WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute self-limited colitis

  1. Crypt abscess-associated microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and acute self-limited colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry; Sokol; Nadia; Vasquez; Nadia; Hoyeau-Idrissi; Philippe; Seksik; Laurent; Beaugerie; Anne; Lavergne-Slove; Philippe; Pochart; Philippe; Marteau

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether crypt abscesses frominflammatory bowel disease(IBD)patients containbacteria and to establish their nature.METHODS:We studied 17 ulcerative colitis patients,11 Crohn's disease patients,7 patients with acute selflimited colitis(ASLC)and normal colonic biopsies from5 subjects who underwent colonoscopy for colon cancer screening.A fluorescent in situ hybridization techniquewas applied to colonic biopsies to assess the microbiotacomposition of the crypts and crypt abscesses.RESULTS:Crypts...

  2. Acute Onset Collagenous Colitis with Unique Endoscopic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Moroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a rare case of 72-year-old woman with acute onset collagenous colitis (CC induced by lansoprazole. The patient developed acute abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and melena that are quite rare in usual CC. We could find the characteristic colonoscopic findings such as active long liner ulcers in the patient. We also observed the healing courses of these unique findings. Our case indicates two important points of view. (1 CC sometimes develops with acute onset symptoms which resemble those of ischemic colitis. (2 Colonoscopy would be useful and necessary to distinguish acute onset CC and ischemic colitis.

  3. Management of acute severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saurabh; Kedia; Vineet; Ahuja; Rakesh; Tandon

    2014-01-01

    The management strategy of acute severe ulcerative colitis has evolved over the past decade from being entirely restricted to twin choices of intravenous steroids or colectomy to include colon rescue therapies like cyclosporin as well as infliximab. However it still remains a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and requires care from a multidisciplinary team comprising of a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon. The frame shift in management has been the emphasis on time bound decision making with an attempt to curtail the mortality rate to below 1%. Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Response to steroids should be assessed at day 3 of admission and partial/non-responders should be considered for alternative medical therapy/surgery. Medical rescue therapies include intravenous cyclosporin and infliximab. Cyclosporin is administered in a dose of 2 mg/kg per day and infliximab is administered as a single dose intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg. Approximately 75% patients have short term and 50% patients have long term response to cyclosporin. Long term response to cyclosporin is improved in patients who are thiopurine na?ve and are started on thiopurines on day 7. Infliximab also has a response rate of approximately 70% in short term and 50% in long term. Both cyclosporin and infliximab are equally efficacious medical rescue therapies as demonstrated in a recent randomized control trial. Patientsnot responding to infliximab or cyclosporin should be considered for colectomy.

  4. Microheterogeneity of acute phase proteins in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marian Grzymis(l)awski; Katarzyna Derc; Magdalena Sobieska; Krzysztof Wiktorowicz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the serum α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT),α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and transferrin (Tf) concentrations and to evaluate the microheterogeneity of these acute phase proteins in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 17 healthy control subjects were studied. The patients were categorised as severe (n = 9), moderate (n = 10) and mild groups (n = 8) using Truelove and Witts'classification of ulcerative colitis. Microheterogeneity of ACT, AGP and Tf was analysed by crossed immunoaffinity electrophoresis (CIAE) with concanavalin A. In all serum samples standard electrophoresis of serum proteins was performed, iron (Fe) concentration, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured.RESULTS: Our patients suffering from ulcerative colitis had significantly higher serum ACT and AGP concentrations and lower serum transferrin concentration in comparison to healthy subjects. Changes in concentrationsof acute phase proteins were dependent on the activityof the inflammatory process. The glycosylation patterns of transferrin were related to the inflammation status. We also observed the correlation between ACT and AGP concentrations, patterns of transferrin glycosylation and changes in standard protein electrophoresis or blood cell count.CONCLUSION: The glycosylation patterns of transferrin obtained from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis are highly branched and sialylated compared with those obtained from healthy subjects. In contrast, the glycosylation patterns of transferrin do not differ according to the activity index of ulcerative colitis. The microheterogeneity patterns of AGP and ACT are similar in ulcerative colitis patients and healthy subjects.

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiho; Sagara; Yasuo; Horie; Yumiko; Anezaki; Hideaki; Miyazawa; Masahiro; Iizuka

    2010-01-01

    Various extraintestinal manifestations including pulmonary abnormalities have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious and fatal pulmonary manifestation. We have experienced a 67-year-old male patient with ARDS associated with a severe type of ulcerative colitis (UC). Severe dyspnea symptoms occurred during the treatment of UC in a previous hospital and the patient was transferred to our hospital on June 27, 2007. Both blood and sputa culture...

  6. [Meloxicam-induced colitis revealed by acute abdominal pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddik, H; Rabhi, M

    2013-03-01

    Whether intestinal toxicity of preferential or selective COX-2 inhibitors is reduced compared with that of standard NSAIDs is controversial. A 26-year-old woman presented with acute abdominal pain and bloody diarrhoea a few days after beginning meloxicam treatment. Endoscopic examination of the colon showed erythematous and ulcerative lesions involving 15 cm of the left colon. No aetiology has been found for colitis. Diarrhea disappeared 1 week after meloxicam was stopped. Total colonoscopy 3 months and 2 years later was normal. The role of meloxicam in the etiology of colitis was considered plausible. This report and a few other cases in the literature suggest that cyclooxygenase-2 selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug inhibitor toxicity should be investigated in case of unexplained acute colitis. PMID:23537413

  7. CXCR2 knockout mice are protected against DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2013-11-15

    Organ cross talk exists in many diseases of the human and animal models of human diseases. A recent study demonstrated that inflammatory mediators can cause acute kidney injury and neutrophil infiltration in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-colitis. However, the chemokines and their receptors that may mediate distant organ effects in colitis are unknown. We hypothesized that keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)/IL-8 receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) mediates DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury. Consistent with our hypothesis, wild-type (WT) mice developed severe colitis with DSS treatment, which was associated with inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression and neutrophil infiltration in the colon. DSS-colitis in WT was accompanied by acute kidney injury and enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the kidney. However, CXCR2 knockout mice were protected against DSS-colitis as well as acute kidney injury. Moreover, the expression of cytokines and chemokines and neutrophil infiltration was blunted in CXCR2 knockout mice in the colon and kidney. Administration of recombinant KC exacerbated DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury. Our results suggest that KC/IL-8 and its receptor CXCR2 are critical and major mediators of organ cross talk in DSS colitis and neutralization of CXCR2 will help to reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury due to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in humans.

  8. Platelet-Derived CCL5 Regulates CXC Chemokine Formation and Neutrophil Recruitment in Acute Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changhui; Zhang, Songen; Wang, Yongzhi; Zhang, Su; Luo, Lingtao; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating data suggest that platelets not only regulate thrombosis and haemostasis but also inflammatory processes. Platelets contain numerous potent pro-inflammatory compounds, including the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL4, although their role in acute colitis remains elusive. The aim of this study is to examine the role of platelets and platelet-derived chemokines in acute colitis. Acute colitis is induced in female Balb/c mice by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 5 days. Animals receive a platelet-depleting, anti-CCL5, anti-CXCL4, or a control antibody prior to DSS challenge. Colonic tissue is collected for quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, CXCL5, CXCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and CCL5 levels as well as morphological analyses. Platelet depletion reduce tissue damage and clinical disease activity index in DSS-exposed animals. Platelet depletion not only reduces levels of CXCL2 and CXCL5 but also levels of CCL5 in the inflamed colon. Immunoneutralization of CCL5 but not CXCL4 reduces tissue damage, CXC chemokine expression, and neutrophil recruitment in DSS-treated animals. These findings show that platelets play a key role in acute colitis by regulating CXC chemokine generation, neutrophil infiltration, and tissue damage in the colon. Moreover, our results suggest that platelet-derived CCL5 is an important link between platelet activation and neutrophil recruitment in acute colitis.

  9. MDCT of acute colitis in adults: an update in current imaging features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, M; Boudiaf, M; Dohan, A; Hoeffel, C; Camus, M; Pautrat, K; Fishman, E K; Cohen, S; Soyer, P

    2015-02-01

    Acute colitis is often diagnosed on multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) because patients with this condition present with abdominal pain and a variety of nonspecific symptoms. Acute colitis has multiple causes with varying degrees of severity. Analysis of the extent of colonic involvement, presence of specific MDCT imaging features and associated signs should help radiologist narrow the diagnosis. Integrating the results of clinical examination and biological tests is mandatory, and in case of ambiguous or nonspecific MDCT findings, endoscopy and colon biopsy should always be considered for a definite diagnosis. The purpose of this review is to discuss and illustrate MDCT features that are helpful for characterizing acute colitis in adults and to provide an update in current MDCT features. PMID:24835625

  10. Development of perianal ulcer as a result of acute fulminant amoebic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Torigoe; Yoshifumi Nakayama; Koji Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute fulminant amoebic colitis that resulted in the development of a perianal ulcer in a 29-year-old Japanese homosexual man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).The patient was admitted to our hospital with a persistent perianal abscess that was refractory to antibiotic therapy administered at another hospital.On admission,we observed a giant ulcer in the perianal region.At first,cytomegalovirus colitis was suspected by blood investigations.Ganciclovir therapy was initiated; however,the patient developed necrosis of the skin around the anus during therapy.We only performed end-sigmoidostomy and necrotomy to avoid excessive surgical invasion.Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed the presence of trophozoite amoebae,indicating a final diagnosis of acute fulminant amoebic colitis.The patient's postoperative course was favorable,and proctectomy of the residual rectum was performed 11 mo later.Amoebic colitis is one of the most severe complications affecting patients with AIDS.Particularly,acute fulminant amoebic colitis may result in a poor prognosis; therefore,staged surgical therapy as a less invasive procedure should be considered as one of the treatment options for these patients.

  11. Preventive use of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin to relieve symptoms of acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hijová, Emília; Šoltésová, Alena; Salaj, Rastislav; Kuzma, Jozef; Strojný, Ladislav; Bomba, Alojz; Gregová, Kristína

    2015-01-01

    The aim of presented study was to investigate the influence of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin on the activity of β-glucuronidase enzyme, and counts of coliform and lactobacilli in fresh caecal digesta, cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8), and trancription nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) activities in colon tissue and blood samples of rats with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis. The rats were randomly divided into four groups - CG, AC, AC+PRE and AC+PRO. Colitis was induced using of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7d. DSS application increased activity of β-glucuronidase (P LS/07 decreased β-glucuronidase activity (P LS/07 and inulin suppressed expression observed markers, which play an important role in the inflammatory process, which predisposes their use in prevention or treatment of acute colitis.

  12. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  13. Jumihaidokuto effectively inhibits colon inflammation and apoptosis in mice with acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedhar, Remya; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Mst Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    Jumihaidokuto, a Japanese kampo medicine, is prescribed in Japan for its anti-inflammatory activity. Here we have examined its beneficial effects against acute colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. We have used C57BL/6 female mice, divided into two groups and received 3% DSS in drinking water during the experimental period (8days). Treatment group mice received 1g/kg/day dose of Jumihaidokuto orally whereas DSS control group received equal volume of distilled water. Normal control group mice received plain drinking water. Jumihaidokuto treatment attenuated the colitis symptoms along with suppression of various inflammatory marker proteins such as IL-1β, IL-2Rα, IL-4, CTGF and RAGE. It has also down-regulated the oxidative stress and apoptotic signaling in the colons of mice with colitis. The present study has confirmed the beneficial effects of Jumihaidokuto on DSS induced acute colitis in mice and suggests that it can be a potential agent for the treatment of colitis.

  14. Inflammatory cytokine gene expression in mesenteric adipose tissue during acute experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Conan Mustain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Production of inflammatory cytokines by mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Animal models of colitis have demonstrated inflammatory changes within MAT, but it is unclear if these changes occur in isolation or as part of a systemic adipose tissue response. It is also unknown what cell types are responsible for cytokine production within MAT. The present study was designed to determine whether cytokine production by MAT during experimental colitis is depot-specific, and also to identify the source of cytokine production within MAT. METHODS: Experimental colitis was induced in 6-month-old C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (2% in drinking water for up to 5 days. The induction of cytokine mRNA within various adipose tissues, including mesenteric, epididymal, and subcutaneous, was analyzed by qRT-PCR. These adipose tissues were also examined for histological evidence of inflammation. The level of cytokine mRNA during acute colitis was compared between mature mesenteric adipocytes, mesenteric stromal vascular fraction (SVF, and mesenteric lymph nodes. RESULTS: During acute colitis, MAT exhibited an increased presence of infiltrating mononuclear cells and fibrotic structures, as well as decreased adipocyte size. The mRNA levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were significantly increased in MAT but not other adipose tissue depots. Within the MAT, induction of these cytokines was observed mainly in the SVF. CONCLUSIONS: Acute experimental colitis causes a strong site-specific inflammatory response within MAT, which is mediated by cells of the SVF, rather than mature adipocytes or mesenteric lymph nodes.

  15. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Acute Colitis in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme C; Bériou, Gaëlle; Josien, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are complex multifactorial disease thought to result from inappropriate immune responses to the gut microbiota, in genetically susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors. Among the different animal models developed to help in understanding IBDs pathophysiological mechanisms as well as to achieve pharmacological preclinical studies, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most widely used because of its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and similarity with human IBDs. This section provides with a detailed protocol that we validated in our laboratory to perform DSS-induced acute colitis in the Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rat.

  16. Effect of iron supplementation on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghdassi, E; Carrier, J; Cullen, J; Tischler, M; Allard, J P

    2001-05-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of intraperitoneal iron dextran (100 mg/100 g body weight) on oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium. In both colitis and healthy animals, disease activity index, crypt and inflammatory scores, colon length, plasma and colonic lipid peroxides, and plasma vitamins E, C, and retinol were assessed. The results showed that iron-supplemented groups had moderate iron deposition in the colonic submucosa and lamina propria. In the colitis group supplemented with iron, colon length was significantly shorter; disease activity index, crypt, and inflammatory scores and colonic lipid peroxides were significantly higher; and plasma alpha-tocopherol was significantly lower compared to the colitis group without iron supplementation. There was no intestinal inflammation and no significant increase in colonic lipid peroxides in healthy rats supplemented with iron. In conclusion, iron injection resulted in an increased oxidative stress and intestinal inflammation in rats with colitis but not in healthy rats. PMID:11341654

  17. Air enema used in the evaluation of acute colitis. A comparison between instant radiography and endoscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate air enema as a method of assessing acute colitis. Material and Methods: Twenty-seven patients with symptoms of acute colitis underwent plain abdominal radiography, air enema, and colonoscopy within 48 h. The films were evaluated by 3 observers with different levels of experience, both independently and together, and the results were then compared to the findings at endoscopy. Results: Air enema visualized a greater part of the colon than plain abdominal radiography. When air enema was compared to endoscopy as the reference, it showed good correlation, with a positive predictive value of 92% (sensitivity 62%, specificity 85%). Evaluation of the rectum was less accurate, a finding that emphasized the importance of rigid sigmoidoscopy. Conclusion: Air enema is a useful diagnostic method in acute colitis, it is easily performed and tolerated well with no observed complications. It is also easy to interpret, as shown by a high level of agreement (κ=0.67) among the 3 independent observers with very different levels of experience. (orig.)

  18. Intestinal Epithelial Cell Tyrosine Kinase 2 Transduces IL-22 Signals To Protect from Acute Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hainzl, Eva; Stockinger, Silvia; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Berry, David; Lassnig, Caroline; Schwab, Clarissa; Rosebrock, Felix; Milinovich, Gabriel; Schlederer, Michaela; Wagner, Michael; Schleper, Christa; Loy, Alexander; Urich, Tim; Kenner, Lukas; Han, Xiaonan; Decker, Thomas; Strobl, Birgit; Müller, Mathias

    2015-11-15

    In the intestinal tract, IL-22 activates STAT3 to promote intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) homeostasis and tissue healing. The mechanism has remained obscure, but we demonstrate that IL-22 acts via tyrosine kinase 2 (Tyk2), a member of the Jak family. Using a mouse model for colitis, we show that Tyk2 deficiency is associated with an altered composition of the gut microbiota and exacerbates inflammatory bowel disease. Colitic Tyk2(-/-) mice have less p-STAT3 in colon tissue and their IECs proliferate less efficiently. Tyk2-deficient primary IECs show reduced p-STAT3 in response to IL-22 stimulation, and expression of IL-22-STAT3 target genes is reduced in IECs from healthy and colitic Tyk2(-/-) mice. Experiments with conditional Tyk2(-/-) mice reveal that IEC-specific depletion of Tyk2 aggravates colitis. Disease symptoms can be alleviated by administering high doses of rIL-22-Fc, indicating that Tyk2 deficiency can be rescued via the IL-22 receptor complex. The pivotal function of Tyk2 in IL-22-dependent colitis was confirmed in Citrobacter rodentium-induced disease. Thus, Tyk2 protects against acute colitis in part by amplifying inflammation-induced epithelial IL-22 signaling to STAT3. PMID:26432894

  19. Absence of intestinal PPARγ aggravates acute infectious colitis in mice through a lipocalin-2-dependent pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To be able to colonize its host, invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must disrupt and severely affect host-microbiome homeostasis. Here we report that S. Typhimurium induces acute infectious colitis by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Interestingly, this PPARγ down-regulation by S. Typhimurium is independent of TLR-4 signaling but triggers a marked elevation of host innate immune response genes, including that encoding the antimicrobial peptide lipocalin-2 (Lcn2. Accumulation of Lcn2 stabilizes the metalloproteinase MMP-9 via extracellular binding, which further aggravates the colitis. Remarkably, when exposed to S. Typhimurium, Lcn2-null mice exhibited a drastic reduction of the colitis and remained protected even at later stages of infection. Our data suggest a mechanism in which S. Typhimurium hijacks the control of host immune response genes such as those encoding PPARγ and Lcn2 to acquire residence in a host, which by evolution has established a symbiotic relation with its microbiome community to prevent pathogen invasion.

  20. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Villegas, I; Rosillo, M A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón

    2013-02-14

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has demonstrated immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties in murine experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). In addition to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content, evidences have accumulated on the favorable properties of minor, although highly bioactive, components present in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary EVOO's UF supplementation on acute UC. C57BL/6 mice were fed from weaning with sunflower oil (SD), EVOO diet and UF-enriched SD at 5% oil (SD+UF). After 30 days, mice were exposed to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days developing acute colitis. After 4 days of DSS removal, animals were sacrificed and colons were histological and biochemically processed. Disease activity index and microscopic damage score were significantly improved in EVOO and SD+UF dietary groups versus SD group. In addition, both dietary treatments significantly induced decreases in MCP-1 and TNF-α levels, iNOS and COX-2 overexpression and p38 MAPKs activation in colon mucosa. Moreover, an upregulation of IκB expression was also observed after feeding the animals with both diets. However, no statistically differences between data from mice fed with EVOO or UF+SD diets were observed. Dietary enrichment with EVOO's UF reduces the damage in acute colitis model, alleviating the oxidative events and returning proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 MAPK and NFκB signalling pathways. EVOO's UF diet might provide a basis for developing a new strategy in dietary supplementation for the prevention of UC.

  1. A case of acute ischemic colitis after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorios Voulalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colonic ischemia is a recognized complication of either open or endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The clinical difficulty in establishing the diagnosis, the severity of this complication and the patient's poor physiological status may lead to a fatal outcome. We presented a case of ischemic colitis in a patient with patent hypogastric arteries that occurred after an endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair as well as a review of the available literature. The patient's preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data were recorded. A thorough search through the Google data and Medline to review similar cases or any analyses that referred to ischemic colitis after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair was conducted. A 76-year-old male was admitted to our department for an elective endovascular repair of an 8 cm in diameter abdominal aortic aneurysm. A Zenith bifurcation graft was implanted. The whole procedure was uneventful and the final angiogram showed an accurate deployment of the endograft without endoleaks and patency of both hypogastric arteries. During the 1st postoperative day, the patient developed symptoms of acute abdomen in combination with metabolic acidosis and oliguria. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy, which revealed necrosis of the sigmoid. A Hartmann's procedure was performed; the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where he deceased after 24 h. Postoperative ischemic colitis has been described after open abdominal aneurysm repair. The description of this complication has been reported since the early phase of endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair development with a current incidence of 1.5%–3.0%. Possible mechanisms that may contribute to ischemic colitis in spite of the presence of patent hypogastric arteries include atheroembolization, shock, vasopressive drugs and inferior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  2. A case of acute ischemic colitis after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grigorios Voulalas; Chrisostomos Maltezos

    2016-01-01

    Colonic ischemia is a recognized complication of either open or endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The clinical difficulty in establishing the diagnosis, the severity of this complication and the patient's poor physiological status may lead to a fatal outcome. We presented a case of ischemic colitis in a patient with patent hypogastric arteries that occurred after an endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair as well as a review of the available literature. The patient's preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data were recorded. A thorough search through the Google data and Medline to review similar cases or any analyses that referred to ischemic colitis after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair was conducted. A 76-year-old male was admitted to our department for an elective endovascular repair of an 8 cm in diameter abdominal aortic aneurysm. A Zenith bifurcation graft was implanted. The whole procedure was uneventful and the final angiogram showed an accurate deployment of the endograft without endoleaks and patency of both hypogastric arteries. During the 1st postoperative day, the patient developed symptoms of acute abdomen in combination with metabolic acidosis and oliguria. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy, which revealed necrosis of the sig-moid. A Hartmann's procedure was performed;the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where he deceased after 24 h. Postoperative ischemic colitis has been described after open abdominal aneurysm repair. The description of this complication has been reported since the early phase of endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair development with a current incidence of 1.5%–3.0%. Possible mechanisms that may contribute to ischemic colitis in spite of the presence of patent hypogastric arteries include athe-roembolization, shock, vasopressive drugs and inferior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  3. MAR binding protein SMAR1 favors IL-10 mediated regulatory T cell function in acute colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Patil, Sachin [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Bopanna, Ramanamurthy [Experimental Animal Facility, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Chattopadhyay, Samit, E-mail: samit@nccs.res.in [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2015-08-21

    T{sub reg} cells are not only crucial for controlling immune responses to autoantigens but also prevent those directed towards commensal pathogens. Control of effector immune responses by T{sub reg} cells depend on their capacity to accumulate at inflammatory site and accordingly accommodate to inflammatory environment. Till date, the factors associated with maintaining these aspects of T{sub reg} phenotype is not understood properly. Here we have shown that a known nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 is selectively expressed more in colonic T{sub reg} cells and is required for their ability to accumulate at inflammatory site and to sustain high levels of Foxp3 and IL-10 expression during acute colitis. Elimination of anti-inflammatory subsets revealed a protective role for IL-10 producing T{sub reg} cells in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. Moreover, a combined action of Foxp3 and SMAR1 restricts effector cytokine production and enhance the production of IL-10 by colonic T{sub reg} cells that controls acute colitis. This data highlights a critical role of SMAR1 in maintaining T{sub reg} physiology during inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • SMAR1 is essential to sustain high level of Foxp3 and IL-10 in T{sub reg} cells. • SMAR1{sup −/−} T{sub reg} cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 leads to inflammation. • IL-10 administration can control the inflammation in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. • Both Foxp3 and SMAR1 maintain T{sub reg} phenotype that controls colitis.

  4. Update on medical and surgical options for patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis: What is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Rachel E; Messaris, Evangelos

    2016-01-01

    Acute severe ulcerative colitis (UC) is a highly morbid condition that requires both medical and surgical management through the collaboration of gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons. First line treatment for patients presenting with acute severe UC consists of intravenous steroids, but those who do not respond require escalation of therapy or emergent colectomy. The mortality of emergent colectomy has declined significantly in recent decades, but due to the morbidity of this procedure, second line agents such as cyclosporine and infliximab have been used as salvage therapy in an attempt to avoid emergent surgery. Unfortunately, protracted medical therapy has led to patients presenting for surgery in a poorer state of health leading to poorer post-operative outcomes. In this era of multiple medical modalities available in the treatment of acute severe UC, physicians must consider the advantages and disadvantages of prolonged medical therapy in an attempt to avoid surgery. Colectomy remains a mainstay in the treatment of severe ulcerative colitis not responsive to corticosteroids and rescue therapy, and timely referral for surgery allows for improved post-operative outcomes with lower risk of sepsis and improved patient survival. Options for reconstructive surgery include three-stage ileal pouch-anal anastomosis or a modified two-stage procedure that can be performed either open or laparoscopically. The numerous avenues of medical and surgical therapy have allowed for great advances in the treatment of patients with UC. In this era of options, it is important to maintain a global view, utilize biologic therapy when indicated, and then maintain an appropriate threshold for surgery. The purpose of this review is to summarize the growing number of medical and surgical options available in the treatment of acute, severe UC.

  5. IL-33 Aggravates DSS-Induced Acute Colitis in Mouse Colon Lamina Propria by Enhancing Th2 Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Sang, Lixuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yue, Dan; Li, Shengjun; Li, Yan; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated diseases. IL-33 was expressed in high level on epithelial cells of intestinal tract. It suggested that IL-33 plays a potential role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We investigated the role of interleukin- (IL-) 33 in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced acute colitis in mice using recombinant mouse IL-33 protein (rIL-33). We found that DSS-induced acute colitis was aggravated by rIL-33 treatment. rIL-33-treated DSS mice showed markedly reduced levels of interferon- (IFN-)γ and IL-17A in their colon lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), but the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, in these cells were significantly increased, compared to DSS mice treated with PBS. Our results suggested that IL-33 stimulated CD4(+)T cells and caused the cell to adopt a Th2-type response but at the same time suppressed Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Therefore, IL-33 may be involved in pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis by promoting Th2 cell response in intestinal mucosa of mice. Modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling by monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be a novel biological therapy in DSS-induced acute colitis.

  6. Pseudomembranous colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic-associated colitis; Colitis - pseudomembranous; Necrotizing colitis; C difficile - pseudomembranous ... this bacteria from 1 person to another. Pseudomembranous colitis is uncommon in children, and rare in infants. ...

  7. Effect of acute and chronic DSS induced colitis on plasma eicosanoid and oxylipin levels in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Ina; Ostermann, Annika I; Giovannini, Samoa; Kershaw, Olivia; von Keutz, Anne; Steinberg, Pablo; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-07-01

    Eicosanoids and oxylipins are potent lipid mediators involved in the regulation of inflammation. In order to evaluate their role and suitability as biomarkers in colitis, we analyzed their systemic levels in the acute and chronic phase of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis. Male Fischer 344 rats were treated in three cycles with 4% DSS in the drinking water (4 days followed by 10 days recovery) and blood was drawn 3 days prior to the first DSS treatment and on days 4, 11, 32 and 39. Histopathological evaluation of the colon tissue after 42 days showed that the animals developed a mild to severe chronic colitis. Consistently, prostaglandin levels were massively (twofold) elevated in the colonic tissue. LC-MS based targeted metabolomics was used to determine plasma oxylipin levels at the different time points. In the acute phase of inflammation directly after DSS treatment, epoxy-fatty acid (FA), dihydroxy-FA and hydroxy-FA plasma concentrations were uniformly elevated. With each treatment cycle the increase in these oxylipin levels was more pronounced. Our data suggest that in the acute phase of colitis release of polyunsaturated FAs from membranes in the inflamed tissue is reflected by a uniform increase of oylipins formed in different branches of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, during the recovery phases the systemic oxylipin pattern is not or only moderately altered and does not allow to evaluate the onset of chronic inflammation in the colon.

  8. Loss of n-6 fatty acid induced pediatric obesity protects against acute murine colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary influences may affect microbiome composition and host immune responses, thereby modulating propensity toward inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Dietary n-6 fatty acids have been associated with ulcetative colitis in prospective studies. However, the critical d...

  9. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakaguchi,Kohsaku

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past 3 years, and amebic colitis was shown by colonofi berscopy during hospitalization. The patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis B, concurrent with amebic colitis, and was successfully treated with lamivudine and metronidazole. In Japanese patients with acute hepatitis B virus genotype A infection, homosexual activity tends to be high. Furthermore, in Japanese homosexual men, amebiasis has been increasing. Thus, in Japanese patients with acute hepatitis B, a determination of genotype should be performed in order to investigate the route of transmission of hepatitis B virus, and a search for amebiasis should be performed in patients with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype A. Furthermore, education of homosexual men regarding hepatitis B virus, hepatitis B virus vaccination, and amebiasis is urgently required.

  10. P2X3 receptors mediate visceral hypersensitivity during acute chemically-induced colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase via different mechanisms of sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Deiteren

    Full Text Available Experiments using P2X3 knock-out mice or more general P2X receptor antagonists suggest that P2X3 receptors contribute to visceral hypersensitivity. We aimed to investigate the effect of the selective P2X3 antagonist A-317491 on visceral sensitivity under physiological conditions, during acute colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase of colitis.Trinitrobenzene sulphonic-acid colitis was monitored by colonoscopy: on day 3 to confirm the presence of colitis and then every 4 days, starting from day 10, to monitor convalescence and determine the exact timepoint of endoscopic healing in each rat. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying visceromotor responses to colorectal distension in controls, rats with acute colitis and post-colitis rats. A-317491 was administered 30 min prior to visceral sensitivity testing. Expression of P2X3 receptors (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and the intracellular signalling molecules cdk5, csk and CASK (RT-PCR were quantified in colonic tissue and dorsal root ganglia. ATP release in response to colorectal distension was measured by luminiscence.Rats with acute TNBS-colitis displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently, but not fully, reversed by A-317491. Hypersenstivity was accompanied by an increased colonic release of ATP. Post-colitis rats also displayed visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently reduced and fully normalized by A-317491 without increased release of ATP. A-317491 did not modify visceral sensitivity in controls. P2X3 mRNA and protein expression in the colon and dorsal root ganglia were similar in control, acute colitis and post-colitis groups, while colonic mRNA expression of cdk5, csk and CASK was increased in the post-colitis group only.These findings indicate that P2X3 receptors are not involved in sensory signaling under physiological conditions whereas they modulate visceral hypersensitivity during acute TNBS-colitis and even more so in the post

  11. Safety and efficacy of the immunosuppressive agent 6-tioguanine in murine model of acute and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bodegraven Adriaan A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral thiopurines are effective and widely used in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in humans, although their use is limited due the development of adverse events. Here, we examine the efficacy and toxicity of oral treatment with 6-tioguanine (6-TG and azathioprine (AZA in a murine model of IBD. Methods We induced acute or chronic colitis in BALB/c mice by one or four cycles of 3% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS, respectively. Mice were treated by daily gavages of various dosages of 6-tioguanine, azathioprine, or by phosphate buffered saline (PBS starting the first day of DSS or after two cycles of DSS, respectively. We monitored the efficacy and toxicity by measuring the weight change and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity and by disease severity and histology, at the end of the experiment. Moreover, we measured cytokine production after colon fragment cultivation by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and numbers of apoptotic cells in the spleen by flow cytometry. Results 6-TG is effective in the treatment of acute DSS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner and 40 μg of 6-TG is significantly more effective in the treatment of acute colitis than both AZA and PBS. This effect is accompanied by decrease of IL-6 and IFN-γ production in colon. We did not observe histological abnormalities in liver samples from control (PBS or 6-TG treated mice. However, liver samples from most mice treated with AZA showed mild, yet distinct signs of hepatotoxicity. In chronic colitis, all thiopurine derivatives improved colitis, 20 μg of 6-TG per dose was superior. High doses of 6-TG led to significant weight loss at the end of the therapy, but none of the thiopurine derivatives increased levels of serum ALT. Both thiopurine derivatives reduced the proportion of apoptotic T helper cells, but a high production of both IL-6 and TGF-β was observed only in colon of AZA-treated mice. Conclusions Use of 6-TG in the treatment

  12. Acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis in an Amazonian manatee calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Galvão Bueno, Marina; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Bossart, Gregory D; Marmontel, Miriam

    2016-08-01

    On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding. Adaptation to the nursing formula included 2 kinds of whole milk. Up to 20 d post-rescue the calf presented appetite, was active, and gained weight progressively. Past this period the calf started losing weight and presented constant involuntary buoyancy and died after 41 d in rehabilitation. The major findings at necropsy were pneumatosis intestinalis in cecum and colon, pulmonary edema, and hepatomegaly. The microscopic examination revealed pyogranulomatous and necrohemohrragic colitis with multinucleated giant cells, acute multifocal lymphadenitis with lymphoid depletion in cortical and paramedullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffuse severe acinar atrophy of the pancreas. Anaerobic cultures of fragments of cecum and colon revealed colonies genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. We speculate that compromised immunity, thermoregulatory failure, and intolerance to artificial diet may have been contributing factors to the infection, leading to enterotoxemia and death. PMID:27503914

  13. Protective role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis through generating gut-homing macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkibaf, Shahab; Martins, Andrew J; Henry, Garth T; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its role in promoting the generation and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also found to be involved in macrophage generation and immune regulation; however, its in vivo role in immune homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using G-CSF receptor-deficient (G-CSFR(-/-)) mice. Mice were administered with 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5days, and the severity of colitis was measured for the next 5days. GCSFR(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than G-CSFR(+/+) or G-CSFR(-/+) mice. G-CSFR(-/-) mice harbored less F4/80(+) macrophages, but a similar number of neutrophils, in the intestine. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of both G-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (G-BMDM) expressed higher levels of regulatory macrophage markers such as programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2), CD71 and CD206, but not in arginase I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Ym1 (chitinase-like 3) and FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), and lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD80 and CD86 than bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of M-CSF alone (BMDM), in response to interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ, respectively. Adoptive transfer of G-BMDM, but not BMDM, protected G-CSFR(-/-) mice from DSS-induced colitis, and suppressed expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β and iNOS in the intestine. These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in preventing colitis, likely through populating immune regulatory macrophages in the intestine.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging: A new tool for diagnosis of acute ischemic colitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca Iacobellis; Daniela Berritto; Francesco Somma; Carlo Cavaliere; Marco Corona; Santolo Cozzolino; Franco Fulciniti

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To define the evolution of ischemic lesions with 7T magnetic resonance imaging (7T-MRI) in an animal model of acute colonic ischemia.METHODS:Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups.Group I underwent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) ligation followed by macroscopic observations and histological analysis.In group Ⅱ,7T-MRI was performed before and after IMA ligation and followed by histological analysis.RESULTS:Morphological alterations started to develop 1 h after IMA ligation,when pale areas became evident in the splenic flexure mesenteny and progressively worsened up to 8 h thereafter,when the mesentery was less pale,and the splenic flexure loop appeared very dark.The 7T-MRI results reflected these alterations,showing a hyperintense signal in both the intraperitoneal space and the colonic loop wall 1 h after IMA ligation; the latter progressively increased to demonstrate a reduction in the colonic loop lumen at 6 h.Eight hours after IMA ligation,MRI showed a persistent colonic mural hyperintensity associated with a reduction in peritoneal free fluid.The 7T-MRI findings were correlated with histological alterations,varying from an attenuated epithelium with glandular apex lesions at 1 h to coagulative necrosis and loss of the surface epithelium detected 8 h after IMA ligation.CONCLUSION:MRI may be used as a substitute for invasive procedures in diagnosing and grading acute ischemic colitis,allowing for the early identification of pathological findings.

  15. In-vivo monitoring of acute DSS-Colitis using Colonoscopy, high resolution Ultrasound and bench-top Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walldorf, J.; Hermann, M.; Pohl, S.; Zipprich, A. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Halle (Germany); Porzner, M.; Seufferlein, T. [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm (Germany); Metz, H.; Maeder, K. [Martin Luther University, Institut of Pharmacy, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Christ, B. [University of Leipzig, Department of Surgery II, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate (colour Doppler-) high-resolution-ultrasound (hrUS) and bench-top magnetic resonance imaging (btMRI) as new methods to monitor experimental colitis. hrUS, btMRI and endoscopy were performed in mice without colitis (n = 15), in mice with acute colitis (n = 14) and in mice with acute colitis and simultaneous treatment with infliximab (n = 19). Determination of colon wall thickness using hrUS (32 MHz) and measurement of the cross-sectional colonic areas by btMRI allowed discrimination between the treatment groups (mean a vs. b vs. c - btMRI: 922 vs. 2051 vs. 1472 pixel, hrUS: 0.26 vs. 0.45 vs. 0.31 mm). btMRI, endoscopy, hrUS and colour Doppler-hrUS correlated to histological scoring (p < 0.05), while endoscopy and btMRI correlated to post-mortem colon length (p < 0.05). The innovative in vivo techniques btMRI and hrUS are safe and technically feasible. They differentiate between distinct grades of colitis in an experimental setting, and correlate with established post-mortem parameters. In addition to endoscopic procedures, these techniques provide information regarding colon wall thickness and perfusion. Depending on the availability of these techniques, their application increases the value of in vivo monitoring in experimental acute colitis in small rodents. (orig.)

  16. In-vivo monitoring of acute DSS-Colitis using Colonoscopy, high resolution Ultrasound and bench-top Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate (colour Doppler-) high-resolution-ultrasound (hrUS) and bench-top magnetic resonance imaging (btMRI) as new methods to monitor experimental colitis. hrUS, btMRI and endoscopy were performed in mice without colitis (n = 15), in mice with acute colitis (n = 14) and in mice with acute colitis and simultaneous treatment with infliximab (n = 19). Determination of colon wall thickness using hrUS (32 MHz) and measurement of the cross-sectional colonic areas by btMRI allowed discrimination between the treatment groups (mean a vs. b vs. c - btMRI: 922 vs. 2051 vs. 1472 pixel, hrUS: 0.26 vs. 0.45 vs. 0.31 mm). btMRI, endoscopy, hrUS and colour Doppler-hrUS correlated to histological scoring (p < 0.05), while endoscopy and btMRI correlated to post-mortem colon length (p < 0.05). The innovative in vivo techniques btMRI and hrUS are safe and technically feasible. They differentiate between distinct grades of colitis in an experimental setting, and correlate with established post-mortem parameters. In addition to endoscopic procedures, these techniques provide information regarding colon wall thickness and perfusion. Depending on the availability of these techniques, their application increases the value of in vivo monitoring in experimental acute colitis in small rodents. (orig.)

  17. How does disease location affect acute phase reactants in ulcerative colitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: CRP, ESR, WBC, PLT counts and albumin levels are of limited value in determining disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients, especially in those with proctitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1589-1593

  18. Absence of Intestinal PPARγ Aggravates Acute Infectious Colitis in Mice through a Lipocalin-2–Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Parag; Ling, Teo Wei; Korecka, Agata; Li, Yinghui; D'Arienzo, Rossana; Bunte, Ralph M.; Berger, Thorsten; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan; Chambon, Pierre; Mak, Tak Wah; Wahli, Walter; Pettersson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    To be able to colonize its host, invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must disrupt and severely affect host-microbiome homeostasis. Here we report that S. Typhimurium induces acute infectious colitis by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Interestingly, this PPARγ down-regulation by S. Typhimurium is independent of TLR-4 signaling but triggers a marked elevation of host innate immune response genes, including that encoding the antimicrobial peptide lipocalin-2 (Lcn2). Accumulation of Lcn2 stabilizes the metalloproteinase MMP-9 via extracellular binding, which further aggravates the colitis. Remarkably, when exposed to S. Typhimurium, Lcn2-null mice exhibited a drastic reduction of the colitis and remained protected even at later stages of infection. Our data suggest a mechanism in which S. Typhimurium hijacks the control of host immune response genes such as those encoding PPARγ and Lcn2 to acquire residence in a host, which by evolution has established a symbiotic relation with its microbiome community to prevent pathogen invasion. PMID:24465207

  19. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; Kobashi, Haruhiko; Takaki, Akinobu; Kato, Jun; Nawa, Toru; Tatsukawa, Masashi; Ishikawa, Shin; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Miyake, Yasuhiro; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past ...

  20. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Miyake, Yasuhiro; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Ishikawa, Shin; Tatsukawa, Masashi; Nawa, Toru; Kato, Jun; Takaki, Akinobu; Kobashi, Haruhiko; Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent withamebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice.Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during thepast 3 y...

  1. Heme Oxygenase-1 Ameliorates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Acute Murine Colitis by Regulating Th17/Treg Cell Balance*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liya; Zhang, Yanjie; Zhong, Wenwei; Di, Caixia; Lin, Xiaoliang; Xia, Zhenwei

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a group of autoimmune diseases characterized by nonspecific inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. Recent investigations suggest that activation of Th17 cells and/or deficiency of regulatory T cells (Treg) is involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. Heme oxygenase (HO)-1 is a protein with a wide range of anti-inflammatory and immune regulatory function, which exerts significantly protective roles in various T cell-mediated diseases. In this study, we aim to explore the immunological regulation of HO-1 in the dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of experimental murine colitis. BALB/c mice were administered 4% dextran sulfate sodium orally; some mice were intraperitoneally pretreated with HO-1 inducer hemin or HO-1 inhibitor stannum protoporphyrin IX. The results show that hemin enhances the colonic expression of HO-1 and significantly ameliorates the symptoms of colitis with improved histological changes, accompanied by a decreased proportion of Th17 cells and increased number of Tregs in mesenteric lymph node and spleen. Moreover, induction of HO-1 down-regulates retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt expression and IL-17A levels, while promoting Treg-related forkhead box p3 (Foxp3) expression and IL-10 levels in colon. Further study in vitro revealed that up-regulated HO-1 switched the naive T cells to Tregs when cultured under a Th17-inducing environment, which involved in IL-6R blockade. Therefore, HO-1 may exhibit anti-inflammatory activity in the murine model of acute experimental colitis via regulating the balance between Th17 and Treg cells, thus providing a possible novel therapeutic target in IBD. PMID:25112868

  2. Colonoscopy of acute colitis. A safe and reliable tool for assessment of severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonnel, F; Lavergne, A; Lémann, M; Bitoun, A; Valleur, P; Hautefeuille, P; Galian, A; Modigliani, R; Rambaud, J C

    1994-07-01

    Complications that might lead to surgery in severe attacks of ulcerative colitis have been found to be correlated with the depth of colonic ulcerations as measured by pathological examination of colectomy specimens. In order to evaluate the value of colonoscopy for the assessment of colonic ulcerations, we have reviewed the clinical, biological, colonoscopic, and anatomical findings in 85 consecutive patients with attacks of ulcerative colitis involving at least the rectosigmoid and part of the descending colon, seen in our center between 1981 and 1989. All had colonoscopy performed by a senior endoscopist at entry. Extensive deep colonic ulcerations were diagnosed in 46 of them, and moderate endoscopic colitis in 39. No complication related to colonoscopy occurred except for one colonic dilatation. Forty-three of the 46 patients with severe endoscopic colitis were operated upon; 38 of them failed to improve with high-dose corticosteroids and five had a toxic megacolon. Extensive ulcerations reaching at least the circular muscle layer were found at pathological examination of colectomy specimen in 42 of the 43 patients. Conversely, 30 of 39 patients with moderate endoscopic colitis went into clinical remission with medical treatment, and only nine patients needed further surgery because of medical treatment failure. Six of these nine patients underwent another colonoscopy prior to colectomy, and all six showed features of severe endoscopic colitis. Deep ulcerations reaching the circular muscle layer were found at pathological examination in five of these six patients and in one additional patient whose colonoscopy had been performed 21 days before colectomy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8026269

  3. Effect of Matricaria aurea (Loefl. Shultz-Bip. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Acetic Acid-Induced Acute Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    Full Text Available Objective(s Matricaria aurea is found abundant in Iran and has large similarities in constituents especially essential oils, flavones and flavonoides as well as traditional uses to the main species; Matricaria recutita L. Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and spasmolytic properties of the main species suggest that this plant may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel diseases so the present study was carried out.Materials and MethodsHydroalcoholic extract of plant with doses of 200, 400, 800 mg/kg were administered orally (p.o. for 5 days and rectally (i.r. (400 and 800 mg/kg at 15 and 2 hr before ulcer induction. To induce colitis, 2 ml of acetic acid 4% was instilled intra-colonically to separate groups of male Wistar rats (n= 6. Normal saline (2 ml, prednisolone (4 mg/kg and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg enema were administered to control and reference groups respectively. The tissue injures were assessed macroscopically and histopathologically. ResultsGreater doses of extract (400 and 800 mg/kg reduced colon weight/length ratio (P< 0.01 and the highest test dose (800 mg/kg p.o. or i.r. was effective to decrease tissue damage parameters including ulcer severity, area and index (P< 0.01 as well as inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage and total colitis index (P< 0.01 significantly. ConclusionIt is concluded that Matricaria aurea extract was effective to protect against acute colitis in acetic acid model and this effect was more significant with the greater doses administered orally or rectally. Further studies are warranted to ascertain the mechanisms that are involved and the responsible active constituents.

  4. Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice via reducing IL-6/STAT3 and IL-23/IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Lian-Jie; Lin, Yan; Sang, Li-Xuan; Jiang, Min; Zheng, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice. 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, Ginaton group, Ginaton treatment group, and DSS group. After 7 days administration, mice were sacrificed and colons were collected for H-E staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot. By observing clinical disease activity and histological damage, we assessed the effect of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice and observed the effect of Ginaton on normal mice. We also explored the specific mechanism of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice through examining the expression of inflammatory related mediators (gp130, STAT3, p-STAT3, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). Ginaton-treated DSS mice showed significant improvement over untreated DSS mice. Specifically, Ginaton improved clinical disease activity (DAI score, weight closs, colon shortening, and bloody stool) and histological damage, and reduced the expression of inflammatory-related mediators (p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). In addition, clinical disease activity, histological damage, the expression of inflammatory related mediators (STAT3, p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-t) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23) in mice of Ginaton group were similar to normal control group. In conclusion, Ginaton ameliorates DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice by reducing IL-17 production, which is at least partly involved in inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and IL-23/IL-17 axis. Moreover, Ginaton itself does not cause inflammatory change in normal mice. These results support that Ginaton can be as a potential clinical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC).

  5. Calcitriol analog ZK191784 ameliorates acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis by modulation of intestinal dendritic cell numbers and phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ZK1916784, a low calcemic analog of calcitriol on intestinal inflammation.METHODS: Acute and chronic colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) according to standard procedures. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with ZK1916784 or placebo and colonic inflammation was evaluated. Cytokine production by mesenterial lymph node (MLN) cells was measured by ELISA.Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) within the colonic tissue,and the effect of the calcitriol analog on DCs was investigated.RESULTS: Treatment with ZK191784 resulted in significant amelioration of disease with a reduced histological score in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation. In animals with acute DSS colitis, down-regulation of colonic inflammation was associated with a dramatic reduction in the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and a significant increase in intereleukin (IL)-10 by MLN cells.Similarly, in chronic colitis, IL-10 expression in colonic tissue increased 1.4-fold when mice were treated with ZK191784, whereas expression of the Th1-specific transcription factor T-beta decreased by 81.6%. Lower numbers of infiltrating activated CD11c+ DCs were found in the colon in ZK191784-treated mice with acute DSS colitis, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by primary mucosal DCs was inhibited in the presence of the calcitriol analog.CONCLUSION: The calcitriol analog ZK191784 demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties in experimental colitis that were at least partially mediated by the immunosuppressive effects of the derivate on mucosal DCs.

  6. Acute ischemic colitis during scuba diving:Report of a unique case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos Goumas; Androniki Poulou; Ioannis Tyrmpas; Dimitrios Dandakis; Stavros Bartzokis; Magdalini Tsamouri; Kalipso Barbati; Dimitrios Soutos

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of clinical symptoms due to decompression during diving,varies significantly,as mainly minor disturbances for the gastrointestinal tract in particular have been reported.The following case debates whether diving can cause severe symptoms from the gastrointestinal system.We describe a clinical case of ischemic colitis presented in a 27-year-old male,who manifested abdominal pain while in the process of scuba diving 20 meters undersea,followed by bloody diarrhoea as soon as he ascended to sea level.Taking into account his past medical history,the thorough,impeccable clinical and laboratory examinations and presence of no other factors predisposing to ischemia of the colon,we assume that a possible relationship between diving conditions and the pathogenesis of ischemic colitis may exist.This unusual case might represent a hematologic manifestation of decompression sickness,due to increased coagulability and/or transient air emboli,occurring during a routine scuba diving ascent to sea level.

  7. Gene silencing of TNF-alpha in a murine model of acute colitis using a modified cyclodextrin delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, J; O'Neill, M J; Bourre, L; Walsh, D; Quinlan, A; Hurley, G; Ogier, J; Shanahan, F; Melgar, S; Darcy, R; O'Driscoll, C M

    2013-05-28

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The cytokine TNF-alpha (TNF-α) plays a pivotal role in mediating this inflammatory response. RNA interference (RNAi) holds great promise for the specific and selective silencing of aberrantly expressed genes, such as TNF-α in IBD. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of an amphiphilic cationic cyclodextrin (CD) vector for effective TNF-α siRNA delivery to macrophage cells and to mice with induced acute-colitis. The stability of CD.siRNA was examined by gel electrophoresis in biorelevant media reflecting colonic fluids. RAW264.7 cells were transfected with CD.TNF-α siRNA, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and TNF-α and IL-6 responses were measured by PCR and ELISA. Female C57BL/6 mice were exposed to dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) and treated by intrarectal administration with either CD.siRNA TNF-α or a control solution. In vitro, siRNA in CD nanocomplexes remained intact and stable in both fed and fasted simulated colonic fluids. RAW264.7 cells transfected with CD.TNF-α siRNA and stimulated with LPS displayed a significant reduction in both gene and protein levels of TNF-α and IL-6. CD.TNF-α siRNA-treated mice revealed a mild amelioration in clinical signs of colitis, but significant reductions in total colon weight and colonic mRNA expression of TNF-α and IL-6 compared to DSS-control mice were detected. This data indicates the clinical potential of a local CD-based TNF-α siRNA delivery system for the treatment of IBD. PMID:23500058

  8. Expression of ICAM-1 and acute inflammatory cell infiltration in the early phase of radiation colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Ito, Masahiro; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Fukuda, Eiichiro; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Naito, Shinji; Sekine, Ichiro [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Bomb Disease Inst.

