Ninety seven percent of the lettuce and 58% of the green pepper samples had enterobacteraceae counts of ≥ log 5 cfu/g. Coliforms were encountered at counts ≥ log 4 cfu/g in 48% and 35% of lettuce and green pepper samples, respectively. Over 80% of vegetable samples harbored staphylococci with counts ranging from log 4 to log 6 cfu/g. More than 88% of lettuce and 18% of green pepper samples had yeast and mold counts ≥ log 4 cfu/g. The aerobic mesophilic flora of the vegetable samples was dominated by Bacillus and Micrococcus spp. Salmonella and Shigella were isolated from eight (10%) and 24 (30%) samples, respectively. All of the Salmonella and 97% of Shigella isolates showed resistance to penicillin. Ampicillin resistance was observed in 42% of Salmonella and 79% of Shigella isolates. Multiple drug resistance was seen in 8 and 24 isolates of Salmonella and Shigella isolates, respectively. The majority of lettuce and green pepper samples had high microbial load and multiple

  17. [Prevalence and clinical characteristics of coronavirus NL63 infection in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infections in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei; Zhang, Bing; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Gao, Han-Chun; Zhao, Xin; Zhong, Li-Li; Zhou, Qiong-Hua; Hou, Yun-De; Duan, Zhao-Jun

    2012-04-01

    The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and clinical characteristics of human coronavirus NL63 infection in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) in Changsha. Nasopharyngeal aspirates (NPA) samples were collected from 1185 hospitalized children with ALRTI at the People's Hospital of Hunan province, between September 2008 and October 2010. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was employed to screen for coronavirus NL63, which is a 255 bp fragment of a part of N gene. All positive amplification products were confirmed by sequencing and compared with those in GenBank. The overall frequency of coronavirus NL63 infection was 0.8%, 6 (60%) out of the coronavirus NL63 positive patients were detected in summer, 2 in autumn, 1 in spring and winter, respectively. The patients were from 2 months to two and a half years old. The clinical diagnosis was bronchopneumonia (60%), bronchiolitis (30%), and acute laryngotracheal bronchitis (10%). Four of the 10 cases had critical illness, 4 cases had underlying diseases, and 7 cases had mixed infection with other viruses. The homogeneity of coronavirus NL63 with those published in the GenBank at nucleotide levels was 97%-100%. Coronavirus NL63 infection exists in hospitalized children with acute lower respiratory tract infection in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 infections are common in children under 3 years of age. There is significant difference in the infection rate between the boys and the girls: the boys had higher rate than the girls. The peak of prevalence of the coronavirus NL63 was in summer. A single genetic lineage of coronavirus NL63 was revealed in human subjects in Changsha. Coronavirus NL63 may also be one of the lower respiratory pathogen in China.

  18. [Clinical and epidemiological description of acute intestinal infections in children of the lower Volga region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkin, A V; Kharchenko, G A

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the results of laboratory diagnostics, carried out by bacteriological, serological and PCR methods, the etiological structure of acute bacterial and viral intestinal infections, most frequently occurring in children of the Astrakhan region, is presented. An important role of viral diarrhea cases, prevailing among the total number of cases of intestinal infections in children, is emphasized. The data on the irregular distribution of morbidity by months, especially in viral intestinal infections and salmonellosis with the prevalent involvement of children aged up to 2 years into the epidemic process, are presented. Infections affect mainly children given artificial feeding, as well as those with complicated premorbid state and frequently having acute respiratory viral infections.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of WU polyomavirus in hospitalized children with acute respiratory tract infection in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Teng; Lu, Qing-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Yan; Wo, Ying; Zhuang, Lu; Zhang, Pan-He; Zhang, Xiao-Ai; Wei, Wei; Liu, Wei

    2017-05-01

    To explore the molecular epidemiology and clinical characteristics of Washington University polyomavirus (WUPyV) infection in pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections in China. A laboratory surveillance was performed to recruit pediatric patients with acute respiratory tract infections. WUPyV was detected using real-time PCR and complete genome was sequenced for randomly selected positive nasopharyngeal aspirate. Altogether 122 (7.5%) of 1617 children found to be infected with WUPyV and 88 (72.1%) were coinfected with other viruses during 2012-2015. The phylogenetic analysis showed that 14 strains from our study formed two new clusters (Id and IIIc) within the Branch I and Branch III, respectively. WUPyV is persistently circulating in China. Surveillance on WUPyV infection in wider areas and long persistence is warranted.

  20. The absence of exanthema is related with death and illness severity in acute enterovirus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hong-Tao; Guo, Yong-Hui; Tang, Pei; Zeng, Lei; Pan, Yu-Xian; Ding, Xi-Xia; Wen, Kun; Tao, Shao-Hua; Chen, Man-Jun; Wang, Bin; Yu, Nan; Che, Xiao-Yan

    2014-11-01

    To clarify whether exanthema is related to illness severity in acute enterovirus infection in children. The data of pediatric inpatients at Zhujiang Hospital during 2009-2012 with an acute enterovirus infection were reviewed retrospectively. Enterovirus infection was determined by real-time reverse transcription PCR. Clinical data were summarized and compared between cases with and without exanthema. A total of 780 pediatric inpatients with an acute enterovirus infection were included in this study, of whom 83 (10.6%) presented no exanthema. The percentage of deaths in the group of patients without exanthema was significantly higher than that in the group with exanthema (7.2% vs. 1.1%; p = 0.002). Central nervous system involvement (41.0% vs. 30.0%; p = 0.041), severe central nervous system (CNS) involvement (21.7% vs. 11.0%; p = 0.005), severe CNS involvement with cardiopulmonary failure (9.6% vs. 2.3%; p = 0.002), an altered level of consciousness (15.7% vs. 7.6%; p = 0.013), and convulsions (14.4% vs. 6.3%; p = 0.007) occurred significantly more frequently in the group without exanthema. A considerable proportion of children with an acute enterovirus infection in Guangdong Province, China during 2009-2012 presented no exanthema, and the absence of exanthema was found to be related to death and illness severity for these acute enterovirus infections. Clinicians in China should consider enterovirus as the possible pathogen when treating children with an acute pathogen infection without exanthema.

  1. Innate Lymphoid Cells Are Depleted Irreversibly during Acute HIV-Infection in the Absence of Viral Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kløverpris, Henrik N.; Kazer, Samuel W.; Mjösberg, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) play a central role in the response to infection by secreting cytokines crucial for immune regulation, tissue homeostasis, and repair. Although dysregulation of these systems is central to pathology, the impact of HIV-on ILCs remains unknown. We found that human blood...... ILCs were severely depleted during acute viremic HIV-infection and that ILC numbers did not recover after resolution of peak viremia. ILC numbers were preserved by antiretroviral therapy (ART), but only if initiated during acute infection. Transcriptional profiling during the acute phase revealed...... mechanistic link between acute HIV-infection, lymphoid tissue breakdown, and persistent immune dysfunction....

  2. Prevalence of antibiotic use for pediatric acute upper respiratory tract infections in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sun Mi; Shin, Ju-Young; Kim, Mi Hee; Lee, Shin Haeng; Choi, Sohyun; Park, Byung-Joo

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of antimicrobial prescribing for acute upper respiratory tract infections (URI) among pediatric outpatients and to identify the national patterns of its use from 2009 to 2011 in Korea. Using National Patients Sample database from 2009 to 2011, we estimated the frequency of antibiotics prescribing for URI in pediatric outpatients with diagnoses of acute nasopharyngitis (common cold), acute sinusitis, acute pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, acute laryngitis/tracheitis, acute obstructive laryngitis/epiglottitis, and acute upper respiratory infections of multiple and unspecified sites. The proportions of each antibiotic class were calculated by year and absolute and relative differences were estimated. Also, we investigated daily amount of prescribed antibiotics per defined population according to the type of medical care institution, physician specialty, and geographic region. The overall antibiotic prescribing proportion was 58.7% and its annual proportion slightly decreased (55.4% in 2011 vs. 60.5% in 2009; adjusted odds ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-0.83). Variations by the type of medical care institution were observed. Tertiary hospitals (45.0%) were less likely to prescribe antibiotics than primary care clinics (59.4%), hospitals (59.0%), and general hospitals (61.2%); they showed different tendencies in choosing antibiotics. Variations by physician specialty and region were also observed. Prevalence of antimicrobial prescribing for pediatric URI is still considered higher than that of western countries and varies by the type of medical care institution, physician specialty, and geographic region.

  3. Clinical features of acute respiratory viral infections in children in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Олександр Іванович Сміян

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to study clinical features of the clinical course of an acute respiratory viral infection in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil in children of preschool age. Methods: generally clinical;Laboratory and instrumental;Statistical.Separation of viral infection was done using the methods of lumicroscopy and polymerase chain reaction from nasopharynx lavage.Statistical processing of received results was carried out with the help of standard statistical computer system «MicrosoftExcel» (2007 adapted for medical and biological studies. Result:In the clinical presentation of respiratory viral infection prevailed rhinorrhea, short cough, subfibrilitet with usual duration near 3 days. On the contrary in children with acute respiratory viral infections with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil prevailed stuffiness in nose, productive cough, snore and decrease of hearing, ear ache, polyadenopathy. Fever had fibril and hectic character with duration more than 3 days. . Dyspeptic syndrome was demonstrated more intensively in children with acute respiratory viral infections with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil and characterized with thickening on tongue, periodic ache in stomach, meteorism, constipation, stool instability. Conclusions: The main syndromes in the clinical presentation of an acute respiratory viral infection were: intoxicational, catarrhal and dyspeptic. In children with pathology of the pharyngeal tonsil the clinical course of ARVI was more evident with long course and increase of the frequency of complications of ARVI

  4. Host Cell Nuclear Localization of Shigella flexneri Effector OspF Is Facilitated by SUMOylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Kyungmin; Kim, Eun Jin; Yu, Hyun Jin; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Kim, Dong Wook

    2017-03-28

    When Shigella infect host cells, various effecter molecules are delivered into the cytoplasm of the host cell through the type III secretion system (TTSS) to facilitate their invasion process and control the host immune responses. Among these effectors, the S. flexneri effector OspF dephosphorylates mitogen-activated protein kinases and translocates itself to the nucleus, thus preventing histone H3 modification to regulate expression of proinflammatory cytokines. Despite the critical role of OspF, the mechanism by which it localizes in the nucleus has remained to be elucidated. In the present study, we identified a potential small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) modification site within OspF and we demonstrated that Shigella TTSS effector OspF is conjugated with SUMO in the host cell and this modification mediates the nuclear translocation of OspF. Our results show a bacterial virulence factor can exploit host post-translational machinery to execute its intracellular trafficking.

  5. Shigella manipulates host immune responses by delivering effector proteins with specific roles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi eAshida

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The intestinal epithelium deploys multiple defense systems against microbial infection to sense bacterial components and danger alarms, as well as to induce intracellular signal transduction cascades that trigger both the innate and adaptive immune system, which are pivotal for bacterial elimination. However, many enteric bacterial pathogens, including Shigella, deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors via the type III secretion system (T3SS that enable bacterial evasion from host immune systems; consequently, these pathogens are able to efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. In this review, we present select recently discovered examples of interactions between Shigella and host immune responses, with particular emphasis on strategies that bacteria use to manipulate inflammatory outputs of host cell responses such as cell death, membrane trafficking, and innate and adaptive immune responses.

  6. Shigella Manipulates Host Immune Responses by Delivering Effector Proteins with Specific Roles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Hiroshi; Mimuro, Hitomi; Sasakawa, Chihiro

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium deploys multiple defense systems against microbial infection to sense bacterial components and danger alarms, as well as to induce intracellular signal transduction cascades that trigger both the innate and the adaptive immune systems, which are pivotal for bacterial elimination. However, many enteric bacterial pathogens, including Shigella, deliver a subset of virulence proteins (effectors) via the type III secretion system (T3SS) that enable bacterial evasion from host immune systems; consequently, these pathogens are able to efficiently colonize the intestinal epithelium. In this review, we present and select recently discovered examples of interactions between Shigella and host immune responses, with particular emphasis on strategies that bacteria use to manipulate inflammatory outputs of host-cell responses such as cell death, membrane trafficking, and innate and adaptive immune responses. PMID:25999954

  7. Uncivil engineers: Chlamydia, Salmonella and Shigella alter cytoskeleton architecture to invade epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Joe Dan; Valdivia, Raphael H

    2010-08-01

    The obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis is a major cause of blindness and sexually transmitted diseases. Like the enteric pathogens Salmonella and Shigella, Chlamydia injects effector proteins into epithelial cells to initiate extensive remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at the bacterial attachment site, which culminates in the engulfment of the bacterium by plasma membrane extensions. Numerous Salmonella and Shigella effectors promote this remodeling by activating Rho GTPases and tyrosine kinase signaling cascades and by directly manipulating actin dynamics. Recent studies indicate that similar host-cell alterations occur during Chlamydia invasion, but few effectors are known. The identification of additional Chlamydia effectors and the elucidation of their modes of function are critical steps towards an understanding of how this clinically important pathogen breaches epithelial surfaces and causes infection.

  8. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren‐Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Warren‐Gash et al. (2012) Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses DOI: 10.1111/irv.12015. Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low‐quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower–middle‐income setting. There was high‐quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high‐quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low‐income setting. There was moderate‐ to high‐quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. PMID:23043518

  9. Cryptocaryon irritans infection induces the acute phase response in Lates calcarifer: a transcriptomic perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoo, Choon-Kiat; Abdul-Murad, Abdul Munir; Kua, Beng-Chu; Mohd-Adnan, Adura

    2012-10-01

    Cryptocaryoniasis (also known as marine white spot disease) is mediated by Cryptocaryon irritans. This obligate ectoparasitic protozoan infects virtually all marine teleosts, which includes Lates calcarifer, a highly valuable aquaculture species. Little is known about L. calcarifer-C. irritans interactions. This study was undertaken to gain an informative snapshot of the L. calcarifer transcriptomic response over the course of C. irritans infection. An in-house fabricated cDNA microarray slides containing 3872 probes from L. calcarifer liver and spleen cDNA libraries were used as a tool to investigate the response of L. calcarifer to C. irritans infection. Juvenile fish were infected with parasites for four days, and total RNA was extracted from liver tissue, which was harvested daily. We compared the transcriptomes of C. irritans-infected liver to uninfected liver over an infection period of four days; the comparison was used to identify the genes with altered expression levels in response to C. irritans infection. The greatest number of infection-modulated genes was recorded at 2 and 3 days post-infection. These genes were mainly associated with the immune response and were associated in particular with the acute phase response. Acute phase proteins such as hepcidin, C-type lectin and serum amyloid A are among the highly modulated genes. Our results indicate that an induced acute phase response in L. calcarifer toward C. irritans infection is similar to the responses observed in bacterial infections of teleosts. This response demonstrates the importance of first line defenses in teleost innate immune responses against ectoparasite infection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Antibiotic and Antiinflammatory Therapy Transiently Reduces Inflammation and Hypercoagulation in Acutely SIV-Infected Pigtailed Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Pandrea

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased chronic immune activation and inflammation are hallmarks of HIV/SIV infection and are highly correlated with progression to AIDS and development of non-AIDS comorbidities, such as hypercoagulability and cardiovascular disease. Intestinal dysfunction resulting in microbial translocation has been proposed as a lead cause of systemic immune activation and hypercoagulability in HIV/SIV infection. Our goal was to assess the biological and clinical impact of a therapeutic strategy designed to reduce microbial translocation through reduction of the microbial content of the intestine (Rifaximin-RFX and of gut inflammation (Sulfasalazine-SFZ. RFX is an intraluminal antibiotic that was successfully used in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. SFZ is an antiinflammatory drug successfully used in patients with mild to moderate inflammatory bowel disease. Both these clinical conditions are associated with increased microbial translocation, similar to HIV-infected patients. Treatment was administered for 90 days to five acutely SIV-infected pigtailed macaques (PTMs starting at the time of infection; seven untreated SIVsab-infected PTMs were used as controls. RFX+SFZ were also administered for 90 days to three chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs. RFX+SFZ administration during acute SIVsab infection of PTMs resulted in: significantly lower microbial translocation, lower systemic immune activation, lower viral replication, better preservation of mucosal CD4+ T cells and significantly lower levels of hypercoagulation biomarkers. This effect was clear during the first 40 days of treatment and was lost during the last stages of treatment. Administration of RFX+SFZ to chronically SIVsab-infected PTMs had no discernible effect on infection. Our data thus indicate that early RFX+SFZ administration transiently improves the natural history of acute and postacute SIV infection, but has no effect during chronic infection.

  11. [Viral respiratory co-infections in pediatric patients admitted for acute respiratory infection and their impact on clinical severity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Pamela; Cordero, Jaime; Valverde, Cristián; Unanue, Nancy; Dalmazzo, Roberto; Piemonte, Paula; Vergara, Ivonne; Torres, Juan P

    2012-04-01

    Respiratory viruses are the leading cause of acute respiratory tract infection (ARI) in children. It has been reported that viral respiratory co-infection could be associated with severe clinical course. To describe the frequency of viral co-infection in children admitted for AlRI and evaluate whether this co-infection was associated with more severe clinical course. Prospective, descriptive study in pediatric patients who were hospitalized for ARI, with molecular detection of at least 1 respiratory virus in nasopharyngeal sample studied by PCR-Microarray for 17 respiratory viruses. 110 out of 147 patients with detection of > 1 respiratory virus were included. Viral co-infection was detected in 41/110 (37%). 22/110 children (20%) were classified as moderate to severe clinical course and 88/110 (80%) were classified as mild clinical course. In the group of moderate to severe clinical course, viral respiratory co-infection was detected in 6/22 (27.3%), compared to 35/88 (39.8 %) in the mild clinical course group. No statistically significant difference was found regarding the presence of co-infection between groups (p = 0.33). We detected high rates of viral co-infection in children with ARI. It was not possible to demonstrate that viral co-infections were related with severe clinical course in hospitalized children.

  12. Acute Respiratory Viral Infection in Children: Modern Approaches to Diagnosis and Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander A. Baranov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to acute respiratory viral infections (ARVI in children. ARVI take one of the leading places in a childhood morbidity structure. The article provides an overview of the clinical guidelines developed and approved by the professional association «Union of Pediatricians of Russia» for acute respiratory infections in children. These guidelines summarize the experience of the leading world and domestic specialists, contain scientific and practical data that correspond to the most relevant trends in the management of children with this pathology. The authors present modern information on the etiology, pathogenesis, classification, clinical findings and differential diagnosis of various nosological forms of acute respiratory tract infections in the pediatric population. The general (strategic principles of drug-free and drug treatment are discussed in detail.

  13. Graves' hyperthyroidism accompanied with acute hepatitis B virus infection: an extrahepatic manifestation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wei; Deng, Baocheng; Wang, Wen; Liu, Pei

    2016-05-20

    Although hepatitis B virus (HBV) primarily affects hepatocytes, it has also been shown to cause complications in the skin, joints, muscles, and kidneys. Thyroid dysfunction is uncommon in cases of acute HBV infection. In this report, we describe a case of a 46-year-old woman with incipient acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection who presented clinically with Graves' hyperthyroidism. She showed typical symptoms of hyperthyroidism, and laboratory tests revealed high levels of HBV DNA and alanine transaminase (ALT). The patient was not administered with antithyroid medicine or radioiodine, but she was given antiviral therapy and symptomatic treatment with propranolol. Follow-up studies showed that as the HBV DNA levels decreased, the thyroid function recovered. Graves' disease maybe an extrahepatic manifestation of acute HBV infection. Antiviral therapy is likely to be beneficial for this condition as without severe thyrotoxicosis.

  14. Disease spectrum and management of children admitted with acute respiratory infection in Viet Nam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T K P; Nguyen, D V; Truong, T N H; Tran, M D; Graham, S M; Marais, B J

    2017-06-01

    To assess the acute respiratory infection (ARI) disease spectrum, duration of hospitalisation and outcome in children hospitalised with an ARI in Viet Nam. We conducted a retrospective descriptive study of ARI admissions to primary (Hoa Vang District Hospital), secondary (Da Nang Hospital for Women and Children) and tertiary (National Hospital of Paediatrics in Ha Noi) level hospitals in Viet Nam over 12 months (01/09/2015 to 31/08/2016). Acute respiratory infections accounted for 27.9% (37 436/134 061) of all paediatric admissions; nearly half (47.6%) of all children admitted to Hoa Vang District Hospital. Most (64.6%) of children hospitalised with an ARI were Acute respiratory infection is a major cause of paediatric hospitalisation in Viet Nam, characterised by prolonged hospitalisation for relatively mild disease. There is huge potential to reduce unnecessary hospital admission and cost. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerrard, C.S.; Levandowski, R.A.; Gerrity, T.R.; Yeates, D.B.; Klein, E.

    Tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using an aerosol labelled with /sup 99m/Tc and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. The movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. One subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. Frequent coughing was a feature of those subjects with absent tracheal boluses. In contrast, four subjects with rhinovirus infection had normal tracheal mucous velocity at 48 hr after the onset of symptoms (4.1 +/- 1.3 mm/min). Tracheal mucous velocity was also normal (4.6 +/- 1.1 mm/min) in four subjects in whom no specific viral agent could be defined but had typical symptomatology of respiratory viral infection. During health tracheal mucous velocity was normal (4.8 +/- 1.6 mm/min) in the eleven subjects who had measurements made. Disturbances in tracheal mucous transport during virus infection appear to depend upon the type of virus and are most severe in influenza A and respiratory syncytial virus infection.

  16. Isolation and partial characterisation of a novel lectin from Aegle marmelos fruit and its effect on adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramaniya Bharathi Raja

    Full Text Available Lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. Lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. We have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos. The isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against Shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. The isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, mannose and sialic acid binding specificity. The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit lectin on the adherence of Shigella dysenteriae to human colonic epithelial cells (HT29 cells was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay and invasion was analysed. The protective nature of the Aegle marmelos fruit lectin was assessed by analyzing apoptosis through dual staining method. Aegle marmelos fruit lectin significantly inhibited hemagglutination activity of Shigella and its minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.625 µg/well. Further, at this concentration lectin inhibited Shigella dysenteriae adherence and invasion of HT29 cells and protects the HT29 cells from Shigella dysenteriae induced apoptosis. To conclude, isolated lectin dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, Mannose and sialic acid binding specificity and inhibits adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells thus, protects the host.

  17. Isolation and Partial Characterisation of a Novel Lectin from Aegle marmelos Fruit and Its Effect on Adherence and Invasion of Shigellae to HT29 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raja, Subramaniya Bharathi; Murali, Malliga Raman; Kumar, Nirmal Kasinathan; Devaraj, Sivasitambaram Niranjali

    2011-01-01

    Lectins are a class of ubiquitous proteins/glycoproteins that are abundantly found in nature. Lectins have unique carbohydrate binding property and hence have been exploited as drugs against various infectious diseases. We have isolated one such novel lectin from the fruit pulp of Aegle marmelos. The isolated lectin was partially characterised and its effect against Shigella dysenteriae infection was evaluated. The isolated lectin was found to be a dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, mannose and sialic acid binding specificity. The effect of Aegle marmelos fruit lectin on the adherence of Shigella dysenteriae to human colonic epithelial cells (HT29 cells) was evaluated by Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay and invasion was analysed. The protective nature of the Aegle marmelos fruit lectin was assessed by analyzing apoptosis through dual staining method. Aegle marmelos fruit lectin significantly inhibited hemagglutination activity of Shigella and its minimum inhibitory concentration is 0.625 µg/well. Further, at this concentration lectin inhibited Shigella dysenteriae adherence and invasion of HT29 cells and protects the HT29 cells from Shigella dysenteriae induced apoptosis. To conclude, isolated lectin dimeric protein with N-acetylgalactosamine, Mannose and sialic acid binding specificity and inhibits adherence and invasion of Shigellae to HT29 cells thus, protects the host. PMID:21283697

  18. Prevalence and antibiogram of Shigella and Salmonella spp. from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diarrheal diseases remain the major cause of morbidity and mortality in children under five years of age. Salmonella and Shigella species are among the leading causes of diarrhea in children. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial profiles of Salmonella and Shigella spp. in children less ...

  19. Isolation of Salmonella and Shigella species from house flies ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salmonella and Shigella species were isolated from House flies (Musca domestica L.) from various sampling sites using selective media. Out of 34 pooled samples Shigella species were isolated in all (100%) of the samples while Salmonella species were isolated in 21 (61.7%) of the samples. The flies pooled from the ...

  20. Acute Sinusitis Resulting in a Craniotomy: An Uncommon Complication of a Common Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Price

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute bacterial sinusitis is a common infectious condition. Patients may initially present with an uncomplicated infection and later, despite appropriate initial antibiotic therapy, develop a potentially life-threatening complication. Interventions aimed at alleviating such unexpected events need be prompt and adequate. We describe a case of a patient who initially presented with signs and symptoms of acute sinusitis later to be diagnosed with a frontal epidural abscess.

  1. HIV infection and drugs of abuse: role of acute phase proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Samikkannu, Thangavel; Rao, Kurapati VK; Arias, Adriana Y; Kalaichezian, Aarthi; Sagar, Vidya; Yoo, Changwon; Nair, Madhavan PN

    2013-01-01

    Background HIV infection and drugs of abuse such as methamphetamine (METH), cocaine, and alcohol use have been identified as risk factors for triggering inflammation. Acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are the biomarkers of inflammation. Hence, the interactive effect of drugs of abuse with acute phase proteins in HIV-positive subjects was investigated. Methods Plasma samples were utilized from 75 subjects with METH use, cocaine use, alcohol use, an...

  2. Drug use study for acute respiratory infection in children under 10 years of age

    OpenAIRE

    Iwan Dwiprahasto, Iwan Dwiprahasto

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is the commonest illness in children and the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in many developing countries. It comprises approximately 50 % of all illness in children under five years. Even though usually viral in origin and of a self-limiting nature, various study indicate that antibiotic prescribing for ARI is inappropriately high.Objective: This study was aimed to assess general practitioners' (GPs) prescribing pattern for acute respira...

  3. Acute cytomegalovirus infection complicated by venous thrombosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parola Philippe

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CMV-induced vasculopathy and thrombosis have been reported, but they are rare conditions usually encountered in immunocompromised patients. However more and more complications of CMV infections are recognized in immunocompetent patients. Case presentation We present a case report of a previously healthy adult with cytomegalovirus infection that was complicated by tibiopopliteal deep venous thrombosis and in whom Factor V Leiden heterozygous mutation was found. Conclusion This new case report emphasizes the involvement of cytomegalovirus in induction of vascular thrombosis in patients with predisposing risk factors for thrombosis. It is necessary to screen for CMV infection in patients with spontaneous thrombosis and an history of fever.

  4. Acute cytomegalovirus infection complicated by venous thrombosis: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovery, Clarisse; Granel, Brigitte; Parola, Philippe; Foucault, Cédric; Brouqui, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Background CMV-induced vasculopathy and thrombosis have been reported, but they are rare conditions usually encountered in immunocompromised patients. However more and more complications of CMV infections are recognized in immunocompetent patients. Case presentation We present a case report of a previously healthy adult with cytomegalovirus infection that was complicated by tibiopopliteal deep venous thrombosis and in whom Factor V Leiden heterozygous mutation was found. Conclusion This new case report emphasizes the involvement of cytomegalovirus in induction of vascular thrombosis in patients with predisposing risk factors for thrombosis. It is necessary to screen for CMV infection in patients with spontaneous thrombosis and an history of fever. PMID:16098229

  5. Protective role of lactobacilli in Shigella dysenteriae 1-induced diarrhea in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Guhapriya; Murali, Malliga Raman; Devaraj, S Niranjali

    2007-05-01

    Studies on lactic acid bacteria exemplify their use against various enteropathogens in vitro. Nevertheless, in vivo effects of Lactobacillus during Shigella infection have not been evaluated. The present study evaluated the effect of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus acidophilus on neutrophil infiltration and lipid peroxidation during Shigella dysenteriae 1-induced diarrhea in rats. The rats were divided into eight groups (n = 6 in each group). Induced rats received single oral dose of S. dysenteriae (12 x 10(8) colony-forming units [cfu]/mL). Treated rats received L. rhamnosus (1 x 10(7) cfu/mL) or L. acidophilus (1 x 10(7) cfu/mL) orally for 4 d, alone or in combination, followed by Shigella administration. At the end of the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the assay of the activity of alkaline phosphatase, myeloperoxidase, and antioxidants and the estimation of lipid peroxides were performed. Activity staining of superoxide dismutase and catalase was done in addition to gelatin zymography for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP; MMP-2 and MMP-9) activity. A portion of the intestinal tissue was fixed in 10% formalin for histologic studies. Administration of S. dysenteriae 1 alone resulted in increased levels of myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidation, alkaline phosphatase, and the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 with concomitant decrease in the antioxidant levels. Pretreatment with the combination of L. rhamnosus (1 x 10(7) cfu/mL) and L. acidophilus (1 x 10(7) cfu/mL) significantly attenuated these changes when compared with the diseased group. Histologic observations were in correlation with biochemical parameters. Lactobacillus rhamnosus plus L. acidophilus offered better protection when compared with individual treatment with these strains during Shigella infection.

  6. [Methodology for the epidemiologic study on acute respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Ochoa, E; Bravo González, J R; Armas Pérez, L; Pérez Rodríguez, A; de Rojas López del Rincón, V

    1992-01-01

    The foundations and methodology for an epidemiological study on acute respiratory diseases are described. The study took place in 4 urban health areas in Havana City and 4 rural doctor's offices in Matanzas. A discussion is carried out regarding the intervention design for the staff of the health primary assistance team headed by the family doctor.

  7. The role of genital chlamydial infection in acute pelvic inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Neiserria gonorrhoeae was not detected in either of the two groups. Trichomoniasis (10% in PID cases and no case in control group) and bacterial vaginosis (17.5% and 4.3% in PID and control group respectively: Odds ratio 4.7, 95% CI, 1.0-21.1) were also significantly associated with the clinical picture suggestive of acute ...

  8. Study of the Association between H. pylori Infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Fouladi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Coronary artery disease is the main cause of mortality in developing and industrial countries. Recently the involvement of infectious agents as a risk factor for Acute Coronary syndrome is drafted. So this study was designed to investigate the probable association between Acute Coronary syndrome and Helicobacter pylori infection.   Methods: This case-control study was carried out on 300 hospitalized patients with the diagnosis of Acute Coronary syndrome (UA and MI and 300 hospitalized patients without the history of coronary heart disease. Anti Helicobacter pylori Antibody level was determined by as an indicator of infection history. Using chi-square and t- test the results were analyzed in SPSS software.   Results: Results showed that 79 patients (26.3% in control group and 122 patients (40.6% in case group were seropositive and the difference was significant. Relationship between cronory diseases risk factors and levels of IgG was not significant. Also the results showed that the rate of hypertension in seropositive patients in case group was significantly upper than control group.   Conclusion: Regarding the findings of this study we can conclude that Helicobacter pylori infection probably is a risk factor for Acute Coronary Syndrome. Thus, further studies are needed to elucidate the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and Acute Coronary Syndrome.

  9. Acute and Early HIV1 Infection in Childbearing Women during ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Infection aiguë et précoce par le VIH-1 chez les femmes durant la grossesse et la période post-partum en Tanzanie, en Zambie et au Botswana. Les programmes nationaux de prévention du VIH en Tanzanie, en Zambie et au Botswana doivent s'attaquer de manière efficace au taux d'infection des femmes durant la ...

  10. The genomic signatures of Shigella evolution, adaptation and geographical spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Hao Chung; Thanh, Duy Pham; Holt, Kathryn E; Thomson, Nicholas R; Baker, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Shigella spp. are some of the key pathogens responsible for the global burden of diarrhoeal disease. These facultative intracellular bacteria belong to the family Enterobacteriaceae, together with other intestinal pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. The genus Shigella comprises four different species, each consisting of several serogroups, all of which show phenotypic similarity, including invasive pathogenicity. DNA sequencing suggests that this similarity results from the convergent evolution of different Shigella spp. founders. Here, we review the evolutionary relationships between Shigella spp. and E . coli, and we highlight how the genomic plasticity of these bacteria and their acquisition of a distinctive virulence plasmid have enabled the development of such highly specialized pathogens. Furthermore, we discuss the insights that genotyping and whole-genome sequencing have provided into the phylogenetics and intercontinental spread of Shigella spp.

  11. [Sampling procedure for a survey of an interventional study on acute respiratory infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón Bravo, J; González Ochoa, E

    1993-01-01

    A description is made of the methodology used for obtaining a sample made up of 500 children under 5 years and 500 adults 65 year old and more, in order to carry out an intervention study on acute respiratory tract infections in an urban zone in Havana City and in a rural zone in Matanzas province, where different intervention stops will be taken with regards sanitary education about management of acute respiratory tract infections for the population and training for primary care medical personnel. We show the way the selected sample fits was planned with a very homogeneous distribution in the 8 areas under study, which allows for great reliability in the results.

  12. A case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with hepatitis C virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Jae Eun; Lee, Jun-Bum; Cho, Yu Na; Suh, Sang Hyun; Kim, Ja Kyung; Lee, Kyung-Yul

    2012-07-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a monophasic autoimmune demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which typically follows acute viral or bacterial infection or vaccination. We report a case of ADEM associated with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection with positive serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) anti-HCV antibody. After steroid treatment, neurologic symptoms were improved. Virus triggers autoimmunity or direct viral invasion plays a part in the genesis of ADEM. This is the first reported case of ADEM with anti-HCV antibody in the CSF.

  13. [Concerning changes of oral cavity mucous tunic in acute enteric infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolov, B P; Sorokina, A A

    2008-01-01

    The authors represented the results of oral cavity stomatological examination in 171 patients with acute enteric infection (AEI): shigellosis, salmonellosis etc in dynamics of disease. These patients had first diagnosed inflammatory changes of oral cavity mucous tunic: catarrhal gingivitis, catarrhal and benign migratory glossitis, aphthous stomatitis with submandibular lymphadenitis. These changes were accompanied by aggravation of herpetic infection or its debut, candidosis. Lesions of oral cavity mucous tunic in patients with AEI are particular manifestation of infectious process. In acute period patients with AEI have to be examined by stomatologist.

  14. Burden of acute gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Simavé Dembele, Elisa Huovinen, Denis Yelbéogo, Markku Kuusi, Guétawendé Sawadogo, Kaisa Haukka, Isidore Bonkoungou, Anja Siitonen, Alfred S. Traoré

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gastrointestinal infections are one of the major health problems in developing countries. The present study aims to estimate the prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in Ouagadougou, the capital of Burkina Faso. Methods: A door-to-door survey of selected residents in Ouagadougou city was conducted. Of the Ouagadougou’s 30 districts, nine most populated ones were selected to the study. The residents of these districts have middle incomes as those of the secondary cite of Burkina Faso. Results: The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal infections in the 30 days prior to the interview was 77/491 (15.7%: among children 44/223 (19.7% and among adults 33/268 (12.3%. Diarrhea and abdominal pain were the most com­mon symptoms among 33 adult cases while diarrhea and vomiting were the most common among children. None of the cases were hospitalized and a stool sample was taken in three of 77 cases. Medication for gastrointestinal infections was received by 55% percent of adults and 77% of children. Conclusions: Our results shown that antibiotics with and without prescription were the most common medicine used. Washing hands before meals and boiling milk before drinking had a protective effect against gastrointestinal infections. J Microbiol Infect Dis 2016;6(2: 45-52

  15. Shigellosis Caused by CTX-M Type ESBL Producing Shigella flexneri in Two Siblings of Rural Nepal: First Case Report from the Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narayan Prasad Parajuli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Shigellosis is an acute infectious disease characterized as severe bloody diarrhea (dysentery and is accountable for a significant burden of morbidity and mortality especially in children under the age of 5 years. Antimicrobial therapy is required in the cases of severe dysentery associated with Shigella. However, emergence of multidrug resistant (MDR strains of Shigella spp. over the last two decades has restricted the use of common therapeutic antimicrobials. In MDR strains, the third-generation cephalosporins have been used for the treatment, but, unfortunately, emerging reports of enzyme mediated β-lactam resistance among Shigella isolates from various parts of the world have greatly compromised the therapy of pediatric dysentery. In Nepal, drug resistant strains of Shigella spp. have been reported, but MDR and extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL producing strains were previously unknown. Here, we report two Shigella flexneri isolates harboring ESBL genotype-CTX-M associated with acute dysentery in two siblings which were presented and treated in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  16. Respiratory viruses in children hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwofie Theophilus B

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Acute respiratory tract infections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among young children in developing countries. Information on the viral aetiology of acute respiratory infections in developing countries is very limited. The study was done to identify viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infection among children less than 5 years. Method Nasopharyngeal samples and blood cultures were collected from children less than 5 years who have been hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract infection. Viruses and bacteria were identified using Reverse Transcriptase Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction and conventional biochemical techniques. Results Out of 128 patients recruited, 33(25.88%%, 95%CI: 18.5% to 34.2% were positive for one or more viruses. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV was detected in 18(14.1%, 95%CI: 8.5% to 21.3% patients followed by Adenoviruses (AdV in 13(10.2%, 95%CI: 5.5% to 16.7%, Parainfluenza (PIV type: 1, 2, 3 in 4(3.1%, 95%CI: 0.9% to 7.8% and influenza B viruses in 1(0.8%, 95%CI: 0.0 to 4.3. Concomitant viral and bacterial co-infection occurred in two patients. There were no detectable significant differences in the clinical signs, symptoms and severity for the various pathogens isolated. A total of 61.1% (22/36 of positive viruses were detected during the rainy season and Respiratory Syncytial Virus was the most predominant. Conclusion The study has demonstrated an important burden of respiratory viruses as major causes of childhood acute respiratory infection in a tertiary health institution in Ghana. The data addresses a need for more studies on viral associated respiratory tract infection.