    2000-09-01

    Inflammatory cell infiltration of the colon is observed at an early stage of radiation-induced colitis. The emigration of inflammatory cells from the circulation requires interactions between cell adhesion molecules on the vascular endothelium and molecules on the surface of leukocytes. To elucidate this process, the present work analyzes the kinetics of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the accumulation of inflammatory myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells in relation to the appearance of acute radiation colitis prior to an overt radiation-induced ulcer. Colon tissues were obtained from Wistar Kyoto rats at various times after 22.5 Gy irradiation to the rectum. Histologically, crypt depletion and numerous inflammatory cells were observed 4 days after irradiation, and mucosal ulcer 6 days after irradiation. ICAM-1 immunopositivity was present in the endothelial cells of small vessels in the mucosa of both control and irradiated rats. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was detected in normal colon and irradiated colon by reverse transcription-PCR. In Northern blotting, ICAM-1 mRNA levels were found to increase markedly in the irradiated colon compared to the normal colon. In Western blotting, ICAM-1 protein expression also increased with a peak one day after irradiation, and remained elevated up to 6 days thereafter. The number of MPO-positive cells in lamina propria mucosa increased in a time-dependent fashion from 6 h to 6 days after irradiation. These data suggest that up-regulation of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells and accumulation of MPO positive cells play important roles in the development of radiation-induced colonic ulcer. (author)

  9. Acute Pancreatitis due to pH-Dependent Mesalazine That Occurred in the Course of Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Arai

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 26-year-old male who presented with acute pancreatitis during the course of treatment for pancolitic ulcerative colitis (UC with a time-dependent mesalazine formulation, prednisolone and azathioprine (AZA. Despite a review of his clinical history and various tests, the cause of pancreatitis could not be determined. Since drug-induced pancreatitis was considered possible, administration of the time-dependent mesalazine preparation and AZA was discontinued, and conservative treatment for acute pancreatitis was performed. The pancreatitis promptly improved with these treatments, but drug lymphocyte stimulation test (DLST for both the time-dependent mesalazine formulation and AZA was negative. A pH-dependent mesalazine formulation was given for maintenance therapy of UC. Subsequently, as the pancreatitis relapsed, drug-induced pancreatitis was strongly suspected. Administration of mesalazine was discontinued, and pancreatitis was smoothly in remission by conservative treatment. According to the positive DLST result for the pH-dependent mesalazine formulation and the clinical course, a diagnosis of pH-dependent mesalazine-induced pancreatitis due to this formulation was made. During the clinical course of UC, occurrence of drug-induced pancreatitis must always be considered.

  10. Pseudomembranous colitis presenting as acute colonic obstruction without diarrhea in a patient with gastric Burkitt lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi Nomura; Shigeo Horiike; Takeshi Okanoue; Masafumi Taniwaki; Kohei Fukumoto; Daisuke Shimizu; Takashi Okuda; Naohisa Yoshida; Yuri Kamitsuji; Yosuke Matsumoto; Hideyuki Konishi; Yuji Ueda

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) usually manifests asfever and diarrhea in hospitalized patients treated withsystemic antibiotics. We described a case of PMC withintestinal obstruction but without diarrhea. A 60-yearold man was hospitalized for chemotherapy for the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma of the stomach. The patient became febrile and complained of crampy abdominal pain during the post-chemotherapy nadir. Plain abdominal radiography showed some intestinal gas and niveau. Because stool cytotoxin assay for clostridium difficile was positive and colon fiberscopic examination showed a pseudomembrane at the left side of the colon,and a diagnosis of PMC was made. Treatment with intracolonic vancomycin administration by colonoscopy and nasoileus tube was successful. Physicians should take into account the possibility of bowel obstruction due to PMC occurring in patients undergoing chemotherapy and perform emergency colonoscopy examination of suspected cases.

  11. Mesalizine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Interstitial Pneumonitis in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min Jae; Lee, Jae Hee; Moon, Kyung Rye

    2015-12-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Mesalizine for the first-line therapy of UC has adverse effects include pancreatitis, pneumonia and pericarditis. UC complicated by two coexisting conditions, however, is very rare. Moreover, drug-related pulmonary toxicity is particularly rare. An 11-year-old male patient was hospitalized for recurring upper abdominal pain after meals with vomiting, hematochezia and exertional dyspnea developing at 2 weeks of mesalizine therapy for UC. The serum level of lipase was elevated. Chest X-ray and thorax computed tomography showed interstitial pneumonitis. Mesalizine was discontinued and steroid therapy was initiated. Five days after admission, symptoms were resolved and mesalizine was resumed after a drop in amylase and lipase level. Symptoms returned the following day, however, accompanied by increased the serum levels of amylase and lipase. Mesalizine was discontinued again and recurring symptoms rapidly improved.

  12. Ischemic colitis associated with acute carbon monoxide poisoning--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Lindell K; Deru, Kayla

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common, but it has rarely been reported to cause ischemic colitis. In this case, a 34-year-old female with depression presented to an emergency department after a period of unconsciousness, with urinary and bowel incontinence, following exposure to car exhaust. Her carboxyhemoglobin level was 23%. She had metabolic acidosis. She was transferred to our facility for hyperbaric oxygen treatment, where she had intractable nausea/vomiting with abdominal pain and bright-red bleeding per rectum. She exhibited lower abdominal tenderness and hypoactive bowel sounds. Vital signs were: temperature 36.8 degrees C; blood pressure 137/ 86 mmHg; heart rate 114 beats/minute; respiratory rate 28 breaths/minute. The patient's electrocardiogram showed sinus tachycardia with T-wave inversions in leads I, aVL and V3-V6. The troponin I level peaked at 3.7 ng/ml. Echocardiogram showed a reduced ejection fraction of 30%-35%, with akinesis in the posterior lateral and distal anterior distributions. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed diffuse colonic mural thickening, supporting mesenteric ischemia. Sigmoidoscopy showed edematous friable pale mucosa from rectum to distal sigmoid colon. Hyperbaric oxygen was deferred based on the patient's status. Over three days, the initial hematochezia progressed to melena and then resolved. Adenosine cardiac stress MRI was normal. She was transferred to the psychiatry service and discharged four days later. Four years later, she has no gastrointestinal, cardiac or cognitive problems. PMID:27265995

  13. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil polyphenols: hydroxytyrosyl acetate and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylglycol on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, Ma Ángeles; González-Benjumea, Alejandro; Marset, Azucena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has exhibited an improvement in a model of DSS-induced colitis. However, other phenolic compounds present such as hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) need to be explored to complete the understanding of the overall effects of EVOO on inflammatory colon mucosa. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of both HTy-Ac and DHPG dietary supplementation in the inflammatory response associated to colitis model. Six-week-old mice were randomized in four dietary groups: sham and control groups received standard diet, and other two groups were fed with HTy-Ac and DHPG, respectively, at 0.1%. After 30 days, all groups except sham received 3% DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by a regime of 5 days of water. Acute inflammation was evaluated by Disease Activity Index (DAI), histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic expression of iNOS, COX-2, MAPKs, NF-kB and FOXP3 were determined by western blotting. Only HTy-Ac-supplemented group showed a significant DAI reduction as well as an improvement of histological damage and MPO. COX-2 and iNOS protein expression were also significantly reduced. In addition, this dietary group down-regulated JNK phosphorylation and prevented the DSS-induced nuclear translocation level of p65. However, no significant differences were observed in the FOXP3 expression. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that HTy-Ac exerts an antiinflammatory effect on acute ulcerative colitis. We concluded that HTy-Ac supplement might provide a basis for developing a new dietary strategy for the prevention of ulcerative colitis.

  14. Ischaemic colitis and lung infiltrates caused by extramedullary haematopoiesis in a patient with an acute erythroid leukaemia following polycythaemia vera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brada, SJL; de Wolf, JTM; Poppema, S; Vellenga, E

    1998-01-01

    A patient with 'spent' polycythaemia vera showed extensive extramedullary haematopoiesis (EMH) in non-haematopoietic tissue clinically resulting in an ischaemic colitis and respiratory symptoms due to lung infiltrates. On laboratory investigation, the EMH also included immature erythroblasts due to

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Minaiyan; Gholamreza Asghari; Diana Taheri; Mozhgan Saeidi; Salar Nasr-Esfahani

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE) and its chloroform fraction (MCF) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) were administered orally to separate groups...

  16. Phylotype-level 16S rRNA analysis reveals new bacterial indicators of health state in acute murine colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, David; Schwab, Clarissa; Milinovich, Gabriel; Reichert, Jochen; Ben Mahfoudh, Karim; Decker, Thomas; Engel, Marion; Hai, Brigitte; Hainzl, Eva; Heider, Susanne; Kenner, Lukas; Müller, Mathias; Rauch, Isabella; Strobl, Birgit; Wagner, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Human inflammatory bowel disease and experimental colitis models in mice are associated with shifts in intestinal microbiota composition, but it is unclear at what taxonomic/phylogenetic level such microbiota dynamics can be indicative for health or disease. Here, we report that dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis is accompanied by major shifts in the composition and function of the intestinal microbiota of STAT1−/− and wild-type mice, as determined by 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial...

  17. Sweet's syndrome in a patient with acute Crohn's colitis and longstanding ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, A; Tebbe, B; Distler, A; Sieper, J; Braun, J

    1999-01-01

    Acute neutrophilic dermatosis, also referred to as Sweet's syndrome according to the first description in 1964, occurs not only as an isolated phenomenon but also in the context of neoplastic and inflammatory diseases, occasionally including arthritides. Recently Sweet's syndrome has been reported in a small number of patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease, mostly in advanced stages of the disease. Here, we describe the sudden outbreak of acute neutrophilic dermatosis in coincidence with the onset of severe Crohn's disease (CD) in a patient with long-standing ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This condition has not been described before and therefore Sweet's syndrome should be added to the spectrum of skin manifestations the rheumatologist has to think about in the context of the spondylarthropathies (SpA). Furthermore, this case report is of interest because the skin lesions of Sweet's syndrome are somewhat similar to psoriasis, which is a rather frequent feature of the spondylarthropathies. This article intends to clarify the clinical and histological differentiation between Sweet's syndrome, psoriatic skin lesions and erythema nodosum for the rheumatologist and stresses that these conditions must each be treated in a completely different manner. PMID:10544847

  18. Glutamine Supplementation Attenuates Expressions of Adhesion Molecules and Chemokine Receptors on T Cells in a Murine Model of Acute Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Migration of T cells into the colon plays a major role in the pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of glutamine (Gln supplementation on chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules expressed by T cells in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis. Methods. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a Gln diet replacing 25% of the total nitrogen. After being fed the diets for 5 days, half of the mice from both groups were given 1.5% DSS in drinking water to induce colitis. Mice were killed after 5 days of DSS exposure. Results. DSS colitis resulted in higher expression levels of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand- (PSGL- 1, leukocyte function-associated antigen- (LFA- 1, and C-C chemokine receptor type 9 (CCR9 by T helper (Th and cytotoxic T (Tc cells, and mRNA levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in colons were upregulated. Gln supplementation decreased expressions of PSGL-1, LFA-1, and CCR9 by Th cells. Colonic gene expressions of endothelial adhesion molecules were also lower in Gln-colitis mice. Histological finding showed that colon infiltrating Th cells were less in the DSS group with Gln administration. Conclusions. Gln supplementation may ameliorate the inflammation of colitis possibly via suppression of T cell migration.

  19. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - discharge; Ulcerative proctitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... were in the hospital because you have ulcerative colitis. This is a swelling of the inner lining ...

  20. Mulberry fruit prevents LPS-induced NF-κB/pERK/MAPK signals in macrophages and suppresses acute colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Huang, Lian; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Liyan; Li, Li; Yao, Lijun; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wu, Yonghou; Luo, Jun; Liu, Johnson J; Yang, Yi; Yang, Wancai; Gou, Deming

    2015-11-30

    Here, we investigated the impact of mulberry fruit (MBF) extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the therapeutic efficacy of MBF diet in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and MUC2(-/-) mice with colorectal cancer. In vitro, LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly inhibited by MBF extracts via suppressing the expression of proinflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-β) and IL-6. Particularly, a dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced inflammatory responses was observed following treatment with MBF dichloromethane extract (MBF-DE), in which linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were identified as two active compounds. Moreover, we elucidated that MBF-DE attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking activation of both NF-κB/p65 and pERK/MAPK pathways. In vivo, DSS-induced acute colitis was significantly ameliorated in MBF-fed mice as gauged by weight loss, colon morphology and histological damage. In addition, MBF-fed MUC2(-/-) mice displayed significant decrease in intestinal tumor and inflammation incidence compared to control diet-fed group. Overall, our results demonstrated that MBF suppressed the development of intestinal inflammation and tumorgenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and supports the potential of MBF as a therapeutic functional food for testing in human clinical trials.

  1. Derivation of a T2-weighted MRI total colonic inflammation score (TCIS) for assessment of patients with severe acute inflammatory colitis - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez, Rehana; Boulos, Paul [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Punwani, Shonit; Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Specialist X-ray, Level 2 podium, London (United Kingdom); Pendse, Doug [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Bloom, Stuart [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Gastroenterology, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Specialist X-ray, Level 2 podium, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    To derive an MRI score for assessing severity, therapeutic response and prognosis in acute severe inflammatory colitis. Twenty-one patients with acute severe colitis underwent colonic MRI after admission and again (n = 16) after median 5 days of treatment. Using T2-weighted images, two radiologists in consensus graded segmental haustral loss, mesenteric and mural oedema, mural thickness, and small bowel and colonic dilatation producing a total colonic inflammatory score (TCIS, range 6-95). Pre- and post-treatment TCIS were compared, and correlated with CRP, stool frequency, and number of inpatient days (therapeutic response marker). Questionnaire assessment of patient worry, satisfaction and discomfort graded 1 (bad) to 7 (good) was administered Admission TCIS correlated significantly with CRP (Kendall's tau=0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.79, p = 0.006), and stool frequency (Kendall's tau 0.39, 95% CI 0.14-0.64, p = 0.02). TCIS fell after treatment (median [22 range 15-31]) to median 20 [range 8-25], p = 0.01. Admission TCIS but not CRP or stool frequency was correlated with length of inpatient stay (Kendall's tau 0.40, 95% CI 0.11-0.69, p = 0.02). Patients reported some discomfort (median score 4) during MRI. MRI TCIS falls after therapy, correlates with existing markers of disease severity, and in comparison may better predict therapeutic response. (orig.)

  2. Microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, A; Aust, D; Bohr, Jakob;

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease presenting with chronic, non-bloody watery diarrhoea and few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The histological examination reveals mainly two subtypes of MC, lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. Despite the fact that the incidence in MC has...... been rising over the last decades, research has been sparse and our knowledge about MC remains limited. Specialists in the field have initiated the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG) with the primary goal to create awareness on MC. The EMCG is furthermore a forum with the intention to promote...

  3. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in DSS-induced acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Kou, Jinhua; Liu, Weijian; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2016-06-20

    Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. However, the effect of alpinetin on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of alpinetin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In vivo, DSS-induced mice colitis model was established by giving mice drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. Alpinetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered once a day by intraperitoneal injection 3 days before DSS treatment. In vitro, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 macrophages were treated with alpinetin and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that alpinetin significantly attenuated diarrhea, colonic shortening, histological injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) production in mice. In vitro, alpinetin markedly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that alpinetin had protective effects on DSS-induced colitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for colitis treatment.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  5. [Collagenous colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, C G

    1991-05-01

    Collagenous colitis is now regarded by an overwhelming majority of authors as a clinicopathological entity and has been taken up as a such in many text-books and diagnostic atlases (Morson & Dawson, 1990, Fenoglio-Preiser et al., 1989, Whitehead 1985, Whitehead 1989). A good, detailed review of cases of collagenous colitis published up to 1988 was performed by Perri et al. Collagenous colitis was also presented to a wider medical public through a clinicopathological conference case at Massachusetts General Hospital (Case 29-1988). Finally it may be added that collagenous colitis has been included in the new fourth edition of Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (Cotran, Kumar, Robbins, 1989), where the possibility of an autoimmune disease is stressed.

  6. Neuroprotective Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy in Acute Stages of TNBS-Induced Colitis in Guinea-Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainsley M Robinson

    Full Text Available The therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, such as homing ability, multipotent differentiation capacity and secretion of soluble bioactive factors which exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, have been attributed to attenuation of autoimmune, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we aimed to determine the earliest time point at which locally administered MSC-based therapies avert enteric neuronal loss and damage associated with intestinal inflammation in the guinea-pig model of colitis.At 3 hours after induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate (TNBS, guinea-pigs received either human bone marrow-derived MSCs, conditioned medium (CM, or unconditioned medium by enema into the colon. Colon tissues were collected 6, 24 and 72 hours after administration of TNBS. Effects on body weight, gross morphological damage, immune cell infiltration and myenteric neurons were evaluated. RT-PCR, flow cytometry and antibody array kit were used to identify neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs.MSC and CM treatments prevented body weight loss, reduced infiltration of leukocytes into the colon wall and the myenteric plexus, facilitated repair of damaged tissue and nerve fibers, averted myenteric neuronal loss, as well as changes in neuronal subpopulations. The neuroprotective effects of MSC and CM treatments were observed as early as 24 hours after induction of inflammation even though the inflammatory reaction at the level of the myenteric ganglia had not completely subsided. Substantial number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs was identified in their secretome.MSC-based therapies applied at the acute stages of TNBS-induced colitis start exerting their neuroprotective effects towards enteric neurons by 24 hours post treatment. The neuroprotective efficacy of MSC-based therapies can be exerted independently to their anti

  7. Microscopic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Ianiro; Giovanni Cammarota; Luca Valerio; Brigida Eleonora Annicchiarico; Alessandro Milani; Massimo Siciliano; Antonio Gasbarrini

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome,of unknown etiology,consisting of chronic watery diarrhea,with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation.Therefore,a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis.The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years,with most data coming from Western countries.Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management.Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC.The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epitll lial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium.A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years,involving the role of luminal agents,autoimmunity,eosinophils,genetics (human leukocyte antigen),biliary acids,infections,alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts,and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine,carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC,while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine,non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole.Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea,that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain,weight loss and incontinence.Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis:the role of steroidal therapy,especially oral budesonide,has gained relevance,as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine.The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents,infliximab and adalimumab,constitutes a new,interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis,but larger,adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data.

  8. Dysaesthesias and dysautonomia: a self-limited syndrome of painful dysaesthesias and autonomic dysfunction in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Nass, R.; Chutorian, A

    1982-01-01

    Three children with an acute self-limited syndrome characterised by painful dysaethesias, hypertension, and autonomic dysfunction, in the absence of motor and reflex abnormalities, are presented. They appear to have had a variant of acute polyneuritis involving sensory and autonomic systems. The pathophysiology of hypertension in the Guillain-Barré syndrome and of acute pandysautonomia is discussed. Excessive adrenergic function is considered as a cause of the pain component of the syndrome.

  9. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  10. Role of nitric oxide in the impairment of circular muscle contractility of distended, uninflamed mid-colon in TNBS-induced acute distal colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciano Onori; Giovanni Latella; Annalisa Aggio; Simona D'Alo'; Paola Muzi; Maria Grazia Cifone; Gabriella Mellillo; Rachele Ciccocioppo; Gennaro Taddei; Giuseppe Frieri

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the motor disorders of the dilated uninflamed mid-colon (DUMC)from trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute distal colitis in rats.METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intracolonic administration of TNBS.Control rats received an enema of 0.9% saline. The rats were killed 48 h after TNBS or saline administration.Macroscopic and histologic lesions of the colon were evaluated. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were measured on the colonic tissue. In TNBS rats, we evaluated spontaneous and evoked contractile activity in circular muscle strips derived from DUMC in comparison to the same colonic segment of control rats, both in the presence and in the absence of a non-selective NOS isoforms inhibitor N-nitro-Larginine (L-NNA). Pharmacological characterization of electric field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractile responses was also performed.RESULTS: In TNBS rats, the distal colon showed severe histological lesions and a high MPO activity, while the DUMC exhibited normal histology and MPO activity.Constitutive NOS activity was similar in TNBS and control rats, whereas inducible NOS activity was significantly increased only in the injured distal colon of TNBS rats.Isometrically recorded mechanical activity of circular muscle strips from DUMC of TNBS rats showed a marked reduction of the force and frequency of spontaneous contractions compared to controls, as well as of the contractile responses to a contracting stimulus. In the presence of L-NNA, the contractile activity and responses displayed a significantly greater enhancement compared to controls. The pharmacological characterization of EFS contractile responses showed that a cooperative-like interaction between cholinergic muscarinic and tachykinergic neurokinin 1 and 2 receptors mediated transmission in DUMC of TNBS rats vs a simple additive interaction in controls.CONCLUSION: The results of this

  11. Colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten;

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer is of th......Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer...

  12. CMV - gastroenteritis/colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colitis - cytomegalovirus; Gastroenteritis - cytomegalovirus; Gastrointestinal CMV disease ... or after bone marrow or organ transplant Ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease Rarely, serious CMV infection involving ...

  13. Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Stephen D; Vogel, Megan E; Kindel, Tammy L; Smith, Darcey L H; Idelman, Gila; Avissar, Uri; Kakarlapudi, Ganesh; Masnovi, Michelle E

    2015-11-15

    Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression.

  14. Left Ventricular Thrombosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek Saleh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular thrombi usually occur in the setting of an acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular aneurysm, or dilated cardiomyopathy. In the absence of ventricular wall motion abnormalities, they are rare. This report describes a patient with ulcerative colitis in whom two-dimensional echocardiography revealed a left intraventricular mass. Thrombosis in ulcerative colitis is a serious condition and can occur in a very young population. This case also shows that left ventricular thrombi can occur in the active setting of ulcerative colitis.

  15. The self-limiting nature of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulsalam A Al-Sulaiman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins have come to the forefront of treatments for hyperlipidemias, coronary artery diseases and strokes. They have been shown to cause myotoxicity and rhabdomyolysis. In most cases, rhabdomyolysis is self-limiting and needs supportive therapy. Two cases of statin-induced rhabdomyolysis are reported emphasizing the definition, risk factors, clinical features and the self-limiting nature of the disorder.

  16. Eosinophilic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions,inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination.Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

  17. First report of Entamoeba histolytica infection from Timor-Leste--acute amoebic colitis and concurrent late development of amoebic liver abscess in returned travellers to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourse, Clare B; Robson, Jennifer M; Whitby, Michael R; Francis, Josh R

    2016-02-01

    This communication reports invasive amoebic colitis and late onset amoebic liver abscess in three members of a group of 12 Australian travellers to Timor-Leste (TL). This is the first report of Entamoeba histolytica infection from TL. Clinicians in Australia need to consider amoebiasis in the differential diagnosis in travellers returning with colitis, abdominal pain and fever. Presentation with amoebic liver abscess months after exposure is rare but should be suspected in symptomatic individuals with a relevant history of travel. PMID:26858275

  18. Complications of collagenous colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2008-01-01

    Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis. This disorder generally has an apparently benign clinical course. However, a number of gastric and intestinal complications, possibly coincidental, may develop with collagenous colitis. Distinctive inflammatory disorders of the gastric mucosa have been described, including lymphocytic gastritis and collagenous gastritis. Celiac disease and collagenous sprue (or collagenous enteritis) may occur. Colonic ulceration...

  19. Induction of experimental acute ulcerative colitis in rats by administration of dextran sulfate sodium at low concentration followed by intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several models of experimental ulcerative colitis have been reported previously. However, none of these models showed the optimum characteristics. Although dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis results in inflammation resembling ulcerative colitis, an obvious obstacle is that dextran sulfate sodium is very expensive. The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive model of colitis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 2% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 3 d followed by an intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol. The administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium followed by 30% ethanol induced significant weight loss, diarrhea and hematochezia in rats. Severe ulceration and inflammation of the distal part of rat colon were developed rapidly. Histological examination showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes,lymphocytes and existence of cryptic abscesses and dysplasia. The model induced by dextran sulfate sodium at lower concentration followed by 30% ethanol is characterized by a clinical course, localization of the lesions and histopathological features similar to human ulcerative colitis and fulfills the criteria set out at the beginning of this study.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica volatile oil and gum on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Minaiyan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Baneh tree or Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica is an endemic plant of Iran which belongs to Anacardiaceae family. It has various traditional uses including astringent and anti-diarrheal as well as improving some of the symptoms of gastrointestinal upsets. In this study we decided to investigate the effects of various fractions of baneh gum with different doses in an animal model of ulcerative colitis as one of the important chronic inflammatory bowel diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Methods: The volatile oil and aqueous baneh gum suspensions were prepared and the constituents of the volatile oil were analyzed by GC/MS. They were used to treat colitis induced by acetic acid 4% in rats. Three doses of gum (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered both orally (p.o. and intra-rectally (i.r. while volatile oil was administered p.o. with doses 100, 200 and 400 µl/kg for four constitutive days. Anti-inflammatory effects of the test compounds were compared with oral prednisolone and hydrocortisone enema. Wet colon weight/ length ratio and tissue damage scores and area as well as indices of colitis and tissue myeloperoxidase activity were evaluated for each specimen. Results: Alpha-pinene was the main constituent of baneh volatile oil (41.23%. We observed therapeutic effects in applied doses of oral gum as well as volatile oil to reduce all indices of colitis and myeloperoxidase activity. Unlike the oral form of gum, its rectal administration was not significantly effective to improve colitis. Conclusion: This research has proved the anti-inflammatory potential of oral gum of Pistacia atlantica subsp. kurdica and its volatile oil in an experimentally induced colitis.

  1. Characteristics of Older Drivers Who Self-Limit Their Driving

    OpenAIRE

    Braitman, Keli A.; McCartt, Anne T

    2008-01-01

    Driver age, gender, medical conditions, and impairments in memory, vision, and physical functioning as predictors of self-limited driving were examined among a sample of 2,650 drivers 65 and older from Kentucky (n=1,337), Connecticut (n=828), and Rhode Island (n=485). Drivers were recruited while renewing their driver’s licenses and were interviewed by telephone about their current driving patterns (e.g., whether they self-limit their driving and, if so, how), functional abilities related to ...

  2. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  3. A resposta metabólica ao trauma cranioencefálico é autolimitada? Análise das proteínas de fase aguda e glicemia Is the metabolic response self-limited in head trauma? Analysis of acute phase proteins and glycemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARTHUR O. SCHELP

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos tem havido referências à limitação da resposta metabólica nas duas primeiras semanas após trauma cranioencefálico (TCE. Foi feita proposta de estudo a partir de experimento clínico em pacientes com trauma encefálico grave, que foram avaliados por volta de 7 dias após a lesão (M1. A segunda avaliação ocorreu 4 dias após (M2, e a terceira 3 a 4 dias após (M3. Em um período de 2 anos, foram selecionados 28 pacientes do sexo masculino, com trauma encefálico grave, escala de gravidade de Glasgow entre 4 e 6. Dentre os 28 pacientes, 6 completaram o estudo proposto. Os pacientes foram acompanhados clinicamente durante toda a fase do experimento. Em cada um dos momentos de análise, foram feitas análises da excreção nitrogenada e proteínas de fase aguda. Da mesma forma foram feitas determinações da glicemia plasmática, N-amínico e triglicerídeos. Os resultados do estudo demonstraram não haver modificações no balanço nitrogenado, normalização da proteína-C-reativa e redução relativa da glicemia ao final do experimento. Os autores tecem considerações sobre os possíveis mecanismos envolvidos na modulação da resposta metabólica e concluem que o hipermetabolismo, a basear-se na análise da glicemia e das proteínas de fase aguda, não persiste além do 13° dia do período de recuperação pós-trauma. São feitas sugestões de estudos futuros que possam elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na normalização do hipercatabolismo e hipermetabolismo observados nas duas primeiras semanas após TCE.There are many reports supporting a self-limitation mechanism involved with hypermetabolic response after severe cranial injury. It was proposed a study with severe head injury patients, in three stages of the evolution. The first 7 days after admission (moment 1- M1, the second three days latter (M2 and the last 7 days after the first (M3. Among male patients with severe head injury, attended between January 1992

  4. A Liberal Account of Self-limiting Individualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H.H.A.; Harskamp, Anton van; Musschenga, Albert W.

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I aim to show that a doctrine of self-limiting individualism is presupposed by the most influential account of liberalism today, political liberalism. My argument is that political liberalism can admit that it is based on a rather comprehensive normative ideal of individualism, without

  5. "A Liberal Account of Self-Limiting Individualism"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H.H.A.; Harskamp, Anton van; Musschenga, Albert W.

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I aim to show that a doctrine of self-limiting individualism, understood as a formal yet fairly comprehensive conception of how a person should lead her life and relate to others, is presupposed by the most influential account of liberalism today, political liberalism.

  6. Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract ameliorates intestinal inflammation through MAPKs/NF-κB signaling in a murine model of acute experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medicherla, Kanakaraju; Ketkar, Avanee; Sahu, Bidya Dhar; Sudhakar, Godi; Sistla, Ramakrishna

    2016-07-13

    We investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-colitis effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract (RE) by using both in vitro LPS-activated mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages and in vivo dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental murine colitis and suggested the underlying possible mechanisms. Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis was performed to identify the major components present in the RE. The clinical signs, biochemistry, immunoblot, ELISA and histology in colon tissues were assessed in order to elucidate the beneficial effect of RE. RE suppressed the LPS-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and the expressions of inflammatory proteins in macrophages. Administration of RE (50 and 100 mg kg(-1)) also significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced murine colitis, as assessed by the clinical symptoms, colon length and histology. RE administration prevented the DSS-induced activation of p38, ERK and JNK MAPKs, attenuated IκBα phosphorylation and subsequent nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB (p65). RE also suppressed the COX-2 and iNOS expressions, decreased the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 cytokines and the myeloperoxidase activity in the colon tissue. Histological observation revealed that RE administration alleviated mucosal damage and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by DSS in the colon tissue. Hence, RE could be used as a new preventive and therapeutic food ingredient or as a dietary supplement for inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27349640

  7. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  8. 联用乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌对小鼠急性溃疡性结肠炎的影响%Influence of combined administration of lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum on acute mice ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左和宁; 杨伟峰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of combined administration of lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum on acute mice ulcerative colitis, and explore its therapeutic mechanism.Methods Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice model of acute ulcerative colitis was established. After administration of lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum, the pathological change of tunica mucosa coli was observed and the expression levels of tumor necorisis factor (TNF-α) and tissue factor (TF) were measured.Results Lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum significantly alleviated the damage of tunica mucosa coli and suppressed the expression of TNF-αand TF. By comparison, there were the lightest histological damage and the lowest expression of TNF-αand TF when lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum were administrated combined.Conclusion Both lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum show therapeutic effect on DSS-induced mice ulcerative colitis. The coordinate repression on expression of TNF-αand TF may be the molecular mechanism of the co-effect on mice UC.%目的 观察联用乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌对小鼠急性溃疡性结肠炎的疗效并探讨其治疗机制.方法 建立DSS诱导的小鼠急性溃疡性结肠炎(UC)模型,观察给予乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌治疗后,小鼠结肠黏膜的病理改变和TNF-α和组织因子(TF)表达的变化.结果 乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌可明显减轻小鼠结肠黏膜的损伤;可明显抑制TNF-α和TF的表达,尤以两菌合用组抑制作用最强.结论 乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌对DSS诱导的UC有治疗作用,对TNF-α和TF表达的协同抑制作用可能是其发挥协调治疗作用的分子机制.

  9. Complications of collagenous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Hugh-James

    2008-03-21

    Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis. This disorder generally has an apparently benign clinical course. However, a number of gastric and intestinal complications, possibly coincidental, may develop with collagenous colitis. Distinctive inflammatory disorders of the gastric mucosa have been described, including lymphocytic gastritis and collagenous gastritis. Celiac disease and collagenous sprue (or collagenous enteritis) may occur. Colonic ulceration has been associated with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, may evolve from collagenous colitis. Submucosal "dissection", colonic fractures or mucosal tears and perforation from air insufflation during colonoscopy may occur and has been hypothesized to be due to compromise of the colonic wall from submucosal collagen deposition. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressure during barium enema contrast studies. Finally, malignant disorders have also been reported, including carcinoma and lymphoproliferative disease. PMID:18350593

  10. Complications of collagenous colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis. This disorder generally has an apparently benign clinical course. However, a number of gastric and intestinal complications, possibly coincidental, may develop with collagenous colitis. Distinctive inflammatory disorders of the gastric mucosa have been described, including lymphocytic gastritis and collagenous gastritis. Celiac disease and collagenous sprue (or collagenous enteritis) may occur. Colonic ulceration has been associated with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, may evolve from collagenous colitis. Submucosal "dissection", colonic fractures or mucosal tears and perforation from air insufflation during colonoscopy may occur and has been hypothesized to be due to compromise of the colonic wall from submucosal collagen deposition. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressure during barium enema contrast studies. Finally, malignant disorders have also been reported, including carcinoma and lymphoproliferative disease.

  11. Role of the protein annexin A1 on the efficacy of anti-TNF treatment in a murine model of acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula-Silva, Marina; Barrios, Bibiana Elisabeth; Macció-Maretto, Lisa; Sena, Angela Aparecida; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Correa, Silvia Graciela; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2016-09-01

    TNF-α is involved in the mechanisms that initiate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Anti-TNF-α drugs, such as infliximab (IFX), cause non-responsiveness and side effects, indicating the need to investigate alternative therapies for these diseases. The anti-inflammatory protein, annexin A1 (AnxA1), has been associated with the protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa. To further address the role of endogenous AnxA1 on the TNF-α blockade efficacy in a murine model, we assessed colitis induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) in wild-type (WT) and AnxA1(-/-) Balb/c mice treated with IFX. We consistently observed endogenous AnxA1 prevented clinical and physiological manifestations of experimental colitis treated with IFX, additionally the manifestation of the disease was observed earlier in AnxA1(-)(/-) mice. Rectal bleeding, diarrhea, histological score, epithelial damages and collagen degradation caused by DSS were prevented following IFX treatment only in WT mice. IL-6 increased during colitis in WT and AnxA1(-)(/-) mice, decreasing under IFX treatment in WT. The influx of neutrophils and TNF-α secretion were largely elevated in AnxA1(-)(/-) mice when compared to WT mice. In the group WT/DSS+IFX, phagocytes were more susceptible to apoptosis following treatment with IFX. Endogenous expression of AnxA1 increased after DSS and decreased with IFX treatment, demonstrating an attenuated inflammatory response. The data indicate that AnxA1 contributes to the establishment of intestinal homeostasis after blocking of TNF-α was used as a treatment of IBD, constituting a key molecule in the mechanism of action and a potential biomarker of therapeutic efficacy. PMID:27343762

  12. Surgery for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crohn's Disease & Ulcerative Colitis Go Back Surgery for Crohn's Disease & Ulcerative Colitis Email Print + Share ( Disclaimer: Surgery information ... helps you to learn what to expect. About Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis ...

  13. Is knee pain during adolescence a self-limiting condition?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rathleff, Michael S.; Rathleff, Camilla R.; Olesen, Jens L.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adolescent knee pain is 33%, and patellofemoral pain (PFP) is the most common diagnosis with a nontraumatic onset. The 2-year prognosis of adolescent PFP compared with other types of knee pain is unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the 2-year prognosis of knee pain amon...... without knee pain at baseline. CONCLUSION: Knee pain during adolescence, and PFP in particular, is in most cases present after 2 years and thus may not be self-limiting. A greater focus on early detection and prevention of knee pain during adolescence is needed....

  14. Self-Limiting Layer Synthesis of Transition Metal Dichalcogenides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngjun; Song, Jeong-Gyu; Park, Yong Ju; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Su Jeong; Kim, Jin Sung; Jeon, Pyo Jin; Lee, Chang Wan; Woo, Whang Je; Choi, Taejin; Jung, Hanearl; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Myoung, Jae-Min; Im, Seongil; Lee, Zonghoon; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Park, Jusang; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-01-01

    This work reports the self-limiting synthesis of an atomically thin, two dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D TMDCs) in the form of MoS2. The layer controllability and large area uniformity essential for electronic and optical device applications is achieved through atomic layer deposition in what is named self-limiting layer synthesis (SLS); a process in which the number of layers is determined by temperature rather than process cycles due to the chemically inactive nature of 2D MoS2. Through spectroscopic and microscopic investigation it is demonstrated that SLS is capable of producing MoS2 with a wafer-scale (~10 cm) layer-number uniformity of more than 90%, which when used as the active layer in a top-gated field-effect transistor, produces an on/off ratio as high as 108. This process is also shown to be applicable to WSe2, with a PN diode fabricated from a MoS2/WSe2 heterostructure exhibiting gate-tunable rectifying characteristics.

  15. Self-activated, self-limiting reactions on Si surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Per; Hvam, Jeanette; Bahari, Ali;

    limited transport of oxygen to the oxide/silicon interface. For thin oxides the deal-Grove growth rate is initially constant, but for ultrathin oxides (a couple of nm thick) this is not true and the Deal-Grove model does not explain the mechanism. In a series of recent reports we have found a new...... mechanism for the direct growth of ultrathin films (0-3 nm) of oxides and nitrides under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Neutral oxygen and a microwave excited nitrogen plasma interact directly with Si surfaces kept at different temperatures during the reaction. The gas pressures are around 10-6 Torr......, and the temperatures vary from room temperature to 10000C.The growth is in these cases self-limiting, with the optimal oxide thickness around 0.7-0.8 nm, at 5000C, and up to a few nm for nitride. The self-limiting oxide case was recently predicted by Alex Demkov in a structural optimization to minimise the total...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my area? Other Names for This Condition colitis gravis idiopathic proctocolitis inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis type ... for professional medical care or advice. Users with questions about a personal health condition should consult with ...

  17. Non-IBD and noninfectious colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Vainer, Ben; Rask-Madsen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms underlie colitis. This Review provides an overview of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, histopathology, and clinical characteristics of noninfectious and non-IBD forms of colitis: microscopic colitis, Behçet's syndrome, diversion colitis......, diverticular colitis, eosinophilic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation colitis. These more recently characterized and rare forms of colitis occur as either primary conditions or complications of other diseases. Most of these diseases are uncommon; therefore, epidemiologic data and data from controlled...... trials are not readily available. Practical guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of these more recently characterized and rarer forms of colitis are given where possible....

  18. Non-IBD and noninfectious colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Vainer, B.; Rask-Madsen, J.

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms underlie colitis. This Review provides and overview of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, histopathology, and clinical characteristics of noninfectious and non-IBD forms of colitis: microscopic colitis, Behcet's syndrome, diversion colitis......, diverticular colitis, eosinophilic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation colitis. These more recently characterized and rare forms of colitis occur as either primary conditions or complications of other diseases. Most of these diseases are uncommon; therefore, epidemiologic data and data from controlled...... trials are not readily available. Practical guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of these more recently characterized and rarer forms of colitis are given where possible Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  19. Strong self-limitation promotes the persistence of rare species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenni, Glenda; Adler, Peter B; Ernest, S K Morgan

    2012-03-01

    Theory has recognized a combination of niche and neutral processes each contributing, with varying importance, to species coexistence. However, long-term persistence of rare species has been difficult to produce in trait-based models of coexistence that incorporate stochastic dynamics, raising questions about how rare species persist despite such variability. Following recent evidence that rare species may experience significantly different population dynamics than dominant species, we use a plant community model to simulate the effect of disproportionately strong negative frequency dependence on the long-term persistence of the rare species in a simulated community. This strong self-limitation produces long persistence times for the rare competitors, which otherwise succumb quickly to stochastic extinction. The results suggest that the mechanism causing species to be rare in this case is the same mechanism allowing those species to persist. PMID:22624200

  20. Infective Endocarditis Presented as a Right Atrium Mass in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Moeinipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the heart is infrequently seen in irritable bowel syndrome (IBD. We present a case of severe acute infective endocarditis diagnosed as ulcerative colitis in further workup.

  1. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  2. Self-assembling and self-limiting monolayer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foest, Rüdiger; Schmidt, Martin; Gargouri, Hassan

    2014-02-01

    Effects of spatial ordering of molecules on surfaces are commonly utilized to deposit ultra-thin films with a thickness of a few nm. In this review paper, several methods are discussed, that are distinguished from other thin film deposition processes by exactly these effects that lead to self-assembling and self-limiting layer growth and eventually to coatings with unique and fascinating properties and applications in micro-electronics, optics, chemistry, or biology. Traditional methods for the formation of self-assembled films of ordered organic molecules, such as the Langmuir-Blodgett technique along with thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) of inorganic molecules are evaluated. The overview is complemented by more recent developments for the deposition of organic or hybrid films by molecular layer deposition. Particular attention is given to plasma assisted techniques, either as a preparative, supplementary step or as inherent part of the deposition as in plasma enhanced ALD or plasma assisted, repeated grafting deposition. The different methods are compared and their film formation mechanisms along with their advantages are presented from the perspective of a plasma scientist. The paper contains lists of established film compounds and a collection of the relevant literature is provided for further reading.

  3. MDCT in ischaemic colitis: how to define the aetiology and acute, subacute and chronic phase of damage in the emergency setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berritto, Daniela; Iacobellis, Francesca; Mazzei, Maria Antonietta; Volterrani, Luca; Guglielmi, Giuseppe; Brunese, Luca; Grassi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Ischemic colitis (IC) is the most common vascular disorder of the gastrointestinal tract with a reported incidence of 6.1-44 cases/100,000 person years with confirmatory histopathology. However, the true incidence of IC poses some difficulty, and even vigilant clinicians with patients at high risk often miss the diagnosis, since clinical presentation is non-specific or could have a mild transient nature. Detection of IC results is crucial to plan the correct therapeutic approach and reduce the reported mortality rate (4-12%). Diagnosis of IC is based on a combination of clinical suspicion, radiological, endoscopic and histological findings. Some consider colonoscopy as a diagnostic test of choice; however, preparation is required and it is not without risk, above all in patients who are severely ill. There are two manifestations of vascular colonic insult: ischaemic and reperfusive. The first one occurs above all during ischaemic/non-occlusive mesenteric ischaemia; in this case, the colonic wall appears thinned with dilated lumen and fluid appears in the paracolic space. When reperfusion occurs, the large bowel wall appears thickened and stratified, because of subepithelial oedema and/or haemorrhage, with consequent lumen calibre reduction. Shaggy contour of the involved intestine and misty mesentery are associated with the pericolic fluid. The pericolic fluid results are a crucial finding for IC diagnosis since its evidence suggests the presence of an ongoing damage thus focusing the attention on other pathological aspects which could be otherwise misdiagnosed, such as thinned or thickened colonic wall. Moreover, the pericolic fluid may increase or decrease, depending on the evolution of the ischaemic damage, suggesting the decision of medical or surgical treatment. Radiologists should not forget the hypothesis of IC, being aware that multidetector CT could be sufficient to suggest the diagnosis of IC, allowing for early identification and grading definition, and

  4. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors Q & A Go Back Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors Q & A Email ... WHAT IS THE CAUSE OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS AND CROHN’S DISEASE? The origin of IBD is still unknown. It ...

  5. A Phase II dose ranging, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of alicaforsen enema in subjects with acute exacerbation of mild to moderate left-sided ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J.H. van Deventer; M.K. Wedel; B.F. Baker; S. Xia; E. Chuang; P.B. Miner

    2006-01-01

    Alicaforsen is an antisense oligonucleotide designed to inhibit expression of human intercellular adhesion molecule 1. Previous clinical studies have demonstrated activity of alicaforsen enema in ulcerative colitis and pouchitis. To determine the minimally effective dosing regimen of alicaforsen ene

  6. Clostridium difficile Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Trudel, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    Clostridium difficile enterocolitis is endemic in most modern hospitals. The spectrum of clinical presentation varies from the asymptomatic carrier state to fulminant colitis with toxic megacolon and perforation. Highly toxigenic and lethal strains of C. difficile have emerged worldwide. Medical treatment consists of discontinuing the precipitating antibiotic, supportive measures and bowel rest, and antibiotic treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin. Surgical treatment may be necessary in ...

  7. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  8. Computed tomography of Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis; Computertomographische Morphologie von Morbus Crohn und Colitis ulcerosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Wein, B. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Adam, G. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Ruppert, D. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    We analysed the CT examinations of 109 patients with 197 involved bowel locations. 81 patients suffered from Crohn`s disease, 28 from ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis was based on the combination of clinical, endoscopic and histopathologic findings. Three radiologists evaluated the CT series concerning the presence of morphologic changes analogous to conventional radiographic findings. In Crohn`s disease, we found irregular outer contours in 26% of cases. The bowel wall was thickened in 82%. In acute phases, the bowel wall was thickened in 100%. Abscess and fistula as complications of inflammatory disease were present in 26 and 14% respectively. In ulcerative colitis, a target sign of the bowel wall was present in 40%, whereas in Crohn`s disease a homogeneous wall density was present in all but two cases. Reduced attenuation due to submucosal fat deposits was found in 16% and mucosal tunneling in 27% of cases with ulcerative colitis. Even if severe mucosal destructions were found, the outer contour of the gut was smooth and regular in 95% of the ulcerative colitis cases. CT can provide additional information on acuity, extent and complications in inflammatory bowel disease. In combination with conventional radiographic findings a three-step classification for Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis (early changes, acute and chronic phase) can be proposed. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Wir untersuchten computertomographisch 109 Patienten mit 197 erkrankten Darmsegmenten. 81 Patienten litten an M. Crohn und 28 an Colitis ulcerosa. Die Diagnose wurde durch Kombination klinischer, endoskopischer, radiologischer und bioptischer Befunde gesichert. Drei Radiologen bewerteten die Computertomographien und verglichen die Ergebnisse mit den konventionell-radiologischen Befunden. Bei den Patienten mit M. Crohn fanden wir in 26% der Faelle eine irregulaere aeussere Darmwand. Eine Darmwandverdickung lag in 82% vor und fand sich regelmaessig in Darmabschnitten mit floriden Veraenderungen

  9. Recent advances in the management of radiation colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jannis Kountouras; Christos Zavos

    2008-01-01

    Radiation colitis,an insidious,progressive disease of increasing frequency,develops 6 mo to 5 years after regional radiotherapy for malignancy,owing to the deleterious effects of the latter on the colon and the small intestine.When dealing with radiation colitis and its complications,the most conservative modality should be employed because the areas of intestinal injury do not tend to heal.Acute radiation colitis is mostly selflimited,and usually,only supportive management is required.Chronic radiation colitis,a poorly predictable progressive disease,is considered as a precancerous lesion;radiation-associated malignancy has a tendency to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and to bear a dismal prognosis.Therefore,management of chronic radiation colitis remains a major challenge owing to the progressive evolution of the disease,including development of fibrosis,endarteritis,edema,fragility,perforation,partial obstruction,and cancer.Patients are commonly managed conservatively.Surgical intervention is difficult to perform because of the extension of fibrosis and alterations in the gut and mesentery,and should be reserved for intestinal obstruction,perforation,fistulas,and severe bleeding.Owing to the difficulty in managing the complications of acute and chronic radiation colitis,particular attention should be focused onto the prevention strategies.Uncovering the fibrosis mechanisms and the molecular events underlying radiation bowel disease could lead to the introduction of new therapeutic and/or preventive approaches.A variety of novel,mostly experimental,agents have been used mainly as a prophylaxis,and improvements have been made in radiotherapy delivery,including techniques to reduce the amount of exposed intestine in the radiation field,as a critical strategy for prevention.

  10. Surgical Management of Severe Colitis in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaweish, Ihab; Alam, Hasan B

    2015-12-01

    Severe colitis, an umbrella encompassing several entities, is one of the most common acute gastrointestinal disorders resulting in critical illness. Clostridium difficile infection is responsible for the majority of nosocomial diarrhea with fulminant C difficile colitis (CDC) carrying a high mortality. Optimal outcomes can be achieved by early identification and treatment of fulminant CDC, with appropriate surgical intervention when indicated. Ischemic colitis, on the other hand, is uncommon with a range of etiological factors including abdominal aortic surgery, inotropic drugs, rheumatoid diseases, or often no obvious triggering factor. Most cases resolve with nonsurgical management; however, prompt recognition of full-thickness necrosis and gangrene is crucial for good patient outcomes. Fulminant colitis is a severe disease secondary to progressive ulcerative colitis with systemic deterioration. Surgical intervention is indicated for hemorrhage, perforation, or peritonitis and failure of medical therapy to control the disease. Although, failure of medical management is the most common indication, it can be difficult to define objectively and requires a collaborative multidisciplinary approach. This article proposes some simple management algorithms for these clinical entities, with a focus on critically ill patients.

  11. Interleukin 19 reduces inflammation in chemically induced experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yukiko; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Natsuho; Ikeda, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin (IL)-19, a member of the IL-10 family, functions as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Here, we investigated the contribution of IL-19 to intestinal inflammation in a model of T cell-mediated colitis in mice. Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis. IL-19 deficiency aggravated TNBS-induced colitis and compromised intestinal recovery in mice. Additionally, the exacerbation of TNBS-induced colonic inflammation following genetic ablation of IL-19 was accompanied by increased production of interferon-gamma, IL-12 (p40), IL-17, IL-22, and IL-33, and decreased production of IL-4. Moreover, the exacerbation of colitis following IL-19 knockout was also accompanied by increased production of CXCL1, G-CSF and CCL5. Using this model of induced colitis, our results revealed the immunopathological relevance of IL-19 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in intestinal inflammation in mice.

  12. Concurrent amoebic and histoplasma colitis:A rare cause of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Soon; Koh; April; Camilla; Roslani; Kumar; Vasudeavan; Vimal; Mohd; Shariman; Ramasamy; Umasangar; Rajkumar; Lewellyn

    2010-01-01

    Infective colitis can be a cause of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding requiring acute surgical intervention. Causative organisms include entamoeba and histoplasma species. However, concurrent colonic infection with both these organisms is very rare, and the in vivo consequences are not known. A 58-year-old male presented initially to the physicians with pyrexia of unknown origin and bloody diarrhea. Amoebic colitis was diagnosed based on biopsies, and he was treated with metronidazole. Five days later...

  13. Effect of glucocorticoids on rectal transport in normal subjects and patients with ulcerative colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Sandle, G I; Hayslett, J. P.; Binder, H J

    1986-01-01

    The acute effects of single pharmacological doses of glucocorticoid hormones on net electrolyte and water transport and electrical potential difference (pd) in the rectum was studied in control subjects and in patients with either active or inactive ulcerative colitis, using a dialysis technique. Compared with 17 control subjects, nine patients with active ulcerative colitis exhibited marked decreases in net sodium absorption and rectal pd, while these transport parameters were normal in six ...