  17. C-reactive protein (CRP) measurement in geriatric patients hospitalized for acute infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticinesi, Andrea; Lauretani, Fulvio; Nouvenne, Antonio; Porro, Emanuela; Fanelli, Guido; Maggio, Marcello; Meschi, Tiziana

    2017-01-01

    The physiology of inflammatory response is modified by the aging process and is substantially affected by multimorbidity and disability. Infection is the most frequent cause of acute inflammation in both adult and older subjects. C-reactive protein (CRP) is the most used biomarker of inflammation, and a substantial amount of literature has demonstrated its importance and clinical usefulness in adult subjects. However, the clinical significance of serum CRP determination has not been completely clarified in older subjects with acute infection, especially in the light of the age-related rearrangements in immunity and cytokine production. Thus, in the present review, we focus on the existing knowledge about serum CRP level interpretation in geriatric patients hospitalized with acute infection. Our aims were to determine the significance of CRP measurement at hospital admission for establishing a diagnosis of infection and/or a prognosis and to evaluate whether it is indicated to repeat hs-CRP measurements during hospital stay for monitoring disease course and, possibly, guiding the discharge timing. We concluded that CRP dosage at hospital admission is helpful to detect acute infection, and particularly sepsis, in geriatric patients, and that CRP elevation may provide valuable short-term prognostic information. At the current state of art, serial CRP measurements are instead not indicated to monitor disease course and plan hospital discharge in this setting. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Selection pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives sequence evolution during acute infection with hepatitis C virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, Kimberly A; Netski, Dale M; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Cox, Andrea L; Ray, Stuart C

    2009-06-01

    Despite recent characterization of hepatitis C virus-specific neutralizing antibodies, it is not clear to what extent immune pressure from neutralizing antibodies drives viral sequence evolution in vivo. This lack of understanding is particularly evident in acute infection, the phase when elimination or persistence of viral replication is determined and during which the importance of the humoral immune response has been largely discounted. We analyzed envelope glycoprotein sequence evolution and neutralization of sequential autologous hepatitis C virus pseudoparticles in 8 individuals throughout acute infection. Amino acid substitutions occurred throughout the envelope genes, primarily within the hypervariable region 1 of E2. When individualized pseudoparticles expressing sequential envelope sequences were used to measure neutralization by autologous sera, antibodies neutralizing earlier sequence variants were detected at earlier time points than antibodies neutralizing later variants, indicating clearance and evolution of viral variants in response to pressure from neutralizing antibodies. To demonstrate the effects of amino acid substitution on neutralization, site-directed mutagenesis of a pseudoparticle envelope sequence revealed amino acid substitutions in hypervariable region 1 that were responsible for a dramatic decrease in neutralization sensitivity over time. In addition, high-titer neutralizing antibodies peaked at the time of viral clearance in all spontaneous resolvers, whereas chronically evolving subjects displayed low-titer or absent neutralizing antibodies throughout early acute infection. These findings indicate that, during acute hepatitis C virus infection in vivo, virus-specific neutralizing antibodies drive sequence evolution and, in some individuals, play a role in determining the outcome of infection.

  19. Vitamin D in the prevention of acute respiratory infection: systematic review of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolliffe, David A; Griffiths, Christopher J; Martineau, Adrian R

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D metabolites enhance immunity to a wide range of respiratory pathogens in vitro. Numerous observational studies have investigated whether vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for acute respiratory infection, and a number of clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infection have recently been conducted. Syntheses of this literature are lacking. We therefore conducted a systematic review of clinical studies investigating the association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to acute respiratory infection in humans. A total of 39 studies (4 cross-sectional studies, 8 case-control studies, 13 cohort studies and 14 clinical trials) satisfying review eligibility criteria were identified. Observational studies predominantly reported statistically significant associations between low vitamin D status and increased risk of both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Results from randomised controlled trials were conflicting however, reflecting heterogeneity in dosing regimens and baseline vitamin D status in study populations. Further trials of vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of acute respiratory infection should be conducted in populations with a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency at baseline, using doses sufficient to induce sustained elevation of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, and powered to detect clinically important sub-group effects. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Biopsychosocial risk factors of persistent fatigue after acute infection: A systematic review to inform interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, Katrin; Hudson, Joanna L; Rojczyk, Philine; Little, Paul; Moss-Morris, Rona

    2017-08-01

    Fatigue is a prevalent and debilitating symptom, preceded by an acute infectious episode in some patients. This systematic review aimed to identify risk factors for the development of persistent fatigue after an acute infection, to develop an evidence-based working model of post-infectious fatigue. Electronic databases (Medline, PsycINFO and EMBASE) were searched, from inception to March 2016, for studies which investigated biopsychosocial risk factors of on-going fatigue after an acute infection. Inclusion criteria were: prospective design; biological, psychological or social risk factors; standardised measure of post-infectious fatigue (self-report scales or clinical diagnosis). Studies were excluded if the sample had a pre-existing medical condition, infection was conceptualised as 'vaccination' or they were intervention trials. A narrative synthesis was performed. Eighty-one full texts were screened, of which seventeen were included in the review. Over half included glandular fever populations. Other infections included dengue fever, 'general'/'viral' and Q-fever. Risk factors were summarised under biological, social, behavioural, cognitive and emotional subthemes. Patients' cognitive and behavioural responses to the acute illness, and pre-infection or baseline distress and fatigue were the most consistent risk factors for post-infectious fatigue. An empirical summary model is provided, highlighting the risk factors most consistently associated with persistent fatigue. The components of the model, the possible interaction of risk factors and implications for understanding the fatigue trajectory and informing preventative treatments are discussed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Behçet's disease diagnosed after acute HIV infection: viral replication activating underlying autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscoe, Clay; Kinney, Rebecca; Gilles, Ryan; Blue, Sky

    2015-05-01

    Behçet's disease is an autoimmune systemic vasculitis that can occur after exposure to infectious agents. Behçet's disease also has been associated with HIV infection, including de novo development of this condition during chronic HIV infection and resolution of Behçet's disease symptoms following initiation of antiretroviral therapy. We describe a patient who presented with systemic vasculitis with skin and mucous membrane ulcerations in the setting of acute HIV infection, who was eventually diagnosed with Behçet's disease, demonstrating a possible link between acute HIV infection, immune activation and development of autoimmunity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  2. Is accounting for acute care beds enough? A proposal for measuring infection prevention personnel resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gase, Kathleen A; Babcock, Hilary M

    2015-02-01

    There is still little known about how infection prevention (IP) staffing affects patient outcomes across the country. Current evaluations mainly focus on the ratio of IP resources to acute care beds (ACBs) and have not strongly correlated with patient outcomes. The scope of IP and the role of the infection preventionist in health care have expanded and changed dramatically since the Study on the Efficacy of Nosocomial Infection Control (SENIC Project) recommended a 1 IP resource to 250 ACB ration in the 1980s. Without a universally accepted model for accounting for additional IP responsibilities, it is difficult to truly assess IP staffing needs. A previously suggested alternative staffing model was applied to acute care hospitals in our organization to determine its utility. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, Maria; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Ovesen, Therese

    2009-01-01

    This study is the first to provide an extensive overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. All 2,028 cases of acute infections admitted between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2006 were reviewed to assess the use of pre-admission antibiotics......, microbiological results, antibiotic and surgical management and length of hospitalisation. Infections of the oropharynx accounted for the vast majority of admissions, followed by ear infections, and cutaneous neck abscesses. Peritonsillar abscess was the most frequent diagnosis, accounting for over one third...... of admissions (39.8%, 808 out of 2,028). Complete microbiological data were available for 1,430 cultures, and were analysed for trends with respect to diagnosis, age, gender and use of pre-admission antibiotics. Forty-six percent (657 out of 1,430) of cultures yielded no growth or normal flora. This value...

  4. Peginterferon-alfa mono-therapy in the treatment of acute hepatitis C in HIV-infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boesecke, C.; van Assen, S.; Stellbrink, H. -J.; Baumgarten, A.; Ingiliz, P.; Strassburg, C. P.; Schwarze-Zander, C.; Wasmuth, J. -C.; Hoepelman, A. I. M.; Rockstroh, J. K.; Arends, J. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing epidemic of acute hepatitis C (AHC) infection among MSM highlights the need to identify factors allowing for optimal treatment outcome in HIV co-infected individuals. Cohort study of 105 HIV-infected patients with AHC infection from five centres in two European countries was carried out.

  5. Regulatory T cells in acute dengue viral infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Eresha; Wijeratne, Dulharie; Fernando, Samitha; Kamaladasa, Achala; Gomes, Laksiri; Wijewickrama, Ananda; Ogg, Graham Stuart; Malavige, Gathsaurie Neelika

    2017-11-15

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to be expanded in acute dengue, their role in pathogenesis and their relationship to clinical disease severity, and extent of viraemia have not been fully evaluated. The frequency of Tregs was assessed in 56 adult patients with acute dengue, by determining the proportion of FOXP3 expressing CD4+ CD25+ T cells (FOXP3+ cells). DENV viral loads were measured by quantitative real time PCR and DENV specific T cell responses were measured by ex vivo IFNγ ELISpot assays to overlapping peptide pools of DENV-NS3, NS1 and NS5. CD45RA and CCR4 were used to phenotype different subset of T cells and their suppressive potential was assessed by their expression of CTLA-4 and Fas. While the frequency of FOXP3+ cells, in patients was significantly higher (pT cell responses. The FOXP3+ cells of patients with acute dengue were predominantly CD45RA+ FOXP3low , followed by CD45RA-FOXP3low , with only a small proportion of FOXP3+ cells being of the highly suppressive effector Treg subtype. Expression of CCR4 was also low in the majority of T cells, with only CCR4 only being expressed at high levels in the effector Treg population. Therefore, although FOXP3+ cells are expanded in acute dengue, they predominantly consist of naive Tregs, with poor suppressive capacity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical features of acute respiratory viral infections in children in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil

    OpenAIRE

    Олександр Іванович Сміян; Євгенія Василівна Дмітрова; Олена Геннадіївна Васильєва

    2015-01-01

    Aim: to study clinical features of the clinical course of an acute respiratory viral infection in conjunction with pathology of pharyngeal tonsil in children of preschool age. Methods: generally clinical;Laboratory and instrumental;Statistical.Separation of viral infection was done using the methods of lumicroscopy and polymerase chain reaction from nasopharynx lavage.Statistical processing of received results was carried out with the help of standard statistical computer system «MicrosoftExc...

  7. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-01-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few re...

  8. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance

    OpenAIRE

    Garba Ibrahim Hassan; Ubom Gregory; Haruna Maryam

    2004-01-01

    Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds.We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascor...

  9. PIDOTIMOD IN TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION WITH CONCOMITANT RECURRENT OBSTRUCTIVE SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    E.E. Lokshina; O. V. Kravchenko; O. V. Zaytseva

    2011-01-01

    Respiratory infections are frequent in children; consequently evaluation of prophylactic effectiveness of immunomodulators is needed. Objective: to evaluate of clinical, immunological efficacy and safety of pidotimod in complex treatment of children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) and obstructive syndrome. Methods: patients 3–10 years old hospitalized with ARI and obstructive syndrome participated the study. Children from first group (n = 30) were treated with pidotimod 400 mg 2 times...

  10. Infection pattern of neutropenic patients in post-chemotherapy phase of acute leukemia treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Ahmadzadeh; Mehran Varnasseri; Mohammad Hossein Jalili; Fatemeh Maniavi; Armita Valizadeh; Mojtaba Mahmoodian; Manouchehr Keyhani

    2013-01-01

    Neutropenia following chemotherapy regimens in leukemia patients is of major concern since it makes these patients vulnerable to infections. If we can identify which germs are causing these infections, they can be annihilated or, at least, the most appropriate antibiotic therapy can be started immediately, even before we have the results of the culture. This retrospective multi-center study took place in 2012 and included patients with acute leukemia who had already undergone chemotherapy and...

  11. Plasma interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) levels during acute hepatitis C virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebely, Jason; Feld, Jordan J.; Applegate, Tanya; Matthews, Gail V.; Hellard, Margaret; Sherker, Alana; Petoumenos, Kathy; Zang, Geng; Shaw, Ineke; Yeung, Barbara; George, Jacob; Teutsch, Suzy; Kaldor, John M.; Cherepanov, Vera; Bruneau, Julie; Shoukry, Naglaa H.; Lloyd, Andrew R.; Dore, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    Systemic levels of interferon-gamma-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) are predictive of treatment-induced clearance in chronic HCV. In the present study, factors associated with plasma IP-10 levels at the time of acute HCV detection and the association between IP-10 levels and spontaneous clearance were assessed in three cohorts of acute HCV infection. Among 300 individuals, 245 (181 male, 47 HIV+) were HCV RNA+ at acute HCV detection. In adjusted analysis, factors independently associated with IP-10 levels ≥150 pg/mL (median level) included HCV RNA levels >6 log IU/mL, HIV co-infection and non-Aboriginal ethnicity. Among 245 HCV RNA+ at acute HCV detection, 214 were untreated (n=137) or had persistent infection (infection duration ≥26 weeks) at treatment initiation (n=77). Spontaneous clearance occurred in 14% (29 of 214). Individuals without spontaneous clearance had significantly higher mean plasma IP-10 levels at the time of acute HCV detection than those with clearance (248±32 vs. 142±22 pg/mL, P=0.008). The proportion of individuals with spontaneous clearance was 0% (0 of 22, P=0.048) and 16% (27 of 165) and in those in those with and without plasma IP-10 levels ≥380 pg/mL. In adjusted analyses, favourable IL28B genotype was associated with spontaneous clearance, while higher HCV RNA level was independently associated with lower odds of spontaneous clearance. Conclusion High IP-10 levels at acute HCV detection were associated with failure to spontaneously clear HCV. Patients with acute HCV and high baseline IP-10 levels, particularly >380 pg/mL, should be considered for early therapeutic intervention, and those with low levels should defer therapy for potential spontaneous clearance. PMID:23325615

  12. Antiviral therapy and prophylaxis of acute respiratory infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Osidak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thearticle presents the results of years of studies (including biochemical and immunological of the effectiveness of application and prophylaxis (in relation to nosocomial infections and the safety of antiviral chemical preparation Arbidol in 694 children with influenza and influenza-like illness, including the coronavirus infection (43 children and combined lesions of respiratory tract (150, indicating the possible inclusion of the drug in the complex therapy for children with the listed diseases, regardless of the severity and nature of their course. The studies were conducted according to the regulated standard of test conditions and randomized clinical trials.

  13. Concomitant Rotavirus and Salmonella Infections in Children with Acute Diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tzong Lan

    2009-02-01

    Conclusion: Concomitant rotavirus and Salmonella infections accounted for 3.7% of cases in this study. Patients in group C (30.0% had a significantly higher incidence of hypokalemia than group R (7.3% or S (8.8%. Group C consisted of 33 cases of the 895 reviewed cases (3.7%. In a child with rotavirus gastroenteritis, concomitant infection with Salmonella should be considered if the child has sustained a high fever (≥ 39°C for over 4 days and a green stool with mucus and blood.

  14. Viral etiology and epidemiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, B Y; Kim, M R; Park, J Y; Choi, E H; Lee, H J; Yun, C K

    1995-12-01

    Viral etiologic agents of acute lower respiratory tract infections were studied from November, 1990, through April, 1994, in Korean children. From 712 children who visited or were admitted to Seoul National University Children's Hospital because of acute lower respiratory tract infections, 804 nasal aspirates were collected; viral agents were detected by virus isolation and virus antigen was detected by indirect immunofluorescent staining. One or more viral agents were identified in 369 (45.9%) cases; of which 3.3% were mixed infections. The pathogens identified were respiratory syncytial virus (27.2%), parainfluenza virus type 3 (7.8%), influenza A virus (3.9%), adenovirus (3.9%), parainfluenza virus type 1 (1.7%), influenza B virus (1.4%), parainfluenza virus type 2 (0.5%), measles virus (0.1%) and others (0.9%). The clinical patterns of viral lower respiratory tract included pneumonia (56.6%), bronchiolitis (35.2%), croup (6.5%) and tracheo-bronchitis (1.6%). Infections with respiratory syncytial virus, parainfluenza virus types 1 and 3 and influenza A and B virus occurred in epidemics, whereas adenovirus was isolated sporadically throughout the study period. The data expand our understanding of the epidemiology of acute viral lower respiratory tract infections in Korean children and may be helpful to the clinicians and researchers interested in the control of viral respiratory tract infections.

  15. Acute phase proteins: a potential approach for diagnosing chronic infection by Trypanosoma vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Katyane de Sousa; Costa, Alinny Ferreira; Silva, Paulo Cesar da; Fagliari, José Jurandir; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Nascimento, Adjair Antonio do

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess potential changes in acute phase proteins in sheep experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax. There were studied eight male sheep, four used as controls and four infected with 10(5) T. vivax trypomastigotes. Blood samples were collected at two points times before infection and then at 5,7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 days post-infection (dpi). Blood samples were centrifuged and allotted, and acute phase proteins were then separated by electrophoresis on acrylamide gel containing sodium dodecyl sulfate. Protein concentrations were determined by computer-assisted densitometry. Total protein was determined by colorimetric biuret method. Trypanosomes were counted daily using a 5 mL aliquot of blood smear on a glass slide under a 22 × 22 mm coverslip. Parasites were counted in 100 microscopic fields (40× magnification), and then multiplied by a correction factor. The results were expressed as parasites per mL of blood. For statistical analyses, we used the Wilcoxon test at 5% significance level. There was found a reduction in several acute phase proteins and increase in antitrypsin and transferrin. This finding can be used for the diagnosis of T. vivax infection, especially in chronic infection.

  16. Severity of acute Zika virus infection: A prospective emergency room surveillance study during the 2015–2016 outbreak in Suriname

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroon, P. (Pieter); Roosblad, J. (Jimmy); Poese, F. (Fauzia); J.C. Wilschut (Jan C.); Codrington, J. (John); Vreden, S. (Stephen); Zonneveld, R. (Rens)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractAcute Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is usually mild and self-limiting. Earlier, we reported three cases of fatal acute ZIKV infection in patients without typical signs of ZIKV, but rather with criteria of systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS). To follow up these observations, we

  17. Angiographic Features and Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients With First-Time Acute Coronary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Andreas; Mathiasen, Anders B; Worck, R.H.

    2013-01-01

    A matched cohort study was conducted comparing patients with first-time acute coronary syndromes infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to non-HIV-infected patients with and without diabetes matched for smoking, gender, and type of acute coronary syndrome who underwent first-time corona...

  18. Clinical Trial and In Vitro Study for the Role of Cartilage and Synovia in Acute Articular Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langenmair, E. R.; Kubosch, E. J.; Salzmann, G. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Osteoarthritis is a long-term complication of acute articular infections. However, the roles of cartilage and synovia in this process are not yet fully understood. Methods. Patients with acute joint infections were enrolled in a prospective clinical trial and the cytokine composition o...

  19. Prevalence of human rhinovirus infection in children with acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    % while those older than 96 months have the least prevalence of 5.4%. No significant difference was observed between the genders and rhinovirus infection (p = 0.622). A total of 54.0%, 2. 7%, 29.7% and 13.5% of the children attend daycare, ...

  20. Prevalence of Human Rhinovirus Infection in Children with Acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    TNHJOURNALPH

    RNA, non-enveloped virus detected mostly in the early phase of infection showing symptoms in children ... virus in hospitalized children with an average number of 6 (20%) per year being asymptomatic. Another study in ..... Kling S, Donninger H, Williams Z,. Vermeulen J, Weinberg E, LatiffK,et al. Persistence of rhinovirus ...

  1. Childhood acute lower respiratory tract infections in Northern Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-03-02

    Mar 2, 2015 ... than five years worldwide in 2010, infectious diseases caused 68 percent (5·970 million), with the largest ... lower respiratory tract infection was diagnosed in a child with history of fever, cough, fast or difficult breathing, ..... Another earlier report found vitamin D deficiency in infants exclusively breast fed29.

  2. The Shigella flexneri OspB effector: an early immunomodulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosi, Cecilia; Pompili, Monica; Scribano, Daniela; Limongi, Dolores; Petrucca, Andrea; Cannavacciuolo, Sonia; Schippa, Serena; Zagaglia, Carlo; Grossi, Milena; Nicoletti, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Through the action of the type three secretion system (T3SS) Shigella flexneri delivers several effectors into host cells to promote cellular invasion, multiplication and to exploit host-cell signaling pathways to modulate the host innate immune response. Although much progress has been made in the understanding of many type III effectors, the molecular and cellular mechanism of the OspB effector is still poorly characterized. In this study we present new evidence that better elucidates the role of OspB as pro-inflammatory factor at very early stages of infection. Indeed, we demonstrate that, during the first hour of infection, OspB is required for full activation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPKs and the cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)). Activation of cPLA(2) ultimately leads to the production and secretion of PMN chemoattractant metabolite(s) uncoupled with release of IL-8. Moreover, we also present evidence that OspB is required for the development of the full and promptly inflammatory reaction characteristic of S. flexneri wild-type infection in vivo. Based on OspB and OspF similarity (both effectors share similar transcription regulation, temporal secretion into host cells and nuclear localization) we hypothesized that OspB and OspF effectors may form a pair aimed at modulating the host cell response throughout the infection process, with opposite effects. A model is presented to illustrate how OspB activity would promote S. flexneri invasion and bacterial dissemination at early critical phases of infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Common Cold - an Umbrella Term for Acute Infections of Nose, Throat, Larynx and Bronchi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardos, P; Malek, F A

    2017-04-01

    Acute respiratory tract infections, i. e. rhinitis, sinusitis, pharyngitis, laryngitis, bronchitis, belong to the most common medical conditions with a high economic burden. Nonetheless, there is little agreement concerning their differential diagnosis.This paper will discuss to what extent different anatomical sites of acute respiratory tract infections can be uniquely identified or whether the overlap and consecutive development in signs and symptoms renders these distinctions meaningless.Acute respiratory tract infections are variable but definition of diagnostic categories based on the anatomical sites of the dominant complaints shows that signs and symptoms both overlap to a great extent and/or emerge successively. Thus, in common cold distinguishing between acute symptom-based diagnoses arising from different anatomical sites of the aerodigestive system remains elusive. Therefore, preferred symptomatic treatments should foster a resolution of all possible symptoms as opposed to an isolated treatment of a single symptom (e. g. mucus hypersecretion) according to the presumed anatomical site (i. e. acute bronchitis). © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Acute enterovirus infection followed by myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) and viral persistence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chia, J; Chia, A; Voeller, M; Lee, T; Chang, R

    2010-02-01

    Enteroviruses are well-known causes of acute respiratory and/or gastrointestinal infections and non-specific flu-like illness. Although enterovirus protein, RNA and non-cytopathic viruses have been demonstrated in the stomach biopsies of patients with myalgia encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), causality for chronic diseases is difficult to establish without having well-documented cases of acute enterovirus infections. The aim of this study was to link acute enteroviral infection to viral persistence in patients with ME/CFS. Patients admitted to the hospital with acute febrile illnesses were screened for enteroviral infections. Acutely infected patients were followed longitudinally, and those who developed symptoms of ME/CFS underwent oesophagogastroduodenoscopy and biopsies of the antrum to document viral persistence by immunoperoxidase staining for viral protein and viral RNA assay. Three representative patients with different manifestations of acute enterovirus infections progressed to have chronic symptoms of ME/CFS. Persistent viral infection was demonstrated in the antrum years later. After acute infections, enteroviruses can persist in patients resulting in manifestation of ME/CFS. Chronic enterovirus infection in an immunocompetent host may be an example of a stalemate between attenuated, intracellular viruses and an ineffective immune response.

  5. Acute Schistosoma mansoni infection increases susceptibility to systemic SHIV clade C infection in rhesus macaques after mucosal virus exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnès-Laurence Chenine

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals living in sub-Saharan Africa represent 10% of the world's population but almost 2/3 of all HIV-1/AIDS cases. The disproportionate HIV-1 infection rates in this region may be linked to helminthic parasite infections that affect many individuals in the developing world. However, the hypothesis that parasite infection increases an individual's susceptibility to HIV-1 has never been prospectively tested in a relevant in vivo model.We measured whether pre-existing infection of rhesus monkeys with a parasitic worm would facilitate systemic infection after mucosal AIDS virus exposure. Two groups of animals, one consisting of normal monkeys and the other harboring Schistosoma mansoni, were challenged intrarectally with decreasing doses of R5-tropic clade C simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV-C. Systemic infection occurred in parasitized monkeys at viral doses that remained sub-infectious in normal hosts. In fact, the 50% animal infectious (AID(50 SHIV-C dose was 17-fold lower in parasitized animals compared to controls (P<0.001. Coinfected animals also had significantly higher peak viral RNA loads than controls (P<0.001, as well as increased viral replication in CD4(+ central memory cells (P = 0.03.Our data provide the first direct evidence that acute schistosomiasis significantly increases the risk of de novo AIDS virus acquisition, and the magnitude of the effect suggests that control of helminth infections may be a useful public health intervention to help decrease the spread of HIV-1.

  6. An assessment of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and Shigella vaccine candidates for infants and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Richard I

    2015-02-18

    Despite improvements to water quality, sanitation, and the implementation of current prevention and treatment interventions, diarrhea remains a major cause of illness and death, especially among children less than five years of age in the developing world. Rotavirus vaccines have already begun making a real impact on diarrhea, but several more enteric vaccines will be necessary to achieve broader reductions of illness and death. Among the many causes of diarrheal disease, enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) and Shigella are the two most important bacterial pathogens for which there are no currently licensed vaccines. Vaccines against these two pathogens could greatly reduce the impact of disease caused by these infections. This review describes the approaches to ETEC and Shigella vaccines that are currently under development, including a range of both cellular and subunit approaches for each pathogen. In addition, the review discusses strategies for maximizing the potential benefit of these vaccines, which includes the feasibility of co-administration, consolidation, and combination of vaccine candidates, as well as issues related to effective administration of enteric vaccines to infants. Recent impact studies indicate that ETEC and Shigella vaccines could significantly benefit global public health. Either vaccine, particularly if they could be combined together or with another enteric vaccine, would be an extremely valuable tool for saving lives and promoting the health of infants and children in the developing world, as well as potentially providing protection to travelers and military personnel visiting endemic areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Acute pancreatitis - association with a Campylobacter coli-infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsten, C; Schneider, J; Teyssen, S; Huppertz, H-I

    2007-09-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with intermittent abdominal pain and 9 kg weight loss within 3 weeks. Gastroscopy showed no pathological findings, coloscopy showed a colitis limited to the left flexure. Histology revealed a sustained infectious enterocolitis. A culture of the patient's stool was positive for CAMPYLOBACTER COLI. Because of the recurrent abdominal discomfort and weight loss the patient was admitted to the hospital. Ultrasound and multislice spiral computed tomography showed an acute oedematous pancreatitis. No other causes for the pancreatitis were found, the only remaining possibility was a CAMPYLOBACTER COLI-associated pancreatitis. Under symptomatic therapy the patient recovered definitively. An administration of antibiotics was not necessary.

  8. Development of Hamster Models for Acute and Chronic Infections with Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Golden Syrian hamster is frequently used as a small animal model to study acute leptospirosis. However, use of this small animal model to study Leptospira borgpetersenii serovar Hardjo infections has not been well documented. Cattle are the normal maintenance hosts of L. borgpetersenii serovar...

  9. Arterial blood pressure changes in acute T. brucei infection of dogs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study is to find out the usefulness of serial arterial blood pressure measurements in predicting severity and outcome of acute Trypanosoma brucei infection in dogs. Twenty adult dogs of mixed sexes and aged between 2 and 5 years were used for this study. The dogs were of good cardiac health and were ...

  10. Prolonged activation of virus-specific CD8+T cells after acute B19 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, Adiba; Kasprowicz, Victoria; Norbeck, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is a ubiquitous and clinically significant pathogen, causing erythema infectiosum, arthropathy, transient aplastic crisis, and intrauterine fetal death. The phenotype of CD8+ T cells in acute B19 infection has not been studied previously. METHODS AND FINDINGS...

  11. Anti-inflammatory effects of H2S during acute bacterial infection: a review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Francesca Benedetti; Sabrina Curreli; Selvi Krishnan; Sergio Davinelli; Fiorenza Cocchi; Giovanni Scapagnini; Robert C Gallo; Davide Zella

    2017-01-01

    .... The precise role of H2S in inflammation is still largely unknown. In particular, the role of H2S in the regulation of the inflammatory response in acute and chronic infections is being actively investigated because of its potential therapeutic use...

  12. Acute Respiratory Infections in the Middle-Belt Region of Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: ARI continues to be a leeding cause of death among children globally beyond the year 2000. Close 12 million children under the age of 5years die each year in the developing countries, mainly from preventable causes and approximately 2.28 million (19%) were due to acute respiratory infections (ARI).

  13. Detection of viral acute lower respiratory tract infection in hospitalized infants using real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bassant Meligy

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: RV was the most commonly detected virus in children under 3 years admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections. Coinfection was present in the majority of our patients; however it was not related significantly to parameters of disease severity.

  14. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R; Smith, Davey M; Little, Susan J

    2016-03-01

    We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.

  15. Signs or Symptoms of Acute HIV Infection in a Cohort Undergoing Community-Based Screening

    OpenAIRE

    Hoenigl, Martin; Green, Nella; Camacho, Martha; Gianella, Sara; Mehta, Sanjay R.; Smith, Davey M.; Little, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed signs and symptoms in 90 patients diagnosed with acute HIV infection in a community-based program that offered universal HIV-1 nucleic acid amplification testing. Forty-seven (52%) patients reported ongoing signs or symptoms at the time of testing. Another 25 (28%) reported signs or symptoms that had occurred during the 14 days before testing.

  16. Acute HIV-1 Infection in Antigen/Antibody-negative Blood Donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute HIV-1 Infection in Antigen/Antibody-negative Blood Donors in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. ... Fourth generation human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antigen (Ag)/antibody (Ab) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test used in the current screening of blood donors at the National Blood Transfusion Service ...

  17. Acute HIV-1 Infection in Antigen/Antibody-negative Blood Donors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of acute HIV infection among HIV antigen/antibody negative blood donors. This was a cross-sectional blood donation based facility study conducted at Eastern Zone Blood Transfusion Services in Dar es Salaam from December 2009 to April 2010. Apparently healthy ...

  18. Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Under‑five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) constitute the major causes of mortality and morbidity among under‑five children of the developing world. The prevalence of ARIs is determined individually or collectively by a number of factors which may be prevalent in our environment. Aim: The present study is aimed ...

  19. Risk Factors for Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Under-five ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Paediatrician, College of Clinical Medicine, Ebonyi State University, Abakaliki, Nigeria. Abstract. Background: Acute respiratory tract infections (ARIs) constitute the major causes of mortality and morbidity among under‑five children of the developing world. The prevalence of ARIs is determined individually or collectively by a ...

  20. Viral respiratory tract infections among patients with acute undifferentiated fever in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phuong, Hoang Lan; Nga, Tran T. T.; van Doornum, Gerard J.; Groen, Jan; Binh, Tran Q.; Giao, Phan T.; Hung, Le Q.; Nams, Nguyen V.; Kager, P. A.; de Vries, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the proportion of viral respiratory tract infections among acute undifferentiated fevers (AUFs) at primary health facilities in southern Vietnam during 2001-2005, patients with AUF not caused by malaria were enrolled at twelve primary health facilities and a clinic for malaria control

  1. 75 FR 52755 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: Developing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin... infections (ABSSSI), impetigo, and minor cutaneous abscesses. FDA's thinking in this area has evolved in...-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The definitions of ABSSSI and the designs of ABSSSI clinical trials were...

  2. Plasma carotenoid concentrations in relation to acute respiratory infections in elderly people

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Kok, F.J.; Schouten, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    A high plasma carotenoid concentration could improve the immune response and result in decreased risk of infectious diseases. However, data on the relationship of plasma carotenoid concentration with acute respiratory infections, which occur frequently in elderly people, are scarce. We investigated,

  3. Quantitation of respiratory viruses in relation to clinical course in children with acute respiratory tract infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Rogier R.; Schinkel, Janke; dek, Irene; Koekkoek, Sylvie M.; Visser, Caroline E.; de Jong, Menno D.; Molenkamp, Richard; Pajkrt, Dasja

    2010-01-01

    Quantitation of respiratory viruses by PCR could potentially aid in clinical interpretation of PCR results. We conducted a study in children admitted with acute respiratory tract infections to study correlations between the clinical course of illness and semiquantitative detection of 14 respiratory

  4. Surveillance of acute respiratory infections in general practices - The Netherlands, winter 1997/98

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijnen MLA; Bartelds AIM; Wilbrink B; Verweij C; Bijlsma K; Nat H van der; Boswijk H; Boer AB de; Sprenger MJW; Dorigo-Zetsma JW; NIVEL; CIE; NIVEL; LIS

    1999-01-01

    To provide insight into the virological aetiology of influenza-like illnesses and other acute respiratory infections, nose/throat swabs were taken by 30 general practitioners of the sentinel surveillance network of the Netherlands Institute of Primary Health Care from a random selection of patients

  5. Acute bacterial infections of the lower respiratory tract in children from low-income countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleer, A; Wolf, B.H.M.

    Acute bacterial infection of the lower respiratory tract is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children and is responsible for 4 million childhood deaths each year. Most of these deaths are caused by pneumonia and occur in the youngest children in the poorest parts of the world. Severe

  6. Incidence of respiratory viruses in Peruvian children with acute respiratory infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J; Pumarola, Tomás

    2015-06-01

    Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi-mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Value of Bacterial Lysates in Prevention of Acute Respiratory Infections in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Ye. Abaturov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The problem of acute respiratory infectious and inflammatory diseases in children is considered in the article. The functions of nonspecific defense system are described, and there is also given a detailed description of drugs used for the pathogenic treatment of respiratory infections — immunotropic agents of bacterial lysates, particularly Broncho-munal®.

  8. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Sabetta

    Full Text Available Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections.In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009-2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5% of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (p<0.0001 two-fold reduction in the risk of developing acute respiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill.Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese.

  9. Hand hygiene to reduce community transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infection: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren-Gash, Charlotte; Fragaszy, Ellen; Hayward, Andrew C

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene may be associated with modest protection against some acute respiratory tract infections, but its specific role in influenza transmission in different settings is unclear. We aimed to review evidence that improving hand hygiene reduces primary and secondary transmission of (i) influenza and (ii) acute respiratory tract infections in community settings. We searched Medline, Embase, Global Health and Cochrane databases up to 13 February 2012 for reports in any language of original research investigating the effect of hand hygiene on influenza or acute respiratory tract infection where aetiology was unspecified in community settings including institutions such as schools, and domestic residences. Data were presented and quality rated across outcomes according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Sixteen articles met inclusion criteria. There was moderate to low-quality evidence of a reduction in both influenza and respiratory tract infection with hand hygiene interventions in schools, greatest in a lower-middle-income setting. There was high-quality evidence of a small reduction in respiratory infection in childcare settings. There was high-quality evidence for a large reduction in respiratory infection with a hand hygiene intervention in squatter settlements in a low-income setting. There was moderate- to high-quality evidence of no effect on secondary transmission of influenza in households that had already experienced an index case. While hand hygiene interventions have potential to reduce transmission of influenza and acute respiratory tract infections, their effectiveness varies depending on setting, context and compliance. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Particularly acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis. Case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Khaliullina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim — determine the clinical and laboratory features of acute intestinal infection in children, occurring in conjunction with atopic dermatitis (AD.Material and methods. We conducted a study of «case-control», which included observation of 144 children hospitalized in the infectious hospital with a clinic of acute infectious diarrhea in the period from January to December 2012. In the study group were selected 72 children with atopic dermatitis clinic and acute infectious diarrhea in a couple of which, from the group of patients without burdened premorbid background were selected 72 «controls» matched by sex, age and etiology developed acute intestinal infection. The observation time was 5±2 days, which corresponds to the average length of stay of the child, patients with moderate forms of acute intestinal infection in the hospital.Results and discussion. About 2 times more often than in the control, acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis lesions were characterized by clinic middle and lower gastrointestinal — 31.9% (CI 21,1–42,7 vs. 15.3% (CI 7–23 6, p=0.03. A number of bowel movements 6 or more times per day significantly more frequently observed in children with a combination of acute intestinal infections and atopic dermatitis — 54.1% (CI 42,6–65,6 vs. 33.3% (CI 22,4–43.9 in the control, p=0.011. The duration of diarrhea was higher in the study group (Med 6 IQR 4–7 days and Med 5 IQR 3–6 days, respectively, p=0.046. The proportion of patients with high fever was also higher in the study group than in the controls –15.3% (CI 7–23,6 vs. 2,8% (CI 1–6,6, p=0.016.Conclusion. Acute intestinal infections in children with atopic dermatitis have a more pronounced clinical symptoms, which is characterized by clinic enterocolitis, severity and duration of diarrhea syndrome, usually accompanied by a high fever. 