  14. Tofacitinib in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Thomas P; Moran, Gordon W; Ghosh, Subrata

    2016-05-01

    Cytokines orchestrate immune and inflammatory responses involved in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Protein kinases are essential for signal transduction in eukaryotic cells. Janus kinases (JAKs) are a family of protein tyrosine kinases that play a pivotal role in cytokine receptor signaling. Indeed, a major subgroup of cytokines use Type I and II cytokine receptors which signal via the activation of JAKs. Tofacitinib is an oral JAK inhibitor that has been studied in autoimmune pathologies, including UC and rheumatoid arthritis with good overall efficacy and acceptable safety profile. This literature review was performed with the goal of summarizing the knowledge on JAK inhibitors in UC treatment. PMID:27140405

  15. The risk of ischaemic colitis in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with serotonergic therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, James H

    2011-07-01

    Ischaemic colitis (IC) is the most common form of ischaemic injury to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. IC typically presents with the sudden onset of lower abdominal pain, cramping and rectal bleeding, and is usually self-limited with low morbidity, although it may cause gangrenous or fulminant colitis, especially when the right colon is involved. Multiple medical conditions, as well as several pharmacological agents, are associated with IC, including irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and drugs used for its treatment that act on gut serotonin 5-HT receptors. These include the selective 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist alosetron, currently approved for the treatment of severe diarrhoea-predominant IBS in women who fail to respond to conventional treatment, and cilansetron, another 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist that is no longer in clinical development. In addition, the 5-HT(4) receptor partial agonist tegaserod, which was approved for the treatment of constipation-predominant IBS in women, was associated with IC in the postmarketing setting, as was renzapride, a 5-HT(4) agonist/5-HT(3) antagonist. Although several hypotheses have been proposed, the pathophysiological basis for development of IC with 5-HT(3) receptor antagonists or 5-HT(4) receptor agonists remains unknown. Of interest, several population-based studies demonstrated that a diagnosis of IBS (independent of serotonergic therapies) increases the risk of developing IC 2- to 4-fold. As a result, IBS patients with the acute onset of abdominal pain, tenderness, diarrhoea or lower intestinal bleeding, especially those with predisposing conditions or medications, should be evaluated promptly for IC. The management of IC remains supportive; most cases of non-gangrenous IC, as seen in the alosetron and tegaserod databases, have been transient and have resolved spontaneously without complications or death. Despite the small number of deaths associated with alosetron in patients with complications of constipation and

  16. Protective effect of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis: differential regulation of tumour necrosis factor-a and interleukin-18 in BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudcovic, T.; Kolinska, J.; Klepetar, J.; Stepankova, R.; Rezanka, T.; Srutkova, D.; Schwarzer, M.; Erban, V.; Du, Z.; Wells, J.; Hrncir, T.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.; Kozakova, H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the promising approaches in the therapy of ulcerative colitis is administration of butyrate, an energy source for colonocytes, into the lumen of the colon. This study investigates the effect of butyrate producing bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced col

  17. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis.

  18. Management of pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Dan; Levine, Arie; Escher, Johanna C;

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) shares many features with adult-onset disease but there are some unique considerations; therefore, therapeutic approaches have to be adapted to these particular needs. We aimed to formulate guidelines for managing UC in children based on a systematic review (SR......) of the literature and a robust consensus process. The present article is a product of a joint effort of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN)....

  19. Hospitalized ulcerative colitis patients have an elevated risk of thromboembolic events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Y Wang; Jonathan P Terdiman; Eric Vittinghoff; Tracy Minichiello; Madhulika G Varma

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare thromboembolism rates between hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and other hospitalized patients at high risk for thromboembolism. To compare thromboembolism rates between patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing a colorectal operation and other patients undergoing colorectal operations. METHODS: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey was used to compare thromboembolism rates between (1) hospitalized patients with a discharge diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and those with diverticulitis or acute respiratory failure, and (2) hospitalized patients with a discharge diagnosis of ulcerative colitis who underwent colectomy and those with diverticulitis or colorectal cancer who underwent colorectal operations. RESULTS: Patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis had similar or higher rates of combined venous thromboembolism (2.03%) than their counterparts with diverticulitis (0.76%) or respiratory failure (1.99%), despite the overall greater prevalence of thromboembolic risk factors in the latter groups. Discharged patients with colitis that were treated surgically did not have significantly different rates of venous or arterial thromboembolism than those with surgery for diverticulitis or colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: Patients with ulcerative colitis who do not undergo an operation during their hospitalization have similar or higher rates of thromboembolism than other medical patients who are considered to be high risk for thromboembolism.

  20. Perforation in a patient with stercoral colitis and diverticulosis: who did it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya R. Bhatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stercoral colitis with perforation of the colon is an uncommon, yet life-threatening cause of the acute abdomen. No one defining symptom exists for stercoral colitis; it may present asymptomatically or with vague symptoms. Diagnostic delay may result in perforation of the colon resulting in complications, even death. Moreover, stercoral perforation of the colon can also present with localized left lower quadrant abdominal pain masquerading as diverticulitis. Diverticular diseases and stercoral colitis share similar pathophysiology; furthermore, they may coexist, further complicating the diagnostic dilemma. The ability to decide the cause of perforation in a patient with both stercoral colitis and diverticulosis has not been discussed. We, therefore, report this case of stercoral perforation in a patient with diverticulosis and include a discussion of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and a review of helpful diagnostic clues for a rapid differentiation to allow for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  1. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan;

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping...

  2. Investigation of pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease in an experimental model of colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bunyamin; Songur, Yıldıran; Songur, Necla; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Senol, Altug; Ciris, I. Metin; Sutcu, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may also involve various extra-intestinal organs. Clinical studies have found asymptomatic/symptomatic pulmonary involvement in 1% to 6% of patients with IBD. The present study histopathologically investigated pulmonary involvement in an experimental model of colitis in order to demonstrate pulmonary tissue involvement in IBD and to expose potential etiological factors. It also explored the relation between inflammation and tissue concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Methods: The study comprised 24 male Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Acute colitis was induced in two separate groups using either the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) method, while the other two groups were used as controls for each model of colitis. Wallace scoring was used for macroscopic assessment of colitis, and the lungs were histopathologically examined. Concentrations of VEGF and TNF-α in pulmonary tissue were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: The number of animals that had alveolar hemorrhage was significantly higher in the TNBS-induced colitis and DSS-induced colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.015 and p = 0.015, respectively). VEGF and TNF-α concentrations in pulmonary tissues were significantly increased in both the TNBS colitis and DSS colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively; and p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that significant and serious histopathological changes directly associated with colitis occur in the lungs in IBD. PMID:27539446

  3. Intracolonic Vancomycin for Severe Clostridium difficile Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Peter K.; Huh, Heesun C.; Cohen, Hillel W.; Feinberg, Elyssa J.; Ahmad, Salman; Coyle, Christina; Teperman, Sheldon; Boothe, Hugh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Clostridium difficile colitis is associated with increased age, antibiotic usage, and hospitalization. Severe C. difficile colitis refractory to medical therapy may require surgical intervention including subtotal colectomy. We initiated an adjuvant intracolonic vancomycin (ICV) enema protocol for inpatients with severe C. difficile colitis and compared the response to this therapy in patients from the community and nursing homes.

  4. CT evaluation of infectious colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computed tomography (CT) is useful for evaluating the diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease, such as infectious colitis, in patients with severe pain and bloody diarrhea. During the 7 years between November 1993 and October 2000, 34 patients with infectious colitis (18 male, 16 female; mean age 42±19 yrs), received emergency CT and colonoscopy because of severe abdominal pain and dysentery. The following organisms were isolated: pathogenic Escherichia coli (12), 6 of which were O157: H7 (O-157), Salmonella species (11), Campylobacter species (5), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (3), Yersinia enterocolotica (2) and Shigella species (1). Thickening of the intestinal wall greater than 10 mm was seen in the ascending colon in the 6 cases with E. coli O157, in 5/11 cases with Salmonella, 4/5 with Campylobacter and 1/6 with non-O157 pathogenic E. Coli. marked intestinal wall thickening, greater than 20 mm, was seen in the ascending colon of the 4 of the patients with an O-157 infection. In all patients with O-157 colitis, slight ascites was noted in the pelvic space. In additions, ascites was also seen in 3/13 patients with Salmonella and 1/5 patients with Campylobacter colitis. The CT findings, in the patients with infectious colitis, are non-specific but knowledge and recognition of the findings will help in patient evaluation and proper treatment. (author)

  5. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  6. Activation of protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 by spermidine exerts anti-inflammatory effects in human THP-1 monocytes and in a mouse model of acute colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Morón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Spermidine is a dietary polyamine that is able to activate protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2. As PTPN2 is known to be a negative regulator of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ-induced responses, and IFN-γ stimulation of immune cells is a critical process in the immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, we wished to explore the potential of spermidine for reducing pro-inflammatory effects in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Human THP-1 monocytes were treated with IFN-γ and/or spermidine. Protein expression and phosphorylation were analyzed by Western blot, cytokine expression by quantitative-PCR, and cytokine secretion by ELISA. Colitis was induced in mice by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS administration. Disease severity was assessed by recording body weight, colonoscopy and histology. RESULTS: Spermidine increased expression and activity of PTPN2 in THP-1 monocytes and reduced IFN-γ-induced phosphorylation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT 1 and 3, as well as p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK in a PTPN2 dependent manner. Subsequently, IFN-γ-induced expression/secretion of intracellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM-1 mRNA, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1, and interleukin (IL-6 was reduced in spermidine-treated cells. The latter effects were absent in PTPN2-knockdown cells. In mice with DSS-induced colitis, spermidine treatment resulted in ameliorated weight loss and decreased mucosal damage indicating reduced disease severity. CONCLUSIONS: Activation of PTPN2 by spermidine ameliorates IFN-γ-induced inflammatory responses in THP-1 cells. Furthermore, spermidine treatment significantly reduces disease severity in mice with DSS-induced colitis; hence, spermidine supplementation and subsequent PTPN2 activation may be helpful in the treatment of chronic intestinal inflammation such as IBD.

  7. Treatment of experimental ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazebnik, L B; Lychkova, A E; Knyazev, O V

    2012-10-01

    The effects of infliximab, an anticytokine drug, on the course of inflammatory process was studied on the model of ulcerative colitis induced by injection of picrylsulfonic acid. Infliximab prevented the development of toxic dilatation and a drop of bioelectric activity of smooth muscles via maintenance of activity of the intramural nervous system neurons. PMID:23113311

  8. Kolorektal cancerudvikling ved colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Jane; Langholz, E.; Frisch, Morten;

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is believed to carry a predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. International clinical guidelines suggest that UC patients should have a colonoscopy performed every year or up to every third year from approximately eight years after diagnosis for early...

  9. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a colonic inflammatory condition with a substantial impact on the quality of life of affected persons. The disease carries a cumulative risk of need of colectomy of 20-30% and an estimated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer of 18% after 30 years of disease duration...

  10. Anorexia nervosa and necrotizing colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, J. C.; Madden, M V; Leaper, D J

    1985-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa is associated with a mortality approaching 5% in patients severely enough affected to warrant hospital care (Hsu, 1980). The main causes of death are inanition, electrolyte disturbances or suicide. We report here a case of necrotizing colitis associated with anorexia nervosa, an association which has not been described previously.

  11. Somatostatin does not attenuate intestinal injury in dextran sodium sulphate-induced subacute colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. van Bergeijk

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From several in vitro and in vivo studies involvement of som atostatin (SMS in intestinal inflammation emerge. Acute colitis induced in rats is attenuated by the long-acting SMS analogue octreotide. We studied the potential beneficial effect of SMS on non-acute experimental colitis. BALB/c mice received either saline, SMS-14 (36 or 120 μg daily or octreotide (3 μg daily subcutaneously delivered by implant osmotic pumps. A non-acute colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS 10% in drinking water during 7 days. DSS evoked a mild, superficial pancolitis, most characterized by mucosal ulceration and submucosal influx of neutrophils. Neither SMS-14 nor octreotide reduced mucosal inflammatory score or macroscopical disease activity, although reduction of intestinal levels of interleukin1 β (IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-10 during DSS was augmented both by SMS and octreotide. A slight increase of neutrophil influx was seen during SMS administration in animals not exposed to DSS. In conclusion, SMS or its long-acting analogue did not reduce intestinal inflammation in non-acute DSS-induced colitis. According to the cytokine profile observed, SMS-14 and octreotide further diminished the reduction of intestinal macrophage and Th2 lymphocyte activity.

  12. Complement component 6 deficiency increases susceptibility to dextran sulfate sodium-induced murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Peipei; Li, Ling; Huang, Tianbao; Yang, Chaoqun; Xu, Enjie; Wang, Na; Zhang, Long; Gu, Hongyu; Yao, Xudong; Zhou, Xuhui; Hu, Weiguo

    2016-11-01

    As a potent effector of innate immunity, the complement system has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, the role of the membrane attack complex (MAC) in the development of IBD is still largely unknown. Here, we used C6-deficient mice in which MAC formation was blocked due to the absence of C6 to develop an acute colitis model by the administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). The results showed that DSS-induced colitis was aggravated in C6-deficient mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice, as represented by the markedly greater weight loss, higher disease activity index (DAI), shortened colon length, more severe histological injury with increased epithelial ulcerations, and massively increased infiltration of leukocytes accompanied by much higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels in local inflammatory colonic sites. In addition, the DSS-induced colitis in C6-deficient mice could be significantly ameliorated by the exogenous C6 from WT sera. Furthermore, the significantly enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL-1, CCL-3, TGF-β1 and IL-17F, was also observed in C6-deficient mice. Unexpectedly, the aggravated colitis in C6-deficient mice may be not due to the increase of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels in serum. Overall, we demonstrated that MAC exerts a protective role in acute colitis, strongly highlighting the host defense function of the complement system. PMID:27316715

  13. CD3 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne;

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Traditionally, MC encompasses the 2 subgroups lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis, but recently, an additional subgroup, MC incomplete, has been introduced. Distinguishing between the subgroups relies exclusively...

  14. Clear cell colitis: A form of microscopic colitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan J(o)zefczuk; Bogdan Marian Wozniewicz

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe a new clinical and pathological subtype of microscopic colitis in children.METHODS: A selected group of children with abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea showing discrete or no macroscopic abnormalities on endoscopy was described.RESULTS: Multiple biopsies of colon showed large mononuclear clear cells in lamina propria of mucous membrane provided that good quality histological sections were performed and observed under a higher magnification. Otherwise, they could be misinterpreted as artefacts. Their presence in routine histology might suggest a systemic storage disease (Whipple's disease), and neuronal intestine dysplasia.Using immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy we confirmed their origin from CD68 positive mononuclear macrophages.CONCLUSION: The presence of large clear cells is a constant microscopic feature. Failure of transient large bowel stationary macrophages plays a role in the pathogenesis of this benign microscopic clear cell colitis,sometimes coexisting with allergy.

  15. β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of β-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids. PMID:26106168

  16. Self-limiting atomic layer deposition of conformal nanostructured silver films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golrokhi, Zahra; Chalker, Sophia; Sutcliffe, Christopher J.; Potter, Richard J.

    2016-02-01

    The controlled deposition of ultra-thin conformal silver nanoparticle films is of interest for applications including anti-microbial surfaces, plasmonics, catalysts and sensors. While numerous techniques can produce silver nanoparticles, few are able to produce highly conformal coatings on high aspect ratio surfaces, together with sub-nanometre control and scalability. Here we develop a self-limiting atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the deposition of conformal metallic silver nanoparticle films. The films have been deposited using direct liquid injection ALD with ((hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)) and propan-1-ol. An ALD temperature window between 123 and 128 °C is identified and within this range self-limiting growth is confirmed with a mass deposition rate of ∼17.5 ng/cm2/cycle. The effects of temperature, precursor dose, co-reactant dose and cycle number on the deposition rate and on the properties of the films have been systematically investigated. Under self-limiting conditions, films are metallic silver with a nano-textured surface topography and nanoparticle size is dependent on the number of ALD cycles. The ALD reaction mechanisms have been elucidated using in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, showing chemisorption of the silver precursor, followed by heterogeneous catalytic dehydrogenation of the alcohol to form metallic silver and an aldehyde.

  17. Early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-11-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious.

  18. Surveillance for colitis-associated colon neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2010-01-01

    The risk of developing colon cancer is increased in colitis patients, particularly if the disease is extensive and its duration long-standing. Endoscopic guidelines have been developed with the goal of detecting early neoplastic changes prior to development of advanced malignancy. Unfortunately, the natural history of this superimposed neoplastic process in colitis appears to be very heterogeneous and poorly understood. Moreover, there are numerous confounding variables in colitis patients that limit accura...

  19. 葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导C57BL/6J小鼠急性结肠炎模型的建立与评价%Establishment and evaluation of a model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in C57BL/6 mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽红; 肖芳; 兰小琴; 何嘉怡; 丁强; 田德安; 郑勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective The expression and impaired function of ion channels might be one of the pathophysiological mecha -nisms responsible for diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD) .Proper animal model is the key to explore detailed pathophysiolog-ical process.The purpose of this study was to build a rat model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice and evaluate diarrhea-associated clinical , histological , pathological parameters and expressions of ion channel protein . Methods C57BL/6J mice of model group were treated with 4%DSS solution for 7 days to induce acute colitis.Mice body weight, stool moisture, stool consistency and the degree of hematochezia were recorded .The histopathological changes of mice colon specimens were observed visually and microcosmically, and the ion channel SLC26A3 protein was detected by Western Blot . Results All experimental mice survived.In the experiment, compared with control group , bloody diarrhea and weight lose occurred in model group , along with increased stool moisture ([73.30 ±8.31]% after experiment vs [44.32 ±6.42]% before experiment, P=0.004), and rapidly in-creased disease activity index (DAI) of acute colitis ([3.50 ±0.87] after experiment vs [1.0 ±0.00] before experiment, P=0.000).At the end of this experiment , compared with control group , the model group resulted in higher colonic damage score and pathological inflammation score (P=0.00, P=0.002), significantly shortened co-lon (P=0.00) and decreased expression of SLC26A3. Conclusion The intestinal mucosal injury and phenotypic features of 4%DSS-induced acute colitis are very similar to those of human ulcerative colitis .Impaired expression of intestinal ion transporter SLC26 A3 coexists with diarrhea in model group mice , and this model can support the research on mechanism of functional changes of ion channels in inflammatory diarrhea .%目的:离子通道的表达和功能受损可能是引起炎症性肠病相关性腹泻的

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Rumessen, Jüri J; Csillag, Claudio;

    2009-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown aetiology and pathogenesis. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, prostaglandins may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, and increased expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been detected. The purpose...... with samples from eight normal controls, and samples from eight patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Specimens from patients with CC expressed COX-2 protein in increased amounts compared with controls, but similar to patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. COX-2 expression...

  1. The misdiagnosis of ischaemic colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Joanne [Department of Radiology, West Suffolk Hospital, Hardwick Lane, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk IP33 2QZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: joanne.rudd@wsh.nhs.uk

    2006-11-15

    This case study followed the pathway taken by an elderly patient who presented as an emergency with rectal bleeding. Views obtained of the colon by flexible sigmoidoscopy suggested an initial diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma but this proved to be incorrect. It was a combination of the histology obtained from the initial and subsequent endoscopies, barium enema and the clinical history that finally gave rise to the correct diagnosis of ischaemic colitis. Opinion is currently divided as to whether sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy is the most appropriate test for those patients presenting with rectal bleeding. Ischaemic colitis is a disease that can present with many differing symptoms depending on the degree of severity of the ischaemia.

  2. Turner Syndrome with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Hyodo, Hiromi; TOMITA, Yuichiro; Hirai, Kohta; HIRAKAWA, Hitoshi; Ueno, Shigeru; Ishiguro, Hiroyuki

    2009-01-01

    Turner syndrome is a chromosomal disease frequently associated with autoimmune disorders including diabetes mellitus, thyroid disease and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Although the etiology of IBD has not been fully elucidated, genetic analysis has recently revealed several susceptibility genes. Recently, cases with Turner syndrome associated with IBD have been reported. We report here a 13-yr-old girl with Turner syndrome associated with ulcerative colitis. The patient was undergoing gro...

  3. Ulcerative colitis after Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminianfar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 21 years old man has been complained of bloody diarrhea, liquid stool containing blood, pus, and fecal matter and crampy abdominal pain from four monthes ago. Ulcerative colitis relies upon the patient's history, clinical symptoms, sigmoidoscopic appearance and histology of colonic biopsy specimens. Treatment of patient started with high dose dexamethasone and prednisolone, asacole, suppository, metronidazole. Patient’s condition not improved and patient admitted in hospital. High dose prednisolone, azathioprine, sulfasalazine and folic acid were given.

  4. Colitis after polytrauma: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    William E. Carter, MD, MPH; Isaac A. Darko, MD; Priya Chandan, MD, MPH; Ajit B. Pai, MD

    2014-01-01

    Across the medical literature, delayed diagnosis and treatment leads to more costly and worse outcomes. Rehabilitation patients, especially those with polytrauma, often have a complex mixture of medical, social, and psychological health problems that can impair effective diagnosis and treatment. The case presentation describes the procession toward the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis in a preinjury asymptomatic male, suggesting a potential mechanism for its emergence and describing the effect...

  5. Current treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohannesMeier; AndreasSturm

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease featuring re- current inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The goal of medical treatment is to rapidly induce a steroid-free remission while at the same time preventing complica- tions of the disease itself and its treatment. The choice of treatment depends on severity, localization and the course of the disease. For proctitis, topical therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds is used. More extensive or severe disease should be treated with oral and local 5-ASA compounds and corticosteroids to induce remission. Patients who do not respond to this treatment require hospitalization. Intravenous steroids or, when refractory, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies (infliximab) or immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) are then called for. Indications for emergency surgery include refractory toxic megacolon, perforation, and continuous severe colorectal bleeding. Close collaboration between gastroenterologist and surgeon is mandatory in order not to delay surgical therapy when needed. This article is intended to give a general, practice-orientated overview of the key issues in ulcerative colitis treatment. Recommendations are based on published consensus guidelines derived from national and international guidelines on the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  6. Current treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johannes Meier; Andreas Sturm

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease featuring recurrent inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The goal of medical treatment is to rapidly induce a steroid-free remission while at the same time preventing complications of the disease itself and its treatment. The choice of treatment depends on severity, localization and the course of the disease. For proctitis, topical therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds is used. More extensive or severe disease should be treated with oral and local 5-ASA compounds and corticosteroids to induce remission. Patients who do not respond to this treatment require hospitalization. Intravenous steroids or, when refractory, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies (infliximab) or immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) are then called for. Indications for emergency surgery include refractory toxic megacolon, perforation, and continuous severe colorectal bleeding. Close collaboration between gastroenterologist and surgeon is mandatory in order not to delay surgical therapy when needed. This article is intended to give a general, practice- orientated overview of the key issues in ulcerative colitis treatment. Recommendations are based on published consensus guidelines derived from national and international guidelines on the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  7. Ischemic colitis during interferon-ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Jung Baik; Tae Hun Kim; Kwon Yoo; Il Hwan Moon; Min-Sun Cho

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is a rare complication of interferon administration.Only 9 cases in 6 reports have been described to-date.This report describes a case of ischemic colitis during pegylated interferon and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C,and includes a review of the relevant literature.A 48-year-old woman was treated with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C,genotype Ib.After 19 wk of treatment,the patient complained of severe afebrile abdominal pain with hematochezia.Vital signs were stable and serum white blood cell count was within the normal range.Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse colonic wall thickening from the splenic flexure to the proximal sigmoid colon,which is the most vulnerable area for the development of ischemic colitis.Colonoscopy revealed an acute mucosal hyperemic change,with edema and ulcerations extending from the proximal descending colon to the sigmoid colon.Colonic mucosal biopsy revealed acute exudative colitis.Polymerase chain reaction and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative and the cultures for cytomegalovirus,Salmonella and Shigel/a species were negative.After discontinuation of interferon and ribavirin therapy,abdominal pain and hematochezia subsided and,following colonoscopy showed improvement of the mucosal ulcerations.Ischemic colitis cases during interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C reported so far have all involved the descending colon.Ischemic colitis is a rarely encountered complication of interferon administration in patients with chronic hepatitis C and should be considered when a patient complains of abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  8. Sulphomucin expression in ileal pouches: emerging differences between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouches.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.

  9. Crohn's colitis and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    OpenAIRE

    Boyne, M.; Dye, K.

    2000-01-01

    A 17 year old girl with active Crohn's colitis developed idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura that was managed with intravenous immune globulins and cyclosporin A. The possible association between Crohn's disease and immune thrombocytopenia is explored.


Keywords: Crohn's disease; colitis; thrombocytopenia

  10. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E. J.; Karrenbeld, A.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Dijkstra, G.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy alo

  11. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunwar; Shailubhai; Vaseem; Palejwala; Krishna; Priya; Arjunan; Sayali; Saykhedkar; Bradley; Nefsky; John; A; Foss; Stephen; Comiskey; Gary; S; Jacob; Scott; E; Plevy

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administeredplecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models.METHODS: The cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cG MP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cellbased assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid(5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic(TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout(TCRα-/-) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity.RESULTS: Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C(GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cG MP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs(0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity(P < 0.05) and disease activity index(P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα-/- mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. CONCLUSION: This is the first

  12. Kalium kanalers rolle i inflammation i Colitis Ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Koch

    2011-01-01

    Gennemgang af T-cellers kalium kanaler og deres mulige rolle i Colitis Ulcerosa. Artiklen skrevet til Den danske Colitis-Crohn Forenings Medlemsblad.......Gennemgang af T-cellers kalium kanaler og deres mulige rolle i Colitis Ulcerosa. Artiklen skrevet til Den danske Colitis-Crohn Forenings Medlemsblad....

  13. Nitric oxide and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Grisham

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response by virtue of its ability to affect bloodflow, leukocyte function and cell viability. The objective of this study was to assess the role that NO may play in mediating the mucosal injury and inflammation in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Chronic granulomatous colitis with liver and spleen inflammation was induced in female Lewis rats via the subserosal (intramural injection of peptidoglycan/polysaccharide (PG/PS derived from group A streptococci. Chronic NOS inhibition by oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (15 µmol/kg/day or amino-guanidine (AG (15 µmol/ kg/day was found to attenuate the PG/PS-induced increases in macroscopic colonic inflammation scores and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Only AG -- not L-NAME – attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in colon dry weight. Both L-NAME and AG significantly attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in spleen weight whereas neither was effective at significantly attenuating the PG/PS-induced increases in liver weight. Although both L-NAME and AG inhibited NO production in vivo, as measured by decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, only AG produced significantly lower values (38±3 versus 83±8 µM, respectively, P<0.05. Finally, L-NAME, but not AG, administration significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 83 mmHg in colitic animals to 105 mmHg in the PG/PS+ L-NAME-treated animals (P<0.05. It is concluded that NO may play an important role in mediating some of the pathophysiology associated with this model of chronic granulomatous colitis.

  14. Characterization of ultrathin electroactive films synthesized via the self-limiting electropolymerization of o-methoxyaniline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electropolymerization of o-methoxyaniline under self-limiting deposition conditions yields ultrathin (<20 nm) coatings of an insoluble, low-molecular-weight polymer on planar indium-tin-oxide electrode substrates. The self-limiting nature of the electropolymerization is achieved by using citrate-buffered aqueous electrolytes (pH 4.7) in which the developing polymer that deposits at the electrified interface is neither conductive nor permeable to monomer. Although non-conductive as electrodeposited, the resulting poly(o-methoxyaniline) coating becomes electroactive when transferred to acidic aqueous electrolytes. The morphology and chemical structure of the poly(o-methoxyaniline) coatings are characterized by surface-sensitive methods including atomic force microscopy, specular-reflectance infrared spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemistry. Fundamental understanding of the structure/property relationships derived from these investigations on planar substrates will ultimately be applied to three-dimensional electrode nanoarchitectures that incorporate such electroactive coatings for enhanced charge-storage functionality

  15. Leishmania major Self-Limited Infection Increases Blood Cholesterol and Promotes Atherosclerosis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection of resistant mice causes a self-limited lesion characterized by macrophage activation and a Th1 proinflammatory response. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving hypercholesterolemia and macrophage activation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of L. major infection on the development of atherosclerosis using atherosclerosis-susceptible apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE KO mice. After 6 weeks of infection, apoE KO mice exhibited reduced footpad swelling and parasitemia similar to C57BL/6 controls, confirming that both strains are resistant to infection with L. major. L. major-infected mice had increased plasma cholesterol levels and reduced triacylglycerols. With regard to atherosclerosis, noninfected mice developed only fatty streak lesions, while the infected mice presented with advanced lesions containing a necrotic core and an abundant inflammatory infiltrate. CD36 expression was increased in the aortic valve of the infected mice, indicating increased macrophage activation. In conclusion, L. major infection, although localized and self-limited in resistant apoE KO mice, has a detrimental effect on the blood lipid profile, increases the inflammatory cell migration to atherosclerotic lesions, and promotes atherogenesis. These effects are consequences of the stimulation of the immune system by L. major, which promotes the inflammatory components of atherosclerosis, which are primarily the parasite-activated macrophages.

  16. Colitis ulserosaa sairastavan potilaan ohjaus

    OpenAIRE

    Södervik, Satu; Liimatainen, Erja

    2011-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön toimeksiantajana olivat Keski-Suomen Sairaanhoitopiirin sisätautiosasto 11 ja sisätau-tien poliklinikka. Opinnäytetyön tarkoituksena oli selvittää, miten Colitis ulcerosa potilaat kokevat saa-mansa ohjauksen riittävyyden ja ajankohdan, sekä mitä asioita hoitajat ohjaavat potilaille ja millä taval-la hoitajat haluavat kehittää jo annettavaa ohjausta. Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli, että tutkimustuloksia voidaan hyödyntää sisätautien osastoilla ja polikli-nikoilla annettavassa C...

  17. Colitis after polytrauma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William E. Carter, MD, MPH

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Across the medical literature, delayed diagnosis and treatment leads to more costly and worse outcomes. Rehabilitation patients, especially those with polytrauma, often have a complex mixture of medical, social, and psychological health problems that can impair effective diagnosis and treatment. The case presentation describes the procession toward the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis in a preinjury asymptomatic male, suggesting a potential mechanism for its emergence and describing the effect of delayed diagnosis on the efficiency of rehabilitative care. As such, the differential diagnosis for early posttraumatic diarrhea should remain broad, particularly if unexplained or ineffectively controlled.

  18. Sulphasalazine-Induced Pseudomembranous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old female with ankylosing spondylitis developed fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea on two occasions after starting sulphasalazine therapy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed pseudomembranous colitis; fecal cultures were positive for Clostridium difficile; and C difficile toxin assay was positive. Despite the frequent use of sulphasalazine in the management of inflammatory bowel disease, this complication has been apparently rare. Clinicians should be wary of the onset of diarrhea in patients receiving sulphasalazine, whether for inflammatory bowel disease or other conditions.

  19. Acute pancreatitis : complication of chicken pox in an immunocompetent host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Pinaki; Maity, Pranab; Basu, Arindam; Dey, Somitra; Das, Biman; Ghosh, U S

    2012-12-01

    Chicken pox is a benign self limited disease. But it may rarely be complicated with acute pancreatitis in otherwise healthy patient. We present a case of varicella pancreatitis and its marked recovery with acyclovir. PMID:23781673

  20. Recombinant human MFG-E8 ameliorates colon damage in DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinzhong; Brenner, Max; Yang, Weng-Lang; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive system and typically requires lifelong medical care. Recombinant human MFG-E8 (rhMFG-E8) is a 364-amino acid protein, which promotes apoptotic cell clearance and reduces inflammation. This study investigates the therapeutic effect of rhMFG-E8 on two well-established mouse models of IBD. Acute mucosal injury leading to colitis was caused by exposing C57BL/6 mice to 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water over 7 days, and BALB/c mice to a single intrarectal dose of 2.75 mg of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Upon clinical onset of colitis (day 2 in the DSS model and day 1 in the TNBS model), mice were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of rhMFG-E8 (60 or 120 μg/kg/day) or vehicle (saline) for 6 days. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 significantly attenuated colitis in both models in a dose-dependent way. Treatment of DSS-induced colitis with rhMFG-E8 (120 μg/kg/day) decreased weight loss by 59%, the colitis severity score by 71%, and colon shrinkage by 49% when compared with vehicle. Similarly, treatment of TNBS-induced colitis with rhMFG-E8 (120 μg/kg/day) decreased weight loss by 97%, the colitis severity score by 82%, and colon shrinkage by 62% when compared with vehicle. In both models, the colons of animals receiving rhMFG-E8 showed marked reduction in neutrophil infiltration, cytokine and chemokine expression, and apoptotic cell counts. In conclusion, rhMFG-E8 ameliorates DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, suggesting that it has the potential to become a novel therapeutic agent for IBD.

  1. Cytomegalovirus-colitis hos immunkompetent ung mand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva; Grønbaek, Karin; Linnemann, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    haematochezia remained present after six months. Development of IBD subsequent to CMV colitis has previously been described, and is now suspected in our patient. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients with fever, elevated liver enzymes and bloody stools......A healthy young man was hospitalized due to fever, malaise and bloody stools for three weeks. The patient had a primary CMV infection based on biochemical, serological and ultrasonic results, and a colonoscopy was consistent with left-sided CMV colitis. He recovered spontaneously, though...

  2. Ca2+ response in neutrophils after exposure to bacterial N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine: delayed response in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, Ben; Lamberth, Kasper; Brimnes, Jens;

    2003-01-01

    In acute stages of ulcerative colitis (UC), neutrophils migrate from the circulation into inflamed colonic tissue, initiated by yet unknown stimuli. The bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is a component of the surface membrane of colonic bacteria such as Escherichia...

  3. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain perc

  4. Acute pancreatitis - severity classification, complications and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Bodil

    2010-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis, with an annual incidence of approximately 35 per 100 000 inhabitants in Sweden, is in most cases mild and self-limiting. Severe acute pancreatitis, affecting 10-15% of the cases is, however, associated with severe complications and even death. The optimal management of acute pancreatitis includes accurate early prediction of the disease severity. The aims of this thesis were to investigate early severity classification, complications and outcome in acute pancreatitis patie...

  5. [Simultaneous occurrence of lymphocytic gastritis and lymphocytic colitis with transition to collagenous colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, A D; Meier, R; Bauerfeind, P; Wegmann, W; Gyr, K

    1993-07-31

    Lymphocytic gastritis and lymphocytic colitis are two rare disorders of unknown etiology, only diagnosable by histology. Simultaneous occurrence of lymphocytic colitis and lymphocytic gastritis has not been described up to now. A 69-year-old female patient was examined because of crampy abdominal pain and watery diarrhea. Laboratory tests did not reveal an etiology and in colonoscopy the colon and terminal ileum were normal. Histology disclosed lymphocytic colitis. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed erosive bulbitis. Biopsies of the stomach revealed lymphocytic gastritis. A second colonoscopy one year later showed the development of collagenous colitis. PMID:8367708

  6. The management of acute pericarditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, T A; Curzen, N P

    2005-01-01

    Acute pericarditis is usually a benign self-limiting condition, often of unexplained or viral aetiology, involving inflammation of the pericardial layers. It is often part of the differential diagnosis in patients admitted with acute chest pain and can be confused with acute myocardial infarction, acute pulmonary embolism and pleurisy. Occasionally it can result in cardiac tamponade and, if associated with myocarditis, in heart failure. This article sets out how to diagnose acute pericarditis, the common underlying causes, the possible treatment options and outcomes. PMID:21655516

  7. A new therapeutic association to manage relapsing experimental colitis: Doxycycline plus Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Mesa, José; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Utrilla, Maria Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Ocete, Maria Angeles; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Galvez, Julio

    2015-07-01

    Immunomodulatory antibiotics have been proposed for the treatment of multifactorial conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics are able to attenuate intestinal inflammation, being considered as safe when chronically administered. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline, a tetracycline with immunomodulatory properties, alone and in association with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCMI-745. Doxycycline was assayed both in vitro (Caco-2 epithelial cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mouse colitis. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of the association of doxycycline and the probiotic was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a DSS model of reactivated colitis in mice. Doxycycline displayed immunomodulatory activity in vitro, reducing IL-8 production by intestinal epithelial cells and nitric oxide by macrophages. Doxycycline administration to TNBS-colitic rats (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg) ameliorated the intestinal inflammatory process, being its efficacy comparable to that previously showed by minocycline. Doxycycline treatment was also effective in reducing acute intestinal inflammation in the DSS model of mouse colitis. The association of doxycycline and S. boulardii helped managing colitis in a reactivated model of colitis, by reducing intestinal inflammation and accelerating the recovery and attenuating the relapse. This was evidenced by a reduced disease activity index, colonic tissue damage and expression of inflammatory mediators. This study confirms the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and supports the potential use of its therapeutic association with S. boulardii for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, in which doxycycline is used to induce remission and long term probiotic administration helps to prevent the relapses. PMID:25917208

  8. Effect of Scutellariae Radix extract on experimental dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Scutellariae Radix extract (SRE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats induced by dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS).METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-180 g) by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, wt/v; MW 54000) in drinking water for 8 d. The treated rats received 4% DSS and SRE orally (100 mg/kg per day). Control rats received either tap water or SRE only. Macroscopic assessment which included body weight changes, fecal occult blood and stool consistency were determined daily. At the appointed time, the rats were sacrificed and the entire colons were removed. The colon length and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. The severity of colitis was graded by morphological and histological assessments. The ion transport activity of the colonic mucosa was assessed by electrophysiological technique. RESULTS: Rats treated with oral administration of 4% DSS regularly developed clinical and macroscopic signs of colitis. Treatment with SRE relieved the symptoms, including the reduction in body weight, shortening and ulceration of the colon. Administration of SRE also significantly reduced the histological damage induced by DSS. Moreover, the Isc responses of the colonic mucosa to forskolin were suppressed after the induction of colitis. The stimulated ion transport activity of DSS-rats treated with SRE displayed significant improvement in the secretory responsiveness.CONCLUSION: SRE was effective in treating acute DSS -induced ulcerative colitis, as gauged by reduced clinical disease, improved macroscopic and histological damage scores, and enhanced recovery of normal colonic secretory function.

  9. Uniform, large-area self-limiting layer synthesis of tungsten diselenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyunam; Kim, Youngjun; Song, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Seok Jin; Lee, Chang Wan; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Lee, Zonghoon; Park, Jusang; Kim, Hyungjun

    2016-03-01

    A process for the self-limited layer synthesis (SLS) of WSe2 on SiO2 substrates has been developed that provides systematic layer number controllability with micrometer-scale (>90%) and wafer-scale (˜8 cm) uniformity suitable electronic and optoelectronic device applications. This was confirmed by the fabrication and testing of a WSe2 back-gated field effect transistor (FET) using Pd (30 nm) as the contact metal, which exhibited p-type behavior with an on/off ratio of ˜106 and a field-effect hole mobility of 2.2 cm2 V-1 s-1 value, which was higher than has been reported for WSe2-based FETs produced by conventional chemical vapor deposition. On the basis of these results, it is proposed that the SLS method is universally applicable to a range of device applications.

  10. Self-limiting and complete oxidation of silicon nanostructures produced by laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, L.; Popescu, R.; Messina, F.; Camarda, P.; Schneider, R.; Gerthsen, D.; Gelardi, F. M.; Cannas, M.

    2016-07-01

    Oxidized Silicon nanomaterials produced by 1064 nm pulsed laser ablation in deionized water are investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy allows to characterize the structural and chemical properties at a sub-nanometric scale. This analysis clarifies that laser ablation induces both self-limiting and complete oxidation processes which produce polycrystalline Si surrounded by a layer of SiO2 and amorphous fully oxidized SiO2, respectively. These nanostructures exhibit a composite luminescence spectrum which is investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy with a tunable laser excitation. The origin of the observed luminescence bands agrees with the two structural typologies: Si nanocrystals emit a μs-decaying red band; defects of SiO2 give rise to a ns-decaying UV band and two overlapping blue bands with lifetime in the ns and ms timescale.

  11. Low back pain (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Koes, B; Tulder, van, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain is pain, muscle tension, or stiffness, localised below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds, with or without referred or radicular leg pain (sciatica), and is defined as acute when pain persists for less than 12 weeks. Low back pain affects about 70% of people in resource-rich countries at some point.Acute low back pain is usually self-limiting, although 2-7% develop chronic pain. Acute low back pain has a high recurrence rate with less-painful symptoms recu...

  12. Detecting differential transmissibilities that affect the size of self-limited outbreaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Blumberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Our ability to respond appropriately to infectious diseases is enhanced by identifying differences in the potential for transmitting infection between individuals. Here, we identify epidemiological traits of self-limited infections (i.e. infections with an effective reproduction number satisfying [0 < R eff < 1 that correlate with transmissibility. Our analysis is based on a branching process model that permits statistical comparison of both the strength and heterogeneity of transmission for two distinct types of cases. Our approach provides insight into a variety of scenarios, including the transmission of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV in the Arabian peninsula, measles in North America, pre-eradication smallpox in Europe, and human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. When applied to chain size data for MERS-CoV transmission before 2014, our method indicates that despite an apparent trend towards improved control, there is not enough statistical evidence to indicate that R eff has declined with time. Meanwhile, chain size data for measles in the United States and Canada reveal statistically significant geographic variation in R eff, suggesting that the timing and coverage of national vaccination programs, as well as contact tracing procedures, may shape the size distribution of observed infection clusters. Infection source data for smallpox suggests that primary cases transmitted more than secondary cases, and provides a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of control interventions. Human monkeypox, on the other hand, does not show evidence of differential transmission between animals in contact with humans, primary cases, or secondary cases, which assuages the concern that social mixing can amplify transmission by secondary cases. Lastly, we evaluate surveillance requirements for detecting a change in the human-to-human transmission of monkeypox since the cessation of cross-protective smallpox

  13. Detecting differential transmissibilities that affect the size of self-limited outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Seth; Funk, Sebastian; Pulliam, Juliet R C

    2014-10-01

    Our ability to respond appropriately to infectious diseases is enhanced by identifying differences in the potential for transmitting infection between individuals. Here, we identify epidemiological traits of self-limited infections (i.e. infections with an effective reproduction number satisfying [0 measles in North America, pre-eradication smallpox in Europe, and human monkeypox in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. When applied to chain size data for MERS-CoV transmission before 2014, our method indicates that despite an apparent trend towards improved control, there is not enough statistical evidence to indicate that R eff has declined with time. Meanwhile, chain size data for measles in the United States and Canada reveal statistically significant geographic variation in R eff, suggesting that the timing and coverage of national vaccination programs, as well as contact tracing procedures, may shape the size distribution of observed infection clusters. Infection source data for smallpox suggests that primary cases transmitted more than secondary cases, and provides a quantitative assessment of the effectiveness of control interventions. Human monkeypox, on the other hand, does not show evidence of differential transmission between animals in contact with humans, primary cases, or secondary cases, which assuages the concern that social mixing can amplify transmission by secondary cases. Lastly, we evaluate surveillance requirements for detecting a change in the human-to-human transmission of monkeypox since the cessation of cross-protective smallpox vaccination. Our studies lay the foundation for future investigations regarding how infection source, vaccination status or other putative transmissibility traits may affect self-limited transmission. PMID:25356657

  14. Future targets for immune therapy in colitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, M H

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis, collectively termed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the bowel. It is generally accepted that the pathology associated with IBD is characterized by a hyper-reactive immune response in the gut wall directed against...... cells to the inflamed bowel of IBD patients, making the chemokine/receptor system appealing as new therapeutic targets to sustain remission in these patients. In the severe combined immunodeficiency transfer model of colitis, which histopathologically resembles human IBD, low numbers of CD4+CD25- T...... cells from congenic normal mice are transplanted into immune deficient mice, which in turn develop a chronic lethal colitis within 1-2 months. By simultaneous transplantation of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) it is possible to hinder development of colitis. Thus the model is well suited...

  15. Intestinal microecology in rats with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the abundance and diversity ofthe gut flora in rats with dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC)to provide new knowledge about the pathogenesis of this disease.Methods Twenty-six

  16. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  17. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  18. Genetic and immunologic aspects of acute pancreatitis : An odyssey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of acute hospitalization for gastrointestinal diseases. The course of acute pancreatitis is often mild and self-limiting, but in 15-25% of patients, pancreatitis is severe with an increased mortality risk. Infectious complications, and especially bacterial inf

  19. A case of reactive arthritis due to Clostridium difficile colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essenmacher, Alex C.; Khurram, Nazish; Bismack, Gregory T.

    2016-01-01

    Reactive arthritis is an acute, aseptic, inflammatory arthropathy following an infectious process but removed from the site of primary infection. It is often attributed to genitourinary and enteric pathogens, such as Chlamydia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia, in susceptible individuals. An uncommon and less recognized cause of this disease is preceding colonic infection with Clostridium difficile, an organism associated with pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea in hospitalized patients and those recently exposed to antibiotics. Recognition of this association may be complicated by non-specific presentation of diarrhea, the interval between gastrointestinal and arthritic symptoms, and the wide differential in mono- and oligoarthritis. We present the case of a 61-year-old, hospitalized patient recently treated for C. difficile colitis who developed sudden, non-traumatic, right knee pain and swelling. Physical examination and radiographs disclosed joint effusion, and sterile aspiration produced cloudy fluid with predominant neutrophils and no growth on cultures. Diagnostic accuracy is enhanced by contemporaneous laboratory investigations excluding other entities such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis and other infections that typically precede reactive arthritis. Contribution of Clostridium infection to reactive arthritis is an obscure association frequently difficult to prove, but this organism is warranted inclusion in the differential of reactive arthritis. PMID:26908381

  20. Best practice in the management of mild-to-moderately active ulcerative colitis and achieving maintenance of remission using mesalazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P.; Michetti, P.; Probert, C.S.;

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing treatment goals in ulcerative colitis requires recognizing the needs of patients. It is increasingly recognized that adapting treatment strategies aligned with patient needs can improve patient compliance and consequently minimize relapse rates. Tailoring of treatment strategies can...... improve not only patient quality of life, and decrease the number harmed by adverse events from more potent drugs, but can also save valuable healthcare costs by avoiding high-cost treatment interventions associated with acute ulcerative colitis. This review will consider several elements of mesalazine...

  1. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Lassen, Inge Nordgaard; Matzen, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    ulcerative colitis, 10 patients with collagenous colitis and 20 controls with uninflamed mucosa. METHODS: The tip of a Teflon tube was placed in the caecum during colonoscopy. Subsequently, argon was infused at a constant rate for 70-180 min. Argon and NO in gas sampled from the rectum were measured by...

  2. Lansoprazole-associated collagenous colitis: Diffuse mucosal cloudiness mimicking ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuro Chiba; Takeshi Sugawara; Haruhiko Tozawa; Hidehiko Tsuda; Toru Abe; Takuo Tokairin; Iwao Ono; Eriko Ushiyama

    2009-01-01

    There have only been a few reports on lansoprazoleassociated collagenous colitis. Colonic mucosa of collagenous colitis is known to be endoscopically normal. We present a case of collagenous colitis where the mucosa showed diffuse cloudiness mimicking ulcerative colitis. A 70-year-old woman developed watery diarrhea four to nine times a day. She had interstitial pneumonia at 67 and reflux esophagitis at 70 years. Lansoprazole 30 mg/d had been prescribed for reflux esophagitis for nearly 6 mo. Lansoprazole was withdrawn due to its possible side effect of diarrhea. Colonoscopy disclosed diffuse cloudiness of the mucosa which suggested ulcerative colitis. Consequently sulfasalazine 2 g/d was started. The patient's diarrhea dramatically disappeared on the following day. However, biopsy specimens showed subepithelial collagenous thickening and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, confirming the diagnosis of collagenous colitis. One month after sulfasalazine therapy was initiated, colonoscopic and histological abnormalities resolved completely. Five months later the diarrhea recurred. The findings on colonoscopy and histology were the same as before, confirming a diagnosis of collagenous colitis relapse. We found that the patient had begun to take lansoprazole again 3 mo ahead of the recent diarrhea. Withdrawal of lansoprazole promptly resolved the diarrhea. Endoscopic and histological abnormalities were also completely resolved, similar to the first episode. Retrospectively, the date of commencement of sulfasalazine and discontinuation of lansoprazole in the first episode was found to be the same. We conclude that this patient had lansoprazole-associated collagenous colitis.

  3. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Highly specific blockade of CCR5 inhibits leukocyte trafficking and reduces mucosal inflammation in murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Andrea; Cipriani, Sabrina; Francisci, Daniela; Santucci, Luca; Baldelli, Franco; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-08-05

    Targeted disruption of leukocyte trafficking to the gut represents a promising approach for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). CCR5, the shared receptor for MIP1α and β and RANTES, is expressed by multiple leukocytes. Here, we aimed to determine the role of CCR5 in mediating leukocyte trafficking in models of colitis, and evaluate the therapeutic potential of maraviroc, an orally active CCR5 antagonist used in the treatment of CCR5-tropic HIV. Acute and chronic colitis were induced by administration of DSS or TNBS to wild-type and CCR5(-/-) mice or adoptive transfer of splenic naïve CD4(+) T-cells from wild type or CCR5(-/-) mice into RAG-1(-/-). CCR5 gene ablation reduced the mucosal recruitment and activation of CCR5-bearing CD4(+) and CD11b(+) leukocytes, resulting in profound attenuation of signs and symptoms of inflammation in the TNBS and transfer models of colitis. In the DSS/TNBS colitis and in the transfer model, maraviroc attenuated development of intestinal inflammation by selectively reducing the recruitment of CCR5 bearing leukocytes. In summary, CCR5 regulates recruitment of blood leukocytes into the colon indicating that targeting CCR5 may offer therapeutic options in IBDs.

  5. Severe ulcerative colitis: At what point should we define resistance to steroids?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Esteve; Javier P Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    Corticoesteroids are still the first-line treatment for active ulcerative colitis more than 50 years after the publication of trials assessing their beneficial effect, with about a 50% remission rate in cases of severe disease. The mortality related to severe attacks of ulcerative colitis has decreased dramatically, to less than 1%, in experienced centers, due to the appropriate use of intensive therapeutic measures (intravenous steroids, fluids and electrolytes, artificial nutritional support, antibiotics, etc),along with timely decision-making about second-line medical therapy and early identification of patients requiring colectomy. One of the most difficult decisions in the management of severe ulcerative colitis is knowing for how long corticosteroids should be administered before deciding that a patient is a non-responder. Studies assessing the outcome of acute attacks after steroid initiation have demonstrated that, n steroid-sensitive patients, the response generally occurs early on, in the first days of treatment. Different indexes to predict treatment failure, when applied on the third day of treatment, have demonstrated a high positive predictive value for colectomy. In contrast to this resolute approach, which is the most widely accepted, other authors have suggested that in some patients a complete and prolonged response to steroids may take longer. Either way, physicians taking care of these patients need to recognize that severe ulcerative colitis may be life-threatening, and they need to be careful with excessively prolonged medical treatment and delayed surgery.

  6. Self-Limited versus Delayed Resolution of Acute Inflammation: Temporal Regulation of Pro-Resolving Mediators and MicroRNA

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielle Fredman; Yongsheng Li; Jesmond Dalli; Nan Chiang; Serhan, Charles N.