  11. Acute phase proteins in dogs naturally infected with the Giant Kidney Worm (Dioctophyme renale)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Elizabeth M. S.; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Thomas, Funmilola

    2016-01-01

    Background: Dioctophyme renale is a nematode parasite of dogs, usually found in the right kidney, causing severe damage to the renal parenchyma. Objectives: The objective was to evaluate the acute phase response in dogs naturally infected with this Giant Kidney Worm and the possible effects...... of nephrectomy on circulating concentrations of select acute phase proteins (APP) such as serum amyloid A (SAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), and haptoglobin(HP). Methods: Nephrectomy was performed in infected dogs and the worms were collected for identification. Blood samples were taken 24 hours before surgery......, and 4, 8, and 12 hours postoperatively on the following 10 consecutive days, and 28 days after surgery. Acute phase protein concentrations were determined at all time points. Cortisol concentrations were determined 24 hours before surgery and at recovery (28 days after surgery).One-way ANOVA...

  12. Capgras-like syndrome in a patient with an acute urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salviati, Massimo; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Macrì, Francesco; Fojanesi, Marta; Minichino, Amedeo; Gallo, Mariana; De Michele, Francesco; Chiaie, Roberto Delle; Biondi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Delusional misidentification syndromes are a group of delusional phenomena in which patients misidentify familiar persons, objects, or themselves, believing that they have been replaced or transformed. In 25%-40% of cases, misidentification syndromes have been reported in association with organic illness. We report an acute episode of Capgras-like delusion lasting 8 days, focused on the idea that people were robots with human bodies, in association with an acute urinary infection. To our knowledge, this is the first case report associating urinary tract infection with Capgras-like syndrome. Awareness of the prevalence of delusional misidentification syndromes associated with acute medical illness should promote diligence on the part of clinicians in recognizing this disorder.

  13. Analysis of host microRNA function uncovers a role for miR-29b-2-5p in Shigella capture by filopodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunkavalli, Ushasree; Aguilar, Carmen; Silva, Ricardo Jorge; Sharan, Malvika; Cruz, Ana Rita; Tawk, Caroline; Maudet, Claire; Mano, Miguel; Eulalio, Ana

    2017-04-01

    MicroRNAs play an important role in the interplay between bacterial pathogens and host cells, participating as host defense mechanisms, as well as exploited by bacteria to subvert host cellular functions. Here, we show that microRNAs modulate infection by Shigella flexneri, a major causative agent of bacillary dysentery in humans. Specifically, we characterize the dual regulatory role of miR-29b-2-5p during infection, showing that this microRNA strongly favors Shigella infection by promoting both bacterial binding to host cells and intracellular replication. Using a combination of transcriptome analysis and targeted high-content RNAi screening, we identify UNC5C as a direct target of miR-29b-2-5p and show its pivotal role in the modulation of Shigella binding to host cells. MiR-29b-2-5p, through repression of UNC5C, strongly enhances filopodia formation thus increasing Shigella capture and promoting bacterial invasion. The increase of filopodia formation mediated by miR-29b-2-5p is dependent on RhoF and Cdc42 Rho-GTPases. Interestingly, the levels of miR-29b-2-5p, but not of other mature microRNAs from the same precursor, are decreased upon Shigella replication at late times post-infection, through degradation of the mature microRNA by the exonuclease PNPT1. While the relatively high basal levels of miR-29b-2-5p at the start of infection ensure efficient Shigella capture by host cell filopodia, dampening of miR-29b-2-5p levels later during infection may constitute a bacterial strategy to favor a balanced intracellular replication to avoid premature cell death and favor dissemination to neighboring cells, or alternatively, part of the host response to counteract Shigella infection. Overall, these findings reveal a previously unappreciated role of microRNAs, and in particular miR-29b-2-5p, in the interaction of Shigella with host cells.

  14. Travel Destinations and Sexual Behavior as Indicators of Antibiotic Resistant Shigella Strains--Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Courtney R; Sutton, Brett; Valcanis, Mary; Kirk, Martyn; Walker, Cathryn; Lalor, Karin; Stephens, Nicola

    2016-03-15

    Knowledge of relationships between antibiotic susceptibility of Shigella isolates and travel destination or other risk factors can assist clinicians in determining appropriate antibiotic therapy prior to susceptibility testing. We describe relationships between resistance patterns and risk factors for acquisition in Shigella isolates using routinely collected data for notified cases of shigellosis between 2008 and 2012 in Victoria, Australia. We included all shigellosis patients notified during the study period, where Shigella isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoints. Cases were interviewed to collect data on risk factors, including recent travel. Data were analyzed using Stata 13.1 to examine associations between risk factors and resistant strains. Of the 500 cases of shigellosis, 249 were associated with overseas travel and 210 were locally acquired. Forty-six of 51 isolates of Indian origin displayed decreased susceptibility or resistance to ciprofloxacin. All isolates of Indonesian origin were susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Twenty-six travel-related isolates were resistant to all tested oral antimicrobials. Male-to-male sexual contact was the primary risk factor for 80% (120/150) of locally acquired infections among adult males, characterized by distinct periodic Shigella sonnei outbreaks. Clinicians should consider travel destination as a marker for resistance to common antimicrobials in returning travelers, where severe disease requires empirical treatment prior to receipt of individual sensitivity testing results. Repeated outbreaks of locally acquired shigellosis among men who have sex with men highlight the importance of prevention and control measures in this high-risk group. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms Biofilms in Acute InfectionIndependent of Cell-to-Cell Signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaber, J. Andy; Triffo, W.J.; Suh, Sang J.; Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Hastert, Mary C.; Griswold, John A.; Auer, Manfred; Hamood, Abdul N.; Rumbaugh, Kendra P.

    2006-09-20

    Biofilms are bacterial communities residing within a polysaccharide matrix that are associated with persistence and antibiotic resistance in chronic infections. We show that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa forms biofilms within 8 hours of infection in thermally-injured mice, demonstrating that biofilms contribute to bacterial colonization in acute infections. P. aeruginosa biofilms were visualized within burned tissue surrounding blood vessels and adipose cells. Although quorum sensing (QS), a bacterial signaling mechanism, coordinates differentiation of biofilms in vitro, wild type and QS-deficient P. aeruginosa formed similar biofilms in vivo. Our findings demonstrate that P. aeruginosa forms biofilms on specific host tissues independent of QS.

  16. Acute gastritis associated with Epstein-Barr virus infection in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Mok; Song, Chun Woo; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Jae Young

    2016-11-01

    Infectious mononucleosis is Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) inducing a self-limiting clinical syndrome characterized by fever, sore throat, hepatosplenomegaly, and generalized lymphadenopathy. Gastrointestinal symptoms of EBV infection are nonspecific and occur rarely. EBV inducing acute gastrointestinal pathology is poorly recognized without suspicion. Careful consideration is needed to diagnose gastric involvement of EBV infection including gastric lymphoma, gastric cancer, and gastritis. A few recent cases of gastritis associated with EBV infection have been reported in adolescents and adults. However, there is no report of EBV-associated gastritis in early childhood. We experienced a rare case of 4-year-old girl with EBV gastritis confirmed by in situ hybridization.

  17. Prevention and control of infection in non-acute healthcare settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, Helen; Wright, Debbie; Jones, Martin; Dias, Esther; Pronyszyn, Anna; Hughes, Kath; Hawker, Karen; Newsham, Linda; O'Donovan, Tracey

    This article discusses the main principles of infection prevention and control in non-acute healthcare settings. It explores the use of a set of ten tools developed by the Infection Control Nurses Association (ICNA) to audit infection prevention and control, using the standard statements and criteria within the tools as a checklist. The results of the audit of facilities, commodities and practice using the ICNA audit tools will help staff to identify areas of best practice and areas where improvements are needed to enhance patient care.

  18. [Human Bocavirus 1: role in the acute respiratory infection and epidemiology in Cordoba, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, María Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1) is an agent of acute respiratory infection frequent in children. It can cause pneumonia in infants, in the absence of epidemiological risk factors and comorbidities. Well-controlled studies of clinical cases and case series are still useful for the characterization of the clinicoepideiological features of the infection, while research dives on the molecular biology of the virus and the virus-cell relationship allowing to unveil tha natural history of the infection. This article reviews the state of the art and future perspectives on this new human parvovirus and its etiological role in the respiratory pathology.

  19. Management guidelines for acute infective diarrhoea / gastroenteritis in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittenberg, Dankwart Friedrich

    2012-01-27

    Acute onset vomiting and diarrhoea is one of the most common illnesses of infancy, and is second only to respiratory illnesses as a cause of childhood deaths worldwide. Existing guidelines for management of diarrhoea are often ignored in public and private practice, possibly because of a perception that the guidelines are too simple, or because of expectations of the need to give 'real' drug therapy to stop diarrhoea. This guideline provides a problem-based approach to the basics of present-day management of acute gastroenteritis, and discusses the evidence for the recommendations. Recommendations. Each episode of diarrhoea must be seen as an opportunity for caregiver education in the prevention of the illness, in the 'what' and 'how' of oral rehydration and re-feeding, and in the recognition of when to seek help. The vast majority of patients recover rapidly, but serious complications do occur, and must be recognised and managed correctly. Validation. The guidelines are endorsed by the Paediatric Management Group (PMG) in South Africa. The aim of management is to help the child to maintain or regain hydration, and to recover from diarrhoea, with careful attention to adequate oral rehydration and judicious re-feeding.

  20. Effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from an acute manic episode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Nakimuli-Mpungu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available E Nakimuli-Mpungu1,2,3, B Mutamba2,3, S Nshemerirwe2,3, MS Kiwuwa4, S Musisi21Mental Health Department, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland, USA; 2Department of Psychiatry, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala; 3Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital, Ministry of Health, Kampala; 4Clinical Epidemiology Unit, Makerere College of Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Kampala, UgandaIntroduction: Understanding factors affecting the time to recovery from acute mania is critical in the management of manic syndromes. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of HIV infection on time to recovery from acute mania.Methods: We performed a retrospective study in which medical charts of individuals who were treated for acute mania were reviewed. Survival analysis with Cox regression models were used to compare time to recovery from an acute manic episode between human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-positive individuals and HIV-negative individuals.Results: Median survival time was one week for HIV-positive individuals and more than four weeks for HIV-negative individuals (Χ2 = 18.4, P value = 0.000. HIV infection was the only marginally significant independent predictor of survival probability on the acute admission ward (hazards ratio 2.87, P = 0.06.Conclusion: Acute mania in HIV-infected persons responds faster to psychotropic drugs compared with that in HIV-negative persons.Keywords: HIV-related mania, bipolar disorder, HIV infection, Uganda, immunodeficiency virus

  1. Parents' Expectations and Experiences of Antibiotics for Acute Respiratory Infections in Primary Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxeter, Peter D; Mar, Chris Del; Hoffmann, Tammy C

    2017-03-01

    Primary care visits for children with acute respiratory infections frequently result in antibiotic prescriptions, although antibiotics have limited benefits for common acute respiratory infections and can cause harms, including antibiotic resistance. Parental demands are often blamed for antibiotic prescription. We aimed to explore parents' beliefs about antibiotic necessity, quantify their expectations of antibiotic benefit, and report experiences of other management options and exposure to and preferences for shared decision making. We conducted computer-assisted telephone interviews in an Australia-wide community sample of primary caregivers, hereafter referred to as parents, of children aged 1 to 12 years, using random digit dialing of household landline telephones. Of the 14,505 telephone numbers called, 10,340 were eligible numbers; 589 potentially eligible parents were reached, of whom 401 were interviewed. Most believed antibiotics provide benefits for common acute respiratory infections, especially for acute otitis media (92%), although not using them, particularly for acute cough and sore throat, was sometimes acceptable. Parents grossly overestimated the mean benefit of antibiotics on illness symptom duration by 5 to 10 times, and believed they reduce the likelihood of complications. The majority, 78%, recognized antibiotics may cause harm. Recalling the most recent relevant doctor visit, 44% of parents reported at least some discussion about why antibiotics might be used; shared decision making about antibiotic use was inconsistent, while 75% wanted more involvement in future decisions. Some parents have misperceptions about antibiotic use for acute respiratory infections, highlighting the need for improved communication during visits, including shared decision making to address overoptimistic expectations of antibiotics. Such communication should be one of several strategies that is used to reduce antibiotic use. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  2. THE ETIOLOGY OF ACUTE UPPER RESPIRATORY INFECTION (COMMON COLD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Perrin H.; Doull, James A.; Bourn, Janet M.; McComb, Emily

    1931-01-01

    Experimental upper respiratory infections similar to "common colds" were transmitted singly and in series through two and four passages in nine out of fifteen persons, by intransal inoculations with bacteria-free filtrates of nasopharyngeal washings obtained from individuals ill with natural "colds." These observations conform with those reported by previous workers and lend further support to the view that the incitant of the "common cold" is a filtrable virus. PMID:19869857

  3. Surveillance of acute community acquired urinary tract bacterial infections

    OpenAIRE

    Sibanarayan Rath; Padhy, Rabindra N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To record the antibiotic resistance of community acquired uropathogens over a period of 24 months (May 2011–April 2012). Methods: Urine samples from patients of outpatient department (OPD) were used for isolating urinary tract infection (UTI)-causing bacteria that were cultured on suitable selective media and identified by biochemical tests. Their antibiograms were ascertained by Kirby–Bauer's disc diffusion method, using 17 antibiotics of 5 different classes. Results: From 2...

  4. The Zebrafish as a New Model for the In Vivo Study of Shigella flexneri Interaction with Phagocytes and Bacterial Autophagy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostowy, Serge; Boucontet, Laurent; Mazon Moya, Maria J.; Sirianni, Andrea; Boudinot, Pierre; Hollinshead, Michael; Cossart, Pascale; Herbomel, Philippe; Levraud, Jean-Pierre; Colucci-Guyon, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy, an ancient and highly conserved intracellular degradation process, is viewed as a critical component of innate immunity because of its ability to deliver cytosolic bacteria to the lysosome. However, the role of bacterial autophagy in vivo remains poorly understood. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has emerged as a vertebrate model for the study of infections because it is optically accessible at the larval stages when the innate immune system is already functional. Here, we have characterized the susceptibility of zebrafish larvae to Shigella flexneri, a paradigm for bacterial autophagy, and have used this model to study Shigella-phagocyte interactions in vivo. Depending on the dose, S. flexneri injected in zebrafish larvae were either cleared in a few days or resulted in a progressive and ultimately fatal infection. Using high resolution live imaging, we found that S. flexneri were rapidly engulfed by macrophages and neutrophils; moreover we discovered a scavenger role for neutrophils in eliminating infected dead macrophages and non-immune cell types that failed to control Shigella infection. We observed that intracellular S. flexneri could escape to the cytosol, induce septin caging and be targeted to autophagy in vivo. Depletion of p62 (sequestosome 1 or SQSTM1), an adaptor protein critical for bacterial autophagy in vitro, significantly increased bacterial burden and host susceptibility to infection. These results show the zebrafish larva as a new model for the study of S. flexneri interaction with phagocytes, and the manipulation of autophagy for anti-bacterial therapy in vivo. PMID:24039575

  5. Change in brain magnetic resonance spectroscopy after treatment during acute HIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napapon Sailasuta

    Full Text Available Single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS can be used to monitor changes in brain inflammation and neuronal integrity associated with HIV infection and its treatments. We used MRS to measure brain changes during the first weeks following HIV infection and in response to antiretroviral therapy (ART.Brain metabolite levels of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA, choline (tCHO, creatine (CR, myoinositol (MI, and glutamate and glutamine (GLX were measured in acute HIV subjects (n = 31 and compared to chronic HIV+individuals (n = 26 and HIV negative control subjects (n = 10 from Bangkok, Thailand. Metabolites were measured in frontal gray matter (FGM, frontal white matter (FWM, occipital gray matter (OGM, and basal ganglia (BG. Repeat measures were obtained in 17 acute subjects 1, 3 and 6 months following initiation of ART.After adjustment for age we identified elevated BG tCHO/CR in acute HIV cases at baseline (median 14 days after HIV infection compared to control (p = 0.0014, as well as chronic subjects (p = 0.0023. A similar tCHO/CR elevation was noted in OGM; no other metabolite abnormalities were seen between acute and control subjects. Mixed longitudinal models revealed resolution of BG tCHO/CR elevation after ART (p = 0.022 with tCHO/CR similar to control subjects at 6 months.We detected cellular inflammation in the absence of measurable neuronal injury within the first month of HIV infection, and normalization of this inflammation following acutely administered ART. Our findings suggest that early ART may be neuroprotective in HIV infection by mitigating processes leading to CNS injury.

  6. Cell differentiation defines acute and chronic infection cell types in Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Betancur, Juan-Carlos; Goñi-Moreno, Angel; Horger, Thomas; Schott, Melanie; Sharan, Malvika; Eikmeier, Julian; Wohlmuth, Barbara; Zernecke, Alma; Ohlsen, Knut; Kuttler, Christina

    2017-01-01

    A central question to biology is how pathogenic bacteria initiate acute or chronic infections. Here we describe a genetic program for cell-fate decision in the opportunistic human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, which generates the phenotypic bifurcation of the cells into two genetically identical but different cell types during the course of an infection. Whereas one cell type promotes the formation of biofilms that contribute to chronic infections, the second type is planktonic and produces the toxins that contribute to acute bacteremia. We identified a bimodal switch in the agr quorum sensing system that antagonistically regulates the differentiation of these two physiologically distinct cell types. We found that extracellular signals affect the behavior of the agr bimodal switch and modify the size of the specialized subpopulations in specific colonization niches. For instance, magnesium-enriched colonization niches causes magnesium binding to S. aureusteichoic acids and increases bacterial cell wall rigidity. This signal triggers a genetic program that ultimately downregulates the agr bimodal switch. Colonization niches with different magnesium concentrations influence the bimodal system activity, which defines a distinct ratio between these subpopulations; this in turn leads to distinct infection outcomes in vitro and in an in vivo murine infection model. Cell differentiation generates physiological heterogeneity in clonal bacterial infections and helps to determine the distinct infection types. PMID:28893374

  7. New Pneumococcal Carriage Acquired in Association with Acute Respiratory Infection Is Prone to Cause Otitis Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auranen, Kari; Syrjänen, Ritva; Leino, Tuija; Kilpi, Terhi

    2016-01-01

    For considering vaccine-prevention of pneumococcal acute otitis media (PncAOM), relationships between pneumococcal carriage, respiratory infection and PncAOM need to be understood. We analyzed nasopharyngeal samples collected from 329 unvaccinated Finnish children aged 2-24 months at scheduled visits and at visits during respiratory infection in 1994-97. We assessed temporal associations of respiratory infection with pneumococcal acquisition and whether PncAOM hazard depends on the relative timing of acquisition and the infection onset. The data comprised 607 person-years of risk-time for acquisition, 245 person-months of concurrent respiratory infection and carriage, and 119 episodes of PncAOM. The acquisition hazard was 3-fold in the month preceding respiratory sickness (hazard ratio, HR 3.5, 90% credible interval CI 2.9, 4.1) as compared to acquisition in healthy children. Moreover, the PncAOM hazard was markedly higher (HR 3.7, 90% CI 2.4, 5.3) during the first month of carriage acquired around the acute phase of respiratory infection (between 1 month before and 1 week after the sickness onset), as compared to carriage acquired later during sickness. The high proportion (76%) of PncAOM events occurring within 1 month of acquisition was due to frequent acquisition being associated with respiratory infection as well as the susceptibility of such acquisition to cause otitis media.

  8. PD-L1-Expressing Dendritic Cells Contribute to Viral Resistance during Acute HSV-1 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Bryant-Hudson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The inhibitory receptor, Programmed Death 1 (PD-1, and its ligands (PD-L1/PD-L2 are thought to play a role in immune surveillance during chronic viral infection. The contribution of the receptor/ligand pair during an acute infection is less understood. To determine the role of PD-L1 and PD-L2 during acute ocular herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 infection, HSV-1-infected mice administered neutralizing antibody to PD-L1 or PD-L2 were assessed for viral burden and host cellular immune responses. Virus titers were elevated in cornea and trigeminal ganglia (TG of anti-PD-L1-treated mice which corresponded with a reduced number of CD80-expressing dendritic cells, PD-L1+ dendritic cells, and HSV-1-specific CD8+ T cells within the draining (mandibular lymph node (MLN. In contrast, anti-PD-L2 treatment had no effect on viral replication or changes in the MLN population. Notably, analysis of CD11c-enriched MLN cells from anti-PD-L1-treated mice revealed impaired functional capabilities. These studies indicate PD-L1-expressing dendritic cells are important for antiviral defense during acute HSV-1 infection.

  9. Viperin is highly induced in neutrophils and macrophages during acute and chronic LCMV infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Ella R.; Joshi, Nikhil S.; Chen, Jonathan H.; Rahner, Christoph; Jung, Yong Woo; Wang, Xiuyan; Kaech, Susan M.; Cresswell, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Although most cells are thought to respond to interferons, there is limited information regarding specific cells that respond in vivo. Viperin is an interferon-induced antiviral protein and therefore is an excellent marker for interferon-responsive cells. Here we analyzed viperin expression in vivo during acute LCMV Armstrong infection, which induces high levels of Type I IFNs, and in persistently infected LCMV carrier mice, which contain low levels of Type I IFNs. Viperin was induced in lymphoid cells and DCs during acute infection and highly induced in neutrophils and macrophages. The expression kinetics in neutrophils, macrophages, T and B cells paralleled IFNα levels, but DCs expressed viperin with delayed kinetics. In carrier mice, viperin was expressed in neutrophils and macrophages, but not T and B cells or DCs. For both acutely infected and carrier mice, viperin expression was IFN-dependent, as treating Type I IFNR knockout mice with IFNγ neutralizing antibodies inhibited viperin expression. Viperin localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplet-like vesicles in neutrophils. These findings delineate the kinetics and cells responding to interferons in vivo and suggest that the profile of interferon-responsive cells changes in chronic infections. Furthermore, these data suggest that viperin may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of neutrophils. PMID:20410488

  10. Viperin is highly induced in neutrophils and macrophages during acute and chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Ella R; Joshi, Nikhil S; Chen, Jonathan H; Rahner, Christoph; Jung, Yong Woo; Wang, Xiuyan; Kaech, Susan M; Cresswell, Peter

    2010-05-15

    Although most cells are thought to respond to IFNs, there is limited information regarding specific cells that respond in vivo. Viperin is an IFN-induced antiviral protein and, therefore, is an excellent marker for IFN-responsive cells. In this study, we analyzed viperin expression in vivo during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus Armstrong infection, which induces high levels of type I IFNs, and in persistently infected lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus carrier mice, which contain low levels of type I IFNs. Viperin was induced in lymphoid cells and dendritic cells (DCs) during acute infection and highly induced in neutrophils and macrophages. The expression kinetics in neutrophils, macrophages, and T and B cells paralleled IFN-alpha levels, but DCs expressed viperin with delayed kinetics. In carrier mice, viperin was expressed in neutrophils and macrophages but not in T and B cells or DCs. For acutely infected and carrier mice, viperin expression was IFN dependent, because treating type I IFNR knockout mice with IFN-gamma-neutralizing Abs inhibited viperin expression. Viperin localized to the endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplet-like vesicles in neutrophils. These findings delineate the kinetics and cells responding to IFNs in vivo and suggest that the profile of IFN-responsive cells changes in chronic infections. Furthermore, these data suggest that viperin may contribute to the antimicrobial activity of neutrophils.

  11. Acute Phase Proteins in Response to Dictyocaulus viviparus Infection in Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller K Persson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to examine the acute phase response, as measured by the acute phase proteins (APP haptoglobin, serum amyloid A (SAA and fibrinogen, in calves infected with lungworm, Dictyocaulus vivparus. In addition, eosinophil counts were analysed. Three different dose models were used in 3 separate experiments: I 250 D. viviparus infective third stage larvae (L3 once daily for 2 consecutive days, II 100 D. viviparus L3 once daily for 5 consecutive days, and III 2000 L3 once. All 3 dose regimes induced elevated levels of haptoglobin, SAA and fibrinogen, although there was considerable variation both between and within experiments. A significant increase was observed in all 3 APP at one or several time points in experiment I and III, whereas in experiment II, the only significant elevation was observed for fibrinogen at one occasion. The eosinophil numbers were significantly elevated in all 3 experiments. The results show that lungworm infection can induce an acute phase response, which can be monitored by the selected APP. Elevated APP levels in combination with high numbers of eosinophils in an animal with respiratory disease may be used as an indicator of lung worm infection, and help the clinician to decide on treatment. However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals.

  12. Does virus-bacteria coinfection increase the clinical severity of acute respiratory infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasio, Guilherme A C; Pereira, Luciane A; Moreira, Suzana D R; Duarte dos Santos, Claudia N; Dalla-Costa, Libera M; Raboni, Sonia M

    2015-09-01

    This retrospective cohort study investigated the presence of bacteria in respiratory secretions of patients hospitalized with acute respiratory infections and analyzed the impact of viral and bacterial coinfection on severity and the mortality rate. A total of 169 patients with acute respiratory infections were included, viruses and bacteria in respiratory samples were detected using molecular methods. Among all samples, 73.3% and 59.7% were positive for viruses and bacteria, respectively; 45% contained both virus and bacteria. Bacterial coinfection was more frequent in patients infected by community respiratory viruses than influenza A H1N1pdm (83.3% vs. 40.6%). The most frequently bacteria detected were Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae. Both species were co-detected in 54 patients and identified alone in 22 and 21 patients, respectively. Overall, there were no significant differences in the period of hospitalization, severity, or mortality rate between patients infected with respiratory viruses alone and those coinfected by viruses and bacteria. The detection of mixed respiratory pathogens is frequent in hospitalized patients with acute respiratory infections, but its impact on the clinical outcome does not appear substantial. However, it should be noted that most of the patients received broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, which may have contributed to this favorable outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Acute Phase of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Attenuated in 5-Lipoxygenase-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. C. Canavaci

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work we examine the contribution of 5-lipoxygenase- (5-LO- derived lipid mediators to immune responses during the acute phase of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 5-LO gene knockout (5-LO−/− mice and wild-type (WT mice. Compared with WT mice, the 5-LO−/− mice developed less parasitemia/tissue parasitism, less inflammatory cell infiltrates, and a lower mortality. This resistance of 5-LO−/− mice correlated with several differences in the immune response to infection, including reduced PGE2 synthesis; sustained capacity of splenocytes to produce high levels of interleukin (IL-12 early in the infection; enhanced splenocyte production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ; rapid T-cell polarization to secrete high quantities of IFN-γ and low quantities of IL-10; and greater numbers of CD8+CD44highCD62Llow memory effector T cells at the end of the acute phase of infection. The high mortality in WT mice was associated with increased production of LTB4/LTC4, T cell bias to produce IFN-γ, high levels of serum nitrite, and marked protein extravasation into the peritoneal cavity, although survival was improved by treatment with a cys-LT receptor 1 antagonist. These data also provide evidence that 5-LO-derived mediators negatively affect host survival during the acute phase of T. cruzi infection.

  14. Cytokine responses in acute and persistent human parvovirus B19 infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isa, A; Lundqvist, A; Lindblom, A

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize the proinflammatory and T helper (Th)1/Th2 cytokine responses during acute parvovirus B19 (B19) infection and determine whether an imbalance of the Th1/Th2 cytokine pattern is related to persistent B19 infection. Cytokines were quantified by multiplex beads...... immunoassay in serum from B19-infected patients and controls. The cytokine responses were correlated with B19 serology, quantitative B19 DNA levels and clinical symptoms. In addition to a proinflammatory response, elevated levels of the Th1 type of cytokines interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and IL-15 were evident...... at time of the initial peak of B19 viral load in a few patients during acute infection. This pattern was seen in the absence of an interferon (IFN)-gamma response. During follow-up (20-130 weeks post-acute infection) some of these patients had a sustained Th1 cytokine response. The Th1 cytokine response...

  15. Infection pattern of neutropenic patients in post-chemotherapy phase of acute leukemia treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Ahmadzadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Neutropenia following chemotherapy regimens in leukemia patients is of major concern since it makes these patients vulnerable to infections. If we can identify which germs are causing these infections, they can be annihilated or, at least, the most appropriate antibiotic therapy can be started immediately, even before we have the results of the culture. This retrospective multi-center study took place in 2012 and included patients with acute leukemia who had already undergone chemotherapy and who had been febrile for at least 16 hours. In order to assess the type of infection, different environments were chosen and the results were compared by t-test and x2 tests. This study took place in four hospitals in Tehran and Ahwaz, Iran. The study population was made up of 89 patients: 37 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 52 with acute myeloid leukemia. The results revealed that blood was the most common site of infection. From all our positive cultures, it was seen that 85.4% of them had gram-negative bacteria with a dominance of E. coli of 25.8% over the other colonies. Also, antibiograms revealed the sensitivity of almost all the gram-negatives to amino glycosides. In contrast with most of the literature, in our patients, gram-negatives are the most common cause of infection and, therefore, administering amino glycosides would be the safest antibiotic therapy to prescribe before culture results are available.

  16. Infection Pattern of Neutropenic Patients in Post-chemotherapy Phase of Acute Leukemia Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Varnasseri, Mehran; Jalili, Mohammad Hossein; Maniavi, Fatemeh; Valizadeh, Armita; Mahmoodian, Mojtaba; Keyhani, Manouchehr

    2013-01-01

    Neutropenia following chemotherapy regimens in leukemia patients is of major concern since it makes these patients vulnerable to infections. If we can identify which germs are causing these infections, they can be annihilated or, at least, the most appropriate antibiotic therapy can be started immediately, even before we have the results of the culture. This retrospective multi-center study took place in 2012 and included patients with acute leukemia who had already undergone chemotherapy and who had been febrile for at least 16 hours. In order to assess the type of infection, different environments were chosen and the results were compared by t-test and χ(2) tests. This study took place in four hospitals in Tehran and Ahwaz, Iran. The study population was made up of 89 patients: 37 with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and 52 with acute myeloid leukemia. The results revealed that blood was the most common site of infection. From all our positive cultures, it was seen that 85.4% of them had gram-negative bacteria with a dominance of E. coli of 25.8% over the other colonies. Also, antibiograms revealed the sensitivity of almost all the gram-negatives to amino glycosides. In contrast with most of the literature, in our patients, gram-negatives are the most common cause of infection and, therefore, administering amino glycosides would be the safest antibiotic therapy to prescribe before culture results are available.

  17. Transient activation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by IFNγ during acute bacterial infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNamara, Katherine C; Jones, Maura; Martin, Olga; Winslow, Gary M

    2011-01-01

    How hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) respond to inflammatory signals during infections is not well understood. Our studies have used a murine model of ehrlichiosis, an emerging tick-born disease, to address how infection impacts hematopoietic function. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with the intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia muris, results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, similar to what is observed in human ehrlichiosis patients. In the mouse, infection promotes myelopoiesis, a process that is critically dependent on interferon gamma (IFNγ) signaling. In the present study, we demonstrate that E. muris infection also drives the transient proliferation and expansion of bone marrow Lin-negative Sca-1(+) cKit(+) (LSK) cells, a population of progenitor cells that contains HSCs. Expansion of the LSK population in the bone marrow was associated with a loss of dormant, long-term repopulating HSCs, reduced engraftment, and a bias towards myeloid lineage differentiation within that population. The reduced engraftment and myeloid bias of the infection-induced LSK cells was transient, and was most pronounced on day 8 post-infection. The infection-induced changes were accompanied by an expansion of more differentiated multipotent progenitor cells, and required IFNγ signaling. Thus, in response to inflammatory signals elicited during acute infection, HSCs can undergo a rapid, IFNγ-dependent, transient shift from dormancy to activity, ostensibly, to provide the host with additional or better-armed innate cells for host defense. Similar changes in hematopoietic function likely underlie many different infections of public health importance.

  18. Transient activation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by IFNγ during acute bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C MacNamara

    Full Text Available How hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs respond to inflammatory signals during infections is not well understood. Our studies have used a murine model of ehrlichiosis, an emerging tick-born disease, to address how infection impacts hematopoietic function. Infection of C57BL/6 mice with the intracellular bacterium, Ehrlichia muris, results in anemia and thrombocytopenia, similar to what is observed in human ehrlichiosis patients. In the mouse, infection promotes myelopoiesis, a process that is critically dependent on interferon gamma (IFNγ signaling. In the present study, we demonstrate that E. muris infection also drives the transient proliferation and expansion of bone marrow Lin-negative Sca-1(+ cKit(+ (LSK cells, a population of progenitor cells that contains HSCs. Expansion of the LSK population in the bone marrow was associated with a loss of dormant, long-term repopulating HSCs, reduced engraftment, and a bias towards myeloid lineage differentiation within that population. The reduced engraftment and myeloid bias of the infection-induced LSK cells was transient, and was most pronounced on day 8 post-infection. The infection-induced changes were accompanied by an expansion of more differentiated multipotent progenitor cells, and required IFNγ signaling. Thus, in response to inflammatory signals elicited during acute infection, HSCs can undergo a rapid, IFNγ-dependent, transient shift from dormancy to activity, ostensibly, to provide the host with additional or better-armed innate cells for host defense. Similar changes in hematopoietic function likely underlie many different infections of public health importance.

  19. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with influenza A H1N1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkale, Yasemin; Erol, Ilknur; Ozkale, Murat; Demir, Senay; Alehan, Füsun

    2012-07-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system, characterized by demyelination. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis predominantly involves the white matter of the brain and spinal cord, and often follows upper respiratory tract infection. We describe a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with the influenza A (H1N1) virus. The H1N1 virus usually causes febrile respiratory signs, e.g., fever, cough, and sore throat. Although these signs exhibit a self-limited course, the frequencies of severe complications and death are increasing. To date, only a few reports of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis secondary to the H1N1 virus have been published. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of antibody repertoires produced by HIV-1 infection, other chronic and acute infections, and systemic autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Breden

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibodies (Abs produced during HIV-1 infection rarely neutralize a broad range of viral isolates; only eight broadly-neutralizing (bNt monoclonal (MAbs have been isolated. Yet, to be effective, an HIV-1 vaccine may have to elicit the essential features of these MAbs. The V genes of all of these bNt MAbs are highly somatically mutated, and the V(H genes of five of them encode a long (≥ 20 aa third complementarity-determining region (CDR-H3. This led us to question whether long CDR-H3s and high levels of somatic mutation (SM are a preferred feature of anti-HIV bNt MAbs, or if other adaptive immune responses elicit them in general.We assembled a V(H-gene sequence database from over 700 human MAbs of known antigen specificity isolated from chronic (viral infections (ChI, acute (bacterial and viral infections (AcI, and systemic autoimmune diseases (SAD, and compared their CDR-H3 length, number of SMs and germline V(H-gene usage. We found that anti-HIV Abs, regardless of their neutralization breadth, tended to have long CDR-H3s and high numbers of SMs. However, these features were also common among Abs associated with other chronic viral infections. In contrast, Abs from acute viral infections (but not bacterial infections tended to have relatively short CDR-H3s and a low number of SMs, whereas SAD Abs were generally intermediate in CDR-H3 length and number of SMs. Analysis of V(H gene usage showed that ChI Abs also tended to favor distal germline V(H-genes (particularly V(H1-69, especially in Abs bearing long CDR-H3s.The striking difference between the Abs produced during chronic vs. acute viral infection suggests that Abs bearing long CDR-H3s, high levels of SM and V(H1-69 gene usage may be preferentially selected during persistent infection.

  1. Assessment of a new algorithm in the management of acute respiratory tract infections in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Tabatabaei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the practicability of a new algorithm in decreasing the rate of incorrect diagnoses and inappropriate antibiotic usage in pediatric Acute Respiratory Tract Infection (ARTI. Materials and Methods: Children between 1 month to15 years brought to outpatient clinics of a children′s hospital with acute respiratory symptoms were managed according to the steps recommended in the algorithm. Results: Upper Respiratory Tract Infection, Lower Respiratory Tract Infection, and undifferentiated ARTI accounted for 82%, 14.5%, and 3.5% of 1 209 cases, respectively. Antibiotics were prescribed in 33%; for: Common cold, 4.1%; Sinusitis, 85.7%; Otitis media, 96.9%; Pharyngotonsillitis, 63.3%; Croup, 6.5%; Bronchitis, 15.6%; Pertussis-like syndrome, 82.1%; Bronchiolitis, 4.1%; and Pneumonia, 50%. Conclusion: Implementation of the ARTIs algorithm is practicable and can help to reduce diagnostic errors and rate of antibiotic prescription in children with ARTIs.

  2. Mycoplasma pneumonia-associated Acute Hepatitis in an Adult Patient without Lung Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shou-Wu Lee

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycoplasma pneumonia is a major cause of respiratory infections in school-aged children. Most M. pneumonia infections in adults involve the respiratory tract. Extrapulmonary manifestations of M. pneumonia infection may be found in the skin, cardiovascular, neurologic and hematologic systems. Concomitant liver disease is rare in adults. Here, we report an unusual case of a patient who presented with fever and abdominal pain, but without pulmonary manifestations. The laboratory work-up demonstrated a hepatocellular pattern of acute hepatitis caused by M. pneumonia infection. Symptoms subsided and laboratory parameters improved with antibiotics treatment. Thus, this case can help raise clinicians' awareness of the possibility of M. pneumonia infection, with or without lung involvement, as a part of the evaluation of undetermined hepatitis.

  3. Human metapneumovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in hospitalized danish children with acute respiratory tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Linstow, Marie-Louise; Larsen, Hans Henrik; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    The newly discovered human metapneumovirus (hMPV) has been shown to be associated with respiratory illness. We determined the frequencies and clinical features of hMPV and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infections in 374 Danish children with 383 episodes of acute respiratory tract infection...... children 1-6 months of age. Asthmatic bronchitis was diagnosed in 66.7% of hMPV and 10.6% of RSV-infected children (p infected children required respiratory support. hMPV is present in young.......6%) ARTI episodes by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction using primers targeting the hMPV N gene and the RSV L gene. Two children were co-infected with hMPV and RSV. They were excluded from statistical analysis. Hospitalization for ARTI caused by hMPV was restricted to very young...