    2012-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying delays in resolution programs of inflammation are of interest for many diseases. Here, we addressed delayed resolution of inflammation and identified specific microRNA (miR)-metabolipidomic signatures. Delayed resolution initiated by high-dose challenges decreased miR-219-5p expression along with increased leukotriene B4 (5-fold) and decreased (~3-fold) specialized pro-resolving mediators, e.g. protectin D1. Resolvin (Rv)E1 and RvD1 (1 nM) reduced miR-219-5p in human mac...

  7. Vedolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feagan, Brian G; Rutgeerts, Paul; Sands, Bruce E;

    2013-01-01

    Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis.......Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis....

  8. Infliximab and complications after colectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Infliximab treatment may increase the risk of subsequent postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis. The main purpose of the present study therefore was to assess postoperative complications in patients who have undergone colectomy for ulcerative colitis with and without...

  9. Fossil HII Regions: Self-Limiting Star Formation at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, S P; Haiman, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    Recent results by the WMAP satellite suggest that the intergalactic medium was significantly reionized at redshifts as high as z~17. At this early epoch, the first ionizing sources likely appeared in the shallow potential wells of mini-halos with virial temperatures T < 10^4 K. Once such an ionizing source turns off, its surrounding HII region Compton cools and recombines. Nonetheless, we show that the ``fossil'' HII regions left behind remain at high adiabats, prohibiting gas accretion and cooling in subsequent generations of mini-halos. Thus, early star formation is self-limiting. We quantify this effect to show that star formation in mini-halos cannot account for the bulk of the electron scattering opacity measured by WMAP, which must be due to more massive objects. We argue that gas entropy, rather than IGM metallicity, regulates the evolution of the global ionizing emissivity, and impedes full reionization until lower redshifts. We discuss several important consequences of this early entropy floor for...

  10. Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2012-02-05

    Nanoscience provides many strategies to construct high-performance materials and devices, including solar cells, thermoelectrics, sensors, transistors, and transparent electrodes. Bottom-up fabrication facilitates large-scale chemical synthesis without the need for patterning and etching processes that waste material and create surface defects. However, assembly and contacting procedures still require further development. Here, we demonstrate a light-induced plasmonic nanowelding technique to assemble metallic nanowires into large interconnected networks. The small gaps that form naturally at nanowire junctions enable effective light concentration and heating at the point where the wires need to be joined together. The extreme sensitivity of the heating efficiency on the junction geometry causes the welding process to self-limit when a physical connection between the wires is made. The localized nature of the heating prevents damage to low-thermal-budget substrates such as plastics and polymer solar cells. This work opens new avenues to control light, heat and mass transport at the nanoscale. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  12. Effect of exercise on chemically-induced colitis in adiponectin deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saxena Arpit

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with increased adiponectin (APN levels, which may exert pro-inflammatory effects in these individuals. Since habitual exercise may increase APN, the aim of this study was to determine how exercise training affects mice with acute colitis. Methods Male adiponectin knock out (APNKO and wild type (WT mice (C57BL/6 were randomly assigned to 4 different groups: 1 Sedentary (SED; 2 Exercise trained (ET; 3 Sedentary with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS treatment (SED + DSS; and 4 Exercise trained with DSS (ET + DSS. Exercise-trained mice ran at 18 m/min for 60 min, 5d/wk for 4 weeks. Subsequently, the ET + DSS and the SED + DSS mice received 2% DSS in their drinking water for 5 days (d, followed by 5d of regular water. Results The clinical symptoms of acute colitis (diarrhea, stool haemoccult, and weight loss were unaffected by exercise and there was no difference between the APNKO and WT mice (p > 0.05 except on day 39. However, the clinical symptoms of the DSS-treated APNKO mice were worse than WT mice treated with DSS and had increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation due to increased local STAT3 activation, higher IL-6, TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-10 levels, and as a result had increased intestinal epithelial cell proliferation (p  Conclusions Exercise training may contribute in alleviating the symptoms of acute colitis and APN deficiency may exacerbate the intestinal inflammation in DSS-induced colitis.

  13. Antiviral treatment in patients with cytomegalovirus positive ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kadir OZTURK

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a common virus in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Many studies suggested that CMV infection is an exacerbating factor in patients with ulcerative colitis. The role of CMV in exacerbations of ulcerative colitis has been discussed. One of studies starting this discussion is an article entitled “CMV positive ulcerative colitis: A single center experience and literature review” by Kopylov et al. However, we think that there are some poi...

  14. Collagenous colitis as a possible cause of toxic megacolon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, S C

    2009-03-01

    Collagenous colitis is a microscopic colitis characterized by normal appearing colonic mucosa on endoscopy. It is regarded as a clinically benign disease which rarely results in serious complications. We report a case of toxic megacolon occurring in a patient with collagenous colitis. This is the first reported case of toxic megacolon occurring in this subset of patients.

  15. Sonographic and Endoscopic Findings in Cocaine-Induced Ischemic Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Wilkens, Rune; Bonderup, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity. The diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. However, diagnostic imaging is helpful in the evaluation of abdominal symptoms and prior studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. We report...... sonographic and endoscopic images along with abdominal computed tomography in a case of cocaine-induced ischemic colitis....

  16. Natural history of cytomegalovirus infection in a series of patients diagnosed with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria Criscuoli; Maria Rosa Rizzuto; Luigi Montalbano; Elena Gallo; Mario Cottone

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the natural history of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in a series of 28 ulcerative colitis patients in whom the search for HCMV was positive.METHODS: A series of 85 patients with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis flare-up were evaluated for a HCMV search by performing a haematoxylin and eosin stain,immunohistochemical assay and nested polymerase chain reaction on rectal biopsies. Among 85 screened patients (19 of whom were steroid resistant/dependant),28 were positive for HCMV; after remission the patients were followed up clinically and histologically.RESULTS: Among the 22 patients with complete followup,in 8 (36%) patients HCMV-DNA persisted in the intestinal specimens. Among the HCMV positive patients,4 (50%) experienced at least one moderate-severe flare-up of colitis without evidence of peripheral HCMV.Among the 14 HCMV negative patients, 3 with pouches developed pouchitis and 5 out of 11 (45%) experienced a colitis flare-up.CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results suggest that HCMV may remain in the colon after an acute colitis flareup despite remission; it seems that the virus is not responsible for the disease relapse.

  17. Lactobacillus casei prevents the development of dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis in Toll-like receptor 4 mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Y W; Choi, J H; Oh, T-Y; Eun, C S; Han, D S

    2008-01-01

    Probiotics, defined as live or attenuated bacteria or bacterial products, confer a significant health benefit to the host. Recently, they have been shown to be useful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory bowel disease and infectious colitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of probiotics on the development of experimental colitis using Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) mutant (lps-/lps-) mice. TLR-4(lps-/lps-) and wild-type (WT) mice were given 2.5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) in drinking water to induce colitis with or without Lactobacillus casei pretreatment. Clinical and histological activity of DSS-colitis was attenuated markedly both in TLR-4(lps-/lps-) and WT mice pretreated with L. casei. Interestingly, histological activity was less severe in TLR-4(lps-/lps-) mice than in WT mice. The levels of myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin (IL)-12p40 were attenuated in pretreated TLR-4(lps-/lps-) mice after DSS administration. By contrast, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta and IL-10 mRNA and protein expressions were increased markedly in pretreated TLR-4(lps-/lps-) mice. The current results suggest that L. casei has a preventive effect in the development of acute DSS-induced colitis and its action depends largely upon TLR-4 status. L. casei modulates the expression of inflammatory cytokines and down-regulates neutrophilic infiltration in the case of incomplete TLR-4 complex signalling. PMID:18005362

  18. Golimumab in unresponsive ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Lippert, Martina Müller, Claudia Ott University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC. Keywords: anti-TNF, biological therapy, inflammatory bowel disease

  19. Diet and risk of acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Oskarsson, Viktor

    2016-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a sudden inflammation of the pancreas. It has a broad spectrum of clinical outcomes, ranging from mild and self-limiting to severe and potentially fatal, and is often followed by recurrent attacks and/or progression to a chronic disease state (so-called chronic pancreatitis); especially if it is classified as non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. Alcohol abuse is considered to be the most important risk factor for non-gallstone-related acute pancreatitis. Even though...

  20. Amyloid Goiter Secondary to Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunyamin Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse amyloid goiter (AG is an entity characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the thyroid gland. AG may be associated with either primary or secondary amyloidosis. Secondary amyloidosis is rarely caused by inflammatory bowel diseases. Secondary amyloidosis is relatively more common in the patients with Crohn’s disease, whereas it is highly rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. Diffuse amyloid goiter caused by ulcerative colitis is also a rare condition. In the presence of amyloid in the thyroid gland, medullary thyroid cancer should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. Imaging techniques and biochemical tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of secondary amyloid goiter and the definitive diagnosis is established based on the histopathologic analysis and histochemical staining techniques. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient with diffuse amyloid goiter caused by secondary amyloidosis associated with ulcerative colitis.

  1. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Curt Tysk; Johan Bohr; Nils Nyhlin; Anna Wickbom; Sune Eriksson

    2008-01-01

    Microscopic colitis,comprising collagenous and lymphocytic colitis,is characterized clinically by chronic watery diarrhea,and a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa where diagnostic histopathological features are seen on microscopic examination.The annual incidence of each disorder is 4-6/100000 inhabitants,with a peak incidence in 60-70-year-old individuals and a noticeable female predominance for collagenous colitis.The etiology is unknown.Chronic diarrhea,abdominal pain,weight loss,fatigue and fecal incontinence are common symptoms,which impair the health-related quality of life of the patient.There is an association with other autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease,diabetes mellitus,thyroid disorders and arthritis.Budesonide is the best-documented shortterm treatment,but the optimal long-term strategy needs further study.The long-term prognosis is good and the risk of complications including colonic cancer is low.

  2. Amyloid Goiter Secondary to Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bunyamin; Koca, Yavuz Savas; Koca, Tugba; Yildiz, Ihsan; Gerek Celikden, Sevda; Ciris, Metin

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse amyloid goiter (AG) is an entity characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the thyroid gland. AG may be associated with either primary or secondary amyloidosis. Secondary amyloidosis is rarely caused by inflammatory bowel diseases. Secondary amyloidosis is relatively more common in the patients with Crohn's disease, whereas it is highly rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. Diffuse amyloid goiter caused by ulcerative colitis is also a rare condition. In the presence of amyloid in the thyroid gland, medullary thyroid cancer should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. Imaging techniques and biochemical tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of secondary amyloid goiter and the definitive diagnosis is established based on the histopathologic analysis and histochemical staining techniques. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient with diffuse amyloid goiter caused by secondary amyloidosis associated with ulcerative colitis. PMID:27051538

  3. Collagenous gastritis associated with lymphocytic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groisman, G M; Meyers, S; Harpaz, N

    1996-03-01

    Collagenous sprue and collagenous colitis are two well-recognized idiopathic enteritides whose defining histologic attribute is fibrous thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane. Analogous changes in gastric mucosa seem to be quite rare. The term "collagenous gastritis" was recently applied for the first time to an isolated case of refractory gastritis in which distinctive subepithelial gastric fibrosis was noted. We report an additional case of this entity in a 35-year-old woman with refractory dyspepsia. In contrast to the earlier case of collagenous gastritis, our patient also had lymphocytic colitis, a type of colitis associated with watery diarrhea. Collagenous gastritis appears to be a distinct clinicopathologic entity, the histologic changes of which should be sought in patients with unexplained dyspepsia. Increased awareness of this condition and its possible clinical correlates may provide clues to its etiology and pathogenesis. PMID:8742654

  4. Infliximab to treat severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dídia Bisamra Cury; Marcelo de Souza Cury; Geraldo Vinicius Hemerly Elias; Sender Jankiel Mizsputen

    2009-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with severe ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy was referred to our facility for management. The patient showed extensive ulcerative colitis since the age of 20 years and had failed therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid agents and azathioprine. The disease remained active despite treatment with steroids and cyclosporine. The clinical and endoscopic parameters were consistent with severe disease. Infectious precipitants were ruled out. Given the severity of the disease and in order to avoid a colectomy, we started the patient on infliximab therapy. A dramatic clinical and endoscopic response was observed and she remained in remission at the end of a 1-year follow-up period. We discuss findings in the literature regarding the use of infliximab therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis who have failed steroids and cyclosporine.

  5. Substance P Modulates Colitis-Asscociated Fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Zhao, Dezheng; Fazelbhoy, Zafeer; Hing, Tressia; Xu, Hua; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2010-01-01

    Substance P (SP) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the development of colitis and mucosal healing after colonic inflammation. We studied whether SP modulates colonic fibrosis by using a chronic model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and NK-1R-deficient (NK-1R KD) mice. We found increased mRNA expression levels of collagen, vimentin, and the fibrogenic factors transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 in the chron...

  6. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestin......OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small...

  7. Drug therapy for ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Tai Xu; Shu-Yong Meng; Bo-Rong Pan

    2004-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. Drug therapy is not the only choice for UC treatment and medical management should be as a comprehensive whole.Azulfidine, Asacol, Pentasa, Dipentum, and Rowasa all contain 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is the topical anti-inflammatory ingredient. Pentasa is more commonly used in treating Crohn's ileitis because Pentasa capsules release more 5-ASA into the small intestine than Asacol tablets. Pentasa can also be used for treating mild to moderate UC. Rowasa enemas are safe and effective in treating ulcerative proctitis and proctosigmoiditis. The sulfafree 5-ASA agents (Asacol, Pentasa, Dipentum and Rowasa) have fewer side effects than sulfa-containing Azulfidine. In UC patients with moderate to severe disease and in patients who failed to respond to 5-ASA compounds,systemic (oral) corticosteroids should be used. Systemic corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone, cortisone, etc.)are potent and fast-acting drugs for treating UC, Crohn's ileitis and ileocolitis. Systemic corticosteroids are not effective in maintaining remission in patients with UC.Serious side effects can result from prolonged corticosteroid treatment. To minimize side effects, corticosteroids should be gradually reduced as soon as the disease remission is achieved. In patients with corticosteroid-dependent or unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment, surgery or immunomodulator is considered. Immunomodulators used for treating severe UC include azathioprine/6-MP,methotrexate, and cyclosporine. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine is safe and effective in maintaining remission in patients with UC.

  8. Fecal calprotectin and ulcerative colitis endoscopic activity index as indicators of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghvaei, Tarang; Maleki, Iradj; Nagshvar, Farshad; Fakheri, Hafez; Hosseini, Vahid; Valizadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Neishaboori, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory large bowel disease with recurrent variable periods of exacerbation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the correlation of UCEIS with fecal calprotectin (FC) level to assess disease activity in UC patients in order to determine whether FC can prognosticate clinical outcome and disease activity of UC instead of colonoscopic evaluation. Our endoscopic investigations revealed the extension of UC as the following: proctitis (11.6%), procto-sigmoiditis (18.5%), left-sided colitis (15.8%), extensive colitis (11.7%), and normal endoscopy (42.4%). Conclusively, we suggest that FC can be used as a reliable tool to evaluate disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients. Moreover, our findings indicate a significant correlation between FC level and mucosal healing. PMID:25366383

  9. Two Cases of Acute Abdomen after an Intravitreal Injection of Bevacizumab

    OpenAIRE

    Onoda, Yasutaka; Shiba, Tomoaki; Hori, Yuichi; Maeno, Takatoshi; Takahashi, Mao

    2015-01-01

    We report on a patient with ischemic colitis and another with paralytic ileus, both of whom experienced an acute abdomen after intravitreal injection of bevacizumab (IVB). Case 1 was a 78-year-old woman. Her medical history included surgery for colon carcinoma 10 years earlier. The patient developed acute severe abdominal pain and nausea the day after IVB for retinal vein occlusion with macular edema, and massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding occurred. Ischemic colitis was diagnosed. Case 2...

  10. Golimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowenberg, M.; Boer, N. de; Hoentjen, F.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) had a major impact on the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Infliximab and adalimumab are powerful agents that are used for remission induction and maintenance therapy in UC and have an acceptable safety profile. Howe

  11. Colitis following fecal diversion: still a challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Leonaldson dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available After fecal diversion, nonspecific colitis may be seen in the defunctionalized colon. The purpose of this prospective study is to identify specific findings that could help in the differential diagnosis between diversion colitis and other inflammatory bowel diseases in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and therapy. It was studied, prospectively, thirteen consecutive patients from two public hospitals of Rio de Janeiro who had undergone temporary colostomy for indications other than inflammatory bowel disease. They were submitted to endoscopy with biopsy of both proximal and distal colorectal segments, and prospectively evaluated before and after restoration of intestinal continuity. Endoscopy with biopsy of both proximal and distal excluded colorectal segments showed a nonspecific mucosal and submucosal inflammation, resembling ulcerative colitis ( p < 0.01. There was endoscopic resolution in all patients once restoration of intestinal continuity was established (p < 0.01 and also histologic improvement after the stoma closure. In conclusion there are no specific findings that make possible an unequivocal distinction between diversion colitis and other nonspecific inflammatory diseases. Diagnosis should be achieved if after stoma closure occur remission of endoscopic large bowel inflammatory signs with improvement in mucosal histologic appearance and prompt relief of clinical complaints.

  12. Selenoprotein P in colitis-associated carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sarah P.; Whitten-Barrett, Caitlyn; Williams, Christopher S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Patients with inflammatory bowel disease are often deficient in micronutrients such as selenium and have an increased risk of colon cancer. We tested whether the selenium transport protein, selenoprotein P, could modify colitis-associated cancer. Our results indicate that global SEPP1 haploinsufficiency augments tumorigenesis and mediates oxidative damage in the intestine. PMID:27314080

  13. Cerebral Arterial Thrombosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Casella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis, mainly venous, is a rare and well-recognized extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We describe a 25-year-old Caucasian man affected by ulcerative colitis and sclerosing cholangitis with an episode of right middle cerebral arterial thrombosis resolved by intraarterial thrombolysis. We perform a brief review of the International Literature.

  14. Ulcerative colitis flare with splenic ven thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Huseyin Sancar; Kara, Banu; Citil, Serdal

    2015-01-01

    Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk of thromboembolic events. Here, we present a 28-year-old man with active ulcerative pancolitis presenting via splenic vein thrombosis and left renal superior infarct that was not associated with a surgical procedure.

  15. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Ellingsen, Torkell;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of the inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC), remains incompletely explained. We hypothesized that an analysis of the UC colon proteome could reveal novel insights into the disease etiology. METHODS: Mucosal colon biopsies were taken by endoscopy...

  16. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies...

  17. Manipulation of enteric flora in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Guslandi

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Reviewing the available therapeutic options in the medical treatment of ulcerative colitis, Xu et al.[1], have omitted to mention an important aspect in the pharmacological management of the disease, namely the possibility to promote clinical and endoscopic improvement by manipulating the enteric flora.

  18. Microarray Assisted Gene Discovery in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus

    Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a condition characterised by chronic recidivous inflammation of the bowel and intestine. IBD includes chron´s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The combined prevalence of CD and UC are app. 1 in 500 in the general Caucasian population. In 25% of the cases...

  19. Coupled Spin and Shape Evolution of Small Rubble-Pile Asteroids: Self-Limitation of the YORP Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Richardson, Derek C; Tanga, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first self-consistent simulations of the coupled spin and shape evolutions of small gravitational aggregates under the influence of the YORP effect. Because of YORP sensitivity to detailed surface topography, even small centrifugally driven reconfigurations of an aggregate can alter the YORP torque dramatically, resulting in spin evolution that is, in most cases, qualitatively different from the rigid-body prediction. A third of objects simulated follow a simple evolution that can be described as a modified YORP cycle. Two-thirds exhibit one or more of three distinct behaviors -stochastic YORP, self-governed YORP, and stagnating YORP-which together result in YORP self-limitation. Self-limitation confines the rotation rates of evolving aggregates to far narrower ranges than would be expected in the classical YORP cycle, and greatly prolonging the times over which objects can preserve their sense of rotation. The asteroids are initially randomly packed, disordered aggregates of identical spheres ...

  20. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys3]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation

  1. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Lin [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Dai, Weiqi [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Mao, Yuqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Sainan [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jingjie; Li, Huanqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Guo, Chuanyong [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Fan, Xiaoming, E-mail: xiaomingfan57@sina.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-27

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys{sup 3}]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  2. Lymphocytic colitis: A clue to bacterial etiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanaa EA Helal; Naglaa S Ahmed; Osama Abo El Fotoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To find out the role of bacteria as a possible etiological factor in lymphocytic colitis.METHODS: Twenty patients with histopathological diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis and 10 normal controls were included in this study. Colonoscopic biopsies were obtained from three sites (hepatic and splenic flexures and rectosigmoid region). Each biopsy was divided into two parts. A fresh part was incubated on special cultures for bacterial growth. The other part was used for the preparation of histologic tissue sections that were examined for the presence of bacteria with the help of Giemsa stain.RESULTS: Culture of tissue biopsies revealed bacterial growth in 18 out of 20 patients with lymphocytic colitis mostly Escherichia coli(14/18), which was found in all rectosigmoid specimens (14/14), but only in 8/14 and 6/14 of splenic and hepatic flexure specimens respectively. In two of these cases, E coliwas associated with proteus. Proteus was found only in one case, Klebsiella in two cases, and Staphylococcus aureus in one case. In the control group, only 2 out of 10 controls showed the growth of E coliin their biopsy cultures.Histopathology showed rod-shaped bacilli in the tissue sections of 12 out of 14 cases with positive E coliin their specimen's culture. None of the controls showed these bacteria in histopathological sections.CONCLUSION: This preliminary study reports an association between E coliand lymphocytic colitis, based on histological and culture observations. Serotyping and molecular studies are in process to assess the role of E coliin the pathogenesis of lymphocytic colitis.

  3. Role of pharmacoepidemiology studies in addressing pharmacovigilance questions: a case example of pancreatitis risk among ulcerative colitis patients using mesalazine

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Leo; Schneider, Gary; Gardiner, Margarita Hauser; Lanes, Stephan; Streck, Paul; Rosen, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Well-designed pharmacoepidemiology studies address several limitations of postmarketing spontaneous reports in regard to signal evaluation. This study evaluated a signal of disproportionate reporting of acute pancreatitis cases observed in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) treated with MMX Multi Matrix System® (MMX®) mesalazine and demonstrated how inherent limitations of postmarketing reports were overcome. Methods Adults with UC who were new users of MMX mesalazine or another br...

  4. Unique gene expression and MR T2 relaxometry patterns define chronic murine dextran sodium sulphate colitis as a model for connective tissue changes in human Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Breynaert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total. Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T 2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn's colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn's disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of

  5. Nicotine alleviates colitis-induced damage in rats via its anti-oxidative activity

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Zarife Nigar; TAZEGÜL, Gökhan; Kuru, Pınar; BİLGİN, Şeyda; MENTEŞE, Semih Tiber; ERZIK, Can; Sirvanci, Serap; YEGEN, Berrak C

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have demonstrated a higher incidence of ulcerative colitis in non-smokers. We investigated the beneficial effects of nicotine treatment on colitis-induced anxiety and oxidative colonic damage on rats.Materials and Methods: Wistar Albino (250-300 g) rats (n=40) were randomly divided into 5 groups as saline-treated colitis group, nicotine pre-treated colitis group, nicotine post-treated colitis group, continuously nicotine-treated colitis group and control group. Gro...

  6. Complications of 5-azacytidine: Three cases of severe ischemic colitis in elderly patients with myelodysplastic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    MELCHARDT, THOMAS; WEISS, LUKAS; PLEYER, LISA; STEINKIRCHNER, SUSANNE; AUBERGER, JUTTA; HOPFINGER, GEORG; GREIL, RICHARD; EGLE, ALEXANDER

    2013-01-01

    5-Azacytidine (5-AZA) was the first drug to be approved for the treatment of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The adverse event profile of this drug appears favorable compared with the conventional intensive chemotherapy that is used for MDS or acute myeloid leukemia. However, uncommon adverse events may have remained undetected in the limited number of patients that have been treated to date. The present study describes three cases/66.8 person-years (4,491 cases/100,000 person-years) of severe ischemic colitis in a single center cohort of 95 patients who were consecutively treated using subcutaneous 5-AZA. The results demonstrated a much higher incidence of colitis compared with the rates in the general population or in patients of greater ages and co-morbidities. The present study investigated whether the combination of anemia and constipation due to the co-medication of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may explain the three cases of ischemic colitis. PMID:24260071

  7. Complications of 5-azacytidine: Three cases of severe ischemic colitis in elderly patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchardt, Thomas; Weiss, Lukas; Pleyer, Lisa; Steinkirchner, Susanne; Auberger, Jutta; Hopfinger, Georg; Greil, Richard; Egle, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    5-Azacytidine (5-AZA) was the first drug to be approved for the treatment of high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). The adverse event profile of this drug appears favorable compared with the conventional intensive chemotherapy that is used for MDS or acute myeloid leukemia. However, uncommon adverse events may have remained undetected in the limited number of patients that have been treated to date. The present study describes three cases/66.8 person-years (4,491 cases/100,000 person-years) of severe ischemic colitis in a single center cohort of 95 patients who were consecutively treated using subcutaneous 5-AZA. The results demonstrated a much higher incidence of colitis compared with the rates in the general population or in patients of greater ages and co-morbidities. The present study investigated whether the combination of anemia and constipation due to the co-medication of 5-HT3 receptor antagonists may explain the three cases of ischemic colitis. PMID:24260071

  8. Antibody to eosinophil cationic protein suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuko Shichijo; Kazuya Makiyama; Chun-Yang Wen; Mutsumi Matsuu; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Masahiro Nakashima; Makoto Ihara; Ichiro Sekine

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To produce an antibody against rat eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and to examine the effects of the antibody in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.METHODS: An antibody was raised against rat ECP. Rats were treated with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 d and received the antibody or normal serum. The colons were exarmined histologically and correlated with clinical symptoms.Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were estimated as a grade of inflammation.RESULTS: The ECP antibody stained the activated eosinophils around the injured crypts in the colonic mucosa.Antibody treatment reduced the severity of colonic ulceration and acute clinical symptoms (diarrhea and/or blood-stained stool). Body weight gain was significantly greater and the colon length was significantly longer in anti-ECP-treated rats than in normal serum-treated rats. Expression of ECP in activated eosinophils was associated with the presence of erosions and inflammation. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in the regenerated surface epithelium increased in anti-ECP-treated rats compared with normal serum-treated rats. Western blot analysis revealed reduced expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in anti-ECP-treated rats.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that treatment with ECP antibody, improved DSS-induced colitis in rats, possibly by increasing the regenerative activity of the colonic epithelium and downregulation of the immune response,and suggest that anti-ECP may promote intestinal wound healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).

  9. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Aitken, Jesse D; Malleshappa, Madhu; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-02-04

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), mainly comprising ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease, are complex and multifactorial diseases with unknown etiology. For the past 20 years, to study human IBD mechanistically, a number of murine models of colitis have been developed. These models are indispensable tools to decipher underlying mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis as well as to evaluate a number of potential therapeutics. Among various chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human ulcerative colitis. This model has both advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when employed. This protocol describes the DSS-induced colitis model, focusing on details and factors that could affect DSS-induced pathology.

  10. Contemporary methods for the diagnosis and treatment of microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauregui-Amezaga, Aranzazu; Vermeire, Séverine; Geboes, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic diarrhea. It is characterized by non-bloody watery diarrhea with macroscopically normal colonic mucosa. Its specific histological characteristics confirm the diagnosis. Two distinct histological forms can be identified, namely, collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. In collagenous colitis, a thick colonic subepithelial collagenous deposit can be observed, whereas in lymphocytic colitis, a pronounced intraepithelial lymphocytic inflammation in the absence of a thickened collagen band can be identified. Microscopic colitis occurs more frequently in elderly females and its etiology is believed to be multifactorial, although smoking and consumption of several drugs have been identified as risks factors for the development of the disease. The treatment is based on avoiding the risks factors and administration of oral budesonide. PMID:26470823

  11. COMPARISON OF CLINICAL JUDGMENT AND RADIOLOGICAL CORRELATION IN EVALUATION OF ACUTE ABDOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Karunya Lakshmi; Abubacker Sulaiman; Ashwin Kumar; Shriranjani

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study is to assess the accuracy of clinical examination in acute abdomen with radiological imaging. DESIGN: Retrospective trail . INTRODUCTION: Acute abdominal pain may be caused by a variety of conditions ranging from benign self - limiting disease to surgical emergencies. Accurate diagnoses of acute abdominal pain require detailed patient history, thorough physical examination, laboratory tests and diagnostic ima ging. Tak...

  12. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  13. Quality of life in patients with ulcerative colitis treated surgically

    OpenAIRE

    Kozłowska, Katarzyna A.; Bączyk, Grażyna; Krokowicz, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Ulcerative colitis belongs to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases. The specific symptoms and chronic nature of the disease significantly affect the quality of patients’ lives. Quality-of-life assessment helps to define its determining factors as well as the efficiency of surgical procedures. Aim Quality-of-life evaluation of patients with ulcerative colitis treated surgically. Material and methods A retrospective review was carried out on 35 patients with ulcerative colitis,...

  14. Update in the treatment of paediatric ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifer, Melanie K; Markowitz, James F

    2006-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an important disease in the paediatric population. Ulcerative colitis is one of the chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, and is medically incurable. However, the arsenal of medications has grown as knowledge of the pathogenesis of this disease advances. This review looks at the classical treatments for children with ulcerative colitis, including the 5-aminosalicylates, corticosteroids and imunomodulators, as well as biological therapy and other, newer modalities. PMID:17020417

  15. Cytomegalovirus-associated colitis causing diarrhea in an immunocompetent patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Carter; David Olchovsky; Russell Pokroy; David Ezra

    2006-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disabling and life threatening diarrhea in an immunocompetent elderly woman due to CMV colitis. The diagnosis of CMV was based on histological examination of tissues biopsied at colonoscopy, positive CMV antigen and high CMV-IgM titer in peripheral blood samples and a good response to systemic gancyclovir treatment.We conclude that CMV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of colitis in elderly immunocompetent patients.

  16. Evaluation of dairy allergy among ulcerative colitis patients

    OpenAIRE

    judaki, Arezo; Hafeziahmadi, Mohamadreza; Yousefi, Atefe; Havasian, Mohamad Reza; Panahi, Jafar; Sayehmiri, Koroush; Alizadeh, Sajjad

    2014-01-01

    The intestine is the largest mucosal organ of the body and also the first line immune homeostasis. Inflammatory bowel disease or IBD is divided into ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. One of the problems that can occur with UC is dietary allergy to some foods. This study aimed to evaluated the dairy allergy among patients with ulcerative colitis. This study is a Case - control study, that studied 72 patients with Ulcerative Colitis, after recording history of the disease, colonoscopy and...

  17. Ulcerative colitis six years after colon cancer: only a coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellakis, Minas; Makatsoris, Thomas; Gkermpesi, Maria; Peroukidis, Stavros; Kalofonos, Haralabos

    2014-01-01

    The association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer is well known. Ulcerative colitis is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, and this risk increases with the activity and duration of bowel inflammation. Here we describe the case of a 52-year-old man who developed ulcerative colitis 6 years after the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer. Although this could be a coincidence, there could be additional possibilities, like pre-existence of quiescent colitis, late effect of therapy, or maybe the existence of common pathogenetic factors contributing to the development of ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. PMID:24855393

  18. Pseudomembranous Colitis: Not Always Caused by Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although classically pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile, it can result from several etiologies. Certain medications, chemical injury, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia, and other infectious pathogens can reportedly cause mucosal injury and subsequent pseudomembrane formation. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with vascular disease who was incorrectly diagnosed with refractory C. difficile infection due to the presence of pseudomembranes. Further imaging, endoscopy, and careful histopathology review revealed chronic ischemia as the cause of her pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea. This case highlights the need for gastroenterologists to consider non-C. difficile etiologies when diagnosing pseudomembranous colitis.

  19. The Mutyh base excision repair gene influences the inflammatory response in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Casorelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mutyh DNA glycosylase is involved in the repair of oxidized DNA bases. Mutations in the human MUTYH gene are responsible for colorectal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis. Since defective DNA repair genes might contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, we compared the inflammatory response of wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severity of colitis, changes in expression of genes involved in DNA repair and inflammation, DNA 8-oxoguanine levels and microsatellite instability were analysed in colon of mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. The Mutyh(-/- phenotype was associated with a significant accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in colon DNA of treated mice. A single DSS cycle induced severe acute ulcerative colitis in wild-type mice, whereas lesions were modest in Mutyh(-/- mice, and this was associated with moderate variations in the expression of several cytokines. Eight DSS cycles caused chronic colitis in both wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice. Lymphoid hyperplasia and a significant reduction in Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells were observed only in Mutyh(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that, in this model of ulcerative colitis, Mutyh plays a major role in maintaining intestinal integrity by affecting the inflammatory response.

  20. Ulcerative Colitis: Update on Medical Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iskandar, Heba N; Dhere, Tanvi; Farraye, Francis A

    2015-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease whose pathogenesis is multifactorial and includes influences from genes, the environment, and the gut microbiome. Recent advances in diagnosis and treatment have led to significant improvement in managing the disease. Disease monitoring with the use of therapeutic drug monitoring, stool markers, and assessment of mucosal healing have garnered much attention. The recent approval of vedolizumab for treatment of moderate to severe UC has been a welcome addition. Newer biologics, including those targeting the Janus tyrosine kinase (JAK) pathway, are on the horizon to add to the current armamentarium of anti-TNF alpha and anti-integrin therapies. The recent publication of the SCENIC consensus statement on surveillance and management of dysplasia in UC patients supports the use of chromoendoscopy over random biopsies in detecting dysplasia. This review highlights these recent advances along with others that have been made with ulcerative colitis.

  1. Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon P Bach; Neil J Mortensen

    2007-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum.Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission.Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is refractory to medical treatment or in cases of neoplastic transformation. Approximately 25% of patients with UC ultimately require colectomy. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. This review will examine indications for IPAA, patient selection, technical aspects of surgery,management of complications and long term outcome following this procedure.

  2. Animal Models of Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasa Kanneganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that affect individuals throughout life. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD are largely unknown, studies with animal models of colitis indicate that dysregulation of host/microbial interactions are requisite for the development of IBD. Patients with long-standing IBD have an increased risk for developing colitis-associated cancer (CAC, especially 10 years after the initial diagnosis of colitis, although the absolute number of CAC cases is relatively small. The cancer risk seems to be not directly related to disease activity, but is related to disease duration/extent, complication of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and family history of colon cancer. In particular, high levels and continuous production of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, by colonic epithelial cells (CECs and immune cells in lamina propria may be strongly associated with the pathogenesis of CAC. In this article, we have summarized animal models of CAC and have reviewed the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlining the development of carcinogenic changes in CECs secondary to the chronic inflammatory conditions in the intestine. It may provide us some clues in developing a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of IBD and CAC in the near future.

  3. Novel topical therapies for distal colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian; Craig; Lawrance

    2010-01-01

    Distal colitis(DC) can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents.Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure.Used in combination with oral 5ASAs,the control of the inflammation is even more effective.Unfortunately,resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage.In these patients,the use of steroids,immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents are often required.These,however,can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective.The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent.Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate,cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus,ecabet sodium,arsenic,lidocaine,rebamipide and Ridogrel enemas.Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts.Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials.This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

  4. The flavonoid luteolin worsens chemical-induced colitis in NF-kappaB(EGFP transgenic mice through blockade of NF-kappaB-dependent protective molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karrasch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The flavonoid luteolin has anti-inflammatory properties both in vivo and in vitro. However, the impact of luteolin on experimental models of colitis is unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To address the therapeutic impact of luteolin, NF-kappaB(EGFP transgenic mice were fed a chow diet containing 2% luteolin- or isoflavone-free control chow (AIN-76, and acute colitis was induced using 3% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS. Additionally, development of spontaneous colitis was evaluated in IL-10(-/-;NF-kappaB(EGFP transgenic mice fed 2% luteolin chow diet or control chow diet. Interestingly, NF-kappaB(EGFP transgenic mice exposed to luteolin showed worse DSS-induced colitis (weight loss, histological scores compared to control-fed mice, whereas spontaneous colitis in IL-10(-/-;NF-kappaB(EGFP mice was significantly attenuated. Macroscopic imaging of live resected colon showed enhanced EGFP expression (NF-kappaB activity in luteolin-fed mice as compared to control-fed animals after DSS exposure, while cecal EGFP expression was attenuated in luteolin-fed IL-10(-/- mice. Interestingly, confocal microscopy showed that EGFP positive cells were mostly located in the lamina propria and not in the epithelium. Caspase 3 activation was significantly enhanced whereas COX-2 gene expression was reduced in luteolin-fed, DSS-exposed NF-kappaB(EGFP transgenic mice as assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. In vitro, luteolin sensitized colonic epithelial HT29 cells to TNFalpha-induced apoptosis, caspase 3 activation, DNA fragmentation and reduced TNFalpha-induced C-IAP1, C-IAP2 and COX-2 gene expression. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that while luteolin shows beneficial effects on spontaneous colitis, it aggravates DSS-induced experimental colitis by blocking NF-kappaB-dependent protective molecules in enterocytes.

  5. Long-Term Natural History and Complications of Collagenous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis, a possibly heterogeneous disorder. Collagenous colitis most often appears to have an entirely benign clinical course that usually responds to limited treatment. Sometimes significant extracolonic disorders, especially arthritis, spondylitis, thyroiditis and skin disorders, such as pyoderma gangrenosum, dominate the clinical course and influence the treatment strategy. However, rare fatalities have been reported and several complications, some severe, have been attributed directly to the colitis. Toxic colitis and toxic megacolon may develop. Concomitant gastric and small intestinal inflammatory disorders have been described including celiac disease and more extensive collagenous inflammatory disease. Colonic ulceration has been associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, may evolve directly from collagenous colitis. Submucosal ‘dissection’, colonic fractures, or mucosal tears and perforation, possibly from air insufflation during colonoscopy, have been reported. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressures that may occur during radiological imaging of the colon. Neoplastic disorders of the colon may also occur during the course of collagenous colitis, including colon carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours (ie, carcinoids. Finally, lymphoproliferative disease has been reported.

  6. Acupuncture Treatment for 76 Cases of Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ulcerative colitis is also called nonspecific chronic ulcerative colitis. The author of this essay has treated 76 such cases with acupuncture and obtained satisfactory therapeutic effect. Meanwhile, the results were compared with 45 cases treated with azulfidine.A report follows.

  7. Samtidig debut af kollagen colitis og mb. Crohn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Nielsen, Preben Løvgreen; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2002-01-01

    A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed.......A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed....

  8. Dr.Dong Demao's Experience in Treating Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凌云

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic ulcerative colitis (chronic non-specific ulcerative colitis) is a kind of non-specific inflammation occurred in the colonic mucosa layers. As a lingering and troublesome condition that often attacks people aged 20-40, it is characterized by recurrent diarrhea, abdominal pain, pus- and mucus-stained stools in clinic.

  9. Metabolic and inflammatory faecal markers in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Lassen, Inge Nordgaard; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis.......To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis....

  10. Genetic and immunologic aspects of acute pancreatitis : An odyssey

    OpenAIRE

    Nijmeijer, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of acute hospitalization for gastrointestinal diseases. The course of acute pancreatitis is often mild and self-limiting, but in 15-25% of patients, pancreatitis is severe with an increased mortality risk. Infectious complications, and especially bacterial infection of pancreatic necrosis, are commonly accepted as the major cause of death for patients with this disease. The aim of the research described in this thesis was to gain more insight in some of...

  11. Early Prediction of Severity in Acute Pancreatitis. Is This Possible?

    OpenAIRE

    Sandberg AA; Borgstrom A

    2002-01-01

    One out of ten cases of acute pancreatitis develops into severe acute pancreatitis which is a life threatening disorder with a high mortality rate. The other nine cases are self limiting and need very little therapy. The specificity of good clinical judgement on admission, concerning the prognosis of the attack, is high (high specificity) but misses a lot of severe cases (low sensitivity). The prediction of severity in acute pancreatitis was first suggested by John HC Ranson in 1974. Much eff...

  12. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: factor XIII, inflammation and haemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, R; Leugner, F; Katschinski, M; Immel, A; Kraus, M; Egbring, R; Göke, B

    1994-01-01

    An important role has been ascribed to plasma factor XIII (FXIII) in inflammation and wound healing. FXIII is necessary for fibrin stabilization and interacts with connective tissue and adhesive proteins and cells. In a prospective study, FXIII activity and parameters of coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, were determined in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC; 13 active, 22 moderate) and Crohn's disease (CD; 36 active, 45 moderate). FXIII levels were lower in active than in moderate UC and CD, and were < 70% of normal values in 7/13 patients with active UC, and in 7/36 patients with active CD, although the median values did not fall below the normal range. FXIII was somewhat higher in active UC patients responding to therapy. The FXIII levels were widely scattered, and low values appear to be due to greatly enhanced turnover. A correlation between FXIII and the systemic levels of markers of activation of haemostasis and inflammation was lacking, but there was a correlation with the extent of bowel involvement. FXIII levels were lower in the patients with involvement beyond the sigmoid colon in CU (p = 0.0045), and both small and large bowel segments in CD (p = 0.0223) patients. This points to local consumption and/or loss of FXIII within the inflamed tissue, and provides an argument for FXIII substitution in the treatment of acute episodes of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  13. Necrotic stercoral colitis: Importance of computed tomography findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Hsien Wu; Li-Jen Wang; Yon-Cheong Wong; Chen-Chih Huang; Chien-Cheng Chen; Chao-Jan Wang; Jen-Feng Fang; Chuen Hsueh

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the computed tomography (CT) signs in facilitating early diagnosis of necrotic stercoral colitis(NSC).METHODS: Ten patients with surgically and pathologically confirmed NSC were recruited from the Clinico-Pathologic-Radiologic conference at Chang Gung MemorialHospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Their CT images and medical records were reviewed retrospectively to correlate CT findings with clinical presentation.RESULTS: All these ten elderly patients with a mean age of 77.1 years presented with acute abdomen at our Emergency Room. Nine of them were with systemic medmedical disease and 8 with chronic constipation. Seven were with leukocytosis, two with low-grade fever, two with peritoneal sign, and three with hypotensive shock. Only one patient was with radiographic detected abnormal gas. Except the crux of fecal impaction, the frequency of the CT signs of NSC were, proximal colon dilatation (20%),colon wall thickening (60%), dense mucosa (62.5%),mucosal sloughing (10%), perfusion defect (70%),pericolonic stranding (80%), abnormal gas (50%) with pneumo-mesocolon (40%) in them, pericolonic abscess(20%). The most sensitive signs in decreasing order were pericolonic stranding, perfusion defect, dense mucosal,detecting about 80%, 70%, and 62.5% of the cases, respectively.CONCLUSION: Awareness of NSC and familiarity with the CT diagnostic signs enable the differential diagnosis between NSC and benign stool impaction.

  14. UNC5B receptor deletion exacerbates DSS-induced colitis in mice by increasing epithelial cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Li, Dean Y; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2014-07-01

    The netrin-1 administration or overexpression is known to protect colon from acute colitis. However, the receptor that mediates netrin-1 protective activities in the colon during colitis remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that UNC5B receptor is a critical mediator of protective function of netrin-1 in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis using mice with partial deletion of UNC5B receptor. DSS colitis was performed in mice with partial genetic UNC5B deficiency (UNC5B(+/-) mice) or wild-type mice to examine the role of endogenous UNC5B. These studies were supported by in vitro models of DSS-induced apoptosis in human colon epithelial cells. WT mice developed colitis in response to DSS feeding as indicated by reduction in bw, reduction in colon length and increase in colon weight. These changes were exacerbated in heterozygous UNC5B knockout mice treated with DSS. Periodic Acid-Schiff stained section shows damages in colon epithelium and mononuclear cell infiltration in WT mice, which was further increased in UNC5B heterozygous knockout mice. This was associated with large increase in inflammatory mediators such as cytokine and chemokine expression and extensive apoptosis of epithelial cells in heterozygous knockout mice as compared to WT mice. Overexpression of UNC5B human colon epithelial cells suppressed DSS-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, DSS induced large amount of netrin-1 and shRNA mediated knockdown of netrin-1 induction exacerbated DSS-induced epithelial cell apoptosis. Our results suggest that UNC5B is a critical mediator of cell survival in response to stress in colon.

  15. A study of the effects of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2012-04-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) from Rosaceae family is a fruit tree cultivated in many countries mainly in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of quince juice (QJ) and quince hydroalcoholic extract (QHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) in rats. Rats were grouped (n=6) and fasted for 36 h before colitis induction. TNBS was instilled into the colon with a hydroalcoholic carrier and then treatments were made for 5 days starting 6 h after colitis induction with different doses of QJ (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), QHE (200, 500 & 800 mg/kg) orally, QJ (400 mg/kg) and QHE (200 and 500 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Albeit the examined doses of QJ and QHE were apparently effective to reduce the extent of UC lesions, only the greatest doses (500 and 800 mg/kg) resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/Length ratio as an illustrative of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished with quince treatments while the results correlated with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that QJ and QHE were effective to diminish inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis. Although QHE with different doses was effective in induced colitis, the dose and/or route of administration dependency was not confirmed. So quince fractions could be considered as a suitable anticolitic alternative, however further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting. PMID:23181087

  16. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nordgaard, I; Matzen, P;

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced in excess by the inflamed human colon is generally considered a pathway of mucosal damage. In an attempt to quantify colonic mucosal production of NO in various forms of colitis we performed 'steady-state' gas perfusion of whole colon in 11 patients with ulcerative coli...

  17. Ulcerative colitis six years after colon cancer: only a coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakellakis M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Minas Sakellakis,1 Thomas Makatsoris,1 Maria Gkermpesi,2 Stavros Peroukidis,1 Haralabos Kalofonos11Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, University, Hospital of Patras, Patras, GreeceAbstract: The association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer is well known. Ulcerative colitis is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, and this risk increases with the activity and duration of bowel inflammation. Here we describe the case of a 52-year-old man who developed ulcerative colitis 6 years after the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer. Although this could be a coincidence, there could be additional possibilities, like pre-existence of quiescent colitis, late effect of therapy, or maybe the existence of common pathogenetic factors contributing to the development of ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer.Keywords: ulcerative, colitis, colorectal, cancer, inflammation

  18. Antiviral treatment in patients with cytomegalovirus positive ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kadir; Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus(CMV) is a common virus in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Many studies suggested that CMV infection is an exacerbating factor in patients with ulcerative colitis. The role of CMV in exacerbations of ulcerative colitis has been discussed. One of studies starting this discussion is an article entitled "CMV positive ulcerative colitis: A single center experience and literature review" by Kopylov et al. However, we think that there are some points that should be emphasized about the study. Especially, the small number of patients in the study has led to meaningless results. Large controlled prospective trials are needed to clarify the benefit of antiviral therapy for active ulcerative colitis patients.

  19. Pathogenesis and biomarkers of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Nielsen, Ole Haagen;

    2011-01-01

    One of the most serious complications of ulcerative colitis is the development of colorectal cancer. Screening patients with ulcerative colitis by standard histological examination of random intestinal biopsy samples might be inefficient as a method of cancer surveillance. This Review focuses...... on the current understanding of the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer and how this knowledge can be transferred into patient management to assist clinicians and pathologists in identifying patients with ulcerative colitis who have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Inflammation....... Although progress has been made in the understanding of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis, markers based on these findings possess insufficient sensitivity or specificity to be usable as reliable biomarkers for risk of colorectal cancer development in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, screening...

  20. Substance P modulates colitis-associated fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Zhao, Dezheng; Fazelbhoy, Zafeer; Hing, Tressia; Xu, Hua; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2010-11-01

    Substance P (SP) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the development of colitis and mucosal healing after colonic inflammation. We studied whether SP modulates colonic fibrosis by using a chronic model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and NK-1R-deficient (NK-1R KD) mice. We found increased mRNA expression levels of collagen, vimentin, and the fibrogenic factors transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 in the chronically inflamed colons of WT mice treated with repeated intracolonic TNBS administrations. Fibrosis in TNBS-treated mice was also evident immunohistochemically by collagen deposition in the colon. Treatment of TNBS-exposed WT mice with the NK-1R antagonist CJ-12255 reduced colonic inflammation, colonic fibrosis, fibroblast accumulation, and expression levels of the fibrogenic factors. NK-1R knockout mice chronically exposed to TNBS had similar colonic inflammation compared with WT, but reduced colonic fibrosis, fibroblast accumulation, and expression levels of fibrogenic factors. Immunohistochemical staining also showed co-localization of NK-1R with fibroblasts in inflamed colons of mice and in colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease. Exposure of human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts to SP (10 nmol/L) increased cell migration. SP stimulated collagen synthesis in CCD-18Co fibroblasts in the presence of transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1, and this effect was reduced by Akt inhibition. Thus, SP, via NK-1R, promotes intestinal fibrogenesis after chronic colitis by stimulating fibrotic responses in fibroblasts. PMID:20889569

  1. Mechanism of diarrhea in microscopic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marijana Protic; Njegica Jojic; Daniela Bojic; Svetlana Milutinovic; Dusanka Necic; Bozidar Bojic; Petar Svorcan; Miodrag Krstic; Obren Popovic

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To search the pathophysiological mechanism of diarrhea based on daily stool weights, fecal electrolytes,osmotic gap and pH.METHODS: Seventy-six patients were included: 51 with microscopic colitis (MC) [40 with lymphocytic colitis (LC);11 with collagenous colitis (CC)]; 7 with MC without diarrhea and 18 as a control group (CG). They collected stool for 3 d. Sodium and potassium concentration were determined by flame photometry and chloride concentration by titration method of Schales. Fecal osmotic gap was calculated from the difference of osmolarity of fecal fluid and double sum of sodium and potassium concentration.RESULTS: Fecal fluid sodium concentration was significantly increased in LC 58.11±5.38 mmol/L (P<0.01)and CC 54.14±8.42 mmol/L (P<0.05) than in CG 34.28±2.98 mmol/L. Potassium concentration in LC 74.65±5.29 mmol/L (P<0.01) and CC 75.53±8.78 mmol/L (P<0.05) was significantly less compared to CG 92.67±2.99 mmol/L.Chloride concentration in CC 36.07±7.29 mmol/L was significantly higher than in CG 24.11±2.05 mmol/L (P<0.05).Forty-four (86.7%) patients had a secretory diarrhea compared to fecal osmotic gap. Seven (13.3%) patients had osmotic diarrhea.CONCLUSION: Diarrhea in MC mostly belongs to the secretory type. The major pathophysiological mechanism in LC could be explained by a decrease of active sodium absorption. In CC, decreased Cl/HCO3 exchange rate and increased chloride secretion are coexistent pathways.