  4. About features clinical acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in children syndrome undifferentiated Connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Orlova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical course of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in children with the syndrome undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia. We examined 127 patients aged 6 months to 15 years acute Epstein-Barr virus infection. The study was an open-controlled, parallel-group. Syndrome undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia verified in 69% of children: mild dysplasia of the connective tissue is installed in 46 patients (36.2%, moderate – in 41 children (32.3%, severe degree is not diagnosed. A total of 40 (31.5% of children surveyed had no phenotypic features of connective tissue dysplasia. The peculiarities of the clinical course of acute Epstein-Barr virus infection in patients with undifferentiated connective tissue dysplasia include an increase severity of infection by increasing the duration of fever, severity and persistence polylimphoadenopathii, frequent development of parenchymal Epstein-Barr virus associated hepatitis. Active proliferation of virus-infected Epstein-Barr virus lymphocytes occurs in all organs, with lymphoid tissue and is accompanied by infiltration and histologic changes in lymph nodes, liver, spleen, etc. In combination with the weakness of connective tissue structures that causes the symptoms of acute polymorphic Epstein-Barr virus infection and nature of the complications. We examined patients revealed changes in the indicators of collagen metabolism, indicating their partial degradation. The severity of these changes varies depending on the severity of the syndrome of connective tissue dysplasia and paired with the severity of virus-infected Epstein-Barr. When verification of the second degree of connective tissue dysplasia in patients with acute Epstein-Barr virus infection with high probability we can predict the development of severe infection that occurs in liver in the form of the Epstein-Barr virusassociated hepatitis. 

  5. Optic neuritis and acute anterior uveitis associated with influenza A infection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakagawa H

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hayate Nakagawa, Hidetaka Noma, Osamu Kotake, Ryosuke Motohashi, Kanako Yasuda, Masahiko Shimura Department of Ophthalmology, Tokyo Medical University Hachioji Medical Center, Tokyo, Japan Background: A few reports have described ocular complications of influenza A infection, such as impaired ocular movement, parasympathetic ocular nerve, keratitis, macular lesion, and frosted branch angiitis. We encountered a rare case of acute anterior uveitis and optic neuritis associated with influenza A infection. Case presentation: A 70-year-old man presented with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection. A rapid diagnostic test showed a positive result for influenza A. At the same time, he developed ocular symptoms including blurred vision with optic disk edema and hemorrhage in the left eye, and bilateral red eyes. Multiplex polymerase chain reaction performed on aqueous humor sample detected no viral infection. Visual field testing with a Goldmann perimeter showed central and paracentral scotomas in the left eye. In addition to antiviral agent (oseltamivir phosphate 75 mg, the patient was prescribed topical prednisolone acetate ophthalmic suspension eye drops every 5 hours and high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone 1,000 mg daily for 3 days. Two months later, his best-corrected visual acuity improved to 20/50 with regression of visual field defects in his left eye. Conclusion: We report a case of bilateral acute anterior uveitis and unilateral optic neuritis concomitant with influenza A infection. Topical and systemic corticosteroids were effective to resolve acute anterior uveitis and neuritis. Analysis of aqueous humor sample suggested that acute anterior uveitis and optic neuritis in this case were not caused by influenza A virus infection per se but by autoimmune mechanism. Keywords: optic neuritis, anterior uveitis, influenza virus, multiplex polymerase chain reaction

  6. Estimating the impact of vaccination in acute SHIV-SIV infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Ruy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infects approxmately 0.5% of the world population, and is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A vaccine for HIV is urgently required, and a variety of vaccine modalities have been tested in animal models of infection. A number of these studies have shown protection in monkey models of infection, although the ability of the vaccine to protect appears to vary with the viral strain and animal model used. The recent failure of a large vaccine study in humans suggests that further understanding of the basic dynamics of infection and impact of vaccination are required, in order to understand the variable efficacy of vaccination in different infections. The dynamics of HIV infection have been studied in humans and in a variety of animal models. The standard model of infection has been used to estimate the basic reproductive ratio (R{sub 0}) of the virus, calculated from the growth rate of virus in acute infection. This method has not been useful in studying the effects of vaccination, since, in the vaccines developed so far, early growth rates of virus do not differ between control and vaccinated animals. Here, we use the standard model of viral dynamics to derive the reproductive ratio from the peak viral load and nadir of target cell numbers in acute infection. We apply this method to data from studies of vaccination in Simian Human Immunodeficiency Virus (SHIV) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) infection and demonstrate that vaccination can reduce the reproductive ratio by 2.3 and 2 fold respectively. This method allows the comparison of vaccination efficacy amongst different viral strains and animal models in vivo.

  7. Evaluation of an intragastric challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) for the pre-clinical assessment of Shigella vaccine formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Dilara; Ruamsap, Nattaya; Khantapura, Patchariya; Aksomboon, Ajchara; Srijan, Apichai; Wongstitwilairoong, Boonchai; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Gettayacamin, Montip; Venkatesan, Malabi M; Mason, Carl J

    2014-06-01

    Shigellosis is a worldwide disease, characterized by abdominal pain, fever, vomiting, and the passage of blood- and mucus-streaked stools. Rhesus monkeys and other primates are the only animals that are naturally susceptible to shigellosis. A suitable animal model is required for the pre-clinical evaluation of vaccines candidates. In this study, the minimal dose of Shigella dysenteriae1 1617 strain required to produce dysentery in four of five (80% attack rate) monkeys using an escalating dose range for three groups [2 × 10(8) , 2 × 10(9) and 2 × 10(10) colony forming unit (CFU)] was determined. In addition, the monkeys were re-infected. The identified optimal challenge dose was 2 × 10(9) CFU; this dose elicited 60% protection in monkeys when they were re-challenged with a one log higher dose (2 × 10(10) CFU). The challenge dose, 2 × 10(10) CFU, produced severe dysentery in all monkeys, with one monkey dying within 24 h, elicited 100% protection when re-challenged with the same dose. All monkeys exhibited immune responses. This study concludes that the rhesus monkey model closely mimics the disease and immune response seen in humans and is a suitable animal model for the pre-clinical evaluation of Shigella vaccine candidates. Prior infection with the 1617 strain can protect monkeys against subsequent re-challenges with homologous strains. © 2013 The Authors. APMIS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Can Giardia lamblia infection lower the risk of acute diarrhea among preschool children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhsen, Khitam; Cohen, Dani; Levine, Myron M

    2014-04-01

    There are inconsistent findings concerning the role of Giardia lamblia in pediatric diarrhea. A prospective cohort study of the incidence of acute diarrhea among Israeli Arab preschool children offered the opportunity to examine the association between G. lamblia infection (at baseline) and subsequent diarrhea. Following baseline screening by light microscopy for the presence of Giardia in their stools, a cohort was assembled of 142 children who were followed between October 2003 and August 2004 for the incidence of diarrhea. Surveillance was performed through maternal interviews. At baseline, 21 children tested Giardia-positive. During the prospective surveillance, acute diarrhea occurred less often among Giardia-positive children (9.5%) than among children who were not infected with Giardia (26.5%). G. lamblia infection was associated with lower risk of acute diarrhea; adjusted odds ratio of 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.93) (p = 0.041). This prospective study provides additional evidence that Giardia may lower the risk of subsequent acute diarrhea among preschool children.

  9. The nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test and white blood cell count in acute throat infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkstén, B; Ekstrand, T; Gothefors, L; Ostberg, Y

    1975-01-01

    The clinical value of the NBT test and of leucocyte counts in the aetiological differentiation of acute throat infections was investigated. In our hands a frequency of less than 13% NBT positive neutrophils is considered as normal and a test value above 19% as "positive", i.e. indicating a bacterial infection. More than 19% or more than 1 800 NBT positive neutrophils per mm-3 blood were found in 10 of 18 patients with an infection caused by beta-haemolytic streptococci, in 1 of 2 patients with a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection and in 1 patient with both a streptococcal and mycoplasmal infection, but in none of 19 patients with a viral infection. Since 8 of 18 patients with streptococcal throat infection had normal NBT test results, the NBT test apparently is of limited value in the early recognition of these infections. A high NBT test value would however support the diagnosis. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were of little value in the differentiation between streptococcal and viral throat infection.

  10. Evaluation of procalcitonin and neopterin level in serum of patients with acute bacterial infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Pourakbari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fever as a common presenting complaint in pediatric patients can be due to various causes. Differentiating bacterial infection from other causes is important because the prompt use of antibiotics is critical in bacterial infection. Traditional markers of infection such as BT and WBC count may be unspecific and culture may be late or absent. CRP and Procalcitonin (PCT have been considered to evaluate the evolution of infections and sepsis in patients presenting with SIRS. Neopterin has also been proposed to aid in the diagnosis of bacterial infection. In this study, we compared the value of the serum PCT, neopterin level, and WBC count for predicting bacterial infection and outcome in children with fever. METHODS: 158 pediatric (2-120-month-old patients suspected to have acute bacterial infection, based on clinical judgment in which other causes of SIRS were ruled out were included in the study. WBC count with differential was determined and PCT and neopterin levels were measured. RESULTS: PCT level was higher in bacterial infection and patients who were complicated or expired. CONCLUSION: Rapid PCT test is superior to neopterin and WBC count for anticipating bacterial infection, especially in ED where prompt decision making is critical. ABBREVIATIONS: BT, body temperature; WBC, white blood cell; PCT, procalcitonin; CRP, C-reactive protein; SIRS, systemic inflammatory response syndrome; ED, emergency department.

  11. Changes in Circulating B Cell Subsets Associated with Aging and Acute SIV Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W L William Chang

    Full Text Available Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques. We then utilized the expanded panel to analyze B cell alterations associated with aging and acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV infection in the NHP model. In the aging study, distinct patterns of B cell subset frequencies were observed for macaques aged one to five years compared to those between ages 5 and 30 years. In the SIV infection study, B cell frequencies and absolute number were dramatically reduced following acute infection, but recovered within four weeks of infection. Thereafter, the frequencies of activated memory B cells progressively increased; these were significantly correlated with the magnitude of SIV-specific IgG responses, and coincided with impaired maturation of anti-SIV antibody avidity, as previously reported for HIV-1 infection. These observations further validate the NHP model for investigation of mechanisms responsible for B cells alterations associated with immunosenescence and infectious disease.

  12. Undernutrition, the acute phase response to infection, and its effects on micronutrient status indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A

    2014-11-01

    Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host's homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatigue) and systemic effects of the APR. Cytokines act to increase energy and protein requirements to manifest fever and support hepatic acute phase protein (APP) production. Blood concentrations of glucose and lipid are augmented to provide energy to immune cells in response to cytokines. Additionally, infection decreases intestinal absorption of nutrients and can cause direct loss of micronutrients. Traditional indicators of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status are altered during the APR, leading to inaccurate estimations of deficiency in populations with a high or unknown prevalence of infection. Blood concentrations of APPs can be measured in nutrition interventions to assess the time stage and severity of infection and correct for the APR; however, standardized cutoffs for nutrition applications are needed. Protein-energy malnutrition leads to increased gut permeability to pathogens, abnormal immune cell populations, and impaired APP response. Micronutrient deficiencies cause specific immune impairments that affect both innate and adaptive responses. This review describes the antagonistic interaction between the APR and nutritional status and emphasizes the need for integrated interventions to address undernutrition and to reduce disease burden in developing countries. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Undernutrition, the Acute Phase Response to Infection, and Its Effects on Micronutrient Status Indicators12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnahan, Kara A.; Tanumihardjo, Sherry A.

    2014-01-01

    Infection and undernutrition are prevalent in developing countries and demonstrate a synergistic relation. Undernutrition increases infection-related morbidity and mortality. The acute phase response (APR) is an innate, systemic inflammatory reaction to a wide array of disruptions in a host’s homeostasis, including infection. Released from immune cells in response to deleterious stimuli, proinflammatory cytokines act on distant tissues to induce behavioral (e.g., anorexia, weakness, and fatigue) and systemic effects of the APR. Cytokines act to increase energy and protein requirements to manifest fever and support hepatic acute phase protein (APP) production. Blood concentrations of glucose and lipid are augmented to provide energy to immune cells in response to cytokines. Additionally, infection decreases intestinal absorption of nutrients and can cause direct loss of micronutrients. Traditional indicators of iron, zinc, and vitamin A status are altered during the APR, leading to inaccurate estimations of deficiency in populations with a high or unknown prevalence of infection. Blood concentrations of APPs can be measured in nutrition interventions to assess the time stage and severity of infection and correct for the APR; however, standardized cutoffs for nutrition applications are needed. Protein-energy malnutrition leads to increased gut permeability to pathogens, abnormal immune cell populations, and impaired APP response. Micronutrient deficiencies cause specific immune impairments that affect both innate and adaptive responses. This review describes the antagonistic interaction between the APR and nutritional status and emphasizes the need for integrated interventions to address undernutrition and to reduce disease burden in developing countries. PMID:25398733

  14. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Garba Ibrahim; Gregory, Ubom; Maryam, Haruna

    2004-10-01

    Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds. We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascorbate concentration in infected adult males (n = 49, age range 18-50 years) was found to be 2.02 +/- 0.20 mg/dL, and it was 2.03 +/- 0.24 mg/dL in infected adult females (n = 56, age range 18-50 years). These values were significantly greater than the serum ascorbate levels (1.54 +/- 0.10 mg/dL) in healthy adult males (n = 28) and females (n = 28) (p children (age range 3 to 5 years), the serum ascorbate concentration was significantly lower (1.95 +/- 0.20 mg/dL) during infection (n = 25) than in their healthy counterparts (2.9 +/- 0.24 mg/dL, n = 9) (p ascorbic acid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute falciparum malaria in adults. Infected children also need to be given supplemental doses of ascorbate in view of the weakness of their immune system.

  15. Serum ascorbic acid concentration in patients with acute Falciparum malaria infection: possible significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garba Ibrahim Hassan

    Full Text Available Falciparum malaria infection is associated with significant destruction of erythrocytes. This leads to the release of toxic metabolic products, including oxidant compounds.We measured the serum concentration of the antioxidant, ascorbic acid, in 129 patients presenting with acute falciparum malaria infection and in 65 healthy individuals. None of the study subjects administered any form of ascorbic acid supplementation within one week prior to participation in this study. The mean serum ascorbate concentration in infected adult males (n = 49, age range 18-50 years was found to be 2.02 ± 0.20 mg/dL, and it was 2.03 ± 0.24 mg/dL in infected adult females (n = 56, age range 18-50 years. These values were significantly greater than the serum ascorbate levels (1.54 ± 0.10 mg/dL in healthy adult males (n = 28 and females (n = 28 (p < 0.05. In children (age range 3 to 5 years, the serum ascorbate concentration was significantly lower (1.95 ± 0.20 mg/dL during infection (n = 25 than in their healthy counterparts (2.9 ± 0.24 mg/dL, n = 9 (p < 0.05. It is evident therefore that ascorbic acid plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute falciparum malaria in adults. Infected children also need to be given supplemental doses of ascorbate in view of the weakness of their immune system.

  16. Changes in Circulating B Cell Subsets Associated with Aging and Acute SIV Infection in Rhesus Macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, W L William; Gonzalez, Denise F; Kieu, Hung T; Castillo, Luis D; Messaoudi, Ilhem; Shen, Xiaoying; Tomaras, Georgia D; Shacklett, Barbara L; Barry, Peter A; Sparger, Ellen E

    2017-01-01

    Aging and certain viral infections can negatively impact humoral responses in humans. To further develop the nonhuman primate (NHP) model for investigating B cell dynamics in human aging and infectious disease, a flow cytometric panel was developed to characterize circulating rhesus B cell subsets. Significant differences between human and macaque B cells included the proportions of cells within IgD+ and switched memory populations and a prominent CD21-CD27+ unswitched memory population detected only in macaques. We then utilized the expanded panel to analyze B cell alterations associated with aging and acute simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in the NHP model. In the aging study, distinct patterns of B cell subset frequencies were observed for macaques aged one to five years compared to those between ages 5 and 30 years. In the SIV infection study, B cell frequencies and absolute number were dramatically reduced following acute infection, but recovered within four weeks of infection. Thereafter, the frequencies of activated memory B cells progressively increased; these were significantly correlated with the magnitude of SIV-specific IgG responses, and coincided with impaired maturation of anti-SIV antibody avidity, as previously reported for HIV-1 infection. These observations further validate the NHP model for investigation of mechanisms responsible for B cells alterations associated with immunosenescence and infectious disease.

  17. Hypercytotoxicity and rapid loss of NKp44+ innate lymphoid cells during acute SIV infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiying Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV/SIV infections break down the integrity of the gastrointestinal mucosa and lead to chronic immune activation and associated disease progression. Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs, distinguishable by high expression of NKp44 and RORγt, play key roles in mucosal defense and homeostasis, but are depleted from gastrointestinal (GI tract large bowel during chronic SIV infection. However, less is known about the kinetics of ILC loss, or if it occurs systemically. In acute SIV infection, we found a massive, up to 8-fold, loss of NKp44+ILCs in all mucosae as early as day 6 post-infection, which was sustained through chronic disease. Interestingly, no loss of ILCs was observed in mucosa-draining lymph nodes. In contrast, classical NK cells were not depleted either from gut or draining lymph nodes. Both ILCs and NK cells exhibited significantly increased levels of apoptosis as measured by increased Annexin-V expression, but while classical NK cells also showed increased proliferation, ILCs did not. Interestingly, ILCs, which are normally noncytolytic, dramatically upregulated cytotoxic functions in acute and chronic infection and acquired a polyfunctional phenotype secreting IFN-γ, MIP1-β, and TNF-α, but decreased production of the prototypical cytokine, IL-17. Classical NK cells had less dramatic functional change, but upregulated perforin expression and increased cytotoxic potential. Finally, we show that numerical and functional loss of ILCs was due to increased apoptosis and ROR γt suppression induced by inflammatory cytokines in the gut milieu. Herein we demonstrate the first evidence for acute, systemic, and permanent loss of mucosal ILCs during SIV infection associated with reduction of IL-17. The massive reduction of ILCs involves apoptosis without compensatory de novo development/proliferation, but the full mechanism of depletion and the impact of functional change so early in infection remain unclear.

  18. Microorganisms Causing Community-Acquired Acute Bronchitis: The Role of Bacterial Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Young; Park, Sunghoon; Lee, Sun Hwa; Lee, Myung Goo; Park, Yong Bum; Oh, Kil Chan; Lee, Jae-Myung; Kim, Do Il; Seo, Ki-Hyun; Shin, Kyeong-Cheol; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Ko, Yongchun; Jang, Seung Hun; Jung, Ki-Suck; Hwang, Yong Il

    2016-01-01

    Although acute bronchitis is quite common, there is relatively limited information regarding the microorganisms that are involved in this illness. We performed a prospective study of acute bronchitis at 31 hospitals and clinics in Korea from July 2011 to June 2012. Sputum specimens were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and culture of microorganisms. Of the 811 enrolled patients, 291 had acceptable sputum specimens that were included for analysis of the etiologic distribution. With multiplex PCR testing, viruses were identified in 36.1% (105/291), most commonly rhinovirus (25.8%) and coronavirus (3.8%). Typical bacteria were isolated in 126/291 (43.3%) patients. Among these patients Haemophilus influenzae (n = 39) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 30) were isolated most commonly; atypical bacteria were identified in 44 (15.1%) patients. Bacteria-only, virus-only, and mixed infections (bacteria plus virus) accounted for 36.7% (98/291), 17.2% (50/291), and 18.9% (55/291) of infections, respectively. In particular, 52.4% of patients with viral infection had a concurrent bacterial infection, and rhinovirus was the most common virus in mixed infections (40/55). Additionally, infections with typical bacteria were more common in patients with chronic lung disease (p = 0.029), and typical bacterial infections showed a trend towards a higher prevalence with older age (p = 0.001). Bacteria were associated with almost half of community-acquired acute bronchitis cases. Additional studies are required to further illuminate the role of bacteria and to identify patient groups most likely to benefit from antibiotic treatment.

  19. Microorganisms Causing Community-Acquired Acute Bronchitis: The Role of Bacterial Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Young Park

    Full Text Available Although acute bronchitis is quite common, there is relatively limited information regarding the microorganisms that are involved in this illness.We performed a prospective study of acute bronchitis at 31 hospitals and clinics in Korea from July 2011 to June 2012. Sputum specimens were collected for polymerase chain reaction (PCR and culture of microorganisms.Of the 811 enrolled patients, 291 had acceptable sputum specimens that were included for analysis of the etiologic distribution. With multiplex PCR testing, viruses were identified in 36.1% (105/291, most commonly rhinovirus (25.8% and coronavirus (3.8%. Typical bacteria were isolated in 126/291 (43.3% patients. Among these patients Haemophilus influenzae (n = 39 and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 30 were isolated most commonly; atypical bacteria were identified in 44 (15.1% patients. Bacteria-only, virus-only, and mixed infections (bacteria plus virus accounted for 36.7% (98/291, 17.2% (50/291, and 18.9% (55/291 of infections, respectively. In particular, 52.4% of patients with viral infection had a concurrent bacterial infection, and rhinovirus was the most common virus in mixed infections (40/55. Additionally, infections with typical bacteria were more common in patients with chronic lung disease (p = 0.029, and typical bacterial infections showed a trend towards a higher prevalence with older age (p = 0.001.Bacteria were associated with almost half of community-acquired acute bronchitis cases. Additional studies are required to further illuminate the role of bacteria and to identify patient groups most likely to benefit from antibiotic treatment.

  20. Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and the Incidence of Acute Viral Respiratory Tract Infections in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetta, James R.; DePetrillo, Paolo; Cipriani, Ralph J.; Smardin, Joanne; Burns, Lillian A.; Landry, Marie L.

    2010-01-01

    Background Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections. Methodology/Findings In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009–2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5%) of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (prespiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill. Conclusions/Significance Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese. PMID:20559424

  1. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabetta, James R; DePetrillo, Paolo; Cipriani, Ralph J; Smardin, Joanne; Burns, Lillian A; Landry, Marie L

    2010-06-14

    Declining serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D seen in the fall and winter as distance increases from the equator may be a factor in the seasonal increased prevalence of influenza and other viral infections. This study was done to determine if serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations correlated with the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections. In this prospective cohort study serial monthly concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured over the fall and winter 2009-2010 in 198 healthy adults, blinded to the nature of the substance being measured. The participants were evaluated for the development of any acute respiratory tract infections by investigators blinded to the 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations. The incidence of infection in participants with different concentrations of vitamin D was determined. One hundred ninety-five (98.5%) of the enrolled participants completed the study. Light skin pigmentation, lean body mass, and supplementation with vitamin D were found to correlate with higher concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Concentrations of 38 ng/ml or more were associated with a significant (prespiratory tract infections and with a marked reduction in the percentages of days ill. Maintenance of a 25-hydroxyvitamin D serum concentration of 38 ng/ml or higher should significantly reduce the incidence of acute viral respiratory tract infections and the burden of illness caused thereby, at least during the fall and winter in temperate zones. The findings of the present study provide direction for and call for future interventional studies examining the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in reducing the incidence and severity of specific viral infections, including influenza, in the general population and in subpopulations with lower 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentrations, such as pregnant women, dark skinned individuals, and the obese.

  2. Acute hepatitis C virus infection assessment among chronic hemodialysis patients in the Southwest Parana State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono-Nita Suzane K

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic hemodialysis patients are at higher risk for acquiring hepatitis C virus (HCV. The prevalence varies among different countries and hemodialysis centers. Although guidelines for a comprehensive infection control program exist, the nosocomial transmission still accounts for the new cases of infection. The aim of this study was analyze the follow up of newly acquired acute hepatitis C cases, during the period from January 2002 to May 2005, in the Hemodialysis Center, located in the Southwest region of Parana State, Brazil and to analyze the effectiveness of the measures to restrain the appearance of new cases of acute hepatitis C. Methods Patients were analyzed monthly with anti-HCV tests and ALT measurements. Patients with ALT elevations were monitored for possible acute hepatitis C. Results During this period, 32 new cases were identified with acute hepatitis C virus infection. Blood screening showed variable ALT levels preceding the anti-HCV seroconversion. HCV RNA viremia by PCR analysis was intermittently and even negative in some cases. Ten out of 32 patients received 1 mcg/kg dose of pegylated interferon alfa-2b treatment for 24 weeks. All dialysis personnel were re-trained to strictly follow the regulations and recommendations regarding infection control, proper methods to clean and disinfect equipment were reviewed and HCV-positive patients were isolated. Conclusion Laboratory tests results showed variable ALT preceding anti-HCV seroconversion and intermittent viremia. The applied recommendations contributed importantly to restrain the appearance of new cases of acute hepatitis C in this center and the last case was diagnosed in May 2004.

  3. Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri Activate the NLRP1B Inflammasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiman-Zenevich, Jana; Stuart, Sarah; Abdel-Nour, Mena; Girardin, Stephen E; Mogridge, Jeremy

    2017-11-01

    Activation of the innate immune receptor NLRP1B leads to the formation of an inflammasome, which induces autoproteolytic processing of pro-caspase-1, and ultimately to the release of inflammatory cytokines and to the execution of pyroptosis. One of the signals to which NLRP1B responds is metabolic stress that occurs in cells deprived of glucose or treated with metabolic inhibitors. NLRP1B might therefore sense microbial infection, as intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Shigella flexneri cause metabolic stress as a result of nutrient scavenging and host cell damage. Here we addressed whether these pathogens activate the NLRP1B inflammasome. We found that Listeria infection activated the NLRP1B inflammasome in a reconstituted fibroblast model. Activation of NLRP1B by Listeria was diminished in an NLRP1B mutant shown previously to be defective at detecting energy stress and was dependent on the expression of listeriolysin O (LLO), a protein required for vacuolar escape. Infections of either Listeria or Shigella activated NLRP1B in the RAW264.7 murine macrophage line, which expresses endogenous NLRP1B. We conclude that NLRP1B senses cellular infection by distinct invasive pathogens. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  4. A challenge model for Shigella dysenteriae 1 in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipley, Steven T; Panda, Aruna; Khan, Abdul Q; Kriel, Edwin H; Maciel, Milton; Livio, Sofie; Nataro, James P; Levine, Myron M; Sztein, Marcelo B; DeTolla, Louis J

    2010-02-01

    Shigella dysenteriae type 1 can cause devastating pandemics with high case fatality rates; a vaccine for Shigella is unavailable currently. Because of the risks associated with performing challenge studies with wild-type S. dysenteriae 1 in human clinical trials to advance vaccine development, an improved nonhuman primate model is needed urgently. In the present study, cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) were challenged with various doses of S. dysenteriae 1 strain 1617 to establish a dose that would produce shigellosis. Further, different routes of delivery of S. dysenteriae 1 were compared to establish the most appropriate route for infection. Animals receiving 10(11) cfu S. dysenteriae 1 intragastrically consistently developed signs of shigellosis characterized by the onset of diarrhea and dysentery within 2 to 3 d. Administration of as many as 10(9) cfu S. dysenteriae 1 intraduodenally did not elicit signs characteristic of infection in macaques despite fecal shedding of bacteria for as long as 10 d. S. dysenteriae 1 administered intraduodenally at 10(9) cfu or intragastrically at 10(11) cfu elicited robust IgG and IgA antibody responses to LPS. We have developed a reliable challenge model of infection with wild-type S. dysenteriae 1 in cynomolgus macaques that reproducibly induces disease and elicits robust immune responses. We believe that this animal model may provide unique insights into the immunologic mechanisms of protection to S. dysenteriae 1 infection and in advancing development of a vaccine against shigellosis.

  5. A prospective, community-based study on virologic assessment among elderly people with and without symptoms of acute respiratory infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graat, J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Heijnen, M.L.; Kok, F.J.; Pallast, E.G.; Greeff, de S.C.; Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Objective: Community-based elderly studies concerning microbiology of acute respiratory infections are scarce. Data on subclinical infections are even totally absent, although asymptomatic persons might act as a source of respiratory infections. Methods: In a 1-year community-based

  6. Antibiotica-resistentie bij in Nederland geisoleerde Shigellae in 1988

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd CE; van Klingeren B; Valkenburg JJ; Schot CS

    1989-01-01

    In het kader van de surveillance van antibiotica resistentie bij Shigellae werd van de isolaten die in 1988 voor typering naar het RIVM werden gezonden, kwantitatief de gevoeligheid bepaald voor amoxicilline chlooramfenicol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazol, trimethoprim, gentamicine, kanamycine,

  7. Antibiotica-resistentie bij in Nederland geisoleerde Shigellae in 1987

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voogd CE; van Klingeren B; Valkenburg JJ; Schot CS

    1988-01-01

    In het kader van de surveillance van antibiotica resistentie bij Shigellae werd van de isolaten die in 1987 voor typering naar het RIVM werden gezonden, kwantitatief de gevoeligheid bepaald voor amoxicilline chlooramfenicol, tetracycline, sulfamethoxazol, trimetroprim, gentamicine, kanamycine,

  8. [Molecular biology in the diagnosis of acute bacterial infection of the respiratory tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marimón, José María; Cilla, Gustavo; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio

    2008-07-01

    The bacteriological methods traditionally used in the diagnosis of acute respiratory infections (ARI) have limited sensitivity (culture, direct antigen detection, etc.) or require long periods to obtain results (appearance of antibodies). In the last few years, nucleic acid amplification techniques (NAAT) have been developed that allow pathogen-specific genetic targets to be detected in clinical samples. These techniques have been proven to be more sensitive than culture or direct detection and, unlike serological tests, are effective in the acute phase of the infection. However, NAAT also have certain limitations, such as the occasional presence of amplification inhibitors in clinical samples, the persistence of Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydophila pneumoniae in the mucosa of some individuals, and the lack of discrimination between pathogen infection and colonization in bacteria forming part of normal respiratory tract flora (Streptococcus pneumoniae). Recently developed real-time NAAT have raised expectations that some of these obstacles will be resolved, since these techniques allow bacterial load to be quantified. In the etiological diagnosis of ARI due to S. pneumoniae, the use of NAAT is still in an experimental phase. In M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae, combining NAAT with serological tests could potentially improve diagnosis. NAAT show good sensitivity and specificity in the detection of Legionella; however, the practical utility of these techniques should be weighed against that of antigenuria. NAAT provide advantages over other techniques in Bordetella pertussis. At present, these techniques are not useful in the diagnosis of Coxiella burnetii acute infections.

  9. Lymphadenopathy resulting from acute hepatitis C infection mimicking metastatic breast carcinoma on FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacene, Heather A; Stearns, Vered; Wahl, Richard L

    2006-07-01

    We report a case documenting fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) accumulation in upper abdominal lymph nodes resulting from acute hepatitis C infection. A 42-year-old African-American female with a history of metastatic breast carcinoma was found to have hypermetabolic porta hepatic, peripancreatic, and paraaortic lymphadenopathy and hypermetabolism in the spleen on a surveillance FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan. Concurrently, she was diagnosed with acute hepatitis C infection. Antiviral therapy was not recommended secondary to the low level of detectable virus at the time of diagnosis. Her breast cancer therapy regimen was continued unaltered. FDG PET/CT scan was repeated 2 months later as a result of concern that the hypermetabolic lymph nodes represented metastatic disease; however, the scan revealed complete resolution of the previously abnormal findings. The resolution of the lymphadenopathy and the patient's clinical course led to the conclusion that the most likely explanation for the FDG PET/CT findings was inflammation secondary to acute hepatitis C infection and not metastatic breast carcinoma. Inflammatory and infectious processes accumulate FDG, occasionally resulting in false-positives for malignancy. Infected macrophages in the lymph nodes draining the liver in this case and stimulation of a cellular immune response by the hepatitis C virus, with resultant cytokine production by cytotoxic and T-helper cells, offer possible explanations for the findings seen on FDG PET/CT in this case. This case highlights the importance of clinical history and laboratory correlation for the proper interpretation of FDG PET scans.

  10. Levofloxacin in the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessina C McGregor

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Jessina C McGregor, George P Allen, David T BeardenOregon State University College of Pharmacy, Portland, OR, USAAbstract: Levofloxacin is a widely used fluoroquinolone approved for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis. A comprehensive review of the medical literature identified five publications evaluating levofloxacin for the treatment of either complicated urinary tract infections or acute pyelonephritis. All trials, although variable in their inclusion criteria and levofloxacin dosing strategies, reported microbiologic, clinical, and safety-related outcomes. High microbiologic eradication rates, ranging from 79.8% to 95.3%, were observed in all studies. Escherichia coli was the most commonly isolated uropathogen. Data on levofl oxacin resistance, both at baseline and after therapy, were limited. Clinical success was observed to range from 82.6% to 93% when measured after the completion of therapy. These clinical and microbiologic results were comparable to the fluoroquinolone comparators in all trials. Insufficient data are available to evaluate the outcomes in any meaningful patient subgroups, including catheterized patients, and those with other specific complicating factors. Levofloxacin was well tolerated in these studies, with headache, gastrointenstinal effects, and dizziness being the most commonly reported adverse events. The published data support the use of levofloxacin in complicated urinary tract infections and acute pyelonephritis. Further trials are necessary to evaluate levofl oxacin within specific patient sub-populations.Keywords: urinary tract infection, pyelonephritis, levofloxacin

  11. Hepatitis A in internationally adopted children: screening for acute and previous infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulla, Roohi Y; Rice, Marilyn A; Donauer, Stephanie; Hicks, Kelly R; Poore, Dustin; Staat, Mary Allen

    2010-11-01

    The goal was to determine the prevalence of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection and immunity among internationally adopted children. Children seen at the International Adoption Center between September 25, 2006, and September 30, 2008, and were screened for HAV within 4 months after their arrival in the United States were eligible for the study. The age- and country-specific prevalence of acute HAV infection and immunity were determined. Overall, 288 children underwent HAV serological testing. Of the 279 with total HAV serological results, 29% had positive findings. Immunity varied according to region and country. The prevalence was lowest among children born in Asia/Pacific Rim region (17%) and highest among children born in Africa (72%). Only 13% of children Latin America/Caribbean region, respectively. The father of 1 child developed HAV infection after arriving home. HAV immunity among internationally adopted children varied according to age and country of origin; 1% had acute infections. HAV screening is useful for determination of the need for HAV immunization and for prevention of transmission to family members and close contacts.

  12. Viruses as Sole Causative Agents of Severe Acute Respiratory Tract Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moesker, Fleur M; van Kampen, Jeroen J A; van Rossum, Annemarie M C; de Hoog, Matthijs; Koopmans, Marion P G; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Fraaij, Pieter L A

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and influenza A viruses are known to cause severe acute respiratory tract infections (SARIs) in children. For other viruses like human rhinoviruses (HRVs) this is less well established. Viral or bacterial co-infections are often considered essential for severe manifestations of these virus infections. The study aims at identifying viruses that may cause SARI in children in the absence of viral and bacterial co-infections, at identifying disease characteristics associated with these single virus infections, and at identifying a possible correlation between viral loads and disease severities. Between April 2007 and March 2012, we identified children (acute respiratory tract infection (ARTI) (controls). Data were extracted from the clinical and laboratory databases of our tertiary care paediatric hospital. Patient specimens were tested for fifteen respiratory viruses with real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assays and we selected patients with a single virus infection only. Typical bacterial co-infections were considered unlikely to have contributed to the PICU or MC admission based on C-reactive protein-levels or bacteriological test results if performed. We identified 44 patients admitted to PICU with SARI and 40 patients admitted to MC with ARTI. Twelve viruses were associated with SARI, ten of which were also associated with ARTI in the absence of typical bacterial and viral co-infections, with RSV and HRV being the most frequent causes. Viral loads were not different between PICU-SARI patients and MC-ARTI patients. Both SARI and ARTI may be caused by single viral pathogens in previously healthy children as well as in children with a medical history. No relationship between viral load and disease severity was identified.

  13. Current Issues of Antipyretic Therapy in Children with Acute Respiratory Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Novikova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the current issues in the pediatric practice of seasonal incidence of children with acute respiratory infections. The basic etiological aspects of this pathology, specific clinical symptoms typical for different pathogens, causes of bursts of disease in certain periods are described. Special attention is paid to the tactics of antipyretic therapy in different groups of children with fever and acute respiratory diseases, understand the typical errors in its appointment. The author discusses the domestic and foreign results of using ibuprofen to relieve fever in children with this pathology, comparative efficacy and safety data of ibuprofen with other analgesics-antipyretics.

  14. The Acute Respiratory Infection Quality Dashboard: a performance measurement reporting tool in an electronic health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, Jeffrey A; Jung, Eunice; Housman, Dan; Eskin, Michael S; Schnipper, Jeffrey L; Middleton, Blackford; Einbinder, Jonathan S

    2007-10-11

    Quality reporting tools, integrated with electronic health records, can help clinicians understand performance, manage populations, and improve quality. The Acute Respiratory Infection Quality Dashboard (ARI QD) for LMR users is a secure web report for performance measurement of an acute condition delivered through a central data warehouse and custom-built reporting tool. Pilot evaluation of the ARI QD indicates that clinicians prefer a quality report that combines not only structured data regarding diagnosis and antibiotic prescribing rates entered into EHRs but one that also shows billing data. The ARI QD has the potential to reduce inappropriate antibiotic prescribing for ARIs.

  15. Chikungunya Virus Infection and Acute Elevation of Serum Prostate-Specific Antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Derval Aiken

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A man with prostate cancer on a regime of active surveillance had a laboratory-confirmed acute Chikungunya virus infection. The patient experienced a sudden increa