  2. Sweet's syndrome: an unusual cutaneous feature of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. The South West Gastroenterology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, S; Innes, N; Davies, M G; Daneshmend, T; Hughes, S

    1997-07-01

    Sweet's syndrome is characterized by tender, red inflammatory nodules or papules, usually affecting the upper limbs, face or neck. It is part of the group of acute neutrophilic dermatoses that includes pyoderma gangrenosum, but can be distinguished by its appearance, distribution and histological features. Four patients with Sweet's syndrome and Crohn's disease are reported. A total of 30 cases from the literature suggest that Sweet's syndrome is an unusual extraintestinal manifestation of either Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. There is a strong predilection for women (87%), patients with colonic disease (100%) and those with other extraintestinal features (77%). The rash is associated with active disease in 67-80%, but may precede the onset of intestinal symptoms in 21% and has been reported 3 months after proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis. PMID:9262983

  3. Colonic biogeography in health and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavelle, Aonghus; Lennon, Grainne; Winter, Desmond C; O'Connell, P Ronan

    2016-09-01

    The relevance of biogeography to the distal gut microbiota has been investigated in both health and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), however multiple factors, including sample type and methodology, microbiota characterization and interpersonal variability make the construction of a core model of colonic biogeography challenging. In addition, how phylogenetic classification relates to immunogenicity and whether consistent alterations in the microbiota are associated with ulcerative colitis (UC) remain open questions. This addendum seeks to review the human colonic microbiota in health and UC as currently understood, in the broader context of the human microbiome. PMID:27662587

  4. Turner Syndrome Associated with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Takaya, Junji; Teraguchi, Masayuki; Ikemoto, Yumiko; Yoshimura, Ken; Yamato, Fumiko; Higashino, Hirohiko; Kobayashi, Yohnosuke; Kaneko, Kazunari

    2006-01-01

    We report the case of a 7-yr-old girl with Turner syndrome, ulcerative colitis (UC) and coarctation of the aorta. The diagnosis of Turner syndrome was made in early infancy (karyotype analysis 45, X). Growth hormone treatment was started at 3 yr and 2 mo of age. From the age of 4 yr and 5 mo, the patient suffered from persistent diarrhea with traces of blood and intermittent abdominal discomfort. As these symptoms gradually deteriorated, she was referred to our clinic at the age of 7 yr for f...

  5. Cellular and Molecular Immunopathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzhen Zhang; Xuhui Zhao; Dechun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the rectal and colonic mucosa and seems to result from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment and the immune system. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of UC. Evidence from animal models also suggests that an altered immune response to the commensal microflora of the host plays a central role in the development of UC. So in this review, we elucidate the cells and molecules which are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of the disease from four aspects: antigens in the intestine, dendritic cells, toll like receptors and NF-κB in the UC.

  6. Transhepatic fibrinolysis of mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis in a patient with ulcerative colitis: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo Guglielmi; Francesca Fior; Orsolya Halmos; Gian Franco Veraldi; Lorenzo Rossaro; Andrea Ruzzenente; Claudio Cordiano

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To present a case of acute mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis treated with thrombolytic therapy in a patient with ulcerative colitis in acute phase and to review the literature on thrombolytic therapy of mesenteric-portal system. Treatment of acute portal vein thrombosis has ranged from conservative treatment with thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy to surgical treatment with thrombectomy and/or intestinal resection.METHODS: We treated our patient with intraportal infusion of plasminogen activator and then heparin through a percutaneous transhepatic catheter.RESULTS: Thrombus resolved despite premature interruption of the thrombolytic treatment for neurological complications, which subsequently resolved.CONCLUSION: Conservative management with plasminogen activator, could be considered as a good treatment for patients with acute porto-mesenteric thrombosis.

  7. Prospects for Thermal Atomic Layer Etching Using Sequential, Self-Limiting Fluorination and Ligand-Exchange Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Steven M; Lee, Younghee

    2016-05-24

    Thermal atomic layer etching (ALE) of Al2O3 and HfO2 using sequential, self-limiting fluorination and ligand-exchange reactions was recently demonstrated using HF and tin acetylacetonate (Sn(acac)2) as the reactants. This new thermal pathway for ALE represents the reverse of atomic layer deposition (ALD) and should lead to isotropic etching. Atomic layer deposition and ALE can together define the atomic layer growth and removal steps required for advanced semiconductor fabrication. The thermal ALE of many materials should be possible using fluorination and ligand-exchange reactions. The chemical details of ligand-exchange can lead to selective ALE between various materials. Thermal ALE could produce conformal etching in high-aspect-ratio structures. Thermal ALE could also yield ultrasmooth thin films based on deposit/etch-back methods. Enhancement of ALE rates and possible anisotropic ALE could be achieved using radicals or ions together with thermal ALE. PMID:27216115

  8. Temperature-driven self-assembly of self-limiting uniform supraparticles from non-uniform unimolecular micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picco, Agustín S; Yameen, Basit; Knoll, Wolfgang; Ceolín, Marcelo R; Azzaroni, Omar

    2016-06-01

    In this work, the self-assembly of non-uniform unimolecular micelles constituted of a hyperbranched polyester core decorated with a corona of thermoresponsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAm) chains has been studied. As revealed by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), these unimicelles form uniform supraparticles through a thermally-induced self-limited process, as well as exhibit molecular features commonly observed in PNIPAm-based gels. We believe that these results provide new insights into the application of stimuli-responsive polymeric materials as versatile building blocks to build up soft supraparticles displaying well-defined dimensional characteristics. PMID:26990953

  9. Inhibitory Effect of Recombinant IL-25 on the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Experimental Colitis in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Salum Mchenga; Danan Wang; Cheng Li; Fengping Shan; Changlong Lu

    2008-01-01

    The role of interleukin 25 (IL-25) in a number of human diseases still has not been extensively studied, here we attempt to evaluate the role of recombinant IL-25 (rIL-25) in the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)induced experimental colitis. Acute colitis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2.5% DSS in drinking water ad libitum. At the same time as the start of DSS exposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.4 μg of rIL-25 or PBS. Then disease activity index (DAI), histological changes and survival rate were observed. The levels of IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-β1 in colon tissues were determined by ELISA, and the production of IL-17 by CD4+/CD8+ T cells was detected by intracellular flow cytometry. In contrast to the DSS treated mice, DSS + rIL-25 treated mice displayed a lower DAI, limited histological changes and prolonged survival. The levels of IL-23 and TGF-β1 were significantly elevated in the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice compared to the DSS treated mice. There was no significant difference in the production of IL-17 in colon tissues and CD4+/CD8+ T cells between the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice and DSS treated mice. Our findings suggest the role of IL-25 in inhibiting development and progression of acute colitis in DSS-induced mouse colitis model. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(6):425-431.

  10. Grim19 Attenuates DSS Induced Colitis in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    DSS induced colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, which destabilizes the gut and induces an uncontrolled immune response. Although DSS induced colitis is generally thought to develop as a result of an abnormally active intestinal immune system, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Gene associated with retinoid interferon induced mortality (Grim) 19 is an endogenous specific inhibitor of STAT3, which regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the influence of GRIM19 in a DSS induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that Grim19 would ameliorate DSS induced colitis by altering STAT3 activity and intestinal inflammation. Grim19 ameliorated DSS induced colitis severity and protected intestinal tissue. The expression of STAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α in colon and lymph nodes was decreased significantly by Grim19. Moreover, DSS induced colitis progression in a Grim19 transgenic mouse line was inhibited in association with a reduction in STAT3 and IL-17 expression. These results suggest that Grim19 attenuates DSS induced colitis by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response mediated by STAT3 activation.

  11. Grim19 Attenuates DSS Induced Colitis in an Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    DSS induced colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, which destabilizes the gut and induces an uncontrolled immune response. Although DSS induced colitis is generally thought to develop as a result of an abnormally active intestinal immune system, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Gene associated with retinoid interferon induced mortality (Grim) 19 is an endogenous specific inhibitor of STAT3, which regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the influence of GRIM19 in a DSS induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that Grim19 would ameliorate DSS induced colitis by altering STAT3 activity and intestinal inflammation. Grim19 ameliorated DSS induced colitis severity and protected intestinal tissue. The expression of STAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α in colon and lymph nodes was decreased significantly by Grim19. Moreover, DSS induced colitis progression in a Grim19 transgenic mouse line was inhibited in association with a reduction in STAT3 and IL-17 expression. These results suggest that Grim19 attenuates DSS induced colitis by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response mediated by STAT3 activation. PMID:27258062

  12. Golimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löwenberg M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mark Löwenberg,1 Nanne KH de Boer,2 Frank Hoentjen3 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: The introduction of therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF had a major impact on the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC. Infliximab and adalimumab are powerful agents that are used for remission induction and maintenance therapy in UC and have an acceptable safety profile. However, a proportion of UC patients for whom therapy with anti-TNF agents is indicated fail or become intolerant to treatment with infliximab or adalimumab. Hence, there remains an unmet need for novel anti-TNF agents. Golimumab (Simponi®, a human anti-TNF antibody that is administered by monthly subcutaneous injections, is the most recently introduced TNF blocker for the treatment of UC. Here, we will discuss recent literature on clinical efficacy and safety of golimumab induction and maintenance treatment in patients with UC. Furthermore, we will discuss the positioning of golimumab for UC in current treatment algorithms. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, UC, antitumor necrosis factor, TNF, antibodies, golimumab

  13. Management and treatment of distal ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calafiore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is confined to the colonic mucosa. Its main symptoms include diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Approximately two-thirds of UC patients have disease confined distal to the splenic flexure, which can be treated effectively with topical therapy. This means the active drug can be delivered directly to the site of inflammation, limiting the systemic absorption and potential side effects. Topical treatment with aminosalicylates is the most effective approach in the treatment of these forms, provided that the formulation reaches the upper margin of the disease. Given this, the suppository formulation is the treatment of choice for proctitis and distal sigmoiditis. Thanks to their proximal spread, enemas, foams and gels represent the treatment of choice for proctosigmoiditis and for distal ulcerative colitis. Oral aminosalicylates are less effective than topical therapies in patients with active disease, while the combination of topical and oral treatment is more effective in patients refractory to topical or oral mono-therapy. Topically administered aminosalicylates play an important role in the maintenance of remission, but the long-term adhesion to therapy is poor. For this reason, the oral formulation is the first-line therapy in the maintenance of remission. Refractory patients can be treated with topical steroids or systemic steroids and TNF-alpha inhibitors in severe forms.

  14. Diagnosis and classification of ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Karsten; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Laass, Martin W

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterised by superficial mucosal ulceration, rectal bleeding, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain. In contrast to Crohn's disease (CrD), UC is restricted to the colon and the inflammation is limited to the mucosal layer. Classic UC affects the colon in a retrograde and continuous fashion starting from the rectum and extending proximally. Dependent on the anatomic extent of involvement, UC can be classified as proctitis, left-sided colitis, or pancolitis. Inflammatory arthropathies and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are the most common and clinically most important extraintestinal manifestations of UC. The aetiopathogenesis of UC is incompletely understood, but immune-mediated mechanisms are responsible for dysregulated immune responses against intraluminal antigens in genetically predisposed individuals. The diagnosis is based on the history, as well as clinical, radiological, endoscopic and histological features. Autoantibodies, mainly antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-goblet cell antibodies (GAB) may be helpful in the early diagnosis of UC and in differentiating it from CrD.

  15. Obstructive ileus caused by phlebosclerotic colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Heo, Ju Yeol; Paik, Woo Hyun; Bae, Won Ki; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Lee, June Sung

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old man with chronic kidney disease and a history of using numerous herbal medications visited Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital for abdominal pain and vomiting. An abdominal radiograph showed diffuse small bowel distension containing multiple air-fluid levels and extensive calcifications along the colon. Computed tomography showed colon wall thickening with diffuse calcification along the colonic mesenteric vein and colonic wall. Colonoscopy, performed without bowel preparation, showed bluish edematous mucosa from the transverse to the distal sigmoid colon, with multiple scar changes. At the mid transverse colon, a stricture was noted and the scope could not pass through. A biopsy of the stricture site revealed nonspecific changes. The patient was diagnosed with phlebosclerotic colitis. After the colonoscopy, the obstructive ileus spontaneously resolved, and the patient was discharged without an operation. Currently, after 2 months of follow-up, the patient has remained asymptomatic. Herein, we report the rare case of an obstructive ileus caused by phlebosclerotic colitis with a colon stricture. PMID:27799889

  16. Sudden psychotic episode probably due to meningoencephalitis and Chlamydia pneumoniae acute infection

    OpenAIRE

    Canas Nuno; Coromina Marta; Correa Bernardo; Xavier Miguel; Guimarães João

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 9% to 20% of all cases of acute psychosis presenting to an Emergency Department (ED) are due to a general medical condition, cautious medical workup should be mandatory in such patients. Differential diagnosis must consider conditions as diverse as renal failure or CNS infection. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae infection usually causes a self-limited respiratory syndrome. Rarely, acute neurological complications occur, with acute meningoencephalitis most frequently report...

  17. Golimumab: clinical update on its use for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, D; Fiorino, G; Allocca, M; Bravatà, I; Danese, S

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α agents) have dramatically changed the therapeutical approach to inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. A new anti-TNF drug, golimumab, has recently been approved for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. Its efficacy has been demonstrated by preclinical and clinical studies and the drug showed an efficacy and safety profile in line with the other anti-TNF agents, such as infliximab and adalimumab. This review gives an overview on golimumab in the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.

  18. Extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isene, Rune; Bernklev, Tomm; Høie, Ole;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]), symptoms from outside the gastrointestinal tract are frequently seen, and the joints, skin, eyes, and hepatobiliary area are the most usually affected sites (called extraintestinal manifest......BACKGROUND: In chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]), symptoms from outside the gastrointestinal tract are frequently seen, and the joints, skin, eyes, and hepatobiliary area are the most usually affected sites (called extraintestinal......, skin, and liver) manifestations: 20.1% versus 10.4% (p colitis compared to proctitis in UC increased the risk of EIM. CONCLUSION: In a European inception cohort, EIMs in IBD...

  19. Impact of probiotics on colonic microflora in patients with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, B. S.; Ahmed, J.; Macfie, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Probiotics colonise the gut and may exert beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to assess if probiotics change the spectrum of colonic microflora in patients with colitis when taken daily for a period of one month Methods: This is a prospective double blind randomised crossover...... of study. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (T-RFLP) and principal component analysis (PCA) on the bacterial community were used to study the faecal mircoflora. Results: Sixteen patients completed the study, 8 had Crohn’s disease and 8 had ulcerative colitis. Median age was 62...... in patients with colitis. This observation might have clinical implications....

  20. Edible ginger-derived nanoparticles: A novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Viennois, Emilie; Prasad, Meena; Zhang, Yunchen; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Zhan; Han, Moon Kwon; Xiao, Bo; Xu, Changlong; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Merlin, Didier

    2016-09-01

    There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic and debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In this study, we characterized a specific population of nanoparticles derived from edible ginger (GDNPs 2) and demonstrated their efficient colon targeting following oral administration. GDNPs 2 had an average size of ∼230 nm and exhibited a negative zeta potential. These nanoparticles contained high levels of lipids, a few proteins, ∼125 microRNAs (miRNAs), and large amounts of ginger bioactive constituents (6-gingerol and 6-shogaol). We also demonstrated that GDNPs 2 were mainly taken up by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages, and were nontoxic. Using different mouse colitis models, we showed that GDNPs 2 reduced acute colitis, enhanced intestinal repair, and prevented chronic colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). 2D-DIGE/MS analyses further identified molecular target candidates of GDNPs 2 involved in these mouse models. Oral administration of GDNPs 2 increased the survival and proliferation of IECs and reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-22) in colitis models, suggesting that GDNPs 2 has the potential to attenuate damaging factors while promoting the healing effect. In conclusion, GDNPs 2, nanoparticles derived from edible ginger, represent a novel, natural delivery mechanism for improving IBD prevention and treatment with an added benefit of overcoming limitations such as potential toxicity and limited production scale that are common with synthetic nanoparticles. PMID:27318094

  1. Low molecular weight heparin relieves experimental colitis in mice by downregulating IL-1β and inhibiting syndecan-1 shedding in the intestinal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-fei Wang

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on inflammation in colitis remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of LMWH on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice, in which acute colitis progresses to chronic colitis, and to explore the potential mechanism involved in this process. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control, DSS, and DSS plus LMWH groups (n = 18. Disease activity was scored by a disease activity index (DAI. Histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining. The mRNA levels of syndecan-1, interleukin (IL-1β, and IL-10 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of syndecan-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The serum syndecan-1 level was examined by a dot immunobinding assay. LMWH ameliorated the disease activity of colitis induced by DSS administration in mice. Colon destruction with the appearance of crypt damage, goblet cell loss, and a larger ulcer was found on day 12 after DSS administration, which was greatly relieved by the treatment of LMWH. LMWH upregulated syndecan-1 expression in the intestinal mucosa and reduced the serum syndecan-1 level on days 12 and 20 after DSS administration (P<0.05 vs. DSS group. In addition, LMWH significantly decreased the expression of both IL-1β and IL-10 mRNA on days 12 and 20 (P<0.05 vs. DSS group. LMWH has therapeutic effects on colitis by downregulating inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting syndecan-1 shedding in the intestinal mucosa.

  2. Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele; Cioffi; Antonella; De; Rosa; Rosalba; Serao; Ilaria; Picone; Maria; Teresa; Vietri

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis(UC)and Crohn’s disease(CD)are the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD)in man.Despite some common features,these forms can be distinguished by different genetic predisposition,risk factors and clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics.The aetiology of both CD and UC remains unknown,but several evidences suggest that CD and perhaps UC are due to an excessive immuneresponse directed against normal constituents of the intestinal bacterial flora.Tests sometimes invasive are routine for the diagnosis and care of patients with IBD.Diagnosis of UC is based on clinical symptoms combined with radiological and endoscopic investigations.The employment of non-invasive biomarkers is needed.These biomarkers have the potential to avoid invasive diagnostic tests that may result in discomfort and potential complications.The ability to determine the type,severity,prognosis and response to therapy of UC,using biomarkers has long been a goal of clinical researchers.We describe the biomarkers assessed in UC,with special reference to acute-phase proteins and serologic markers and thereafter,we describe the new biological markers and the biological markers could be developed in the future:(1)serum markers of acute phase response:The laboratory tests most used to measure the acute-phase proteins in clinical practice are the serum concentration of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.Other biomarkers of inflammation in UC include platelet count,leukocyte count,and serum albumin and serum orosomucoid concentrations;(2)serologic markers/antibodies:In the last decades serological and immunologic biomarkers have been studied extensively in immunology and have been used in clinical practice to detect specific pathologies.In UC,the presence of these antibodies can aid as surrogate markers for the aberrant host immune response;and(3)future biomarkers:The development of biomarkers in UC will be very important in the future.The progress

  3. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  4. Spectrum of non-inflammatory bowel disease and non-infectious colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis E Koutroubakis

    2008-01-01

    A variety of inflammatory diseases of the colon,which can be differentiated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and infectious colitis by their clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics,are reported as nonIBD and non-infectious colitis.These diseases include microscopic colitis,ischemic colitis,segmental colitis associated with diverticula,radiation colitis,diversion colitis,eosinophilic colitis and Behcet's colitis.The etiopathogenesis of most of these diseases remains obscure and the epidemiological data are rather limited.These conditions are often troublesome for the patient and are associated with diagnostic difficulties for the physician.In many cases the treatment is empirical and there is a need for future research using randomized controlled trials.

  5. Selecting lactic acid bacteria for their safety and functionality by use of a mouse colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Catherine; Poiret, Sabine; Goudercourt, Denise; Dennin, Veronique; Leyer, Gregory; Pot, Bruno

    2006-09-01

    Studies showed that specific probiotics might provide therapeutic benefits in inflammatory bowel disease. However, a rigorous screening of new probiotics is needed to study possible adverse interactions with the host, particularly when intended for administration to individuals with certain health risks. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of three lactobacilli (LAB) on intestinal inflammation and bacterial translocation using variations of the mouse model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis. We first compared the in vitro ability of LAB to survive gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions and their ability to persist in the GIT of mice following daily oral administration. As a control, we included a nonprobiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient. Feeding high doses of LAB strains to healthy and to TNBS-treated mice did not induce any detrimental effect or abnormal translocation of the bacteria. Oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 had a significant preventive effect on colitis in mice, while Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM did not. None of the three selected LAB strains translocated to extraintestinal organs of TNBS-treated mice. In contrast, L. paracasei exacerbated colitis under severe inflammatory conditions and translocated to extraintestinal organs. This study showed that evaluations of the safety and functionality of new probiotics are recommended. We conclude that not all lactobacilli have similar effects on intestinal inflammation and that selected probiotics such as L. salivarius Ls-33 may be considered in the prevention or treatment of intestinal inflammation.

  6. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zheng; Feng-Li Niu; Wen-Zhong Liu; Yao Shi; Lun-Gen Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.METHODS: Acute colitis was induced by giving 2% DSS orally in drinking water for 8 d. Twenty-six male rats were randomized into oxymatrine-treated group (group A, 10rats), DSS control (group B, 10 rats) and normal control (group C, 6 rats). The rats in group A were injected from d 1 to 11 and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11.The rats in group B were treated with 0.9% saline in an equal volume as group A and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11. The rats in group C were treated with 0.9% saline as group B from d 1 to 11 and drank water normally. Diarrhea and bloody stool as well as colonic histology were observed. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by ELISA, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)activity and the expression of inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in colonic mucosa were detected by immunohistochernistry method.RESULTS: Compared with DSS control group, the inflammatory symptoms and histological damages of colonic mucosa in oxymatrine-treated group were significantly improved, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB, ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa were significantly reduced.CONCLUSION: The fact that oxymatrine can reduce the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa in DSS-induced colitis of rats indicates that oxymatrine may ameliorate the colonic inflammation and thus alleviate diarrhea and bloody stool.

  7. Atomic layer deposition-Sequential self-limiting surface reactions for advanced catalyst "bottom-up" synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Stair, Peter C.

    2016-06-01

    Catalyst synthesis with precise control over the structure of catalytic active sites at the atomic level is of essential importance for the scientific understanding of reaction mechanisms and for rational design of advanced catalysts with high performance. Such precise control is achievable using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is similar to chemical vapor deposition (CVD), except that the deposition is split into a sequence of two self-limiting surface reactions between gaseous precursor molecules and a substrate. The unique self-limiting feature of ALD allows conformal deposition of catalytic materials on a high surface area catalyst support at the atomic level. The deposited catalytic materials can be precisely constructed on the support by varying the number and type of ALD cycles. As an alternative to the wet-chemistry based conventional methods, ALD provides a cycle-by-cycle "bottom-up" approach for nanostructuring supported catalysts with near atomic precision. In this review, we summarize recent attempts to synthesize supported catalysts with ALD. Nucleation and growth of metals by ALD on oxides and carbon materials for precise synthesis of supported monometallic catalyst are reviewed. The capability of achieving precise control over the particle size of monometallic nanoparticles by ALD is emphasized. The resulting metal catalysts with high dispersions and uniformity often show comparable or remarkably higher activity than those prepared by conventional methods. For supported bimetallic catalyst synthesis, we summarize the strategies for controlling the deposition of the secondary metal selectively on the primary metal nanoparticle but not on the support to exclude monometallic formation. As a review of the surface chemistry and growth behavior of metal ALD on metal surfaces, we demonstrate the ways to precisely tune size, composition and structure of bimetallic metal nanoparticles. The cycle-by-cycle "bottom up" construction of bimetallic (or multiple

  8. Low-temperature self-limiting atomic layer deposition of wurtzite InN on Si(100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haider

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on self-limiting growth of InN thin films at substrate temperatures as low as 200 °C by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD. The precursors used in growth experiments were trimethylindium (TMI and N2 plasma. Process parameters including TMI pulse time, N2 plasma exposure time, purge time, and deposition temperature have been optimized for self-limiting growth of InN with in ALD window. With the increase in exposure time of N2 plasma from 40 s to 100 s at 200 °C, growth rate showed a significant decrease from 1.60 to 0.64 Å/cycle. At 200 °C, growth rate saturated as 0.64 Å/cycle for TMI dose starting from 0.07 s. Structural, optical, and morphological characterization of InN were carried out in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of the grown InN films. Refractive index of the InN film deposited at 200 °C was found to be 2.66 at 650 nm. 48 nm-thick InN films exhibited relatively smooth surfaces with Rms surface roughness values of 0.98 nm, while the film density was extracted as 6.30 g/cm3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements depicted the peaks of indium, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen on the film surface and quantitative information revealed that films are nearly stoichiometric with rather low impurity content. In3d and N1s high-resolution scans confirmed the presence of InN with peaks located at 443.5 and 396.8 eV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED further confirmed the polycrystalline structure of InN thin films and elemental mapping revealed uniform distribution of indium and nitrogen along the scanned area of the InN film. Spectral absorption measurements exhibited an optical band edge around 1.9 eV. Our findings demonstrate that HCPA-ALD might be a promising technique to grow crystalline wurtzite InN thin films at low substrate temperatures.

  9. Faecal mucus degrading glycosidases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F

    1985-08-01

    Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

  10. Clostridium difficile Infection Worsens the Prognosis of Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Negrón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of Clostridium difficile infections among ulcerative colitis (UC patients is well characterized. However, there is little knowledge regarding the association between C difficile infections and postoperative complications among UC patients.

  11. Faecal mucus degrading glycosidases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F

    1985-08-01

    Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. PMID:2991089

  12. A Review of Qingchang Shuan for Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yan-cheng; TANG Zhi-peng; MA Gui-tong; GONG Yu-ping; LIU Wen; ZHANG Ya-li; WANG Xin-zhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Qingchang Shuan(清肠栓)is a commonly used Chinese herbal suppository for treatment of ulcerative colitis(UC).It has the effects of clearing away heat and toxic materials, and promoting tissue regeneration by removing blood stasis.

  13. Anti-TNF alpha in the treatment of ulcerative colitis: A valid approach for organ-sparing or an expensive option to delay surgery?

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Pugliese, Daniela; Armuzzi, Alessandro; Coco, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease affecting large bowel with variable clinical course. The history of disease has been modified by the introduction of biologic therapy, in particular Infliximab (IFX), that has demonstrated efficacy in inducing fast symptoms remission, promoting mucosal healing and maintaining long-term remission. However, surgery is still needed for UC patients: in case of failure of medical therapy and if acute complications or a malignancy occurred. S...

  14. Budesonide for ulcerative colitis Budesonida en el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marín-Jiménez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we examined studies published on oral and topical formulations of budesonide (Entocort® and Budenofalk®, in Spain: Entocord® and Intestifalk® for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This glycocorticosteroid has a potent local action and an important first-pass liver metabolism. It has proven successful over the last years as a controlled-release formulation. It obtained results similar to prednisolone, without the latter's significant suppression of plasma cortisol. Many publications exist on the effects of oral budesonide for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. These have led to the registration of this drug for the treatment of CD. Studies on oral formulations of budesonide for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC are scarce. After reviewing published evidence, we suggest the conduction of controlled trials for the treatment of UC to obtain evidence-based efficacy and safety results in order to benefit patients with this form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD.En esta revisión repasamos los estudios publicados hasta la fecha con las formulaciones orales y las preparaciones tópicas rectales de budesonida (Entocort® y Budenofalk®, en España Entocord® e Intestifalk® para el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa. Este glucocorticosteroide de una elevada acción tópica y un importante metabolismo de primer paso hepático se ha utilizado en los últimos años como una formulación de liberación controlada, proporcionando resultados similares a la prednisolona pero sin suprimir de forma apreciable los niveles de cortisol plasmático. Aunque se han publicado muchos estudios sobre los efectos de la budesonida oral para el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Crohn, los estudios sobre esta misma forma galénica de administración de budesonida para el tratamiento de los pacientes con colitis ulcerosa son escasos. Después de revisar los trabajos publicados al respecto, se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un estudio controlado

  15. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  16. Temporal Comorbidity of Mental Disorder and Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Cawthorpe, David; Davidson, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The authors used physician diagnoses from Calgary, Alberta, for patient visits from fiscal years 1994 to 2009 for treatment of any presenting concern (763,449 patients) to identify 5113 patients with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis, and found 4192 patients also had a diagnosis of a mental disorder. Patients with mental disorder had a significantly higher annual prevalence. The mental disorder grouping neuroses/depression was most likely to arise before diagnosis of ulcerative colitis.

  17. Predictive Factors for Severe Outcomes in Ischemic Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Seok Reyol; Jee, Sam Ryong; Song, Geun Am; Park, Seun Ja; Lee, Jong Hun; Song, Chul Soo; Park, Hee Ug

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Ischemic colitis includes a wide clinical spectrum ranging from mild to severe forms. This study aimed to determine the factors that are related to the occurrence of severe ischemic colitis. Methods This multicenter study was conducted retrospectively in Korea. The patients were divided into mild and severe groups. This study surveyed clinical characteristics, blood tests, endoscopic findings, and imaging studies. Results In the comparison of comorbidities, the severe group ha...

  18. Benign retroperitoneal schwannoma presenting as colitis: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Fass, Gary; Hossey, Didier; Nyst, Michel; Smets, Dirk; Saligheh, Esmail Najar; Duttmann, Ruth; Claes, Kathleen; da Costa, Pierre Mendes

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of a patient presenting with clinical , radiological and endoscopic features of colitis due to a compressive left para-aortic mass. Total open surgical excision was performed, which resulted in complete resolution of colitis. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed benign retroperitoneal schwannoma. These neural sheath tumors rarely occur in the retroperitoneum. They are usually asymptomatic but as they enlarge they may compress adjacent structures, which leads to a ...

  19. Hydrophobic adhesin of E coli in ulcerative colitis.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, D A; Axon, A T

    1988-01-01

    Pathogenic E coli have adhesive properties which are mirrored by an increase in their surface hydrophobicity. E coli isolated from patients with ulcerative colitis possess a mannose resistant adhesin similar to that found in pathogenic E coli. In this study 42 E coli isolates from patients with colitis have been compared with 15 from controls to assess hydrophobicity and cellular adherence. The salting out method and the buccal epithelial cell technique were used respectively. E coli isolated...

  20. Fulminant ulcerative colitis in late pregnancy and the puerperium.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, J. B.; Turner, G. M.; Williamson, R C

    1987-01-01

    Four patients underwent emergency colectomy during pregnancy or the puerperium for complications of ulcerative proctocolitis. Three had inactive colitis at conception, while in the fourth the disease started during pregnancy. Three patients required subtotal colectomy and ileostomy for toxic dilatation during the third trimester or within 5 days of delivery, and the fourth underwent proctocolectomy postpartum for intractable colitis. There were no maternal deaths but 2 of 4 infants died. One ...

  1. Dipeptidyl peptidase expression during experimental colitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazbeck, Roger; Sulda, Melanie L; Howarth, Gordon S;

    2010-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection.......We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection....

  2. Ulcerative colitis Presenting as leukocytoclastic vasculitis of skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabiye Akbulut; Ersan Ozaslan; Firdevs Topal; Levent Albayrak; Burcak Kayhan; Cumali Efe

    2008-01-01

    A number of cutaneous changes are known to occur in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD),including pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum,perianal disease, erythematous eruptions, urticaria, and purpura. However, occurrence of skin manifestations prior to the development of ulcerative colitis is a rare occasion. Here, we report a case of ulcerative colitis associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis in which the intestinal symptoms became overt 8 mo after the development of skin lesions.

  3. Reactive arthritis induced by recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colitis is a common infection that can be difficult to resolve and may result in recurrent infections. Reactive arthritis is a rare presentation of this disease and its treatment is not well differentiated in the literature. We describe a case of reactive arthritis occurring in a patient with a history of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis while currently receiving a taper of oral vancomycin. His arthritis symptoms resolved with corticosteroids and continued treatment with anticlostridial antibiotics.

  4. Analysis of the surface photoabsorption signal during self-limited submonolayer growth of InP in metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, T W; Moon, Y B; Yoon, E J; Kim, Y D

    1999-01-01

    In situ, real-time monitoring of InP atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) was performed in low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (LP-MOCVD) by surface photoabsorption (SPA). A self-limiting adsorption condition was obtained from the trimethylindium (TMIn) decomposition experiment at various conditions. It was found that the growth rate was less than 1 monolayer (ML)/cycle. From the in situ, real-time SPA measurement during InP ALE, the incomplete PH sub 3 decomposition on the methyl-terminated In surface was attributed to the self-limiting submonolayer growth per cycle.

  5. Dengue fever associated with acute scrotal oedema: two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrotal oedema associated with dengue fever is a rare and self limiting condition resolving in a few days without any complication or sequelae. This is a report of two cases of dengue fever associated with acute scrotal and penile oedema. (author)

  6. Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    An inflammatory process that involves the sigmoid colonic segment associated with diverticular disease (SCAD) appears to be a distinct clinical and pathological disorder. It has been described in older adults, often presenting with rectal bleeding. Host of the patients seem to respond to treatment only with a 5-aminosalicylate, but some spontaneously resolve with no treatment. Endoscopic evaluation usually shows a non-specific inflammatory process localized in the sigmoid colon alone that may resolve completely with histologically normal colonic mucosa. Repeated symptomatic events with discrete episodes of segmental colitis may occur, but most patients have an entirely benign clinical course. Definition of the underlying molecular events that occur with SCAD may be critically important in understanding the critical elements present in a colonic inflammatory process that can completely resolve without pharmacological or biological treatment.

  7. Daily spinal mechanical loading as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back pain: A case-control study using the 24-Hour Schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.P. Bakker (Eric); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); C. Lucas (Cees); H.J.C.M.F. Koning (Hans); R.J. de Haan (Rob); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA case-control study was conducted to assess the daily loading of the spine as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back pain (acute LBP). Acute LBP is a benign, self-limiting disease, with a recovery rate of 80-90% within 6 weeks irrespective of the treatment type. Unfortunately, re

  8. Rational approach for self-limiting current injection transformers confirmed by coupled electromagnetic-thermal FEM simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard-type test of high current components in the electrical industry. The present precious approach contemplates an arrangement for a rational design of a self-current limiting transformer (SLT) being integrated by a single unit 25 kA CIT system for fast overcurrent detection in stipulated current tests. This paper describes mathematical formulations based on an electric models and the dominant effects of an auxiliary winding on the rate of the self-limiting process of the system. This requires the evaluation of multiphysical (i.e. coupling of the electromagnetic and thermal parts) finite element modelling and simulations for three different approaches to suit the designer's choice. An overcurrent causes a considerable distortion of axial leakage flux, which in turn produces high radial forces. The transient analysis of the leakage flux densities and the corresponding electromagnetic forces on windings of the CIT and proposed SLT are the other objects of this paper. Moreover, the distribution of the flux density and the corresponding localized losses within the SLT core are further objects of this paper. However, this paper will mark another important event in superconductor technology and augment efficiency and compactness from which a lower overall cost of the CIT system could be attainable.

  9. Rational approach for self-limiting current injection transformers confirmed by coupled electromagnetic-thermal FEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhadi, Mustafa; Heydari, Hossein

    2011-07-01

    Current injection transformer (CIT) systems are within the major group of the standard-type test of high current components in the electrical industry. The present precious approach contemplates an arrangement for a rational design of a self-current limiting transformer (SLT) being integrated by a single unit 25 kA CIT system for fast overcurrent detection in stipulated current tests. This paper describes mathematical formulations based on an electric models and the dominant effects of an auxiliary winding on the rate of the self-limiting process of the system. This requires the evaluation of multiphysical (i.e. coupling of the electromagnetic and thermal parts) finite element modelling and simulations for three different approaches to suit the designer's choice. An overcurrent causes a considerable distortion of axial leakage flux, which in turn produces high radial forces. The transient analysis of the leakage flux densities and the corresponding electromagnetic forces on windings of the CIT and proposed SLT are the other objects of this paper. Moreover, the distribution of the flux density and the corresponding localized losses within the SLT core are further objects of this paper. However, this paper will mark another important event in superconductor technology and augment efficiency and compactness from which a lower overall cost of the CIT system could be attainable.

  10. Fluids with competing interactions. I. Decoding the structure factor to detect and characterize self-limited clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Jonathan A.; Truskett, Thomas M.

    2016-08-01

    We use liquid state theory and computer simulations to gain insights into the shape of the structure factor for fluids of particles interacting via a combination of short-range attractions and long-range repulsions. Such systems can reversibly morph between homogeneous phases and states comprising compact self-limiting clusters. We first highlight trends with respect to the presence and location of the intermediate-range order (IRO) pre-peak in the structure factor, which is commonly associated with clustering, for wide ranges of the tunable parameters that control interparticle interactions (e.g., Debye screening length). Next, for approximately 100 different cluster phases at various conditions (where aggregates range in size from six to sixty monomers), we quantitatively relate the shape of the structure factor to physical characteristics including intercluster distance and cluster size. We also test two previously postulated criteria for identifying the emergence of clustered phases that are based on IRO peak-height and -width, respectively. We find that the criterion based on peak-width, which encodes the IRO thermal correlation length, is more robust across a wide range of conditions and interaction strengths but nonetheless approximate. Ultimately, we recommend a hybrid heuristic drawing on both pre-peak height and width for positively identifying the emergence of clustered states.

  11. Light-induced growth of monodisperse silver nanoparticles with tunable SPR properties and wavelength self-limiting effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianliang; Lombardi, John R.

    2008-08-01

    We present a technique for the tunable synthesis of a variety of monodisperse silver nanoparticles. Utilizing different optical wavelengths to irradiate initially grown seed crystals, the size and shape of the products can be controlled. Monitoring the absorption spectrum during growth, we observe that initially the absorption maximum shifts to longer wavelengths and broadens, indicating increasing particle size and dispersion. Remarkably, this effect gradually comes to a halt and reverses, displaying a shift to shorter wavelengths and simultaneously narrower bandwidths, until on completion, a final size and relatively narrow distribution is reached. The final morphology is found to depend on control of the laser wavelength and power. Discs, triangular prisms as well as pyramidal and pentagonal prisms may be produced. A process based on a wavelength dependent self-limiting mechanism governed by the surface plasmon resonance controlling the photochemical reduction of particles is suggested. By a similar mechanism, we show that by using a sodium lamp instead of a laser as an excitation source, a monodisperse sample of nanotetrahedra can be produced.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of methanolic extract of green algae Caulerpa mexicana in a murine model of ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A.O. Bitencourt

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are characterized by chronic and relapsed gut inflammation. Caulerpa mexicana is a type of green marine algae that can be found in tropical areas, such as the Brazilian Coastland. These macrophytes exhibit in vitro and in vivo anti-inflammatory properties such as the ability to reduce both cell migration to different sites and edema formation induced by chemical irritants. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of the C. mexicana methanolic extract on the treatment of colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate. Acute experimental colitis was induced in BALB/c mice by treatment with 3% dextran sodium sulfate orally for 14 days. During this 14-day period, C. mexicana methanolic extract (2 mg/kg/day was given intravenously on alternate days. Treatment with the methanolic extract significantly attenuated body weight loss and severe clinical symptoms. This was associated with a remarkable amelioration of colonic architecture disruption and a significant reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine production. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory action of C. mexicana methanolic extract on colorectal sites may be a useful therapeutic approach for inflammatory bowel diseases.

  13. Treatment of severe steroid refractory ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gert Van Assche; Séverine Vermeire; Paul Rutgeerts

    2008-01-01

    Although systemic steroids are highly efficacious in ulcerative colitis (UC),failure to respond to steroids sUll poses an important challenge to the surgeon and physician alike. Even if the life Lime risk of a fulminant UC flare is only 20%, this condition is potentially life threatening and should be managed in hospital. If patients fail 3 to 5 d of intravenous corticosteroids and optimal supportive care, they should be considered for any of three options: intravenous cyclosporine (2 mg/kg for 7 d, and serum level controlled),infliximab (5 mg/kg N,0-2-6 wk) or total colectomy.The choice between these three options is a medicalsurgical decision based on clinical signs, radiological and endoscopic findings and blood analysis (CRP, serum albumin).Between 65 and 85% of patients will initially respond to cyclosporine and avoid colectomy on the short term. Over 5 years only 50% of initial responders avoid colectomy and outcomes are better in patients naive to azathioprine (bridging strategy).The data on infliximab as a medical rescue in fulminant colitis are more limited although the efficacy of this anti tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibody has been demonstrated in a controlled trial. Controlled data on the comparative efficacy of cyclosporine and infliximab are not available at this moment. Both drugs are immunosuppressants and are used in combination with steroids and azathioprine, which infers a risk of serious, even fatal, opportunistic infections. Therefore,patients not responding to these agents within 5-7 d should be considered for colectomy and responders should be closely monitored for infections.

  14. Treatment of severe steroid refractory ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assche, Gert Van; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Although systemic steroids are highly efficacious in ulcerative colitis (UC), failure to respond to steroids still poses an important challenge to the surgeon and physician alike. Even if the life time risk of a fulminant UC flare is only 20%, this condition is potentially life threatening and should be managed in hospital. If patients fail 3 to 5 d of intravenous corticosteroids and optimal supportive care, they should be considered for any of three options: intravenous cyclosporine (2 mg/kg for 7 d, and serum level controlled), infliximab (5 mg/kg IV, 0-2-6 wk) or total colectomy. The choice between these three options is a medical-surgical decision based on clinical signs, radiological and endoscopic findings and blood analysis (CRP, serum albumin). Between 65 and 85% of patients will initially respond to cyclosporine and avoid colectomy on the short term. Over 5 years only 50% of initial responders avoid colectomy and outcomes are better in patients naive to azathioprine (bridging strategy). The data on infliximab as a medical rescue in fulminant colitis are more limited although the efficacy of this anti tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibody has been demonstrated in a controlled trial. Controlled data on the comparative efficacy of cyclosporine and infliximab are not available at this moment. Both drugs are immunosuppressants and are used in combination with steroids and azathioprine, which infers a risk of serious, even fatal, opportunistic infections. Therefore, patients not responding to these agents within 5-7 d should be considered for colectomy and responders should be closely monitored for infections. PMID:18810767

  15. Colitis detection on abdominal CT scans by rich feature hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Lay, Nathan; Wei, Zhuoshi; Lu, Le; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Colitis is inflammation of the colon due to neutropenia, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn disease), infection and immune compromise. Colitis is often associated with thickening of the colon wall. The wall of a colon afflicted with colitis is much thicker than normal. For example, the mean wall thickness in Crohn disease is 11-13 mm compared to the wall of the normal colon that should measure less than 3 mm. Colitis can be debilitating or life threatening, and early detection is essential to initiate proper treatment. In this work, we apply high-capacity convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to bottom-up region proposals to detect potential colitis on CT scans. Our method first generates around 3000 category-independent region proposals for each slice of the input CT scan using selective search. Then, a fixed-length feature vector is extracted from each region proposal using a CNN. Finally, each region proposal is classified and assigned a confidence score with linear SVMs. We applied the detection method to 260 images from 26 CT scans of patients with colitis for evaluation. The detection system can achieve 0.85 sensitivity at 1 false positive per image.

  16. Plasma interleukin-18 reflects severity of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo; Robert Flisiak; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Danuta Prokopowicz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ulcerative colitis activity and plasma or mucosal concentrations of interleukin (IL)-18.METHODS:Il-18 concentrations were measured in plasma and mucosal samples from 15 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC).RESULTS: The mean plasma concentration of IL-18 measured in all patients (422±88 pg/mL) doubled the mean value in healthy controls (206±32 pg/mL); however,the difference was not statistically significant. Plasma IL-18 levels revealed a significant positive correlation with scored endoscopic degree of mucosal injury, disease activity index, clinical activity index and C-reactive protein concentration. The mean concentration of plasma IL-18 was significantly higher in patients with severe ulcerative colitis (535±115 pg/mL) than in patients with mild ulcerative colitis (195±41 pg/mL), and in healthy controls.Although the mucosal mean IL-18 concentration in severe ulcerative colitis (2 523±618 pg/mg protein) doubled values observed in mild one (1 347±308 pg/mg protein), there was no statistically significant difference.CONCLUSION: Plasma IL-18 can be considered as a surrogate marker helpful in evaluation of ulcerative colitis activity.

  17. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and pneumomediastinum in an anti-TNFα naive patient with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James C Lee; Deborah C Bell; Richard M Guinness; Tariq Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old man who was noted to have pneumomediast inum dur ing an admission for an acute flare of ulcerative colitis. At that time, he was on maintenance treatment with azathioprine at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day, and had not received supplementary steroids for 9 mo. He had never received anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α therapy. Shortly after apparently effective treatment with intravenous steroids and an increased dose of azathioprine, he developed worsening colitic and new respiratory symptoms, and was diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci ( carinii) pneumonia (PCP). Pneumomediastinum is rare in immunocompetent hosts, but is a recognized complication of PCP in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, although our patient 's HIV test was negative. Treatment of PCP with co-trimoxazole resulted in resolution of both respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, without the need to increase the steroid dose. There is increasing vigilance for opportunistic infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease following the advent of anti-TNFα therapy. This case emphasizes the importance of considering the possibility of such infections in all patients with inflammatory bowel disease, irrespective of the immunosuppressants they receive, and highlights the potential of steroid-responsive opportunistic infections to mimic worsening colitic symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  18. Bifidobacterium infantis strains with and without a combination of Oligofructose and Inulin (OFI attenuate inflammation in DSS-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrne Siv

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be through different factors and there is a relationship between the gut flora and the risk of its development. Probiotics can manipulate the microflora in chronic inflammation and may be effective in treating inflammation. Bifidobacterium are saccharolytic and their growth in the gut can be promoted by non-absorbable carbohydrates and its increase in the colon appears to be of benefit. Methods Oligofructose and inulin (OFI alone and the two B. infantis DSM 15158 and DSM 15159 with and without OFI, were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days prior to colitis induction and administrations continued for another 7 days with the DSS. Colitis severity assessed using a Disease Activity Index. Samples were collected 7 days after colitis induction, for intestinal bacterial flora, bacterial translocation, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, myeloperoxidase (MPO, cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β and malondialdehyde (MDA. Results OFI alone or the B. infantis strains with and without OFI improved significantly the DAI and decreased colonic MPO activity. Colonic tissue IL-1β decreased significantly in all treated groups except B. infantis DSM 15158. MDA decreased significantly in B. infantis DSM 15159 with and without OFI compared to colitis control. Succinic acid increased significantly in OFI group with and without DSM 15159 compared to all groups. Sum values of propionic, succinic acid and butyric acid increased significantly in all groups compare to the colitis control. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes decreased significantly in all groups compared to colitis control. Translocation to the liver decreased significantly in all groups compare to the colitis control and OFI + B. infantis DSM 15158 groups. Conclusion Administrations of OFI and Bifidobacterium improve DSS-induced acute colitis and have an anti-inflammatory effect. Major differences in effect

  19. Optineurin deficiency in mice contributes to impaired cytokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in bacteria-driven colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thean S. Chew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is associated with delayed neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance at sites of acute inflammation as a result of impaired secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. To investigate the impaired cytokine secretion and confirm our previous findings, we performed transcriptomic analysis in macrophages and identified a subgroup of individuals with CD who had low expression of the autophagy receptor optineurin (OPTN. We then clarified the role of OPTN deficiency in: macrophage cytokine secretion; mouse models of bacteria-driven colitis and peritonitis; and zebrafish Salmonella infection. OPTN-deficient bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs stimulated with heat-killed Escherichia coli secreted less proinflammatory TNFα and IL6 cytokines despite similar gene transcription, which normalised with lysosomal and autophagy inhibitors, suggesting that TNFα is mis-trafficked to lysosomes via bafilomycin-A-dependent pathways in the absence of OPTN. OPTN-deficient mice were more susceptible to Citrobacter colitis and E. coli peritonitis, and showed reduced levels of proinflammatory TNFα in serum, diminished neutrophil recruitment to sites of acute inflammation and greater mortality, compared with wild-type mice. Optn-knockdown zebrafish infected with Salmonella also had higher mortality. OPTN plays a role in acute inflammation and neutrophil recruitment, potentially via defective macrophage proinflammatory cytokine secretion, which suggests that diminished OPTN expression in humans might increase the risk of developing CD.

  20. Overexpression of Elastin Affects the Protease to Anti-Protease Balance and Protects Mice from Colitis. : Elafin protects from colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Motta*, Jean-Paul; Magne, Laurent; Descamps, Delphyne; Rolland, Corinne; Squarzoni-Dale, Camila; Rousset, Perrine; Balloy, Viviane; Huerre, Michel; Jenne, Dieter; Wartelle, Julien; Belaaouaj, Azzaq; Mas, Emmanuel; Vinel, Jean-Pierre; Alric, Laurent; Chignard, Michel

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS:: Colon tissues of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have been reported to have increased proteolytic activity, but no studies have clearly addressed the protease to anti-protease balance in the pathogenesis of colitis. We investigated the role of Elafin, a serine protease inhibitor expressed by skin and mucosal surfaces in human inflammatory conditions, and the proteases neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3 (PR-3), in mice with colitis. METHODS:: We studie...

  1. Ischemic colitis secondary to inferior mesenteric arteriovenous fistula and portal vein stenosis in a liver transplant recipient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) involving the inferior mesenteric vessels is rare, and the affected patients usually present with abdominal pain, mass, or features of established portal hypertension. Colonic ischemia is a less common and more serious manifestation of AVE We report a case of ischemic colitis secondary to inferior mesenteric AVF in a patient who underwent a previous liver transplantation, subsequently developed portal vein stenosis, and then presented with acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. He underwent percutaneous transhepatic placement of a portal vein stent and left colectomy.

  2. Retrotransposition of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 is associated with colitis but not tumors in a murine colitic cancer model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Otsubo

    Full Text Available Long interspersed element-1 (L1 is a transposable element that can move within the genome, potentially leading to genome diversity and modified gene function. Although L1 activity in somatic cells is normally suppressed through DNA methylation, some L1s are activated in tumors including colorectal carcinoma. However, how L1-retrotransposition (L1-RTP is involved in gastrointestinal disorders remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that L1-RTP in somatic cells might contribute to colitis-associated cancer (CAC. To address this, we employed an experimental model of CAC using transgenic L1-reporter mice carrying a human L1-EGFP reporter gene. Mice were subjected to repeated cycles of colitis induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water with injection of carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM. L1-RTP levels were measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the newly inserted reporter EGFP in various tissues and cell types, including samples obtained by laser microdissection and cell sorting with flow cytometry. DNA methylation levels of the human L1 promoter were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. AOM+DSS-treated mice exhibited significantly higher levels of L1-RTP in whole colon tissue during the acute phase of colitis when compared with control naïve mice. L1-RTP levels in whole colon tissue were positively correlated with the histological severity of colitis and degree of neutrophil infiltration into the lamina propria (LP, but not with tumor development in the colon. L1-RTP was enriched in LP mesenchymal cells rather than epithelial cells (ECs, myeloid, or lymphoid cells. DNA methylation levels of the human L1 promoter region showed a negative correlation with L1-RTP levels. L1-RTP was absent from most tumors found in 22-week-old mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that L1-RTP was induced in the mouse CAC mucosa in accordance with the acute inflammatory response; however, retrotransposition appears

  3. Intestinal Epithelial Serum Amyloid A Modulates Bacterial Growth In Vitro and Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Experimental Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum Amyloid A (SAA is a major acute phase protein of unknown function. SAA is mostly expressed in the liver, but also in other tissues including the intestinal epithelium. SAA reportedly has anti-bacterial effects, and because inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD result from a breakdown in homeostatic interactions between intestinal epithelia and bacteria, we hypothesized that SAA is protective during experimental colitis. Methods Intestinal SAA expression was measured in mouse and human samples. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS colitis was induced in SAA 1/2 double knockout (DKO mice and in wildtype controls. Anti-bacterial effects of SAA1/2 were tested in intestinal epithelial cell lines transduced with adenoviral vectors encoding the CE/J SAA isoform or control vectors prior to exposure to live Escherichia coli. Results Significant levels of SAA1/SAA2 RNA and SAA protein were detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in mouse colonic epithelium. SAA3 expression was weaker, but similarly distributed. SAA1/2 RNA was present in the ileum and colon of conventional mice and in the colon of germfree mice. Expression of SAA3 was strongly regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides in cultured epithelial cell lines, whereas SAA1/2 expression was constitutive and not LPS inducible. Overexpression of SAA1/2 in cultured epithelial cell lines reduced the viability of co-cultured E. coli. This might partially explain the observed increase in susceptibility of DKO mice to DSS colitis. SAA1/2 expression was increased in colon samples obtained from Crohn's Disease patients compared to controls. Conclusions Intestinal epithelial SAA displays bactericidal properties in vitro and could play a protective role in experimental mouse colitis. Altered expression of SAA in intestinal biopsies from Crohn's Disease patients suggests that SAA is involved in the disease process..

  4. Flt3/Flt3L Participates in the Process of Regulating Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells in DSS-Induced Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Wei Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunoregulation between dendritic cells (DCs and regulatory T cells (T-regs plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC. Recent research showed that Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3 and Flt3 ligand (Flt3L were involved in the process of DCs regulating T-regs. The DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human UC. In this study, we observe the disease activity index (DAI and histological scoring, detect the amounts of DCs and T-regs and expression of Flt3/Flt3L, and investigate Flt3/Flt3L participating in the process of DCs regulating T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Our findings suggest that the reduction of Flt3 and Flt3L expression may possibly induce colonic immunoregulatory imbalance between CD103+MHCII+DCs and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Flt3/Flt3L participates in the process of regulating DCS and T-regs in the pathogenesis of UC, at least, in the acute stage of this disease.

  5. Clostridium difficile 027-associated pseudomembranous colitis after short-term treatment with cefuroxime and cephalexin in an elderly orthopedic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard Kirstine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 has become increasingly prevalent in European countries. The clinical picture varies from self-limiting diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis with toxic megacolon and ultimately death. Use of antibiotics is the principal risk factor; others include comorbidity, advanced age and hospitalization. However even with extensive knowledge of risk factors, it remains difficult to define “minimum risk,” as illustrated by the following case. Case presentation An 80-year-old Danish man in good health was hospitalized for a penetrating knee injury. He received 5 days of intravenous cefuroxime after surgical revision and was discharged with oral cephalexin. Post-discharge he suffered from abdominal discomfort and was readmitted with ileus 4 days after discharge, i.e. 10 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. His condition deteriorated, and pseudomembranous colitis was diagnosed. Due to lack of response to vancomycin and metronidazole, a total colectomy was performed. Stool cultures were positive for CD 027. Conclusion Short-term use of cephalosporins may have induced CD 027 infection, and the patient’s age was the only identifiable risk factor for the fulminant course. Thus, even short-term prophylactic treatment with cephalosporins cannot be considered entirely safe.

  6. Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half......-day reduction in duration of cough. However, at follow-up there are no significant differences in overall clinical improvement inpatients treated with antibiotics compared with those receiving placebo. Despite this, antibiotics are administered to approximately two thirds of these patients. This review...... discusses the reason for this antibiotic overprescription. Other therapies targeted to control symptoms have also demonstrated a marginal or no effect. EXPERT COMMENTARY: Clinicians should be aware of the marginal effectiveness of antibiotic therapy. Some strategies like the use of rapid tests, delayed...

  7. Spontaneous colitis in Muc2-deficient mice reflects clinical and cellular features of active ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf A Wenzel

    Full Text Available The colonic mucus layer plays a critical role in intestinal homeostasis by limiting contact between luminal bacteria and the mucosal immune system. A defective mucus barrier in animal models allows bacterial contact with the intestinal epithelium and results in spontaneous colitis. A defective mucus barrier is also a key feature of active ulcerative colitis (UC. Alterations in the immune compartment due to intestinal bacterial breach in mice lacking the colon mucus barrier have not been characterized and correlated to active UC.To characterize alterations in the immune compartment due to intestinal bacterial breach in Muc2-/- mice, which lack the colon mucus barrier, and correlate the findings to active UC.Bacterial contact with colon epithelium and penetration into colon tissue was examined in Muc2-/- mice and colon biopsies from patients with active UC using fluorescence microscopy and qPCR. Neutrophils, lymphocytes, CD103+ dendritic cell subsets and macrophages in colon from Muc2-/- mice and biopsies from UC patients were quantitated by flow cytometry.Inflamed UC patients and Muc2-/- mice had bacteria in contact with the colon epithelium. Bacterial rRNA was present in colonic mucosa in humans and Muc2-/- mice and in the draining lymph nodes of mice. Inflamed Muc2-/- mice and UC patients had elevated colon neutrophils, T cells and macrophages while a reduced frequency of CD103+ DCs was present in the inflamed colon of both mice and humans.The parallel features of the colon immune cell compartment in Muc2-/- mice and UC patients supports the usefulness of this model to understand the early phase of spontaneous colitis and will provide insight into novel strategies to treat UC.

  8. Unusual Case of Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis in Remission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meher, Lalit Kumar; Dalai, Siba Prasad; Panda, Sameer; Hui, Pankaj Kumar; Nayak, Sachidananda

    2016-05-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic autoimmune inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis along with deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism and arterial thrombosis have occasionally been reported as a complication in the active phase of UC being attributed to its pro-thrombotic state. This paper depicts a 38-year-old female with a history of UC in remission who developed sudden onset headache, blurring of vision and seizures. Subsequent diagnosis of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis was made with MRI venography and treated with low molecular weight heparin with complete resolution of symptoms. The highlights of this case underscore the importance of evaluating cerebral venous sinus thrombosis as a cause of acute onset neurological deterioration in a setting of inflammatory bowel disease. It also emphasizes on the hypothesis that the risk of venous thrombosis or other hypercoagulable states have no direct relationship with the disease activity or flare-up. PMID:27437291

  9. Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Hookman; Jamie S Barkin

    2009-01-01

    A new, hypervirulent strain of Clostridium difficile, called NAP1/BI/027, has been implicated in C. difficile outbreaks associated with increased morbidity and mortality since the early 2000s. The epidemic strain is resistant to fluoroquinolones in vitro, which was infrequent prior to 2001. The name of this strain reflects its characteristics, demonstrated by different typing methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NAP1), restriction endonuclease analysis (BI) and polymerase chain reaction (027). In 2004 and 2005, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasized that the risk of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal surgery/manipulation, prolonged length of stay in a healthcare setting, serious underlying illness, immune-compromising conditions, and aging. Patients on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have an elevated risk, as do peripartum women and heart transplant recipients. Before 2002, toxic megacolon in C. difficile-associated colitis (CDAC), was rare, but its incidence has increased dramatically. Up to twothirds of hospitalized patients may be infected with C. difficile. Asymptomatic carriers admitted to healthcare facilities can transmit the organism to other susceptible patients, thereby becoming vectors. Fulminant colitis is reported more frequently during outbreaks of C. difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C. difficile infection with IBD carries a higher mortality than without underlying IBD. This article reviews the latest information on C. difficile infection, including presentation, vulnerable hosts and choice of antibiotics, alternative therapies, and probiotics and immunotherapy. We review contact precautions for patients with known or suspected C. difficileassociated disease. Healthcare institutions require accurate and rapid diagnosis for early detection of possible outbreaks, to initiate

  10. Infliximab induces clinical, endoscopic and histological responses in refractory ulcerative colitis Infliximab induce respuesta clínica, endoscópica e histológica en la colitis ulcerosa refractaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Bermejo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: infliximab is a monoclonal antiTNF-α antibody that has repeatedly shown to be effective in the management of Crohn's disease. However, data are scarce about its efficacy in ulcerative colitis. Aim: to describe the joint experience of three Spanish hospitals in the use of infliximab in patients with active refractory ulcerative colitis. Patients and methods: we present seven cases of ulcerative colitis (6 with chronic active disease despite immunosuppressive therapy, and one with acute steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab 5 mg/kg of body weight. Clinical response was evaluated by means of the Clinical Activity Index at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after initial infusion. Biochemical (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, endoscopic, and histological changes were also assessed. Results: mean age of patients was 45.8 ± 17 years (range 23-77; 4 were female. No adverse effects were recorded. Inflammatory activity diminished significantly in 6 of 7 patients (85.7%; CI 95%: 42-99% both from a clinical (p = 0.01 and biochemical (p Introducción: infliximab, un anticuerpo monoclonal quimérico antiTNF-α ha demostrado su eficacia en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn. Sin embargo, son escasos los datos sobre su efectividad en el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa. Objetivo: describir la experiencia conjunta de 3 hospitales españoles en el uso de infliximab en enfermos con CU activa resistente a otros tratamientos. Pacientes y métodos: se presentan 7 casos de colitis ulcerosa (6 con enfermedad crónicamente activa a pesar de tratamiento con inmunosupresor y 1 con colitis aguda grave refractaria a esteroides tratados con infliximab a dosis de 5 mg/kg de peso. Se evaluó la respuesta clínica mediante un Índice de Actividad Clínica trascurridas 2, 4 y 8 semanas de la infusión inicial. Así mismo, se estudiaron los cambios analíticos (velocidad de sedimentación y proteína C reactiva, endoscópicos e histol

  11. Observer variability in the histopathologic diagnosis of microscopic colitis and subgroups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Bjørnbak, Camilla; Warnecke, Mads;

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of microscopic colitis (MC) is based on histologic findings and includes collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). Incomplete MC (MCi) denotes patients with chronic diarrhea and a normal endoscopy and morphological changes that do not completely meet the histologic crit...

  12. Microscopic colitis : prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, WJ; van Baarlen, J; Kleibeuker, JH; Kolkman, JJ

    2005-01-01

    Background: Microscopic colitis presents with chronic diarrhoea with or without abdominal pain. Microscopic colitis is an important cause of chronic diarrhoea. It can be distributed throughout the colon, as well as limited to the right colon. Microscopic colitis is associated with coeliac disease. W

  13. A critical role for cellular inhibitor of protein 2 (cIAP2) in colitis-associated colorectal cancer and intestinal homeostasis mediated by the inflammasome and survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, M; Dupaul-Chicoine, J; Champagne, C; Skeldon, A; Morizot, A; Saleh, M

    2016-01-01

    Cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) are critical arbiters of cell death and key mediators of inflammation and innate immunity. cIAP2 is frequently overexpressed in colorectal cancer and in regenerating crypts of ulcerative colitis patients. However, its corresponding functions in intestinal homeostasis and underlying mechanisms in disease pathogenesis are poorly understood. We found that mice deficient in cIAP2 exhibited reduced colitis-associated colorectal cancer tumor burden but, surprisingly, enhanced susceptibility to acute and chronic colitis. The exacerbated colitis phenotype of cIAP2-deficient mice was mediated by increased cell death and impaired activation of the regenerative inflammasome-interleukin-18 (IL-18) pathway required for tissue repair following injury. Accordingly, administration of recombinant IL-18 or pharmacological inhibition of caspases or the kinase RIPK1 protected cIAP2-deficient mice from colitis and restored intestinal epithelial barrier architecture. Thus, cIAP2 orchestrates intestinal homeostasis by exerting a dual function in suppressing cell death and promoting intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and crypt regeneration.

  14. Role of surgery in severe ulcerative colitis in the era of medical rescue therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bosmat Dayan; Dan Turner

    2012-01-01

    Despite the growing use of medical salvage therapy,colectomy has remained a cornerstone in managing acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASC) both in children and in adults.Colectomy should be regarded as a life saving procedure in ASC,and must be seriously considered in any steroid-refractory patient.However,colectomy is not a cure for the disease but rather the substitution of a large problem with smaller problems,including fecal incontinence,pouchitis,irritable pouch syndrome,cuffitis,anastomotic ulcer and stenosis,missed or de-novo Crohn's disease and,in young females,reduced fecundity.This notion has led to the widespread practice of offering medical salvage therapy before colectomy in most patients without surgical abdomen or toxic megacolon.Medical salvage therapies which have proved effective in the clinical trial setting include cyclosporine,tacrolimus and infliximab,which seem equally effective in the short term.Validated predictive rules can identify a subset of patients who will eventually fail corticosteroid therapy after only 3-5 d of steroid therapy with an accuracy of 85%-95%.This accuracy is sufficiently high for initiating medical therapy,but usually not colectomy,early in the admission without delaying colectomy if required.This approach has reduced the colectomy rate in ASC from 30%-70% in the past to 10%-20% nowadays,and the mortality rate from over 70% in the 1930s to about 1%.In general,restorative proctocolectomy (ileoanal pouch or ileal pouch-anal anastomosis),especially the J-pouch,is preferred over straight pullthrough (ileo-anal) or ileo-rectal anastomosis,which may still be considered in young females concerned about infertility.Colectomy in the acute severe colitis setting,is usually performed in three steps due to the severity of the inflammation,concurrent steroid treatment and the generally reduced clinical condition.The first surgical step involves colectomy and constructing an ileal stoma,the second-constructing the

  15. Fulminant Amebic Colitis after Corticosteroid Therapy: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Debbie-Ann; Moonah, Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Background Amebic colitis, caused by intestinal infection with the parasite, Entamoeba histolytica, is a common cause of diarrhea worldwide. Fulminant amebic colitis is the most devastating complication of this infection, associated with both high mortality and morbidity. We conducted a review of the English literature to describe cases of fulminant amebic colitis associated with exposure to corticosteroid medications in order to identify the risk factors for poor outcome and determine difficulties in diagnosis and treatment. Methodology and Principal Findings Articles reporting severe and fulminant forms of amebic colitis between 1991 and 2016 were collected. 525 records were screened to identify 24 cases for qualitative analysis associated with corticosteroid use. Cases arose from areas of high endemicity or travel to such areas. Most cases (14 of 24, 58%) were given corticosteroids for initially misdiagnosed colitis, mainly inflammatory bowel, resulting in rapid progression of disease. Nearly half of all cases underwent surgical intervention, and 25% of cases died, despite all patients eventually receiving treatment with metronidazole. The odds of death did not differ significantly by prior misdiagnosis, co-morbidities, bowel perforation or need for surgery. Conclusions and Significance Infection with E. histolytica should be considered prior to the administration of corticosteroids, in particular for patients residing in endemic areas or those with appropriate travel history, especially prior to the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease. The development of preventative and treatment interventions are needed to improve outcomes of fulminant disease. PMID:27467600

  16. Three atypical lethal cases associated with acute Zika virus infection in Suriname

    OpenAIRE

    Zonneveld, Rens; Roosblad, Jimmy; Staveren, Jan Willem van; Jan C. Wilschut; Stephen G.S. Vreden; Codrington, John

    2016-01-01

    Acute Zika virus infection usually presents with a self-limiting triad of fever, rash and arthritis. There is limited information on severe or lethal cases. We report three cases of lethal acute Zika infection, confirmed with polymerase chain reaction, in adult patients with some co-morbidities. The patients showed rapid clinical deterioration with hemorrhagic and septic shock, and exaggerated acute and innate inflammatory responses with pronounced coagulopathy, and died soon after admission ...

  17. Prognosis of acute low back pain: design of a prospective inception cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    York John; Bleasel Jane; Cumming Robert G; Herbert Robert D; Refshauge Kathryn M; Maher Christopher G; Henschke Nicholas; Das Anurina; McAuley James H

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Clinical guidelines generally portray acute low back pain as a benign and self-limiting condition. However, evidence about the clinical course of acute low back pain is contradictory and the risk of subsequently developing chronic low back pain remains uncertain. There are few high quality prognosis studies and none that have measured pain, disability and return to work over a 12 month period. This study aims to provide the first estimates of the one year prognosis of acut...

  18. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an 'accordion' pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the 'accordion' pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the 'accordion' pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  19. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies in ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vodjgani M

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoanibodies (ANCA were detecte in patients with certain autoimmune vascular disease such as Wegner’s granulomatosis, polyarthrits nodosa and systemic luuc erythematous. Indirect immunofluorescence (IIF technique was employed to detec these autoantibodies.ANCA have been recently detected in some forms of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD, ulcerative colitis (U.C. Crohn’s disease (C.D and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC. By IIF method, two general patterns of ANCA were seen: a cytoplasmic (C-ANCA and perinuclear form (P-ANCA. In this study we evaluated the presece of ANCA in 52 U.C. patients and 69 matched normal control group by IIF technique, and it’s relationship with disease activity. Site of colon involvement and, lesion extent. The results showed that all control group were ANCA negative, but 58% of patients had ANCA, and most cases (70% had C- ANCA. The obtained results also revealed that there was no relationship between ANCA and disease activity

  20. Relapsing and refractory ulcerative colitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Approximately half of the children with ulcerative colitis (UC) have refractory, relapsing or steroid-dependent disease. UC in children is more extensive than in adults, presents more often with severe attacks and carries a more aggressive disease course. Therefore, although a step-up approach is usually recommended in UC, aggressive therapy will often be indicated in children since steroid dependency should never be tolerated. It is vital to ensure that in every resistant case, the symptoms are truly related to the inflammatory disease activity and not to other conditions such as poor adherence to treatment, infections, adverse reactions to drugs, irritable bowel syndrome, lactose intolerance, celiac disease and bacterial overgrowth. The clinician should be ready to escalate therapy in a timely manner but only after ensuring optimization of current treatments. Optimization may include, among others, appropriate dosage, utilization of assays that determine thiopurine, calcineurin inhibitors and anti-tumor necrosis factor levels, introduction of combination therapy when indicated (enemas and immunomodulators) and a long enough time for treatment to become effective. Colectomy is always a valid option and should be discussed before major treatment escalations. Experimental therapies can be considered when all else fails and the family prefers to avoid colectomy. The management of refractory and relapsing disease is particularly challenging in children, and this review summarizes the available evidence to guide treatment decisions in this setup. PMID:24969290

  1. Relationship between Ulcerative Colitis and Lung Injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-peng Tang; Jia-wei Wu; Yan-cheng Dai; Ya-li Zhang; Rong-rong Bi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship between ulcerative colitis (UC) and lung injuries by assessing their clinical manifestations and characteristics. Methods From July 2009 to April 2012, 91 UC patients presenting to Longhua Hospital who met the established inclusion and exclusion criteria were enrolled in this retrospective study. According to the scores of disease activity index, the patients were divided into the mild, moderate, and severe groups. Meanwhile, the records of pulmonary symptoms, chest X-ray image, and pulmonary function were reviewed. Results Sixty-eight (74.7%) patients had at least 1 pulmonary symptom, such as cough (38.5%), shortness of breath (27.5%), and expectoration (17.6%). And 77 (84.6%) had at least 1 ventilation abnormality. Vital capacity value was significantly lower in the severe group than that in the mild group (91.82%±10.38%vs. 98.92%±12.12%, P Conclusions Lung injury is a common extraintestinal complication of UC. According to the theory in Traditional Chinese Medicine that the lung and large intestine are related, both the lungs and large intestine should be treated simultaneously.

  2. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in a Burn Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jeff T; Zieger, Madeline; Sood, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of cytomegalovirus in the burn population is high. However, its role in the clinical management of burn patients is still being defined. This report documents a 41-year-old man who developed cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis after being admitted with a 72% burn. Before the administration of ganciclovir, the authors had difficulty controlling his quantitative wound cultures with serial debridements, topical agents, and systemic antibiotics for known pathogens, which led to graft loss. After the ganciclovir was given, his quantitative wound cultures improved without changing the authors' topical agents or systemic antibiotics and had improved graft take. Whether CMV infection alone contributed to an increased morbidity in this patient or the combination of bacteria/fungal infection with CMV led to a synergistic effect is still not clearly understood. CMV may have contributed to a dysfunction in his cell mediated immunity, which, in turn, lowered the bacterial and fungal load necessary to cause graft loss. Patients who continue to do poorly despite adequate treatment for known pathogens may need to be screened for CMV and treated. PMID:26056763

  3. Radical induction theory of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jay Pravda

    2005-01-01

    To propose a new pathogenesis called Radical Induction to explain the genesis and progression of ulcerative colitis (UC). UC is an inflammatory bowel disease. Colonic inflammation in UC is mediated by a buildup of white blood cells (WBCs) within the colonic mucosal lining; however,to date there is no answer for why WBCs initially enter the colonic mucosa to begin with. A new pathogenesis termed "Radical Induction Theory" is proposed to explain this and states that excess un-neutralized hydrogen peroxide, produced within colonic epithelial cells as a result of aberrant cellular metabolism, diffuses through cell membranes to the extracellular space where it is converted to the highly damaging hydroxyl radical resulting in oxidative damage to structures comprising the colonic epithelial barrier. Once damaged, the barrier is unable to exclude highly immunogenic fecal bacterial antigens from invading the normally sterile submucosa. This antigenic exposure provokes an initial immune response of WBC infiltration into the colonic mucosa. Once present in the mucosa,WBCs are stimulated to secrete toxins by direct exposure to fecal bacteria leading to mucosal ulceration and bloody diarrhea characteristic of this disease.

  4. Pseudomembranous colitis: CT findings in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blickman, J.G. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Boland, G.W.L. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cleveland, R.H. [The Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Bramson, R.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Lee, M.J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    A spectrum of nodular haustral thickening and an `accordion` pattern have been reported as specific features of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) in adults. A retrospective review of nine patients with PMC was performed to assess whether this spectrum of CT findings also occurred in children. In four girls and five boys, CT scans were performed within 3 days of a positive stool toxin assay for Clostridium difficile. Documented CT abnormalities included nodular haustral thickening, the `accordion` pattern, colonic wall thickening, ascites, and pericolonic edema. These results were then correlated as to their impact on the clinical outcome. Circumferential colon wall thickening was identified in 7/9 (78%) patients (mean thickening 14.5 mm). Nodular haustral thickening was identified in 4/9 (44%) and the `accordion` pattern in 2/9 (22%). Other findings included pericolonic edema in 3/9 (33%) and ascites in 1/9 (11%). Wall thickening was confined to the left colon and rectum in 2/9 (22%), to the right colon in 2/9 (22%), and involved the whole colon in 3/9 (33%). Although CT findings associated with PMC in children may be suggestive for this diagnosis, CT is less specific than laboratory and clinical findings. (orig.)

  5. Activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR leads to reciprocal epigenetic regulation of FoxP3 and IL-17 expression and amelioration of experimental colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra P Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, a transcription factor of the bHLH/PAS family, is well characterized to regulate the biochemical and toxic effects of environmental chemicals. More recently, AhR activation has been shown to regulate the differentiation of Foxp3(+ Tregs as well as Th17 cells. However, the precise mechanisms are unclear. In the current study, we investigated the effect of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD, a potent AhR ligand, on epigenetic regulation leading to altered Treg/Th17 differentiation, and consequent suppression of colitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS administration induced acute colitis in C57BL/6 mice, as shown by significant weight loss, shortening of colon, mucosal ulceration, and increased presence of CXCR3(+ T cells as well as inflammatory cytokines. Interestingly, a single dose of TCDD (25 µg/kg body weight was able to attenuate all of the clinical and inflammatory markers of colitis. Analysis of T cells in the lamina propria (LP and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN, during colitis, revealed decreased presence of Tregs and increased induction of Th17 cells, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. Activation of T cells from AhR(+/+ but not AhR (-/- mice, in the presence of TCDD, promoted increased differentiation of Tregs while inhibiting Th17 cells. Analysis of MLN or LP cells during colitis revealed increased methylation of CpG islands of Foxp3 and demethylation of IL-17 promoters, which was reversed following TCDD treatment. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies demonstrate for the first time that AhR activation promotes epigenetic regulation thereby influencing reciprocal differentiation of Tregs and Th17 cells, and amelioration of inflammation.

  6. Regulation of the alternative pathway of complement modulates injury and immunity in a chronic model of dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elvington, M; Schepp-Berglind, J; Tomlinson, S

    2015-01-01

    The role of complement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been studied primarily using acute models, and it is unclear how complement affects processes in more relevant chronic models of IBD in which modulation of adaptive immunity and development of fibrosis have pathogenic roles. Using mice deficient in C1q/mannose-binding lectin (MBL) or C3, we demonstrated an important role for these opsonins and/or the classical pathway C3 convertase in providing protection against mucosal injury and infection in a model of chronic dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In contrast, deficiency of the alternative pathway (fB–/– mice) had significantly less impact on injury profiles. Consequently, the effect of a targeted inhibitor of the alternative pathway was investigated in a therapeutic protocol. Following the establishment of colitis, mice were treated with CR2-fH during subsequent periods of DSS treatment and acute injury (modelling relapse). CR2-fH significantly reduced complement activation, inflammation and injury in the colon, and additionally reduced fibrosis. Alternative pathway inhibition also altered the immune response in the chronic state in terms of reducing numbers of B cells, macrophages and mature dendritic cells in the lamina propria. This study indicates an important role for the alternative pathway of complement in the pathogenesis and the shaping of an immune response in chronic DSS-induced colitis, and supports further investigation into the use of targeted alternative pathway inhibition for the treatment of IBD. PMID:25293413

  7. [Ulcerative colitis and proctitis in two Swiss Braunvieh cows].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, U; Hilbe, M; Gerspach, C; Ruetten, M

    2015-04-01

    Two Swiss Braunvieh cows were referred to our clinic because of narrowing of the rectum and difficult rectal examination attributable to restricted arm movement within the pelvic cavity. Cow 1 also had perforation of the cranial rectum and cow 2 had multiple small funnel-shaped depressions in the rectal mucosa. Both cows had ultrasonographic evidence of peritonitis with thickening of the intestinal wall and fibrin and fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity. A diagnosis of peritonitis was made in both cows, most likely caused by rectal perforation; they were euthanized and a post-mortem examination was carried out. Both cows had proctitis and ulcerative colitis with three or four perforated ulcers which were associated with fibrinopurulent peritonitis. The final diagnosis was ulcerative colitis and proctitis of unknown aetiology. Infectious causes of colitis and proctitis, including bovine viral diarrhoea, adenovirus infection and salmonellosis, and trauma and poisoning were ruled out.

  8. Surveillance issues in inflammatory bowel disease: ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provenzale, D; Onken, J

    2001-02-01

    This review article on the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis provides an overview of the criteria for evaluating screening and surveillance programs and applies the criteria to the available evidence to determine the effectiveness of the surveillance of patients with ulcerative colitis. We examine the clinical outcomes associated with surveillance, the additional clinical time required to confirm the diagnosis of dysplasia and cancer, compliance with surveillance and follow-up, and the effectiveness of the individual components of a surveillance program, including colonoscopy and pathologist's interpretation. The disability associated with colectomy is considered, as are the cost and acceptability of surveillance programs. Patients with long-standing ulcerative colitis are at risk for developing colorectal cancer. Recommended surveillance colonoscopy should be supported. New endoscopic and histopathologic techniques to improve the identification of high-risk patients may enhance the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of surveillance practices.

  9. Ischemic colitis:Clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angeliki Theodoropoulou; Ioannis E Koutroubakis

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is the most common form of ischemic injury of the gastrointestinal tract and can present either as an occlusive or a non-occlusive form.It accounts for 1 in 1000 hospitalizations but its incidence is underestimated because it often has a mild and transient nature.The etiology of ischemic colitis is multifactorial and the clinical presentation variable.The diagnosis is based on a combination of clinical suspicion,radiographic,endoscopic and histological findings.Therapy and outcome depends on the severity of the disease.Most cases of the non-gangrenous form are transient and resolve spontaneously without complications.On the other hand,high morbidity and mortality and urgent operative intervention are the hallmarks of gangrenous ischemic colitis.

  10. Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are the two major forms of inflammatory bowel disease; treatment strategies have historically been determined by this binary categorisation. Genetic studies have identified 163 susceptibility loci for inflammatory bowel disease, mostly shared...... between Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. We undertook the largest genotype association study, to date, in widely used clinical subphenotypes of inflammatory bowel disease with the goal of further understanding the biological relations between diseases. METHODS: This study included patients from 49...... centres in 16 countries in Europe, North America, and Australasia. We applied the Montreal classification system of inflammatory bowel disease subphenotypes to 34,819 patients (19,713 with Crohn's disease, 14,683 with ulcerative colitis) genotyped on the Immunochip array. We tested for genotype...

  11. Berberine ameliorates chronic relapsing dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in C57BL/6 mice by suppressing Th17 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan-Hong; Xiao, Hai-Tao; Hu, Dong-Dong; Fatima, Sarwat; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Mu, Huai-Xue; Lee, Nikki P; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an increasingly common condition particularly in developed countries. The lack of satisfactory treatment has fueled the search for alternative therapeutic strategies. In recent studies, berberine, a plant alkaloid with a long history of medicinal use in Chinese medicine, has shown beneficial effects against animal models of acute UC. However, UC usually presents as a chronic condition with frequent relapse in patients. How berberine will act on chronic UC remains unclear. In the present study, we adopted dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced chronic relapsing colitis model to assess the ameliorating activity of berberine. Colitis was induced by two cycles of 2.0% DSS for five days followed by 14days of drinking water plus a third cycle consisting of DSS only for five days. The colitis mice were orally administered 20mg/kg berberine from day 13 onward for 30days and monitored daily. The body weight, stool consistency, and stool bleeding were recorded for determination of the disease activity index (DAI). At the end of treatment, animals were sacrificed and samples were collected and subjected to histological, RT-qPCR, Western blot, and LC-MS analyses. Lymphocytes were isolated from spleens and mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and cultured for flow cytometry analysis of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells and the Th17 cell differentiation. Results showed that berberine significantly ameliorated the DAI, colon shortening, colon tissue injury, and reduction of colonic expression of tight junction (TJ) protein ZO-1 and occludin of colitis mice. Notably, berberine treatment pronouncedly reduced DSS-upregulated Th17-related cytokine (IL-17 and ROR-γt) mRNAs in the colon. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IL-6 and IL-23, and the phosphorylation of STAT3 in colon tissues from DSS-treated mice were pronouncedly inhibited by berberine. Moreover, the up-regulation of IL-17 secretion from CD4(+) cells of spleens and MLNs caused by DSS were significantly

  12. Is there an association of microscopic colitis and irritable bowel syndrome-A subgroup analysis of placebo-controlled trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Madisch; Birgit Bethke; Manfred Stolte; Stephan Miehlke

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR With great interest we read the recent retrospectice study by Barta et al (1) dealing with the clinical presentation of patients with microscopic colitis. They investigated in a cohort of 53 patients with microscopic colitis (46 with collagenous colitis, 7 with lymphocytic colitis)the relationship between microscopic colitis and both constipation and diarrhea. One of their mean finding was that abdominal pain, diarrhea and constipation was a common symptom complex of patients with microscopic colitis, thus the face of microcopic colitis resembles the subgroups of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

  13. Two for One: Coexisting Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant I Chen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Three cases of coexisting ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are presented. In the first case, the patient had a long-standing history of ulcerative proctitis before developing Crohn’s colitis. In the two remaining cases, the patients presented initially with Crohn’s disease of the ileum and, subsequent to resection, developed ulcerative colitis. Well-documented cases of patients diagnosed with both ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are rare. The literature on such cases is reviewed, and the controversy over whether ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are two distinct diseases is explored.

  14. Risk of acute pancreatitis in patients with cronic inflammatory bowel disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard; Fonager, Kirsten; Sørensen, Henrik Toft;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are few epidemiologic data about the risk of acute pancreatitis in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases; we therefore wanted to estimate the risk of a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis in the total Danish population. METHODS......: The study included all patients discharged from Danish hospitals with a diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis registered in the Danish National Registry of Patients in the period from 1977 to 1992. The first episode of acute pancreatitis was identified in the cohort. The observed number...... of patients with acute pancreatitis was compared with expected numbers on the basis of age, sex, and calendar-specific incidence rates in the general population. RESULTS: Overall, 15,526 patients were discharged and followed up for 112,824 person-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for acute...

  15. Mesalamine treatment mimicking relapse in a child with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iva Hojsak; Ana M Pavić; Sanja Kolaček

    2014-01-01

    Background: There are reports on mesalamine-induced bloody diarrhea mimicking ulcerative colitis (UC) relapse, mostly in adults. Methods: Herein we present a case of a child with UC who developed relapse of hemorrhagic colitis related to mesalamine. Results: A 10-year-old girl developed severe symptoms mimicking UC relapse 3 weeks after introduction of mesalamine therapy. After mesalamine was withdrawn, her symptoms improved, but deteriorated again during the challenge of mesalamine despite concomitant use of corticosteroids. Conclusion: This is the fi rst case report on such a young child during the concomitant use of corticosteroids.

  16. Activation of the Renin-Angiotensin System Promotes Colitis Development

    OpenAIRE

    Yongyan Shi; Tianjing Liu; Lei He; Urszula Dougherty; Li Chen; Sarbani Adhikari; Lindsay Alpert; Guolin Zhou; Weicheng Liu; Jiaolong Wang; Deb, Dilip K.; John Hart; Liu, Shu Q.; John Kwon; Joel Pekow

    2016-01-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays pathogenic roles in renal and cardiovascular disorders, but whether it is involved in colitis is unclear. Here we show that RenTgMK mice that overexpress active renin from the liver developed more severe colitis than wild-type controls. More than 50% RenTgMK mice died whereas all wild-type mice recovered. RenTgMK mice exhibited more robust mucosal TH17 and TH1/TH17 responses and more profound colonic epithelial cell apoptosis compared to wild-type cont...

  17. Clinical Observations on Acupuncture Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shun-yi

    2003-01-01

    Purpose To observe the curative effect of acupuncture on ulcerative colitis. Methods and Results Sixty-two patients with ulcerative colitis were treated mainly by needle-warming moxibustion at Lower He-Sea points and Front-mu points, with the cooperation of syndomic differentiation-based selection of acupoints and oral administration of patent Chinese medicine. After treatment the total effective rate was 91.94% and T cell subgroups returned nearly to normal. Conclusion This treatment method can help the internal environment of human immune system to tend to balance.

  18. Review article: colitis-associated cancer -- time for new strategies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shanahan, F

    2012-02-03

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a feared and potentially life-threatening complication of both ulcerative colitis and Crohn\\'s colitis. Currently, the main preventive strategy is a secondary one, i.e. surveillance colonoscopy usually after 8 years of disease duration, when the risk for neoplasia begins to increase. Despite its widespread acceptance, dysplasia and cancer surveillance is unproven in terms of reducing mortality or morbidity and there is a remarkable lack of uniformity in the manner in which it is practised. In this review article, the pitfalls of dysplasia surveillance are summarized and the need for novel chemopreventive and perhaps pharmabiotic approaches for prevention are highlighted.

  19. Faecal Bacterial Communities in Healthy Controls and Ulcerative Colitis Patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigsnæs, Louise Kristine; Wilcks, Andrea; Brynskov, Jørn;

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The aetiology of IBD is not well understood, however the commensal intestinal microbiota is thought to play an important pathogenetic role. Hence, a detai......Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is characterized by chronic inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The aetiology of IBD is not well understood, however the commensal intestinal microbiota is thought to play an important pathogenetic role. Hence...

  20. Ischemic colitis after mesotherapy combined with anti-obesity medications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jong; Bin; Kim; Won; Moon; Seun; Ja; Park; Moo; In; Park; Kyu-Jong; Kim; Jae; Nam; Lee; Seong; Joo; Kang; Lee; La; Jang; Hee; Kyung; Chang

    2010-01-01

    Mesotherapy and anti-obesity medications are gradually gaining worldwide popularity for purposes of body contouring and weight loss.Their adverse effects are various,but there is a tendency to disregard them.Ischemic colitis is one of the most common diseases associated with non-obstructive blood vessel disorders.However,there have been no case reports about the adverse effects resulting from mesotherapy only or in combination with anti-obesity medications.We report on an interesting case of ischemic coliti...

  1. Fulminant amoebic colitis during chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Noboru Hanaoka; Katsuhiko Higuchi; Satoshi Tanabe; Tohru Sasaki; Kenji Ishido; Takako Ae; Wasaburo Koizumi; Katsunori Saigenji

    2009-01-01

    A 52-year-old man had bloody stools during chemotherapy for gastric cancer. A colonoscopy revealed necrotizing ulcer-like changes. A biopsy confirmed the presence of amoebic trophozoites. Subsequently,peritonitis with intestinal perforation developed, and emergency peritoneal lavage and colostomy were performed. After surgery, endotoxin adsorption therapy was performed and metronidazole was given. Symptoms of peritonitis and colonitis resolved.with the progression of gastric cancer. The patient died 50 d after surgery. Fulminant amoebic colitis is very rarely associated with chemotherapy. Amoebic colitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who have bloody stools during chemotherapy.

  2. Primary biliary cirrhosis and ulcerative colitis: A case report and review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Bin Xiao; Yu-Lan Liu

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the characteristics of patients suffered from primary biliary cirrhosis associated with ulcerative colitis.METHODS: To report a new case and review the literature.RESULTS: There were 18 cases (including our case) of primary biliary cirrhosis complicated with ulcerative colitis reported in the literature. Compared with classical primary biliary cirrhosis, the patients were more often males and younger similar. The bowel lesions were usually mild with proctitis predominated. While ulcerative colitis was diagnosed before primary biliary cirrhosis in 13 cases, the presentation of primary biliary cirrhosis was earlier than that of ulcerative colitis in our new case reported here. The prevalence of primary biliary cirrhosis among patients of ulcerative colitis was almost 30 times higher than in general population.CONCLUSION: Association of primary biliary cirrhosis with ulcerative colitis is rare. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hepatobiliary disease in patients with ulcerative colitis, and vice versa.

  3. Tomato lycopene extract prevents lipopolysaccharide-induced NF-kappaB signaling but worsens dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in NF-kappaBEGFP mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Eun Joo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of tomato lycopene extract (TLE on intestinal inflammation is currently unknown. We investigated the effect of TLE on lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced innate signaling and experimental colitis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mice were fed a diet containing 0.5 and 2% TLE or isoflavone free control (AIN-76. The therapeutic efficacy of TLE diet was assessed using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS exposed mice and IL-10(-/-;NF-kappaB(EGFP mice, representing an acute and spontaneous chronic colitis model respectively. A mini-endoscope was used to determine the extent of macroscopic mucosal lesions. Murine splenocytes and intestinal epithelial cells were used to determine the in vitro impact of TLE on LPS-induced NF-kappaB signaling. In vitro, TLE blocked LPS-induced IkappaBalpha degradation, RelA translocation, NF-kappaB transcriptional activity and MIP-2 mRNA accumulation in IEC-18 cells. Moreover, LPS-induced IL-12p40 gene expression was dose-dependently inhibited in TLE-treated splenocytes. Interestingly, DSS-induced acute colitis worsened in TLE-fed NF-kappaB(EGFP mice compared to control diet as measured by weight loss, colonoscopic analysis and histological scores. In contrast, TLE-fed IL-10(-/-;NF-kappaB(EGFP mice displayed decreased colonic EGFP expression compared to control diet. IL-6, TNFalpha, and MCP-1 mRNA expression were increased in the colon of TLE-fed, DSS-exposed NF-kappaB(EGFP mice compared to the control diet. Additionally, caspase-3 activation and TUNEL positive cells were enhanced in TLE diet-fed, DSS-exposed mice as compared to DSS control mice. CONCLUSIONS/ SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that TLE prevents LPS-induced proinflammatory gene expression by blocking of NF-kappaB signaling, but aggravates DSS-induced colitis by enhancing epithelial cell apoptosis.

  4. Sulfate-reducing bacteria colonize pouches formed for ulcerative colitis but not for familial adenomatous polyposis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duffy, M

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains the "gold standard" in surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis. Pouchitis occurs mainly in patients with a background of ulcerative colitis, although the reasons for this are unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize differences in pouch bacterial populations between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous pouches. METHODS: After ethical approval was obtained, fresh stool samples were collected from patients with ulcerative colitis pouches (n = 10), familial adenomatous polyposis (n = 7) pouches, and ulcerative colitis ileostomies (n = 8). Quantitative measurements of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria were performed. RESULTS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria were isolated from 80 percent (n = 8) of ulcerative colitis pouches. Sulfate-reducing bacteria were absent from familial adenomatous polyposis pouches and also from ulcerative colitis ileostomy effluent. Pouch Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, and Clostridium perfringens counts were increased relative to ileostomy counts in patients with ulcerative colitis. Total pouch enterococci and coliform counts were also increased relative to ileostomy levels. There were no significant quantitative or qualitative differences between pouch types when these bacteria were evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: Sulfate-reducing bacteria are exclusive to patients with a background of ulcerative colitis. Not all ulcerative colitis pouches harbor sulfate-reducing bacteria because two ulcerative colitis pouches in this study were free of the latter. They are not present in familial adenomatous polyposis pouches or in ileostomy effluent collected from patients with ulcerative colitis. Total bacterial counts increase in ulcerative colitis pouches after stoma closure. Levels of Lactobacilli, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides sp, Clostridium perfringens, enterococci, and coliforms were similar in both pouch groups. Because sulfate-reducing bacteria are

  5. AOM/DSS Model of Colitis-Associated Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parang, Bobak; Barrett, Caitlyn W; Williams, Christopher S

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of colitis-associated carcinoma (CAC) has benefited substantially from mouse models that faithfully recapitulate human CAC. Chemical models, in particular, have enabled fast and efficient analysis of genetic and environmental modulators of CAC without the added requirement of time-intensive genetic crossings. Here we describe the Azoxymethane (AOM)/Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) mouse model of inflammatory colorectal cancer.

  6. Impact of probiotics on colonic microflora in patients with colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reddy, B. S.; Ahmed, J.; Macfie, J.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Probiotics colonise the gut and may exert beneficial effects. The aim of this study was to assess if probiotics change the spectrum of colonic microflora in patients with colitis when taken daily for a period of one month Methods: This is a prospective double blind randomised crossover...

  7. [Ischemic colitis after renal transplantation:etiology and pathogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alperovich, G; Idiarte, L; Besasso, O; Avagnina, A

    2003-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is a well-recognized complication occurring in renal transplant recipients. It has often been associated with cytomegalovirus (CMV) vasculitis. However, the diagnosis of this pathology in the absence of CMV suggests that other etiological factors might be involved. Drugs inducing mesenteric vasoconstriction, such as non-steroidal anti-inflamatory drugs (NSAIDs) and cyclosporine could be related to this entity.

  8. REGULATION OF INDUCIBLE NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE IN COLLAGENOUS COLITIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    ulcerøs colitis, der er karakteriseret ved en kronisk recidiverende, sårdannende inflammation af kolorektalslimhinden. I nærværende sammenlignende studie er ekspressionen af iNOS og aktiviteten af enzymets transkriptionsfaktor, nukleær faktor-kappa B (NF-B), i slimhindebiopsier fra colonslimhinden hos...

  9. Automated image analysis in the study of collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Kristensson, Martin; Engel, Ulla;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to develop an automated image analysis software to measure the thickness of the subepithelial collagenous band in colon biopsies with collagenous colitis (CC) and incomplete CC (CCi). The software measures the thickness of the collagenous band on microscopic...

  10. Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munck, Lars Kristian; Wildt, Signe; Engell, Peter Johan Heiberg;

    2014-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic, non-bloody diarrhoea in the elderly population. In Denmark the incidence has been rising for the last decades. Sufficient biopsy material from colon mucosa is essential for the diagnosis. Treatment is important to improve the patient's quality...

  11. Ischemic Colitis of the Left Colon in a Diabetic Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios J. Karayiannakis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus may affect the gastrointestinal tract possibly as a result of autonomic neuropathy. Here we present a 68-year-old male with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus who presented with prolonged watery diarrhea and in whom imaging studies demonstrated ischemic colitis of the left colon. Resection of the affected colon resulted in sustained disappearance of symptoms.

  12. Epithelial IL-18 Equilibrium Controls Barrier Function in Colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nowarski, Roni; Jackson, Ruaidhrí; Gagliani, Nicola; de Zoete, Marcel R; Palm, Noah W; Bailis, Will; Low, Jun Siong; Harman, Christian C D; Graham, Morven; Elinav, Eran; Flavell, Richard A

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal mucosal barrier controlling the resident microbiome is dependent on a protective mucus layer generated by goblet cells, impairment of which is a hallmark of the inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis. Here, we show that IL-18 is critical in driving the pathologic breakdown of

  13. Scintigraphic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Simonsen, Jane Angel; Hvidsten, Svend;

    scintigraphic intestinal transit time, scintigraphic defecography and any association with QoL, and pouch function. Method A cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette...

  14. HLA-DR expression and disease activity in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, L O; Elling, P; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt;

    1986-01-01

    In 12 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC) the rectal epithelial cells were analyzed for HLA-DR antigens by an immunohistochemical technique. The clinical, rectoscopic, and histologic stages were also determined. The investigations were carried out at the beginning of the study and 2 weeks...

  15. IL-33 is upregulated in colonocytes of ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, J.B.; Bjerrum, J.T.; Coskun, Mehmet;

    2010-01-01

    , airway inflammation and arthritis in animal models. We now report IL-33 to be produced by colonic epithelial cells in humans and it is highly upregulated in ulcerative colitis (UC). Little mRNA expression was found in control subjects (N=9), whereas patients with UC in remission (N=7) and active UC (N=9...

  16. Ischemic colitis complicating reconstruction of the abdominal aorta

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T V; Christoffersen, J K; Andersen, J;

    1985-01-01

    A review of 23 patients with ischemic colitis after surgical treatment of the abdominal aorta disclosed a pathogenetic heterogeneous finding. Ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery, abolished collateral blood supply or nonocclusive low flow state, or both, was a common feature. An incidence...

  17. Scintigrapfic evaluation of pouch function in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Mie Dilling; Hvidsten, Svend; Simonsen, Jane Angel;

    with QoL and pouch function. Method It is a cross-sectional study including 20 patients with ulcerative colitis and an IPAA. Scintigraphic transit time was determined after oral administration of a Tc-99m-labelled omelette. Defecography was performed with instillation of a radioactive labelled paste...

  18. Altered response to hydrogen sulphide during experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steidle, J; Würner, L; Diener, M

    2012-09-10

    Hydrogen sulphide (H(2) S) is produced in the intestine by sulphate-reducing bacteria and during metabolism of L-cysteine within the mucosa. This gasotransmitter induces anion secretion by stimulating enteric neurons and by a direct effect on epithelial cells. As H(2) S is discussed to exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory actions, we aimed to investigate the role of H(2) S during experimental colitis by comparing the effects of blockade of H(2) S-forming endogenous enzymes with the effect of a S-reduced diet to diminish microbial production of H(2) S. Rectal application of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce chronic colitis. The level of inflammation was assessed macroscopically and histologically. In Ussing chamber experiments, colonic specimens from TNBS-treated animals exhibited a higher tissue conductance, that is, a higher epithelial permeability, and a slightly reduced basal short-circuit current (a measure of net ion transport) in relation to non-inflamed control tissue. Analgetic treatment with flupirtine, a central antinociceptive analgetic, did not interfere with the induction of the inflammatory response so that all animals were treated with flupirtine to reduce pain and distress during the development of colitis. The secretory response evoked by an exogenous H(2) S donor, NaHS, was significantly decreased after induction of colitis, whereas the response to Ca(2+) - or cAMP-dependent secretagogues was unaltered. This downregulation was not observed in the colitis group fed on a S-reduced diet. The decreased NaHS response indicates a desensitization of the tissue by inflammation, which might be explained by an upregulation of colonic H(2) S production as described in some models of inflammation. PMID:22963333

  19. Differential effects of energy balance on experimentally-induced colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarah J McCaskey; Elizabeth A Rondini; Ingeborg M Langohr; Jenifer I Fenton

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To characterize the influence of diet-induced changes in body fat on colitis severity in SMAD3-/-mice.METHODS:SMAD3-/-mice (6-8 wk of age) were randomly assigned to receive a calorie restricted (30%of control; CR),control (CON),or high fat (HF) diet for 20 wk and were gavaged with sterile broth or with Helicobacter hepaticus (H.hepaticus) to induce colitis.Four weeks after infection,mice were sacrificed and the cecum and colons were processed for histological evaluation.RESULTS:Dietary treatment significantly influenced body composition prior to infection (P < 0.05),with CR mice having less (14% ± 2%) and HF-fed mice more body fat (32% ± 7%) compared to controls (22% ±4%).Differences in body composition were associated with alterations in plasma levels of leptin (HF > CON > CR) and adiponectin (CON > HF ≥ CR) (P < 0.05).There were no significant differences in colitis scores between CON and HF-fed mice 4 wk post-infection.Consistent with this,differences in proliferation and inflammation markers (COX-2,iNOS),and infiltrating cell types (CD3+ T lymphocytes,macrophages) were not observed.Unexpectedly,only 40% of CR mice survived infection with H.hepaticus,with mortality observed as early as 1 wk following induction of colitis.CONCLUSION:Increased adiposity does not influence colitis severity in SMAD3-/-mice.Importantly,caloric restriction negatively impacts survival following pathogen challenge,potentially due to an impaired immune response.

  20. Asymptomatic and Persistent Elevation of Pancreatic Enzymes in an Ulcerative Colitis Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Liverani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Azathioprine has been extensively used in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases. It might cause pancreatic damage in the form of either asymptomatic elevation in serum amylase/lipase or overt acute pancreatitis. Here we report the case of a 61-year-old patient with ulcerative colitis who had been treated with azathioprine for three years, achieving clinical remission. During treatment he presented an asymptomatic elevation of serum pancreatic enzymes, without any signs of pancreatitis at imaging. This evidence brought us to reassess the drug dosage, without achieving a normalization of biochemical analysis. Autoimmune pancreatitis was excluded. One year after the suspension of azathioprine, we still face persistent high levels of amylase/lipase. Normalization of enzymatic values in patients who develop intolerance to azathioprine, in the form of either asymptomatic elevation in serum amylase/lipase or overt acute pancreatitis, is usually achieved in about two months after stopping drug intake. Asymptomatic elevation in serum pancreatic enzymes in the absence of pancreatic disease is reported in the literature and defined as “Gullo’s syndrome,” but nobody of the subjects studied had been treated in the past with pancreatotoxic drugs. Might this case be defined as “benign pancreatic hyperenzymemia”?

  1. Increased lymphocyte apoptosis in mouse models of colitis upon ABT-737 treatment is dependent upon BIM expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, C; Mozaffari, M; Tosevski, V; Caj, M; Cippà, P; McRae, B L; Graff, C L; Rogler, G; Fried, M; Hausmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Exaggerated activation of lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medical therapies are linked to the BCL-2 family-mediated apoptosis. Imbalance in BCL-2 family proteins may cause failure in therapeutic responses. We investigated the role of BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-737 for lymphocyte apoptosis in mice under inflammatory conditions. B.6129P2-interleukin (IL)-10(tm1Cgn) /J (IL-10(-/-) ) weighing 25-30 g with ongoing colitis were used. Fifty mg/kg/day ABT-737 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Haematological analyses were performed with an ADVIA 2120 flow cytometer and mass cytometry with a CyTOF 2. Following i.p. administration, ABT-737 was detected in both spontaneous and acute colitis in peripheral blood (PBL) and colon tissue. Treatment led to lymphopenia. CD4(+) CD44(+) CD62L(+) central memory and CD8(+) , CD44(+) CD62L(-) central memory T cells were decreased in PBL upon ABT-737 compared to vehicle-receiving controls. Increased apoptosis upon ABT-737 was determined in blood lymphocytes, splenocytes and Peyer's patches and was accompanied by a decrease in TNF and IL-1B. ABT-737 positively altered the colonic mucosa and ameliorated inflammation, as shown by colonoscopy, histology and colon length. A decreased BIM/BCL-2 ratio or absence of BIM in both Bim(-) (/) (-) and Il10(-) (/) (-) × Bim(-) (/) (-) impeded the protective effect of ABT-737. The BIM/BCL-2 ratio decreased with age and during the course of treatment. Thus, long-term treatment resulted in adapted TNF levels and macroscopic mucosal damage. ABT-737 was efficacious in diminishing lymphocytes and ameliorating colitis in a BIM-dependent manner. Regulation of inappropriate survival of lymphocytes by ABT-737 may provide a therapeutic strategy in IBD. PMID:25845418

  2. PET/CT colonography: a novel non-invasive technique for assessment of extent and activity of ulcerative colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Chandan J.; Sharma, Raju [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Radiodiagnosis, New Delhi (India); Makharia, Govind K.; Tiwari, Rajeew P. [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Gastroenterology and Human Nutrition, New Delhi (India); Kumar, Rakesh; Kumar, Rajender; Malhotra, Arun [All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Department of Nuclear Medicine, New Delhi (India)

    2010-04-15

    Extent of involvement and activity of ulcerative colitis (UC) is best evaluated by colonoscopy. Colonoscopy however carries risk during acute exacerbation. We investigated the utility of PET/CT colonography for assessment of extent and activity of UC. Within a 1-week window, 15 patients with mild to moderately active UC underwent colonoscopy and PET/CT colonography 60 min after injection of 10 mCi of {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). PET activity score based on the amount of FDG uptake and endoscopic mucosal activity in seven colonic segments of each patient was recorded. The mean maximum standardized uptake value (SUV{sub max}) of seven segments was compared with activity in liver. A PET activity grade of 0, 1, 2 or 3 was assigned to each region depending upon their SUV{sub max} ratio (colon segment to liver). The extent of disease was left-sided colitis in five and pancolitis in ten. The mean Ulcerative Colitis Disease Activity Index (UCDAI) was 7.6. The number of segments involved as per colonoscopic evaluation and PET/CT colonography was 67 and 66, respectively. There was a good correlation for extent evaluation between the two modalities (kappa 55.3%, p = 0.02). One patient had grade 0 PET activity, nine had grade 2 and five had grade 3 PET activity. In six patients, there was one to one correlation between PET activity grades with that of endoscopic grade. One patient showed activity in the sacroiliac joint suggesting active sacroiliitis. PET/CT colonography is a novel non-invasive technique for the assessment of extent and activity of the disease in patients with UC. (orig.)

  3. Acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage originating in the small intestine Hemorragia digestiva baja severa originada en el intestino delgado

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ríos; M. J. Montoya; Rodríguez, J M; P. Parrilla

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage (LGIH) is generally self-limiting, and the most frequent etiologies are located at colonic level. The objective here is to analyze the diagnostic and therapeutic handling of acute LGIH when its etiology was located in the small intestine. Patients and methods: between 1975 and March 2002, 12 acute cases of LGIH originating in the small intestine were admitted to our service. All consulted the hospital with acute rectorrhage, requiring a transfus...

  4. Severe acute pancreatitis and selective decontamination (Results of a Illulticentel' contl'olled clinical trial)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.T. Luiten (Ernest)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractFrom a mild self-limiting disease, development of multiple organ failure and frequently septic complications towards a fulminant course resistant to any type of treatment, acute pancreatitis is a disorder that has numerous causes, an obscure pathogenesis and an often unpredictable outcom

  5. IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF EXTRACELLULAR-MATRIX IN ACUTE GALACTOSAMINE HEPATITIS IN RATS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JONKER, AM; DIJKHUIS, FWJ; BOES, A; HARDONK, MJ

    1992-01-01

    A single injection of D-galactosamine hydrochloride induces acute self-limiting liver disease in rats that morphologically resembles drug-induced hepatitis in human beings. In this immunohistochemical study we examined the localization and expression of the hepatic extracellular matrix components fi

  6. Incorporation of homogeneous, nanoscale MnO2 within ultraporous carbon structures via self-limiting electroless deposition: implications for electrochemical capacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anne E; Pettigrew, Katherine A; Rolison, Debra R; Stroud, Rhonda M; Long, Jeffrey W

    2007-02-01

    The self-limiting reaction of aqueous permanganate with carbon nanofoams produces conformal, nanoscopic deposits of birnessite ribbons and amorphous MnO2 throughout the ultraporous carbon structure. The MnO2 coating contributes additional capacitance to the carbon nanofoam while maintaining the favorable high-rate electrochemical performance inherent to the ultraporous carbon structure of the nanofoam. Such a three-dimensional design exploits the benefits of a nanoscopic MnO2-carbon interface to produce an exceptionally high area-normalized capacitance (1.5 F cm-2), as well as high volumetric capacitance (90 F cm-3). PMID:17297991

  7. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lais Martins Moreira Anjos

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis. Symptom onset in streptococcal infection is usually abrupt and includes intense sore throat, fever, chills, malaise, headache, tender enlarged anterior cervical lymph nodes, and pharyngeal or tonsillar exudate. Cough, coryza, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea are uncommon, and their presence suggests a viral cause. A diagnosis of pharyngitis is supported by the patient's history and by the physical examination. Throat culture is the gold standard for diagnosing streptococcus pharyngitis. However, it has been underused in public health services because of its low availability and because of the 1- to 2-day delay in obtaining results. Rapid antigen detection tests have been used to detect S. pyogenes directly from throat swabs within minutes. Clinical scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of S. pyogenes infection. The most commonly used scoring system is the modified Centor score. Acute S. pyogenes pharyngitis is often a self-limiting disease. Penicillins are the first-choice treatment. For patients with penicillin allergy, cephalosporins can be an acceptable alternative, although primary hypersensitivity to cephalosporins can occur. Another drug option is the macrolides. Future perspectives to prevent streptococcal pharyngitis and post-infection systemic complications include the development of an anti-Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine.

  8. The C-type lectin receptor SIGNR3 binds to fungi present in commensal microbiota and influences immune regulation in experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena eEriksson

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease is a condition of acute and chronic inflammation of the gut. An important factor contributing to pathogenesis is a dysregulated mucosal immunity against commensal bacteria and fungi. Host pattern recognition receptors sense commensals in the gut and are involved in maintaining the balance between controlled responses to pathogens and overwhelming innate immune activation. C-type lectin receptors (CLRs are pattern recognition receptors recognizing glycan structures on pathogens and self-antigens. Here we examined the role of the murine CLR SIGNR3 in the recognition of commensals and its involvement in intestinal immunity. SIGNR3 is the closest murine homologue of the human DC-SIGN receptor recognizing similar carbohydrate ligands such as terminal fucose or high-mannose glycans. We discovered that SIGNR3 recognizes fungi present in the commensal microbiota. To analyze if this interaction impacts the intestinal immunity against microbiota, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis model was employed. SIGNR3-/- mice exhibited an increased weight loss associated with more severe colitis symptoms compared to wild-type control mice. The increased inflammation in SIGNR3-/- mice was accompanied by a higher level of TNF-α in colon. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that SIGNR3 recognizes intestinal fungi and has an immune regulatory role in colitis.

  9. Evaluation of Protective Effect of Hydro-alcoholic Extract of Fruit Peels of Punica granatum Linn against Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ashar Kalangottil; Karunakar Hegde; Naseeb K M

    2014-01-01

    The study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fruits peels of Punica granatum Linn. against acetic acid and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis in rats. Acute oral toxicity study was performed to find out the test dose according to OECD guidelines 425 and hydro-alcoholic extract of P. granatum fruit peel (PGPE) was found to be safe at a dose of 2000 mg/kg body weight. The animals pretreated with hydro-alcoholic extract of P....

  10. Prevalence of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the prevalence and demography of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea of unknown etiology and normal colonoscopy in Turkey. METHODS: Between March, 1998 to July, 2005, 129 patients with chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology who had undergone full colonoscopy with no obvious abnormalities were included in the study. Two biopsies were obtained from all colonic segments and terminal ileum for diagnosis of microscopic colitis. On histopathologic examination, criteria for lymphocytic colitis (intraepithelial lymphocyte ≥ 20 per 100 intercryptal epithelial cells, change in surface epithelium, mononuclear infiltration of the lamina propria) and collagenous colitis (subepithelial collagen band thickness ≥ 10 μm) were explored. RESULTS: Lymphocytic colitis was diagnosed in 12 (9%) patients (Female/Male: 7/5, mean age: 45 year, range: 27-63) and collagenous colitis was diagnosed in only 3 (2.5%) patients (all female, mean age: 60 years, range: 54-65). CONCLUSION: Biopsy of Turkish patients with the diagnosis of chronic non-bloody diarrhea of unexplained etiology and normal colonoscopic findings will reveal microscopic colitis in approximately 10% of the patients. Lymphocytic colitis is 4 times more frequent than collagenous colitis in these patients

  11. Age-related Epstein-Barr virus-positive cutaneous ulcer arising after a self-limited subcutaneous abscess: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadiku Shemsedin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Epstein-Barr virus-positive mucocutaneous ulcer is a newly recognized clinicopathologic entity in the spectrum of Epstein-Barr virus-positive lymphoproliferative disorders. This entity is characterized by a self-limited, indolent course. Case presentation We report the case of a 74-year-old, type 2 diabetic man who presented with an ulceroinfiltrative skin lesion on the left side of his neck. Histological examination showed that the lesion consisted of large atypical cells, some with Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg-like morphology, in the midst of reactive lymphocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils and histiocytes. The atypical cells were partially positive for CD45, CD20, CD79a, CD30, B-cell lymphoma 2 and latent membrane protein 1 (CS.1-4, and negative for CD15, B-cell lymphoma 6 and CD10. In situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid was positive. Two years before, the patient had been diagnosed with a self-limited subcutaneous abscess in the same anatomic area that healed after antibiotic therapy. Conclusion Older patients with positive Epstein-Barr virus serology may develop B-cell lymphoproliferations due to age-related immune suppression. Epstein-Barr virus-encoded ribonucleic acid testing and clonality analysis, eventually complemented with close clinical follow-up, should be performed for suspicious inflammatory lesions in older patients.

  12. Goniothalamin prevents the development of chemically induced and spontaneous colitis in rodents and induces apoptosis in the HT-29 human colon tumor cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramini-Costa, Débora Barbosa; Alcaide, Antonio; Pelizzaro-Rocha, Karin Juliane; Talero, Elena; Ávila-Román, Javier; Garcia-Mauriño, Sofia; Pilli, Ronaldo Aloise; de Carvalho, João Ernesto; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer is the third most incident type of cancer worldwide. One of the most important risk factors for colon cancer development are inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), thus therapies focusing on IBD treatment have great potential to be used in cancer prevention. Nature has been a source of new therapeutic and preventive agents and the racemic form of the styryl-lactone goniothalamin (GTN) has been shown to be a promising antiproliferative agent, with gastroprotective, antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects. As inflammation is a well-known tumor promoter, the major goal of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic and preventive potentials of GTN on chemically induced and spontaneous colitis, as well as the cytotoxic effects of GTN on a human colon tumor cell line (HT-29). GTN treatments inhibited TNBS-induced acute and chronic colitis development in Wistar rats, reducing myeloperoxidase levels and inflammatory cells infiltration in the mucosa. In spontaneous-colitis using IL-10 deficient mice (C57BL/6 background), GTN prevented colitis development through downregulation of TNF-α, upregulation of SIRT-1 and inhibition of proliferation (PCNA index), without signs of toxicity after three months of treatment. In HT-29 cells, treatment with 10μM of GTN induced apoptosis by increasing BAX/BCL2, p-JNK1/JNK1, p-P38/P38 ratios as well as through ROS generation. Caspase 8, 9 and 3 activation also occurred, suggesting caspase-dependent apoptotic pathway, culminating in PARP-1 cleavage. Together with previous data, these results show the importance of GTN as a pro-apoptotic, preventive and therapeutic agent for IBD and highlight its potential as a chemopreventive agent for colon cancer.

  13. Common carotid arterial thrombosis associated with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hitoshi Nogami; Tsuneo Iiai; Satoshi Maruyama; Tatsuo Tani; Katsuyoshi Hatakeyama

    2007-01-01

    A 26-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis was transferred to our hospital with left hemiparesis due to cerebral infarction. Cervical ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging angiography revealed thrombosis at the right common carotid artery and the right internal carotid artery. Antithrombotic and anticoagulant therapies were commenced. After about 2 wk of the treatment, the frequency of her diarrhea increased. She underwent emergency subtotal colectomy, but 10 d later an abundant hemorrhage from the remnant rectum occurred, so the remnant rectum was resected and an ileal pouch anal anastomosis was performed. Antithrombotic and anticoagulant therapies were continued, but neither her neurological status nor magnetic resonance imaging angiography findings showed subsequent changes. She was discharged 3 mon after operation. This is a rare case of common carotid arterial thrombosis occurring as a complication of ulcerative colitis, in which antithrombotic and anticoagulant therapies are considered to provoke a deterioration of the patient's bowel disease.

  14. Treatment tactics in patient with rectal cancer complicating ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. A. Barsukov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful treatment of a young patient with a 15-year anamnesis of ulcerative colitis, who has been diagnosed with rectal cancer, is presented in this case report. A non-standard surgical intervention has been performed following all principles of oncologic surgery. A subtotal colectomy has been performed with ultra-low anterior resection of rectum. Ascendoanal anastomosis has been performed forming the neo-rectum. There were no complications in postoperative period. Considering disease stage (T3N1M0 adjuvant XELOX was administered for 6 months along with 2 cycles of prophylactic treatment with 5-aminosalycilic acid. During 2-years follow-up there are no signs of rectal cancer and ulcerative colitis progression. After pelvic electrostimulation defecation frequency decreased to 3–4 times per day, a patient has complete social rehabilitation.

  15. [Recent advances in medical and surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Akira; Koganei, Kazutaka; Tatsumi, Kenji; Futatsuki, Ryo; Kuroki, Hirosuke; Yamada, Kyoko; Arai, Katsuhiko; Fukushima, Tsuneo

    2015-03-01

    Recent advances in both medical and surgical treatment of ulcerative colitis have been remarkable. Changes in medical treatment are mainly good results of therapy with the anti-TNF-α antibody, tacrolimus, and those in surgical treatment are an expansion of the surgical indications to include patients with intractable disease, such as treatment refractoriness and chronic corticosteroid dependence, by a better postoperative clinical course after pouch surgery, improred selection of surgical procedures and the timing of surgery in elderly patients. To offer the optimal treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis, new medical therapies should be analyzed from the standpoint of the efficacy and limitations of effect. Long postoperative clinical course of surgical patients including colitic cancer, prevention of postoperative complications should be also analyzed.

  16. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; KANTHI, YOGENDRA; ASTER, RICHARD; MCCRAE, KEITH

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies. PMID:19172524

  17. Acute profound thrombocytopenia with second exposure to eptifibatide associated with a strong antibody reaction

    OpenAIRE

    ATTAYA, SHARIFF; Kanthi, Yogendra; Aster, Richard; McCrae, Keith

    2009-01-01

    We present a case of eptifibatide-induced acute profound thrombocytopenia in a 64-year-old male receiving eptifibatide for the second time during percutaneous coronary intervention. Although rare, short and self-limited episodes of acute and profound thrombocytopenia have been associated with eptifibatide exposure. The thrombocytopenia is thought to be immune mediated, and assays are available to test for eptifibatide-induced platelet antibodies.

  18. Pythium insidiosum colitis in a dog: treatment and clinical outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Mahyumi Fujimori; Erika Rondon Lopes; Samara Rosolem Lima; Daphine Ariadne Jesus de Paula; Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de Almeida; Edson Moleta Colodel; Caroline Argenta Pescador; Pedro Eduardo Brandini Néspoli; Luciano Nakazato; Valéria Dutra; Roberto Lopes de Souza; Valéria Régia Franco Sousa

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to describe the clinical, pathological and imaging findings and treatment of colitis caused by Pythium insidiosum in a canine presenting haematochezia and progressive weight loss. Through imaging, a thickening of the transverse and descending colon was observed. Histopathological analysis of the large intestine fragment revealed the presence of hyphae, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR as P. insidiosum. Antifungal treatment with itraconazole impleme...

  19. Pythium insidiosum colitis in a dog: treatment and clinical outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyumi Fujimori

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this report is to describe the clinical, pathological and imaging findings and treatment of colitis caused by Pythium insidiosum in a canine presenting haematochezia and progressive weight loss. Through imaging, a thickening of the transverse and descending colon was observed. Histopathological analysis of the large intestine fragment revealed the presence of hyphae, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and PCR as P. insidiosum. Antifungal treatment with itraconazole implemented after partial surgical resection, resulted in control of the disease.

  20. Managing Ulcerative Colitis – The Guidelines and Beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell RKL Lie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Management guidelines offer clinicians clear, evidence-based and often succinct treatment advice. For ulcerative colitis these guidelines describe the use of 5-ASA, corticosteroids, thiopurines, cyclosporine, and anti-TNFα therapies. However, guidelines do have some drawbacks, mainly a lack of concrete advice concerning patients resistant to these aforementioned therapies. This review gives a short overview of current guidelines and addresses treatment alternatives for conventional therapies.

  1. Pseudomembranous collagenous colitis: an unusual cause of chronic diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Kheil, Ayisha Mehtab; Disney, Benjamin; Ruban, Ernie; Wood, Gordon

    2014-02-13

    An 81-year-old woman presented with a history of severe chronic diarrhoea resulting in an admission with syncope and electrolyte abnormalities. Imaging studies of the bowel were normal. However, biopsies taken during colonoscopy enabled a diagnosis to be made and effective treatment to be initiated. This case report details the presentation, diagnosis and management of a rare injury pattern affecting the bowel: pseudomembranous collagenous colitis.

  2. Pseudomembranous colitis: an unusual cause of neutrocytic ascites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spahr, L; de Saussure, P; Felley, C; Pugin, J; Hadengue, A

    1999-07-01

    Severe cases of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) may be associated with intraperitoneal fluid accumulation. However, the characteristics of the liquid are seldom described. Specifically, neutrocytic ascites has only been reported once. We report a case of a severe PMC complicated by a highly neutrocytic ascites which remained culture-negative. We discuss the possible mechanisms leading to ascites formation in this condition and review ascitic fluid characteristics in patients with PMC. PMID:10445802

  3. Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Zamani, Hamed; Barzin, Gilda; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Mohammadkhani, Ashraf; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Tayebi, Sirous; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ansari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation limited to the mucosal layer of the colon. Calprotectin is a zinc and calcium binding protein derived from neutrophils and monocytes. It is easily detectable in tissue samples, body fluids, and stools, which makes it a potentially valuable marker of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a marker of disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS S...

  4. The Role of Fecal Calprotectin in Investigating Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Fatih Ünal; Evren Semizel; Muhittin Serdar; Çiğdem Ömür Ecevit; Yılmaz Karaca; Emine Mert Yılmaz; Hasan Kocaefe; Hasan Erhun Kasırga

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Fecal calprotectin (FCP) can be found in high concentrations in inflammatory bowel disease due to the increase in leucocyte turnover in intestinal wall or increase of migration of neutrophils into the lumen. In this study, we aimed to determine the FCP values of the ulcerative colitis (UC) patients at the time of diagnosis and to investigate the applicability and effectiveness of this non-invasive method in the diagnosis of the disease, routinely.Materials and Methods: A total o...

  5. Colitis is associated with a loss of intestinofugal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, David R.

    2012-01-01

    Intestinofugal neurons sense and receive information regarding mechanical distension of the bowel and transmit this information to postganglionic sympathetic neurons in the prevertebral ganglia. Previous studies have demonstrated that trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is associated with a loss of myenteric neurons that occurs within the first 12 h following the inflammatory insult. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that intestinofugal neurons are among th...

  6. Norovirus Gastroenteritis Accompanied by Ischemic Colitis : A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Zenda, Takahiro; Kaneko, Shuichi; Noriki, Sakon

    2010-01-01

    A 57-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of frequent bloody diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. While the patient was diagnosed with norovirus gastroenteritis based on the presence by chance of positive norovirus antigen in the stool samples, endoscopic as well as pathological examinations demonstrated left-sided ischemic colitis. The patient soon recovered solely by supportive treatment. Although it is believed that patients with viral gastroenteritis do not develop blo...

  7. Inflammatory cells′ role in acetic acid-induced colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad H Sanei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Free radicals are the known mechanisms responsible for inducing colitis with two origins: Inflammatory cells and tissues. Only the inflammatory cells can be controlled by corticosteroids. Our aim was to assess the importance of neutrophils as one of the inflammatory cells in inducing colitis and to evaluate the efficacy of corticosteroids in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six mice were divided into six groups of six mice each. Colitis was induced in three groups by exposing them to acetic acid through enema (group 1, ex vivo (group 3, and enema after immune suppression (group 5. Each group had one control group that was exposed to water injection instead of acetic acid. Tissue samples were evaluated and compared based on macroscopic damages and biochemical and pathological results. Results: Considering neutrophilic infiltration, there were significant differences between groups 1, 3, 5, and the control of group 1. Groups 3, 5, and their controls, and group 1 and the control of group 3 had significant differences in terms of goblet depletion. Based on tissue originated H 2 O 2 , we found significant differences between group 1 and its control and group 3, and also between groups 5 and the control of group 3. All the three groups were significantly different from their controls based on Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP and such differences were also seen between group 1 with two other groups. Conclusion: Neutrophils may not be the only cause of oxidation process in colitis, and also makes the effectiveness of corticosteroids in the treatment of this disease doubtful.

  8. Damage to the Enteric Nervous System in Experimental Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sanovic, Srdan; Lamb, Damian P.; Blennerhassett, Michael G

    1999-01-01

    Inflammation of the intestine causes pain and altered motility, at least in part through effects on the enteric nervous system. While these changes may be reversed with healing, permanent damage may contribute to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and post-enteritis irritable bowel syndrome. Since little information exists, we induced colitis in male Sprague-Dawley rats with dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and used immunocytochemistry to examine the number and distribution of enteric neurons at ti...

  9. Immunomodulators and Immunosuppressants for Japanese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Shigeki Bamba; Tomoyuki Tsujikawa; Masaya Sasaki; Yoshihide Fujiyama; Akira Andoh

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by a long-standing chronic course with remissions and exacerbations. Previously, patients do not respond to 5-aminosalicylic acid compounds and corticosteroids are considered for colectomies, however, in recent years, alternative treatments emerged for steroid-refractory or steroid-dependent UC. In this review article, we focus on immunomodulators (such as azathioprine [AZA] and 6-mercaptopurine [6-MP]) and immunosuppressants (such as cyclosporine A [C...

  10. Pseudomembranous collagenous colitis: an unusual cause of chronic diarrhoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan-Kheil, Ayisha Mehtab; Disney, Benjamin; Ruban, Ernie; Wood, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old woman presented with a history of severe chronic diarrhoea resulting in an admission with syncope and electrolyte abnormalities. Imaging studies of the bowel were normal. However, biopsies taken during colonoscopy enabled a diagnosis to be made and effective treatment to be initiated. This case report details the presentation, diagnosis and management of a rare injury pattern affecting the bowel: pseudomembranous collagenous colitis. PMID:24526204

  11. Two Cases of Diffuse Duodenitis Associated with Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Katsuya Endo; Masatake Kuroha; Hisashi Shiga; Yoichi Kakuta; Seiichi Takahashi; Yoshitaka Kinouchi; Tooru Shimosegawa

    2012-01-01

    The upper gastrointestinal tract is not generally considered a target organ in ulcerative colitis (UC). However, several cases showing upper gastrointestinal involvement in UC have been reported. In this report, we present 2 rare cases of diffuse duodenitis accompanying pancolonic UC. Case patient 1 was a 44-year-old man who developed diffuse duodenitis shortly after colectomy and was successfully treated with mesalazine. Case patient 2 was a 25-year-old woman who developed diffuse duodenitis...

  12. Specific endoscopic features of ulcerative colitis complicated by cytomegalovirus infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideyuki; Suzuki; Jun; Kato; Motoaki; Kuriyama; Sakiko; Hiraoka; Kenji; Kuwaki; Kazuhide; Yamamoto

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To identify specific colonoscopic findings in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) complicated by cyto-megalovirus (CMV) infection.METHODS: Among UC patients who were hospitalized due to exacerbation of symptoms, colonoscopic findings were compared between 15 CMV-positive patients and 58 CMV-negative patients. CMV infection was determined by blood test for CMV antigenemia. Five aspects of mucosal changes were analyzed (loss of vascular pattern, erythema, mucosal edema, easy bleeding, and mucinous exuda...

  13. Microscopic colitis as a missed cause of chronic diarrhea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nooroudien Mohamed; Monique Marais; Juanita Bezuidenhout

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To determine the prevalence of increased in-traepithelial lymphocytes, using immunohistochemistry in patients with normal colonoscopy and near normal biopsy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all non-malig-nant colon mucosal biopsies between 2005 and 2007, reported as normal, chronic inflammation or melanosis coli in patients who were undergoing routine colonos-copy. Immunohistochemistry using CD3 was performed on all mucosal biopsies and an intraepithelial lympho-cyte count (IEL) was determined. Cases with an IEL count of ≥ 20 IELs per 100 surface epithelial cells were correlated with demographic, clinical and follow-up data. A further subgroup was evaluated for lymphocytic colitis.RESULTS: Twenty (8.3%) of 241 cases revealed an IEL count ≥ 20. Six (2.5%) patients were identified as having lymphocytic colitis (P < 0.001), of whom, five were missed on initial evaluation (P = 0.01). Four of these five patients were labeled with diarrhea-predom-inant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). On follow-up, three of the remaining 20 cases were diagnosed with malignancy (renal cell carcinoma and myelodysplastic syndrome) and one had an unknown primary tumor with multiple liver metastases. Two cases of collag-enous colitis with an IEL count < 10 were included in this study. Increased IELs were not confined to pa-tients with diarrhea as a primary presenting symptom, but were also present in patients with abdominal pain (n = 7), constipation (n = 3) and loss of weight (n = 1). CONCLUSION: Immunohistochemistry using CD3 is of value in identifying and quantifying IELs for the pres-ence of microscopic colitis in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS.

  14. Increased Production of Lysozyme Associated with Bacterial Proliferation in Barrett's Esophagitis, Chronic Gastritis, Gluten-induced Atrophic Duodenitis (Celiac Disease), Lymphocytic Colitis, Collagenous Colitis, Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    The mucosa of the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine and rectum are unremittingly challenged by adverse micro-environmental factors, such as ingested pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria, and harsh secretions with digestive properties with disparate pH, as well as bacteria and secretions from upstream GI organs. Despite the apparently inauspicious mixture of secretions and bacteria, the normal GI mucosa retains a healthy state of cell renewal. To by-pass the tough microenvironment, the epithelia of the GI react by speeding-up cell exfoliation, by increasing peristalsis, eliminating bacteria through secretion of plasma cell-immunoglobulins and by increasing production of natural antibacterial enzymes (lysozyme) and host defense peptides (defensin-5). Lysozyme was recently found up-regulated in Barrett's esophagitis, in chronic gastritis, in gluten-induced atrophic duodenitis (celiac disease), in collagenous colitis, in lymphocytic colitis and in Crohn's colitis. This up-regulation is a response directed towards the special types of bacteria thriving in the microenvironment in each of the aforementioned clinical inflammatory maladies. The purpose of that up-regulation is to protect the mucosa affected by the ongoing chronic inflammation. Bacterial antibiotic resistance continues to exhaust our supply of effective antibiotics. The future challenge is how to solve the increasing menace of bacterial resistance to anti-bacterial drugs. Further research on natural anti-bacterial enzymes such as lysozyme, appears mandatory. PMID:26637845

  15. Protective Effect of Laminaria japonica with Probiotics on Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seok-Jae Ko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a chronically relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract. Most IBD treatments are unsatisfactory; therefore, various dietary supplements have emerged as promising interventions. Laminaria japonica (LJ is an edible seaweed used to regulate digestive symptoms. Probiotics have been reported to improve digestive problems and their simultaneous administration with seaweeds has been shown to produce synergistic therapeutic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of LJ combination with probiotics on dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model in mice. Aqueous LJ extracts (LJE at doses from 100 to 300 mg/kg and probiotics at a dose of 300 mg/kg were orally administered for 7 days. Body weight, colon length, histological score, macroscopic damage, and the levels of cytokines IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 (P40, IL-12 (P70, IL-17, and TNF-α were assessed. LJE alone caused a significant improvement of colitis signs such as colon length, histological score, and IL-1β and IL-6 production. LJE and probiotics demonstrated a synergistic effect by the histological score and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-12 (P40 but not IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-12 (P70. In conclusion, LJE was effective in inducing protection against colitis in mice and acted synergistically with probiotics.

  16. HSF2 expression in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Rong Zeng; Peng-Fei Chen; Wen-Bin Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the expression of HSF2 in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue and its value for diagnosis and assessment of the disease.Methods:A total of 40 cases with ulcerative colitis were included for study and divided into remission stage, mild activity stage, moderate activity stage and severe activity stage by Sutherland disease activity index. Lesion tissue and normal tissue were collected to detect HSFs, NOX1, ROS, COX2, PGE2, IL-6, JAK2, STAT3, TLRs and SOCSs contents.Results: HSF2 contents in lesion tissue were higher than those in normal tissue, and HSF1, HSF3 and HSF4 contents were not different from those of normal tissue; TLR2, TLR4, TLR5, MyD88, NF-kB, NOX1, ROS, COX2, PGE2, IL-6, JAK2 and STAT3 contents in lesion tissue were higher than those in normal tissue and positively correlated with HSF2 content; SOCS2 and SOCS3 contents in lesion tissue were lower than those in normal tissue and negatively correlated with HSF2 content, and SOCS1, SOCS4, SOCS5, SOCS6 and SOCS7 contents were not different from those of normal tissue.Conclusions:HSF2 expression abnormally increases in ulcerative colitis lesion tissue and is closely related to the activity of the disease, and HSF2 can regulate the expression of inflammatory signal molecules, TLRs and SOCSs to enhance inflammatory response.

  17. A Cytosolic Multiprotein Complex Containing p85α Is Required for β-Catenin Activation in Colitis and Colitis-associated Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goretsky, Tatiana; Bradford, Emily M; Ryu, Hyunji; Tahir, Maryam; Moyer, Mary Pat; Gao, Tianyan; Li, Linheng; Barrett, Terrence A

    2016-02-19

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling is required for crypt structure maintenance. We previously observed nuclear accumulation of Ser-552 phosphorylated β-catenin (pβ-Cat(Ser-552)) in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) during colitis and colitis-associated cancer. Data here delineate a novel multiprotein cytosolic complex (MCC) involved in β-catenin signaling in the intestine. The MCC contains p85α, the class IA subunit of PI3K, along with β-catenin, 14-3-3ζ, Akt, and p110α. MCC levels in IEC increase in colitis and colitis-associated cancer patients. IEC-specific p85α-deficient (p85(ΔIEC)) mice develop more severe dextran sodium sulfate colitis due to delayed ulcer healing and reduced epithelial β-catenin activation. In colonic IEC, p85α deficiency did not alter PI3K signaling. In vitro shRNA depletion of individual complex members disrupts the MCC and reduces β-catenin signaling. Despite worse colitis, p85(ΔIEC) mice have reduced tumor burden after azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate treatment. Together the data indicate that the β-catenin MCC is needed for mucosal repair and carcinogenesis. This novel MCC may be an attractive therapeutic target in preventing cancer in colitis patients.

  18. Comparative analysis of inflamed and non-inflamed colon biopsies reveals strong proteomic inflammation profile in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Nina Aagaard; Andersen, Vibeke; Moller, Jens Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Accurate diagnostic and monitoring tools for ulcerative colitis (UC) are missing. Our aim was to describe the proteomic profile of UC and search for markers associated with disease exacerbation. Therefore, we aimed to characterize specific proteins associated with inflamed colon mucosa...... from patients with acute UC using mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Methods: Biopsies were sampled from rectum, sigmoid colon and left colonic flexure from twenty patients with active proctosigmoiditis and from four healthy controls for proteomics and histology. Proteomic profiles of whole...... annotated by image analysis and 222 of these had a statistically different protein level between inflamed and non-inflamed tissue in the patient group. Principal component analysis clearly grouped non-inflamed samples separately from the inflamed samples indicating that the proteomic signature of colon...

  19. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  20. Autoimmunity in ulcerative colitis: humoral and cellular immune response bytropomyosin in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Geng; Masato Taniguchi; Hui Hui Dai; JJ-C Lin; Jim Lin; Kiron Moy Das

    2000-01-01

    AIM Autoimmunity has been emphasized in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). We reported thattropomyosin (TM) or TM related protein is a putative autoantigen in UC. In human fibroblast, at least 8isoforms of TM have been identified with molecular weight range from 30kD to 40kD, depending upon theisoforms, and human TM isoforms (hTM5) has been found the main isoform in human intestinal epithelialcells. In this study, hTM5 was used as a putative auto-antigen for the humoral and T cell immune responses inpatients with UC, Crohn's disease (CD) and healthy subjects (HS) as controls.METHODS Anti-bTM antibody was examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using human sera(UC 59, CD 28, HS 26) against hTM isoforms. The IFN-γ production by peripheral blood T cells followingstimulation by recombinant hTM5 was analyzed by ELISPOT assay.RESULTS Anti-hTM5 antibody (IgG1) was detected in 15/59 (25.4%) patients with UC, 3/28 (10.γ%)with CD, and 3/26 (11.5%) of HS. The OD value in UC was significantly higher than in CD and HS groups(P < 0.05; P < 0.01 respectively). Western blot analysis demonstrated immunoreactivity against hTM5 inseveral UC sera. ELISPOT assay demonstrated that IFN-γ production is significantly higher in UC (7/18),39.0%), compared with CD (0/8, 0%) and HS (0/7, 0%), (P<0.05).CONCLUSION A significantly higher immune response to hTM5 was present in UC compared to CD andHS. Further studies of the hTM5/peptides may provide immuno-biochemical mechanism of autoimmuneprocess in UC.

  1. Usefulness of colonoscopy in ischemic colitis Utilidad de la colonoscopia en la colitis isquémica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lozano Maya

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: the ischemic colitis is intestinal the most frequent cause of ischemia. With this work we determine the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the usefulness of the colonoscopy in the patients with ischemic colitis diagnosed in our centre in relation to a change of therapeutic attitude. Method: retrospective study in which were selected 112 patients diagnosed with ischemic colitis by colonoscopy and biopsy, in a period of five years. It was analyzed: age, sex, reason for examination, factors of cardiovascular risk, endoscopic degree of ischemia, change in the therapeutic attitude, treatment and outcome. Results: the average age was of 73.64 ± 12.10 years with an equal incidence in women (50.9% and the men (49.1%. The associated factors were the HTA (61.1%, tobacco (37.2% and antecedents of cardiovascular episode (52.2%. The most frequent reason for colonoscopy was rectorrhagia (53.6% followed of the abdominal pain (30.4%, being urgent the 65.3%. Colonoscopy allowed a change in the therapeutic attitude in the 50 increasing in the urgent one to the 65.75%. Global mortality was of 27.67%. The serious ischemic colitis (25% was more frequent in men (64.3% in urgent indication (85.71% and attends with high mortality (53.57%. Surgical treatment in the 57.14% was made with a good evolution in the 50%, whereas the patients with mild or moderate ischemic colitis had a better prognosis (favourable evolution in 80.95% with smaller requirement of the surgical treatment (4.76%, p Introducción: la colitis isquémica es la causa más frecuente de isquemia intestinal. Realizamos un estudio con el objetivo de analizar las características demográficas, clínicas y la utilidad de la colonoscopia en los pacientes diagnosticados de colitis isquémica en nuestro centro en relación a un cambio de actitud terapéutica. Método: estudio retrospectivo en el que se seleccionaron 112 pacientes diagnosticados de colitis isquémica mediante

  2. Effect of wall conditions on the self-limiting deposition of metal oxides by pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition has been engineered to deliver self-limiting growth (i.e., ∼A /pulse) of metal oxides such as Ta2O5 and Al2O3. In this process the reactor walls are alternately exposed to atomic oxygen and metal precursors. The degree of adsorption in the latter step can dramatically influence both deposition rates and film quality. The impact of precursor adsorption on the plasma and gas-phase composition in these systems was quantified using optical emission spectroscopy and quadrupole mass spectrometry, respectively. It is shown that the time scale for a complete adsorption on the chamber walls is much greater than gas-phase residence times. Adsorbed compounds significantly alter the reactor composition, particularly at the initiation of each plasma pulse. As a consequence, careful attention must be paid to reactor design and operation to control deposition rates and maintain film quality

  3. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Matuszyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  4. Can colonoscopy diagnose transmural ischaemic colitis after abdominal aortic surgery? An evidence-based approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, T; Thorböll, J E; Sigild, U;

    2000-01-01

    to assess the diagnostic value of colonoscopy in ischaemic colitis following abdominal aortic surgery, based on a literature review, and to introduce the concept of evidence-based medicine.......to assess the diagnostic value of colonoscopy in ischaemic colitis following abdominal aortic surgery, based on a literature review, and to introduce the concept of evidence-based medicine....

  5. Systemic lupus erythematosus in association with ulcerative colitis: related autoimmune diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, H P; Ostlere, L S; Rustin, M H

    1994-03-01

    We report a patient who developed urticaria, angio-oedema and polyarthropathy secondary to the hypocomplementaemic urticarial vasculitis syndrome, a year prior to the onset of ulcerative colitis. Ten years later, primary sclerosing cholangitis and the antiphospholipid syndrome developed concomitantly. We believe this patient represents only the second reported case of idiopathic systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) occurring in association with ulcerative colitis. PMID:8148283

  6. Retrospective analysis of old-age colitis in the Dutch inflammatory bowel disease population

    OpenAIRE

    Hadithi, M. al; Cazemier, M.; Meijer, G. A.; Bloemena, E.; Felt-Bersma, R.J.F.; Mulder, C. J. J.; Meuwissen, S G M; Pena, A S; Bodegraven, van, A.A.

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe the characteristics of Dutch patients with chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) first diagnosed above 60 years of age-a disease also known as old-age colitis (OAC) and to highlight a condition that has a similar appearance to IBD, namely segmental colitis associated with diverticular disease (SCAD).

  7. Efficacy of Adalimumab as a long term maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McDermott, Edel

    2013-03-01

    Adalimumab is a recombinant human IgG1 monoclonal antibody to TNF-alpha. There are limited data with regard to its efficacy in ulcerative colitis. We report experience of adalimumab in ulcerative colitis in a single centre with a focus on the ability of this agent to maintain response and avoid colectomy in the medium to long-term.

  8. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  9. Critical appraisal of the current practice in murine TNBS-induced colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.T. Velde; M.I. Verstege; D.W. Hommes

    2006-01-01

    There is no standard practice in the induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. In this review the current practice in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis is studied using 20 recently published articles. We compare the different protocols, discuss the mechanism of disease a

  10. Safety and efficacy of Profermin(R) to induce remission in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krag, Aleksander; Israelsen, Hans; von Ryberg, Bjørn;

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To test the efficacy and safety of Profermin(R) in inducing remission in patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: The study included 39 patients with mild to moderate UC defined as a Simple Clinical Colitis Activity Index (SCCAI) > 4 and < 12 (median: 7.5), who were treated ope...

  11. Concurrent Ulcerative Colitis and Neurofibromatosis Type 1: The Question of a Common Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William; Mitchell, Lisa; Candelaria-Santiago, Roberto; Hefner, Jody; Gramling, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    Patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) are prone to the development of gastrointestinal stromal tumors, which may present clinically with hematochezia, obstruction, or abdominal pain. These symptoms are also commonly associated with the presentation of ulcerative colitis (UC). Within the past 5 years, there have been 2 reports of concurrent NF1 and UC and a common pathophysiologic pathway involving mast cells has been postulated. We present the case of a 15-year-old boy with a known history of NF1 who presented with 3 months of hematochezia and loose stools. A colonoscopy revealed pancolitis and histology demonstrating acute cryptitis, focal crypt abscesses, and architectural distortion consistent with UC. Due to the paucity of reported cases, the findings of both diseases in the same individual could reasonably be discounted as coincidence. However, in light of increasing reports of concurrent NF1 and UC, advances in characterizing the microenvironment within neurofibromas, and recent findings regarding potential shared genetic susceptibility, it is increasingly possible that the proposed common pathway is accurate. Our case adds to the literature and underscores the need for further investigation. PMID:26823541

  12. Ischemic colitis due to obstruction of mesenteric and splenic veins: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Seong-Su Hwang; Woo-Chul Chung; Kang-Moon Lee; Hyun-Jin Kim; Chang-Nyol Paik; Jin-Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic injury to the bowel is a well known disease entity that has a wide spectrum of pathological and clinical findings. A sudden drop in the colonic blood supply is essential to its development. We encountered a 41-year-old male patient, who presented with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. A colonoscopy showed markedly edematous mucosa with tortuous dilatation of the veins and a deep ulceration at the rectosigmoid junction. On an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan and CT angiography, the mesenteric and splenic veins were absent with numerous venous collaterals for drainage. The patient gradually responded to oral aminosalicylate therapy, and was in remission after nine months. In most cases, non-occlusive ischemic injury is caused by idiopathic form and occlusive ischemia is caused by abnormalities of arteries and acute venous thrombosis. However, chronic venous insufficiency due to obstruction of macrovascular mesenteric vein rarely causes ischemia of the bowel. This report describes the first case of ischemic colitis caused by obstruction of the mesenteric and splenic veins.

  13. Fatal ulcerative colitis in a western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lankester, F; Mätz-Rensing, K; Kiyang, J; Jensen, S A; Weiss, S; Leendertz, F H

    2008-12-01

    A captive western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) presented with watery diarrhoea that progressed to become profuse and haemorrhagic. Faecal analyses revealed Balantidium (B.) coli trophozoites and salmonella-like bacteria. Despite treatment the gorilla died on the 5th day after onset of symptoms. Post-mortem examination revealed a severe erosive-ulcerative superficial and deep colitis. Histological examination of post-mortem samples of the colon showed plentiful B. coli invading into the mucosa and submucosa, whilst PCR screening of bacterial DNA could not confirm any bacteria species which could be connected to the clinical picture. As B. coli is usually a non-pathogenic gut commensal, and as this animal previously showed evidence of non-symptomatic infection of B. coli, it is possible that the switch in pathogenicity was triggered by an acute bacterial infection. Despite successful treatment of the bacterial infection the secondary deep invasion of B. coli was not reversed, possibly because of the failure of the treatment regimen, and led to the death of the gorilla. PMID:18466283

  14. The first case of antibiotic-associated colitis by Clostridium difficile PCR ribotype 027 in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tae, Chung Hyun; Jung, Sung-Ae; Song, Hyun Joo; Kim, Seong-Eun; Choi, Hee Jung; Lee, Miae; Hwang, Yusun; Kim, Heejung; Lee, Kyungwon

    2009-06-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a common causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) ranges from mild diarrhea to life threatening PMC. Recently, a highly virulent strain of C. difficile polymerase chain reaction ribotype 027 was found in North America, Europe, and Japan. A 52-yr-old woman with anti-tuberculosis medication and neurogenic bladder due to traffic accident experienced five episodes of C. difficile PMC after taking antibiotics for pneumonia along with septic shock and acute renal failure. She was readmitted to the intensive care unit and treated with oral vancomycin with refractory of oral metronidazole, inotropics and probiotics for over 60 days. C. difficile isolated both at the first and the last admission was identified as C. difficile ribotype 027 by ribotyping, toxinotyping, and tcdC gene sequencing, which turned out the same pathogen as the epidemic hypervirulent B1/NAP1 strain. This is the first case of C. difficile PCR ribotype 027 in Korea. After discharge, she was maintained on probiotics and rifaximin for 3 weeks. She had no relapse for 6 months. PMID:19543521

  15. Reduction of dendritic cells by granulocyte and monocyte adsorption apheresis in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitz, Grit; Petermann, Sebastian; Liebe, Stefan; Emmrich, Joerg; Ramlow, Wolfgang

    2008-09-01

    The influence of the granulocyte/monocyte apheresis (GMCAP) on cell populations participating in mechanisms of tolerance, e.g. dendritic cells (DCs), is still not very clear. In a first step, we aimed to investigate changes in the DC population of patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 13) compared to healthy subjects (n = 9). In a second step, we studied the changes in peripheral DCs in a small group of patients with active UC before and after Adacolumn apheresis (n = 7). For this purpose, plasmacytoid and myeloid DCs and their maturation markers CD40, CD80, and CD86 were measured using four-color flow cytometry in the peripheral blood. After apheresis, and in acute flare-ups, we identified a significantly lower number of lymphocytes, plasmacytoid, and myeloid DCs. In conclusion, the additional removal of peripheral DCs by GMCAP, which otherwise would contribute to the inflammatory process in the gut, may lead to a higher tolerogeneic status towards luminal antigens. PMID:18253828

  16. Right dorsal colitis in the horse: minireview and reports on three cases in Ireland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galvin Noreen

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Right dorsal colitis (RDC is an ulcerative inflammatory bowel disorder of the horse that has been associated with the administration of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs, particularly in horses treated when dehydrated or toxaemic. The acute form of RDC may result in profuse diarrhoea, severe colic, dehydration, endotoxic shock and even death; the chronic form may be manifest by mild to moderate intermittent colic, ventral oedema and weight loss with or without diarrhoea. The most consistent laboratory findings are anaemia, hypoproteinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia and hypocalcaemia. Medical management of RDC requires avoidance of NSAIDs, of stressful experiences and of large-volume diets. Specific medications such as sucralfate and metronidazole have been used to treat RDC in the horse. The use of dietary additions such as psyllium and corn oil has been mentioned in the literature. RDC has not been reported previously in Ireland or Britain; here we report that the condition was diagnosed in three horses in Ireland on the bases of a history of phenylbutazone therapy, clinical signs, clinical pathology and ultrasonography. In two of the three horses the diagnosis was confirmed by direct inspection of the affected colon at celiotomy.

  17. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  18. Cellular localization, binding sites, and pharmacologic effects of TFF3 in experimental colitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellev, Stine; Thim, Lars; Pyke, Charles;

    2007-01-01

    the effect of TFF3 on dextrane sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Expression of endogenous TFF1-3 was examined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, and the distribution of intravenously, intraperitoneally, and subcutaneously administered (125)I-TFF3 by autoradiography and gamma......-counting. The effect of systemically administered TFF3 on DSS-induced colitis was assessed. We found increased expression of endogenous TFF3 and increased binding of injected (125)I-TFF3 in the colon of animals with DSS-induced colitis. The distribution of intraperitoneally and subcutaneously administered (125)I-TFF3...... was comparable. Systemic administration of the peptides reduced the severity of colitis. Expression of endogenous TFF3 and binding of systemically administered TFF3 are increased in DSS-induced colitis. Systemic administration of TFF3 attenuates the disease. These findings suggest a role of TFF3 in mucosal...

  19. Relationship between Mast Cells and the Colitis with Relapse Induced by Trinitrobenzesulphonic Acid in Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Luchini

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to clarify the role of mast cells in colitis with relapse induced in Wistar rats by trinitrobenzenosulphonic acid. Colitis induction increased the histamine concentration in the colon, which peaked on day 26. The number of mast cells, probably immature, was ten times higher on day 8. Different from animals infected with intestinal parasites, after colitis remission, mast cells do not migrate to the spleen, showing that mast cell proliferation presents different characteristics depending on the inflammation stimuli. Treatment with sulfasalazine, doxantrazole, quercetin, or nedocromil did not increase the histamine concentration or the mast cell number in the colon on day 26, thereby showing absence of degranulation of these cells. In conclusion, although mast cell proliferation is associated with colitis, these cells and their mediators appear to play no clear role in the colitis with relapses.

  20. Encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by a viral infection in an immunocompetent young adult: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khattab Mahmoud

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cytomegalovirus generally causes self-limited, mild and asymptomatic infections in immunocompetent patients. An aggressive course in immunocompetent healthy patients is unusual. Case presentation We report the case of an immunocompetent 16-year-old Egyptian boy with encephalitis, acute renal failure, and acute hepatitis triggered by viral infection with a complete recovery following antiviral treatment. Conclusion We believe that this case adds to the understanding of the molecular biology, clinical presentation and increasing index of suspicion of many viral infections.

  1. Intestine-Specific Mttp Deletion Increases the Severity of Experimental Colitis and Leads to Greater Tumor Burden in a Model of Colitis Associated Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Xie; Hitoshi Matsumoto; Ilke Nalbantoglu; Kerr, Thomas A.; Jianyang Luo; Rubin, Deborah C; Susan Kennedy; Davidson, Nicholas O.

    2013-01-01

    Background Gut derived lipid factors have been implicated in systemic injury and inflammation but the precise pathways involved are unknown. In addition, dietary fat intake and obesity are independent risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer. Here we studied the severity of experimental colitis and the development of colitis associated cancer (CAC) in mice with an inducible block in chylomicron secretion and fat malabsorption, following intestine-specific deletion of microsomal t...

  2. Light-emitting diodes at 940nm attenuate colitis-induced inflammatory process in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belém, Mônica O; de Andrade, Giovana M M; Carlos, Thalita M; Guazelli, Carla F S; Fattori, Victor; Toginho Filho, Dari O; Dias, Ivan F L; Verri, Waldiceu A; Araújo, Eduardo J A

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) presents intense inflammatory infiltrate, crypt abscesses, ulceration and even loss of function. Despite the clinical relevance of IBD, its current therapy remains poorly effective. Infrared wavelength phototherapy shows therapeutic potential on inflammation. Our goal was to evaluate whether light-emitting diodes (LED) at 940nm are capable of mitigating the colitis-induced inflammatory process in mice. Forty male Swiss mice were assigned into five groups: control; control treated with LED therapy; colitis without treatment; colitis treated with LED therapy; colitis treated with Prednisolone. Experimental colitis was induced by acetic acid 7.5% (pH2.5) rectal administration. LED therapy was performed with light characterized by wavelength of 940nm, 45nm bandwidth, intensity of 4.05J/cm(2), total power of 270mW and total dose of 64.8J for 4min in a single application. Colitis-induced intestinal transit delay was inhibited by LED therapy. Colitis caused an increase of colon dimensions (length, diameter, total area) and colon weight (edema), which were inhibited by LED therapy. LED therapy also decreased colitis-induced tissue gross lesion, myeloperoxidase activity, microscopic tissue damage score and the presence of inflammatory infiltrate in all intestinal layers. Furthermore, LED therapy inhibited colitis-induced IL-1β, TNF-α, and IL-6 production. We conclude LED therapy at 940nm inhibited experimental colitis-induced colon inflammation in mice, therefore, rendering it a promising therapeutic approach that deserves further investigation. PMID:27424097

  3. Andrographis paniculata Extract (HMPL-004) for Active Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandborn, William J; Targan, Stephan R; Byers, Vera S; Rutty, Dean A; Mu, Hua; Zhang, Xun; Tang, Tom

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Andrographis paniculata has in vitro inhibitory activity against TNF-α, IL-1β and NF-κB. A pilot study of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) suggested similar efficacy to mesalamine for ulcerative colitis. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy of A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) in 224 adults with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis. Patients were randomized to A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) 1,200 mg or 1,800 mg daily or placebo for 8 weeks. RESULTS: In total, 45 and 60% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical response at week 8, compared with 40% of those who received placebo (P=0.5924 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.0183 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). In all, 34 and 38% of patients receiving A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily, respectively, were in clinical remission at week 8, compared with 25% of those who received placebo (P=0.2582 for 1,200 mg vs. placebo and P=0.1011 for 1,800 mg vs. placebo). Adverse events developed in 60 and 53% of patients in the A. paniculata 1,200 mg and 1,800 mg daily groups, respectively, and 60% in the placebo group. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mildly to moderately active ulcerative colitis treated with A. paniculata extract (HMPL-004) at a dose of 1,800 mg daily were more likely to achieve clinical response than those receiving placebo. PMID:23044768

  4. Anal transition zone in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Holder-Murray; Alessandro Fichera

    2009-01-01

    Preservation of the anal transition zone has long been a significant source of controversy in the surgical management of ulcerative colitis. The two techniques for restorative proctocolectomy and ileal pouch anal anastomosis (RPC IPAA) in common practice are a stapled anastomosis and a handsewn anastomosis;these techniques differ in the amount of remaining rectal mucosa and therefore the presence of the anal transition zone following surgery. Each technique has advantages and disadvantages in long-term functional outcomes, operative and postoperative complications, and risk of neoplasia. Therefore, we propose a selective approach to performing a stapled RPC IPAA based on the presence of dysplasia in the preoperative endoscopic evaluation.

  5. Increased levels of homocysteine in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabiye; Akbulut; Emin; Altiparmak; Firdevs; Topal; Ersan; Ozaslan; Metin; Kucukazman; Ozlem; Yonem

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate serum levels of homocysteine (Hcys) and the risk that altered levels carry for thrombosis development in ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. METHODS: 55 UC patients and 45 healthy adults were included. Hcys, vitamin B12 and folic acid levels were measured in both groups. Clinical history and thrombo- embolic events were investigated. RESULTS: The average Hcys level in the UC patients was 13.3 ± 1.93 μmmol/L (range 4.60-87) and was higher than the average Hcys level of the control group whi...

  6. Fecal Calprotectin and Clinical Disease Activity in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaija-Leena Kolho; Dan Turner

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To explore fecal calprotectin levels in pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) in relation with the validated clinical activity index PUCAI. Methods. This study included all 37 children (median age 14 years) with UC who had calprotectin measured (PhiCal ELISA Test) by the time of PUCAI assessment at the Children's Hospital of Helsinki in a total of 62 visits. Calprotectin values 1000  μ g/g). The best cut-off value for calprotectin for predicting poor outcome was 800  μ g/g (sensitivity...

  7. Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitor C75 Ameliorates Experimental Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuo, Shingo; Yang, Weng-Lang; Aziz, Monowar; Kameoka, Shingo; Wang, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Abnormalities of lipid metabolism through overexpression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), which catalyzes the formation of long-chain fatty acids, are associated with the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C75 is a synthetic α-methylene-γ-butyrolactone compound that inhibits FASN activity. We hypothesized that C75 treatment could effectively reduce the severity of experimental colitis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 7 d. C75 (5 mg/kg body weight) or...

  8. Processed coffee alleviates DSS-induced colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd L. Fiebich

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Coffee is one of the most widely consumed beverages in the world and it has been demonstrated that it has important therapeutic activities not only because of its caffeine content but also owing to the presence of other biologically active small molecules such as chlorogenic acid, trigonelline and cyclopentadiones. However, chlorogenic acid is degraded into catechol, pyrogallol and hydroxyhydroquinone, which are thought to induce irritation of the gastric mucosa. To reduce the content of irritant compounds processing methods have been developed prior to roasting the coffee beans.Objectives: The aim of this study was to study the anti-inflammatory and gastro-protective effects of processed coffee (Idee-Kaffee on in LPS-treated human primary monocytes and in a murine model of colon inflammation (IBD model.Results: In this study we have analyzed the effects on inflammatory events in cultured cells and in mice drinking a commercially available processed coffee. The processed coffee inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1, tumor necrosis factor (TNF, IL-6 and IL-8, and other inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin (PGE2 and 8-isoprostane in cultured human primary monocytes. Oral administration of dissolved processed coffee, i.e., in its usual beverage form, improved greatly the adverse macroscopic and histological features of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis in mice in a dose-dependent manner. Processed coffee not only largely prevented DSS-induced colitis but also dramatically suppressed in vivo NF-B and STAT3 activities through inhibition of IB and STAT3 phosphorylation. Furthermore, this solubleFunctional Foods in Health and Disease 2013; 3(5:133-145coffee bean extract reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines TNF, IL-11, and IL-6 and the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX-2 in colonic tissues.Conclusions: This work identified

  9. The Rhizome Mixture of Anemarrhena asphodeloides and Coptis chinensis Attenuates Mesalazine-Resistant Colitis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Min Lim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of DWac on the gut microbiota composition in mice with 2,3,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS- induced colitis. Treatment with DWac restored TNBS-disturbed gut microbiota composition and attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, we examined the effect of DWac in mice with mesalazine-resistant colitis (MRC. Intrarectal injection of TNBS in MRC mice caused severe colitis, as well as colon shortening, edema, and increased myeloperoxidase activity. Treatment with mesalazine (30 mg/kg did not attenuate TNBS-induced colitis in MRC mice, whereas treatment with DWac (30 mg/kg significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis. Moreover, treatment with the mixture of mesalazine (15 mg/kg and DWac (15 mg/kg additively attenuated colitis in MRC mice. Treatment with DWac and its mixture with mesalazine inhibited TNBS-induced activation of NF-κB and expression of M1 macrophage markers but increased TNBS-suppressed expression of M2 macrophage markers. Furthermore, these inhibited TNBS-induced T-bet, RORγt, TNF-α, and IL-17 expression but increased TNBS-suppressed Foxp3 and IL-10 expression. However, Th2 cell differentiation and GATA3 and IL-5 expression were not affected. These findings suggest that DWac can ameliorate MRC by increasing the polarization of M2 macrophage and correcting the disturbance of gut microbiota and Th1/Th17/Treg, as well as additively attenuating MRC along with mesalazine.

  10. NKT cells mediate the recruitment of neutrophils by stimulating epithelial chemokine secretion during colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Enyu; Liu, Ronghua; Lu, Zhou; Liu, Jiajing; Liu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Dan; Chu, Yiwei

    2016-05-27

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a kind of inflammatory bowel diseases characterized by chronic inflammation and ulcer in colon, and UC patients have increased risk of getting colorectal cancer. NKT cells are cells that express both NK cell markers and semi-invariant CD1d-restricted TCRs, can regulate immune responses via secreting a variety of cytokines upon activation. In our research, we found that the NKT cell-deficient CD1d(-/-) mice had relieved colitis in the DSS-induced colitis model. Further investigations revealed that the colon of CD1d(-/-) mice expressed less neutrophil-attracting chemokine CXCL 1, 2 and 3, and had decreased neutrophil infiltration. Infiltrated neutrophils also produced less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and TNF-α, indicating they may cause less epithelial damage. In addition, colitis-associated colorectal cancer was also relieved in CD1d(-/-) mice. During colitis, NKT cells strongly expressed TNF-α, which could stimulate CXCL 1, 2, 3 expressions by the epithelium. In conclusion, NKT cells can regulate colitis via the NKT cell-epithelium-neutrophil axis. Targeting this mechanism may help to improve the therapy of UC and prevent colitis-associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27063801

  11. Involvement of lymphocytes in dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tae Woon Kim; Jae Nam Seo; Young Ho Suh; Hyo Jin Park; Ju Hyun Kim; Ji Young Kim; Kwon Tk Oh

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the roles of lymphocytes in the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.METHODS: Using various doses of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), we induced colitis in wild-type B6control and Rag-1 knockout (H-2b haplotype) mice,and evaluated the colitis in terms of symptomatic and histologic parameters, such as weight loss, survival,severity of diarrhea, shortage of colon length and histological changes. Symptomatic parameters were checked daily and histological changes were scored.RESULTS: Although development of colitis in Rag-1knockout mice treated with high dose (5%) of DSS was comparable to that in B6 control mice, colitis progression was much more tolerable in Rag-1 knockout mice compared to than in B6 mice treated with low dose (1.5%)DSS. Symptomatic parameters as well as histopathologic changes were improved in Rag-1 knockout mice.CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the presence of lymphocytes contributes to colitis progression at low dose of DSS stimulation. Lymphocytes may play roles as an aggravating factor in DSS-induced colitis.

  12. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor overexpression in ischemic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomoyuki Okuda; Takeshi Azuma; Masahiro Ohtani; Ryuho Masaki; Yoshiyuki Ito; Yukinao Yamazaki; Shigeji Ito; Masaru Kuriyama

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the etiology and pathophysiology in human ischemic colitis from the viewpoint of ischemic favors such as hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).METHODS: Thirteen patients with ischemic colitis and 21 normal controls underwent colonoscopy. The follow-up colonoscopy was performed in 8 patients at 7 to 10 d after theoccurrence of ischemic colitis. Biopsy samples were subjected to real-time RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry to detect the expression of HIF-1 alpha and VEGF.RESULTS: HIF-1 alpha and VEGF expression were found in the normal colon tissues by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.HIF-1 alpha and VEGF were overexpressed in the lesions of ischemic colitis. Overexpressed HIF-1 alpha and VEGF RNA quickly decreased to the normal level in the scar regions at 7 to 10 d after the occurrence of ischemic colitis.CONCLUSION: Constant expression of HIF-1 alpha and VEGF in normal human colon tissue suggested that HIF-1alpha and VEGF play an important role in maintaining tissue integrity. We confirmed the ischemic crisis in ischemic colitis at the molecular level, demonstrating overexpression of HIF-1 alpha and VEGF in ischemic lesions. These ischemic factors may play an important role in the pathophysiology of ischemic colitis.

  13. Effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on dextran sulfate sodium colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Yue; Zhe Shen; Chao-Hui Yu; Hua Ye; Yue-Fang Ye; You-Ming Li

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the concomitant effects of appendectomy and oral tolerance on colitis. METHODS: Delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) was investigated at a 7-d interval after ovalbumin (OVA) administration and immunization under normal and colitis conditions in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Pathological scores for the colon were graded after ingestion of colon-extracted protein (CEP) and induction of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in appendectomized or sham-operated mice. Thereafter, Th1 and Th2 in Peyer's patches and spleen lymphocytes were detected in CEP-treated and bovine serum albumin (BSA)-treated control mice. RESULTS: In appendectomized mice, DTH was not inhibited at day 7 after OVA administration and at the initial phase of DSS colitis, whereas it was inhibited at day 14 and day 21. However, in sham-operated mice, it was inhibited during the whole procedure and the onset of DSS colitis. The protective role of CEP against DSS colitis was present in sham-operated mice, with predominant improvement of colonic pathological changes, while vanished in the appendectomized mice. A shift from Th1 to Th2 in Peyer's patches resulted from a decrease of Th1 cells with the ingestion of CEP. Compared with BSA in the sham-operated group, no predominant changes were observed in the appendectomized mice. CONCLUSION: Appendectomy interferes with the protective role of CEP in DSS colitis via a shift from Th2 to Th1 during oral tolerance induction.

  14. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis. PMID:27598133

  15. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis > Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  16. Negative regulation of DSS-induced experimental colitis by PILRα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Kazuki; Kohyama, Masako; Kurashima, Yosuke; Kogure, Yuta; Wang, Jing; Hirayasu, Kouyuki; Suenaga, Tadahiro; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Kunisawa, Jun; Arase, Hisashi

    2015-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be a complex multifactorial disease, in which an increased inflammatory response plays an important role. Paired immunoglobulin-like type 2 receptor α (PILRα), well conserved in almost all mammals, is an inhibitory receptor containing immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motifs in the cytoplasmic domain. PILRα is mainly expressed on myeloid cells and plays an important role in the regulation of inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the function of PILRα in inflammatory bowel disease using PILRα-deficient mice. When mice were orally administered dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), colonic mucosal injury and inflammation were significantly exacerbated in DSS-treated PILRα-deficient mice compared with wild-type (WT) mice. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that neutrophil and macrophage cell numbers were higher in the colons of DSS-treated PILRα-deficient mice than in those of WT mice. Blockade of CXCR2 expressed on neutrophils using a CXCR2 inhibitor decreased the severity of colitis observed in PILRα-deficient mice. These results suggest that PILRα negatively regulates inflammatory colitis by regulating the infiltration of inflammatory cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

  17. Optimal management of steroid-dependent ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan HMW

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hafiz M Waqas Khan,1 Faisal Mehmood,1 Nabeel Khan2 1Department of Medicine, King Edward Medical University, Lahore, Pakistan; 2Section of Gastroenterology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia VA Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is variable in both extent and severity of disease as well as response to therapy. Corticosteroids (CSs were the first drugs used in the management of UC and are still used for induction of remission. However, because of their extensive side-effect profile, they are not utilized for maintenance of remission. In view of this, CS-free remission has become an important end point while evaluating therapeutic agents used in the management of UC. This review highlights the results of various studies conducted to evaluate the efficacy of different medications to attain CS-free remission in the setting of active UC. The drugs reviewed include established agents such as thiopurines, methotrexate, infliximab, adalimumab, vedolizumab, golimumab, and newer experimental agents, and if all else fails, colectomy will be performed. The efficacy of these drugs is evaluated individually. Our aim is to provide a synopsis of the work done in this field to date. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, steroid dependent, thiopurines, MTX, adalimumab, infliximab

  18. Benign retroperitoneal schwannoma presenting as colitis: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of a patient presenting with clinical, radiological and endoscopic features of colitis due to a compressive left para-aortic mass. Total open surgical excision was performed, which resulted in complete resolution of colitis. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry revealed benign retroperitoneal schwannoma. These neural sheath tumors rarely occur in the retroperitoneum. They are usually asymptomatic but as they enlarge they may compress adjacent structures, which leads to a wide spectrum of nonspecific symptoms, including lumbar pain, headache, secondary hypertension, abdominal pain and renal colicky pain. CT and MR findings show characteristic features, but none are specific. Schwannoma can be isolated sporadic lesions, or associated with schwannomatosis or neurofibromatosis type Ⅱ (NF2). Although they vary in biological and clinical behavior, their presence is, in nearly every case, due to alterations or absence of the NF2 gene, which is involved in the growth regulation of Schwann cells. Both conditions were excluded by thorough mutation analysis. Diagnosis is based on histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry. Total excision is therapeutic and has a good prognosis. Schwannomatosis and NF2 should be excluded through clinical diagnostic criteria. Genetic testing of NF2 is probably not justified in the presence of a solitary retroperitoneal schwannoma.

  19. Diagnostic Value of Fecal Calprotectin in Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, Hamed; Barzin, Gilda; Yousefinia, Mahsa; Mohammadkhani, Ashraf; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Amir Houshang; Tayebi, Sirous; Malekzadeh, Reza; Ansari, Reza

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by recurrent episodes of inflammation limited to the mucosal layer of the colon. Calprotectin is a zinc and calcium binding protein derived from neutrophils and monocytes. It is easily detectable in tissue samples, body fluids, and stools, which makes it a potentially valuable marker of inflammation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the value of fecal calprotectin (FC) as a marker of disease activity in patients with UC. METHODS Seventy three eligible subjects underwent ileocolonoscopy and multiple biopsies were obtained from different parts of the colon and terminal ileum. All patients underwent blood and stool sampling as well as an interview to assess the disease severity utilizing ulcerative colitis activity index (UCAI), subjectively. The diagnostic value of the FC in comparison with Mayo disease activity index as the gold standard technique, was then evaluated. RESULTS Mean FC level increased linearly according to Mayo disease activity index (r=0.44, p 21.4 ng/ml was able to discriminate between active and inactive phases of UC according to Mayo disease activity index>2 with 72.3% sensitivity and 73.1% specificity. The combination of FC > 21.4 ng/ml and UCAI score of 7 had a 46.8% sensitivity and 88% specificity to diagnose Mayo disease activity index >2. Furthermore, FC level 2. PMID:24829673

  20. [Association between ulcerative colitis and primary esclerosing cholangitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar Sanchez, Victor; Guzman Rojas, Patricia; Bravo Paredes, Eduar; Rios Perez, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative Colitis (UC) is associated to Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC) in 80% of cases, and this association is more common than the one with Crohn’s disease. Nevertheless, the prevalence of PSC in patients with UC is only 2.9% in Latin America. We present the case of a female patient who presents a clinical history characterized for chronic diarrhea of one year of evolution, associated to fever, oral ulcers and loss of weight. In the laboratory results there is an elevation in the following: alkaline phosphatase, GGT, ALT and AST, for that reason we decide to do an abdominal ultrasound finding a hepatomegaly. In the colonoscopy we found an ulcerative colitis. Later, we do a magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography, because of the diagnosis of UC and the abnormalities at the liver function tests, diagnosing PSC associated to UC. At that moment, the patient starts treatment with sulfasalazine that is stopped because of an adverse effect, starting prednisone and azathioprine. The patient then is discharged with the medication already mentioned and has a favorable clinical outcome. We decide to report the case because is the second reported case in Peru, being this association not commonly found in the South hemispheric. PMID:27409097

  1. Two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents two cases of rectal cancer accompanied with radiation colitis. Case 1 was a 53-year-old woman, who had a history of undergoing radiation therapy for a uterine cervical cancer 11 years before. She was seen at the hospital because of constipation and pointed out a IIa-like lesion on the rectum by colonoscopy. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. The surgical specimen showed the IIa-like lesion on the rectum. Pathological findings revealed well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemical staining of p53 showed positive cells in atrophic glands. Case 2 was a 62-year-old woman complaining of diarrhea. There was a previous history of receiving radiation therapy for a uterine cancer 20 years before. Colonoscopy showed a Borrmann type 2 cancer on the rectum. Abdominoperineal resection was performed. Histological findings revealed moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma invading to the propria muscle. The features of radiation colitis were observed around the cancer in the two cases which provided a clue to diagnose the lesions with radiation-induced cancer. (author)

  2. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang B. Gaertner

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal. The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders. Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48 months.

  3. Cellulose supplementation early in life ameliorates colitis in adult mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorottya Nagy-Szakal

    Full Text Available Decreased consumption of dietary fibers, such as cellulose, has been proposed to promote the emergence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD: Crohn disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC] where intestinal microbes are recognized to play an etiologic role. However, it is not known if transient fiber consumption during critical developmental periods may prevent consecutive intestinal inflammation. The incidence of IBD peaks in young adulthood indicating that pediatric environmental exposures may be important in the etiology of this disease group. We studied the effects of transient dietary cellulose supplementation on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS colitis susceptibility during the pediatric period in mice. Cellulose supplementation stimulated substantial shifts in the colonic mucosal microbiome. Several bacterial taxa decreased in relative abundance (e.g., Coriobacteriaceae [p = 0.001], and other taxa increased in abundance (e.g., Peptostreptococcaceae [p = 0.008] and Clostridiaceae [p = 0.048]. Some of these shifts persisted for 10 days following the cessation of cellulose supplementation. The changes in the gut microbiome were associated with transient trophic and anticolitic effects 10 days following the cessation of a cellulose-enriched diet, but these changes diminished by 40 days following reversal to a low cellulose diet. These findings emphasize the transient protective effect of dietary cellulose in the mammalian large bowel and highlight the potential role of dietary fibers in amelioration of intestinal inflammation.

  4. Acute bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Getachew; Gattu, Rajender; Brown, Reginald

    2013-10-01

    Bronchiolitis is the most common lower respiratory tract infection to affect infants and toddlers. High-risk patients include infants younger than 3 months, premature infants, children with immunodeficiency, children with underlying cardiopulmonary or neuromuscular disease, or infants prone to apnea, severe respiratory distress, and respiratory failure. Bronchiolitis is a self-limited disease in healthy infants and children. Treatment is usually symptomatic, and the goal of therapy is to maintain adequate oxygenation and hydration. Use of a high-flow nasal cannula is becoming common for children with severe bronchiolitis.

  5. Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Inonotus obliquus in Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Se Young Choi; Sun Jin Hur; Chi Sun An; Yun Hui Jeon; Young Jun Jeoung; Jong Phil Bak; Beong Ou Lim

    2010-01-01

    A total of 28 male BALB/c mice (average weight 20.7 ± 1.6 g) were divided into 4 treatment groups and fed a commercial diet (A), a commercial diet + induced colitis by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (B), Inonotus obliquus (IO) administration (C), and IO administration + induced colitis by DSS (D). IO treatment (C, D) decreased the expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT)1 compared to those of the colitis induced group (B). The exp...

  6. Ischemic colitis associated with intestinal vasculitis: Histological proof in systemic lupus erythematosus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Rok Lee; Chang Nyol Paik; Jin Dong Kim; Woo Chul Chung; Kang-Moon Lee; Jin Mo Yang

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is an uncommon complication in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SIE). In previously reported cases of colitis caused by SLE, intestinal vasculitis is implicated as the causative process, but is rarely confirmed histologically. We described a case of a 32-year-old man with increased activity of SLE, who presented with hematochezia and abdominal pain due to ischemic colitis with small vessel vasculitis which was proven by sigmoidoscopic biopsy. The clinical course of the patient was improved after steroid and conservative management.

  7. A unique case of collagenous colitis presenting as protein-losing enteropathy successfully treated with prednisolone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Soichi Sano; Katsunobu Yoshioka; Keiko Yamagami; Ayako Tanaka; Minako Nishio; Tomoyuki Nakamura; Yuki Kubo; Takeshi Inoue; Wataru Ueda; Kiyotaka Okawa

    2008-01-01

    A 76-year-old woman with a 5-mo history of recurrent diarrhea and generalized edema was admitted to our hospital. Colonoscopy revealed edematous mucosa, and histopathological examination was compatible with collagenous colitis. Protein leakage from the colon, particularly in the ascending portion, was identified on 99mTc-human serum albumin scintigraphy. Collagenous colitis associated with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) without small bowel disease was diagnosed. Prednisolone treatment ameliorated diarrhea and hypoproteinemia. Collagenous colitis should be included in the differential diagnosis of chronic diarrhea with hypoproteinemia for appropriate management.

  8. Anti-inflammatory efficiency of levobupivacaine in an experimental colitis model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ugur; Duman; Aysun; Yilmazlar; Ersin; Ozturk; Sibel; Aker

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the efficiency of levobupivacaine in treating experimentally induced colitis in rats.METHODS:Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and ethanol in 30 rats under general anesthesia,and 10 rats were used as a sham group.Subsequent to induction of colitis,rats were divided into three groups;budesonide group received 0.1 mg/kg budesonide,levobupivacaine group received 10 mg/kg levobupivacaine and saline group received 1 mL saline solution via rectal route for 7 d.In the sham gro...

  9. Thermal oxidation of silicon in a residual oxygen atmosphere—the RESOX process—for self-limiting growth of thin silicon dioxide films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jason T.; Carbaugh, Daniel J.; Haggerty, Morgan E.; Richard, Andrea L.; Ingram, David C.; Kaya, Savas; Jadwisienczak, Wojciech M.; Rahman, Faiz

    2016-10-01

    We describe in detail the growth procedures and properties of thermal silicon dioxide grown in a limited and dilute oxygen atmosphere. Thin thermal oxide films have become increasingly important in recent years due to the continuing down-scaling of ultra large scale integration metal oxide silicon field effect transistors. Such films are also of importance for organic transistors where back-gating is needed. The technique described here is novel and allows self-limited formation of high quality thin oxide films on silicon surfaces. This technique is easy to implement in both research laboratory and industrial settings. Growth conditions and their effects on film growth have been described. Properties of the resulting oxide films, relevant for microelectronic device applications, have also been investigated and reported here. Overall, our findings are that thin, high quality, dense silicon dioxide films of thicknesses up to 100 nm can be easily grown in a depleted oxygen environment at temperatures similar to that used for usual silicon dioxide thermal growth in flowing dry oxygen.

  10. Nitridation of organo-silicate glass: A self-limiting process for PVD Ta1+xN/Ta barrier formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interfacial reactions of sputter-deposited Ta with a low dielectric constant Si-O-C-H material (SiCOH), and with surface-nitrided SiCOH (N-SiCOH) were investigated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The studies were carried out in a system containing a processing chamber attached to an XPS analysis chamber so that sample transport between deposition and analysis environments occurred under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions. Ta sputter deposition on unmodified SiCOH yielded an interfacial phase ∼3 nm thick composed of Ta oxide/carbide (Ta-O-C), which is known to interact only weakly with Cu. Bombardment of the vicinal SiCOH surface by 500 eV Ar+ in the presence of NH3 resulted in carbon depletion and the self-limiting nitridation of the surface, with N attachment primarily at Si sites. Subsequent Ta sputter deposition yielded reduced Ta oxide and carbide formation, and formation of a Ta-rich nitride layer of 10 A average thickness. Subsequent deposition resulted in metallic Ta formation.

  11. A Self-Limiting Electro-Ablation Technique for the Top-Down Synthesis of Large-Area Monolayer Flakes of 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Bera, Mrinal K.; Tong, Sheng; Narayanan, Badri; Kamath, Ganesh; Mane, Anil; Paulikas, Arvydas P.; Antonio, Mark R.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Roelofs, Andreas K.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of an electrochemical process that converts two dimensional layered materials of arbitrary thicknesses into monolayers. The lateral dimensions of the monolayers obtained by the process within a few seconds time at room temperature were as large as 0.5 mm. The temporal and spatial dynamics of this physical phenomenon, studied on MoS2 flakes using ex-situ AFM imaging, Raman mapping, and photoluminescence measurements trace the origin of monolayer formation to a substrate-assisted self-limiting electrochemical ablation process. Electronic structure and atomistic calculations point to the interplay between three essential factors in the process: (1) strong covalent interaction of monolayer MoS2 with the substrate; (2) electric-field induced differences in Gibbs free energy of exfoliation; (3) dispersion of MoS2 in aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. This process was successful in obtaining monolayers of other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, like WS2 and MoTe2 as well. PMID:27323877

  12. A Self-Limiting Electro-Ablation Technique for the Top-Down Synthesis of Large-Area Monolayer Flakes of 2D Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Saptarshi; Bera, Mrinal K.; Tong, Sheng; Narayanan, Badri; Kamath, Ganesh; Mane, Anil; Paulikas, Arvydas P.; Antonio, Mark R.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Roelofs, Andreas K.

    2016-06-01

    We report the discovery of an electrochemical process that converts two dimensional layered materials of arbitrary thicknesses into monolayers. The lateral dimensions of the monolayers obtained by the process within a few seconds time at room temperature were as large as 0.5 mm. The temporal and spatial dynamics of this physical phenomenon, studied on MoS2 flakes using ex-situ AFM imaging, Raman mapping, and photoluminescence measurements trace the origin of monolayer formation to a substrate-assisted self-limiting electrochemical ablation process. Electronic structure and atomistic calculations point to the interplay between three essential factors in the process: (1) strong covalent interaction of monolayer MoS2 with the substrate; (2) electric-field induced differences in Gibbs free energy of exfoliation; (3) dispersion of MoS2 in aqueous solution of hydrogen peroxide. This process was successful in obtaining monolayers of other 2D transition metal dichalcogenides, like WS2 and MoTe2 as well.

  13. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  14. Acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingest...

  15. Acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion....

  16. The complement anaphylatoxin C3a receptor (C3aR contributes to the inflammatory response in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Wende

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases are a critical public health issue, and as treatment options remain limited, there is a need to unravel the underlying pathomechanisms in order to identify new therapeutic targets. Complement activation was found in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, and the complement anaphylatoxin C5a and its receptor C5aR have been implicated in disease pathogenesis in animal models of bowel inflammation. To further characterize complement-related pathomechanisms in inflammatory bowel disease, we have investigated the role of the anaphylatoxin C3a receptor in acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice. For this, colitis was induced in C3a receptor-deficient BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, and disease severity was evaluated by clinical and histological examination, and by measuring the mRNA expression or protein levels of inflammatory mediators in the tissue. C3a receptor deficiency was partially protective in BALB/c mice, which had significantly reduced weight loss, clinical and histological scores, colon shortening, and CXCL-1/KC mRNA, myeloperoxidase and interleukin-6 tissue levels compared to the corresponding wild type mice. In C57BL/6 mice the differences between wild type and C3a receptor-deficient animals were much smaller and reached no significance. Our data demonstrate that the contribution of C3a receptor to disease pathogenesis and severity of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice depends on the genetic background. Further studies will be required to clarify whether targeting of C3a receptor, possibly in combination with C5a receptor, might be considered as a therapeutic strategy for inflammatory bowel disease.

  17. Topical Rosiglitazone Treatment Improves Ulcerative Colitis by Restoring Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, G.; Brynskov, Jørn

    2010-01-01

    and functional activity in human colonic epithelium and explored the potential of topical treatment with rosiglitazone (a PPAR gamma ligand) in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Spontaneous and rosiglitazone-mediated PPAR gamma and adipophillin expression (a gene transcriptionally activated by PPAR...... gamma) were measured by reverse transcriptase PCR in colonic biopsies and isolated epithelial cells from patients with ulcerative colitis and controls. Fourteen patients with active distal ulcerative colitis were randomized to either rosiglitazone (4 mg) or mesalazine (1 g) enema treatment once daily...... in epithelial cells from inflamed mucosa in vitro. Rosiglitazone enema treatment was well tolerated and reduced the Mayo ulcerative colitis score from 8.9 to 4.3 (P

  18. Intestinal microbiome analyses identify melanoma patients at risk for checkpoint-blockade-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, Krista; Callahan, Margaret K; Ren, Boyu; Khanin, Raya; Viale, Agnes; Ling, Lilan; No, Daniel; Gobourne, Asia; Littmann, Eric; Huttenhower, Curtis; Pamer, Eric G; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2016-01-01

    The composition of the intestinal microbiota influences the development of inflammatory disorders. However, associating inflammatory diseases with specific microbial members of the microbiota is challenging, because clinically detectable inflammation and its treatment can alter the microbiota's composition. Immunologic checkpoint blockade with ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) signalling, is associated with new-onset, immune-mediated colitis. Here we conduct a prospective study of patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ipilimumab treatment and correlate the pre-inflammation faecal microbiota and microbiome composition with subsequent colitis development. We demonstrate that increased representation of bacteria belonging to the Bacteroidetes phylum is correlated with resistance to the development of checkpoint-blockade-induced colitis. Furthermore, a paucity of genetic pathways involved in polyamine transport and B vitamin biosynthesis is associated with an increased risk of colitis. Identification of these biomarkers may enable interventions to reduce the risk of inflammatory complications following cancer immunotherapy. PMID:26837003

  19. Ischemic colitis masquerading as colonic tumor, Case report with review of literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Parakkal Deepak; Radha Devi

    2011-01-01

    Ischemic colitis can mimic a carcinoma on computed tomographic (CT) imaging or endoscopic examination. A coexisting colonic carcinoma or another potentially obstructing lesion has also been described in 20% of the cases of ischemic colitis. CT scan can differentiate it from colon cancer in 75% of cases. However, colonoscopy is the preferred method for diagnosing ischemic colitis as it allows for direct visualization with tissue sampling. Varied presentations of ischemic colitis have been described as an ulcerated or submucosal mass or as a narrowed segment of colon with ulcerated mucosa on colonoscopy. Awareness and early recognition of such varied presentations of a common condition is necessary to differentiate from a colonic carcinoma, and to avoid unnecessary surgery and related complications.

  20. Application of fecal calprotectin and myeloperoxidase in evaluation of disease activity of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏明见

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of fecal calprotectin and myeloperoxidase in evaluation of ulcerative colitis(UC) activity.Methods Specimens of serum and feces over the same period were collected from

  1. Treatment with diammonium glycyrrhizinate down-regulates M30 expression in ulcerative colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    原皓

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the therapeutic effect of diammonium glycyrrhizinate(DG) on2,4,6-trinitro-benzene sulfonic acid(TNBS)-induced ulcerative colitis in rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms by

  2. Open versus laparoscopic (assisted) ileo pouch anal anastomosis for ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Usama Ahmed; Keus, Frederik; Heikens, Joost T.; Bemelman, Willem A.; Berdah, Stephane V.; Gooszen, H. G.; van Laarhoven, Cees J. H. M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Restorative proctocolectomy with ileo pouch anal anastomosis (IPAA) is the main surgical treatment for patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). With the advancements of minimal-invasive surgery this demanding operation is increasingly being performed

  3. [Clostridium difficile and cytomegalovirus involved in a case of pseudomembranous colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Coralith; Velarde, Juan; Cedron, Hugo; Ferrufino, Juan Carlos; Seas, Carlos; Bussalleu, Alejandro; Gotuzzo, E; Gotuzzo, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    We report an unusual case of pseudomembranous colitis with fatal outcome where C. difficile and cytomegalovirus coexistense in a Peruvian patient with AIDS and gastrointestinal compromise by a mycobacterium.

  4. Generalized Pyoderma Gangrenosum Associated with Ulcerative Colitis: Successful Treatment with Infliximab and Azathioprine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzinasiou, Foteini; Polymeros, Dimitrios; Panagiotou, Maro; Theodoropoulos, Konstadinos; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-04-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) is a rare ulcerative skin disease, part of the spectrum of neutrophilic and auto-inflammatory dermatoses. Its pathogenesis is unknown, although immune pathways have been implicated. Lesion biopsies show a predominantly neutrophilic infiltrate. The incidence of PG is uncertain, but it is estimated to be 3-10 per million per year, occurring at any age but most commonly between 20 and 50 years with a possible slightly higher incidence in women. Approximately 50% of patients with PG also have another disease associated with PG. The most common is inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), particularly Crohn's and ulcerative colitis (UC). Local treatment may be sufficient for mild cases, while for severe cases systemic immunosuppressants are the mainstay (1,2). We report the case of a patient with bullous PG and UC successfully treated with infliximab and azathioprine. A 32-year-old male Caucasian patient presented with painful violaceous vesicles and enlarging bullae of various sizes and with acute onset, located on the trunk and bilaterally on both the lower and the upper extremities. Lesions on the trunk were composed of hemorrhagic pustules with a surrounding erythematous overhanging border. Some of the lesions had undergone central necrosis and ulceration (Figure 1, a-d). The patient reported of the lesions had appeared one week ago, simultaneously with the exacerbation of a known inflammatory bowel disease with hemorrhagic mucoid diarrhea and fever of up to 38.5°C. The patient's medical history included UC affecting the whole colon (pancolitis), diagnosed 5 months prior to the onset of the epidermal lesions, for which the patient was receiving treatment with oral prednisolone 10 mg/day and mesalazine granules. Blood tests showed severe anemia, leukocytosis, and increased inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Antinuclear antibodies (ANA), anti-double stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) andtibodies, antineutrophil

  5. Acute Abdominal Pain in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reust, Carin E; Williams, Amy

    2016-05-15

    Acute abdominal pain accounts for approximately 9% of childhood primary care office visits. Symptoms and signs that increase the likelihood of a surgical cause for pain include fever, bilious vomiting, bloody diarrhea, absent bowel sounds, voluntary guarding, rigidity, and rebound tenderness. The age of the child can help focus the differential diagnosis. In infants and toddlers, clinicians should consider congenital anomalies and other causes, including malrotation, hernias, Meckel diverticulum, or intussusception. In school-aged children, constipation and infectious causes of pain, such as gastroenteritis, colitis, respiratory infections, and urinary tract infections, are more common. In female adolescents, clinicians should consider pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy, ruptured ovarian cysts, or ovarian torsion. Initial laboratory tests include complete blood count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate or C-reactive protein, urinalysis, and a pregnancy test. Abdominal radiography can be used to diagnose constipation or obstruction. Ultrasonography is the initial choice in children for the diagnosis of cholecystitis, pancreatitis, ovarian cyst, ovarian or testicular torsion, pelvic inflammatory disease, pregnancy-related pathology, and appendicitis. Appendicitis is the most common cause of acute abdominal pain requiring surgery, with a peak incidence during adolescence. When the appendix is not clearly visible on ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging can be used to confirm the diagnosis. PMID:27175718

  6. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  7. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  8. Infliximab-associated alveolitis after treatment for severe left-sided ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Veerappan, Sundaram G

    2012-02-01

    Here we describe a patient with ulcerative colitis who developed alveolitis after infliximab therapy. With earlier case reports of development of alveolitis in rheumatoid arthritis patients after infliximab infusion, the temporal relationship between the infliximab therapy and the development of alveolitis in this case, raises the possibility that the two might be causally related. With an increasing trend towards treating moderate to severely active ulcerative colitis patients with infliximab as a rescue therapy, clinicians should be aware of this potentially serious complication.

  9. Fecal calprotectin is a useful marker to diagnose ulcerative colitis from irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Kalantari; Akhtar Taheri; Majid Yaran

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study was aimed to evaluate the predictive value of fecal calprotectin in patients with ulcerative colitis from patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Materials and Methods: Between May and October 2013, 88 adult patients, between the age 18 and 65 years with a history of chronic diarrhea of unknown origin were assessed. Standard colonoscopies were performed in all patients to assess ulcerative colitis. Before colonoscopies, they were asked to supply a stool speci...

  10. New Zealand Society of Gastroenterology Guidelines for the Management of Refractory Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliadou, Elena; Day, Andrew S; Thompson-Fawcett, Mark W; Gearry, Richard B; Rowbotham, David S; Walmsley, Russel; Schultz, Michael; Inns, Stephen J

    2015-10-16

    The management of patients with ulcerative colitis who are dependent on corticosteroid for control of symptoms, or refractory to corticosteroids or standard immunosuppressive therapy, is challenging. The development of newer medical therapies has increased the options for managing patients in this situation, but access and funding remain limited. This guideline summarises the literature regarding this situation and provides guidance as to the management of refractory colitis in the New Zealand setting. PMID:26645757

  11. Studies of barrier function in patients with ulcerative colitis and pouchitis

    OpenAIRE

    Persborn, Mats

    2011-01-01

    Background and aim: The cause of ulcerative colitis (UC) is largely unknown. However, there is a presumed genetic component to susceptibility and altered intestinal barrier function has been implicated in the pathophysiology of ulcerative colitis. There is evidence that the increased intestinal permeability in IBD is partly controlled by delicate intercellular circuits in the colonic tissue linked to the enteric nervous system. Little is, however, known about how this is regulated in detail. ...

  12. Remission induction and maintenance effect of probiotics on ulcerative colitis: A meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the induction of remission and main-tenance effects of probiotics for ulcerative colitis.METHODS: Information was retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. The induction of remission and promotion of mainte-nance were compared between probiotics treatment and non-probiotics treatment in ulcerative colitis.RESULTS: Thirteen randomized controlled studies met the selection criteria. Seven studies evaluated the remission rate, and eight studies estimated the re...

  13. Lactobacillus bulgaricus OLL1181 activates the aryl hydrocarbon receptor pathway and inhibits colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, Takeyuki; Harama, Daisuke; Fukumoto, Suguru; Nakamura, Yuki; Shimokawa, Naomi; Ishimaru, Kayoko; Ikegami, Shuji; Makino, Seiya; Kitamura, Masanori; Nakao, Atsuhito

    2011-10-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) pathway has an important role in the regulation of inflammatory responses. Most recently, we have shown that the activation of the AhR pathway by a potent AhR agonist inhibits the development of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, a model of human ulcerative colitis, by the induction of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the large intestine. Because several strains of probiotic lactic acid bacteria have been reported to inhibit DSS-induced colitis by unidentified mechanisms, we hypothesized that particular strains of lactic acid bacterium might have the potential to activate the AhR pathway, thereby inhibiting DSS-induced colitis. This study investigated whether there are specific lactic acid bacterial strains that can activate the AhR pathway, and if so, whether this AhR-activating potential is associated with suppression of DSS-induced colitis. By using AhR signaling reporter cells, we found that Lactobacillus bulgaricus OLL1181 had the potential to activate the AhR pathway. OLL1181 also induced the mRNA expression of cytochrome P450 family 1A1 (CYP1A1), a target gene of the AhR pathway, in human colon cells, which was inhibited by the addition of an AhR antagonist, α-naphthoflavon (αNF). In addition, mice treated orally with OLL1181 showed an increase in CYP1A1 mRNA expression in the large intestine and amelioration of DSS-induced colitis. Thus, OLL1181 can induce activation of the intestinal AhR pathway and inhibit DSS-induced colitis in mice. This strain of lactic acid bacterium has therefore the potential to activate the AhR pathway, which may be able to suppress colitis.

  14. Therapeutic treatment with a novel hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylase inhibitor (TRC160334 ameliorates murine colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta R

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ram Gupta,1 Anita R Chaudhary,2 Binita N Shah,1 Avinash V Jadhav,3 Shitalkumar P Zambad,1 Ramesh Chandra Gupta,4 Shailesh Deshpande,4 Vijay Chauthaiwale,4 Chaitanya Dutt4 1Department of Pharmacology, 2Cellular and Molecular Biology, 3Preclinical Safety Evaluation, 4Discovery, Torrent Research Centre, Torrent Pharmaceuticals Ltd, Gandhinagar, Gujarat, India Background and aim: Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD can be achieved by improvement of intestinal barrier protection. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF has been identified as a critical factor for barrier protection during mucosal insult and is linked with improvement in symptoms of colitis. Although prophylactic efficacy of HIF hydroxylase inhibitors in murine colitis have been established, its therapeutic efficacy in clinically relevant therapeutic settings have not been established. In the present study we aim to establish therapeutic efficacy of TRC160334, a novel HIF hydroxylase inhibitor, in animal models of colitis. Methods: The efficacy of TRC160334 was evaluated in two different mouse models of colitis by oral route. A prophylactic efficacy study was performed in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced mouse model of colitis representing human Crohn's disease pathology. Additionally, a therapeutic efficacy study was performed in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of colitis, a model simulating human ulcerative colitis. Results: TRC160334 treatment resulted in significant improvement in disease end points in both models of colitis. TRC160334 treatment resulted into cytoprotective heatshock protein 70 induction in inflamed colon. TRC160334 successfully attenuated the rate of fall in body weight, disease activity index, and macroscopic and microscopic scores of colonic damage leading to overall improvement in study outcome. Conclusion: Our findings are the first to demonstrate that therapeutic intervention with a HIF hydroxylase inhibitor

  15. Sequential release of cytokines, lipid mediators and nitric oxide in experimental colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Dijk, A. P. M. van; Keuskamp, Z. J.; Wilson, J. H. P.; Zijlstra, F. J.

    1995-01-01

    textabstractThe object of this study was to establish whether different pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators were formed in colonic tissue from experimental colitis depending on the course of the disease. Concentrations of mediators of inflammation were examined in colonic tissue in dextran induced colitis in mice. Initial inflammation was produced by 5 days treatment of 10% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water, followed by a further 9 day period of 2% DSS in an attempt to produce a...

  16. Factor XIII Transglutaminase Supports the Resolution of Mucosal Damage in Experimental Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Andersson

    Full Text Available The thrombin-activated transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII that covalently crosslinks and stablizes provisional fibrin matrices is also thought to support endothelial and epithelial barrier function and to control inflammatory processes. Here, gene-targeted mice lacking the FXIII catalytic A subunit were employed to directly test the hypothesis that FXIII limits colonic pathologies associated with experimental colitis. Wildtype (WT and FXIII-/- mice were found to be comparable in their initial development of mucosal damage following exposure to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS challenge. However, unlike FXIII-sufficient mice, FXIII-deficient cohorts failed to efficiently resolve colonic inflammatory pathologies and mucosal damage following withdrawal of DSS. Consistent with prior evidence of ongoing coagulation factor activation and consumption in individuals with active colitis, plasma FXIII levels were markedly decreased in colitis-challenged WT mice. Treatment of colitis-challenged mice with recombinant human FXIII-A zymogen significantly mitigated weight loss, intestinal bleeding, and diarrhea, regardless of whether cohorts were FXIII-sufficient or were genetically devoid of FXIII. Similarly, both qualitative and quantitative microscopic analyses of colonic tissues revealed that exogenous FXIII improved the resolution of multiple colitis disease parameters in both FXIII-/- and WT mice. The most striking differences were seen in the resolution of mucosal ulceration, the most severe histopathological manifestation of DSS-induced colitis. These findings directly demonstrate that FXIII is a significant determinant of mucosal healing and clinical outcome following inflammatory colitis induced mucosal injury and provide a proof-of-principle that clinical interventions supporting FXIII activity may be a means to limit colitis pathology and improve resolution of mucosal damage.

  17. Factor XIII Transglutaminase Supports the Resolution of Mucosal Damage in Experimental Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Christina; Kvist, Peter H.; McElhinney, Kathryn; Baylis, Richard; Gram, Luise K.; Pelzer, Hermann; Lauritzen, Brian; Holm, Thomas L.; Hogan, Simon; Wu, David; Turpin, Brian; Miller, Whitney; Palumbo, Joseph S.

    2015-01-01

    The thrombin-activated transglutaminase factor XIII (FXIII) that covalently crosslinks and stablizes provisional fibrin matrices is also thought to support endothelial and epithelial barrier function and to control inflammatory processes. Here, gene-targeted mice lacking the FXIII catalytic A subunit were employed to directly test the hypothesis that FXIII limits colonic pathologies associated with experimental colitis. Wildtype (WT) and FXIII-/- mice were found to be comparable in their initial development of mucosal damage following exposure to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) challenge. However, unlike FXIII-sufficient mice, FXIII-deficient cohorts failed to efficiently resolve colonic inflammatory pathologies and mucosal damage following withdrawal of DSS. Consistent with prior evidence of ongoing coagulation factor activation and consumption in individuals with active colitis, plasma FXIII levels were markedly decreased in colitis-challenged WT mice. Treatment of colitis-challenged mice with recombinant human FXIII-A zymogen significantly mitigated weight loss, intestinal bleeding, and diarrhea, regardless of whether cohorts were FXIII-sufficient or were genetically devoid of FXIII. Similarly, both qualitative and quantitative microscopic analyses of colonic tissues revealed that exogenous FXIII improved the resolution of multiple colitis disease parameters in both FXIII-/- and WT mice. The most striking differences were seen in the resolution of mucosal ulceration, the most severe histopathological manifestation of DSS-induced colitis. These findings directly demonstrate that FXIII is a significant determinant of mucosal healing and clinical outcome following inflammatory colitis induced mucosal injury and provide a proof-of-principle that clinical interventions supporting FXIII activity may be a means to limit colitis pathology and improve resolution of mucosal damage. PMID:26098308

  18. Intractable colitis associated with chronic granulomatous disease in a young girl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaman, Aytaç; Kuloğlu, Zarife; Doğu, Figen; İkincioğulları, Aydan; Ensari, Arzu; Çiftçi, Ergin; Kansu, Aydan

    2015-01-01

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an autosomal recessive or X-linked disorder caused by NADPH oxidase deficiency leading to an impaired ability of reactive superoxide anion and metabolite formation and recurring severe bacterial and fungal infections, with a high mortality rate. Diarrhea, colitis, ileus, perirectal abscess formation and anal fissures are reported gastrointestinal findings in these patients. We report a case of intractable colitis associated with CGD in a young girl.

  19. Disodium cromoglycate in the treatment of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, V; Elsborg, L.; Greibe, J; Hendriksen, C; Høj, L; Jensen, K. B.; Kristensen, E.; Madsen, J R; Marner, B; Riis, P; Willumsen, L

    1981-01-01

    A controlled clinical study on disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) at a dose of 800 mg per day versus placebo was carried out in 141 patients with ulcerative colitis and 25 patients with Crohn's disease. Those of the ulcerative colitis patients who had been on sulphasalazine treatment continued that treatment during the trial (101 patients). Forty patients were intolerant of sulphasalazine. No patient received steroids during the last month before the study. Patients with Crohn's disease had their p...

  20. Effects of orally administered bovine lactoperoxidase on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kouichirou; Horigome, Ayako; Yamauchi, Koji; Takase, Mitsunori; Yaeshima, Tomoko; Iwatsuki, Keiji

    2008-07-01

    The effect of lactoperoxidase (LPO) on dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis was examined in mice. After 9 d of colitis induction, weight loss, colon shortening, and the histological score were significantly suppressed in mice orally administered LPO (62.5 mg/body/d) as compared to a group administered bovine serum albumin. These results suggest that LPO exhibits anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract.