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Sample records for acute self-limited colitis

  1. Crypt abscess-associated microbiota in inflammatory bowel disease and acute self-limited colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Harry; Sokol; Nadia; Vasquez; Nadia; Hoyeau-Idrissi; Philippe; Seksik; Laurent; Beaugerie; Anne; Lavergne-Slove; Philippe; Pochart; Philippe; Marteau

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether crypt abscesses frominflammatory bowel disease(IBD)patients containbacteria and to establish their nature.METHODS:We studied 17 ulcerative colitis patients,11 Crohn's disease patients,7 patients with acute selflimited colitis(ASLC)and normal colonic biopsies from5 subjects who underwent colonoscopy for colon cancer screening.A fluorescent in situ hybridization techniquewas applied to colonic biopsies to assess the microbiotacomposition of the crypts and crypt abscesses.RESULTS:Crypts...

  2. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  3. Acute Ischaemic Colitis- A Case Report

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    M Basra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute ischaemic colitis (AIC is being increasingly recognised as an uncommon cause of abdominal pain associated with fresh bleeding per rectum. It is paramount to maintain a high index of suspicion and adopt appropriate management strategies to avoid complications and inappropriate interventions. In this paper, we describe a case of AIC and review literature pertinent to the management of this condition. Keywords: Ischaemic colitis, acute abdomen, management.

  4. Acute Onset Collagenous Colitis with Unique Endoscopic Findings

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    Kuhroha, Masatake; Kinouchi, Yoshitaka; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2014-01-01

    We experienced a rare case of 72-year-old woman with acute onset collagenous colitis (CC) induced by lansoprazole. The patient developed acute abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and melena that are quite rare in usual CC. We could find the characteristic colonoscopic findings such as active long liner ulcers in the patient. We also observed the healing courses of these unique findings. Our case indicates two important points of view. (1) CC sometimes develops with acute onset symptoms which resemble those of ischemic colitis. (2) Colonoscopy would be useful and necessary to distinguish acute onset CC and ischemic colitis. PMID:25610672

  5. Acute Onset Collagenous Colitis with Unique Endoscopic Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Moroi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We experienced a rare case of 72-year-old woman with acute onset collagenous colitis (CC induced by lansoprazole. The patient developed acute abdominal pain, watery diarrhea, and melena that are quite rare in usual CC. We could find the characteristic colonoscopic findings such as active long liner ulcers in the patient. We also observed the healing courses of these unique findings. Our case indicates two important points of view. (1 CC sometimes develops with acute onset symptoms which resemble those of ischemic colitis. (2 Colonoscopy would be useful and necessary to distinguish acute onset CC and ischemic colitis.

  6. Microheterogeneity of acute phase proteins in patients with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marian Grzymis(l)awski; Katarzyna Derc; Magdalena Sobieska; Krzysztof Wiktorowicz

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the serum α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT),α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) and transferrin (Tf) concentrations and to evaluate the microheterogeneity of these acute phase proteins in patients with ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Twenty-seven patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 17 healthy control subjects were studied. The patients were categorised as severe (n = 9), moderate (n = 10) and mild groups (n = 8) using Truelove and Witts'classification of ulcerative colitis. Microheterogeneity of ACT, AGP and Tf was analysed by crossed immunoaffinity electrophoresis (CIAE) with concanavalin A. In all serum samples standard electrophoresis of serum proteins was performed, iron (Fe) concentration, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were also measured.RESULTS: Our patients suffering from ulcerative colitis had significantly higher serum ACT and AGP concentrations and lower serum transferrin concentration in comparison to healthy subjects. Changes in concentrationsof acute phase proteins were dependent on the activityof the inflammatory process. The glycosylation patterns of transferrin were related to the inflammation status. We also observed the correlation between ACT and AGP concentrations, patterns of transferrin glycosylation and changes in standard protein electrophoresis or blood cell count.CONCLUSION: The glycosylation patterns of transferrin obtained from patients suffering from ulcerative colitis are highly branched and sialylated compared with those obtained from healthy subjects. In contrast, the glycosylation patterns of transferrin do not differ according to the activity index of ulcerative colitis. The microheterogeneity patterns of AGP and ACT are similar in ulcerative colitis patients and healthy subjects.

  7. Acute Appendicitis: An Extracolonic Manifestation of Clostridium difficile Colitis

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    Ali Ridha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The current report is the case of a 30-year-old male patient who presented with symptomatology suggestive of appendicitis. However, careful history-taking and laboratory tests led to the diagnosis of Clostridium difficile colitis, resulting in successful nonsurgical management of this patient. Although both appendicitis and C. difficile colitis are common conditions, they are rarely diagnosed concurrently. This is reflected by paucity of literature describing this manifestation. Given this current presentation, the authors contend that the manifestation of extracolonic colitis within the appendix is possibly underdiagnosed or misdiagnosed as an acute appendicitis and thus potentially results in unnecessary surgical intervention. This report reminds physicians to consider the medical approach to managing acute appendicitis given the possibility of underlying C. difficile colitis as the causative factor.

  8. Management of acute severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saurabh; Kedia; Vineet; Ahuja; Rakesh; Tandon

    2014-01-01

    The management strategy of acute severe ulcerative colitis has evolved over the past decade from being entirely restricted to twin choices of intravenous steroids or colectomy to include colon rescue therapies like cyclosporin as well as infliximab. However it still remains a medical emergency requiring hospitalization and requires care from a multidisciplinary team comprising of a gastroenterologist and a colorectal surgeon. The frame shift in management has been the emphasis on time bound decision making with an attempt to curtail the mortality rate to below 1%. Intravenous corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. Response to steroids should be assessed at day 3 of admission and partial/non-responders should be considered for alternative medical therapy/surgery. Medical rescue therapies include intravenous cyclosporin and infliximab. Cyclosporin is administered in a dose of 2 mg/kg per day and infliximab is administered as a single dose intravenous infusion of 5 mg/kg. Approximately 75% patients have short term and 50% patients have long term response to cyclosporin. Long term response to cyclosporin is improved in patients who are thiopurine na?ve and are started on thiopurines on day 7. Infliximab also has a response rate of approximately 70% in short term and 50% in long term. Both cyclosporin and infliximab are equally efficacious medical rescue therapies as demonstrated in a recent randomized control trial. Patientsnot responding to infliximab or cyclosporin should be considered for colectomy.

  9. Acute respiratory distress syndrome associated with severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiho; Sagara; Yasuo; Horie; Yumiko; Anezaki; Hideaki; Miyazawa; Masahiro; Iizuka

    2010-01-01

    Various extraintestinal manifestations including pulmonary abnormalities have been reported in patients with ulcerative colitis. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious and fatal pulmonary manifestation. We have experienced a 67-year-old male patient with ARDS associated with a severe type of ulcerative colitis (UC). Severe dyspnea symptoms occurred during the treatment of UC in a previous hospital and the patient was transferred to our hospital on June 27, 2007. Both blood and sputa culture...

  10. Concomitant pseudomembranous colitis in colonic resection for acute diverticulitis.

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    Byrns, Simon; Canterbury, Laura A

    2015-06-01

    Diverticulitis and Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are common conditions in the surgical population. However, they are usually 2 distinct clinical entities. Here, we report the case of acute diverticulitis with concomitant pseudomembranous colitis, presumably due to CDI. The clinical course as well as gross and microscopic pathology findings are discussed. A literature search revealed a single previous report of these findings concomitant in a surgical specimen. A brief discussion of the pathophysiology of CDI and acute diverticulitis is included.

  11. Identification of acute self-limited hepatitis B among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus-related acute hepatitis: a hospital-based epidemiological and clinical study.

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    Han, Y-N

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to identify acute self-limited hepatitis B (ASL-HB) among patients presenting with hepatitis B virus (HBV)-related acute hepatitis. Data were available for 220 patients diagnosed with HBV-related acute hepatitis, of whom 164 had acute hepatitis B (AHB). Of these, 160 were confirmed as ASL-HB: three (1.9%) evolved to chronic hepatitis B and one (0.6%) developed fulminant hepatitis and died. Comparisons were also made between AHB and acute infections with hepatitis A (HA) and hepatitis E (HE) viruses. During the study period, the number of patients with AHB exceeded the sum of those with acute HA and acute HE infections. There was no distinct seasonal peak for AHB infection, whereas both acute HA and acute HE infections occurred more frequently in the spring. Clinical symptoms and physical signs were similar for all three types of hepatitis, but significant differences were seen in some biochemical parameters. In conclusion, this study suggests that symptomatic AHB is not rare in China but it seldom evolves to chronic hepatitis B.

  12. Simultaneous acute appendicitis and pseudomembranous colitis in a pediatric patient.

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    Vidrine, Steven R; Cortina, Chandler; Black, Marissa; Vidrine, Steven B

    2012-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common cause for pediatric surgery, with an increasing incidence as this population ages. Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) from Clostridum difficle is being seen more frequently in pediatric patients, especially after treatment with antibiotics and in those with Hirschsprung's disease. Only three prior cases of appendicitis associated with PMC have been described in the literature, and all of them occurred in adult patients. Here, we describe the first documented pediatric case: a 16-year-old female who developed acute appendicitis while concomitantly being treated for suspected pseudomembranous colitis. We concur with previous authors that there may be an association between these two pathologies; furthermore, this association may not always be clinically apparent and may be both under-diagnosed and under-reported.

  13. Colitis

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001125.htm Colitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Colitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large intestine (colon). ...

  14. TRPV1 sensitization mediates postinflammatory visceral pain following acute colitis.

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    Lapointe, Tamia K; Basso, Lilian; Iftinca, Mircea C; Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Dietrich, Gilles; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Altier, Christophe

    2015-07-15

    Quiescent phases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are often accompanied by chronic abdominal pain. Although the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel has been postulated as an important mediator of visceral hypersensitivity, its functional role in postinflammatory pain remains elusive. This study aimed at establishing the role of TRPV1 in the peripheral sensitization underlying chronic visceral pain in the context of colitis. Wild-type and TRPV1-deficient mice were separated into three groups (control, acute colitis, and recovery), and experimental colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Recovery mice showed increased chemically and mechanically evoked visceral hypersensitivity 5 wk post-DSS discontinuation, at which point inflammation had completely resolved. Significant changes in nonevoked pain-related behaviors could also be observed in these animals, indicative of persistent discomfort. These behavioral changes correlated with elevated colonic levels of substance P (SP) and TRPV1 in recovery mice, thus leading to the hypothesis that SP could sensitize TRPV1 function. In vitro experiments revealed that prolonged exposure to SP could indeed sensitize capsaicin-evoked currents in both cultured neurons and TRPV1-transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) cells, a mechanism that involved TRPV1 ubiquitination and subsequent accumulation at the plasma membrane. Importantly, although TRPV1-deficient animals experienced similar disease severity and pain as wild-type mice in the acute phase of colitis, TRPV1 deletion prevented the development of postinflammatory visceral hypersensitivity and pain-associated behaviors. Collectively, our results suggest that chronic exposure of colon-innervating primary afferents to SP could sensitize TRPV1 and thus participate in the establishment of persistent abdominal pain following acute inflammation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. CXCR2 knockout mice are protected against DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury and inflammation.

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    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Manicassamy, Santhakumar; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2013-11-15

    Organ cross talk exists in many diseases of the human and animal models of human diseases. A recent study demonstrated that inflammatory mediators can cause acute kidney injury and neutrophil infiltration in a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-colitis. However, the chemokines and their receptors that may mediate distant organ effects in colitis are unknown. We hypothesized that keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)/IL-8 receptor chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2) mediates DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury. Consistent with our hypothesis, wild-type (WT) mice developed severe colitis with DSS treatment, which was associated with inflammatory cytokine and chemokine expression and neutrophil infiltration in the colon. DSS-colitis in WT was accompanied by acute kidney injury and enhanced expression of inflammatory cytokines in the kidney. However, CXCR2 knockout mice were protected against DSS-colitis as well as acute kidney injury. Moreover, the expression of cytokines and chemokines and neutrophil infiltration was blunted in CXCR2 knockout mice in the colon and kidney. Administration of recombinant KC exacerbated DSS-colitis-induced acute kidney injury. Our results suggest that KC/IL-8 and its receptor CXCR2 are critical and major mediators of organ cross talk in DSS colitis and neutralization of CXCR2 will help to reduce the incidence of acute kidney injury due to ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease in humans.

  16. Treatment of acute ulcerative colitis with infliximab, a retrospective study from three Danish hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Christian; Caspersen, Sarah; Christensen, Niels Lyhne

    2011-01-01

    In acute steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis, rescue therapy with infliximab has become a therapeutic option in patients facing colectomy. Data on efficacy and safety in this setting are sparse.......In acute steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis, rescue therapy with infliximab has become a therapeutic option in patients facing colectomy. Data on efficacy and safety in this setting are sparse....

  17. MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE SEVERE ULCERATIVE COLITIS: A CLINICAL UPDATE.

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    Sobrado, Carlos Walter; Sobrado, Lucas Faraco

    2016-01-01

    Acute severe colitis is a potentially lethal medical emergency and, even today, its treatment remains a challenge for clinicians and surgeons. Intravenous corticoid therapy, which was introduced into the therapeutic arsenal in the 1950s, continues to be the first-line treatment and, for patients who are refractory to this, the rescue therapy may consist of clinical measures or emergency colectomy. To evaluate the indications for and results from drug rescue therapy (cyclosporine, infliximab and tacrolimus), and to suggest a practical guide for clinical approaches. The literature was reviewed using the Medline/PubMed, Cochrane library and SciELO databases, and additional information from institutional websites of interest, by cross-correlating the following keywords: acute severe colitis, fulminating colitis and treatment. Treatments for acute severe colitis have avoided colectomy in 60-70% of the cases, provided that they have been started early on, with multidisciplinary follow-up. Despite the adverse effects of intravenous cyclosporine, this drug has been indicated in cases of greater severity with an imminent risk of colectomy, because of its fast action, short half-life and absence of increased risk of surgical complications. Therapy using infliximab has been reserved for less severe cases and those in which immunosuppressants are being or have been used (AZA/6-MP). Indication of biological agents has recently been favored because of their ease of therapeutic use, their good short and medium-term results, the possibility of maintenance therapy and also their action as a "bridge" for immunosuppressant action (AZA/6-MP). Colectomy has been reserved for cases in which there is still no response five to seven days after rescue therapy and in cases of complications (toxic megacolon, profuse hemorrhage and perforation). Patients with a good response to rescue therapy who do not undergo emergency operations should be considered for maintenance therapy using

  18. Platelet-Derived CCL5 Regulates CXC Chemokine Formation and Neutrophil Recruitment in Acute Experimental Colitis.

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    Yu, Changhui; Zhang, Songen; Wang, Yongzhi; Zhang, Su; Luo, Lingtao; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2016-02-01

    Accumulating data suggest that platelets not only regulate thrombosis and haemostasis but also inflammatory processes. Platelets contain numerous potent pro-inflammatory compounds, including the chemokines CCL5 and CXCL4, although their role in acute colitis remains elusive. The aim of this study is to examine the role of platelets and platelet-derived chemokines in acute colitis. Acute colitis is induced in female Balb/c mice by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) for 5 days. Animals receive a platelet-depleting, anti-CCL5, anti-CXCL4, or a control antibody prior to DSS challenge. Colonic tissue is collected for quantification of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, CXCL5, CXCL2, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and CCL5 levels as well as morphological analyses. Platelet depletion reduce tissue damage and clinical disease activity index in DSS-exposed animals. Platelet depletion not only reduces levels of CXCL2 and CXCL5 but also levels of CCL5 in the inflamed colon. Immunoneutralization of CCL5 but not CXCL4 reduces tissue damage, CXC chemokine expression, and neutrophil recruitment in DSS-treated animals. These findings show that platelets play a key role in acute colitis by regulating CXC chemokine generation, neutrophil infiltration, and tissue damage in the colon. Moreover, our results suggest that platelet-derived CCL5 is an important link between platelet activation and neutrophil recruitment in acute colitis.

  19. Sesame oil accelerates healing of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced acute colitis by attenuating inflammation and fibrosis.

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    Periasamy, Srinivasan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2013-09-01

    Sesame oil is a component of traditional health food in Asian countries. Acute colitis is a form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with chronic inflammatory disorder of the bowel. The precise etiology of IBD remains unknown, but it is believed that an abnormal host response to endogenous antigens causes initial tissue injury with amplification of the immune response. We investigated the protective effect of sesame oil against 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis in rats. Rats were intracolonically instilled with TNBS (120 mg/kg) using a cannula to induce colitis and then orally gavaged with sesame oil (4 mL/kg for 7 days) to attenuate TNBS-induced acute colitis. The acute colitis activity index (ACAI) was assessed using the colon weight/length ratio (mg/cm), thickness, extension of lesion, diarrhea, and macroscopic and microscopic damage scores. In addition, the degree of inflammation, mucins, and fibrosis was assessed by measuring mast cells, CD68(+) cells, neutral mucin, acidic mucin, collagen, and laminin on day 8 after inducing acute colitis. All tested parameters except neutral mucins were significantly higher in TNBS-induced acute colitis. Sesame oil significantly decreased the degree of inflammation, fibrosis, and acidic mucin and increased neutral mucin. We conclude that sesame oil accelerates the healing of an inflamed colon by inhibiting inflammation, acidic mucin, and fibrosis in TNBS-induced acute colitis in rats.

  20. Orally Administered Enoxaparin Ameliorates Acute Colitis by Reducing Macrophage-Associated Inflammatory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh; Stewart, Niall; Peterson, Gregory M.; Gueven, Nuri; Patel, Rahul P.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. The currently available treatments are not effective in all patients, can be expensive and have potential to cause severe side effects. This prompts the need for new treatment modalities. Enoxaparin, a widely used antithrombotic agent, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and therefore we evaluated its therapeutic potential in a mouse model of colitis. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Mice were treated once daily with enoxaparin via oral or intraperitoneal administration and monitored for colitis activities. On termination (day 8), colons were collected for macroscopic evaluation and cytokine measurement, and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Oral but not intraperitoneal administration of enoxaparin significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. Oral enoxaparin-treated mice retained their body weight and displayed less diarrhea and fecal blood loss compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon weight in enoxaparin-treated mice was significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and edema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice showed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and the presence of edema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral enoxaparin. Reduced number of macrophages in the colon of oral enoxaparin-treated mice was accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Oral enoxaparin significantly reduces the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis in mice and could therefore represent a novel therapeutic option for the management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:26218284

  1. Development of perianal ulcer as a result of acute fulminant amoebic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takayuki Torigoe; Yoshifumi Nakayama; Koji Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute fulminant amoebic colitis that resulted in the development of a perianal ulcer in a 29-year-old Japanese homosexual man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).The patient was admitted to our hospital with a persistent perianal abscess that was refractory to antibiotic therapy administered at another hospital.On admission,we observed a giant ulcer in the perianal region.At first,cytomegalovirus colitis was suspected by blood investigations.Ganciclovir therapy was initiated; however,the patient developed necrosis of the skin around the anus during therapy.We only performed end-sigmoidostomy and necrotomy to avoid excessive surgical invasion.Histopathological examination of the surgical specimen revealed the presence of trophozoite amoebae,indicating a final diagnosis of acute fulminant amoebic colitis.The patient's postoperative course was favorable,and proctectomy of the residual rectum was performed 11 mo later.Amoebic colitis is one of the most severe complications affecting patients with AIDS.Particularly,acute fulminant amoebic colitis may result in a poor prognosis; therefore,staged surgical therapy as a less invasive procedure should be considered as one of the treatment options for these patients.

  2. Preventive use of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin to relieve symptoms of acute colitis.

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    Hijová, Emília; Šoltésová, Alena; Salaj, Rastislav; Kuzma, Jozef; Strojný, Ladislav; Bomba, Alojz; Gregová, Kristína

    2015-01-01

    The aim of presented study was to investigate the influence of Lactobacillus plantarum LS/07 and inulin on the activity of β-glucuronidase enzyme, and counts of coliform and lactobacilli in fresh caecal digesta, cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-8), and trancription nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB) activities in colon tissue and blood samples of rats with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) induced acute colitis. The rats were randomly divided into four groups - CG, AC, AC+PRE and AC+PRO. Colitis was induced using of 5% DSS in drinking water for 7d. DSS application increased activity of β-glucuronidase (P LS/07 decreased β-glucuronidase activity (P LS/07 and inulin suppressed expression observed markers, which play an important role in the inflammatory process, which predisposes their use in prevention or treatment of acute colitis.

  3. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis.

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    Zhang, Wei; Xu, Li; Cho, Si-Young; Min, Kyung-Jin; Oda, Tatsuya; Zhang, LiJun; Yu, Qing; Jin, Jun-O

    2016-04-05

    This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB) as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3%) for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg) once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103(-)CD11c⁺ dendritic cells (cDCs), and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103⁺CD11c⁺ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3⁺ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  4. Jumihaidokuto effectively inhibits colon inflammation and apoptosis in mice with acute colitis.

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    Sreedhar, Remya; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Mst Rejina; Harima, Meilei; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-12-01

    Jumihaidokuto, a Japanese kampo medicine, is prescribed in Japan for its anti-inflammatory activity. Here we have examined its beneficial effects against acute colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in mice. We have used C57BL/6 female mice, divided into two groups and received 3% DSS in drinking water during the experimental period (8days). Treatment group mice received 1g/kg/day dose of Jumihaidokuto orally whereas DSS control group received equal volume of distilled water. Normal control group mice received plain drinking water. Jumihaidokuto treatment attenuated the colitis symptoms along with suppression of various inflammatory marker proteins such as IL-1β, IL-2Rα, IL-4, CTGF and RAGE. It has also down-regulated the oxidative stress and apoptotic signaling in the colons of mice with colitis. The present study has confirmed the beneficial effects of Jumihaidokuto on DSS induced acute colitis in mice and suggests that it can be a potential agent for the treatment of colitis.

  5. Ginseng Berry Extract Attenuates Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Acute and Chronic Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the in vivo functions of ginseng berry extract (GB as a therapy for dextran sodium sulfate (DSS-induced colitis. C57BL/6 mice were given drinking water containing DSS (3% for eight days to induce acute colitis. At the same time, the mice received an oral dose of GB (50 mg/kg once daily. The GB-treated mice were less susceptible to the development of acute colitis than were control mice treated with saline, as determined by weight loss, disease activity, and colon histology. The administration of GB to DSS-treated mice also reduced the numbers and inhibited the activation of colon-infiltrating T cells, neutrophils, intestinal CD103−CD11c+ dendritic cells (cDCs, and macrophages. In addition, GB treatment promoted the migration of CD103+CD11c+ cDCs and expansion of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the colons of DSS-treated mice. Similarly, in the DSS-induced chronic colitis model, GB treatment improved the macroscopic and histological appearance of the colon wall when compared to untreated control mice, as indicated by longer colon length and lower histological scores. This is the first report to show that oral administration of GB suppresses immune activation and protects against experimentally induced colitis.

  6. Does infliximab prevent colectomy in acute and chronic active ulcerative colitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dan-Nielsen, Steffen; Wewer, Anne Vibeke; Paerregaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to evaluate clinical response, use of colectomy, and adverse events related to infliximab (IFX) treatment in acute and chronic active ulcerative colitis (UC) in children. METHODS: Children from 3 centers, who had received IFX for UC, were identified, and patie...

  7. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system prevents acute and immunologically relevant colitis in murine models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okawada, Manabu; Wilson, Michael W; Larsen, Scott D; Lipka, Elke; Hillfinger, John; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2016-12-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to alleviate inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine if blockade of the RAS would be effective in an immunologically relevant colitis model, and to compare outcome with an acute colitis model. A losartan analog, CCG-203025 (C23H26ClN3O5S) containing a highly polar sulfonic acid moiety that we expected would allow localized mucosal antagonism with minimal systemic absorption was selected as an angiotensin II type 1a receptor antagonist (AT1aR-A). Two colitis models were studied: (1) Acute colitis was induced in 8- to 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice by 2.5 % dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, in drinking water) for 7 days. (2) IL10-/-colitis Piroxicam (200 ppm) was administered orally in feed to 5-week-old IL-10-/-mice (C57BL/6J background) for 14 days followed by enalaprilat (ACE-I), CCG-203025 or PBS administered transanally for 14 days. In the DSS model, weight loss and histologic score for CCG-203025 were better than with placebo. In the IL10-/-model, ACE-I suppressed histologic damage better than CCG-203025. Both ACE-I and CCG-203025 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This study demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of both ACE-I and AT1aR-A for preventing the development of both acute and immunologically relevant colitis.

  8. The antiprotozoal drug pentamidine ameliorates experimentally induced acute colitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esposito Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intestinal inflammation is partly driven by enteroglial-derived S100B protein. The antiprotozoal drug pentamidine directly blocks S100B activity. We aimed to investigate the effect of pentamidine on intestinal inflammation using an animal model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS-induced acute colitis. Methods Mice were divided into: control group, colitis group (4% DSS for four days and two pentamidine-treated colitis groups (0.8 mg/kg and 4 mg/kg. Anti-inflammatory effect of pentamidine was assessed in colonic tissue by evaluating the disease activity index and the severity of histological changes. Colonic tissue were also used to evaluate cyclooxigenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, S100B, glial fibrillary acidic protein, phosphorylated-p38 MAPkinase, p50, p65 protein expression, malondyaldheyde production, mieloperoxidase activity, and macrophage infiltration. Nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, interleukin-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor alpha, and S100B levels were detected in plasma samples. Parallel measurements were performed in vitro on dissected mucosa and longitudinal muscle myenteric plexus (LMMP preparations after challenge with LPS + DSS or exogenous S100B protein in the presence or absence of pentamidine. Results Pentamidine treatment significantly ameliorated the severity of acute colitis in mice, as showed by macroscopic evaluation and histological/biochemical assays in colonic tissues and in plasma. Pentamidine effect on inflammatory mediators was almost completely abrogated in dissected mucosa but not in LMMP. Conclusions Pentamidine exerts a marked anti-inflammatory effect in a mice model of acute colitis, likely targeting S100B activity. Pentamidine might be an innovative molecule to broaden pharmacological tools against colitis.

  9. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Acute Colitis in the Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jérôme C; Bériou, Gaëlle; Josien, Régis

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are complex multifactorial disease thought to result from inappropriate immune responses to the gut microbiota, in genetically susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors. Among the different animal models developed to help in understanding IBDs pathophysiological mechanisms as well as to achieve pharmacological preclinical studies, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most widely used because of its simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and similarity with human IBDs. This section provides with a detailed protocol that we validated in our laboratory to perform DSS-induced acute colitis in the Sprague-Dawley (SPD) rat.

  10. Fermented herbal formula KIOM-MA-128 protects against acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Gun; Lee, Mi-Ra; Yoo, Jae-Myung; Park, Kwang-Il; Ma, Jin-Yeul

    2017-07-05

    Colitis is a well-known subtype of inflammatory bowel disease and is caused by diverse factors. Previous research has shown that KIOM-MA elicits anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects on various diseases. KIOM-MA-128, our novel herbal formula, was generated from KIOM-MA using probiotics to improve the therapeutic efficacy. We investigated whether KIOM-MA-128 has protective activity in a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Colitis was induced by DSS administered to ICR mice in drinking water. KIOM-MA-128 (125 or 250 mg/kg) was orally administered once per day. The body weights of the mice were measured daily, and colonic endoscopies were performed at 5 and 8 days. Colon length as well as histological and cytokine changes were observed at the end of drug administration. KIOM-MA-128 has pharmacological activity in an acute colitis model. KIOM-MA-128 reduced the loss of body weight and disease activity index (DAI) and inhibited the abnormally short colon lengths and the colonic damage in this mouse model of acute colitis. Moreover, KIOM-MA-128 suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and maintained the integrity of the tight junctions during DSS-induced colitis. The results indicated that KIOM-MA-128 protects against DSS-induced colitis in mice and suggested that this formula might be a candidate treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

  11. Elevated IL-23R Expression and Foxp3+Rorgt+ Cells in Intestinal Mucosa During Acute and Chronic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiayin; Xu, Lili

    2016-08-08

    BACKGROUND IL-23/IL-23R signaling plays a pivotal role during the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly characterized. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells are critical in the maintenance of gut immune homeostasis and therefore are important in preventing the development of IBD. This study was performed to clarify the association between IL-23/IL-23R signaling and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in colitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Acute and chronic mouse colitis models were established by administering mice DSS in drinking water. IL-23R, IL-23, IL-I7, and IFN-γ expression level, as well as regulatory T cell, Th17-, and Th1-related transcription factors Foxp3, RORgt, and T-bet were assayed by real-time PCR. The frequency of Foxp3+ RORγt+ cells in a Foxp3+ cell population in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis was evaluated through flow cytometry. The signaling pathway mediated by IL-23R in the colon mucosa from acute colitis mice and chronic colitis mice was monitored by Western blot analysis. RESULTS We detected elevated IL-23R, IL-23, and IFN-γ expression in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis and found increased IL-17 in acute colitis mice. Transcription factors Foxp3 and T-bet were elevated in colon mucosa during acute and chronic colitis. Phosphorylation of Stat3 was greatly enhanced, indicating the activation of IL-23R function in colitis mice. The percentage of Foxp3+ T cells in acute and chronic colitis mice was comparable to control mice, but there was a 2-fold increase of Foxp3+ RORγt+ cells among the Foxp3+ cell population in acute and chronic colitis mice compared to control mice. CONCLUSIONS These findings indicate that the induction of Foxp3+ RORgt+ T cells could be enhanced during inflammation in the intestine where IL-23R expression is greatly induced. Our study highlights the importance of IL-23R expression level and the instability of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the development of

  12. The expression of REG 1A and REG 1B is increased during acute amebic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kristine M; Guo, Xiaoti; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Mondal, Dinesh; Bardhan, Pradip K; Sugawara, Akira; Duggal, Priya; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A

    2011-09-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, a protozoan parasite, is an important cause of diarrhea and colitis in the developing world. Amebic colitis is characterized by ulceration of the intestinal mucosa. We performed microarray analysis of intestinal biopsies during acute and convalescent amebiasis in order to identify genes potentially involved in tissue injury or repair. Colonic biopsy samples were obtained from 8 patients during acute E. histolytica colitis and again 60 days after recovery. Gene expression in the biopsies was evaluated using microarray, and confirmed by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). REG 1A and REG 1B were the most up-regulated of all genes in the human intestine in acute versus convalescent E. histolytica disease: as determined by microarray, the levels of induction were 7.4-fold and 10.7 fold for REG 1A and B; p=0.003 and p=0.006 respectively. Increased expression of REG 1A and REG 1B protein in the colonic crypt epithelial cells during acute amebiasis was similarly observed by immunohistochemistry. Because REG 1 protein is anti-apoptotic and pro-proliferative, and since E. histolytica induces apoptosis of the intestinal epithelium as part of its disease process, we next tested if REG 1 might be protective during amebiasis by preventing parasite-induced apoptosis. Intestinal epithelial cells from REG 1-/- mice were found to be more susceptible to spontaneous, and parasite-induced, apoptosis in vitro (p=0.03). We concluded that REG 1A and REG 1B were upregulated during amebiasis and may function to protect the intestinal epithelium from parasite-induced apoptosis. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  13. [Amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by high serum procalcitonin in acute myeloid leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oku, Eijiro; Nomura, Kei; Nakamura, Takayuki; Morishige, Satoshi; Seki, Ritsuko; Imamura, Rie; Hashiguchi, Michitoshi; Osaki, Kouichi; Mizuno, Shinichi; Nagafuji, Koji; Okamura, Takashi

    2012-11-01

    We present a case of amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with high serum procalcitonin (PCT). A 61-year-old Japanese man seen at our hospital for severe diarrhea and high fever was found to have multiple ulcers in the transverse and sigmoid colon and rectum by colonoscopy and biopsies were conducted. Immature leukocytes with mild anemia and thrombocytopenia were seen in peripheral blood, necessitating bone marrow aspiration and biopsy that yielded a diagnosis of AML (FAB M4Eo). Serum C-reactive protein and PCT were extremely elevated. Blood cultures for bacteria and fungi were negative. Multiple low-density areas in the liver were found in abdominal computed tomography. Histological colon biopsy findings revealed amebic colitis, strongly suggesting amebic liver abscess. Metronidazole treatment was initiated for amebiasis and subsequent standard chemotherapy for AML was followed after fever was lowered. Hematological and cytogenetic CR was maintained with good clinical condition. Few case reports have been published in Japan to date on amebic colitis and liver abscess complicated by AML and no reports have been made on PCT elevation caused by amebiasis. In conclusion, differential diagnosis of amebiasis is necessary in addition to that of bacterial or fungal infection in serum PCT elevation.

  14. Absence of intestinal PPARγ aggravates acute infectious colitis in mice through a lipocalin-2-dependent pathway.

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    Parag Kundu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To be able to colonize its host, invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must disrupt and severely affect host-microbiome homeostasis. Here we report that S. Typhimurium induces acute infectious colitis by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Interestingly, this PPARγ down-regulation by S. Typhimurium is independent of TLR-4 signaling but triggers a marked elevation of host innate immune response genes, including that encoding the antimicrobial peptide lipocalin-2 (Lcn2. Accumulation of Lcn2 stabilizes the metalloproteinase MMP-9 via extracellular binding, which further aggravates the colitis. Remarkably, when exposed to S. Typhimurium, Lcn2-null mice exhibited a drastic reduction of the colitis and remained protected even at later stages of infection. Our data suggest a mechanism in which S. Typhimurium hijacks the control of host immune response genes such as those encoding PPARγ and Lcn2 to acquire residence in a host, which by evolution has established a symbiotic relation with its microbiome community to prevent pathogen invasion.

  15. Dietary unsaponifiable fraction from extra virgin olive oil supplementation attenuates acute ulcerative colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Villegas, I; Rosillo, M A; de la Lastra, C Alarcón

    2013-02-14

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has demonstrated immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory properties in murine experimental ulcerative colitis (UC). In addition to its high monounsaturated fatty acid content, evidences have accumulated on the favorable properties of minor, although highly bioactive, components present in the unsaponifiable fraction (UF). The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary EVOO's UF supplementation on acute UC. C57BL/6 mice were fed from weaning with sunflower oil (SD), EVOO diet and UF-enriched SD at 5% oil (SD+UF). After 30 days, mice were exposed to 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days developing acute colitis. After 4 days of DSS removal, animals were sacrificed and colons were histological and biochemically processed. Disease activity index and microscopic damage score were significantly improved in EVOO and SD+UF dietary groups versus SD group. In addition, both dietary treatments significantly induced decreases in MCP-1 and TNF-α levels, iNOS and COX-2 overexpression and p38 MAPKs activation in colon mucosa. Moreover, an upregulation of IκB expression was also observed after feeding the animals with both diets. However, no statistically differences between data from mice fed with EVOO or UF+SD diets were observed. Dietary enrichment with EVOO's UF reduces the damage in acute colitis model, alleviating the oxidative events and returning proinflammatory proteins expression to basal levels probably through p38 MAPK and NFκB signalling pathways. EVOO's UF diet might provide a basis for developing a new strategy in dietary supplementation for the prevention of UC.

  16. A case of acute ischemic colitis after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grigorios Voulalas; Chrisostomos Maltezos

    2016-01-01

    Colonic ischemia is a recognized complication of either open or endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. The clinical difficulty in establishing the diagnosis, the severity of this complication and the patient's poor physiological status may lead to a fatal outcome. We presented a case of ischemic colitis in a patient with patent hypogastric arteries that occurred after an endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair as well as a review of the available literature. The patient's preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data were recorded. A thorough search through the Google data and Medline to review similar cases or any analyses that referred to ischemic colitis after endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair was conducted. A 76-year-old male was admitted to our department for an elective endovascular repair of an 8 cm in diameter abdominal aortic aneurysm. A Zenith bifurcation graft was implanted. The whole procedure was uneventful and the final angiogram showed an accurate deployment of the endograft without endoleaks and patency of both hypogastric arteries. During the 1st postoperative day, the patient developed symptoms of acute abdomen in combination with metabolic acidosis and oliguria. He underwent an exploratory laparotomy, which revealed necrosis of the sig-moid. A Hartmann's procedure was performed;the patient was transferred to the intensive care unit where he deceased after 24 h. Postoperative ischemic colitis has been described after open abdominal aneurysm repair. The description of this complication has been reported since the early phase of endovascular abdominal aneurysm repair development with a current incidence of 1.5%–3.0%. Possible mechanisms that may contribute to ischemic colitis in spite of the presence of patent hypogastric arteries include athe-roembolization, shock, vasopressive drugs and inferior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  17. Localized pseudomembranous colitis in the cecum and ascending colon mimicking acute appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chyung, Ju Won; Shin, Dong Gue

    2013-05-27

    A 61-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to right lower abdominal pain and watery diarrhea for 3 d. Beginning 3 wk before he arrived in our hospital, he took 3(rd)-generation cephalosporin (cefixime) for 2 wk due to chronic left ear otitis media. Colonoscopic examination revealed yellowish patches of ulcerations and swelling covered with thick serosanguineous exudate in the cecum and ascending colon. After 7 d of oral metronidazole treatment, his symptoms completely disappeared. We report a case of localized pseudomembranous colitis in the cecum and ascending colon mimicking acute appendicitis associated with cefixime.

  18. MAR binding protein SMAR1 favors IL-10 mediated regulatory T cell function in acute colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Patil, Sachin [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Bopanna, Ramanamurthy [Experimental Animal Facility, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Chattopadhyay, Samit, E-mail: samit@nccs.res.in [Chromatin and Disease Biology Laboratory, National Centre for Cell Science, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)

    2015-08-21

    T{sub reg} cells are not only crucial for controlling immune responses to autoantigens but also prevent those directed towards commensal pathogens. Control of effector immune responses by T{sub reg} cells depend on their capacity to accumulate at inflammatory site and accordingly accommodate to inflammatory environment. Till date, the factors associated with maintaining these aspects of T{sub reg} phenotype is not understood properly. Here we have shown that a known nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1 is selectively expressed more in colonic T{sub reg} cells and is required for their ability to accumulate at inflammatory site and to sustain high levels of Foxp3 and IL-10 expression during acute colitis. Elimination of anti-inflammatory subsets revealed a protective role for IL-10 producing T{sub reg} cells in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. Moreover, a combined action of Foxp3 and SMAR1 restricts effector cytokine production and enhance the production of IL-10 by colonic T{sub reg} cells that controls acute colitis. This data highlights a critical role of SMAR1 in maintaining T{sub reg} physiology during inflammatory disorders. - Highlights: • SMAR1 is essential to sustain high level of Foxp3 and IL-10 in T{sub reg} cells. • SMAR1{sup −/−} T{sub reg} cells produce pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-17 leads to inflammation. • IL-10 administration can control the inflammation in SMAR1{sup −/−} mice. • Both Foxp3 and SMAR1 maintain T{sub reg} phenotype that controls colitis.

  19. Preventive effect of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana on the acute phase of experimental colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila-Román, Javier; Talero, Elena; Alcaide, Antonio; Reyes, Carolina de Los; Zubía, Eva; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Motilva, Virginia

    2014-10-14

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of intestinal mucosa. Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Microalgae are rich sources of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins. Oxylipins are lipid mediators involved in the resolution of many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the oxylipin-containing biomass of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana and its major oxylipin constituent, (9Z,11E,13S,15Z)-13-hydroxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoic acid ((13S)-HOTE), on acute 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Lyophilised microalgal biomass and (13S)-HOTE were administered by oral route 48, 24 and 1 h before the induction of colitis and 24 h later, and the rats were killed after 48 h. The treatment with the lyophilised microalga and (13S)-HOTE improved body-weight loss and colon shortening, as well as attenuated the extent of colonic damage and increased mucus production. Cellular neutrophil infiltration, with the subsequent increase in myeloperoxidase levels induced by TNBS, were also reduced after the administration of the lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE. The anti-inflammatory effects of these treatments were confirmed by the inhibition of colonic TNF-α production. Moreover, lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE down-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The present study was the first to show the prophylactic effects of a lyophilised biomass sample of the microalga C. debaryana and the oxylipin (13S)-HOTE on TNBS-induced acute colitis in rats. Our findings suggest that the microalga C. debaryana or derived oxylipins could be used as nutraceuticals in the treatment of the active phase of IBD.

  20. IL-33 Aggravates DSS-Induced Acute Colitis in Mouse Colon Lamina Propria by Enhancing Th2 Cell Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Sang, Lixuan; Zhai, Jingbo; Zhang, Xiaoqing; Yue, Dan; Li, Shengjun; Li, Yan; Lu, Changlong; Sun, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Interleukin- (IL-) 33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is an important modulator of the immune system associated with several immune-mediated diseases. IL-33 was expressed in high level on epithelial cells of intestinal tract. It suggested that IL-33 plays a potential role in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). We investigated the role of interleukin- (IL-) 33 in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced acute colitis in mice using recombinant mouse IL-33 protein (rIL-33). We found that DSS-induced acute colitis was aggravated by rIL-33 treatment. rIL-33-treated DSS mice showed markedly reduced levels of interferon- (IFN-)γ and IL-17A in their colon lamina propria lymphocytes (LPL), but the levels of Th2 cytokines, such as IL-5 and IL-13, in these cells were significantly increased, compared to DSS mice treated with PBS. Our results suggested that IL-33 stimulated CD4(+)T cells and caused the cell to adopt a Th2-type response but at the same time suppressed Th17 and Th1 cell responses. Therefore, IL-33 may be involved in pathogenesis of DSS-induced acute colitis by promoting Th2 cell response in intestinal mucosa of mice. Modulation of IL-33/ST2 signaling by monoclonal antibody (mAb) could be a novel biological therapy in DSS-induced acute colitis.

  1. CT Findings in Acute, Subacute, and Chronic Ischemic Colitis: Suggestions for Diagnosis

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    Francesca Iacobellis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This paper aims at evaluating CT findings of occlusive and nonocclusive ischemic colitis (IC, in correlation with the etiology and the different phases of the disease. Materials and Methods. CT examination and clinical history of 32 patients with proven IC were retrospectively reviewed. The CT findings were analyzed according to the different phases of the disease (acute, subacute, and chronic. Results. Among the 32 CT examinations performed in the acute phase, 62.5% did not present signs of occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA or inferior mesenteric artery (IMA, whereas IMA occlusion was detected in 37.5% of CT examinations. In the acute phase, the presence of pericolic fluid was found in 100% of patients undergoing progressive resorption from acute to subacute phase if an effective reperfusion occurred; the bowel wall thickening was observed in 28.1% patients in acute phase and in 86.4% patients evaluated in subacute phase. The unthickened colonic wall was found in all conditions where ischemia was not followed by effective reperfusion (71.9% of cases, and it was never found in chronic phase, when the colon appeared irregularly thickened. Conclusion. CT allows determining the morphofunctional alterations associated with the IC discriminating the occlusive forms from the nonocclusive forms. CT, furthermore, allows estimating the timing of ischemic damage.

  2. Shift towards pro-inflammatory intestinal bacteria aggravates acute murine colitis via Toll-like receptors 2 and 4.

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    Markus M Heimesaat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gut bacteria trigger colitis in animal models and are suspected to aggravate inflammatory bowel diseases. We have recently reported that Escherichia coli accumulates in murine ileitis and exacerbates small intestinal inflammation via Toll-like receptor (TLR signaling. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because knowledge on shifts in the intestinal microflora during colitis is limited, we performed a global survey of the colon flora of C57BL/10 wild-type (wt, TLR2(-/-, TLR4(-/-, and TLR2/4(-/- mice treated for seven days with 3.5% dextrane-sulfate-sodium (DSS. As compared to wt animals, TLR2(-/-, TLR4(-/-, and TLR2/4(-/- mice displayed reduced macroscopic signs of acute colitis and the amelioration of inflammation was associated with reduced IFN-gamma levels in mesenteric lymph nodes, lower amounts of neutrophils, and less FOXP3-positive T-cells in the colon in situ. During acute colitis E. coli increased in wt and TLR-deficient mice (P<0.05, but the final numbers reached were significantly lower in TLR2(-/-, TLR4(-/- and TLR2/4(-/- animals, as compared to wt controls (P<0.01. Concentrations of Bacteroides/ Prevotella spp., and enterococci did not increase during colitis, but their numbers were significantly reduced in the colon of DSS-treated TLR2/4(-/- animals (P<0.01. Numbers of lactobacilli and clostridia remained unaffected by colitis, irrespective of the TLR-genotype of mice. Culture-independent molecular analyses confirmed the microflora shifts towards enterobacteria during colitis and showed that the gut flora composition was similar in both, healthy wt and TLR-deficient animals. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: DSS-induced colitis is characterized by a shift in the intestinal microflora towards pro-inflammatory Gram-negative bacteria. Bacterial products exacerbate acute inflammation via TLR2- and TLR4-signaling and direct the recruitment of neutrophils and regulatory T-cells to intestinal sites. E. coli may serve as a biomarker

  3. CCL25/CCR9 interactions regulate large intestinal inflammation in a murine model of acute colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc-Andre Wurbel

    Full Text Available CCL25/CCR9 is a non-promiscuous chemokine/receptor pair and a key regulator of leukocyte migration to the small intestine. We investigated here whether CCL25/CCR9 interactions also play a role in the regulation of inflammatory responses in the large intestine.Acute inflammation and recovery in wild-type (WT and CCR9(-/- mice was studied in a model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis. Distribution studies and phenotypic characterization of dendritic cell subsets and macrophage were performed by flow cytometry. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD scores were assessed and expression of inflammatory cytokines was studied at the mRNA and the protein level.CCL25 and CCR9 are both expressed in the large intestine and are upregulated during DSS colitis. CCR9(-/- mice are more susceptible to DSS colitis than WT littermate controls as shown by higher mortality, increased IBD score and delayed recovery. During recovery, the CCR9(-/- colonic mucosa is characterized by the accumulation of activated macrophages and elevated levels of Th1/Th17 inflammatory cytokines. Activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs accumulate in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs of CCR9(-/- animals, altering the local ratio of DC subsets. Upon re-stimulation, T cells isolated from these MLNs secrete significantly higher levels of TNFα, IFNγ, IL2, IL-6 and IL-17A while down modulating IL-10 production.Our results demonstrate that CCL25/CCR9 interactions regulate inflammatory immune responses in the large intestinal mucosa by balancing different subsets of dendritic cells. These findings have important implications for the use of CCR9-inhibitors in therapy of human IBD as they indicate a potential risk for patients with large intestinal inflammation.

  4. Pseudomembranous colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antibiotic-associated colitis; Colitis - pseudomembranous; Necrotizing colitis; C difficile - pseudomembranous ... this bacteria from 1 person to another. Pseudomembranous colitis is uncommon in children, and rare in infants. ...

  5. Repeated measurements of blood lactate concentration as a prognostic marker in horses with acute colitis evaluated with classification and regression trees (CART) and random forest analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M B; Tolver, A; Husted, L; Tølbøll, T H; Pihl, T H

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic value of single and repeated measurements of blood l-lactate (Lac) and ionised calcium (iCa) concentrations, packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma total protein (TP) concentration in horses with acute colitis. A total of 66 adult horses admitted with acute colitis (2 mmol/L (sensitivity, 0.72; specificity, 0.8). In conclusion, blood lactate concentration measured at admission and repeated 6 h later aided the prognostic evaluation of horses with acute colitis in this population with a very high mortality rate. This should allow clinicians to give a more reliable prognosis for the horse.

  6. Effect of acute and chronic DSS induced colitis on plasma eicosanoid and oxylipin levels in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willenberg, Ina; Ostermann, Annika I; Giovannini, Samoa; Kershaw, Olivia; von Keutz, Anne; Steinberg, Pablo; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-07-01

    Eicosanoids and oxylipins are potent lipid mediators involved in the regulation of inflammation. In order to evaluate their role and suitability as biomarkers in colitis, we analyzed their systemic levels in the acute and chronic phase of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis. Male Fischer 344 rats were treated in three cycles with 4% DSS in the drinking water (4 days followed by 10 days recovery) and blood was drawn 3 days prior to the first DSS treatment and on days 4, 11, 32 and 39. Histopathological evaluation of the colon tissue after 42 days showed that the animals developed a mild to severe chronic colitis. Consistently, prostaglandin levels were massively (twofold) elevated in the colonic tissue. LC-MS based targeted metabolomics was used to determine plasma oxylipin levels at the different time points. In the acute phase of inflammation directly after DSS treatment, epoxy-fatty acid (FA), dihydroxy-FA and hydroxy-FA plasma concentrations were uniformly elevated. With each treatment cycle the increase in these oxylipin levels was more pronounced. Our data suggest that in the acute phase of colitis release of polyunsaturated FAs from membranes in the inflamed tissue is reflected by a uniform increase of oylipins formed in different branches of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, during the recovery phases the systemic oxylipin pattern is not or only moderately altered and does not allow to evaluate the onset of chronic inflammation in the colon.

  7. Loss of n-6 fatty acid induced pediatric obesity protects against acute murine colitis

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    Dietary influences may affect microbiome composition and host immune responses, thereby modulating propensity toward inflammatory bowel diseases: Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. Dietary n-6 fatty acids have been associated with ulcetative colitis in prospective studies. However, the critical d...

  8. Successful Colectomy for Hemorrhagic Colitis with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Acute Encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tominaga, Tetsuro; Oikawa, Masahiro; Takeshita, Hiroaki; Kunizaki, Masaki; Tou, Kazuo; Abo, Takafumi; Hidaka, Shigekazu; Nanashima, Atsushi; Sawai, Terumitsu; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old man was admitted to a primary care hospital due to bloody diarrhea. The findings of abdominal computed tomography indicated ischemic colitis, so conservative therapy was started. On the 4th hospital day, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of renal dysfunction. Physical examination showed clouding of consciousness and abdominal distention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed massive ascites and thickening of the whole colonic wall. With a diagnosis of acute abdomen, an emergent laparotomy was performed. Extended right hemicolectomy was performed because of severe ischemic change and necrosis of the right side of the colon. In the stool culture before the operation, Escherichia coli O157 and verotoxin were found, so this case was diagnosed as hemorrhagic colitis with hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 infection. Postoperatively, the hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy were prolonged. However, with intensive care, the patient recovered and was discharged on the 33rd postoperative day.

  9. Pseudomembranous collagenous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shan; Reyes, Victoria; Bronner, Mary P

    2003-10-01

    The classic clinical and histologic features of collagenous colitis are well characterized; however, the acute or neutrophilic inflammatory changes that may accompany this entity are less well established. In this report of 10 patients, we describe the first series of pseudomembranous collagenous colitis. Because superimposed Clostridium difficile infection was only demonstrated in one patient and no other causes of pseudomembranous colitis were evident in the remaining nine patients, we conclude that pseudomembranes are part of the spectrum of collagenous colitis itself. This case series illustrates the importance of searching for collagenous colitis in the evaluation of pseudomembranous colitis. At the same time, superimposed infectious or ischemic etiologies need to be excluded clinically in any patient with superimposed pseudomembranes. The existence of pseudomembranes in collagenous colitis also lends support to the hypothesis that toxin- and/or ischemia-mediated injury may be involved in the pathogenesis of collagenous colitis.

  10. Effects of dosmalfate, a new cytoprotective agent, on acute and chronic trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas, Isabel; La Casa, Carmen; Orjales, Aurelio; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2003-01-24

    Activated neutrophils and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are clearly involved in the pathogenesis of bowel disease. Increased expression of epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF receptor) has been reported for the colon mucosa surrounding areas of ulceration, suggesting a pivotal role in mucosal defence and repair. In this study, we examined the effects of dosmalfate, a new flavonoid derivative compound (diosmin heptakis) with antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, on acute and chronic experimental trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. The inflammation response was assessed by neutrophil infiltration as evaluated by histology and myeloperoxidase activity. Mucosal TNF-alpha production and histological analysis of the lesions was also carried out. In addition, we studied the expression of the EGF receptor inmunohistochemically during the healing of TNBS-induced chronic colitis. A 2-day treatment with 400 or 800 mg/kg of dosmalfate ameliorated the colon damage score and the incidence of adhesions. It also significantly (P<0.05) decreased myeloperoxidase activity and colonic mucosal production of TNF-alpha. Chronic treatment (14 days) with 800 mg/kg/day of dosmalfate also had significant protective effects on TNBS-induced colitis which were reflected by significant attenuation (P<0.05) of the damage score while the inflammatory indicators were not improved. The chronic beneficial effect of dosmalfate was apparently related to the enhancement of EGF receptor expression. These findings confirm the protective effects of dosmalfate in acute and chronic experimental colitis.

  11. Preventive rather than therapeutic treatment with high fiber diet attenuates clinical and inflammatory markers of acute and chronic DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Ana Letícia Malheiros; Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos; de Oliveira, Marina Chaves; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga; da Cunha Sousa, Larissa Fonseca; Dos Santos Martins, Flaviano; Gomes-Santos, Ana Cristina; Vieira, Angelica Thomaz; Teixeira, Mauro Martins

    2017-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders with important impact on global health. Prebiotic and probiotic strategies are thought to be useful in the context of experimental IBD. Here, we compared the effects of preventive versus therapeutic treatment with a high fiber diet (prebiotic) in combination or not with Bifidobacterium longum (probiotic) in a murine model of chronic colitis. Colitis was induced by adding dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to drinking water for 6 days (acute colitis) or for 5 cycles of DSS (chronic colitis). Administration of the high fiber diet protected from acute colitis. Protection was optimal when diet was started 20 days prior to DSS. A 5-day pretreatment with acetate, a short-chain fatty acid, provided partial protection against acute colitis. In chronic colitis, pretreatment with the high fiber diet attenuated clinical and inflammatory parameters of disease. However, when the treatment with the high fiber diet started after disease had been established, overall protection was minimal. Similarly, delayed treatment with acetate or B. longum did not provide any protection even when the probiotic was associated with the high fiber diet. Preventive use of a high fiber diet or acetate clearly protects mice against acute and chronic damage induced by DSS in mice. However, protection is lost when therapies are initiated after disease has been established. These results suggest that any therapy aimed at modifying the gut environment (e.g., prebiotic or probiotic strategies) should be given early in the course of disease.

  12. Telmisartan treatment targets inflammatory cytokines to suppress the pathogenesis of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Somasundaram; Sreedhar, Remya; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Pitchaimani, Vigneshwaran; Afrin, Mst Rejina; Miyashita, Shizuka; Nomoto, Mayumi; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takashi; Nakamura, Masahiko; Suzuki, Kenji; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2015-08-01

    The renin angiotensin system (RAS) is essential for the regulation of cardiovascular and renal functions to maintain the fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. Recent studies have demonstrated a locally expressed RAS in various tissues of mammals, which is having pathophysiological roles in those organ system. Interestingly, local RAS has important role during the inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis. Further to delineate its role and also to identify the potential effects of telmisartan, an angiotensin receptor blocker, we have used a mouse model of acute colitis induced by dextran sulphate sodium. We have used 0.01 and 5mg/kg body weight doses of telmisartan and administered as enema to facilitate the on-site action and to reduce the systemic adverse effects. Telmisartan high dose treatment significantly reduced the disease activity index score when compared with the colitis control mice. In addition, oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress markers expression were also significantly reduced when compared with the colitis control mice. Subsequent experiments were carried out to investigate some of the mechanisms underlying its anti-inflammatory effects and identified that the mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor α, interleukin 1β, interleukin 6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 as well as cellular DNA damage were significantly suppressed when compared with the colitis control mice. Similarly the apoptosis marker proteins such as cleaved caspase 3 and 7 levels were down-regulated and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 level was significantly upregulated by telmisartan treatment. These results indicate that blockade of RAS by telmisartan can be an effective therapeutic option against acute colitis.

  13. Successful Colectomy for Hemorrhagic Colitis with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Acute Encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Tetsuro Tominaga; Masahiro Oikawa; Hiroaki Takeshita; Masaki Kunizaki; Kazuo Tou; Takafumi Abo; Shigekazu Hidaka; Atsushi Nanashima; Terumitsu Sawai; Takeshi Nagayasu

    2014-01-01

    An 81-year-old man was admitted to a primary care hospital due to bloody diarrhea. The findings of abdominal computed tomography indicated ischemic colitis, so conservative therapy was started. On the 4th hospital day, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of renal dysfunction. Physical examination showed clouding of consciousness and abdominal distention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed massive ascites and thickening of the whole colonic wall. With a diagnosis of acute a...

  14. P2X3 Receptors Mediate Visceral Hypersensitivity during Acute Chemically-Induced Colitis and in the Post-Inflammatory Phase via Different Mechanisms of Sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiteren, Annemie; van der Linden, Laura; de Wit, Anouk; Ceuleers, Hannah; Buckinx, Roeland; Timmermans, Jean-Pierre; Moreels, Tom G.; Pelckmans, Paul A.; De Man, Joris G.; De Winter, Benedicte Y.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Experiments using P2X3 knock-out mice or more general P2X receptor antagonists suggest that P2X3 receptors contribute to visceral hypersensitivity. We aimed to investigate the effect of the selective P2X3 antagonist A-317491 on visceral sensitivity under physiological conditions, during acute colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase of colitis. Methods Trinitrobenzene sulphonic-acid colitis was monitored by colonoscopy: on day 3 to confirm the presence of colitis and then every 4 days, starting from day 10, to monitor convalescence and determine the exact timepoint of endoscopic healing in each rat. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying visceromotor responses to colorectal distension in controls, rats with acute colitis and post-colitis rats. A-317491 was administered 30 min prior to visceral sensitivity testing. Expression of P2X3 receptors (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry) and the intracellular signalling molecules cdk5, csk and CASK (RT-PCR) were quantified in colonic tissue and dorsal root ganglia. ATP release in response to colorectal distension was measured by luminiscence. Results Rats with acute TNBS-colitis displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently, but not fully, reversed by A-317491. Hypersenstivity was accompanied by an increased colonic release of ATP. Post-colitis rats also displayed visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently reduced and fully normalized by A-317491 without increased release of ATP. A-317491 did not modify visceral sensitivity in controls. P2X3 mRNA and protein expression in the colon and dorsal root ganglia were similar in control, acute colitis and post-colitis groups, while colonic mRNA expression of cdk5, csk and CASK was increased in the post-colitis group only. Conclusions These findings indicate that P2X3 receptors are not involved in sensory signaling under physiological conditions whereas they modulate visceral hypersensitivity during acute TNBS-colitis and even

  15. P2X3 receptors mediate visceral hypersensitivity during acute chemically-induced colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase via different mechanisms of sensitization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemie Deiteren

    Full Text Available Experiments using P2X3 knock-out mice or more general P2X receptor antagonists suggest that P2X3 receptors contribute to visceral hypersensitivity. We aimed to investigate the effect of the selective P2X3 antagonist A-317491 on visceral sensitivity under physiological conditions, during acute colitis and in the post-inflammatory phase of colitis.Trinitrobenzene sulphonic-acid colitis was monitored by colonoscopy: on day 3 to confirm the presence of colitis and then every 4 days, starting from day 10, to monitor convalescence and determine the exact timepoint of endoscopic healing in each rat. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying visceromotor responses to colorectal distension in controls, rats with acute colitis and post-colitis rats. A-317491 was administered 30 min prior to visceral sensitivity testing. Expression of P2X3 receptors (RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry and the intracellular signalling molecules cdk5, csk and CASK (RT-PCR were quantified in colonic tissue and dorsal root ganglia. ATP release in response to colorectal distension was measured by luminiscence.Rats with acute TNBS-colitis displayed significant visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently, but not fully, reversed by A-317491. Hypersenstivity was accompanied by an increased colonic release of ATP. Post-colitis rats also displayed visceral hypersensitivity that was dose-dependently reduced and fully normalized by A-317491 without increased release of ATP. A-317491 did not modify visceral sensitivity in controls. P2X3 mRNA and protein expression in the colon and dorsal root ganglia were similar in control, acute colitis and post-colitis groups, while colonic mRNA expression of cdk5, csk and CASK was increased in the post-colitis group only.These findings indicate that P2X3 receptors are not involved in sensory signaling under physiological conditions whereas they modulate visceral hypersensitivity during acute TNBS-colitis and even more so in the post

  16. Safety and efficacy of the immunosuppressive agent 6-tioguanine in murine model of acute and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Bodegraven Adriaan A

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral thiopurines are effective and widely used in treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD in humans, although their use is limited due the development of adverse events. Here, we examine the efficacy and toxicity of oral treatment with 6-tioguanine (6-TG and azathioprine (AZA in a murine model of IBD. Methods We induced acute or chronic colitis in BALB/c mice by one or four cycles of 3% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS, respectively. Mice were treated by daily gavages of various dosages of 6-tioguanine, azathioprine, or by phosphate buffered saline (PBS starting the first day of DSS or after two cycles of DSS, respectively. We monitored the efficacy and toxicity by measuring the weight change and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT activity and by disease severity and histology, at the end of the experiment. Moreover, we measured cytokine production after colon fragment cultivation by enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay and numbers of apoptotic cells in the spleen by flow cytometry. Results 6-TG is effective in the treatment of acute DSS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner and 40 μg of 6-TG is significantly more effective in the treatment of acute colitis than both AZA and PBS. This effect is accompanied by decrease of IL-6 and IFN-γ production in colon. We did not observe histological abnormalities in liver samples from control (PBS or 6-TG treated mice. However, liver samples from most mice treated with AZA showed mild, yet distinct signs of hepatotoxicity. In chronic colitis, all thiopurine derivatives improved colitis, 20 μg of 6-TG per dose was superior. High doses of 6-TG led to significant weight loss at the end of the therapy, but none of the thiopurine derivatives increased levels of serum ALT. Both thiopurine derivatives reduced the proportion of apoptotic T helper cells, but a high production of both IL-6 and TGF-β was observed only in colon of AZA-treated mice. Conclusions Use of 6-TG in the treatment

  17. Protective role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis through generating gut-homing macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meshkibaf, Shahab; Martins, Andrew J; Henry, Garth T; Kim, Sung Ouk

    2016-02-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) is a pleiotropic cytokine best known for its role in promoting the generation and function of neutrophils. G-CSF is also found to be involved in macrophage generation and immune regulation; however, its in vivo role in immune homeostasis is largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of G-CSF in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis using G-CSF receptor-deficient (G-CSFR(-/-)) mice. Mice were administered with 1.5% DSS in drinking water for 5days, and the severity of colitis was measured for the next 5days. GCSFR(-/-) mice were more susceptible to DSS-induced colitis than G-CSFR(+/+) or G-CSFR(-/+) mice. G-CSFR(-/-) mice harbored less F4/80(+) macrophages, but a similar number of neutrophils, in the intestine. In vitro, bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of both G-CSF and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) (G-BMDM) expressed higher levels of regulatory macrophage markers such as programmed death ligand 2 (PDL2), CD71 and CD206, but not in arginase I, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, Ym1 (chitinase-like 3) and FIZZ1 (found in inflammatory zone 1), and lower levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), CD80 and CD86 than bone marrow-derived macrophages prepared in the presence of M-CSF alone (BMDM), in response to interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon (IFN)-γ, respectively. Adoptive transfer of G-BMDM, but not BMDM, protected G-CSFR(-/-) mice from DSS-induced colitis, and suppressed expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1β and iNOS in the intestine. These results suggest that G-CSF plays an important role in preventing colitis, likely through populating immune regulatory macrophages in the intestine.

  18. Acute necrotizing colitis with pneumatosis intestinalis in an Amazonian manatee calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra Neto, Guilherme; Galvão Bueno, Marina; Silveira Silva, Rodrigo Otavio; Faria Lobato, Francisco Carlos; Plácido Guimarães, Juliana; Bossart, Gregory D; Marmontel, Miriam

    2016-08-09

    On 25 January 2014, a 1 mo old female Amazonian manatee Trichechus inunguis calf weighing 12 kg was rescued by air transport in Guajará, Brazil, and transferred to Mamirauá Institute's Community-based Amazonian Manatee Rehabilitation Center. The calf presented piercing/cutting lesions on the back, neck, and head, in addition to dehydration and intermittent involuntary buoyancy. X-ray analysis revealed a large amount of gases in the gastrointestinal tract. Daily procedures included wound cleaning and dressing, clinical and laboratory monitoring, treatment for intestinal tympanism, and artificial feeding. Adaptation to the nursing formula included 2 kinds of whole milk. Up to 20 d post-rescue the calf presented appetite, was active, and gained weight progressively. Past this period the calf started losing weight and presented constant involuntary buoyancy and died after 41 d in rehabilitation. The major findings at necropsy were pneumatosis intestinalis in cecum and colon, pulmonary edema, and hepatomegaly. The microscopic examination revealed pyogranulomatous and necrohemohrragic colitis with multinucleated giant cells, acute multifocal lymphadenitis with lymphoid depletion in cortical and paramedullary regions of mesenteric lymph nodes, and diffuse severe acinar atrophy of the pancreas. Anaerobic cultures of fragments of cecum and colon revealed colonies genotyped as Clostridium perfringens type A. We speculate that compromised immunity, thermoregulatory failure, and intolerance to artificial diet may have been contributing factors to the infection, leading to enterotoxemia and death.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging: A new tool for diagnosis of acute ischemic colitis?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francesca Iacobellis; Daniela Berritto; Francesco Somma; Carlo Cavaliere; Marco Corona; Santolo Cozzolino; Franco Fulciniti

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To define the evolution of ischemic lesions with 7T magnetic resonance imaging (7T-MRI) in an animal model of acute colonic ischemia.METHODS:Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into two groups.Group I underwent inferior mesenteric artery (IMA) ligation followed by macroscopic observations and histological analysis.In group Ⅱ,7T-MRI was performed before and after IMA ligation and followed by histological analysis.RESULTS:Morphological alterations started to develop 1 h after IMA ligation,when pale areas became evident in the splenic flexure mesenteny and progressively worsened up to 8 h thereafter,when the mesentery was less pale,and the splenic flexure loop appeared very dark.The 7T-MRI results reflected these alterations,showing a hyperintense signal in both the intraperitoneal space and the colonic loop wall 1 h after IMA ligation; the latter progressively increased to demonstrate a reduction in the colonic loop lumen at 6 h.Eight hours after IMA ligation,MRI showed a persistent colonic mural hyperintensity associated with a reduction in peritoneal free fluid.The 7T-MRI findings were correlated with histological alterations,varying from an attenuated epithelium with glandular apex lesions at 1 h to coagulative necrosis and loss of the surface epithelium detected 8 h after IMA ligation.CONCLUSION:MRI may be used as a substitute for invasive procedures in diagnosing and grading acute ischemic colitis,allowing for the early identification of pathological findings.

  20. Protective effect of isoquercitrin against acute dextran sulfate sodium-induced rat colitis depends on the severity of tissue damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibiček, Norbert; Roubalová, Lenka; Vrba, Jiří; Zatloukalová, Martina; Ehrmann, Jiří; Zapletalová, Jana; Večeřa, Rostislav; Křen, Vladimír; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2016-12-01

    Isoquercitrin (quercetin-3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside) is a flavonoid that exhibited antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities in a number of in vitro and in vivo studies. Experimental evidence from rodent models of inflammatory bowel disease is, however, lacking. This study was designed to examine whether isoquercitrin effectively and dose-dependently attenuates acute dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced rat colitis. Wistar rats were divided into negative control group (exposed to vehicle only), positive control group (DSS-induced colitis plus vehicle), low isoquercitrin group (DSS pretreated with isoquercitrin 1mg/kg/day) and high isoquercitrin group (DSS with isoquercitrin 10mg/kg/day). Isoquercitrin was administered daily for 14days, and during the last 7days rats drank DSS solution. The effect of isoquercitrin on DSS-induced colitis was assessed clinically (e.g. disease activity index), biochemically (tissue myeloperoxidase activity, local cyclooxygenase-2 expression), using histology (standard hematoxylin-eosin-based histomorphometry, immunohistochemical detection of inducible nitric oxide synthase) and hematology (blood count). Isoquercitrin dose-dependently ameliorated whole colon shortening and mitigated DSS-induced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the descending segment of the organ. However, when different parts of colon were assessed histomorphometrically, the results did not globally support the protective role of this flavonoid. Tissue healing trends observable in the descending colon were not apparent in the rectum, where histological damage was most severe. We surmise that isoquercitrin may be effective in the prevention of acute colitis. Besides being dose-dependent, the potency of orally administered isoquercitrin may depend on the severity of tissue damage and/or on the site of its action. Copyright © 2016 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o

  1. In-vivo monitoring of acute DSS-Colitis using Colonoscopy, high resolution Ultrasound and bench-top Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walldorf, J.; Hermann, M.; Pohl, S.; Zipprich, A. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Halle (Germany); Porzner, M.; Seufferlein, T. [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm (Germany); Metz, H.; Maeder, K. [Martin Luther University, Institut of Pharmacy, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Christ, B. [University of Leipzig, Department of Surgery II, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate (colour Doppler-) high-resolution-ultrasound (hrUS) and bench-top magnetic resonance imaging (btMRI) as new methods to monitor experimental colitis. hrUS, btMRI and endoscopy were performed in mice without colitis (n = 15), in mice with acute colitis (n = 14) and in mice with acute colitis and simultaneous treatment with infliximab (n = 19). Determination of colon wall thickness using hrUS (32 MHz) and measurement of the cross-sectional colonic areas by btMRI allowed discrimination between the treatment groups (mean a vs. b vs. c - btMRI: 922 vs. 2051 vs. 1472 pixel, hrUS: 0.26 vs. 0.45 vs. 0.31 mm). btMRI, endoscopy, hrUS and colour Doppler-hrUS correlated to histological scoring (p < 0.05), while endoscopy and btMRI correlated to post-mortem colon length (p < 0.05). The innovative in vivo techniques btMRI and hrUS are safe and technically feasible. They differentiate between distinct grades of colitis in an experimental setting, and correlate with established post-mortem parameters. In addition to endoscopic procedures, these techniques provide information regarding colon wall thickness and perfusion. Depending on the availability of these techniques, their application increases the value of in vivo monitoring in experimental acute colitis in small rodents. (orig.)

  2. How does disease location affect acute phase reactants in ulcerative colitis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Ipek

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: CRP, ESR, WBC, PLT counts and albumin levels are of limited value in determining disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients, especially in those with proctitis. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1589-1593

  3. Successful colonoscopic fecal transplant for severe acute Clostridium difficile pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos-Orozco, J F; Paskvan-Gawryletz, C D; Gurudu, S R; Orenstein, R

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea has become one of the most common healthcare-associated infections, with significant morbidity and mortality, especially among the elderly in the inpatient setting. The standard approach with metronidazole and vancomycin is not very effective in treating patients with severe colitis and hence other alternatives have been explored. We herein describe the first successful experience of colonoscopic fecal transplant in a case of severe refractory C. difficile pseudomembranous colitis.

  4. Absence of Intestinal PPARγ Aggravates Acute Infectious Colitis in Mice through a Lipocalin-2–Dependent Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Parag; Ling, Teo Wei; Korecka, Agata; Li, Yinghui; D'Arienzo, Rossana; Bunte, Ralph M.; Berger, Thorsten; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan; Chambon, Pierre; Mak, Tak Wah; Wahli, Walter; Pettersson, Sven

    2014-01-01

    To be able to colonize its host, invading Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium must disrupt and severely affect host-microbiome homeostasis. Here we report that S. Typhimurium induces acute infectious colitis by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) expression in intestinal epithelial cells. Interestingly, this PPARγ down-regulation by S. Typhimurium is independent of TLR-4 signaling but triggers a marked elevation of host innate immune response genes, including that encoding the antimicrobial peptide lipocalin-2 (Lcn2). Accumulation of Lcn2 stabilizes the metalloproteinase MMP-9 via extracellular binding, which further aggravates the colitis. Remarkably, when exposed to S. Typhimurium, Lcn2-null mice exhibited a drastic reduction of the colitis and remained protected even at later stages of infection. Our data suggest a mechanism in which S. Typhimurium hijacks the control of host immune response genes such as those encoding PPARγ and Lcn2 to acquire residence in a host, which by evolution has established a symbiotic relation with its microbiome community to prevent pathogen invasion. PMID:24465207

  5. Examining maintenance care following infliximab salvage therapy for acute severe ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seah, Dean; Choy, Matthew C; Gorelik, Alexandra; Connell, William R; Sparrow, Miles P; van Langenberg, Daniel; Hebbard, Geoffrey; Moore, Gregory; De Cruz, Peter

    2017-06-15

    Data supporting the optimal maintenance drug therapy & strategy to monitor ongoing response following successful infliximab (IFX) induction, for acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC), are limited. We aimed to evaluate maintenance & monitoring strategies employed in patients post IFX induction therapy. Patients in 6 Australian tertiary centres treated with IFX for steroid-refractory ASUC between April 2014 & May 2015 were identified via hospital IBD & pharmacy databases. Patients were followed-up for 1 year with clinical data over 12 months recorded. Analysis was limited to patient outcomes beyond 3 months. 41 patients were identified. 5/41 (12%) patients underwent colectomy within 3 months and 1 patient was lost to follow-up. 6/35 (17%) of the remaining patients progressed to colectomy by 12 months. Patients maintained on thiopurine monotherapy (14/35) vs. IFX/thiopurine therapy (15/35) were followed up. 2/15 (13%) patients who received combination maintenance therapy underwent a colectomy at 12 months, compared with 1/14 (7%) patients receiving thiopurine monotherapy (p=0.610). Post-discharge, thiopurine metabolites were monitored in 15/27 (56%); faecal calprotectin in 11/32 (34%); & serum IFX levels in 4/20 (20%). 20/32 (63%) patients had an endoscopic evaluation after IFX salvage with median time to 1st endoscopy of 109 days (IQR 113-230). Following IFX induction therapy for ASUC, the uptake of maintenance therapy in this cohort & strategies to monitor ongoing response were variable. These data suggest that the optimal maintenance & monitoring strategy post IFX salvage therapy remains to be defined. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Velde, Anje A; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Meijer, Sybren L; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-10-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner.

  7. Successful Colectomy for Hemorrhagic Colitis with Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome and Acute Encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuro Tominaga

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An 81-year-old man was admitted to a primary care hospital due to bloody diarrhea. The findings of abdominal computed tomography indicated ischemic colitis, so conservative therapy was started. On the 4th hospital day, the patient was transferred to our hospital because of renal dysfunction. Physical examination showed clouding of consciousness and abdominal distention. Abdominal computed tomography revealed massive ascites and thickening of the whole colonic wall. With a diagnosis of acute abdomen, an emergent laparotomy was performed. Extended right hemicolectomy was performed because of severe ischemic change and necrosis of the right side of the colon. In the stool culture before the operation, Escherichia coli O157 and verotoxin were found, so this case was diagnosed as hemorrhagic colitis with hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy due to Escherichia coli O157 infection. Postoperatively, the hemolytic uremic syndrome and acute encephalopathy were prolonged. However, with intensive care, the patient recovered and was discharged on the 33rd postoperative day.

  8. A homosexual japanese man with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype ae, concurrent with amebic colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakaguchi, Kohsaku; KOBASHI, HARUHIKO; Takaki,Akinobu; Kato, Jun; Nawa,Toru; Tatsukawa, Masashi; ISHIKAWA, SHIN; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Miyake,Yasuhiro; Shiratori, Yasushi

    2007-01-01

    We report herein a case with acute hepatitis due to hepatitis B virus genotype Ae, concurrent with amebic colitis. A 39-year-old homosexual Japanese man was admitted to our hospital with jaundice. Laboratory tests showed an elevation of transaminase and positivity for hepatitis B surface antigen and IgM-type antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. The hepatitis B virus genotype was determined to be Ae. Furthermore, a mud-like stool with blood and mucous had sometimes been noted during the past ...

  9. Adiponectin confers protection from acute colitis and restricts a B cell immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Stephanie; Wankell, Miriam; Charrez, Berenice; Sternberg, Jade; Kreuter, Roxane; Esmaili, Saeed; Ramezani-Moghadam, Mehdi; Devine, Carol; Read, Scott; Bhathal, Prithi; Lopata, Andreas; Ahlensteil, Golo; Qiao, Liang; George, Jacob; Hebbard, Lionel

    2017-04-21

    Adiponectin demonstrates beneficial effects in various metabolic diseases, including diabetes, and in bowel cancer. Recent data also suggest a protective role in colitis. However, the precise molecular mechanisms by which adiponectin and its receptors modulate colitis and the nature of the adaptive immune response in murine models are yet to be elucidated. Adiponectin knock-out mice were orally administered dextran sulfate sodium for 7 days and were compared with wild-type mice. The severity of disease was analyzed histopathologically and through cytokine profiling. HCT116 colonic epithelial cells were employed to analyze the in vitro effects of adiponectin and AdipoR1 interactions in colonic injury following dextran sulfate sodium treatment. Adiponectin knock-out mice receiving dextran sulfate sodium exhibited severe colitis, had greater inflammatory cell infiltration, and an increased presence of activated B cells compared with controls. This was accompanied by an exaggerated proinflammatory cytokine profile and increased STAT3 signaling. Adiponectin knock-out mouse colons had markedly reduced proliferation and increased epithelial apoptosis and cellular stress. In vitro, adiponectin reduced apoptotic, anti-proliferative, and stress signals and restored STAT3 signaling. Following the abrogation of AdipoR1 in vitro, these protective effects of adiponectin were abolished. In summary, adiponectin maintains intestinal homeostasis and protects against murine colitis through interactions with its receptor AdipoR1 and by modulating adaptive immunity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  10. Repeated measurements of blood lactate concentration as a prognostic marker in horses with acute colitis evaluated with classification and regression trees (CART) and random forest analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Bisgaard; Tolver, Anders; Husted, Louise

    2016-01-01

    admitted with acute colitis (random...... forest analysis. Ponies and Icelandic horses made up 59% of the population, whilst the remaining 41% were horses. Blood lactate concentration at admission was the only individual parameter significantly associated with probability of survival to discharge (P 

  11. Calcitriol analog ZK191784 ameliorates acute and chronic dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis by modulation of intestinal dendritic cell numbers and phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of ZK1916784, a low calcemic analog of calcitriol on intestinal inflammation.METHODS: Acute and chronic colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) according to standard procedures. Mice were treated intraperitoneally with ZK1916784 or placebo and colonic inflammation was evaluated. Cytokine production by mesenterial lymph node (MLN) cells was measured by ELISA.Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect intestinal dendritic cells (DCs) within the colonic tissue,and the effect of the calcitriol analog on DCs was investigated.RESULTS: Treatment with ZK191784 resulted in significant amelioration of disease with a reduced histological score in acute and chronic intestinal inflammation. In animals with acute DSS colitis, down-regulation of colonic inflammation was associated with a dramatic reduction in the secretion of the proinflammatory cytokine interferon (IFN)-γ and a significant increase in intereleukin (IL)-10 by MLN cells.Similarly, in chronic colitis, IL-10 expression in colonic tissue increased 1.4-fold when mice were treated with ZK191784, whereas expression of the Th1-specific transcription factor T-beta decreased by 81.6%. Lower numbers of infiltrating activated CD11c+ DCs were found in the colon in ZK191784-treated mice with acute DSS colitis, and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by primary mucosal DCs was inhibited in the presence of the calcitriol analog.CONCLUSION: The calcitriol analog ZK191784 demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory properties in experimental colitis that were at least partially mediated by the immunosuppressive effects of the derivate on mucosal DCs.

  12. Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice via reducing IL-6/STAT3 and IL-23/IL-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Lian-Jie; Lin, Yan; Sang, Li-Xuan; Jiang, Min; Zheng, Chang-Qing

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the underlying mechanism of Gingko biloba extract (Ginaton) on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute experimental colitis in mice. 40 male C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: normal control group, Ginaton group, Ginaton treatment group, and DSS group. After 7 days administration, mice were sacrificed and colons were collected for H-E staining, immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blot. By observing clinical disease activity and histological damage, we assessed the effect of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice and observed the effect of Ginaton on normal mice. We also explored the specific mechanism of Ginaton on DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice through examining the expression of inflammatory related mediators (gp130, STAT3, p-STAT3, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). Ginaton-treated DSS mice showed significant improvement over untreated DSS mice. Specifically, Ginaton improved clinical disease activity (DAI score, weight closs, colon shortening, and bloody stool) and histological damage, and reduced the expression of inflammatory-related mediators (p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-γt) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23). In addition, clinical disease activity, histological damage, the expression of inflammatory related mediators (STAT3, p-STAT3, gp130, ROR-t) and cytokines (IL-6, IL-17, IL-23) in mice of Ginaton group were similar to normal control group. In conclusion, Ginaton ameliorates DSS-induced acute experimental colitis in mice by reducing IL-17 production, which is at least partly involved in inhibiting IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway and IL-23/IL-17 axis. Moreover, Ginaton itself does not cause inflammatory change in normal mice. These results support that Ginaton can be as a potential clinical treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC).

  13. Acute ischemic colitis during scuba diving:Report of a unique case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Konstantinos Goumas; Androniki Poulou; Ioannis Tyrmpas; Dimitrios Dandakis; Stavros Bartzokis; Magdalini Tsamouri; Kalipso Barbati; Dimitrios Soutos

    2008-01-01

    The presentation of clinical symptoms due to decompression during diving,varies significantly,as mainly minor disturbances for the gastrointestinal tract in particular have been reported.The following case debates whether diving can cause severe symptoms from the gastrointestinal system.We describe a clinical case of ischemic colitis presented in a 27-year-old male,who manifested abdominal pain while in the process of scuba diving 20 meters undersea,followed by bloody diarrhoea as soon as he ascended to sea level.Taking into account his past medical history,the thorough,impeccable clinical and laboratory examinations and presence of no other factors predisposing to ischemia of the colon,we assume that a possible relationship between diving conditions and the pathogenesis of ischemic colitis may exist.This unusual case might represent a hematologic manifestation of decompression sickness,due to increased coagulability and/or transient air emboli,occurring during a routine scuba diving ascent to sea level.

  14. Wheat germ agglutinin anchored chitosan microspheres of reduced brominated derivative of noscapine ameliorated acute inflammation in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Kamalpreet; Sodhi, Rupinder Kaur; Katyal, Anju; Aneja, Ritu; Jain, Upendra Kumar; Katare, Om Prakash; Madan, Jitender

    2015-08-01

    Reduced brominated derivative of noscapine (Red-Br-Nos, EM012), has potent anti-inflammatory property. However, physicochemical limitations of Red-Br-Nos like low aqueous solubility (0.43×10(-3) g/mL), high lipophilicity (logP∼2.94) and ionization at acidic pH greatly encumber the scale-up of oral drug delivery systems for the management of colitis. Therefore, in present investigation, chitosan microspheres bearing Red-Br-Nos (CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) were prepared by emulsion polymerization method and later coated with wheat germ agglutinin (WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos) to boost the bioadhesive property. The mean particle size and zeta-potential of CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos were measured to be 10.5±5.4 μm and 8.1±2.2 mV, significantly (P<0.05) lesser than, 30.2±3.2 μm and 19.2±2.3 mV of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos. Furthermore, various spectral techniques like SEM, FT-IR, DSC and PXRD substantiated that Red-Br-Nos was molecularly dispersed in tailored microspheres in amorphous state. Surface bioadhesive property of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos promoted the affinity toward colon mucin cells in simulated colonic fluid (SCF, pH∼7.2). In vitro release studies carried out on WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos indicated that SCF with colitis milieu (pH∼4.7) favored the controlled release of Red-Br-Nos, owing to solubilization at acidic pH. Consistently, in vivo investigation also demonstrated the utility of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos, which remarkably attenuated the DSS encouraged neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity, and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in C57BL6J mice, as compared to CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos and Red-Br-Nos suspension. The noteworthy anti-inflammatory activity of WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos against acute colitis may be attributed to enhanced drug delivery, affinity and utmost drug exposure at inflamed mucosal layers of colon. In conclusion, WGA-CTS-MS-Red-Br-Nos warrants further in-depth in vitro and in vivo investigations to scale-up the technology for clinical

  15. Expression of ICAM-1 and acute inflammatory cell infiltration in the early phase of radiation colitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Ito, Masahiro; Matsuu, Mutsumi; Shichijo, Kazuko; Fukuda, Eiichiro; Nakayama, Toshiyuki; Nakashima, Masahiro; Naito, Shinji; Sekine, Ichiro [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Bomb Disease Inst.

    2000-09-01

    Inflammatory cell infiltration of the colon is observed at an early stage of radiation-induced colitis. The emigration of inflammatory cells from the circulation requires interactions between cell adhesion molecules on the vascular endothelium and molecules on the surface of leukocytes. To elucidate this process, the present work analyzes the kinetics of the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and the accumulation of inflammatory myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells in relation to the appearance of acute radiation colitis prior to an overt radiation-induced ulcer. Colon tissues were obtained from Wistar Kyoto rats at various times after 22.5 Gy irradiation to the rectum. Histologically, crypt depletion and numerous inflammatory cells were observed 4 days after irradiation, and mucosal ulcer 6 days after irradiation. ICAM-1 immunopositivity was present in the endothelial cells of small vessels in the mucosa of both control and irradiated rats. ICAM-1 mRNA expression was detected in normal colon and irradiated colon by reverse transcription-PCR. In Northern blotting, ICAM-1 mRNA levels were found to increase markedly in the irradiated colon compared to the normal colon. In Western blotting, ICAM-1 protein expression also increased with a peak one day after irradiation, and remained elevated up to 6 days thereafter. The number of MPO-positive cells in lamina propria mucosa increased in a time-dependent fashion from 6 h to 6 days after irradiation. These data suggest that up-regulation of ICAM-1 in endothelial cells and accumulation of MPO positive cells play important roles in the development of radiation-induced colonic ulcer. (author)

  16. Rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma ligand, modulates signal transduction pathways during the development of acute TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramon; Villegas, Isabel; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2007-05-21

    Recent studies have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a highly nuclear receptor expressed in the colon, may participate in the control of inflammation, especially in regulating the production of immunomodulatory and inflammatory mediators, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. In order to delve into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms and signalling pathways of PPARgamma agonists, we have studied the effects of rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist on the extent and severity of acute ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of 2,4,6-trinitribenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined prostaglandin E2 production as well as the cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2 expressions by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The nuclear factor kappa (NF-kappaB) p65 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression levels were also measured by Western blotting. Finally, since PPARgamma agonists modulate apoptosis, we tried to clarify its effects under early acute inflammatory conditions. Inflammation following TNBS induction was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cells infiltration, necrosis reaching an ulcer index (UI) of 9.66+/-0.66 cm(2) and increased MPO activity and TNF-alpha colonic levels. Rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the morphological alteration associated with TNBS administration and the UI with the highest dose. In addition, the degree of neutrophil infiltration and the cytokine levels were significantly ameliorated. Rosiglitazone significantly reduced the rise in the prostaglandin (PG) E(2) generation compared with TNBS group. The COX-1 levels remained stable throughout the treatment in all groups. The COX-2 expression was elevated in TNBS group; however

  17. Delayed resolution of acute inflammation in ulcerative colitis is associated with elevated cytokine release downstream of TLR4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooq Z Rahman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC is widely viewed as a leukocyte-mediated disorder. Although strong evidence implicates an exuberant response to microbial components in its pathogenesis, no intrinsic immune defect has been identified and the underlying pathogenic mechanisms remain obscure. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The acute immune response to bacterial injection was determined in UC patients with quiescent disease and directly compared to healthy control subjects. Monocyte-derived macrophages were used to investigate bacterial recognition mechanisms in vitro. An exuberant and protracted acute inflammatory response to bacteria was evident in patients with UC, which coincides with increased systemic levels of CXCL10. Macrophages stimulated with bacteria and Toll-like receptor (TLR ligands revealed a specific defect in the TLR4 response in UC. The defect resulted in the over-expression of a number of pro-inflammatory molecules under transcriptional control of the adaptor TIR-domain containing adaptor inducing interferon-beta (TRIF. CONCLUSION: These findings highlight a dysregulated innate immune response with over-expression of molecules associated with leukocyte recruitment and activation that may eventuate in the hallmark chronic immune-mediated inflammation of UC.

  18. Lubiprostone induced ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherid, Muhammed; Sifuentes, Humberto; Samo, Salih; Deepak, Parakkal; Sridhar, Subbaramiah

    2013-01-14

    Ischemic colitis accounts for 6%-18% of the causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is often multifactorial and more commonly encountered in the elderly. Several medications have been implicated in the development of colonic ischemia. We report a case of a 54-year old woman who presented with a two-hour history of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stool. The patient had recently used lubiprostone with close temporal relationship between the increase in the dose and her symptoms of rectal bleeding. The radiologic, colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were all consistent with ischemic colitis. Her condition improved without any serious complications after the cessation of lubiprostone. This is the first reported case of ischemic colitis with a clear relationship with lubiprostone (Naranjo score of 10). Clinical vigilance for ischemic colitis is recommended for patients receiving lubiprostone who are presenting with abdominal pain and rectal bleeding.

  19. Pseudomembranous colitis presenting as acute colonic obstruction without diarrhea in a patient with gastric Burkitt lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi Nomura; Shigeo Horiike; Takeshi Okanoue; Masafumi Taniwaki; Kohei Fukumoto; Daisuke Shimizu; Takashi Okuda; Naohisa Yoshida; Yuri Kamitsuji; Yosuke Matsumoto; Hideyuki Konishi; Yuji Ueda

    2005-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) usually manifests asfever and diarrhea in hospitalized patients treated withsystemic antibiotics. We described a case of PMC withintestinal obstruction but without diarrhea. A 60-yearold man was hospitalized for chemotherapy for the treatment of Burkitt lymphoma of the stomach. The patient became febrile and complained of crampy abdominal pain during the post-chemotherapy nadir. Plain abdominal radiography showed some intestinal gas and niveau. Because stool cytotoxin assay for clostridium difficile was positive and colon fiberscopic examination showed a pseudomembrane at the left side of the colon,and a diagnosis of PMC was made. Treatment with intracolonic vancomycin administration by colonoscopy and nasoileus tube was successful. Physicians should take into account the possibility of bowel obstruction due to PMC occurring in patients undergoing chemotherapy and perform emergency colonoscopy examination of suspected cases.

  20. Mesalizine-Induced Acute Pancreatitis and Interstitial Pneumonitis in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min Jae; Lee, Jae Hee; Moon, Kyung Rye

    2015-12-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Mesalizine for the first-line therapy of UC has adverse effects include pancreatitis, pneumonia and pericarditis. UC complicated by two coexisting conditions, however, is very rare. Moreover, drug-related pulmonary toxicity is particularly rare. An 11-year-old male patient was hospitalized for recurring upper abdominal pain after meals with vomiting, hematochezia and exertional dyspnea developing at 2 weeks of mesalizine therapy for UC. The serum level of lipase was elevated. Chest X-ray and thorax computed tomography showed interstitial pneumonitis. Mesalizine was discontinued and steroid therapy was initiated. Five days after admission, symptoms were resolved and mesalizine was resumed after a drop in amylase and lipase level. Symptoms returned the following day, however, accompanied by increased the serum levels of amylase and lipase. Mesalizine was discontinued again and recurring symptoms rapidly improved.

  1. Acute fulminant pseudomembranous colitis which developed after ileostomy closure and required emergent total colectomy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Pseudomembranous colitis is known to be caused by Clostridium difficile; and, in 3% to 8% of patients, it lapses into an aggressive clinical course that is described as fulminant. We present here a case of extremely rapid and fatal fulminant pseudomembranous colitis that developed after ileostomy closure, a minor surgical procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of fatal fulminant pseudomembranous colitis after closure of a diversion ileosto...

  2. Effects of dietary virgin olive oil polyphenols: hydroxytyrosyl acetate and 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylglycol on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Villegas, Isabel; Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, Ma Ángeles; González-Benjumea, Alejandro; Marset, Azucena; López, Óscar; Maya, Inés; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2015-05-01

    Hydroxytyrosol, a polyphenolic compound from extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) has exhibited an improvement in a model of DSS-induced colitis. However, other phenolic compounds present such as hydroxytyrosyl acetate (HTy-Ac) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) need to be explored to complete the understanding of the overall effects of EVOO on inflammatory colon mucosa. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of both HTy-Ac and DHPG dietary supplementation in the inflammatory response associated to colitis model. Six-week-old mice were randomized in four dietary groups: sham and control groups received standard diet, and other two groups were fed with HTy-Ac and DHPG, respectively, at 0.1%. After 30 days, all groups except sham received 3% DSS in drinking water for 5 days followed by a regime of 5 days of water. Acute inflammation was evaluated by Disease Activity Index (DAI), histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Colonic expression of iNOS, COX-2, MAPKs, NF-kB and FOXP3 were determined by western blotting. Only HTy-Ac-supplemented group showed a significant DAI reduction as well as an improvement of histological damage and MPO. COX-2 and iNOS protein expression were also significantly reduced. In addition, this dietary group down-regulated JNK phosphorylation and prevented the DSS-induced nuclear translocation level of p65. However, no significant differences were observed in the FOXP3 expression. These results demonstrated, for the first time, that HTy-Ac exerts an antiinflammatory effect on acute ulcerative colitis. We concluded that HTy-Ac supplement might provide a basis for developing a new dietary strategy for the prevention of ulcerative colitis.

  3. RNAi-mediated silencing of TNF-α converting enzyme to down-regulate soluble TNF-α production for treatment of acute and chronic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yoonsung; Kim, Ye-Ram; Kim, So Mi; Ul Ain, Qurrat; Jang, Kiseok; Yang, Chul-Su; Kim, Yong-Hee

    2016-10-10

    Elevated level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), one of the inflammatory cytokines, is considered to be a potential target for the inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) therapy. Recently, TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE), a sheddase playing an important role in cleaving and releasing bioactive soluble TNF-α, has been challenged with inhibitors to treat inflammatory diseases. Here, we report a novel anti-TNF-α strategy using a short hairpin RNA silencing TACE (shTACE) to prevent and treat colitis. The shTACE formed stable complexes with nona-arginine-based bio-cleavable disulfide bond-linked poly (arginine) (PAs-s) for enhanced gene delivery. Systemically administered shTACE/PAs-s peptoplexes efficiently decreased TNF-α levels, increased survival and alleviated pathophysiological parameters representing colitis severity. Our results demonstrate effectiveness and safety of shTACE/PAs-s peptoplexes with the capacity of overcoming acute and chronic ulcerative colitis through modulation of excessive inflammatory responses in the colon, providing a strong potential as a therapeutic agent for a broad variety of inflammatory diseases.

  4. Is abdominal CT useful for the management of patients with severe acute colitis complicating inflammatory bowel disease? A study in 54 consecutive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mege, D; Monsinjon, M; Zappa, M; Stefanescu, C; Treton, X; Maggiori, L; Bouhnik, Y; Panis, Y

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the contribution of CT for the management of patients with severe acute exacerbation of colitis (SAC) complicating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD); in particular, its contribution to surgical decision making. All patients who were admitted to our institution for SAC complicating IBD were divided into two groups: group A (those who received surgical treatment); and group B (those who received medical treatment). Admission CT results were compared between groups. From 2006 to 2015, 54 patients [26 male; median age 39 (17-71) years] presenting with SAC were placed in either group A (n = 41; 76%) or group B (n = 13; 24%). Surgical patients in group A more frequently had altered general status (50 vs 17%; P = 0.01). Physical examination, Lichtiger score, endoscopic findings and laboratory results were similar between the groups. There was no significant difference in CT data between the groups with respect to extent of the colitis (pan-colitis in 54 and 69%, respectively, P = 0.35), median colonic thickness [10 (4-16) vs 8 (6-11) mm, P = 0.15], target enhancement (88 vs 77%, P = 0.38) and occurrence of toxic megacolon (2 vs 0%). Admission CT is not helpful in surgical decision making in SAC. Colorectal Disease © 2017 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Ulcerative colitis - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inflammatory bowel disease - ulcerative colitis - discharge; Ulcerative proctitis - discharge; Colitis - discharge ... were in the hospital because you have ulcerative colitis. This is a swelling of the inner lining ...

  6. [Colitis associated with C. difficile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironov, I L; Ratnikova, L I; Pirogov, D V; Mil'chenko, I B

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC), is characterized by acute onset, severe diarrhea, hypovolemic shock, toxic expansion of colon perforation, thrombus syndrome and without treatment in some cases leading to death of the patient. The paper describes a clinical case of pseudomembranous colitis in patients 35 years that developed on the background of the massive antibiotic therapy. The diagnosis was made only at autopsy. This case is unique, and dictates the need to inform doctors of practical health care of the complications of antibiotic therapy, such as pseudomembranous colitis.

  7. Glutamine Supplementation Attenuates Expressions of Adhesion Molecules and Chemokine Receptors on T Cells in a Murine Model of Acute Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chen Hou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Migration of T cells into the colon plays a major role in the pathogenesis in inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated the effects of glutamine (Gln supplementation on chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules expressed by T cells in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis. Methods. C57BL/6 mice were fed either a standard diet or a Gln diet replacing 25% of the total nitrogen. After being fed the diets for 5 days, half of the mice from both groups were given 1.5% DSS in drinking water to induce colitis. Mice were killed after 5 days of DSS exposure. Results. DSS colitis resulted in higher expression levels of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand- (PSGL- 1, leukocyte function-associated antigen- (LFA- 1, and C-C chemokine receptor type 9 (CCR9 by T helper (Th and cytotoxic T (Tc cells, and mRNA levels of endothelial adhesion molecules in colons were upregulated. Gln supplementation decreased expressions of PSGL-1, LFA-1, and CCR9 by Th cells. Colonic gene expressions of endothelial adhesion molecules were also lower in Gln-colitis mice. Histological finding showed that colon infiltrating Th cells were less in the DSS group with Gln administration. Conclusions. Gln supplementation may ameliorate the inflammation of colitis possibly via suppression of T cell migration.

  8. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute experimental colitis in C57BL/6 mice is mitigated by selenium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Lixuan; Chang, Bing; Zhu, Junfeng; Yang, Fangli; Li, Yan; Jiang, Xuefeng; Sun, Xun; Lu, Changlong; Wang, Danan

    2016-10-01

    Sodium selenite has been shown to have a protective role in experimental colitis. Th1 and Th17 responses are involved in the pathogenesis of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and inflammatory bowel disease. This study investigated whether sodium selenite can suppress Th1/Th17-mediated experimental colitis. Mice were administered sodium selenite (2μg/g body weight) by gavage daily for 30days. Beginning on day 21, mice were administered 2.5% oral DSS for 9days. The mice were sacrificed on day 31. Survival rates, clinical symptoms, colon lengths, and histological changes were determined. Pretreatment with sodium selenite (2μg/g body weight) improved survival rates, colon shortening, body weight loss, disease activity index, and histopathological score in mice with DSS-induced colitis. Pretreatment with sodium selenite restored interleukin-10 and Foxp3 excretion, as well as reducing the levels of interferon-γ and interleukin-17A. Pretreatment with sodium selenite showed therapeutic potential for preventing colitis in mice. This effect may be mediated by the immunomodulation of regulatory T cells, expressing anti-inflammatory genes that suppress Th1 and Th17 responses. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Amebic and cytomegalovirus colitis mimic ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Tzu Weng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Here we present a 50-year-old man who suffered from progressively bloody diarrhea for 2 months. A colonoscopy revealed pancolonic mucosal inflammation, ulceration, and spontaneous bleeding. Ulcerative colitis was initially diagnosed and sulfasalazine was prescribed. Hypoalbuminemia and renal function deterioration developed 1 year later. Steroids were prescribed for suspected nephrotic syndrome. His bloody diarrhea and abdominal symptoms worsened after steroid use. Progressive sepsis and acute renal function deterioration also developed. Positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV antibody was found during routine hemodialysis screening. An episode of colon perforation occurred and surgery was performed. The resected colon showed amoeba, cytomegalovirus, and fungal infection. The patient died of sepsis. In this report, we discuss how to diagnose ulcerative colitis. It is important to exclude infection before using an immunosuppressive agent.

  10. Mulberry fruit prevents LPS-induced NF-κB/pERK/MAPK signals in macrophages and suppresses acute colitis and colorectal tumorigenesis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengjiang; Wu, Zhiqin; Huang, Lian; Qiu, Huiling; Wang, Liyan; Li, Li; Yao, Lijun; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Wu, Yonghou; Luo, Jun; Liu, Johnson J; Yang, Yi; Yang, Wancai; Gou, Deming

    2015-11-30

    Here, we investigated the impact of mulberry fruit (MBF) extracts on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and the therapeutic efficacy of MBF diet in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis and MUC2(-/-) mice with colorectal cancer. In vitro, LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production was significantly inhibited by MBF extracts via suppressing the expression of proinflammatory molecules, including inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-β) and IL-6. Particularly, a dose-dependent inhibition on LPS-induced inflammatory responses was observed following treatment with MBF dichloromethane extract (MBF-DE), in which linoleic acid and ethyl linolenate were identified as two active compounds. Moreover, we elucidated that MBF-DE attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by blocking activation of both NF-κB/p65 and pERK/MAPK pathways. In vivo, DSS-induced acute colitis was significantly ameliorated in MBF-fed mice as gauged by weight loss, colon morphology and histological damage. In addition, MBF-fed MUC2(-/-) mice displayed significant decrease in intestinal tumor and inflammation incidence compared to control diet-fed group. Overall, our results demonstrated that MBF suppressed the development of intestinal inflammation and tumorgenesis both in vitro and in vivo, and supports the potential of MBF as a therapeutic functional food for testing in human clinical trials.

  11. Derivation of a T2-weighted MRI total colonic inflammation score (TCIS) for assessment of patients with severe acute inflammatory colitis - a preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hafeez, Rehana; Boulos, Paul [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Surgery, London (United Kingdom); Punwani, Shonit; Halligan, Steve [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Specialist X-ray, Level 2 podium, London (United Kingdom); Pendse, Doug [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); Bloom, Stuart [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Gastroenterology, London (United Kingdom); Taylor, Stuart A. [University College London, Centre for Medical Imaging, London (United Kingdom); University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Specialist X-ray, Level 2 podium, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-02-15

    To derive an MRI score for assessing severity, therapeutic response and prognosis in acute severe inflammatory colitis. Twenty-one patients with acute severe colitis underwent colonic MRI after admission and again (n = 16) after median 5 days of treatment. Using T2-weighted images, two radiologists in consensus graded segmental haustral loss, mesenteric and mural oedema, mural thickness, and small bowel and colonic dilatation producing a total colonic inflammatory score (TCIS, range 6-95). Pre- and post-treatment TCIS were compared, and correlated with CRP, stool frequency, and number of inpatient days (therapeutic response marker). Questionnaire assessment of patient worry, satisfaction and discomfort graded 1 (bad) to 7 (good) was administered Admission TCIS correlated significantly with CRP (Kendall's tau=0.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.79, p = 0.006), and stool frequency (Kendall's tau 0.39, 95% CI 0.14-0.64, p = 0.02). TCIS fell after treatment (median [22 range 15-31]) to median 20 [range 8-25], p = 0.01. Admission TCIS but not CRP or stool frequency was correlated with length of inpatient stay (Kendall's tau 0.40, 95% CI 0.11-0.69, p = 0.02). Patients reported some discomfort (median score 4) during MRI. MRI TCIS falls after therapy, correlates with existing markers of disease severity, and in comparison may better predict therapeutic response. (orig.)

  12. Acute fulminant pseudomembranous colitis which developed after ileostomy closure and required emergent total colectomy: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Iku

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pseudomembranous colitis is known to be caused by Clostridium difficile; and, in 3% to 8% of patients, it lapses into an aggressive clinical course that is described as fulminant. We present here a case of extremely rapid and fatal fulminant pseudomembranous colitis that developed after ileostomy closure, a minor surgical procedure. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of fatal fulminant pseudomembranous colitis after closure of a diversion ileostomy in an adult. Case presentation A 69-year-old Japanese man, who had previously undergone low anterior resection and creation of a diverting ileostomy for stage III rectal carcinoma was admitted for ileostomy closure. Preoperatively, he received oral kanamycin and metronidazole along with parenteral cefmetazole. His surgery and postoperative course were uneventful until the third postoperative day, when fever and watery diarrhea became apparent. The next day he presented with epigastric and left lower abdominal pain. Computed tomography revealed a slightly distended colon. Later that night, his blood pressure fell and intravenous infusion was started. In the early morning of the fifth postoperative day, his blood pressure could be maintained only with a vasopressor. Follow-up computed tomography demonstrated severe colonic dilation. A colonoscopy confirmed the presence of pseudomembranous colitis, and so oral vancomycin was administered immediately. However, within three hours of the administration, his condition rapidly deteriorated into shock. Although an emergent total colectomy with creation of an end ileostomy was performed, our patient died 26 hours after the surgery. The histopathological examination was consistent with pseudomembranous colitis. Conclusion It is important to recognize that, although rare, there is a type of extremely aggressive pseudomembranous colitis in which the usual waiting period for medical treatment might be lethal. We

  13. Microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Münch, A; Aust, D; Bohr, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease presenting with chronic, non-bloody watery diarrhoea and few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The histological examination reveals mainly two subtypes of MC, lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. Despite the fact that the incidence in MC has...... been rising over the last decades, research has been sparse and our knowledge about MC remains limited. Specialists in the field have initiated the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG) with the primary goal to create awareness on MC. The EMCG is furthermore a forum with the intention to promote...

  14. Types of Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Colitis? > Types of Ulcerative Colitis Types of Ulcerative Colitis Email Print + Share If you are diagnosed with ... abdomen may occur in active disease. Left-sided Colitis Continuous inflammation that begins at the rectum and ...

  15. Alpinetin attenuates inflammatory responses by suppressing TLR4 and NLRP3 signaling pathways in DSS-induced acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xuexiu; Wei, Zhengkai; Wang, Jingjing; Kou, Jinhua; Liu, Weijian; Fu, Yunhe; Yang, Zhengtao

    2016-06-20

    Alpinetin, a composition of Alpinia katsumadai Hayata, has been reported to have a number of biological properties, such as antibacterial, antitumor and other important therapeutic activities. However, the effect of alpinetin on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has not yet been reported. The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect and mechanism of alpinetin on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. In vivo, DSS-induced mice colitis model was established by giving mice drinking water containing 5% (w/v) DSS for 7 days. Alpinetin (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg) were administered once a day by intraperitoneal injection 3 days before DSS treatment. In vitro, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-differentiated monocytic THP-1 macrophages were treated with alpinetin and stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The results showed that alpinetin significantly attenuated diarrhea, colonic shortening, histological injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the expressions of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1β) production in mice. In vitro, alpinetin markedly inhibited LPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production, as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediated nuclear transcription factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activation. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that alpinetin had protective effects on DSS-induced colitis and may be a promising therapeutic reagent for colitis treatment.

  16. [Collagenous colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, C G

    1991-05-01

    Collagenous colitis is now regarded by an overwhelming majority of authors as a clinicopathological entity and has been taken up as a such in many text-books and diagnostic atlases (Morson & Dawson, 1990, Fenoglio-Preiser et al., 1989, Whitehead 1985, Whitehead 1989). A good, detailed review of cases of collagenous colitis published up to 1988 was performed by Perri et al. Collagenous colitis was also presented to a wider medical public through a clinicopathological conference case at Massachusetts General Hospital (Case 29-1988). Finally it may be added that collagenous colitis has been included in the new fourth edition of Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease (Cotran, Kumar, Robbins, 1989), where the possibility of an autoimmune disease is stressed.

  17. Microscopic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Valerio, Luca; Annicchiarico, Brigida Eleonora; Milani, Alessandro; Siciliano, Massimo; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-11-21

    Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome, of unknown etiology, consisting of chronic watery diarrhea, with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis. The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years, with most data coming from Western countries. Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management. Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC. The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium. A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years, involving the role of luminal agents, autoimmunity, eosinophils, genetics (human leukocyte antigen), biliary acids, infections, alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts, and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine, carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC, while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole. Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea, that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss and incontinence. Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis: the role of steroidal therapy, especially oral budesonide, has gained relevance, as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents, infliximab and adalimumab, constitutes a new, interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis, but larger, adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data.

  18. Microscopic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gianluca Ianiro; Giovanni Cammarota; Luca Valerio; Brigida Eleonora Annicchiarico; Alessandro Milani; Massimo Siciliano; Antonio Gasbarrini

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome,of unknown etiology,consisting of chronic watery diarrhea,with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation.Therefore,a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis.The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years,with most data coming from Western countries.Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management.Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC.The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epitll lial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium.A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years,involving the role of luminal agents,autoimmunity,eosinophils,genetics (human leukocyte antigen),biliary acids,infections,alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts,and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine,carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC,while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine,non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole.Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea,that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain,weight loss and incontinence.Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis:the role of steroidal therapy,especially oral budesonide,has gained relevance,as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine.The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents,infliximab and adalimumab,constitutes a new,interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis,but larger,adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data.

  19. Pseudomembranous Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammatory condition of the colon characterized by elevated yellow-white plaques that coalesce to form pseudomembranes on the mucosa. Patients with the condition commonly present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and leukocytosis. Because pseudomembranous colitis is often associated with C. difficile infection, stool testing and empiric antibiotic treatment should be initiated when suspected. When results of C. difficile testing are negative and symptoms p...

  20. Effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahareh Heidari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations.  Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO activity.  Results: Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil.  Conclusion: Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  1. Anti-inflammatory effect of Moringa oleifera Lam. seeds on acetic acid-induced acute colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Minaiyan

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Anti-inflammatory, immuno-modulatory, and antioxidant properties of Moringa oleifera Lam. suggest that it might have beneficial effects on colitis. The present study was performed to investigate the anticolitis effect of Moringa oleifera seeds hydro-alcoholic extract (MSHE and its chloroform fraction (MCF on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Both MSHE and MCF with three increasing doses (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg were administered orally to separate groups of male Wistar rats, 2 h before ulcer induction (using acetic acid 4% and continued for 5 days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg and normal saline (1 ml/kg were used in reference and control groups, respectively. All rats were sacrificed 24 h after the last dose (at day 6 and tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Extracts with three doses mentioned before were effective to reduce weight of distal colon (8 cm as a marker for inflammation and tissue edema. Three doses of MSHE and two greater doses of MCF (100 and 200 mg/kg were effective to reduce ulcer severity, area, and index as well as mucosal inflammation severity and extent, crypt damage, invasion involvement, total colitis index, and MPO activity compared with controls. MCF (50 mg/kg was not significantly effective in reducing evaluated parameters of colitis compared with controls. Conclusion: It is concluded that MSHE and MCF were both effective to treat experimental colitis and this might be attributed to their similar major components, biophenols and flavonoids. Since the efficacy was evident even in low doses of MSHE, presence of active constituents with high potency in seeds is persuasive.

  2. Neuroprotective Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapy in Acute Stages of TNBS-Induced Colitis in Guinea-Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainsley M Robinson

    Full Text Available The therapeutic benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs, such as homing ability, multipotent differentiation capacity and secretion of soluble bioactive factors which exert neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, have been attributed to attenuation of autoimmune, inflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we aimed to determine the earliest time point at which locally administered MSC-based therapies avert enteric neuronal loss and damage associated with intestinal inflammation in the guinea-pig model of colitis.At 3 hours after induction of colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene-sulfonate (TNBS, guinea-pigs received either human bone marrow-derived MSCs, conditioned medium (CM, or unconditioned medium by enema into the colon. Colon tissues were collected 6, 24 and 72 hours after administration of TNBS. Effects on body weight, gross morphological damage, immune cell infiltration and myenteric neurons were evaluated. RT-PCR, flow cytometry and antibody array kit were used to identify neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs.MSC and CM treatments prevented body weight loss, reduced infiltration of leukocytes into the colon wall and the myenteric plexus, facilitated repair of damaged tissue and nerve fibers, averted myenteric neuronal loss, as well as changes in neuronal subpopulations. The neuroprotective effects of MSC and CM treatments were observed as early as 24 hours after induction of inflammation even though the inflammatory reaction at the level of the myenteric ganglia had not completely subsided. Substantial number of neurotrophic and neuroprotective factors released by MSCs was identified in their secretome.MSC-based therapies applied at the acute stages of TNBS-induced colitis start exerting their neuroprotective effects towards enteric neurons by 24 hours post treatment. The neuroprotective efficacy of MSC-based therapies can be exerted independently to their anti

  3. Clinical Observation of Colitis a Pill in Treating Acute Diarrhea%结肠炎A片治疗急性腹泻临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 赵星海; 高履冰

    2012-01-01

    目的:观察结肠炎A片治疗急性腹泻的临床疗效.方法:将80例急性腹泻患者随机平均分为治疗组和对照组.治疗组以结肠炎A片(主要成分:葛根、黄连、黄芩、木香、败酱草、马齿苋、厚朴、枳实、神曲、焦山楂)治疗;对照组以思密达治疗.观察两组临床疗效.结果:治疗组有效率为95%,对照组有效率为85%,两组有效率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:结肠炎A片能有效的缓解患者症状,提高对急性腹泻的临床治疗效果.%Objective: Observe colonitis A tablet in the treatment of acute diarrhea. Methods: 80 cases of acute diarrhea were randomly divided into 2 groups. 40 patients in treatment group with colitis film was given colonitis A tablet ( Bases: gegen, huanglian, huangqin, mux-iang,baijiangcao,machixian,houpu,zhishi,shenqu,jiaoshanzha). The control group was treated with smecta. Observe and compare the clinical efficacy. Results ;The clinical total effective rate of treatment group is 95% and 85% of control group. The difference has statistics significance(P <0. 05). Conclusion: Colitis A tablet can effectively relieve symptoms and improve the clinical treatment of acute diarrhea.

  4. Autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, Edmond M

    2012-02-03

    Autoimmune hepatitis is a rare, chronic inflammatory disorder which has been associated with a number of other auto-immune conditions. However, there are no reports in the medical literature of an association with microscopic (lymphocytic) colitis. We report the case of a 53-year-old woman with several autoimmune conditions, including lymphocytic colitis, who presented with an acute hepatitis. On the basis of the clinical features, serology, and histopathology, we diagnosed autoimmune hepatitis. To our knowledge, this is the first report of autoimmune hepatitis in association with lymphocytic colitis, and lends support to the theory of an autoimmune etiology for lymphocytic colitis.

  5. Analysing the effect of I1 imidazoline receptor ligands on DSS-induced acute colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehér, Ágnes; Tóth, Viktória E; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Balogh, Mihály; Lázár, Bernadette; Helyes, Zsuzsanna; Gyires, Klára; Zádori, Zoltán S

    2017-02-01

    Imidazoline receptors (IRs) have been recognized as promising targets in the treatment of numerous diseases; and moxonidine and rilmenidine, agonists of I1-IRs, are widely used as antihypertensive agents. Some evidence suggests that IR ligands may induce anti-inflammatory effects acting on I1-IRs or other molecular targets, which could be beneficial in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). On the other hand, several IR ligands may stimulate also alpha2-adrenoceptors, which were earlier shown to inhibit, but in more recent studies to rather aggravate colitis. Hence, this study aimed to analyse for the first time the effect of various I1-IR ligands on intestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by adding dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) to the drinking water for 7 days. Mice were treated daily with different IR ligands: moxonidine and rilmenidine (I1-IR agonists), AGN 192403 (highly selective I1-IR ligand, putative antagonist), efaroxan (I1-IR antagonist), as well as with the endogenous IR agonists agmatine and harmane. It was found that moxonidine and rilmenidine at clinically relevant doses, similarly to the other IR ligands, do not have a significant impact on the macroscopic and histological signs of DSS-evoked inflammation. Likewise, colonic myeloperoxidase and serum interleukin-6 levels remained unchanged in response to these agents. Thus, our study demonstrates that imidazoline ligands do not influence significantly the severity of DSS-colitis in mice and suggest that they probably neither affect the course of IBD in humans. However, the translational value of these findings needs to be verified with other experimental colitis models and human studies.

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in acute Wernicke's encephalopathy associated with pseudomembranous colitis: a case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hye On; Lee, Yong Chul; Park, Tai Hwan; Yoo, Seung Min; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Kun Sang [Chung-Ang University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    Wernicke's encephalopathy is a common complication of thiamine deficiency among chronic alcoholics. However, there have been few reports about MR imaging findings, including the diffusion-weighted changes of this neurologic disorder, in nonalcoholic patients. We present here a rare case of acute Wernicke's encephalopathy that developed in a patient who received prolonged total parenteral nutrition for his pseudomembranous colitis. The MR imaging, including the diffusion-weighted imaging, was performed at the onset of disease and during follow-up. The diagnosis was made by the characteristic MR imaging findings and it was supported by the clinical features. The initial and follow-up MR imaging findings with diffusion-weighted imaging changes are described and correlated with the clinical status.

  7. Role of nitric oxide in the impairment of circular muscle contractility of distended, uninflamed mid-colon in TNBS-induced acute distal colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luciano Onori; Giovanni Latella; Annalisa Aggio; Simona D'Alo'; Paola Muzi; Maria Grazia Cifone; Gabriella Mellillo; Rachele Ciccocioppo; Gennaro Taddei; Giuseppe Frieri

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the motor disorders of the dilated uninflamed mid-colon (DUMC)from trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute distal colitis in rats.METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by a single intracolonic administration of TNBS.Control rats received an enema of 0.9% saline. The rats were killed 48 h after TNBS or saline administration.Macroscopic and histologic lesions of the colon were evaluated. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity were measured on the colonic tissue. In TNBS rats, we evaluated spontaneous and evoked contractile activity in circular muscle strips derived from DUMC in comparison to the same colonic segment of control rats, both in the presence and in the absence of a non-selective NOS isoforms inhibitor N-nitro-Larginine (L-NNA). Pharmacological characterization of electric field stimulation (EFS)-evoked contractile responses was also performed.RESULTS: In TNBS rats, the distal colon showed severe histological lesions and a high MPO activity, while the DUMC exhibited normal histology and MPO activity.Constitutive NOS activity was similar in TNBS and control rats, whereas inducible NOS activity was significantly increased only in the injured distal colon of TNBS rats.Isometrically recorded mechanical activity of circular muscle strips from DUMC of TNBS rats showed a marked reduction of the force and frequency of spontaneous contractions compared to controls, as well as of the contractile responses to a contracting stimulus. In the presence of L-NNA, the contractile activity and responses displayed a significantly greater enhancement compared to controls. The pharmacological characterization of EFS contractile responses showed that a cooperative-like interaction between cholinergic muscarinic and tachykinergic neurokinin 1 and 2 receptors mediated transmission in DUMC of TNBS rats vs a simple additive interaction in controls.CONCLUSION: The results of this

  8. Colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer is of th......Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer...

  9. Colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Jess, Tine; Bjerrum, Jacob Tveiten

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a prevalent inflammatory bowel disease of the colonic mucosa affecting approximately 20,000-25,000 Danes. Apart from subgroups with early onset, extensive and long-standing inflammation, or primary sclerosing cholangitis the risk of developing colorectal cancer...

  10. CMV - gastroenteritis/colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colitis - cytomegalovirus; Gastroenteritis - cytomegalovirus; Gastrointestinal CMV disease ... or after bone marrow or organ transplant Ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease Rarely, serious CMV infection involving ...

  11. [Infectious colitis. Endoscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dive, C

    1986-11-01

    Colon and rectum localizations of an disease or a parasitosis depend essentially on the nature of the pathogenous agent and the host resistance. Acute enterocolitis is secondary to enterotoxinogenous germs (such as cholera vibrio), invasive germs (such as shigella), penetrating germs (such as salmonella); viruses are seldom concerned. Parasitic colitis include mostly amibiasis and bilharziosis. Infectious and parasitic enterocolitis may be transmitted sexually. On the other hand, certain venereal diseases have intestinal manifestations. Finally, in AIDS, timely gastro-intestinal infections develop. The diagnosis rests on endoscopy, histological examination and biological and parasitological samplings.

  12. Bilirubin prevents acute DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and suppressing upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker, Stephen D; Vogel, Megan E; Kindel, Tammy L; Smith, Darcey L H; Idelman, Gila; Avissar, Uri; Kakarlapudi, Ganesh; Masnovi, Michelle E

    2015-11-15

    Bilirubin is thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1)-dependent leukocyte migration and by suppressing the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). As VCAM-1 and iNOS are important mediators of tissue injury in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) murine model of inflammatory colitis, we examined whether bilirubin prevents colonic injury in DSS-treated mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were administered 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, while simultaneously receiving intraperitoneal injections of bilirubin (30 mg/kg) or potassium phosphate vehicle. Disease activity was monitored, peripheral blood counts and serum nitrate levels were determined, and intestinal specimens were analyzed for histological injury, leukocyte infiltration, and iNOS expression. The effect of bilirubin on IL-5 production by HSB-2 cells and on Jurkat cell transendothelial migration also was determined. DSS-treated mice that simultaneously received bilirubin lost less body weight, had lower serum nitrate levels, and exhibited reduced disease severity than vehicle-treated animals. Concordantly, histopathological analyses revealed that bilirubin-treated mice manifested significantly less colonic injury, including reduced infiltration of eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, and diminished iNOS expression. Bilirubin administration also was associated with decreased eosinophil and monocyte infiltration into the small intestine, with a corresponding increase in peripheral blood eosinophilia. Bilirubin prevented Jurkat migration but did not alter IL-5 production. In conclusion, bilirubin prevents DSS-induced colitis by inhibiting the migration of leukocytes across the vascular endothelium and by suppressing iNOS expression.

  13. Pseudomembranous colitis complicating ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaratani, Hideto; Tsujimoto, Tatsuhiro; Toyohara, Masahisa; Kin, Kenichi; Taniguchi, Tomoyasu; Shirai, Yasuyo; Ikenaka, Yasuhide; Nakayama, Masaki; Fujii, Hisao; Fukui, Hiroshi

    2010-10-01

    Clostridium difficile toxin (CD toxin) causes antibiotic-associated colitis, or pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). Although CD toxin is sometimes found in the stools of patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), UC is rarely complicated by PMC. We report herein a case of PMC complicating UC, and present a review of the literature. A 71-year-old woman was diagnosed as having UC of the left colon, and treated with prednisolone and mesalazine. Later, however, lumbar spinal stenosis was also detected. After surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis, she suffered postoperative infection of the lumbar region. After 3-week treatment with antibiotics, she developed diarrhea, bloody stools, and abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed PMC of the cecum, ascending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. Stools were positive for CD toxin. As cefotiam hydrochloride, levofloxacin hydrate (LVFX), and prednisolone were suspected as the causative agents, she was treated with 1.5 g vancomycin (VCM) daily for 2 weeks without ceasing LVFX. Her symptoms improved, and colonoscopy confirmed resolution of PMC. The possibility of PMC should be considered in UC patients treated with antibiotics, immunosuppressive agents or corticosteroids who complain of gastrointestinal symptoms. These patients should be thoroughly investigated by several modalities, including colonoscopy and CD toxin testing.

  14. Spray-drying process preserves the protective capacity of a breast milk-derived Bifidobacterium lactis strain on acute and chronic colitis in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Patricia; Alard, Jeanne; Hrdỳ, Jiri; Boutillier, Denise; Páez, Roxana; Reinheimer, Jorge; Pot, Bruno; Vinderola, Gabriel; Grangette, Corinne

    2017-01-01

    Gut microbiota dysbiosis plays a central role in the development and perpetuation of chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and therefore is key target for interventions with high quality and functional probiotics. The local production of stable probiotic formulations at limited cost is considered an advantage as it reduces transportation cost and time, thereby increasing the effective period at the consumer side. In the present study, we compared the anti-inflammatory capacities of the Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis (B. lactis) INL1, a probiotic strain isolated in Argentina from human breast milk, with the commercial strain B. animalis subsp. lactis BB12. The impact of spray-drying, a low-cost alternative of bacterial dehydration, on the functionality of both bifidobacteria was also investigated. We showed for both bacteria that the spray-drying process did not impact on bacterial survival nor on their protective capacities against acute and chronic colitis in mice, opening future perspectives for the use of strain INL1 in populations with IBD. PMID:28233848

  15. A curious case of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity: recurrent, self-limiting dysarthria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Ranjit; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2014-10-01

    This report presents a unique case of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity featuring acute, recurrent, self-limiting dysarthria following multiple subsequent infusions of oxaliplatin. A 65-year-old man started chemotherapy for metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma with oxaliplatin-irinotecan-leucovorin-5-fluorouracil (FOLFIRINOX). During the first and subsequent infusions of oxaliplatin, the patient developed episodes of dysarthria that lasted between 2 and 4 h after oxaliplatin infusions, followed by their complete and uneventful resolution. A thorough neurological examination showed no new neurologic deficits except for very fine tongue fasciculations. Recognizing this self-limiting toxic effect of oxaliplatin is important in order to avoid dose reductions that may affect clinical outcomes.

  16. Eosinophilic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nnenna Okpara; Bassam Aswad; Gyorgy Baffy

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease with a bimodal peak of prevalence in neonates and young adults. EC remains a little understood condition in contrast to the increasingly recognized eosinophilic esophagitis. Clinical presentation of EC is highly variable according to mucosal, transmural, or serosal predominance of inflammation. EC has a broad differential diagnosis because colon tissue eosinophilia often occurs in parasitic infection, drug-induced allergic reactions,inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders, which require thorough searching for secondary causes that may be specifically treated with antibiotics or dietary and drug elimination.Like eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease involving other segments of the gastrointestinal tract, EC responds very well to steroids that may be spared by using antihistamines, leukotriene inhibitors and biologics.

  17. First report of Entamoeba histolytica infection from Timor-Leste--acute amoebic colitis and concurrent late development of amoebic liver abscess in returned travellers to Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourse, Clare B; Robson, Jennifer M; Whitby, Michael R; Francis, Josh R

    2016-02-01

    This communication reports invasive amoebic colitis and late onset amoebic liver abscess in three members of a group of 12 Australian travellers to Timor-Leste (TL). This is the first report of Entamoeba histolytica infection from TL. Clinicians in Australia need to consider amoebiasis in the differential diagnosis in travellers returning with colitis, abdominal pain and fever. Presentation with amoebic liver abscess months after exposure is rare but should be suspected in symptomatic individuals with a relevant history of travel.

  18. Olanzapine-induced ischemic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Sáez-González

    Full Text Available Background: Ischemic colitis (IC is an uncommon adverse event associated with antipsychotic agents, more commonly found with phenothiazine drugs and atypical neuroleptics such as clozapine. The risk of developing ischemic colitis increases when anticholinergic drugs are associated. Case report: We report the case of a 38-year-old woman with a history of schizoaffective disorder who had been on chronic quetiapine for 3 years, and presented to the ER because of diarrhea for 5 days. Four months previously, olanzapine had been added to her psychiatric drug regimen. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with abdominal tympanic sounds and tenderness. Emergency laboratory tests were notable for increased acute phase reagents. Tomography revealed a concentric thickening of the colonic wall in the transverse, descending and sigmoid segments, with no signs of intestinal perforation. Colonoscopy demonstrated severe mucosal involvement from the sigmoid to the hepatic flexure, with ulcerations and fibrinoid exudate. Biopsies confirmed the diagnosis of ischemic colitis. The only relevant finding in her history was the newly added drug to her baseline regimen. An adverse effect was suspected because of its anticholinergic action at the intestinal level, and the drug was withdrawn. After 6 months of follow-up clinical, laboratory and endoscopic recovery was achieved. Discussion: Antipsychotic medication should be considered as a potential cause of ischemic colitis, particularly atypical antipsychotics such as clozapine and olanzapine; despite being uncommon, this adverse event may result in high morbidity and mortality.

  19. Healthcare professionals’ views of the use and administration of two salvage therapy drugs for acute ulcerative colitis: a nested qualitative study within the CONSTRUCT trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Clare; Rapport, Frances; Seagrove, Anne; Alrubaiy, Laith; Williams, John

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Insight into healthcare professionals’ views and experiences of the use of ciclosporin and infliximab as salvage therapies for acute ulcerative colitis (UC) and how this may affect participation in a comparison trial is lacking. The study aimed to capture views and opinions of healthcare professionals about the two drugs within the CONSTRUCT trial. Design An interview-based qualitative study using Framework Analysis embedded within an open-label, pragmatic randomised trial. Setting National Health Service Health Boards and Trusts, including large teaching and district hospitals in England, Scotland and Wales. Participants Principal Investigators (PIs) for trial sites (who were all consultant gastroenterologists) and nurses responsible for administering and monitoring the salvage therapy drugs across trial sites. 15 PIs and 8 nurses recruited from a range of sites stratified by site recruitment rates were interviewed. Results Interviews revealed that professionals made judgements regarding the salvage therapies largely based on experience of giving the two drugs and perceptions of effectiveness and adverse side effects. A clear preference for infliximab among nurses was revealed, largely based on experiences of administration and drug handling, with some doctors strongly favouring infliximab based on experience of prescribing the drug as well as patient views and the existing evidence base. Most doctors were more equivocal, and all were prepared to suspend preferences and wait for evidence of effectiveness and safety from the CONSTRUCT trial. PIs also questioned guidelines around drug use and restrictions placed on personal autonomy in delivering best patient care. Conclusions Findings highlight healthcare professionals’ preference for the salvage treatment, infliximab in treating steroid-resistant UC, largely based on resource intensive nursing requirements of intravenous administration of ciclosporin. Not all doctors expressed this preference, being

  20. Fulminant amebic colitis in an HIV-infected homosexual man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Haruhiko; Umezawa, Masami; Hatakeyama, Shuji

    2011-01-01

    We present a case of fulminant amebic colitis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected homosexual man. The patient developed colonic perforation over a short time despite empirical therapy with metronidazole, and underwent right hemicolectomy. Amebic colitis was pathologically diagnosed by identifying invasive trophozoites of Entamoeba in a surgical specimen. Amebic colitis is one of the important differential diagnoses of acute abdomen in HIV-infected patients and/or homosexual men, especially in East Asia. Although fulminant amebic colitis is a rare manifestation of amebiasis, early diagnosis and treatment are thought to be important to improve the outcome of this highly fatal complication.

  1. Self-activated, self-limiting reactions on Si surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Per; Hvam, Jeanette; Bahari, Ali

    mechanism for the direct growth of ultrathin films (0-3 nm) of oxides and nitrides under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Neutral oxygen and a microwave excited nitrogen plasma interact directly with Si surfaces kept at different temperatures during the reaction. The gas pressures are around 10-6 Torr......The direct thermally activated reactions of oxygen and ammonia with Si surfaces in furnaces have been used for a very long time in the semiconductor industry for the growth of thick oxides and nitride layers respectively. The oxidation mechanism was described in the Deal-Grove model as a diffusion......, and the temperatures vary from room temperature to 10000C.The growth is in these cases self-limiting, with the optimal oxide thickness around 0.7-0.8 nm, at 5000C, and up to a few nm for nitride. The self-limiting oxide case was recently predicted by Alex Demkov in a structural optimization to minimise the total...

  2. Induction of experimental acute ulcerative colitis in rats by administration of dextran sulfate sodium at low concentration followed by intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Several models of experimental ulcerative colitis have been reported previously. However, none of these models showed the optimum characteristics. Although dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis results in inflammation resembling ulcerative colitis, an obvious obstacle is that dextran sulfate sodium is very expensive. The aim of this study was to develop an inexpensive model of colitis in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 2% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water for 3 d followed by an intracolonic administration of 30% ethanol. The administration of 2% dextran sulfate sodium followed by 30% ethanol induced significant weight loss, diarrhea and hematochezia in rats. Severe ulceration and inflammation of the distal part of rat colon were developed rapidly. Histological examination showed increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes,lymphocytes and existence of cryptic abscesses and dysplasia. The model induced by dextran sulfate sodium at lower concentration followed by 30% ethanol is characterized by a clinical course, localization of the lesions and histopathological features similar to human ulcerative colitis and fulfills the criteria set out at the beginning of this study.

  3. [Microscopic colitis: update 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgmann, Konstantin; Fraga, Montserrat; Schoepfer, Alain M; Yun, Pu

    2014-09-03

    Microscopic colitis, which includes lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis, represents a frequent cause of chronic watery diarrhea especially in the elderly population. Several medications, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors or antidepressants, as well as cigarette smoking have been recognized as risk factors for microscopic colitis. The diagnosis of microscopic colitis is based on a macroscopically normal ileo-colonoscopy and several biopsies from the entire colon, which demonstrate the pathognomonic histopathologic findings. Therapy is mainly based on the use of budesonide. Other medications, such as mesalazine, cholestyramine and bismuth, have been evaluated as well but the evidence is less solid.

  4. Microscopic colitis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrukh, A; Mayberry, J F

    2014-12-01

    In recent years, microscopic colitis has been increasingly diagnosed. This review was carried out to evaluate demographic factors for microscopic colitis and to perform a systematic assessment of available treatment options. Relevant publications up to December 2013 were identified following searches of PubMed and Google Scholar using the key words 'microscopic colitis', 'collagenous colitis' and 'lymphocytic colitis'. Two-hundred and forty-eight articles were identified. The term microscopic colitis includes lymphocytic colitis and collagenous colitis. Both have common clinical symptoms but are well defined histopathologically. The clinical course is usually benign, but serious complications, including death, may occur. A peak incidence from 60 to 70 years of age with a female preponderance is observed. Although most cases are idiopathic, associations with autoimmune disorders, such as coeliac disease and hypothyroidism, as well as with exposure to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and proton-pump inhibitors, have been observed. The incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis is rising and good-quality epidemiological research is needed. Treatment is currently largely based on anecdotal evidence and on results from limited clinical trials of budesonide. Long-term follow-up of these patients is not well established. The review synthesizes work on the definition of microscopic colitis and the relationship between collagenous and lymphocytic colitis. It reviews the international epidemiology and work on aetiology. In addition, it critically considers the efficacy of a range of treatments. Colorectal Disease © 2014 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  5. Cynanchum wilfordii Polysaccharides Suppress Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Acute Colitis in Mice and the Production of Inflammatory Mediators from Macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Won Cho

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We recently reported the immune-enhancing effects of a high-molecular-weight fraction (HMF of CW in macrophages and immunosuppressed mice, and this effect was attributed to a crude polysaccharide. As polysaccharides may also have anti-inflammatory functions, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and related molecular mechanisms of a crude polysaccharide (HMFO obtained from HMF of CW in mice with dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS- induced colitis and in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages. HMFO ameliorated the pathological characteristics of colitis and significantly reduced production of proinflammatory cytokines in the serum. Histological analysis indicated that HMFO improved the signs of histological damage such as abnormal crypts, crypt loss, and inflammatory cell infiltration induced by DSS. In addition, HMFO inhibited iNOS and COX-2 protein expression, as well as phosphorylated NF-κB p65 levels in the colon tissue of mice with DSS-induced colitis. In macrophages, HMFO inhibited several cytokines and enzymes involved in inflammation such as prostaglandin E2, nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 by attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases. HMFO attenuated inflammation both in vitro and in vivo, primarily by inhibiting NF-κB activation. Our findings indicate that HMFO is a promising remedy for treating inflammatory bowel diseases, such as colitis.

  6. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... enabled to enjoy the full interactive experience. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America Find a Doctor Find a ... Local Chapters News Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis ...

  7. Desulfovibrio bacterial species are increased in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Debate persists regarding the role of Desulfovibrio subspecies in ulcerative colitis. Combined microscopic and molecular techniques enable this issue to be investigated by allowing precise enumeration of specific bacterial species within the colonic mucous gel. The aim of this study was to combine laser capture microdissection and quantitative polymerase chain reaction to determine Desulfovibrio copy number in crypt-associated mucous gel in health and in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis. METHODS: Colonic mucosal biopsies were harvested from healthy controls (n = 19) and patients with acute (n = 10) or chronic (n = 10) ulcerative colitis. Crypt-associated mucous gel was obtained by laser capture microdissection throughout the colon. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA and Desulfovibrio copy number\\/mm were obtained by polymerase chain reaction at each locus. Bacterial copy numbers were interrogated for correlation with location and disease activity. Data were evaluated using a combination of ordinary linear methods and linear mixed-effects models to cater for multiple interactions. RESULTS: Desulfovibrio positivity was significantly increased in acute and chronic ulcerative colitis at multiple levels within the colon, and after normalization with total bacterial signal, the relative Desulfovibrio load was increased in acute colitis compared with controls. Desulfovibrio counts did not significantly correlate with age, disease duration, or disease activity but interlevel correlations were found in adjacent colonic segments in the healthy control and chronic ulcerative colitis groups. CONCLUSION: The presence of Desulfovibrio subspecies is increased in ulcerative colitis and the data presented suggest that these bacteria represent an increased percentage of the colonic microbiome in acute ulcerative colitis.

  8. Acute Mesenteric Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Side Effects Additional Content Medical News Acute Mesenteric Ischemia By Parswa Ansari, MD, Department of Surgery, Lenox ... Abscesses Abdominal Wall Hernias Inguinal Hernia Acute Mesenteric Ischemia Appendicitis Ileus Intestinal Obstruction Ischemic Colitis Perforation of ...

  9. Unstable, self-limiting thermochemical temperature oscillations in Macrozamia cycads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemer, Robert B; Terry, L Irene; Walter, Gimme H

    2008-06-01

    Field measurements and laboratory experiments on the Australian cycads Macrozamia lucida and Macrozamia macleayi demonstrate that their cones' diel peak thermogenic temperature increase varies systematically with cone stage, with single thermogenic temperature peaks occurring daily for up to 2 weeks and reaching 12 degrees C above ambient at midstage. The initiation, magnitude and timing of those peaks are strongly modulated by ambient temperature; the period between successive thermogenic temperature peaks is not circadian, and light is neither necessary nor sufficient to initiate a thermogenic event. A mathematical analysis is developed that provides a unified explanation of the experimental results. It describes these unstable, self-limiting thermogenic events in terms of conservation of energy and a first-order chemical reaction rate model that includes an Arrhenius equation dependence of the cone's metabolic heating rate on the cone temperature.

  10. The antioxidant effect of Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea in rat colitis model induced by acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Z; Ergul, B; Sarikaya, M; Filik, L; Gonultas, M Alparslan; Hucumenoglu, S; Can, M

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory condition of the colon, and reactive oxidative metabolites (ROMs) play an important role in its pathogenesis. Alternative therapies such as herbal remedies are increasingly being used in the treatment of ulcerative colitis for better clinical outcome of ulcerative colitis and less adverse effects. Echinacea has many features including antioxidant and wound-healing properties. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the protective effect of Echinacea spp. on experimental colitis model induced by acetic acid in Wistar albino rats. Acute colitis was induced by intrarectal administration of acetic acid. Rats were divided into four groups, namely control, Echinacea-administered, Echinacea-administered-colitis and colitis. Malondialdehyde and total antioxidant status were assayed in tissue samples. Histopathological evaluation was also performed. Macroscopic and microscopic scores were significantly higher in colitis group compared to control, Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p > 0.3, p > 0.22). Malondialdehyde levels were elevated in colitis group compared to other groups (p Echinacea group compared with other groups and also significantly higher in Echinacea-colitis group compared with colitis group (p Echinacea may possibly have some therapeutic usefulness in the management of ulcerative colitis (Tab. 2, Fig. 4, Ref. 35).

  11. A case of fulminating amebic colitis associated with toxic megacolon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Joong Suk; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kyung Hee University Hospital. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Amebic colitis was common disease in Korea as well as in the world especially frequent in tropical area such as Africa, India and South America. Clinicopathological forms of this condition were ulcerative rectocolitis (95%), typhloappendicitis (3%), ameboma (1.5%), and fulminating colitis with toxic megacolon (0.5%). The fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon was very rare and dangerous condition which was reported by Wruble on 1966. Toxic megacolon was seen in the cases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, typhoid fever, cholera, and acute bacillary dysentery. Radiological findings of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon were megacolon, multiple polypoid filling defects, thumbprinting, and cobble stone appearance, which were resemble with ulcerative colitis. The cause of toxic megacolon was not well known, but it has been speculated that this results from transmural disease with destruction of muscle and the myenteric plexus with resultant loss of muscle tone. Authors experienced a case of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon which was resemble with ulcerative colitis by radiologically at Kyung Hee University Hospital and reported it with review of the literatures.

  12. Ergotamine-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wörmann, B; Höchter, W; Seib, H J; Ottenjann, R

    1985-07-01

    We report on a 45-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis of the rectum that arose after the use of up to 6 suppositories of a preparation containing ergotamine daily over a period of 6 years. On the basis of a review of the literature the clinical, endoscopic and histological features of the ergotamine-induced colitis are characterized.

  13. Salmonella pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew; McNeil, Candice; Abdelsayed, George; Chin-Lue, Roland; Kassis, Simon; Manthous, Constantine A

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis is most often associated with antibiotic use and caused most often by Clostridium difficile. Aclinical syndrome and pathology that is identical can be caused rarely by other organisms. We report a case of Salmonella enterica pseudomembranous colitis and briefly review the literature regarding rare causes of this syndrome.

  14. Multivariate Modeling Identifies Neutrophil- and Th17-Related Factors as Differential Serum Biomarkers of Chronic Murine Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBee, Megan E.; Zeng, Yu; Parry, Nicola; Nagler, Cathryn R.; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of chronic intestinal inflammation, which characterizes inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), along with prediction of disease state is hindered by the availability of predictive serum biomarker. Serum biomarkers predictive of disease state will improve trials for therapeutic intervention, and disease monitoring, particularly in genetically susceptible individuals. Chronic inflammation during IBD is considered distinct from infectious intestinal inflammation thereby requiring biomarkers to provide differential diagnosis. To address whether differential serum biomarkers could be identified in murine models of colitis, immunological profiles from both chronic spontaneous and acute infectious colitis were compared and predictive serum biomarkers identified via multivariate modeling. Methodology/Principal Findings Discriminatory multivariate modeling of 23 cytokines plus chlorotyrosine and nitrotyrosine (protein adducts from reactive nitrogen species and hypochlorite) in serum and tissue from two murine models of colitis was performed to identify disease-associated biomarkers. Acute C. rodentium-induced colitis in C57BL/6J mice and chronic spontaneous Helicobacter-dependent colitis in TLR4−/− x IL-10−/− mice were utilized for evaluation. Colon profiles of both colitis models were nearly identical with chemokines, neutrophil- and Th17-related factors highly associated with intestinal disease. In acute colitis, discriminatory disease-associated serum factors were not those identified in the colon. In contrast, the discriminatory predictive serum factors for chronic colitis were neutrophil- and Th17-related factors (KC, IL-12/23p40, IL-17, G-CSF, and chlorotyrosine) that were also elevated in colon tissue. Chronic colitis serum biomarkers were specific to chronic colitis as they were not discriminatory for acute colitis. Conclusions/Significance Immunological profiling revealed strikingly similar colon profiles, yet distinctly different serum

  15. Complications of collagenous colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis. This disorder generally has an apparently benign clinical course. However, a number of gastric and intestinal complications, possibly coincidental, may develop with collagenous colitis. Distinctive inflammatory disorders of the gastric mucosa have been described, including lymphocytic gastritis and collagenous gastritis. Celiac disease and collagenous sprue (or collagenous enteritis) may occur. Colonic ulceration has been associated with use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, may evolve from collagenous colitis. Submucosal "dissection", colonic fractures or mucosal tears and perforation from air insufflation during colonoscopy may occur and has been hypothesized to be due to compromise of the colonic wall from submucosal collagen deposition. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressure during barium enema contrast studies. Finally, malignant disorders have also been reported, including carcinoma and lymphoproliferative disease.

  16. 联用乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌对小鼠急性溃疡性结肠炎的影响%Influence of combined administration of lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum on acute mice ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    左和宁; 杨伟峰

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect of combined administration of lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum on acute mice ulcerative colitis, and explore its therapeutic mechanism.Methods Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mice model of acute ulcerative colitis was established. After administration of lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum, the pathological change of tunica mucosa coli was observed and the expression levels of tumor necorisis factor (TNF-α) and tissue factor (TF) were measured.Results Lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum significantly alleviated the damage of tunica mucosa coli and suppressed the expression of TNF-αand TF. By comparison, there were the lightest histological damage and the lowest expression of TNF-αand TF when lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum were administrated combined.Conclusion Both lactobacilli and clostridium butyricum show therapeutic effect on DSS-induced mice ulcerative colitis. The coordinate repression on expression of TNF-αand TF may be the molecular mechanism of the co-effect on mice UC.%目的 观察联用乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌对小鼠急性溃疡性结肠炎的疗效并探讨其治疗机制.方法 建立DSS诱导的小鼠急性溃疡性结肠炎(UC)模型,观察给予乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌治疗后,小鼠结肠黏膜的病理改变和TNF-α和组织因子(TF)表达的变化.结果 乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌可明显减轻小鼠结肠黏膜的损伤;可明显抑制TNF-α和TF的表达,尤以两菌合用组抑制作用最强.结论 乳酸杆菌和丁酸梭菌对DSS诱导的UC有治疗作用,对TNF-α和TF表达的协同抑制作用可能是其发挥协调治疗作用的分子机制.

  17. Role of the protein annexin A1 on the efficacy of anti-TNF treatment in a murine model of acute colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula-Silva, Marina; Barrios, Bibiana Elisabeth; Macció-Maretto, Lisa; Sena, Angela Aparecida; Farsky, Sandra Helena Poliselli; Correa, Silvia Graciela; Oliani, Sonia Maria

    2016-09-01

    TNF-α is involved in the mechanisms that initiate inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Anti-TNF-α drugs, such as infliximab (IFX), cause non-responsiveness and side effects, indicating the need to investigate alternative therapies for these diseases. The anti-inflammatory protein, annexin A1 (AnxA1), has been associated with the protection of the gastrointestinal mucosa. To further address the role of endogenous AnxA1 on the TNF-α blockade efficacy in a murine model, we assessed colitis induced by Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) in wild-type (WT) and AnxA1(-/-) Balb/c mice treated with IFX. We consistently observed endogenous AnxA1 prevented clinical and physiological manifestations of experimental colitis treated with IFX, additionally the manifestation of the disease was observed earlier in AnxA1(-)(/-) mice. Rectal bleeding, diarrhea, histological score, epithelial damages and collagen degradation caused by DSS were prevented following IFX treatment only in WT mice. IL-6 increased during colitis in WT and AnxA1(-)(/-) mice, decreasing under IFX treatment in WT. The influx of neutrophils and TNF-α secretion were largely elevated in AnxA1(-)(/-) mice when compared to WT mice. In the group WT/DSS+IFX, phagocytes were more susceptible to apoptosis following treatment with IFX. Endogenous expression of AnxA1 increased after DSS and decreased with IFX treatment, demonstrating an attenuated inflammatory response. The data indicate that AnxA1 contributes to the establishment of intestinal homeostasis after blocking of TNF-α was used as a treatment of IBD, constituting a key molecule in the mechanism of action and a potential biomarker of therapeutic efficacy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Self-assembling and self-limiting monolayer deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foest, Rüdiger; Schmidt, Martin; Gargouri, Hassan

    2014-02-01

    Effects of spatial ordering of molecules on surfaces are commonly utilized to deposit ultra-thin films with a thickness of a few nm. In this review paper, several methods are discussed, that are distinguished from other thin film deposition processes by exactly these effects that lead to self-assembling and self-limiting layer growth and eventually to coatings with unique and fascinating properties and applications in micro-electronics, optics, chemistry, or biology. Traditional methods for the formation of self-assembled films of ordered organic molecules, such as the Langmuir-Blodgett technique along with thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) of inorganic molecules are evaluated. The overview is complemented by more recent developments for the deposition of organic or hybrid films by molecular layer deposition. Particular attention is given to plasma assisted techniques, either as a preparative, supplementary step or as inherent part of the deposition as in plasma enhanced ALD or plasma assisted, repeated grafting deposition. The different methods are compared and their film formation mechanisms along with their advantages are presented from the perspective of a plasma scientist. The paper contains lists of established film compounds and a collection of the relevant literature is provided for further reading.

  19. Surgery for Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Crohn's Disease & Ulcerative Colitis Go Back Surgery for Crohn's Disease & Ulcerative Colitis Email Print + Share ( Disclaimer: Surgery information ... helps you to learn what to expect. About Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis ...

  20. Pathology image of the month. Black esophagus detected at autopsy in a patient with abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea. DIAGNOSIS: Acute esophageal necrosis, ischemic and pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Christin; Thomas, Louise; McGoey, Robin R

    2014-01-01

    A 73-year-old African-American male was transported to the emergency department due to what emergency personnel described as "coffee ground emesis." He was pronounced dead shortly after arrival. An unlimited autopsy examination was conducted under authorization of the coroner's office. Medical record review revealed that the decedent had been discharged from the hospital just one day prior to his death following a three-day admission for abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and a 22-lb unintentional weight loss. Medical history documented hypertension, chronic obstructive lung disease, and a 57-pack-year smoking history. Alcohol abuse was also endorsed, but cessation of use was reported six months prior. During that admit, he was treated for volume-depletion, a urinary tract infection, and suspected infective colitis with antibiotics. Symptoms had resolved on hospital day three, and the patient was discharged home with a two-week course of ciprofloxacin and metronidazole and a follow-up colonoscopy appointment in one month. At the time of autopsy, the decedent was described as cachectic. Figure 1a shows the decedent's esophagus, opened longitudinally. Figure 1b shows the corresponding histology from the esophagus. Other findings documented at autopsy included ischemic bowel disease in the descending colon with patchy superimposed pseudomembranous colitis, emphysematous change, papillary renal cell carcinoma of the right kidney, microscopic prostatic adenocarcinoma, hepatic fibrosis, and intact hepatic hemangiomata.

  1. Ulcerative colitis flair induced by mesalamine suppositories hypersensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hao; Liu, Xiao-Chang; Mei, Qiao; Xu, Jian-Ming; Hu, Xiang-Yang; Hu, Jing

    2014-04-07

    Mesalamine suppositories have been used widely for the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis and considered to be safer than systemic administration for its limited systemic absorption. However, previous studies have shown that mesalamine suppository occasionally causes severe hypersensitivity reactions including fever, rashes, colitis exacerbation and acute eosinophilic pneumonia. Here we present a 25-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis with bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever which were aggravated after introduction of mesalamine suppositories. In light of symptom exacerbation of ulcerative colitis, increased inflammatory injury of colon mucosa shown by colonoscopy and elevated peripheral eosinophil count after mesalamine suppositories administration, and the Naranjo algorithm score of 10, the possibility of hypersensitivity reaction to mesalamine suppositories should be considered, warning us to be aware of this potential reaction after administration of mesalamine formulations even if it is the suppositories.

  2. Non-IBD and noninfectious colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, O.H.; Vainer, B.; Rask-Madsen, J.

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms underlie colitis. This Review provides and overview of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, histopathology, and clinical characteristics of noninfectious and non-IBD forms of colitis: microscopic colitis, Behcet's syndrome, diversion colitis......, diverticular colitis, eosinophilic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation colitis. These more recently characterized and rare forms of colitis occur as either primary conditions or complications of other diseases. Most of these diseases are uncommon; therefore, epidemiologic data and data from controlled...... trials are not readily available. Practical guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of these more recently characterized and rarer forms of colitis are given where possible Udgivelsesdato: 2008/1...

  3. Non-IBD and noninfectious colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Ole Haagen; Vainer, Ben; Rask-Madsen, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    A wide range of etiologies and pathogenic mechanisms underlie colitis. This Review provides an overview of the pathophysiology, epidemiology, histopathology, and clinical characteristics of noninfectious and non-IBD forms of colitis: microscopic colitis, Behçet's syndrome, diversion colitis......, diverticular colitis, eosinophilic colitis, ischemic colitis, and radiation colitis. These more recently characterized and rare forms of colitis occur as either primary conditions or complications of other diseases. Most of these diseases are uncommon; therefore, epidemiologic data and data from controlled...... trials are not readily available. Practical guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of these more recently characterized and rarer forms of colitis are given where possible....

  4. Pseudomembranous colitis in cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakumar, Prasad

    2013-05-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients may require frequent courses of antibiotics and repeated hospital admissions. Although children with CF have high carriage rate for C.difficile, they rarely develop colitis. Pseudomembranous colitis is more common in adult post lung transplant CF patients. Although rare, paseudomembranous colitis should be considered in CF patients presenting with abdominal symptoms even in the absence of diarrhoea.

  5. Ulcerative colitis in infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Rukunuzzaman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder of colon. Frequency of UC is gradually increasing over few years worldwide. Prevalence is 35 to 100/100 000 people in USA, 1% of them are infants. UC develops in a genetically predisposed individual with altered intestinal immune response. An eight-month-old girl presented with loose bloody stool, growth failure, and moderate pallor. The girl was diagnosed as a case of UC by colonoscopy and biopsy. Treatment was thereafter started with immunosuppressive drugs. After initial induction therapy with parenteral steroid and infliximab, the patient is now on remission with azathioprine and mesalamine. UC is rare in Bangladesh, especially in children, and it is rarer during infancy. Several conditions like infective colitis, allergic colitis, Meckel′s diverticulitis, Crohn′s disease, etc. may mimic the features of UC. So, if a child presents with recurrent bloody diarrhea, UC should be considered as differential diagnosis.

  6. Infective Endocarditis Presented as a Right Atrium Mass in a Patient with Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asghar Moeinipour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Involvement of the heart is infrequently seen in irritable bowel syndrome (IBD. We present a case of severe acute infective endocarditis diagnosed as ulcerative colitis in further workup.

  7. Eosinophilic colitis in infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Chebar Lozinsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review the literature for clinical data on infants with allergic or eosinophilic colitis. DATA SOURCE: MEDLINE search of all indexes was performed using the words ''colitis or procto-colitis and eosinophilic'' or ''colitis or proctocolitis and allergic'' between 1966 and February of 2013. All articles that described patients' characteristics were selected. DATA SYNTHESIS: A total of 770 articles were identified, of which 32 met the inclusion criteria. The 32 articles included a total of 314 infants. According to the available information, 61.6% of infants were male and 78.6% were younger than 6 months. Of the 314 patients, 49.0% were fed exclusively breast milk, 44.2% received cow's milk protein, and 6.8% received soy protein. Diarrheal stools were described in 28.3% of patients. Eosinophilia was found in 43.8% (115/263 of infants. Colonic or rectal biopsy showed infiltration by eosinophils (between 5 and 25 perhigh-power field in 89.3% (236/264 of patients. Most patients showed improvement with theremoval of the protein in cow's milk from their diet or the mother's diet. Allergy challenge tests with cow's milk protein were cited by 12 of the 32 articles (66 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Eosinophilic colitis occurs predominantly in the first six months of life and in males. Allergy to cow's milk was considered the main cause of eosinophilic colitis. Exclusion of cow'smilk from the diet of the lactating mother or from the infant's diet is generally an effective therapeutic measure.

  8. Protective effect of boldine in experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotteland, M; Jimenez, I; Brunser, O; Guzman, L; Romero, S; Cassels, B K; Speisky, H

    1997-08-01

    The cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of boldine in an experimental model of acute colitis are reported. The administration of boldine to animals with colitis induced by the intrarectal administration of acetic acid, was found to protect against colonic damage as expressed by major reductions in the extent of cell death, tissue disorganization, and edema. Boldine also reduced the colonic neutrophil infiltration, as measured by the myeloperoxidase activity, but it did not significantly affect tissue lipoperoxides. Boldine was found to preserve the colonic fluid transport, a function otherwise markedly affected in the tissue of acid-treated animals. Results presented here provide experimental evidence supporting new cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory properties of boldine.

  9. Intestinal microbiota signatures associated with inflammation history in mice experiencing recurring colitis

    OpenAIRE

    David eBerry; Orest eKuzyk; Isabella eRauch; Susanne eHeider; Clarissa eSchwab; Eva eHainzl; Thomas eDecker; Mathias eMüller; Birgit eStrobl; Christa eSchleper; Tim eUrich; Michael eWagner; Lukas eKenner; Alexander eLoy

    2015-01-01

    Acute colitis causes alterations in the intestinal microbiota, but the microbiota is thought to recover after such events. Extreme microbiota alterations are characteristic of human chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, although alterations reported in different studies are divergent and sometimes even contradictory. To better understand the impact of periodic disturbances on the intestinal microbiota and its compositional difference between acute and relapsing colitis, we investigated the beg...

  10. Intestinal Microbiota Signatures Associated with Inflammation History in Mice Experiencing Recurring Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, David; Kuzyk, Orest; Rauch, Isabella; Heider, Susanne; Schwab, Clarissa; Hainzl, Eva; Decker, Thomas; Müller, Mathias; Strobl, Birgit; Schleper, Christa; Urich, Tim; Wagner, Michael; Kenner, Lukas; Loy, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Acute colitis causes alterations in the intestinal microbiota, but the microbiota is thought to recover after such events. Extreme microbiota alterations are characteristic of human chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, although alterations reported in different studies are divergent and sometimes even contradictory. To better understand the impact of periodic disturbances on the intestinal microbiota and its compositional difference between acute and relapsing colitis, we investigated the beg...

  11. Metabolite profiling of plasma and urine from rats with TNBS-induced acute colitis using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabonomics--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Choi, Franky F K; Zhou, Yan; Leung, Feung P; Tan, Shun; Lin, Shuhai; Xu, Hongxi; Jia, Wei; Sung, Joseph J Y; Cai, Zongwei; Bian, Zhaoxiang

    2012-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a relapsing intestinal condition whose precise etiology is still unclear, has continually increased over recent years. Metabolic profiling is an effective method with high sample throughput that can detect and identify potential biomarkers, and thus may be useful in investigating the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, using a metabonomics approach, a pilot study based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was performed to characterize the metabolic profile of plasma and urine samples of rats with experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Acquired metabolic profile data were processed by multivariate data analysis for differentiation and screening of potential biomarkers. Five metabolites were identified in urine: two tryptophan metabolites [4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid and 4,6-cihydroxyquinoline], two gut microbial metabolites (phenyl-acetylglycine and p-cresol glucuronide), and the bile acid 12α-hydroxy-3-oxocholadienic acid. Seven metabolites were identified in plasma: three members of the bile acid/alcohol group (cholic acid, 12α-hydroxy-3-oxocholadienic acid and cholestane-3,7,12,24,25-pentol) and four lysophosphatidylcholines [LysoPC(20:4), LysoPC(16:0), LysoPC(18:1) and LysoPC(18:0)]. These metabolites are associated with damage of the intestinal barrier function, microbiota homeostasis, immune modulation and the inflammatory response, and play important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Our results positively support application of the metabonomic approach in study of the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease.

  12. A case of pseudomembranous colitis after voriconazole therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jae-Cheol; Kang, Min-Kyu; Kim, Si-Hyun; Choi, Su-Mi; Kim, Hee-Je; Min, Woo-Sung; Lee, Dong-Gun

    2011-09-01

    This is a case report on a 35-year-old man with acute myelogenous leukemia who presented fever and intermittent mucoid loose stool to the emergency center. He had been taking voriconazole for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. The flexible sigmoidoscopy was consistent with the diagnosis of pseudomembranous colitis.

  13. Synchronous occurrence of collagenous colitis and pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesoulis, Z; Lozanski, G; Loiudice, T

    2000-04-01

    Synchronous collagenous and pseudomembranous colitis has not been previously reported. A 73-year-old woman presented with chronic watery diarrhea and abdominal cramping of six weeks' duration. Biopsies of the colon revealed findings of collagenous colitis involving the endoscopically normal right colon, and superimposed collagenous and pseudomembranous colitis involving the rectosigmoid colon. Endoscopically, the left colon revealed discrete ulcerative plaques, and Clostridium difficile toxin A assay was positive. The patient partially responded to a three-week regimen of metronidazole, and symptoms resolved completely with subsequent steroid therapy. At follow-up endoscopy four months later, colon biopsies demonstrated persistence of subepithelial collagen but no pseudomembranes. The patient remained asymptomatic during this interval. Collagenous colitis has been reported in association with other inflammatory bowel diseases, including lymphocytic colitis, sprue and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. This unique association of collagenous colitis with an endotoxigenic inflammatory bowel disease is presented with a review of related disease features.

  14. Identification of an intrahepatic transcriptional signature associated with self-limiting infection in the woodchuck model of hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Simon P.; Chin, Daniel J.; Cheng, Donavan T.; Ravindran, Palanikumar; Bitter, Hans; Gruenbaum, Lore; Cote, Paul J.; Ma, Han; Klumpp, Klaus; Menne, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The woodchuck model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection displays many characteristics of human infection and has particular value for characterizing the host immune responses during the development of chronic infection. Using the newly developed custom woodchuck microarray platform, we compared the intrahepatic transcriptional profiles of neonatal woodchucks with self-limiting woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) infection to those woodchucks progressing to persistent WHV infection. This revealed that WHV does not induce significant intrahepatic gene expression changes during the early-acute stage of infection (8 weeks), suggesting it is a stealth virus. At the mid-acute phase of infection (14 weeks), resolution was associated with induction of a prominent cytotoxic T cell signature. Strikingly, this was accompanied by high level expression of PD-1 and various other inhibitory T cell receptors, which likely act to minimize liver damage by cytotoxic T cells during viral clearance. In contrast to the expression of perforin and other cytotoxic effector genes, the interferon-γ (IFN-γ) signaling response in the mid-acute phase was comparable to that in chronically infected adult animals. The absence of a strong IFN-α/β transcriptional response indicated that type I IFN is not a critical mediator of self-limiting infection. Nevertheless, a number of antiviral genes, including viperin, were differentially expressed during resolving infection, suggesting that a subset of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) may play a role in the control of WHV replication. Conclusion We identified new immune pathways associated with the clearance of hepadnavirus infection revealing novel molecular targets with potential for the therapeutic treatment of chronic hepatitis B. PMID:22806943

  15. Confocal microscope analysis of depth of etch between self-limiting and traditional etchant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Sara M; Lien, Wen; Lee, David P; Dunn, William J

    2017-09-01

    To see whether there is an advantage to using a self-limiting phosphoric acid etchant versus a traditional 34% phosphoric acid etchant for bonding by measuring the depth of etch at multiple time intervals. A total of 25 bovine teeth were mounted and etched on the facial surface with two different etchants: standard 34% phosphoric acid and a self-limiting 35% phosphoric acid etchant at varied time intervals of 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 seconds. Teeth were scanned using a three-dimensional laser confocal scanning microscope prior to etching and scanned again after etching to determine the depth of enamel etched compared to the baseline enamel surface prior to etching. The 34% phosphoric acid etchant etched significantly deeper than the self-limiting etch. Etch times exceeding 30 seconds also etched significantly deeper for both types of etchant. The etch depth of the self-limiting etchant was consistently less than the standard etchant. Both types of etchant etched deeper after 30 seconds, but the depth of etch at 120 seconds was not different than at 60 seconds, indicating that both etchants are somewhat self-limiting in depth. Therefore, there is no advantage to using the self-limiting etchant.

  16. Ulcerative Colitis in Infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Md Rukunuzzaman; A. S. M. Bazlul Karim

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic idiopathic inflammatory disorder of colon. Frequency of UC is gradually increasing over few years worldwide. Prevalence is 35 to 100/100 000 people in USA, 1% of them are infants. UC develops in a genetically predisposed individual with altered intestinal immune response. An eight-month-old girl presented with loose bloody stool, growth failure, and moderate pallor. The girl was diagnosed as a case of UC by colonoscopy and biopsy. Treatment was thereafter ...

  17. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Chan Jang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  18. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min; Ko, Seong-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  19. Evolution of Collagenous Colitis into Severe and Extensive Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous colitis is an inflammatory mucosal disorder of the colon with distinctive histopathological features, including a thickened subepithelial collagen layer. The clinical course is usually benign, but serious complications, including death, may occur. In the present report, a 69-year-old woman with watery diarrhea and collagenous colitis developed bloody diarrhea that was refractory to treatment medications, including corticosteroids and azathioprine. Endoscopic and histopathological studies showed a focal neutrophilic inflammatory process that progressed to a diffuse and extensive form of colitis, eventually requiring total proctocolectomy. Careful histological review of the resected colon showed no evidence of persistent collagenous colitis. These findings suggest an important need for continued long-term follow-up of patients with collagenous colitis because superimposed and serious colonic complications may occur, including a severe and extensive pancolitis refractory to medications and necessitating total proctocolectomy.

  20. Computed tomography of Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis; Computertomographische Morphologie von Morbus Crohn und Colitis ulcerosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, H.M. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Wein, B. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Adam, G. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Ruppert, D. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany); Guenther, R.W. [Klinik fuer Radiologische Diagnostik der RWTH, Aachen (Germany)

    1995-07-01

    We analysed the CT examinations of 109 patients with 197 involved bowel locations. 81 patients suffered from Crohn`s disease, 28 from ulcerative colitis. Diagnosis was based on the combination of clinical, endoscopic and histopathologic findings. Three radiologists evaluated the CT series concerning the presence of morphologic changes analogous to conventional radiographic findings. In Crohn`s disease, we found irregular outer contours in 26% of cases. The bowel wall was thickened in 82%. In acute phases, the bowel wall was thickened in 100%. Abscess and fistula as complications of inflammatory disease were present in 26 and 14% respectively. In ulcerative colitis, a target sign of the bowel wall was present in 40%, whereas in Crohn`s disease a homogeneous wall density was present in all but two cases. Reduced attenuation due to submucosal fat deposits was found in 16% and mucosal tunneling in 27% of cases with ulcerative colitis. Even if severe mucosal destructions were found, the outer contour of the gut was smooth and regular in 95% of the ulcerative colitis cases. CT can provide additional information on acuity, extent and complications in inflammatory bowel disease. In combination with conventional radiographic findings a three-step classification for Crohn`s disease and ulcerative colitis (early changes, acute and chronic phase) can be proposed. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Wir untersuchten computertomographisch 109 Patienten mit 197 erkrankten Darmsegmenten. 81 Patienten litten an M. Crohn und 28 an Colitis ulcerosa. Die Diagnose wurde durch Kombination klinischer, endoskopischer, radiologischer und bioptischer Befunde gesichert. Drei Radiologen bewerteten die Computertomographien und verglichen die Ergebnisse mit den konventionell-radiologischen Befunden. Bei den Patienten mit M. Crohn fanden wir in 26% der Faelle eine irregulaere aeussere Darmwand. Eine Darmwandverdickung lag in 82% vor und fand sich regelmaessig in Darmabschnitten mit floriden Veraenderungen

  1. Recent advances in the management of radiation colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jannis Kountouras; Christos Zavos

    2008-01-01

    Radiation colitis,an insidious,progressive disease of increasing frequency,develops 6 mo to 5 years after regional radiotherapy for malignancy,owing to the deleterious effects of the latter on the colon and the small intestine.When dealing with radiation colitis and its complications,the most conservative modality should be employed because the areas of intestinal injury do not tend to heal.Acute radiation colitis is mostly selflimited,and usually,only supportive management is required.Chronic radiation colitis,a poorly predictable progressive disease,is considered as a precancerous lesion;radiation-associated malignancy has a tendency to be diagnosed at an advanced stage and to bear a dismal prognosis.Therefore,management of chronic radiation colitis remains a major challenge owing to the progressive evolution of the disease,including development of fibrosis,endarteritis,edema,fragility,perforation,partial obstruction,and cancer.Patients are commonly managed conservatively.Surgical intervention is difficult to perform because of the extension of fibrosis and alterations in the gut and mesentery,and should be reserved for intestinal obstruction,perforation,fistulas,and severe bleeding.Owing to the difficulty in managing the complications of acute and chronic radiation colitis,particular attention should be focused onto the prevention strategies.Uncovering the fibrosis mechanisms and the molecular events underlying radiation bowel disease could lead to the introduction of new therapeutic and/or preventive approaches.A variety of novel,mostly experimental,agents have been used mainly as a prophylaxis,and improvements have been made in radiotherapy delivery,including techniques to reduce the amount of exposed intestine in the radiation field,as a critical strategy for prevention.

  2. Surgical Management of Severe Colitis in the Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaweish, Ihab; Alam, Hasan B

    2015-12-01

    Severe colitis, an umbrella encompassing several entities, is one of the most common acute gastrointestinal disorders resulting in critical illness. Clostridium difficile infection is responsible for the majority of nosocomial diarrhea with fulminant C difficile colitis (CDC) carrying a high mortality. Optimal outcomes can be achieved by early identification and treatment of fulminant CDC, with appropriate surgical intervention when indicated. Ischemic colitis, on the other hand, is uncommon with a range of etiological factors including abdominal aortic surgery, inotropic drugs, rheumatoid diseases, or often no obvious triggering factor. Most cases resolve with nonsurgical management; however, prompt recognition of full-thickness necrosis and gangrene is crucial for good patient outcomes. Fulminant colitis is a severe disease secondary to progressive ulcerative colitis with systemic deterioration. Surgical intervention is indicated for hemorrhage, perforation, or peritonitis and failure of medical therapy to control the disease. Although, failure of medical management is the most common indication, it can be difficult to define objectively and requires a collaborative multidisciplinary approach. This article proposes some simple management algorithms for these clinical entities, with a focus on critically ill patients.

  3. Interleukin 19 reduces inflammation in chemically induced experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Yukiko; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Natsuho; Ikeda, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin (IL)-19, a member of the IL-10 family, functions as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Here, we investigated the contribution of IL-19 to intestinal inflammation in a model of T cell-mediated colitis in mice. Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis. IL-19 deficiency aggravated TNBS-induced colitis and compromised intestinal recovery in mice. Additionally, the exacerbation of TNBS-induced colonic inflammation following genetic ablation of IL-19 was accompanied by increased production of interferon-gamma, IL-12 (p40), IL-17, IL-22, and IL-33, and decreased production of IL-4. Moreover, the exacerbation of colitis following IL-19 knockout was also accompanied by increased production of CXCL1, G-CSF and CCL5. Using this model of induced colitis, our results revealed the immunopathological relevance of IL-19 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in intestinal inflammation in mice.

  4. Segmental Colitis Complicating Diverticular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Ma Van Rosendaal

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two cases of idiopathic colitis affecting the sigmoid colon in elderly patients with underlying diverticulosis are presented. Segmental resection has permitted close review of the histopathology in this syndrome which demonstrates considerable similarity to changes seen in idiopathic ulcerative colitis. The reported experience with this syndrome and its clinical features are reviewed.

  5. Ischemic colitis as a manifestation of thrombotic microangiopathy following bone marrow transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komeno, Yukiko; Ogawa, Seishi; Ishida, Tateru; Takeuchi, Kengo; Tsujino, Shiho; Kurokawa, Mineo; Aoki, Katsunori; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Chiba, Shigeru; Motokura, Toru; Fukayama, Masashi; Hirai, Hisamaru

    2003-12-01

    Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a microvascular disorder characterized by platelet aggregation and hemolytic anemia. In the setting of bone marrow transplantation (BMT), ischemic colitis due to TMA is difficult to differentiate from acute graft-versus-host disease. We report a 32-year-old man who presented ischemic colitis due to TMA after unrelated BMT for myelodysplastic syndrome. He suffered from treatment-resistant bloody diarrhea, and died of renal failure and Aspergillus pleuritis on day 253 post-BMT. Autopsy revealed endothelial injuries of arterioles and ischemic changes in the intestines and kidneys. Clinical and pathological characteristics of ischemic colitis due to BMT-associated TMA are described.

  6. Concurrent amoebic and histoplasma colitis:A rare cause of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; Soon; Koh; April; Camilla; Roslani; Kumar; Vasudeavan; Vimal; Mohd; Shariman; Ramasamy; Umasangar; Rajkumar; Lewellyn

    2010-01-01

    Infective colitis can be a cause of massive lower gastrointestinal bleeding requiring acute surgical intervention. Causative organisms include entamoeba and histoplasma species. However, concurrent colonic infection with both these organisms is very rare, and the in vivo consequences are not known. A 58-year-old male presented initially to the physicians with pyrexia of unknown origin and bloody diarrhea. Amoebic colitis was diagnosed based on biopsies, and he was treated with metronidazole. Five days later...

  7. Protective effect of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis: differential regulation of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-18 in BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudcovic, T; Kolinska, J; Klepetar, J; Stepankova, R; Rezanka, T; Srutkova, D; Schwarzer, M; Erban, V; Du, Z; Wells, J M; Hrncir, T; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H; Kozakova, H

    2012-02-01

    One of the promising approaches in the therapy of ulcerative colitis is administration of butyrate, an energy source for colonocytes, into the lumen of the colon. This study investigates the effect of butyrate producing bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Immunocompetent BALB/c and immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice reared in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) conditions were treated intrarectally with C. tyrobutyricum 1 week prior to the induction of DSS colitis and during oral DSS treatment. Administration of DSS without C. tyrobutyricum treatment led to an appearance of clinical symptoms - bleeding, rectal prolapses and colitis-induced increase in the antigen CD11b, a marker of infiltrating inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. The severity of colitis was similar in BALB/c and SCID mice as judged by the histological damage score and colon shortening after 7 days of DSS treatment. Both strains of mice also showed a similar reduction in tight junction (TJ) protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 expression and of MUC-2 mucin depression. Highly elevated levels of cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the colon of SCID mice and of interleukin (IL)-18 in BALB/c mice were observed. Intrarectal administration of C. tyrobutyricum prevented appearance of clinical symptoms of DSS-colitis, restored normal MUC-2 production, unaltered expression of TJ protein ZO-1 and decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-18 in the descending colon of SCID and BALB/c mice, respectively. Some of these features can be ascribed to the increased production of butyrate in the lumen of the colon and its role in protection of barrier functions and regulation of IL-18 expression.

  8. Protective effect of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis: differential regulation of tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-18 in BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudcovic, T; Kolinska, J; Klepetar, J; Stepankova, R; Rezanka, T; Srutkova, D; Schwarzer, M; Erban, V; Du, Z; Wells, J M; Hrncir, T; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H; Kozakova, H

    2012-01-01

    One of the promising approaches in the therapy of ulcerative colitis is administration of butyrate, an energy source for colonocytes, into the lumen of the colon. This study investigates the effect of butyrate producing bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Immunocompetent BALB/c and immunodeficient severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice reared in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) conditions were treated intrarectally with C. tyrobutyricum 1 week prior to the induction of DSS colitis and during oral DSS treatment. Administration of DSS without C. tyrobutyricum treatment led to an appearance of clinical symptoms – bleeding, rectal prolapses and colitis-induced increase in the antigen CD11b, a marker of infiltrating inflammatory cells in the lamina propria. The severity of colitis was similar in BALB/c and SCID mice as judged by the histological damage score and colon shortening after 7 days of DSS treatment. Both strains of mice also showed a similar reduction in tight junction (TJ) protein zonula occludens (ZO)-1 expression and of MUC-2 mucin depression. Highly elevated levels of cytokine tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the colon of SCID mice and of interleukin (IL)-18 in BALB/c mice were observed. Intrarectal administration of C. tyrobutyricum prevented appearance of clinical symptoms of DSS-colitis, restored normal MUC-2 production, unaltered expression of TJ protein ZO-1 and decreased levels of TNF-α and IL-18 in the descending colon of SCID and BALB/c mice, respectively. Some of these features can be ascribed to the increased production of butyrate in the lumen of the colon and its role in protection of barrier functions and regulation of IL-18 expression. PMID:22236013

  9. Diverticular colitis of the ascending colon preceding the onset of ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Maeshiro, Tatsuji; Hokama, Akira; Kinjo, Tetsu; Fujita, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    We present a case of diverticular colitis of the ascending colon preceding the onset of ulcerative colitis. A 58-year-old man presented with positive faecal occult blood test. Colonoscopy disclosed diverticular colitis of the ascending colon. After a year's follow-up, typical ulcerative colitis developed and diverticular colitis improved. Diverticular colitis is a newly established disorder of chronic segmental mucosal inflammation affected by diverticular disease. There is increasing recogni...

  10. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-05-27

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis.

  11. Treatment of experimental colitis in mice with LMP-420, an inhibitor of TNF transcription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianciolo George

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background LMP-420 is a boronic acid-containing purine nucleoside analogue that transcriptionally inhibits TNF production but is non-cytotoxic to TNF-producing cells. Methods This study investigated the efficacy of LMP-420 as an anti-inflammatory agent in acute and chronic colitis induced by oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS to mice and in chronic colitis following piroxicam administration to IL-10-deficient mice. The severity of colon inflammation was assessed histologically. TNF levels were measured by enzyme immunoassay. Results Administration of DSS for 7 days resulted in severe acute colitis that was associated with a marked increase in stool and colon tissue TNF levels. Initiation of therapy with intraperitoneal (i.p. LMP-420 on day 4 of DSS exposure decreased colonic TNF to near normal levels on day 7. However, neither i.p. nor oral treatment with LMP-420 affected the development or severity of acute DSS colitis. Initiation of LMP-420 therapy after 3 cycles of DSS administration to establish chronic colitis also had no effect on the severity of chronic colitis. Analysis of colonic TNF combined with longitudinal analysis of TNF and TNF receptor (TNF-RII levels in stool during the development of chronic DSS colitis demonstrated that the initially elevated colonic TNF levels returned to normal despite intense on-going inflammation in mice with chronic colitis. RAG-2-/- mice deficient in T and B cells also developed severe ongoing colitis in response to 3 cycles of DSS, but showed marked differences vs. wild type mice in stool TNF and TNF-RII in response to DSS exposure. Systemic and oral LMP-420 treatment for 16 days decreased colonic TNF levels in IL-10-deficient mice with chronic colitis, with a trend to decreased histologic inflammation for oral LMP-420. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that short-term treatment with a transcriptional inhibitor of TNF production can decrease systemic and local colonic levels

  12. The protective effect of Echinacea spp. (Echinacea angustifolia and Echinacea purpurea) in a rat colitis model induced by acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Zeynal; Ergul, Bilal; Sarikaya, Murat; Filik, Levent; Gonultaş, Mehmet Alparslan; Hucumenoglu, Sema; Can, Murat

    2014-11-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease that causes an inflammatory condition in the colon. Several cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) are crucial components of these inflammatory pathways. New therapeutic strategies are needed for improved clinical outcomes in UC and with less adverse effects. That is why alternative therapies such as herbal remedies are increasingly being used with favorable effects in the treatment of UC. Hence, in the present study, we aimed to evaluate the protective effect of Echinacea spp in an experimental rat colitis model induced by acetic acid (AA). Acetic acid was given via a rectal route to induce acute colitis in rats. Rats were placed in four groups: control, Echinacea, Echinacea-colitis and colitis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha, IL-1β and TGF-β levels were measured. Histopathological comparison of the groups was also performed. The disease activity index (DAI) was significantly higher in the colitis group compared to the control, Echinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (pEchinacea and Echinacea-colitis groups (p>0.07). The inflammatory mediators IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly elevated in the colitis group compared to the other groups (pEchinacea spp. may likely have some therapeutic favorable effects in the management of UC.

  13. Matrine ameliorates spontaneously developed colitis in interleukin-10-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cong; Xu, Zheng; Gai, Renhua; Huang, Kehe

    2016-07-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10)-deficient mice spontaneously develop T cell-mediated colitis. Previous reports have shown that Matrine may reduce the symptoms of acute colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). However, whether Matrine impacts chronic colitis remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether Matrine could limit the symptoms of spontaneously developed colitis and its potential molecular mechanisms. IL-10 deficient mice were given Matrine or a PBS control by oral gavage daily for 4weeks and were euthanized at week 2 or week 4. We measured body weight, colon length and weight, and histological scores. We also evaluated the spontaneous secretion of IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon explant cultures as well as IFN-γ and IL-17 secretion in unseparated mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, and assessed IFN-γ, IL-17, IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA expression in colon tissue. In addition, we analyzed the proportions of CD4-positive and CD8-positive cells in unseparated MLN cells. Our results show that Matrine-treated mice exhibited better body weight recovery than controls and that histological scores and spontaneously secreted IL-12/23p40, IFN-γ and IL-17 in colon tissue were significantly decreased in treated mice compared with controls. The proportion of CD4-positive cells of MLNs in treated mice was significantly smaller than that in controls at week 4. Both cytokine production and mRNA expression of IFN-γ and IL-17 were significantly reduced in treated mice compared with controls. Taken together, our results indicate that Matrine may ameliorate spontaneously developed chronic colitis and could be considered as a therapeutic alternative for chronic colitis.

  14. Self-limited coeliac-like enteropathy: a series of 18 cases highlighting another coeliac disease mimic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ian S; Bettington, Andrew; Bettington, Mark; Rosty, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    To describe the clinical and pathological features of a series of patients with biopsy findings of a coeliac disease-like enteropathy in the setting of an acute illness. Eighteen cases of an abrupt-onset, self-limited illness with coeliac-like enteropathy (SLCE) were collected prospectively. Medication reaction, immune disorder, food allergy and parasitic infection were excluded. Coeliac disease was excluded by the transient nature of the illness and absence of tissue transglutaminase (TTG) elevation (nine of nine) or human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-DQ2/DQ8 haplotype (eight of nine). Clinical symptoms were recorded and histopathological findings in all gastrointestinal sites were quantified. Findings in the duodenum were compared to a coeliac disease control group. In 12 cases the clinical diagnosis was infective enteritis, probably viral in type. In six cases, a definite diagnosis was not established. Histological differences from coeliac disease included intra-epithelial neutrophil infiltration (P coeliac disease-like enteropathy may occur in the setting of an acute gastrointestinal illness and resolve without sequelae. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Protective effect of Clostridium tyrobutyricum in acute dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis: differential regulation of tumour necrosis factor-a and interleukin-18 in BALB/c and severe combined immunodeficiency mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hudcovic, T.; Kolinska, J.; Klepetar, J.; Stepankova, R.; Rezanka, T.; Srutkova, D.; Schwarzer, M.; Erban, V.; Du, Z.; Wells, J.; Hrncir, T.; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, H.; Kozakova, H.

    2012-01-01

    One of the promising approaches in the therapy of ulcerative colitis is administration of butyrate, an energy source for colonocytes, into the lumen of the colon. This study investigates the effect of butyrate producing bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum on dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced col

  16. 硝酸酯在小鼠急性实验性结肠炎中的治疗作用%Therapeutic effect of nitrate on dextran sulfate sodium induced acute experimental colitis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖军华; 沈佳庆; 宋允娜; 郑萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察硝酸酯对小鼠急性实验性结肠炎的疗效.方法 将40只BALB/c小鼠均分为模型组和治疗组,模型组予4%葡聚糖硫酸钠(DSS)溶液,治疗组予4%DSS溶液和1.5 g/L硝酸酯溶液,均连续饮用7d.对小鼠疾病活动指数(DAI)进行评分.取小鼠结肠组织进行苏木精-伊红染色和髓过氧化物酶(MPO)免疫组织化学染色并进行观察.分别用MPO和一氧化氮检测试剂盒检测结肠组织MPO和一氧化氮活性.统计学处理采用t检验.结果 第6和第7天治疗组和模型组的DAI差异有统计学意义(t=5.12和6.72,P=0.012和0.008).第7天时模型组组织学评分(2.5±0.5)高于治疗组(1.9±0.4),差异有统计学意义(t=3.82,P<0.01).与模型组相比,治疗组小鼠结肠组织病理损伤明显减轻,中性粒细胞浸润减少.第7天时模型组MPO活性、NO2-浓度、NO3-浓度分别为(2.8±0.6) U/g、(10.4±4.3) mmol/g、(100.3±50.1)mmol/g,治疗组则分别为(1.5±0.3)U/g、(17.5±7.0)mmol/g、(190.7±85.3) mmol/g,差异均有统计学意义(t=11.23、3.81、4.50,P均<0.01).结论 硝酸酯可减轻DSS诱导的小鼠急性实验性结肠炎.%Objective To investigate the effect of nitrate on acute experimental colitis in mice.Methods A total of 40 BALB/c mice were evenly divided into model group and treatment group.Model group were fed with 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) solution and treatment group were given 4% DSS solution and nitrate (1.5 g/L) for seven days.The disease activity index (DAI) of mice was scored.The colon tissue of mice was taken for hematoxylin-eosin staining and myeloperoxidase (MPO)immunohistochemical staining observation.The MPO and activity of nitric oxide in colon tissue were measured by MPO and nitric oxide detecting kit.The data were analyzed by t test.Results At the 6th day and 7th day,the difference of DAI between treatment group and model group was statistically significant (t=5.12 and 6.72,P=0.012 and 0.008).At the 7th day,the tissue

  17. [Pseudomembranous colitis: pathogenesis, prevention, treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharova, N V; Fil', T S

    2013-01-01

    The article reviews a pathogenesis of Pseudomembranous colitis. Questions of prevention and treatment of Clostridium difficile--associated diarrhea are shown by the Evidence-based medicine. There is an accent on the rational prescription of antibiotics.

  18. Amphetamine-related ischemic colitis causing gastrointestinal bleeding

    OpenAIRE

    Panikkath, Ragesh; Panikkath, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with acute lower intestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Multiple initial investigations did not reveal the cause of the bleeding. Colonoscopy performed 2 days later showed features suggestive of ischemic colitis. On detailed history, the patient admitted to using amphetamines, and her urine drug screen was positive for them. She was managed conservatively and advised not to use amphetamines again. She did not have any recurrence on 2-year follow-up.

  19. Amphetamine-related ischemic colitis causing gastrointestinal bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panikkath, Deepa

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with acute lower intestinal bleeding requiring blood transfusion. Multiple initial investigations did not reveal the cause of the bleeding. Colonoscopy performed 2 days later showed features suggestive of ischemic colitis. On detailed history, the patient admitted to using amphetamines, and her urine drug screen was positive for them. She was managed conservatively and advised not to use amphetamines again. She did not have any recurrence on 2-year follow-up. PMID:27365888

  20. [MICROSCOPIC COLITIS: THE CLINICAL CASE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulygina, Y A; Skalinskaya, M I; Ageeva, T A

    2015-01-01

    During past years incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis (MC) have increased, that is possible caused to the improvement of knowledge of doctors about the disease. This article contain modern views on epidemiology, diagnostic and variant of microscopic colitis treatment. A typical clinical picture of MC in the form of recurrent a watery diarrhea, with the absence of pathologic changes at roentgenologic and endoscopic investigations is described with the example of a clinical case.

  1. Management of pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turner, Dan; Levine, Arie; Escher, Johanna C

    2012-01-01

    Pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) shares many features with adult-onset disease but there are some unique considerations; therefore, therapeutic approaches have to be adapted to these particular needs. We aimed to formulate guidelines for managing UC in children based on a systematic review (SR......) of the literature and a robust consensus process. The present article is a product of a joint effort of the European Crohn's and Colitis Organization (ECCO) and the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN)....

  2. Hospitalized ulcerative colitis patients have an elevated risk of thromboembolic events

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jennifer Y Wang; Jonathan P Terdiman; Eric Vittinghoff; Tracy Minichiello; Madhulika G Varma

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To compare thromboembolism rates between hospitalized patients with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and other hospitalized patients at high risk for thromboembolism. To compare thromboembolism rates between patients with ulcerative colitis undergoing a colorectal operation and other patients undergoing colorectal operations. METHODS: Data from the National Hospital Discharge Survey was used to compare thromboembolism rates between (1) hospitalized patients with a discharge diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and those with diverticulitis or acute respiratory failure, and (2) hospitalized patients with a discharge diagnosis of ulcerative colitis who underwent colectomy and those with diverticulitis or colorectal cancer who underwent colorectal operations. RESULTS: Patients diagnosed with ulcerative colitis had similar or higher rates of combined venous thromboembolism (2.03%) than their counterparts with diverticulitis (0.76%) or respiratory failure (1.99%), despite the overall greater prevalence of thromboembolic risk factors in the latter groups. Discharged patients with colitis that were treated surgically did not have significantly different rates of venous or arterial thromboembolism than those with surgery for diverticulitis or colorectal cancer. CONCLUSION: Patients with ulcerative colitis who do not undergo an operation during their hospitalization have similar or higher rates of thromboembolism than other medical patients who are considered to be high risk for thromboembolism.

  3. Clinical and morphological approaches to the differential diagnosis of diphtheric colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Tsinserling

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel diseases is a large group of nosologic forms such as more frequent acute intestinal infection, especially dysentery, chronic inflammatory diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Cron’s disease with lesions of the bowel, antibiotics-associated and ischemic colitis. There are some difficulties in differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases despite their widespread and tendency to more frequent occurrence. On the one hand, this is largely due to similar clinical picture which is most often presented by diarrhea and abdominal pain of different degree of intensity, and, on the other hand, by the disadvantages of laboratory diagnostics techniques. The article discusses the problem of clinical and morphological aspects of the differential colitis diagnostics with more detailed characteristics of fibrinous colitis of different etiology. The morphological differential diagnostics criteria, as well as a summary table of comparative characteristics of antibiotics-associated pseudomembranous colitis, dysentery, invasive candidiasis of bowel, ulcerative colitis and ischemic colitis have been presented. The importance of an integrated approach to the differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases, based on the analysis of anamnesis, clinical-laboratory and morphological data is stressed. The algorithm for optimizing of differential diagnostics of inflammatory bowel diseases with recommendations for qualitative morphological examination has been suggested. 

  4. Antibiotic prescribing for acute bronchitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Llor, Carl; Bjerrum, Lars

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Acute bronchitis is a self-limiting infectious disease characterized by acute cough with or without sputum but without signs of pneumonia. About 90% of cases are caused by viruses. AREAS COVERED: Antibiotics for acute bronchitis have been associated with an approximately half...

  5. Pegylated Arginine Deiminase Downregulates Colitis in Murine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helieh S. Oz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Arginine deiminase (ADI, an arginine-metabolizing enzyme involved in cell signaling, is dysregulated in multiple inflammatory diseases and cancers. We hypothesized that pegylated ADI (ADI-PEG provide protection against colitis. Methods. Dextran sodium sulfate colitis was induced in IL-10-deficient and BALB/c (WT mice. ADI-PEG was administered i.p., and inflammatory mediators and pathology were evaluated. Results. Acute colitis in mice was manifested by increases in inflammatory biomarkers, such as serum amyloid A (SAA, P<0.001, IL-12 p40, and disease index (3-Fold. In contrast, ADI-PEG significantly decreased clinical disease index, SAA levels, and inflammatory cytokines in blood as well as in colonic explants. Animals developed moderate (2.2±0.3 WT to severe (3.6±0.5 IL-10 deficient colonic pathology; and ADI-PEG treatment significantly improved the severity of colitis (P<0.05. Marked infiltration of CD68+ macrophages and iNOS expression were detected in colonic submucosa in colitic animals but not detected in ADI-PEG-treated animals. Conclusion. ADI-PEG attenuated inflammatory responses by suppression of macrophage infiltration and iNOS expression in colitic animals. ADI-PEG can serve as a potential therapeutic value in IBD.

  6. Perforation in a patient with stercoral colitis and diverticulosis: who did it?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya R. Bhatt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Stercoral colitis with perforation of the colon is an uncommon, yet life-threatening cause of the acute abdomen. No one defining symptom exists for stercoral colitis; it may present asymptomatically or with vague symptoms. Diagnostic delay may result in perforation of the colon resulting in complications, even death. Moreover, stercoral perforation of the colon can also present with localized left lower quadrant abdominal pain masquerading as diverticulitis. Diverticular diseases and stercoral colitis share similar pathophysiology; furthermore, they may coexist, further complicating the diagnostic dilemma. The ability to decide the cause of perforation in a patient with both stercoral colitis and diverticulosis has not been discussed. We, therefore, report this case of stercoral perforation in a patient with diverticulosis and include a discussion of the epidemiology, clinical presentation, and a review of helpful diagnostic clues for a rapid differentiation to allow for accurate diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Microscopic Colitis with Macroscopic Endoscopic Findings

    OpenAIRE

    Atif Saleem; Brahmbhatt, Parag A.; Sarah Khan; Mark Young; LeSage, Gene D.

    2013-01-01

    Microscopic Colitis (MC) is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea, grossly normal appearing colonic mucosa during conventional white light endoscopy, and biopsy showing microscopic inflammation. We report a case of collagenous colitis with gross endoscopic findings.

  8. Histopathologic Features of Colitis Due to Immunotherapy With Anti-PD-1 Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jonathan H; Pezhouh, Maryam K; Lauwers, Gregory Y; Masia, Ricard

    2017-05-01

    Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) blocking agents are novel immunotherapeutics used for treatment of advanced-stage malignancies. They have shown promise in the treatment of several malignancies, with greater efficacy and better tolerability than cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) blocking agents. However, as with anti-CTLA-4 agents, clinically significant colitis remains an important complication. Although there is growing awareness of the histopathologic features of anti-CTLA-4 therapy, there is little information on the pathologic features of anti-PD-1 colitis. We describe here the histopathologic findings in 8 patients who developed colitis while on anti-PD-1 monotherapy. The most common pattern of injury observed (5/8 cases) was an active colitis with neutrophilic crypt microabscesses and with prominent crypt epithelial cell apoptosis and crypt atrophy/dropout. These latter features are reminiscent of other colitides with prominent apoptosis such as acute graft-versus-host disease or certain drug-induced colitides. The remainder of cases (3/8) showed a lymphocytic colitis-like pattern, characterized by increased intraepithelial lymphocytes and surface epithelial injury. Apoptosis was also often increased in these cases but crypt atrophy/dropout was not present. In patients who experienced recurrence of anti-PD-1 colitis, histologic features were similar to the initial insult but, in addition, features of chronicity developed that mimicked inflammatory bowel disease (basal lymphoplasmacytosis and crypt architectural irregularity, and Paneth cell metaplasia in 1 case). Awareness of the clinical scenario, however, should allow pathologists to suggest anti-PD-1 colitis. Interestingly, recurrent colitis was observed in patients who had been off anti-PD-1 therapy for many months. As anti-PD-1 agents are increasingly used in oncology, we present this series to increase awareness of anti-PD-1 colitis among pathologists, to facilitate its timely diagnosis

  9. The Unfolded Protein Response and Chemical Chaperones Reduce Protein Misfolding and Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAO, STEWART SIYAN; ZIMMERMANN, ELLEN M.; CHUANG, BRANDY–MENGCHIEH; SONG, BENBO; NWOKOYE, ANOSIKE; WILKINSON, J. ERBY; EATON, KATHRYN A.; KAUFMAN, RANDAL J.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been associated with development of inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of ER stress–induced chaperone response and the orally active chemical chaperones tauroursodeoxycholate (TUDCA) and 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), which facilitate protein folding and reduce ER stress, in mice with colitis. METHODS We used dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) to induce colitis in mice that do not express the transcription factor ATF6α or the protein chaperone P58IPK. We examined the effects of TUDCA and PBA in cultured intestinal epithelial cells (IECs); in wild-type, P58IPK−/−, and Atf6α−/− mice with colitis; and in Il10−/− mice. RESULTS P58IPK−/− and Atf6α−/− mice developed more severe colitis following administration of DSS than wild-type mice. IECs from P58IPK−/− mice had excessive ER stress, and apoptotic signaling was activated in IECs from Atf6α−/− mice. Inflammatory stimuli induced ER stress signals in cultured IECs, which were reduced by incubation with TUDCA or PBA. Oral administration of either PBA or TUDCA reduced features of DSS-induced acute and chronic colitis in wild-type mice, the colitis that develops in Il10−/− mice, and DSS-induced colitis in P58IPK−/− and Atf6α−/− mice. Reduced signs of colonic inflammation in these mice were associated with significantly decreased ER stress in colonic epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS The unfolded protein response induces expression of genes that encode chaperones involved in ER protein folding; these factors prevent induction of colitis in mice. Chemical chaperones such as TUDCA and PBA alleviate different forms of colitis in mice and might be developed for treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:23336977

  10. Investigation of pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease in an experimental model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bunyamin; Songur, Yıldıran; Songur, Necla; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Senol, Altug; Ciris, I Metin; Sutcu, Recep

    2016-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may also involve various extra-intestinal organs. Clinical studies have found asymptomatic/symptomatic pulmonary involvement in 1% to 6% of patients with IBD. The present study histopathologically investigated pulmonary involvement in an experimental model of colitis in order to demonstrate pulmonary tissue involvement in IBD and to expose potential etiological factors. It also explored the relation between inflammation and tissue concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The study comprised 24 male Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Acute colitis was induced in two separate groups using either the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) method, while the other two groups were used as controls for each model of colitis. Wallace scoring was used for macroscopic assessment of colitis, and the lungs were histopathologically examined. Concentrations of VEGF and TNF-α in pulmonary tissue were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The number of animals that had alveolar hemorrhage was significantly higher in the TNBS-induced colitis and DSS-induced colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.015 and p = 0.015, respectively). VEGF and TNF-α concentrations in pulmonary tissues were significantly increased in both the TNBS colitis and DSS colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively; and p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively). The present study demonstrated that significant and serious histopathological changes directly associated with colitis occur in the lungs in IBD.

  11. Investigation of pulmonary involvement in inflammatory bowel disease in an experimental model of colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Bunyamin; Songur, Yıldıran; Songur, Necla; Aksu, Oğuzhan; Senol, Altug; Ciris, I. Metin; Sutcu, Recep

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may also involve various extra-intestinal organs. Clinical studies have found asymptomatic/symptomatic pulmonary involvement in 1% to 6% of patients with IBD. The present study histopathologically investigated pulmonary involvement in an experimental model of colitis in order to demonstrate pulmonary tissue involvement in IBD and to expose potential etiological factors. It also explored the relation between inflammation and tissue concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Methods: The study comprised 24 male Wistar albino rats. The rats were divided into four groups of six rats each. Acute colitis was induced in two separate groups using either the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) method, while the other two groups were used as controls for each model of colitis. Wallace scoring was used for macroscopic assessment of colitis, and the lungs were histopathologically examined. Concentrations of VEGF and TNF-α in pulmonary tissue were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: The number of animals that had alveolar hemorrhage was significantly higher in the TNBS-induced colitis and DSS-induced colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.015 and p = 0.015, respectively). VEGF and TNF-α concentrations in pulmonary tissues were significantly increased in both the TNBS colitis and DSS colitis groups compared to their own control groups (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively; and p = 0.002 and p = 0.002, respectively). Conclusions: The present study demonstrated that significant and serious histopathological changes directly associated with colitis occur in the lungs in IBD. PMID:27539446

  12. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  13. Self-limiting filters for band-selective interferer rejection or cognitive receiver protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordquist, Christopher; Scott, Sean Michael; Custer, Joyce Olsen; Leonhardt, Darin; Jordan, Tyler Scott; Rodenbeck, Christopher T.; Clem, Paul G.; Hunker, Jeff; Wolfley, Steven L.

    2017-03-07

    The present invention related to self-limiting filters, arrays of such filters, and methods thereof. In particular embodiments, the filters include a metal transition film (e.g., a VO.sub.2 film) capable of undergoing a phase transition that modifies the film's resistivity. Arrays of such filters could allow for band-selective interferer rejection, while permitting transmission of non-interferer signals.

  14. Gravitational field self-limitation and its role in the Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershtein, Semen S; Logunov, Anatolii A; Mestvirishvili, Mirian A [State Research Center ' Institute of High Energy Physics' , Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2006-11-30

    It is shown that according to the relativistic theory of gravity, the gravitational field slows down the rate of time flow but stops doing so when the field is strong, thus displaying its tendency toward self-limitation of the gravitational potential. This property of the gravitational field prevents massive bodies from collapsing and allows a homogeneous isotropic universe to evolve cyclically. (physics of our days)

  15. Epstein-Barr-virus-associeret lymfom hos en patient med colitis ulcerosa i behandling med azathioprin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Kristian; Kiszka-Kanowitz, Marianne; Albrectsen, Jens Mørch;

    2008-01-01

    A 28 year-old man with ulcerative colitis treated for 10 years with azathioprine (AZA) returned from Central Asia with fever, swollen lymph glands, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. He was tested positive for acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Before the final diagnosis of EBV-associat......A 28 year-old man with ulcerative colitis treated for 10 years with azathioprine (AZA) returned from Central Asia with fever, swollen lymph glands, hepatosplenomegaly, and pancytopenia. He was tested positive for acute Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Before the final diagnosis of EBV...

  16. Self-limiting atomic layer deposition of conformal nanostructured silver films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golrokhi, Zahra; Chalker, Sophia; Sutcliffe, Christopher J.; Potter, Richard J.

    2016-02-01

    The controlled deposition of ultra-thin conformal silver nanoparticle films is of interest for applications including anti-microbial surfaces, plasmonics, catalysts and sensors. While numerous techniques can produce silver nanoparticles, few are able to produce highly conformal coatings on high aspect ratio surfaces, together with sub-nanometre control and scalability. Here we develop a self-limiting atomic layer deposition (ALD) process for the deposition of conformal metallic silver nanoparticle films. The films have been deposited using direct liquid injection ALD with ((hexafluoroacetylacetonato)silver(I)(1,5-cyclooctadiene)) and propan-1-ol. An ALD temperature window between 123 and 128 °C is identified and within this range self-limiting growth is confirmed with a mass deposition rate of ∼17.5 ng/cm2/cycle. The effects of temperature, precursor dose, co-reactant dose and cycle number on the deposition rate and on the properties of the films have been systematically investigated. Under self-limiting conditions, films are metallic silver with a nano-textured surface topography and nanoparticle size is dependent on the number of ALD cycles. The ALD reaction mechanisms have been elucidated using in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements, showing chemisorption of the silver precursor, followed by heterogeneous catalytic dehydrogenation of the alcohol to form metallic silver and an aldehyde.

  17. Microscopic colitis: Is it a spectrum of inflammatory bowel disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Jegadeesan, Ramprasad; Liu, Xiuli; Pagadala, Mangesh R.; Gutierrez, Norma; Butt, Mujtaba; Navaneethan, Udayakumar

    2013-01-01

    Lymphocytic and collagenous colitis are forms of microscopic colitis which typically presents in elderly patients as chronic watery diarrhea. The association between microscopic colitis and inflammatory bowel disease is weak and unclear. Lymphocytic colitis progressing to ulcerative colitis has been previously reported; however there is limited data on ulcerative colitis evolving into microscopic (lymphocytic or collagenous) colitis. We report a series of six patients with documented ulcerati...

  18. Brachyspira murdochii colitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tim Kåre; Christensen, A. S.; Boye, Mette

    2010-01-01

    The weakly beta-hemolytic porcine spirochete Brachyspira murdochii is considered a normal intestinal commensal. In the present study, however, a field case of B murdochii–associated catarrhal colitis was identified in a pig, as characterized by extensive spirochetal colonization of the surface...... epithelium. Experimentally, 8 weaned pigs were challenged with the B murdochii isolate, reproducing catarrhal colitis in 2 animals. By applying fluorescent in situ hybridization using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting 23S rRNA, B murdochii organisms were found in high numbers and were...... closely associated with the surface epithelium in the pigs with catarrhal colitis. The results indicate that, when present in high numbers, B murdochii is low pathogenic for pigs....

  19. Confocal laser endomicroscopy in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Săftoiu, Adrian; Brynskov, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    was to correlate colonic confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in ulcerative colitis with histopathology and macroscopic appearance before and after intensification of medical treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical relapse and 7 control subjects referred for colonoscopy were...... colitis compared with inactive ulcerative colitis...... is an emerging endoscopic technique that reproducibly identifies mucosal changes in ulcerative colitis. With the exception of crypt changes, endomicroscopic features appear to improve slowly with time after medical treatment. ( CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT01684514.)....

  20. Association of Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) with Microscopic Colitis and Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikander, Arbab; Sinha, Saroj Kant; Prasad, Kaushal Kishor; Rana, Satya Vati

    2015-04-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) release and serotonin reuptake transporter (5-HTT) expression have been reported to be decreased in experimental colitis, in interleukin-10 knockout-associated colitis, and in patients with ulcerative colitis. Serotonin is known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of colitis, but individual genetic variants of 5-HTT gene in microscopic colitis and ulcerative colitis are not known. This study aimed to evaluate the association between the serotonin transporter gene promoter polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) and 5-HT concentration in microscopic colitis (MC) and ulcerative colitis (UC) patients. This prospective case-control study included 41 patients with microscopic colitis (age 19-82 years, mean 35 ± 13.6), 75 patients with ulcerative colitis (age 16-65 years, mean 38.5 ± 11.6), and 100 controls (age 20-64 years, mean 38 ± 11). 5-HTTLPR gene polymorphism was studied by polymerase chain reaction-based assay. 5-HT levels were measured by ELISA. The frequency of the 5-HTTLPR (SS) genotype was significantly lower in MC (12 %) patients compared to controls (30 %) (p microscopic colitis, suggesting that 5-HTTLPR is a potential candidate gene involved in the pathogenesis of microscopic colitis. Serotonin levels were significantly higher in microscopic colitis and ulcerative colitis patients compared to healthy controls.

  1. The effect of chemically induced colitis, psychological stress and their combination on visceral pain in female Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiteren, Annemie; Vermeulen, Wim; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2014-09-01

    Visceral sensitivity is of pathophysiological importance in abdominal pain disorders and can be modulated by inflammation and stress. However, it is unclear whether inflammation and stress alter visceral perception independently of each other or in conjunction through neuroendocrine interactions. Therefore, we compared the short- and long-term effects of experimental colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS), alone or in combination, on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and colonoscopically confirmed. During WAS, rats were placed on a platform surrounded by water for 1 h. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying the visceromotor responses (VMRs) to colorectal distension. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was determined by measuring serum corticosterone in a separate protocol. TNBS instillation resulted in overt colitis, associated with significant visceral hypersensitivity during the acute inflammatory phase (3 days post-TNBS; n = 8/group); after colitis had subsided (28 days post-TNBS), hypersensitivity was resolved (n = 4-8/group). Single WAS was associated with increased VMRs of a magnitude comparable to acute TNBS-induced hypersensitivity (n = 8/group). However, after repetitive WAS no significant hypersensitivity was present (n = 8/group). No additive effect of colitis and stress was seen on visceral pain perception (n = 6-8/group). Corticosterone levels were only increased in acute TNBS-colitis, acute WAS and their combination. To conclude, both colitis and stress successfully induced short-term visceral hypersensitivity and activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but long-term effects were absent. In addition, our current findings do not support an additive effect of colitis and stress on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats.

  2. IL-23R+ innate lymphoid cells induce colitis via interleukin-22-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eken, A; Singh, AK; Treuting, PM; Oukka, M

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphisms of interleukin (IL)-23R and signaling components are associated with several autoimmune diseases, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Similar to T helper type 17 (Th17) lineage, type 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) express retinoic acid–related orphan receptor γt (Rorγt) and IL-23R and hence, produce Th17-type cytokines. Recent reports implicated type 3 ILCs in IBD; however, how IL-23R signaling in these cells contributes to pathogenesis is unknown. IL-22, produced in copious amounts by type 3 ILCs, was reported to have both beneficial and pathogenic effects in adaptive, yet only a protective role in innate colitis models. Herein, by employing chronic CD45RBhigh CD4+ T-cell transfer and anti-CD40 antibody-induced acute innate colitis models in Rag1−/− mice, wedemonstrated opposite roles for IL-23R in colitogenesis: in the former a protective, and in the latter a pathogenic role. Furthermore, we show that IL-23R signaling promotes innate colitis via IL-22 as neutralization of IL-22 protected mice from colitis and adding back of IL-22 to IL-23R-deficient animals restored the disease. Collectively, our results reveal that similar to its controversial role during chronic or adaptive colitis, IL-22 may also have opposite roles in innate colitis pathogenesis in a context and insult-dependent manner. PMID:23715173

  3. Alterations of testosterone metabolism in microsomes from rats with experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yanjuan; Hu, Nan; Gao, Xuejiao; Yan, Zhixiang; Li, Sai; Jing, Wanghui; Yan, Ru

    2015-05-05

    Down-regulation of some hepatic cytochrome P450s (CYP450s) was observed in patients and animals with ulcerative colitis (UC). This study examined changes of CYP450s activities in microsomes of liver (RLMs), intestine (RIMs) and kidney (RRMs) from rats with experimental acute colitis induced by 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days and those receiving DSS treatment followed by 7-d cessation through measuring 6α-(CYP1A1), 7α-(CYP2A1), 16α-(CYP2C11) and 2β-/6β-(CYP3A2) hydroxytestosterone (OHT) formed from testosterone. Both pro-(IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α) and anti-(IL-4, IL-10) inflammatory cytokines were elevated in acute colitis, while the production of the former was enhanced and that of the latter declined by DSS withdrawal. In RLMs, the CYP2A1 activity was significantly increased at DSS stimulation and partially returned to normal level when DSS treatment was terminated. Activity of other CYP450s were decreased by acute colitis and remained after DSS withdrawal. In RRMs, formations of 6α-, 16α- and 2β-OHT significantly declined in acute colitis and DSS termination further potentiated the down-regulation, while 7α-OHT formation was suppressed at DSS stimulation and remained after DSS withdrawal. The formation of 6β-OHT only showed significant decrease after DSS withdrawal. Two metabolites (6α- and 6β-OHT) formed in RIMs and 6β-OHT formation was significantly decreased by DSS stimulation and continued after DSS treatment halted. These findings indicate that the alterations of CYP450s activities vary with organ, CYP isoforms and colitis status, which arouse cautions on efficacy and toxicity of drug therapy during disease progression.

  4. Microscopic colitis: clinical characteristics, treatment and outcomes in an Irish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Aoibhlinn; Coss, Alan; Holleran, Grainne; Keegan, Denise; Doherty, Glen; Sheahan, Kieran; Mulcahy, Hugh; O'Donoghue, Diarmuid

    2014-07-01

    Many aspects of microscopic colitis remain poorly understood. Our aim was to report a single centre experience with this condition. Two hundred and twenty-two patients (52 male, 170 female; median age 64 years; range 32-90) diagnosed between 1993 and 2010 were studied. Medical notes were reviewed, and data on age, gender, clinical features, history of autoimmune diseases, medication use, cigarette smoking, histology and outcome were collected. There were 99 cases of lymphocytic and 123 of collagenous colitis. Diarrhoea was almost invariably present (98 %) while abdominal pain (24 %), weight loss (10 %), faecal incontinence (8 %) and blood PR (5 %) were also described. Twenty-eight percent had concomitant autoimmune diseases, most commonly coeliac disease. Patients were taking a variety of medications at diagnosis thought to be associated with microscopic colitis including NSAIDs (22 %), aspirin (19 %), statins (15 %), proton pump inhibitors (19 %) and SSRIs (10 %) at diagnosis. Prior to the widespread use of budesonide in our institution, 33 % of patients required two or more medications during therapy compared to 15 % following the introduction of budesonide (p = 0.001). Thirty-eight percent of patients achieved spontaneous remission with either no treatment or simple anti-diarrhoeals. Using a multivariate model, the only factor associated with spontaneous remission was male gender (RR 1.9; 95 % CI 1.0-3.6; p = 0.04). Two patients had refractory microscopic colitis; one required a colectomy while a more recent case has responded to anti-TNFα therapy. Microscopic colitis is predominantly a benign and self-limiting disorder. The introduction of budesonide has revolutionised treatment of this lesser studied inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. [Ulcerative colitis and cytomegalovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárraga Rodríguez, I; Ferreras Fernández, P; Vicente Gutiérrez, M; de Arriba, J J; García Mouriño, M L

    2003-02-01

    Colitis ulcerous and citomegalovirus infection association have been reported in medical literature in sometimes, althougth this prevalence have lately increased. We report a case record of this association and do a review of this subject. It is not clear what factors are involved in this association, being necessary hore studies to know them.

  6. Microscopic colitis: A literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clara, Ana Paula Hamer Sousa; Magnago, Flávia Drago; Ferreira, Juliana Neves; Grillo, Thais Gagno

    2016-12-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) refers to chronic inflammation of the colon which is characterized by histologic changes at the level of a radiologically and endoscopically normal mucosa. It is a common cause of chronic non-bloody diarrhea that occurs primarily in older individuals; however, there are few studies in the literature with strong scientific evidence compared to other inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which limits the knowledge of physicians and pathologists. This article aims to review the information on MC, describing diagnostic methods and drugs available for treatment. We conducted a search of the Pubmed database and CAPES Portal using the keywords "microscopic colitis", "collagenous colitis", "lymphocytic colitis", and "review" for selection of articles published between 1996 and 2015 related to the topic. Based on the studies discussed in this review, we conclude that MC is a relatively new gastrointestinal disorder, most studies are incipient particularly with respect to pathophysiology and immunology, and budesonide is the best documented short-term treatment. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the best strategy for treatment in the long term.

  7. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a colonic inflammatory condition with a substantial impact on the quality of life of affected persons. The disease carries a cumulative risk of need of colectomy of 20-30% and an estimated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer of 18% after 30 years of disease duration...

  8. Kolorektal cancerudvikling ved colitis ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Jane; Langholz, E.; Frisch, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is believed to carry a predisposition to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. International clinical guidelines suggest that UC patients should have a colonoscopy performed every year or up to every third year from approximately eight years after diagnosis for early...

  9. Mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Jakob Benedict; Coskun, Mehmet; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2013-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a colonic inflammatory condition with a substantial impact on the quality of life of affected persons. The disease carries a cumulative risk of need of colectomy of 20-30% and an estimated cumulative risk of colorectal cancer of 18% after 30 years of disease duration...

  10. Haemorrhagic Colitis Caused by Dasatinib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishant Patodi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastrointestinal bleeding appears to be a common adverse event associated with dasatinib therapy. Here we present a case of a 59-year-old man with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML developing the rarest complication of haemorrhagic colitis with dasatinib therapy which resolved rapidly after treatment withdrawal.

  11. Haemorrhagic Colitis Caused by Dasatinib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patodi, Nishant; Sagar, Nidhi; Rudzki, Zbigniew; Langman, Gerald; Sharma, Naveen

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding appears to be a common adverse event associated with dasatinib therapy. Here we present a case of a 59-year-old man with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) developing the rarest complication of haemorrhagic colitis with dasatinib therapy which resolved rapidly after treatment withdrawal. PMID:23316400

  12. Leishmania major Self-Limited Infection Increases Blood Cholesterol and Promotes Atherosclerosis Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana R. Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania major infection of resistant mice causes a self-limited lesion characterized by macrophage activation and a Th1 proinflammatory response. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease involving hypercholesterolemia and macrophage activation. In this study, we evaluated the influence of L. major infection on the development of atherosclerosis using atherosclerosis-susceptible apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE KO mice. After 6 weeks of infection, apoE KO mice exhibited reduced footpad swelling and parasitemia similar to C57BL/6 controls, confirming that both strains are resistant to infection with L. major. L. major-infected mice had increased plasma cholesterol levels and reduced triacylglycerols. With regard to atherosclerosis, noninfected mice developed only fatty streak lesions, while the infected mice presented with advanced lesions containing a necrotic core and an abundant inflammatory infiltrate. CD36 expression was increased in the aortic valve of the infected mice, indicating increased macrophage activation. In conclusion, L. major infection, although localized and self-limited in resistant apoE KO mice, has a detrimental effect on the blood lipid profile, increases the inflammatory cell migration to atherosclerotic lesions, and promotes atherogenesis. These effects are consequences of the stimulation of the immune system by L. major, which promotes the inflammatory components of atherosclerosis, which are primarily the parasite-activated macrophages.

  13. Ultrasmooth gold thin films by self-limiting galvanic displacement on silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutés, Albert; Carraro, Carlo; Maboudian, Roya

    2011-05-01

    Galvanic displacement (GD), a type of electroless deposition, has been used to obtain ultrasmooth gold thin films on silicon . The novel aspect of the method presented herein is the absence of fluoride ions in the liquid phase, and its principal advantage when compared to previous efforts is that the process is inherently self-limiting. The self-limiting factor is due to the fact that in the absence of fluorinated species, no silicon oxide is removed during the process. Thus, the maximum gold film thickness is achieved when elemental silicon is no longer available once the surface is oxidized completely during the galvanic displacement process. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has been used as a tool for thickness measurement, using the gold to silicon ratio as an analytical signal. Three gold plating solutions with different concentrations of KAuCl₄ (2, 0.2, and 0.02 mM) have been used to obtain information about the formation rate of the gold film. This XPS analysis demonstrates the formation of gold films to a maximum thickness of ∼3.5 Å. Atomic force microscopy is used to confirm surface smoothness, suggesting that the monolayer growth does not follow the Volmer-Weber growth mode, in contrast to the GD process from aqueous conditions with fluorinated species.

  14. Antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis caused by cytotoxin-producing Klebsiella oxytoca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, K Martin; Deutschmann, Andrea; Weitzer, Christa; Joainig, Martina; Zechner, Ellen; Högenauer, Christoph; Hauer, Almuthe C

    2010-04-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca was recently described as the causative organism for antibiotic-associated hemorrhagic colitis (AAHC). It is currently not known if this novel gastrointestinal infection exists in children. AAHC is usually preceded by antibiotic treatment with penicillins, which are frequently prescribed for pediatric patients. In contrast to colitis caused by Clostridium difficile, colitis caused by K oxytoca is usually segmental and located predominantly in the right colon. Patients with AAHC typically present with abdominal pain and almost always bloody diarrhea. We present here the case of an adolescent patient who developed acute abdominal pain and bloody diarrhea after antibiotic treatment for acute urinary infection with amoxicillin-clavulanate. Right-sided colitis was verified by abdominal sonography. Stool culture tested negative for common gastrointestinal pathogens but yielded K oxytoca. Toxin production of the isolated strain was verified in a cell-culture assay. Cessation of the causative antibiotic treatment led to rapid improvement and cessation of bloody diarrhea within 3 days. We report here the first (to our knowledge) pediatric case of K oxytoca infection causing AAHC. Establishing the diagnosis of AAHC by culturing K oxytoca and demonstrating right-sided colitis with noninvasive imaging studies might prevent unnecessary invasive procedures in children with bloody diarrhea.

  15. Somatostatin does not attenuate intestinal injury in dextran sodium sulphate-induced subacute colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. van Bergeijk

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available From several in vitro and in vivo studies involvement of som atostatin (SMS in intestinal inflammation emerge. Acute colitis induced in rats is attenuated by the long-acting SMS analogue octreotide. We studied the potential beneficial effect of SMS on non-acute experimental colitis. BALB/c mice received either saline, SMS-14 (36 or 120 μg daily or octreotide (3 μg daily subcutaneously delivered by implant osmotic pumps. A non-acute colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS 10% in drinking water during 7 days. DSS evoked a mild, superficial pancolitis, most characterized by mucosal ulceration and submucosal influx of neutrophils. Neither SMS-14 nor octreotide reduced mucosal inflammatory score or macroscopical disease activity, although reduction of intestinal levels of interleukin1 β (IL-1 β, IL-6 and IL-10 during DSS was augmented both by SMS and octreotide. A slight increase of neutrophil influx was seen during SMS administration in animals not exposed to DSS. In conclusion, SMS or its long-acting analogue did not reduce intestinal inflammation in non-acute DSS-induced colitis. According to the cytokine profile observed, SMS-14 and octreotide further diminished the reduction of intestinal macrophage and Th2 lymphocyte activity.

  16. CD3 immunohistochemical staining in diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Anne-Marie Kanstrup; Engel, Ulla; Holck, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea. Traditionally, MC encompasses the 2 subgroups lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis, but recently, an additional subgroup, MC incomplete, has been introduced. Distinguishing between the subgroups relies exclusively...

  17. Synchronous Occurrence of Collagenous and Pseudomembranous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Vesoulis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Synchronous collagenous and pseudomembranous colitis has not been previously reported. A 73-year-old woman presented with chronic watery diarrhea and abdominal cramping of six weeks’ duration. Biopsies of the colon revealed findings of collagenous colitis involving the endoscopically normal right colon, and superimposed collagenous and pseudomembranous colitis involving the rectosigmoid colon. Endoscopically, the left colon revealed discrete ulcerative plaques, and Clostridium difficile toxin A assay was positive. The patient partially responded to a three-week regimen of metronidazole, and symptoms resolved completely with subsequent steroid therapy. At follow-up endoscopy four months later, colon biopsies demonstrated persistence of subepithelial collagen but no pseudomembranes. The patient remained asymptomatic during this interval. Collagenous colitis has been reported in association with other inflammatory bowel diseases, including lymphocytic colitis, sprue and idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. This unique association of collagenous colitis with an endotoxigenic inflammatory bowel disease is presented with a review of related disease features.

  18. Clear cell colitis: A form of microscopic colitis in children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jan J(o)zefczuk; Bogdan Marian Wozniewicz

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe a new clinical and pathological subtype of microscopic colitis in children.METHODS: A selected group of children with abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea showing discrete or no macroscopic abnormalities on endoscopy was described.RESULTS: Multiple biopsies of colon showed large mononuclear clear cells in lamina propria of mucous membrane provided that good quality histological sections were performed and observed under a higher magnification. Otherwise, they could be misinterpreted as artefacts. Their presence in routine histology might suggest a systemic storage disease (Whipple's disease), and neuronal intestine dysplasia.Using immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy we confirmed their origin from CD68 positive mononuclear macrophages.CONCLUSION: The presence of large clear cells is a constant microscopic feature. Failure of transient large bowel stationary macrophages plays a role in the pathogenesis of this benign microscopic clear cell colitis,sometimes coexisting with allergy.

  19. Use of budesonide in the treatment of microscopic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tangri Vikram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, the two types of microscopic colitis, cause watery diarrhea. Budesonide, a glucocorticoid medication with limited systemic availability, is commonly used to treat these illnesses. Budesonide has proven efficacy in the induction of clinical remission in both collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Budesonide is effective as a maintenance drug for patients with collagenous colitis, but has not been studied for this indication in patients with lymphocytic colitis. This drug improves quality of life in patients while causing few mild adverse events. Budesonide is an effective treatment of microscopic colitis that is safe and well tolerated.

  20. Surveillance for colitis-associated colon neoplasia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh; James; Freeman

    2010-01-01

    The risk of developing colon cancer is increased in colitis patients, particularly if the disease is extensive and its duration long-standing. Endoscopic guidelines have been developed with the goal of detecting early neoplastic changes prior to development of advanced malignancy. Unfortunately, the natural history of this superimposed neoplastic process in colitis appears to be very heterogeneous and poorly understood. Moreover, there are numerous confounding variables in colitis patients that limit accura...

  1. Microscopic Colitis: An Approach to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Chande

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic colitis – including collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis – causes chronic watery diarrhea, usually in middle-aged or elderly patients. There is an association with celiac disease and certain medications. Medical treatment includes various antidiarrheal agents, mesalamine, corticosteroids and immunosuppressant drugs. Rarely, patients require surgery for refractory disease. An evidence-based and practical approach to treatment should optimize the treatment response while minimizing potential adverse events.

  2. Step driven competitive epitaxial and self-limited growth of graphene on copper surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Fan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The existence of surface steps was found to have significant function and influence on the growth of graphene on copper via chemical vapor deposition. The two typical growth modes involved were found to be influenced by the step morphologies on copper surface, which led to our proposed step driven competitive growth mechanism. We also discovered a protective role of graphene in preserving steps on copper surface. Our results showed that wide and high steps promoted epitaxial growth and yielded multilayer graphene domains with regular shape, while dense and low steps favored self-limited growth and led to large-area monolayer graphene films. We have demonstrated that controllable growth of graphene domains of specific shape and large-area continuous graphene films are feasible.

  3. Current self-limitation in a transverse nanosecond discharge with a slotted cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    N, A. ASHURBEKOV; K, O. IMINOV; O, A. POPOV; G, S. SHAKHSINOV

    2017-03-01

    A high-voltage transverse pulsed nanosecond discharge with a slotted hollow cathode was found to be a source of high-energy (few kV) ribbon electron beams. Conditions for the formation and extinction of electron beams were experimentally studied in discharges in helium at pressures of 1–100 Torr. It was found that interaction of fast electrons with a non-uniform electric field near the slotted cathode led to limitation of the magnitude of the discharge current. A physical model was developed to describe the discharge current self-limitation that was in satisfactory agreement with the experimental results. Some technical solutions that are expected to increase the upper current limits in transverse nanosecond discharge are discussed.

  4. Self-limiting physical and chemical effects in volcanic eruption clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Joseph P.; Toon, Owen B.; Turco, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    One-dimensional aerosol microphysical and photochemical models are used to study the chemistry of stratospheric volcanic clouds. The results indicate that the aerosol microphysical processes of condensation and coagulation produce larger particles as the SO2 injection rate is increased. Larger particles have a smaller optical depth per unit mass and settle out of the stratosphere at a faster rate than smaller ones, restricting the total number of particles in the stratosphere. The microphysical processes moderate the impact of volcanic clouds on the earth's radiation budget and climate, suggesting that volcanic effects may be self limiting. It is noted that the injection of HCl into the stratosphere, which could lead to large ozone changes, is limited by a cold trap effect in which HCl and water vapor condense on ash particles in the rising volcanic plume and fall out as ice.

  5. Self-limiting and complete oxidation of silicon nanostructures produced by laser ablation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaccaro, L.; Popescu, R.; Messina, F.; Camarda, P.; Schneider, R.; Gerthsen, D.; Gelardi, F. M.; Cannas, M.

    2016-07-01

    Oxidized Silicon nanomaterials produced by 1064 nm pulsed laser ablation in deionized water are investigated. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy allows to characterize the structural and chemical properties at a sub-nanometric scale. This analysis clarifies that laser ablation induces both self-limiting and complete oxidation processes which produce polycrystalline Si surrounded by a layer of SiO2 and amorphous fully oxidized SiO2, respectively. These nanostructures exhibit a composite luminescence spectrum which is investigated by time-resolved spectroscopy with a tunable laser excitation. The origin of the observed luminescence bands agrees with the two structural typologies: Si nanocrystals emit a μs-decaying red band; defects of SiO2 give rise to a ns-decaying UV band and two overlapping blue bands with lifetime in the ns and ms timescale.

  6. Early manifestation of Yersinia colitis demonstrated by the double-contrast barium enema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aspestrand, F.

    1986-11-01

    A 19-year old female with a bloody, diarrheal illness of acute onset where Crohn's disease primarly was suspected is presented. The double-contrast barium enema revealed multiple, diffusely scattered aphthous erosions of the colonic mucosa: the rectum was scarcely affected. Biopsies taken by endoscopy demonstrated nonspecific inflammatory changes of the mucous membrane. However, routinely taken stool cultures revealed an infectious colitis due to Yersinia enterocolitica. Our case demonstrates the necessity to consider Yersinia enterocolitis in the radiographic differential diagnosis when the diagnosis of Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis seems obvious.

  7. Sleep deprivation worsens inflammation and delays recovery in a mouse model of colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yueming; Preuss, Fabian; Turek, Fred W; Jakate, Shriram; Keshavarzian, Ali

    2009-06-01

    We recently showed that patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) report significantly more sleep disturbances. To determine whether disrupted sleep can affect the severity of inflammation and the course of IBD, we used an animal model of colonic inflammation to determine the effects of acute and chronic intermittent sleep deprivation on the severity of colonic inflammation and tissue damage in colitis and recovery from this damage. Acute sleep deprivation (ASD) consisted of 24h of forced locomotor activity in a mechanical wheel rotating at a constant speed. Chronic intermittent sleep deprivation (CISD) consisted of an acute sleep deprivation episode, followed by additional sleep deprivation periods in the wheel for 6h every other day throughout the 10day study period. To induce colitis, mice were given 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in their daily drinking water for 7days. The development and severity of colitis were monitored by measuring weight loss and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity daily and colon histology scores 10days after initiation of colitis. ASD or CISD did not cause colonic inflammation in vehicle-treated mice. Changes in daily body weight, tissue MPO levels and colon histopathology score were similar between mice that were sleep deprived and controls. Daily DSS ingestion caused colitis in mice. ASD worsened colonic inflammation: tissue MPO levels in ASD/DSS-treated mice were significantly higher than in DSS-treated mice that were not sleep deprived. However, the worsening of colonic inflammation by ASD was not enough to exacerbate clinical manifestations of colitis such as weight loss. In contrast, the deleterious effects of CISD were severe enough to cause worsening of histological and clinical manifestations of colitis. The deleterious effects of sleep deprivation on severity of colitis appeared to be due to both increased colonic inflammation and a decrease in the ability of mice to recover from DSS-induced colonic injury. Both acute

  8. Cyclooxygenase-2 immunoreactivity in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Rumessen, Jüri J; Csillag, Claudio

    2009-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown aetiology and pathogenesis. In ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, prostaglandins may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammation, and increased expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) has been detected. The purpose...... with samples from eight normal controls, and samples from eight patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Specimens from patients with CC expressed COX-2 protein in increased amounts compared with controls, but similar to patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. COX-2 expression...

  9. 葡聚糖硫酸钠诱导C57BL/6J小鼠急性结肠炎模型的建立与评价%Establishment and evaluation of a model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate in C57BL/6 mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丽红; 肖芳; 兰小琴; 何嘉怡; 丁强; 田德安; 郑勇

    2014-01-01

    Objective The expression and impaired function of ion channels might be one of the pathophysiological mecha -nisms responsible for diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease ( IBD) .Proper animal model is the key to explore detailed pathophysiolog-ical process.The purpose of this study was to build a rat model of acute colitis induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in C57BL/6 mice and evaluate diarrhea-associated clinical , histological , pathological parameters and expressions of ion channel protein . Methods C57BL/6J mice of model group were treated with 4%DSS solution for 7 days to induce acute colitis.Mice body weight, stool moisture, stool consistency and the degree of hematochezia were recorded .The histopathological changes of mice colon specimens were observed visually and microcosmically, and the ion channel SLC26A3 protein was detected by Western Blot . Results All experimental mice survived.In the experiment, compared with control group , bloody diarrhea and weight lose occurred in model group , along with increased stool moisture ([73.30 ±8.31]% after experiment vs [44.32 ±6.42]% before experiment, P=0.004), and rapidly in-creased disease activity index (DAI) of acute colitis ([3.50 ±0.87] after experiment vs [1.0 ±0.00] before experiment, P=0.000).At the end of this experiment , compared with control group , the model group resulted in higher colonic damage score and pathological inflammation score (P=0.00, P=0.002), significantly shortened co-lon (P=0.00) and decreased expression of SLC26A3. Conclusion The intestinal mucosal injury and phenotypic features of 4%DSS-induced acute colitis are very similar to those of human ulcerative colitis .Impaired expression of intestinal ion transporter SLC26 A3 coexists with diarrhea in model group mice , and this model can support the research on mechanism of functional changes of ion channels in inflammatory diarrhea .%目的:离子通道的表达和功能受损可能是引起炎症性肠病相关性腹泻的

  10. The misdiagnosis of ischaemic colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, Joanne [Department of Radiology, West Suffolk Hospital, Hardwick Lane, Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk IP33 2QZ (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: joanne.rudd@wsh.nhs.uk

    2006-11-15

    This case study followed the pathway taken by an elderly patient who presented as an emergency with rectal bleeding. Views obtained of the colon by flexible sigmoidoscopy suggested an initial diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma but this proved to be incorrect. It was a combination of the histology obtained from the initial and subsequent endoscopies, barium enema and the clinical history that finally gave rise to the correct diagnosis of ischaemic colitis. Opinion is currently divided as to whether sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy is the most appropriate test for those patients presenting with rectal bleeding. Ischaemic colitis is a disease that can present with many differing symptoms depending on the degree of severity of the ischaemia.

  11. Ulcerative colitis after Cytomegalovirus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Aminianfar

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A 21 years old man has been complained of bloody diarrhea, liquid stool containing blood, pus, and fecal matter and crampy abdominal pain from four monthes ago. Ulcerative colitis relies upon the patient's history, clinical symptoms, sigmoidoscopic appearance and histology of colonic biopsy specimens. Treatment of patient started with high dose dexamethasone and prednisolone, asacole, suppository, metronidazole. Patient’s condition not improved and patient admitted in hospital. High dose prednisolone, azathioprine, sulfasalazine and folic acid were given.

  12. Current treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johannes Meier; Andreas Sturm

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease featuring recurrent inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The goal of medical treatment is to rapidly induce a steroid-free remission while at the same time preventing complications of the disease itself and its treatment. The choice of treatment depends on severity, localization and the course of the disease. For proctitis, topical therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds is used. More extensive or severe disease should be treated with oral and local 5-ASA compounds and corticosteroids to induce remission. Patients who do not respond to this treatment require hospitalization. Intravenous steroids or, when refractory, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies (infliximab) or immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) are then called for. Indications for emergency surgery include refractory toxic megacolon, perforation, and continuous severe colorectal bleeding. Close collaboration between gastroenterologist and surgeon is mandatory in order not to delay surgical therapy when needed. This article is intended to give a general, practice- orientated overview of the key issues in ulcerative colitis treatment. Recommendations are based on published consensus guidelines derived from national and international guidelines on the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  13. Current treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohannesMeier; AndreasSturm

    2011-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease featuring re- current inflammation of the colonic mucosa. The goal of medical treatment is to rapidly induce a steroid-free remission while at the same time preventing complica- tions of the disease itself and its treatment. The choice of treatment depends on severity, localization and the course of the disease. For proctitis, topical therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds is used. More extensive or severe disease should be treated with oral and local 5-ASA compounds and corticosteroids to induce remission. Patients who do not respond to this treatment require hospitalization. Intravenous steroids or, when refractory, calcineurin inhibitors (cyclosporine, tacrolimus), tumor necrosis factor-α antibodies (infliximab) or immunomodulators (azathioprine, 6-mercaptopurine) are then called for. Indications for emergency surgery include refractory toxic megacolon, perforation, and continuous severe colorectal bleeding. Close collaboration between gastroenterologist and surgeon is mandatory in order not to delay surgical therapy when needed. This article is intended to give a general, practice-orientated overview of the key issues in ulcerative colitis treatment. Recommendations are based on published consensus guidelines derived from national and international guidelines on the treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  14. The Potential Protective Role of Caveolin-1 in Intestinal Inflammation in TNBS-Induced Murine Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yanbing; Qing, Gefei; Bernstein, Charles N.; Warrington, Richard J.; Peng, Zhikang

    2015-01-01

    Background Caveolin-1 (Cav-1) is a multifunctional scaffolding protein serving as a platform for the cell’s signal-transduction and playing an important role in inflammation. However, its role in inflammatory bowel disease is not clear. A recent study showed that Cav-1 is increased and mediates angiogenesis in dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis, which are contradictory to our pilot findings in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. In the present study, we further clarified the role of Cav-1 in TNBS-induced colitis. Methods In BALB/c mice, acute colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of one dose TNBS, while chronic colitis was induced by administration of TNBS once a week for 7 weeks. To assess the effects of complete loss of Cav-1, Cav-1 knockout (Cav-1−/−) and control wild-type C57 mice received one TNBS administration. Body weight and clinical scores were monitored. Colon Cav-1 and pro-inflammatory cytokine levels were quantified through ELISAs. Inflammation was evaluated through histological analysis. Results Colon Cav-1 levels were significantly decreased in TNBS-induced colitis mice when compared to normal mice and also inversely correlated with colon inflammation scores and proinflammatory cytokine levels (IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF) significantly. Furthermore, after administration of TNBS, Cav-1−/− mice showed significantly increased clinical and colon inflammatory scores and body weight loss when compared with control mice. Conclusions and Significance Cav-1 may play a protective role in the development of TNBS-induced colitis. Our findings raise an important issue in the evaluation of specific molecules in animal models that different models may exhibit opposite results because of the different mechanisms involved. PMID:25756273

  15. Evolution of microscopic colitis to giant cell colitis without significant intraepithelial lymphocytosis or thickened collagen plate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Petris, Giovanni; Chen, Longwen

    2015-05-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an umbrella term that encompasses lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). Several histological variants of these 2 entities exist; among them is the uncommon giant cell colitis (GCC), in which histiocytic giant cells (GCs) are present in background of CC or LC. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman complaining of watery diarrhea for several years that was diagnosed with CC. At follow-up, she developed giant cell colitis (GCC). Nine years later, a colectomy revealed a form of microscopic colitis in which significant intraepithelial lymphocytosis and collagen plate thickening have disappeared while GCs persisted with diffuse mononuclear cells inflammation of the lamina propria. Thinning of the collagen plate in association with GCs has been described previously. The case contributes the possibility of further evolution of MC into a pure giant cell colitis in which the prototypical manifestations of MC have all but disappeared.

  16. Absence of anti-HMG-CoA reductase autoantibodies in severe self-limited statin-related myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, James S; Brody, Jennifer A; Tiniakou, Eleni; Psaty, Bruce M; Mammen, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Patients with self-limited statin-related myopathy improve spontaneously when statins are stopped. In contrast, patients with statin-associated autoimmune myopathy have autoantibodies recognizing 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) and usually require immunosuppressive therapy to control their disease. On initial presentation, it can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between these 2 diseases, as both present with muscle pain, weakness, and elevated serum creatine kinase (CK) levels. The goal of this study was to determine whether patients with severe self-limited statin-related myopathy also make anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. We screened 101 subjects with severe self-limited cerivastatin-related myopathy for anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. No patient with severe self-limited cerivastatin-related myopathy had anti-HMGCR autoantibodies. Anti-HMGCR autoantibody testing can be used to help differentiate whether a patient has self-limited myopathy due to cerivastatin or autoimmune statin-associated myopathy; these findings may apply to other statins as well. Muscle Nerve 54: 142-144, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Over-Expression of CD200 Protects Mice from Dextran Sodium Sulfate Induced Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhiqi; Yu, Kai; Zhu, Fang; Gorczynski, Reginald

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim CD200:CD200 receptor (CD200R) interactions lead to potent immunosuppression and inhibition of autoimmune inflammation. We investigated the effect of "knockout"of CD200 or CD200R, or over-expression of CD200, on susceptibility to dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)—induced colitis, a mouse model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods Acute or chronic colitis was induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in four groups of age-matched C57BL/6 female mice: (1) CD200-transgenic mice (CD200tg); (2) wild-type (WT) mice; (3) CD200 receptor 1-deficient (CD200R1KO) mice; and (4) CD200-deficient (CD200KO) mice. The extent of colitis was determined using a histological scoring system. Colon tissues were collected for quantitative RT-PCR and Immunohistochemical staining. Supernatants from colonic explant cultures and mononuclear cells isolated from colonic tissue were used for ELISA. Results CD200KO and CD200R1KO mice showed greater sensitivity to acute colitis than WT mice, with accelerated loss of body weight, significantly higher histological scores, more severe infiltration of macrophages, neutrophils and CD3+ cells, and greater expression of macrophage-derived inflammatory cytokines, whose production was inhibited in vitro (in WT/CD200KO mouse cells) by CD200. In contrast, CD200tg mice showed less sensitivity to DSS compared with WT mice, with attenuation of all of the features seen in other groups. In a chronic colitis model, greater infiltration of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells was seen in the colon of CD200tg mice compared to WT mice, and anti-CD25 mAb given to these mice attenuated protection. Conclusions The CD200:CD200R axis plays an immunoregulatory role in control of DSS induced colitis in mice. PMID:26841120

  18. Ischemic colitis during interferon-ribavirin therapy for chronic hepatitis C: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Jung Baik; Tae Hun Kim; Kwon Yoo; Il Hwan Moon; Min-Sun Cho

    2012-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is a rare complication of interferon administration.Only 9 cases in 6 reports have been described to-date.This report describes a case of ischemic colitis during pegylated interferon and ribavirin treatment for chronic hepatitis C,and includes a review of the relevant literature.A 48-year-old woman was treated with pegylated interferon α-2a and ribavirin for chronic hepatitis C,genotype Ib.After 19 wk of treatment,the patient complained of severe afebrile abdominal pain with hematochezia.Vital signs were stable and serum white blood cell count was within the normal range.Abdominal computed tomography showed diffuse colonic wall thickening from the splenic flexure to the proximal sigmoid colon,which is the most vulnerable area for the development of ischemic colitis.Colonoscopy revealed an acute mucosal hyperemic change,with edema and ulcerations extending from the proximal descending colon to the sigmoid colon.Colonic mucosal biopsy revealed acute exudative colitis.Polymerase chain reaction and culture for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative and the cultures for cytomegalovirus,Salmonella and Shigel/a species were negative.After discontinuation of interferon and ribavirin therapy,abdominal pain and hematochezia subsided and,following colonoscopy showed improvement of the mucosal ulcerations.Ischemic colitis cases during interferon therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C reported so far have all involved the descending colon.Ischemic colitis is a rarely encountered complication of interferon administration in patients with chronic hepatitis C and should be considered when a patient complains of abdominal pain and hematochezia.

  19. Sulphomucin expression in ileal pouches: emerging differences between ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatous polyposis pouches.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bambury, Niamh

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: We characterized the expression of sialomucin and sulphomucin in pouches fashioned for familial adenomatous polyposis and ulcerative colitis. We correlated sulphomucin expression with bacterial colonization and mucosal inflammation. METHODS: Ethical approval and informed consent were obtained. Mucosal biopsies from 9 patients with familial adenomatous polyposis and 12 with ulcerative colitis were obtained. Sulphomucin levels were assessed by using the high iron-diamine stain. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with villous height, crypt depth, and total mucosal thickness. Mucous gel layer composition was correlated with acute and chronic inflammatory infiltrates. Colonization by a panel of seven bacterial species (including sulphate reducing bacteria) was established and correlated with sulphomucin levels. RESULTS: High-iron-diamine positivity (i.e., sulphomucin expression) was greater in ulcerative colitis pouch mucous gel (2.083 +\\/- 0.5 vs. 0.556 +\\/- 0.4, P = 0.003). Sulphomucin expression correlated with reduced crypt depth, villous height, and total mucosal thickness. In the ulcerative colitis group, chronic inflammatory infiltrate scores were significantly greater for high-iron-diamine-positive patients. Colonization by sulphate reducing bacteria was increased in high-iron-diamine-positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sulphomucin expression is increased in the mucous gel layer of the ulcerative colitis pouch compared with that of the familial adenomatous polyposis pouch. Sulphomucin expression is associated with colonization by sulphate-reducing bacteria and increased chronic inflammation.

  20. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E J; Karrenbeld, A; Kleibeuker, J H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy alo

  1. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E J; Karrenbeld, A; Kleibeuker, J H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy alo

  2. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E J; Karrenbeld, A; Kleibeuker, J H; Dijkstra, Gerard

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy

  3. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IS THE CAUSE OF ULCERATIVE COLITIS AND CROHN’S DISEASE? The origin of IBD is still unknown. It is possible that a combination of factors may be the underlying cause of Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Researchers theorize that IBD patients ...

  4. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derikx, L.A.A.P.; Dieleman, L.A.; Hoentjen, F.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of

  5. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kunwar; Shailubhai; Vaseem; Palejwala; Krishna; Priya; Arjunan; Sayali; Saykhedkar; Bradley; Nefsky; John; A; Foss; Stephen; Comiskey; Gary; S; Jacob; Scott; E; Plevy

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administeredplecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models.METHODS: The cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cG MP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cellbased assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid(5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium(DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic(TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout(TCRα-/-) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity.RESULTS: Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C(GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cG MP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs(0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity(P < 0.05) and disease activity index(P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα-/- mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. CONCLUSION: This is the first

  6. Probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derikx, Lauranne A A P; Dieleman, Levinus A; Hoentjen, Frank

    2016-02-01

    The intestinal microbiota is one of the key players in the etiology of ulcerative colitis. Manipulation of this microflora with probiotics and prebiotics is an attractive strategy in the management of ulcerative colitis. Several intervention studies for both the induction and maintenance of remission in ulcerative colitis patients have been performed. Most of these studies evaluated VSL#3 or E. Coli Nissle 1917 and in general there is evidence for efficacy of these agents for induction and maintenance of remission. However, studies are frequently underpowered, lack a control group, and are very heterogeneous investigating different probiotic strains in different study populations. The absence of well-powered robust randomized placebo-controlled trials impedes the widespread use of probiotics and prebiotics in ulcerative colitis. However, given the promising results that are currently available, probiotics and prebiotics may find their way to the treatment algorithm for ulcerative colitis in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Kalium kanalers rolle i inflammation i Colitis Ulcerosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Koch

    2011-01-01

    Gennemgang af T-cellers kalium kanaler og deres mulige rolle i Colitis Ulcerosa. Artiklen skrevet til Den danske Colitis-Crohn Forenings Medlemsblad.......Gennemgang af T-cellers kalium kanaler og deres mulige rolle i Colitis Ulcerosa. Artiklen skrevet til Den danske Colitis-Crohn Forenings Medlemsblad....

  8. Self-limited plasmonic welding of silver nanowire junctions

    KAUST Repository

    Garnett, Erik C.

    2012-02-05

    Nanoscience provides many strategies to construct high-performance materials and devices, including solar cells, thermoelectrics, sensors, transistors, and transparent electrodes. Bottom-up fabrication facilitates large-scale chemical synthesis without the need for patterning and etching processes that waste material and create surface defects. However, assembly and contacting procedures still require further development. Here, we demonstrate a light-induced plasmonic nanowelding technique to assemble metallic nanowires into large interconnected networks. The small gaps that form naturally at nanowire junctions enable effective light concentration and heating at the point where the wires need to be joined together. The extreme sensitivity of the heating efficiency on the junction geometry causes the welding process to self-limit when a physical connection between the wires is made. The localized nature of the heating prevents damage to low-thermal-budget substrates such as plastics and polymer solar cells. This work opens new avenues to control light, heat and mass transport at the nanoscale. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  9. Fossil HII Regions: Self-Limiting Star Formation at High Redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Oh, S P; Haiman, Zoltan

    2003-01-01

    Recent results by the WMAP satellite suggest that the intergalactic medium was significantly reionized at redshifts as high as z~17. At this early epoch, the first ionizing sources likely appeared in the shallow potential wells of mini-halos with virial temperatures T < 10^4 K. Once such an ionizing source turns off, its surrounding HII region Compton cools and recombines. Nonetheless, we show that the ``fossil'' HII regions left behind remain at high adiabats, prohibiting gas accretion and cooling in subsequent generations of mini-halos. Thus, early star formation is self-limiting. We quantify this effect to show that star formation in mini-halos cannot account for the bulk of the electron scattering opacity measured by WMAP, which must be due to more massive objects. We argue that gas entropy, rather than IGM metallicity, regulates the evolution of the global ionizing emissivity, and impedes full reionization until lower redshifts. We discuss several important consequences of this early entropy floor for...

  10. Ipilimumab-Induced Enteritis without Colitis: A New Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Messmer

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ipilimumab is an immune checkpoint inhibitor targeting cytotoxic T-lymphocyte associated antigen 4 (CTLA4, approved to treat metastatic melanoma. It was the first therapy shown to prolong survival in a large, randomized clinical trial. However, immune-related adverse events are common and can be severe. Enterocolitis is a common adverse event with ipilimumab, but enteritis without colitis has not been previously described. Case Report: An 83-year-old man presented to our hospital with grade 3 diarrhea for 5 days. One month prior, he had started treatment with ipilimumab for metastatic melanoma. On presentation, he was found to have severe electrolyte disturbances, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and acute kidney injury. Causes of infectious diarrhea were excluded, and he was treated with corticosteroids for presumed ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis. However, colonoscopy revealed normal mucosa, both grossly and on pathology of random biopsies. Steroids were weaned but his symptoms recurred. He then underwent upper endoscopy with enteroscopy. Biopsy of the duodenum was notable for acute inflammation, villous blunting, and other changes consistent with ipilimumab-associated injury. He was restarted on high-dose steroids and his symptoms resolved. Discussion: Ipilimumab-induced enteritis is a serious and potentially life-threatening immune related adverse event that warrants prompt recognition and aggressive management. As in cases of ipilimumab-associated enterocolitis, steroids are an effective therapy. Enteritis without colitis should be suspected in patients on ipilimumab who present with severe diarrhea but have a normal colonoscopy.

  11. Nitric oxide and chronic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Grisham

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is thought to play an important role in modulating the inflammatory response by virtue of its ability to affect bloodflow, leukocyte function and cell viability. The objective of this study was to assess the role that NO may play in mediating the mucosal injury and inflammation in a model of chronic granulomatous colitis using two pharmacologically different inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Chronic granulomatous colitis with liver and spleen inflammation was induced in female Lewis rats via the subserosal (intramural injection of peptidoglycan/polysaccharide (PG/PS derived from group A streptococci. Chronic NOS inhibition by oral administration of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME (15 µmol/kg/day or amino-guanidine (AG (15 µmol/ kg/day was found to attenuate the PG/PS-induced increases in macroscopic colonic inflammation scores and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Only AG -- not L-NAME – attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in colon dry weight. Both L-NAME and AG significantly attenuated the PG/PS-induced increases in spleen weight whereas neither was effective at significantly attenuating the PG/PS-induced increases in liver weight. Although both L-NAME and AG inhibited NO production in vivo, as measured by decreases in plasma nitrite and nitrate levels, only AG produced significantly lower values (38±3 versus 83±8 µM, respectively, P<0.05. Finally, L-NAME, but not AG, administration significantly increased mean arterial pressure from 83 mmHg in colitic animals to 105 mmHg in the PG/PS+ L-NAME-treated animals (P<0.05. It is concluded that NO may play an important role in mediating some of the pathophysiology associated with this model of chronic granulomatous colitis.

  12. Status of colitis-associated cancer in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsushi Kinugasa; Yoshito Akagi

    2016-01-01

    Surgical therapy for ulcerative colitis(UC) depends on the medical therapy administered for the patient’s condition. UC is a benign disease. However, it has been reported that the rare cases of cancer in UC patients are increasing, and such cases have a worse prognosis. Recently, surgical therapy has greatly changed, there has been quite an increase in the number of UC patients with high-grade dysplasia and/or cancer. These lesions are known as colitis-associated cancer(CAC). The relationship between inflammation and tumorigenesis is well-established, and in the last decade, a great deal of supporting evidence has been obtained from genetic, pharmacological, and epidemiological studies. Inflammatory bowel disease, especially UC, is an important risk factor for the development of colon cancer. We should determine the risk factors for UC patients with cancer based on a large body of data, and we should attempt to prevent the increase in the number of such patients using these newly identified risk factors in the near future. Actively introducing the surgical treatment in addition to medical treatment should be considered. Several physicians should analyze UC from their unique perspectives in order to establish new clinically relevant diagnostic and treatment methods in the future. This article discusses CAC, including its etiology, mechanism, diagnosis, and treatment in UC patients.

  13. Sulphasalazine-Induced Pseudomembranous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available An 18-year-old female with ankylosing spondylitis developed fever, abdominal pain and diarrhea on two occasions after starting sulphasalazine therapy. Flexible sigmoidoscopy revealed pseudomembranous colitis; fecal cultures were positive for Clostridium difficile; and C difficile toxin assay was positive. Despite the frequent use of sulphasalazine in the management of inflammatory bowel disease, this complication has been apparently rare. Clinicians should be wary of the onset of diarrhea in patients receiving sulphasalazine, whether for inflammatory bowel disease or other conditions.

  14. Rifampin-associated pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Tun-Chieh; Lu, Po-Liang; Lin, Wei-Ru; Lin, Chun-Yu; Wu, Jeng-Yih; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2009-08-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is known to develop after antibiotic treatment, but is rarely associated with antituberculosis (anti-TB) agents. We report a 28-year-old woman without underlying diseases developing PMC after 126 days of anti-TB treatment. Severe diarrhea and abdominal cramping pain were experienced. Colonoscopic biopsy proved the diagnosis of PMC. Her symptoms improved after discontinuing the anti-TB agents but recurred shortly after challenging with rifampin and isoniazid. Metronidazole administration and replacement of rifampin with levofloxacin successfully cured the PMC. Our report supports the notion that rifampin can induce PMC.

  15. Microscopic colitis: A review of etiology, treatment and refractory disease

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Tina; Cave, David; Marshall, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic, nonbloody diarrhea. Microscopic colitis is more common in women than men and usually affects patients in their sixth and seventh decade. This article reviews the etiology and medical management of microscopic colitis. The etiology of microscopic colitis is unknown, but it is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, polyarthritis, and thyroid disorders. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor of microscopic colitis. Ex...

  16. An Unusual Association between Chronic Pancreatitis and Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Prakash Bhatt

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Episodes of acute pancreatitis have been described during the course of ulcerative colitis and most of them are due to cholelithiasis or drugs. Idiopathic pancreatitis has rarely been associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We describe one such case. A 35-year-old male presented in 2001 with a ten year history of recurrent episodes of diarrhea without blood and mucus in the stools. Four years ago, he developed an episode of mild acute pancreatitis. At that time, the serum amylase level was three times the upper normal limit. He was treated conservatively. A month later, he was found to be diabetic and was put on insulin. He was non-alcoholic and there was no history of any chronic drug use. There was no similar family history.

  17. Nimbolide Inhibits Nuclear Factor-КB Pathway in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Macrophages and Alleviates Experimental Colitis in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji Yeon; Lee, Changhyun; Hwang, Sung Wook; Chun, Jaeyoung; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung

    2016-10-01

    Nimbolide is a limonoid extracted from neem tree (Azadirachta indica) that has antiinflammatory properties. The effect of nimbolide on the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathway in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs), macrophages and in murine colitis models was investigated. The IEC COLO 205, the murine macrophage cell line RAW 264.7, and peritoneal macrophages from interleukin-10-deficient (IL-10(-/-) ) mice were preconditioned with nimbolide and then stimulated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) or lipopolysaccharide. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced acute colitis model and chronic colitis model in IL-10(-/-) mice were used for in vivo experiments. Nimbolide significantly suppressed the expression of inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, and TNF-α) and inhibited the phosphorylation of IκBα and the DNA-binding affinity of NF-κB in IECs and macrophages. Nimbolide ameliorated weight loss, colon shortening, disease activity index score, and histologic scores in dextran sulfate sodium colitis. It also improved histopathologic scores in the chronic colitis of IL-10(-/-) mice. Staining for phosphorylated IκBα was significantly decreased in the colon tissue after treatment with nimbolide in both models. Nimbolide inhibits NF-κB signaling in IECs and macrophages and ameliorates experimental colitis in mice. These results suggest nimbolide could be a potentially new treatment for inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Recombinant human MFG-E8 ameliorates colon damage in DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yinzhong; Brenner, Max; Yang, Weng-Lang; Wang, Ping

    2015-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the digestive system and typically requires lifelong medical care. Recombinant human MFG-E8 (rhMFG-E8) is a 364-amino acid protein, which promotes apoptotic cell clearance and reduces inflammation. This study investigates the therapeutic effect of rhMFG-E8 on two well-established mouse models of IBD. Acute mucosal injury leading to colitis was caused by exposing C57BL/6 mice to 4% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in the drinking water over 7 days, and BALB/c mice to a single intrarectal dose of 2.75 mg of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Upon clinical onset of colitis (day 2 in the DSS model and day 1 in the TNBS model), mice were treated with daily subcutaneous injections of rhMFG-E8 (60 or 120 μg/kg/day) or vehicle (saline) for 6 days. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 significantly attenuated colitis in both models in a dose-dependent way. Treatment of DSS-induced colitis with rhMFG-E8 (120 μg/kg/day) decreased weight loss by 59%, the colitis severity score by 71%, and colon shrinkage by 49% when compared with vehicle. Similarly, treatment of TNBS-induced colitis with rhMFG-E8 (120 μg/kg/day) decreased weight loss by 97%, the colitis severity score by 82%, and colon shrinkage by 62% when compared with vehicle. In both models, the colons of animals receiving rhMFG-E8 showed marked reduction in neutrophil infiltration, cytokine and chemokine expression, and apoptotic cell counts. In conclusion, rhMFG-E8 ameliorates DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, suggesting that it has the potential to become a novel therapeutic agent for IBD.

  19. Low bone mass in microscopic colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakatos Péter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microscopic colitis presents with similar symptoms to classic inflammatory bowel diseases. Osteoporosis is a common complication of Crohn's disease but there are no data concerning bone metabolism in microscopic colitis. Aims The aim of the present study was to evaluate bone density and metabolism in patients with microscopic colitis. Methods Fourteen patients microscopic colitis were included in the study, and 28 healthy persons and 28 age and gender matched Crohn's disease patients were enrolled as controls. Bone mineral density was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and the radius. Serum bone formation and bone resorption markers (osteocalcin and beta-crosslaps, respectively were measured using immunoassays. Results Low bone mass was measured in 57.14% patients with microscopic colitis. Bone mineral density at the femoral neck in patients suffering from microscopic colitis and Crohn's disease was lower than in healthy controls (0.852 ± 0.165 and 0.807 ± 0.136 vs. 1.056 ± 0.126 g/cm2; p 2; p 2. Mean beta-crosslaps concentration was higher in microscopic colitis and Crohn's disease patients than controls (417.714 ± 250.37 and 466.071 ± 249.96 vs. 264.75 ± 138.65 pg/ml; p Conclusions Low bone mass is frequent in microscopic colitis, and alterations to bone metabolism are similar to those present in Crohn's disease. Therefore, microscopic colitis-associated osteopenia could be a significant problem in such patients.

  20. Cytomegalovirus-colitis hos immunkompetent ung mand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Eva; Grønbaek, Karin; Linnemann, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    haematochezia remained present after six months. Development of IBD subsequent to CMV colitis has previously been described, and is now suspected in our patient. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients with fever, elevated liver enzymes and bloody stools......A healthy young man was hospitalized due to fever, malaise and bloody stools for three weeks. The patient had a primary CMV infection based on biochemical, serological and ultrasonic results, and a colonoscopy was consistent with left-sided CMV colitis. He recovered spontaneously, though...

  1. CT pseudomembranous colitis. Computertomographie bei pseudomembranoeser Kolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaa, J. (Heidelberg Univ., Klinikum Mannheim, Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie (Germany)); Lee, M.J. (Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Gastrointestinal Radiology); Georgi, M. (Heidelberg Univ., Klinikum Mannheim, Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie (Germany))

    1993-09-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis (PMC) is an infectious colitis usually occurring as a complication of antibiotic therapy. The computed tomography (CT) findings of 10 patients with PMC are reviewed. All patients demonstrated an abnormal large bowel wall with an average thickness of 13 mm (range 7-31 mm). Additional, but less frequent findings included mesenteric inflammation, ascites, pleural effusions, and dilatation of the large or small bowel. Pancolonic involvement was seen in 7 cases, while three patients had focal colitis. Although the CT appearance of PMC is not specific, the diagnosis may be suggested in the proper clinical setting. (orig.)

  2. Pseudomembranous colitis in a pregnant woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mridula, T; Pai, R R; Mathai, A M; Tantry, B V; Adhikari, P

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis in association with pregnancy has not been well described in English literature. Recent studies show a drastic increase in the incidence and severity of Pseudomembranous colitis in pregnant women, who were once thought to be at low risk. We report here a case of Pseudomembranous colitis in a young healthy immunocompetent pregnant lady. An early suspicion of this entity with the characteristic appearance of pseudomembranes on colonoscopy and histology confirmed the diagnosis enabling prompt treatment and complete recovery without any serious consequences.

  3. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation modulates CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs and suppression of colitis manifestations in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weigang; Pu, Aimin; Sheng, Baifa; Zhang, Zhicao; Li, Liangzi; Liu, Zhongze; Wang, Qimeng; Li, Xiang; Ma, Yuanhang; Yu, Min; Sun, Lihua; Qiu, Yuan; Yang, Hua

    2017-03-01

    This research is dedicated to investigating the effects and potential mechanism of action of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor on the intestinal mucosal immune system in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced by the administration of 3% DSS to wild-type C57BL/6J mice for 7days. 6-formylindolo(3, 2-b)carbazole (FICZ), an endogenous agonist of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), was given intraperitoneally on a daily basis beginning 2days after the start of DSS administration. The mice were weighed and assessed, and colon tissues were measured. Intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) were isolated from the colon and examined by flow cytometry and quantitative real-time PCR. FICZ ameliorated DSS-induced colitis, resulting in a reduced disease activity index and improvement in the histology and length of the colon. Colitis reduced the percentage and number of CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs. FICZ prevented the reduction in the numbers of CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs by upregulating the expression of the IL-15 receptor and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and attenuating the apoptotic rate of CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs. Finally, IL-10 was increased and IFN-γ was decreased in CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs by FICZ administration in DSS-induced colitis. The results suggest that AhR activation ameliorated DSS-induced acute colitis, in a manner that is associated with the local expansion and functions of CD8αα(+)TCRαβ(+) IELs in acute colitis. The findings indicate that AhR-related ligands might be targeted as novel drug targets for IBD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of dextran sulfate sodium induced experimental colitis on cytochrome P450 activities in rat liver, kidney and intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Nan; Huang, Yanjuan; Gao, Xuejiao; Li, Sai; Yan, Zhixiang; Wei, Bin; Yan, Ru

    2017-06-01

    Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced experimental colitis presents a histologic resemblance to human ulcerative colitis (UC). Altered cytochrome P450s (CYPs) have been reported in this model and patients with UC. In this study, six CYPs activities were quantitatively determined in microsomes of liver (RLMs), kidney (RRMs) and intestine (RIMs) from rats with colitis at acute (5% DSS for 7 days, UCA) and remission (7-day DSS treatment followed by 7-day cessation, UCR) phases and compared with normal rats. Generally, CYPs activities varied with isoform, organ, and disease status. Hepatic CYP1A2, 2B1, 2C6/11, 2E1 and 3A1/2 activities were reduced by acute colitis and completely or partially restored after DSS was halted. Although DSS treatment decreased the Vmax of renal CYP2C6/11 and increased that of CYP2D2, their CLint, in vitro were comparable among normal, acute and remission stages. DSS treatment changed the kinetics of CYP3A1/2-mediated nifedipine metabolism in RRMs from biphasic to classical kinetics. Notably, CYP2D2 activity was elevated in liver and kidney in acute UC, while enhanced in liver and decreased in kidney in remission. In intestine, CYP3A1/2 activity was increased in UCA and further enhanced after DSS withdrawal. These findings highlight the necessity of quantifying enzyme activity for precision drug therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain perc

  6. Ca2+ response in neutrophils after exposure to bacterial N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine: delayed response in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vainer, Ben; Lamberth, Kasper; Brimnes, Jens

    2003-01-01

    In acute stages of ulcerative colitis (UC), neutrophils migrate from the circulation into inflamed colonic tissue, initiated by yet unknown stimuli. The bacterial peptide N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP) is a component of the surface membrane of colonic bacteria such as Escherichia...

  7. Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice : spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkelkamp, Niels; Kavelaars, Annemieke; Elsenbruch, Sigrid; Schedlowski, Manfred; Holtmann, Gerald; Heijnen, Cobi J.

    2007-01-01

    Increased visceral sensitivity to capsaicin after DSS-induced colitis in mice: spinal cord c-Fos expression and behavior. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 293: G749-G757, 2007. First published July 26, 2007; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00114.2007.During acute and chronic inflammation visceral pain

  8. Effect of Scutellariae Radix extract on experimental dextran-sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of Scutellariae Radix extract (SRE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats induced by dextran-sulfate sodium (DSS).METHODS: Colitis was induced in male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (170-180 g) by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS, wt/v; MW 54000) in drinking water for 8 d. The treated rats received 4% DSS and SRE orally (100 mg/kg per day). Control rats received either tap water or SRE only. Macroscopic assessment which included body weight changes, fecal occult blood and stool consistency were determined daily. At the appointed time, the rats were sacrificed and the entire colons were removed. The colon length and the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. The severity of colitis was graded by morphological and histological assessments. The ion transport activity of the colonic mucosa was assessed by electrophysiological technique. RESULTS: Rats treated with oral administration of 4% DSS regularly developed clinical and macroscopic signs of colitis. Treatment with SRE relieved the symptoms, including the reduction in body weight, shortening and ulceration of the colon. Administration of SRE also significantly reduced the histological damage induced by DSS. Moreover, the Isc responses of the colonic mucosa to forskolin were suppressed after the induction of colitis. The stimulated ion transport activity of DSS-rats treated with SRE displayed significant improvement in the secretory responsiveness.CONCLUSION: SRE was effective in treating acute DSS -induced ulcerative colitis, as gauged by reduced clinical disease, improved macroscopic and histological damage scores, and enhanced recovery of normal colonic secretory function.

  9. Multifactorial Patterns of Gene Expression in Colonic Epithelial Cells Predict Disease Phenotypes in Experimental Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Aubrey L.; Bruno, Maria E.C.; Rogier, Eric W.; Tuna, Halide; Cohen, Donald A.; Bondada, Subbarao; Chelvarajan, R. Lakshman; Brandon, J. Anthony; Jennings, C. Darrell; Kaetzel, Charlotte S.

    2012-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex and the need to identify molecular biomarkers is critical. Epithelial cells play a central role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis. We previously identified 5 “signature” biomarkers in colonic epithelial cells (CEC) that are predictive of disease phenotype in Crohn’s disease. Here we investigate the ability of CEC biomarkers to define the mechanism and severity of intestinal inflammation. Methods We analyzed expression of RelA, A20, pIgR, TNF and MIP-2 in CEC of mice with DSS acute colitis or T cell-mediated chronic colitis. Factor analysis was used to combine the 5 biomarkers into 2 multifactorial principal components (PCs). PC scores for individual mice were correlated with disease severity. Results For both colitis models, PC1 was strongly weighted toward RelA, A20 and pIgR, and PC2 was strongly weighted toward TNF and MIP-2, while the contributions of other biomarkers varied depending on the etiology of inflammation. Disease severity was correlated with elevated PC2 scores in DSS colitis and reduced PC1 scores in T cell transfer colitis. Down-regulation of pIgR was a common feature observed in both colitis models and was associated with altered cellular localization of pIgR and failure to transport IgA. Conclusions A multifactorial analysis of epithelial gene expression may be more informative than examining single gene responses in IBD. These results provide insight into the homeostatic and pro-inflammatory functions of CEC in IBD pathogenesis and suggest that biomarker analysis could be useful for evaluating therapeutic options for IBD patients. PMID:23070952

  10. [Medical therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases: ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakatos, László; Lakatos, Péter László

    2007-06-24

    There are fewer significant changes in the medical therapy of ulcerative colitis (UC) compared to Crohn's disease. The most important factors that determine therapy are disease extent and severity. 5-aminosalicylates (5-ASA) constitute the treatment of choice in mild-to-moderate UC. The efficacy of new compounds (e.g. mesalazine) is only mildly improved compared to sulphasalazine; however, their use has become more frequent due to a more favorable side effects profile. Topical medication is more effective in proctitis and distal colitis, and the combination of topical and orally-administered drugs is superior to oral therapy alone also in extensive disease. Thus, this latter regimen should be considered for cases where the escalation of treatment is required. Systemic steroids still represent the first line therapy in acute, severe UC, while in patients who do not respond to steroids, cyclosporine and infliximab should be considered as a second line therapy and as alternatives for colectomy. Maintenance treatment is indicated in all UC cases. 5-ASA compounds are suggested as first line maintenance therapy with the optimal dose still being under investigation. Topical compounds are effective also for maintenance in distal colitis or proctitis, if accepted by the patients. Immunosuppressives, especially azathioprine, should be considered in chronically active, steroid dependent or resistant patients. According to recent publications, azathioprine is almost equally effective in UC and CD. The question of chemoprevention is important during maintenance. There are increasing data supporting the notion that aminosalicylates may lower the risk for UC-associated colorectal cancer. The most important changes in the management of UC are the more frequent use of topical aminosalicylates and azathioprine, the availability of infliximab in severe UC, and increasing use of aminosalicylates for chemoprevention of colorectal carcinoma. Furthermore, adequate attention is needed to

  11. Intestinal microecology in rats with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓霞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the abundance and diversity ofthe gut flora in rats with dextran sulfate sodium(DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis(UC)to provide new knowledge about the pathogenesis of this disease.Methods Twenty-six

  12. Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_166957.html Scientists Spot Genes Behind Crohn's, Ulcerative Colitis Large study finds key ... Researchers say they've come closer to pinpointing genes linked with inflammatory bowel diseases such as Crohn's ...

  13. [A case of rifampicin associated Pseudomembranous colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae Hi; Park, Jin Hyung

    2004-06-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis is a dangerous but unusual side effect of antibiotics usage. We report a case of pseudomembranous colitis that developed in a 50-year-old female patient with diabetes mellitus during first line anti-tuberculous therapy including rifampicin. The patient was diagnosed with active pulmonary tuberculosis 70 days earlier. On admission, she suffered intermittent abdominal pain and watery diarrhea for 2 weeks. Colonoscopy revealed exudative, punctuate, raised plaques with skip areas or edematous hyperemic mucosa, and histopathologic findings were consistent with pseudomembranous colitis with typical volcano-like exudate. Symptoms improved on treatment with metronidazole. There was no recurrence after reinstitution of the anti-tuberculous agents excluding rifampicin. In patients with persistent diarrhea receiving anti-tuberculosis treatment, rifampicin associated pseudomembranous colitis should always be kept in mind.

  14. BMP signaling in rats with TNBS-induced colitis following BMP7 therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maric, Ivana; Kucic, Natalia; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Smoljan, Ivana; Grahovac, Blazenka; Zoricic Cvek, Sanja; Celic, Tanja; Bobinac, Dragica; Vukicevic, Slobodan

    2012-05-15

    Beyond stimulating bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important in development, inflammation, and malignancy of the gut. We have previously shown that BMP7 has a regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in rats. To further investigate the BMP signaling pathway we monitored the effect of BMP7 therapy on the BMP signaling components in the rat colon during different stages of experimentally induced colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The results showed a significantly decreased BMP7 expression in the acute phase, followed by a significantly increased BMP2 and decreased BMP6 expression during the chronic phase of colitis. BMP7 therapy influenced the expression of several BMPs with the most prominent effect on downregulation of BMP2 and upregulation of BMP4 in the chronic phase of colitis. Importantly, connective tissue growth factor and noggin expression were elevated in the acute stage and significantly decreased upon BMP7 therapy. BMP receptor I expression was unchanged, whereas BMP receptor II was decreased at day 2 and increased at days 14 and 30 of TNBS inflammation. However, an opposite pattern of expression following BMP7 therapy has been observed. BMP7 increased the expression of BR-Smad including Smad3 and Smad4. Inhibitory Smads were increased in colitis and significantly decreased following BMP7 therapy at later stages of the disease. We suggest that BMP signaling was altered during TNBS-induced colitis and was recovered with BMP7 administration, suggesting that IBD is a reversible process.

  15. Atypical disease phenotypes in pediatric ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levine, Arie; de Bie, Charlotte I; Turner, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Definitive diagnosis of pediatric ulcerative colitis (UC) may be particularly challenging since isolated colitis with overlapping features is common in pediatric Crohn's disease (CD), while atypical phenotypes of UC are not uncommon. The Paris classification allows more accurate phenotyping...... of atypical inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Our aim was to identify the prevalence of atypical disease patterns in new-onset pediatric UC using the Paris classification....

  16. The economics of adalimumab for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation in the colon. Adalimumab, as a TNF-α blocker, offers a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and refractory or intolerant to conventional medications; however, its cost-effectiveness profile has not yet been well established. Future economic evaluations should choose appropriate comparators in the context of target-reimbursement decision making and focus on cost-effectiveness over a long time horizon.

  17. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  18. Murine models of ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Christopher; Levine, Joel; Rosenberg, Daniel W

    2003-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology limited to the large intestine. The disease is prevalent in industrial societies and is associated with specific ethnic populations. A number of murine models, each focused on distinct aspects of the disease process, were developed over the past 20 years to further our understanding of the pathogenesis of UC. These models have been and remain our best resource for the study of the disorder as a result of their homology to human UC and the ease in which they can be manipulated and examined. This review examines and distills what has been leamed from these models and how this information is related back to human UC.

  19. Microscopic colitis: clinical and pathologic perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, Andreas; Langner, Cord

    2015-02-01

    Microscopic colitis is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by chronic nonbloody diarrhea and specific histopathology features. Active disease, defined as 3 or more stools or 1 or more watery stools per day, significantly reduces quality of life. Epidemiologic studies have found the incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis to be comparable with those of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Nevertheless, microscopic colitis is still under-recognized in clinical practice-most health care workers know little about its etiology and pathophysiology. Furthermore, there are many challenges to the diagnosis and treatment of patients. We review the epidemiologic and clinical features of this disorder and discuss its pathogenesis. We also outline the criteria for histopathologic evaluation of microscopic colitis, recently published by the European Consensus on Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and discuss a treatment algorithm created by the European Microscopic Colitis Group. Treatment options for patients with budesonide-refractory disease are discussed. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Allergic colitis: a mimic of Hirschsprung disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, D.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Radiological Institute, Columbus Children`s Hospital, OH (United States); Buonomo, C. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Fishman, S.J. [Department of Surgery, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Furuta, G.; Nurko, S. [Department of Gastroenterology, Children`s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Background. Allergy to cow milk protein is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in infancy. Milk allergy is usually a clinical diagnosis, and thus there have been few reports of the radiographic findings. Objective. To describe the barium enema findings of allergic colitis and differentiate them from Hirschsprung disease. Materials and methods. Four infants (age range 7 days-5 weeks) with constipation underwent barium enema to exclude Hirschsprung disease. Radiographic findings were correlated with the pathologic specimens from suction rectal biopsy. Results. All enemas revealed irregular narrowing of the rectum and a transition zone. Rectal biopsies in each case demonstrated ganglion cells and evidence of an allergic colitis, with inflammatory infiltrates in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of milk allergy colitis was made and symptoms resolved after removal of milk from the diet. Conclusions. Milk allergy is common in infancy. The rectum is a primary target organ, with allergic colitis often diagnosed on clinical grounds alone. However, a child with allergic colitis may be referred to radiology for barium enema, especially if constipation is present. The radiologist should be aware of the unique imaging findings of allergic colitis, so as to avoid confusion with Hirschsprung disease and perhaps an unnecessary rectal biopsy. (orig.) With 4 figs., 1 tab., 17 refs.

  1. Genetic and immunologic aspects of acute pancreatitis : An odyssey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of acute hospitalization for gastrointestinal diseases. The course of acute pancreatitis is often mild and self-limiting, but in 15-25% of patients, pancreatitis is severe with an increased mortality risk. Infectious complications, and especially bacterial

  2. Genetic and immunologic aspects of acute pancreatitis : An odyssey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijmeijer, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is the leading cause of acute hospitalization for gastrointestinal diseases. The course of acute pancreatitis is often mild and self-limiting, but in 15-25% of patients, pancreatitis is severe with an increased mortality risk. Infectious complications, and especially bacterial inf

  3. Colitis associated with biological agents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2012-01-01

    In the past,there has been considerable focus on a host of drugs and chemicals that may produce colonic toxicity.Now,a variety of new biological monoclonal antibody agents,usually administered by infusion,have appeared in the clinical realm over the last decade or so to treat different chronic inflammatory or malignant disorders.For some of these agents,adverse effects have been documented,including apparently new forms of immune-mediated inflammatory bowel disease.In some,only limited symptoms have been recorded,but in others,severe colitis with serious complications,such as bowel perforation has been recorded.In others,adverse effects may have a direct vascular or ischemic basis,while other intestinal effects may be related to a superimposed infection.Some new onset cases of ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease may also be attributed to the same agents used to treat these diseases,or be responsible for disease exacerbation.Dramatic and well documented side effects have been observed with ipilimumab,a humanized monoclonal antibody developed to reduce and overcome cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4,a key negative feedback regulator of the T-cell anti-tumor response.This agent has frequently been used in the treatment of different malignancies,notably,malignant melanoma.Side effects with this agent occur in up to 40% and these are believed to be largely immune-mediated.One of these is a form of enterocolitis that may be severe,and occasionally,fatal.Other agents include rituximab (an antiCD20 monoclonal antibody),bevacizumab (a monoclonal antibody against the vascular endothelial growth factor) and anti-tumor necrosis factor agents,including infliximab,adalimumab and etanercept.

  4. A case of reactive arthritis due to Clostridium difficile colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Essenmacher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reactive arthritis is an acute, aseptic, inflammatory arthropathy following an infectious process but removed from the site of primary infection. It is often attributed to genitourinary and enteric pathogens, such as Chlamydia, Salmonella, Shigella, Campylobacter, and Yersinia, in susceptible individuals. An uncommon and less recognized cause of this disease is preceding colonic infection with Clostridium difficile, an organism associated with pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea in hospitalized patients and those recently exposed to antibiotics. Recognition of this association may be complicated by non-specific presentation of diarrhea, the interval between gastrointestinal and arthritic symptoms, and the wide differential in mono- and oligoarthritis. We present the case of a 61-year-old, hospitalized patient recently treated for C. difficile colitis who developed sudden, non-traumatic, right knee pain and swelling. Physical examination and radiographs disclosed joint effusion, and sterile aspiration produced cloudy fluid with predominant neutrophils and no growth on cultures. Diagnostic accuracy is enhanced by contemporaneous laboratory investigations excluding other entities such as gout and rheumatoid arthritis and other infections that typically precede reactive arthritis. Contribution of Clostridium infection to reactive arthritis is an obscure association frequently difficult to prove, but this organism is warranted inclusion in the differential of reactive arthritis.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy as a screening technique for colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Jitto; Ghimire, Hemendra; Viennois, Emilie; Merlin, Didier; Perera, A. G. Unil

    2017-05-01

    There remains a great need for diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for which the current technique, colonoscopy, is not cost-effective and presents a non-negligible risk for complications. Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is a new screening technique to evaluate colitis. Comparing infrared spectra of sera to study the differences between them can prove challenging due to the complexity of its biological constituents giving rise to a plethora of vibrational modes. Overcoming these inherent infrared spectral analysis difficulties involving highly overlapping absorbance peaks and the analysis of the data by curve fitting to improve the resolution is discussed. The proposed technique uses colitic and normal wild type mice dried serum to obtain ATR/FTIR spectra to effectively differentiate colitic mice from normal mice. Using this method, Amide I group frequency (specifically, alpha helix to beta sheet ratio of the protein secondary structure) was identified as disease associated spectral signature in addition to the previously reported glucose and mannose signatures in sera of chronic and acute mice models of colitis. Hence, this technique will be able to identify changes in the sera due to various diseases.

  6. Wafer-scale Thermodynamically Stable GaN Nanorods via Two-Step Self-Limiting Epitaxy for Optoelectronic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kum, Hyun; Seong, Han-Kyu; Lim, Wantae; Chun, Daemyung; Kim, Young-Il; Park, Youngsoo; Yoo, Geonwook

    2017-01-01

    We present a method of epitaxially growing thermodynamically stable gallium nitride (GaN) nanorods via metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) by invoking a two-step self-limited growth (TSSLG) mechanism. This allows for growth of nanorods with excellent geometrical uniformity with no visible extended defects over a 100 mm sapphire (Al2O3) wafer. An ex-situ study of the growth morphology as a function of growth time for the two self-limiting steps elucidate the growth dynamics, which show that formation of an Ehrlich-Schwoebel barrier and preferential growth in the c-plane direction governs the growth process. This process allows monolithic formation of dimensionally uniform nanowires on templates with varying filling matrix patterns for a variety of novel electronic and optoelectronic applications. A color tunable phosphor-free white light LED with a coaxial architecture is fabricated as a demonstration of the applicability of these nanorods grown by TSSLG.

  7. Coupled Spin and Shape Evolution of Small Rubble-Pile Asteroids: Self-Limitation of the YORP Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cotto-Figueroa, Desireé; Richardson, Derek C; Tanga, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    We present the first self-consistent simulations of the coupled spin and shape evolutions of small gravitational aggregates under the influence of the YORP effect. Because of YORP sensitivity to detailed surface topography, even small centrifugally driven reconfigurations of an aggregate can alter the YORP torque dramatically, resulting in spin evolution that is, in most cases, qualitatively different from the rigid-body prediction. A third of objects simulated follow a simple evolution that can be described as a modified YORP cycle. Two-thirds exhibit one or more of three distinct behaviors -stochastic YORP, self-governed YORP, and stagnating YORP-which together result in YORP self-limitation. Self-limitation confines the rotation rates of evolving aggregates to far narrower ranges than would be expected in the classical YORP cycle, and greatly prolonging the times over which objects can preserve their sense of rotation. The asteroids are initially randomly packed, disordered aggregates of identical spheres ...

  8. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Lassen, Inge Nordgaard; Matzen, Peter;

    2002-01-01

    with ulcerative colitis, 10 patients with collagenous colitis and 20 controls with uninflamed mucosa. METHODS: The tip of a Teflon tube was placed in the caecum during colonoscopy. Subsequently, argon was infused at a constant rate for 70-180 min. Argon and NO in gas sampled from the rectum were measured...

  9. Lansoprazole-associated collagenous colitis: Diffuse mucosal cloudiness mimicking ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mitsuro Chiba; Takeshi Sugawara; Haruhiko Tozawa; Hidehiko Tsuda; Toru Abe; Takuo Tokairin; Iwao Ono; Eriko Ushiyama

    2009-01-01

    There have only been a few reports on lansoprazoleassociated collagenous colitis. Colonic mucosa of collagenous colitis is known to be endoscopically normal. We present a case of collagenous colitis where the mucosa showed diffuse cloudiness mimicking ulcerative colitis. A 70-year-old woman developed watery diarrhea four to nine times a day. She had interstitial pneumonia at 67 and reflux esophagitis at 70 years. Lansoprazole 30 mg/d had been prescribed for reflux esophagitis for nearly 6 mo. Lansoprazole was withdrawn due to its possible side effect of diarrhea. Colonoscopy disclosed diffuse cloudiness of the mucosa which suggested ulcerative colitis. Consequently sulfasalazine 2 g/d was started. The patient's diarrhea dramatically disappeared on the following day. However, biopsy specimens showed subepithelial collagenous thickening and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lamina propria, confirming the diagnosis of collagenous colitis. One month after sulfasalazine therapy was initiated, colonoscopic and histological abnormalities resolved completely. Five months later the diarrhea recurred. The findings on colonoscopy and histology were the same as before, confirming a diagnosis of collagenous colitis relapse. We found that the patient had begun to take lansoprazole again 3 mo ahead of the recent diarrhea. Withdrawal of lansoprazole promptly resolved the diarrhea. Endoscopic and histological abnormalities were also completely resolved, similar to the first episode. Retrospectively, the date of commencement of sulfasalazine and discontinuation of lansoprazole in the first episode was found to be the same. We conclude that this patient had lansoprazole-associated collagenous colitis.

  10. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, Anders; Lassen, Inge Nordgaard; Matzen, Peter

    2002-01-01

    with ulcerative colitis, 10 patients with collagenous colitis and 20 controls with uninflamed mucosa. METHODS: The tip of a Teflon tube was placed in the caecum during colonoscopy. Subsequently, argon was infused at a constant rate for 70-180 min. Argon and NO in gas sampled from the rectum were measured...

  11. Highly specific blockade of CCR5 inhibits leukocyte trafficking and reduces mucosal inflammation in murine colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencarelli, Andrea; Cipriani, Sabrina; Francisci, Daniela; Santucci, Luca; Baldelli, Franco; Distrutti, Eleonora; Fiorucci, Stefano

    2016-08-05

    Targeted disruption of leukocyte trafficking to the gut represents a promising approach for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). CCR5, the shared receptor for MIP1α and β and RANTES, is expressed by multiple leukocytes. Here, we aimed to determine the role of CCR5 in mediating leukocyte trafficking in models of colitis, and evaluate the therapeutic potential of maraviroc, an orally active CCR5 antagonist used in the treatment of CCR5-tropic HIV. Acute and chronic colitis were induced by administration of DSS or TNBS to wild-type and CCR5(-/-) mice or adoptive transfer of splenic naïve CD4(+) T-cells from wild type or CCR5(-/-) mice into RAG-1(-/-). CCR5 gene ablation reduced the mucosal recruitment and activation of CCR5-bearing CD4(+) and CD11b(+) leukocytes, resulting in profound attenuation of signs and symptoms of inflammation in the TNBS and transfer models of colitis. In the DSS/TNBS colitis and in the transfer model, maraviroc attenuated development of intestinal inflammation by selectively reducing the recruitment of CCR5 bearing leukocytes. In summary, CCR5 regulates recruitment of blood leukocytes into the colon indicating that targeting CCR5 may offer therapeutic options in IBDs.

  12. Severe ulcerative colitis: At what point should we define resistance to steroids?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria Esteve; Javier P Gisbert

    2008-01-01

    Corticoesteroids are still the first-line treatment for active ulcerative colitis more than 50 years after the publication of trials assessing their beneficial effect, with about a 50% remission rate in cases of severe disease. The mortality related to severe attacks of ulcerative colitis has decreased dramatically, to less than 1%, in experienced centers, due to the appropriate use of intensive therapeutic measures (intravenous steroids, fluids and electrolytes, artificial nutritional support, antibiotics, etc),along with timely decision-making about second-line medical therapy and early identification of patients requiring colectomy. One of the most difficult decisions in the management of severe ulcerative colitis is knowing for how long corticosteroids should be administered before deciding that a patient is a non-responder. Studies assessing the outcome of acute attacks after steroid initiation have demonstrated that, n steroid-sensitive patients, the response generally occurs early on, in the first days of treatment. Different indexes to predict treatment failure, when applied on the third day of treatment, have demonstrated a high positive predictive value for colectomy. In contrast to this resolute approach, which is the most widely accepted, other authors have suggested that in some patients a complete and prolonged response to steroids may take longer. Either way, physicians taking care of these patients need to recognize that severe ulcerative colitis may be life-threatening, and they need to be careful with excessively prolonged medical treatment and delayed surgery.

  13. Presence and diagnosis of amebic infestation in Turkish patients with active ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozin, Yasemin; Kilic, Mesut Zeki Yalin; Nadir, Isilay; Tayfur, Oyku; Ertas, Arzu; Ulker, Aysel; Sahin, Burhan

    2009-09-01

    It is difficult to definitively diagnose acute amebiasis, particularly when this condition is superimposed on inflammatory bowel disease. Our goals in this study were to determine the prevalence of amebiasis in individuals with active ulcerative colitis, and to identify clinical and laboratory parameters that are of value for diagnosing amebiasis in this patient group. The subjects were 111 patients (76 women, 35 men) with confirmed active ulcerative colitis who attended our hospital's Inflammatory Bowel Disease Outpatient Clinic between May 2002 and March 2006. In each case, a detailed medical history was collected, blood samples were tested for inflammatory markers, and stool samples were evaluated for presence of amebae using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for detection of Entamoeba histolytica antigen. The clinical and laboratory variables for the ELISA-positive and ELISA-negative groups were compared. Amebiasis was detected in 35 (31.5%) of the subjects. Patient age, disease duration, endoscopic activity index, serum C-reactive protein level, and white blood cell count were not useful for diagnosing amebiasis in this patient group. Given the high rate of amebiasis observed in our patients with active ulcerative colitis, we recommend that, in Turkey any individual with ulcerative colitis who presents with symptoms of disease activation should be tested for ameba using antigen detection kits. A high index of suspicion is especially important in any region where E. histolytica is endemic. 2009 European Federation of Internal Medicine.

  14. Dietary uptake of Wedelia chinensis extract attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Ting Huang

    Full Text Available SCOPE: Traditional medicinal herbs are increasingly used as alternative therapies in patients with inflammatory diseases. Here we evaluated the effect of Wedelia chinensis, a medicinal herb commonly used in Asia, on the prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced acute colitis in mice. General safety and the effect of different extraction methods on the bioactivity of W. chinensis were also explored. METHODS AND RESULTS: C57BL/6 mice were administrated hot water extract of fresh W. chinensis (WCHF orally for one week followed by drinking water containing 2% DSS for nine days. WCHF significantly attenuated the symptoms of colitis including diarrhea, rectal bleeding and loss of body weight; it also reduced the shortening of colon length and histopathological damage caused by colonic inflammation. Among four W. chinensis extracts prepared using different extraction techniques, WCHF showed the highest anti-colitis efficacy. Analyses of specific T-cell regulatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-4, IFN-γ, IL-17, TGF-β, IL-12 revealed that WCHF treatment can suppress the Th1 and Th17, but not Th2, responses in colon tissues and dendritic cells of DSS-induced colitis mice. A 28-day subacute toxicity study showed that daily oral administration of WCHF (100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight was not toxic to mice. CONCLUSION: Together, our findings suggest that specific extracts of W. chinensis have nutritional potential for future development into nutraceuticals or dietary supplements for treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  15. Melatonin improves experimental colitis with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Sook; Chung, Sook-Hee; Lee, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Ja-Hyun; Kim, Jun-Bong; Kim, Tae-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Shin; Baik, Haing-Woon

    2015-04-01

    Sleep deprivation (SD) is an epidemic phenomenon in modern countries, and its harmful effects are well known. SD acts as an aggravating factor in inflammatory bowel disease. Melatonin is a sleep-related neurohormone, also known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the effects of melatonin on colitis have been poorly characterized. Thus, in this study, we assessed the measurable effects of SD on experimental colitis and the protective effects of melatonin. For this purpose, male imprinting control region (ICR) mice (n = 24) were used; the mice were divided into 4 experimental groups as follows: the control, colitis, colitis with SD and colitis with SD and melatonin groups. Colitis was induced by the administration of 5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water for 6 days. The mice were sleep-deprived for 3 days. Changes in body weight, histological analyses of colon tissues and the expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and genes were evaluated. SD aggravated inflammation and these effects were reversed by melatonin in the mice with colitis. In addition, weight loss in the mice with colitis with SD was significantly reduced by the injection of melatonin. Treatment with melatonin led to high survival rates in the mice, in spite of colitis with SD. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-17, interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, in the serum of mice were significantly increased by SD and reduced by melatonin treatment. The melatonin-treated group showed a histological improvement of inflammation. Upon gene analysis, the expression of the inflammatory genes, protein kinase Cζ (PKCζ) and calmodulin 3 (CALM3), was increased by SD, and the levels decreased following treatment with melatonin. The expression levels of the apoptosis-related inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (Wnt5a) genes was

  16. Vedolizumab as induction and maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feagan, Brian G; Rutgeerts, Paul; Sands, Bruce E

    2013-01-01

    Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis.......Gut-selective blockade of lymphocyte trafficking by vedolizumab may constitute effective treatment for ulcerative colitis....

  17. Infliximab and complications after colectomy in patients with ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnbak, David; Mortensen, Christian; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2012-01-01

    Infliximab treatment may increase the risk of subsequent postoperative complications in patients with ulcerative colitis. The main purpose of the present study therefore was to assess postoperative complications in patients who have undergone colectomy for ulcerative colitis with and without...

  18. Dextran sulphate sodium colitis in C57BL/6J mice is alleviated by Lactococcus lactis and worsened by the neutralization of Tumor necrosis Factor α.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlec, Aleš; Perše, Martina; Ravnikar, Matjaž; Lunder, Mojca; Erman, Andreja; Cerar, Anton; Štrukelj, Borut

    2017-02-01

    TNFα has a well-established role in inflammatory bowel disease that affects the gastrointestinal tract and is usually manifested as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. We have compared Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 displaying TNFα-binding affibody with control Lactococcus lactis and with anti-TNFα antibody infliximab for the treatment of mice with dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. L. lactis NZ9000 alleviated the colitis severity one week after colitis induction with DSS, more effectively when administered in preventive fashion prior to, during and after DSS administration. TNFα-binding L. lactis was less effective than control L. lactis, particularly when TNFα-binding L. lactis was administered in preventive fashion. Similarly, an apparently detrimental effect of TNFα neutralization was observed in mice that were intraperitoneally administered anti-TNFα monoclonal antibody infliximab prior to colitis induction. The highest concentrations of tissue TNFα were observed in groups without DSS colitis that were treated either with TNFα-binding L. lactis or infliximab. To conclude, we have confirmed that L. lactis exerts a protective effect on DSS-induced colitis in mice. Contrary to expectations, but in line with some reports, the neutralization of TNFα aggravated disease symptoms in the acute phase of colitis and increased TNFα concentration in colon tissue of healthy mice. Nevertheless, we have demonstrated that oral administration of bacteria with surface displayed TNFα-binding affibody can interfere significantly with TNFα signaling and mimic the infliximab response in the given animal model of colitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  20. Cytokine Expression of Microscopic Colitis Including Interleukin-17

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Eunkyoung; Park, Young Sook; Park, Dae Rim; Jung, Sung Ae; Han, Dong Soo; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Jo, Yun Ju; Lee, Ki Ho; Lee, Won Mi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koo, Hae Soo

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims Microscopic colitis is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea with specific pathological changes that can be diagnosed by microscopic examination. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of proinflammatory cytokines to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of microscopic colitis. Methods This study consisted of six patients with lymphocytic colitis, six patients with collagenous colitis, and six patients with functional diarrhea but normal pathology. We performed an immunoh...

  1. Primary sclerosing cholangitis and Biliary cirrhosis associated with Ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleem Ahmed Khan

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary sclerosing cholangitis and Ulcerative colitis are caused by progressive inflammation of the bile duct and large intestine respectively. The existence of any plausible association between Primary sclerosing cholangitis and Ulcerative colitis remains highly elusive. Little is known about the incidence and prevalence of primary sclerosing cholangitis with concomitant Ulcerative colitis in the Indian subcontinent. We report a case of Primary sclerosing cholangitis with long standing Ulcerative colitis which later also developed Primary biliary cirrhosis.

  2. Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in a patient with severe ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghoshal Uday

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis, common in the tropics, may result in potentially fatal hyperinfection during treatment with immunosuppressive drugs used to treat patients with severe ulcerative colitis (UC. Hence, importance of early recognition and treatment of this nematode in patients with UC before starting immunosuppressive drugs can not be overemphasized. We report a 23-yrs old man with UC who presented with acute severe attack. Since his UC did not respond to intravenous hydrocortisone over 6 days, oral cyclosporine was started on 7th day after repeating stool microscopy, which revealed larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. Duodenal aspirate also confirmed presence of multiple larvae. He responded to treatment for Strongyloides stercoralis , continuation of hydrocortisone and cyclosporine. Importance of early diagnosis of infestation with Strongyloides stercoralis while on treatment with immunosuppressive drugs for severe UC is emphasized. Difficulties in diagnosis and management of Strongyloides stercoralis infestation in patients with UC are discussed.

  3. Collagenous colitis as a possible cause of toxic megacolon.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzgerald, S C

    2009-03-01

    Collagenous colitis is a microscopic colitis characterized by normal appearing colonic mucosa on endoscopy. It is regarded as a clinically benign disease which rarely results in serious complications. We report a case of toxic megacolon occurring in a patient with collagenous colitis. This is the first reported case of toxic megacolon occurring in this subset of patients.

  4. Microscopic colitis: A review of etiology, treatment and refractory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Tina; Cave, David; Marshall, Christopher

    2015-08-07

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic, nonbloody diarrhea. Microscopic colitis is more common in women than men and usually affects patients in their sixth and seventh decade. This article reviews the etiology and medical management of microscopic colitis. The etiology of microscopic colitis is unknown, but it is associated with autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, polyarthritis, and thyroid disorders. Smoking has been identified as a risk factor of microscopic colitis. Exposure to medications, such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, is suspected to play a role in microscopic colitis, although their direct causal relationship has not been proven. Multiple medications, including corticosteroids, anti-diarrheals, cholestyramine, bismuth, 5-aminosalicylates, and immunomodulators, have been used to treat microscopic colitis with variable response rates. Budesonide is effective in inducing and maintaining clinical remission but relapse rate is as high as 82% when budesonide is discontinued. There is limited data on management of steroid-dependent microscopic colitis or refractory microscopic colitis. Immunomodulators seem to have low response rate 0%-56% for patients with refractory microscopic colitis. Response rate 66%-100% was observed for use of anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy for refractory microscopic colitis. Anti-TNF and diverting ileostomy may be an option in severe or refractory microscopic colitis.

  5. Cytokine expression of microscopic colitis including interleukin-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eun-Kyoung; Park, Young Sook; Park, Dae Rim; Jung, Sung Ae; Han, Dong Soo; Jang, Byung Ik; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Won Ho; Jo, Yun Ju; Lee, Ki Ho; Lee, Won Mi; Kim, Eun Kyung; Koo, Hae Soo

    2015-05-23

    Microscopic colitis is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea with specific pathological changes that can be diagnosed by microscopic examination. We performed immunohistochemical analysis of proinflammatory cytokines to investigate the pathogenic mechanism of microscopic colitis. This study consisted of six patients with lymphocytic colitis, six patients with collagenous colitis, and six patients with functional diarrhea but normal pathology. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis of the colonic mucosal biopsies to assess the expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2, interleukin-17, nuclear factor-κB, interferon-γ, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and tumor necrosis factor-α. We compared the quantity score of immunohistochemical staining among the groups. The microscopic colitis group showed significantly higher expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2, interleukin-17, nuclear factor-κB, and interferon-γ compared with the control group. Cytokine expression was similar between collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. However, the expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 was higher in collagenous colitis. Proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-17 and interferon-γ, are highly expressed in microscopic colitis. The expression of cyclo-oxygenase-2 was higher in collagenous colitis than in lymphocytic colitis. This study is the first on interleukin-17 expression in microscopic colitis patients.

  6. Natural history of cytomegalovirus infection in a series of patients diagnosed with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valeria Criscuoli; Maria Rosa Rizzuto; Luigi Montalbano; Elena Gallo; Mario Cottone

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the natural history of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection in a series of 28 ulcerative colitis patients in whom the search for HCMV was positive.METHODS: A series of 85 patients with moderate-severe ulcerative colitis flare-up were evaluated for a HCMV search by performing a haematoxylin and eosin stain,immunohistochemical assay and nested polymerase chain reaction on rectal biopsies. Among 85 screened patients (19 of whom were steroid resistant/dependant),28 were positive for HCMV; after remission the patients were followed up clinically and histologically.RESULTS: Among the 22 patients with complete followup,in 8 (36%) patients HCMV-DNA persisted in the intestinal specimens. Among the HCMV positive patients,4 (50%) experienced at least one moderate-severe flare-up of colitis without evidence of peripheral HCMV.Among the 14 HCMV negative patients, 3 with pouches developed pouchitis and 5 out of 11 (45%) experienced a colitis flare-up.CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results suggest that HCMV may remain in the colon after an acute colitis flareup despite remission; it seems that the virus is not responsible for the disease relapse.

  7. Intestinal mononuclear cells primed by systemic interleukin-12 display long-term ability to aggravate colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrotti, Luciano P; Sena, Angela A; Rodriguez Galán, María Cecilia; Cejas, Hugo; Correa, Silvia G

    2017-03-01

    To address whether the burst of systemic interleukin-12 (IL-12) influences intestinal inflammation elicited by luminal stimuli, we induced IL-12 release by cDNA injection in C57BL/6 mice and simultaneously started dextran sulphate sodium administration. The sequence of the inflammatory response triggered by IL-12 release was characterized by assessing myeloperoxidase activity and histological damage in colon samples on days 1, 3, 5 and 7 after colitis induction. To evaluate the persistence of IL-12 priming, colitis was induced in mice 7 or 60 days after cDNA injection. Under IL-12 influence, the development of acute colitis presented a faster and selective infiltration of inflammatory mononuclear cells in the lamina propria. Recruitment was driven by systemic cytokines rather than luminal antigens. Interestingly, when colitis was triggered 7 or 60 days after the cytokine storm, cells maintained the ability to worsen clinical signs of intestinal inflammation. Together, a systemic IL-12 burst effectively primed intestinal cells that became more prone to develop inflammatory responses. Activation was long-lasting because intestinal cells maintained their inflammatory potential and their ability to aggravate colitis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Winston, John H.; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K.

    2013-01-01

    Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observe...

  9. Golimumab in unresponsive ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lippert E

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Elisabeth Lippert, Martina Müller, Claudia Ott University Hospital Regensburg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Regensburg, Germany Abstract: Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammation mainly affecting the colon mucosa. It predominantly occurs in younger patients. Until recently, the main goals in the treatment of UC were to temper the symptoms, such as diarrhea, pain, and weight loss, by using mesalazine and steroids. With newer medications, such as immunomodulators (thiopurines and the biologics providing blockade of tumor necrosis factor (TNF, the goals of the therapy in UC have changed to long-term remission and mucosal healing. The first available anti-TNF therapy in UC included infusion therapy with infliximab every few weeks. In 2012, subcutaneously administered adalimumab gained approval for the treatment of UC in Germany. In patients with a mild disease, therapy with mesalazine, orally or topically, can be sufficient. In patients with moderate to severe disease, therapy with azathioprine or anti-TNF is often required to reach disease control; however, this is only efficient in about two-thirds of patients. Some patients either show no response or a lost response while on treatment. So, further medical options are warranted in the treatment of UC. With golimumab, a new approach in the treatment of mild to moderate UC recently became available in Germany and is a promising new option in the therapy regimen for patients with UC. Keywords: anti-TNF, biological therapy, inflammatory bowel disease

  10. Clostridium difficile colitis: A clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Gabie K B; Reidy, Tobi J; Huk, Matthew D; Lane, Frederick R

    2017-03-01

    Clostridium difficile colitis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in the surgical patient. In recent years, Clostridium difficile infections have shown marked increases in frequency, severity, and resistance to standard treatment. With urgent operative interventions and novel endoscopic approaches, pseudomembranous colitis is being seen more commonly in surgical practices. In this paper, we will review a number of papers from the literature. We will discuss the epidemiology, evaluation and treatment of Clostridium difficile infection. Fulminant colitis may require emergency operation. For the surgical endoscopist, fecal microbiota transplantation restores the gastrointestinal flora, and has been shown to be effective in more than 80% of patients. Clostridium difficile infection is a major cause of healthcare-related diarrhea leading to increased morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. Increases in failure rates and resistance to current treatments are clinical and economic challenges in the healthcare situation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Infliximab to treat severe ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dídia Bisamra Cury; Marcelo de Souza Cury; Geraldo Vinicius Hemerly Elias; Sender Jankiel Mizsputen

    2009-01-01

    A 48-year-old female with severe ulcerative colitis refractory to conventional therapy was referred to our facility for management. The patient showed extensive ulcerative colitis since the age of 20 years and had failed therapy with 5-aminosalicylic acid agents and azathioprine. The disease remained active despite treatment with steroids and cyclosporine. The clinical and endoscopic parameters were consistent with severe disease. Infectious precipitants were ruled out. Given the severity of the disease and in order to avoid a colectomy, we started the patient on infliximab therapy. A dramatic clinical and endoscopic response was observed and she remained in remission at the end of a 1-year follow-up period. We discuss findings in the literature regarding the use of infliximab therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis who have failed steroids and cyclosporine.

  12. Amyloid Goiter Secondary to Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunyamin Aydin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse amyloid goiter (AG is an entity characterized by the deposition of amyloid in the thyroid gland. AG may be associated with either primary or secondary amyloidosis. Secondary amyloidosis is rarely caused by inflammatory bowel diseases. Secondary amyloidosis is relatively more common in the patients with Crohn’s disease, whereas it is highly rare in patients with ulcerative colitis. Diffuse amyloid goiter caused by ulcerative colitis is also a rare condition. In the presence of amyloid in the thyroid gland, medullary thyroid cancer should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis. Imaging techniques and biochemical tests are not very helpful in the diagnosis of secondary amyloid goiter and the definitive diagnosis is established based on the histopathologic analysis and histochemical staining techniques. In this report, we present a 35-year-old male patient with diffuse amyloid goiter caused by secondary amyloidosis associated with ulcerative colitis.

  13. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Curt Tysk; Johan Bohr; Nils Nyhlin; Anna Wickbom; Sune Eriksson

    2008-01-01

    Microscopic colitis,comprising collagenous and lymphocytic colitis,is characterized clinically by chronic watery diarrhea,and a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa where diagnostic histopathological features are seen on microscopic examination.The annual incidence of each disorder is 4-6/100000 inhabitants,with a peak incidence in 60-70-year-old individuals and a noticeable female predominance for collagenous colitis.The etiology is unknown.Chronic diarrhea,abdominal pain,weight loss,fatigue and fecal incontinence are common symptoms,which impair the health-related quality of life of the patient.There is an association with other autoimmune disorders such as celiac disease,diabetes mellitus,thyroid disorders and arthritis.Budesonide is the best-documented shortterm treatment,but the optimal long-term strategy needs further study.The long-term prognosis is good and the risk of complications including colonic cancer is low.

  14. Acute Prevertebral Calcific Tendinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamm, Alexander; Jeffery, Caroline C; Ansari, Khalid; Naik, Sandeep

    2015-11-01

    We present a case of neck pain in a middle-aged woman, initially attributed to a retropharyngeal infection and treated with urgent intubation. With the help of computed tomography, the diagnosis was later revised to acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis, a self-limiting condition caused by abnormal calcium hydroxyapatite deposition in the longus colli muscles. It is critical to differentiate between these two disease entities due to dramatic differences in management. A discussion of acute prevertebral calcific tendinitis and its imaging findings is provided below.

  15. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestin......OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small...

  16. Predictive factors for a severe clinical course in ulcerative colitis: Results from population-based studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Magnus Hofrenning Wander?s; Bj?rn A Moum; Marte Lie H?ivik; ?istein Hovde

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis(UC)is characterized by chronic inflammation of the large bowel in genetically suscep-tible individuals exposed to environmental risk factors.The disease course can be difficult to predict,with symptoms ranging from mild to severe.There is no generally accepted definition of severe UC,and no single outcome is sufficient to classify a disease course as severe.There are several outcomes indicating a severe disease course,including progression of the disease’s extension,a high relapse rate,the development of acute severe colitis,colectomy,the occurrence of colorectal cancer and UC-related mortality.When evaluating a patient’s prognosis,it is helpful to do so in relation to these outcomes.Using these outcomes also makes it easier to isolate factors predictive of severe disease.The aims of this article are to evaluate different disease outcomes and to present predictive factors for these outcomes.

  17. Mesalamine-Induced Myocarditis and Coronary Vasculitis in a Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Patient: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elimarys Perez-Colon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mesalamine-containing products are often a first-line treatment for ulcerative colitis. Severe adverse reactions to these products, including cardiovascular toxicity, are rarely seen in pediatric patients. We present a case of a 16-year-old boy with ulcerative colitis treated with Asacol, a mesalamine-containing product, who developed sudden onset chest pain after four weeks on therapy. Serial electrocardiograms showed nonspecific ST segment changes, an echocardiogram showed mildly decreased left ventricular systolic function with mild to moderate left ventricular dilation and coronary ectasia, and his troponins were elevated. Following Asacol discontinuation, his chest pain resolved, troponins were trending towards normal, left ventricular systolic function normalized, and coronary ectasia improved within 24 hours suggesting an Asacol-associated severe drug reaction. Mesalamine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, although rare, may represent a life-threatening disorder. Therefore, every patient presenting with acute chest pain should receive a workup to rule out this rare drug-induced disorder.

  18. Impact of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 synthesis capacity on healing in rats with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ağış, Erol R; Savaş, Berna; Melli, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. This study evaluates the role of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 (LXA4) synthesis in an experimental rat model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy controls, DSS-induced colitis with no or vehicle therapy, misoprostol or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy groups. Disease severity and colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis was assessed specifically during the acute phase (day 5), chronic phase (day 15) and healing phases (day 19). Both misoprostol and 5-ASA reduced histopathologic score during the acute phase and reduced disease activity score at the healing phase. In addition, misoprostol reduced histopathologic score and colon weight/length ratio during the healing phase. Only misoprostol therapy increased colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis. Furthermore, LXA4 levels correlated negatively with disease progression (R=-0.953). Collectively, our findings suggest that misoprostol-induced LXA4 synthesis may be favorable for the healing of ulcerative colitis.

  19. Drug therapy for ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Tai Xu; Shu-Yong Meng; Bo-Rong Pan

    2004-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. Drug therapy is not the only choice for UC treatment and medical management should be as a comprehensive whole.Azulfidine, Asacol, Pentasa, Dipentum, and Rowasa all contain 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is the topical anti-inflammatory ingredient. Pentasa is more commonly used in treating Crohn's ileitis because Pentasa capsules release more 5-ASA into the small intestine than Asacol tablets. Pentasa can also be used for treating mild to moderate UC. Rowasa enemas are safe and effective in treating ulcerative proctitis and proctosigmoiditis. The sulfafree 5-ASA agents (Asacol, Pentasa, Dipentum and Rowasa) have fewer side effects than sulfa-containing Azulfidine. In UC patients with moderate to severe disease and in patients who failed to respond to 5-ASA compounds,systemic (oral) corticosteroids should be used. Systemic corticosteroids (prednisone, prednisolone, cortisone, etc.)are potent and fast-acting drugs for treating UC, Crohn's ileitis and ileocolitis. Systemic corticosteroids are not effective in maintaining remission in patients with UC.Serious side effects can result from prolonged corticosteroid treatment. To minimize side effects, corticosteroids should be gradually reduced as soon as the disease remission is achieved. In patients with corticosteroid-dependent or unresponsive to corticosteroid treatment, surgery or immunomodulator is considered. Immunomodulators used for treating severe UC include azathioprine/6-MP,methotrexate, and cyclosporine. Integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine is safe and effective in maintaining remission in patients with UC.

  20. [Surgical options in ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hultén, L; Ecker, K W

    1998-01-01

    Surgery is needed in every second patient with pancolitis. Historically four surgical options have been developed: conventional ileostomy, ileorectostomy, continent ileostomy (Kock's pouch) and ileo-anal pouch. However, in emergent or unclear situations subtotal colectomy, ileostomy and preservation of the rectum is the most suitable operation. After recovery and in elective indications proctectomy and proctocolectomy establish the general surgical standard. Today, in most cases ileo-pouch-anal anastomosis is performed instead of creation of an ileostomy. Both lowered frequency of defecation and acceptable continence contribute to a better quality of life. However, functional disturbances are not uncommon and result in most cases from complications of the demanding technique. Definitive cure of the colitis is in interference with the risk of pouchitis in about 30%. The cumulative probability to loose the pouch may rise to 15-20% in the long-term course. Thus, ileorectostomy may be considered as a first step of surgical treatment, since pelvic nerve damage is excluded, function is much better and persistent proctitis can be treated topically. The attractively is that ileo-anal pouch can be performed later on, when decreasing function and increasing risk of malignant change will eventually require proctectomy. A Kock-pouch is seldom considered, especially in patients with ileostomy wishing sure fecal control. But the continent reservoir becomes more and more interesting again since it can be reconstructed from a failed ileo-anal pouch without loss of bowel. Conventional ileostomy should be reserved for patients not suitable for reconstructive methods or those who consider pough operations risk. However, it is the safest procedure with absolute cure of disease. The optimal choice of method considers medical and surgical aspects as well as patients conception and desire.

  1. Downregulation of CX3CR1 ameliorates experimental colitis: evidence for CX3CL1-CX3CR1-mediated immune cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Felix; Holthoff, Christina; Anthoni, Christoph; Rijcken, Emile; Alexander, J Steven; Gavins, Felicity N E; Spiegel, H U; Senninger, Norbert; Vowinkel, Thorsten

    2017-03-01

    Inflammatory conditions like inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterized by increased immune cell infiltration. The chemokine ligand CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 have been shown to be involved in leukocyte adhesion, transendothelial recruitment, and chemotaxis. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe CX3CL1-CX3CR1-mediated signaling in the induction of immune cell recruitment during experimental murine colitis. Acute colitis was induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), and sepsis was induced by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Serum concentrations of CX3CR1 and CX3CL1 were measured by ELISA. Wild-type and CX3CR1(-/-) mice were challenged with DSS, and on day 6, intravital microscopy was performed to monitor colonic leukocyte and platelet recruitment. Intestinal inflammation was assessed by disease activity, histopathology, and neutrophil infiltration. CX3CR1 was upregulated in DSS colitis and LPS-induced sepsis. CX3CR1(-/-) mice were protected from disease severity and intestinal injury in DSS colitis, and CX3CR1 deficiency resulted in reduced rolling of leukocytes and platelets. In the present study, we provide evidence for a crucial role of CX3CL1-CX3CR1 in experimental colitis, in particular for intestinal leukocyte recruitment during murine colitis. Our findings suggest that CX3CR1 blockade represents a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of IBD.

  2. Comparison of two chemically-induced colitis-models in adult zebrafish, using optical projection tomography and novel transcriptional markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haarder, Simon; Kania, Per Walter; Holm, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    of proinflammatory cytokines, acute-phase reactants and metalloprotease 9 in both chemical models, primarily after 72 hours. In comparison, transcription factors and cytokines associated with Th1 and Th17 (Crohn’s) and Th2 (ulcerative colitis) were mainly not affected in this acute setting. However, elevated...... zebrafish. In conclusion, a distinct acute inflammatory reaction was induced in both chemical models. Further, oxazolone and TNBS did not result in clear-cut Th2 and Th1/Th17 pathway signaling at this early timepoint, but the applied molecular tools may provide further insight to the IBD pathogenesis...

  3. Future targets for immune therapy in colitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Nanna Ny; Claesson, M H

    2008-01-01

    Crohn's disease and Ulcerative Colitis, collectively termed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), are chronic inflammatory disorders of the bowel. It is generally accepted that the pathology associated with IBD is characterized by a hyper-reactive immune response in the gut wall directed against...

  4. Golimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowenberg, M.; Boer, N. de; Hoentjen, F.

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF) had a major impact on the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Infliximab and adalimumab are powerful agents that are used for remission induction and maintenance therapy in UC and have an acceptable safety profile. Howe

  5. Vaccin-therapie bij colitis ulcerosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lups, Sibrand

    1934-01-01

    In de Mayo Clinic te Rochester werden in de jaren 1925 tot 1931 een groot aantal patienten, lijdende aan colitis ulcerosa chronica, door Bargen met veel succes behandeld. Hij isoleerde n.l. uit de darmulcera dezer patienten een diplo-coccus, welken hij, op grond van dierexperimenten, als den verwekk

  6. Colitis following fecal diversion: still a challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castro Leonaldson dos Santos

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available After fecal diversion, nonspecific colitis may be seen in the defunctionalized colon. The purpose of this prospective study is to identify specific findings that could help in the differential diagnosis between diversion colitis and other inflammatory bowel diseases in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and therapy. It was studied, prospectively, thirteen consecutive patients from two public hospitals of Rio de Janeiro who had undergone temporary colostomy for indications other than inflammatory bowel disease. They were submitted to endoscopy with biopsy of both proximal and distal colorectal segments, and prospectively evaluated before and after restoration of intestinal continuity. Endoscopy with biopsy of both proximal and distal excluded colorectal segments showed a nonspecific mucosal and submucosal inflammation, resembling ulcerative colitis ( p < 0.01. There was endoscopic resolution in all patients once restoration of intestinal continuity was established (p < 0.01 and also histologic improvement after the stoma closure. In conclusion there are no specific findings that make possible an unequivocal distinction between diversion colitis and other nonspecific inflammatory diseases. Diagnosis should be achieved if after stoma closure occur remission of endoscopic large bowel inflammatory signs with improvement in mucosal histologic appearance and prompt relief of clinical complaints.

  7. Microarray Assisted Gene Discovery in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus

    Inflammatory Bowel disease (IBD) is a condition characterised by chronic recidivous inflammation of the bowel and intestine. IBD includes chron´s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The combined prevalence of CD and UC are app. 1 in 500 in the general Caucasian population. In 25% of the cases...

  8. Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennike, Tue Bjerg; Carlsen, Thomas Gelsing; Ellingsen, Torkell

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The etiology of the inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC), remains incompletely explained. We hypothesized that an analysis of the UC colon proteome could reveal novel insights into the disease etiology. METHODS: Mucosal colon biopsies were taken by endoscopy...

  9. Vaccin-therapie bij colitis ulcerosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lups, Sibrand

    1934-01-01

    In de Mayo Clinic te Rochester werden in de jaren 1925 tot 1931 een groot aantal patienten, lijdende aan colitis ulcerosa chronica, door Bargen met veel succes behandeld. Hij isoleerde n.l. uit de darmulcera dezer patienten een diplo-coccus, welken hij, op grond van dierexperimenten, als den

  10. Vaccin-therapie bij colitis ulcerosa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lups, Sibrand

    1934-01-01

    In de Mayo Clinic te Rochester werden in de jaren 1925 tot 1931 een groot aantal patienten, lijdende aan colitis ulcerosa chronica, door Bargen met veel succes behandeld. Hij isoleerde n.l. uit de darmulcera dezer patienten een diplo-coccus, welken hij, op grond van dierexperimenten, als den verwekk

  11. Ulcerative colitis flare with splenic ven thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozkurt, Huseyin Sancar; Kara, Banu; Citil, Serdal

    2015-01-01

    Patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) have an increased risk of thromboembolic events. Here, we present a 28-year-old man with active ulcerative pancolitis presenting via splenic vein thrombosis and left renal superior infarct that was not associated with a surgical procedure.

  12. Pseudomembranous collagenous colitis with superimposed drug damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanacci, Vincenzo; Cristina, Silvia; Muscarà, Maurizio; Saettone, Silvia; Broglia, Laura; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Salemme, Marianna; Occhipinti, Pietro; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2013-11-01

    Pseudomembranous collagenous colitis is a rare pathological condition, not related to infectious agents, and characterized by thickening of the subepithelial collagen and formation of pseudomembranes. We report one such case, which responded to budesonide treatment after failures of previous approaches given, being unaware of the correct diagnosis.

  13. Pseudomembranous colitis: Not always Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Derek M; Urrunaga, Nathalie H; von Rosenvinge, Erik C

    2016-05-01

    Although Clostridium difficile infection is the cause of most cases of pseudomembranous colitis, clinicians should consider less common causes, especially if pseudomembranes are seen on endoscopy but testing remains negative for C difficile or if presumed C difficile infection does not respond to treatment. Histologic review of colonic mucosal biopsy specimens can provide clues to the underlying cause.

  14. Cerebral Arterial Thrombosis in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Casella

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombosis, mainly venous, is a rare and well-recognized extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We describe a 25-year-old Caucasian man affected by ulcerative colitis and sclerosing cholangitis with an episode of right middle cerebral arterial thrombosis resolved by intraarterial thrombolysis. We perform a brief review of the International Literature.

  15. Manipulation of enteric flora in ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mario Guslandi

    2005-01-01

    @@ TO THE EDITOR Reviewing the available therapeutic options in the medical treatment of ulcerative colitis, Xu et al.[1], have omitted to mention an important aspect in the pharmacological management of the disease, namely the possibility to promote clinical and endoscopic improvement by manipulating the enteric flora.

  16. TLR2 and interleukin-10 are involved in Bacteroides fragilis-mediated prevention of DSS-induced colitis in gnotobiotic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Chih; Ching, Yung-Hao; Chiu, Chien-Chao; Liu, Ju-Yun; Hung, Shao-Wen; Huang, Wen-Ching; Huang, Yen-Te; Chuang, Hsiao-Li

    2017-01-01

    Bacteroides fragilis (BF) are Gram-negative anaerobe symbionts present in the colon. Recent studies have reported the beneficial role of BF in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, stimulating host immunologic development, and preventing infectious colitis caused by pathogenic bacteria. Our previous studies showed that monocolonization of germ-free mice with BF significantly reduced colon inflammations and damage. In order to investigate the Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and interleukin 10 (IL-10) molecular signaling pathways involved in BF-mediated prevention of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. The wild-type (WT), TLR4, TLR2, and IL-10 knockout (-/-) germ-free mice grown were with or without BF colonization for 28 days, and then administered 1% DSS in drinking water for 7 day to induce acute ulcerative colitis. We compared phenotypes such as weight loss, disease activity, intestinal histological scores, and immunohistochemistry for inflammatory cells. Unlike WT and TLR4-/- mice, the severity of DSS-colitis did not improve in TLR2-/- animals after BF colonization. The BF enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-10 expression and inhibited pro-inflammatory-related tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and IL-6 mRNA expression in both WT and TLR4-/- mice. In contrast, the failed to up-regulated IL-10 and down-regulated the TNF-α and IL-6 in BF colonization TLR2-/- mice. In addition, we further perform IL-10-/- mice to clarify whether the BF through TLR2 /IL-10 pathway to alleviate DSS-colitis. There were no significant differences in colitis severity and pro-inflammatory related genes expression in the IL-10-/- mice with or without BF colonization. These results indicate the disease-preventing effects of BF in acute DSS-induced colitis may occur through the TLR2/IL-10 signal pathway.

  17. BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1) deficiency ameliorates TNBS colitis in mice: role of M2 macrophages and heme oxygenase-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harusato, Akihito; Naito, Yuji; Takagi, Tomohisa; Uchiyama, Kazuhiko; Mizushima, Katsura; Hirai, Yasuko; Higashimura, Yasuki; Katada, Kazuhiro; Handa, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Kokura, Satoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroshi; Muto, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    BTB and CNC homolog 1 (Bach1) is a transcriptional repressor of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which plays an important role in the protection of cells and tissues against acute and chronic inflammation. However, the role of Bach1 in the gastrointestinal mucosal defense system remains little understood. HO-1 supports the suppression of experimental colitis and localizes mainly in macrophages in colonic mucosa. This study was undertaken to elucidate the Bach1/HO-1 system's effects on the pathogenesis of experimental colitis. This study used C57BL/6 (wild-type) and homozygous Bach1-deficient C57BL/6 mice in which colonic damage was induced by the administration of an enema of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Subsequently, they were evaluated macroscopically, histologically, and biochemically. Peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice were isolated and analyzed. Then, wild-type mice were injected with peritoneal macrophages from the respective mice. Acute colitis was induced similarly. TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited in Bach1-deficient mice. TNBS administration increased the expression of HO-1 messenger RNA and protein in colonic mucosa in Bach1-deficient mice. The expression of HO-1 mainly localized in F4/80-immunopositive and CD11b-immunopositive macrophages. Isolated peritoneal macrophages from Bach1-deficient mice highly expressed HO-1 and also manifested M2 macrophage markers, such as Arginase-1, Fizz-1, Ym1, and MRC1. Furthermore, TNBS-induced colitis was inhibited by the transfer of Bach1-deficient macrophages into wild-type mice. Deficiency of Bach1 ameliorated TNBS-induced colitis. Bach1-deficient macrophages played a key role in protection against colitis. Targeting of this mechanism is applicable to cell therapy for human inflammatory bowel disease.

  18. Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis by inhibiting the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Jian; Zhang, Lin [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Dai, Weiqi [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Mao, Yuqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Li, Sainan [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Wang, Jingjie; Li, Huanqing [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China); Guo, Chuanyong [Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital, Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Fan, Xiaoming, E-mail: xiaomingfan57@sina.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Jinshan Hospital of Fudan University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-02-27

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect and underlying mechanism of ghrelin on intestinal barrier dysfunction in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Methods and results: Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6J mice by administering 2.5% DSS. Saline or 25, 125, 250 μg/kg ghrelin was administrated intraperitoneally (IP) to mice 1 day before colitis induction and on days 4, 5, and 6 after DSS administration. IP injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist, [D-lys{sup 3}]-GHRP-6, was performed immediately prior to ghrelin injection. Ghrelin (125 or 250 μg/kg) could reduce the disease activity index, histological score, and myeloperoxidase activities in experimental colitis, and also prevented shortening of the colon. Ghrelin could prevent the reduction of transepithelial electrical resistance and tight junction expression, and bolstered tight junction structural integrity and regulated cytokine secretion. Ultimately, ghrelin inhibited nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), inhibitory κB-α, myosin light chain kinase, and phosphorylated myosin light chain 2 activation. Conclusions: Ghrelin prevented the breakdown of intestinal barrier function in DSS-induced colitis. The protective effects of ghrelin on intestinal barrier function were mediated by its receptor GHSR-1a. The inhibition of NF-κB activation might be part of the mechanism underlying the effects of ghrelin that protect against barrier dysfunction. - Highlights: • Ghrelin ameliorates intestinal barrier dysfunction in experimental colitis. • The effect of ghrelin is mediated by GHSR-1a. • Inhibition of NF-κB activation.

  19. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of metformin and its effects in intestinal inflammation and colitis-associated colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Jung Mogg; Kim, In-Kyoung; Ko, Su Hyuk; Kim, Joo Sung

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of metformin on intestinal inflammation. COLO205 cells were pretreated with metformin and stimulated with tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Expression of interleukin (IL)-8 was determined by luciferase assay and real-time PCR. Inhibitor of kappaB (IκB) phosphorylation/degradation and adenosine monohosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity were evaluated by Western blotting. DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) was assessed by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. In an acute colitis model, mice were given 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 5 days. IL-10−/− mice were used to evaluate the effect of metformin on chronic colitis. In an inflamation-associated tumor model, mice were given a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane followed by three cycles of 2% DSS for 5 days and 2 weeks of free water consumption. Metformin significantly inhibited IL-8 induction in COLO 205 cells stimulated with TNF-α. Metformin attenuated IκBα phosphorylation and NF-κB DNA-binding activity. Administration of metformin significantly reduced the severity of DSS-induced colitis. In addition, DSS-induced IκB kinase (IKK) activation was significantly reduced in mice treated with metformin. Metformin significantly attenuated the severity of colitis in IL-10−/− mice, induced AMPK activity in intestinal epithelial cells, and inhibited the development of colitic cancer in mice. These results indicate that metformin suppresses NF-κB activation in intestinal epithelial cells and ameliorates murine colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice, suggesting that metformin could be a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. Lymphocytic colitis: A clue to bacterial etiology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thanaa EA Helal; Naglaa S Ahmed; Osama Abo El Fotoh

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To find out the role of bacteria as a possible etiological factor in lymphocytic colitis.METHODS: Twenty patients with histopathological diagnosis of lymphocytic colitis and 10 normal controls were included in this study. Colonoscopic biopsies were obtained from three sites (hepatic and splenic flexures and rectosigmoid region). Each biopsy was divided into two parts. A fresh part was incubated on special cultures for bacterial growth. The other part was used for the preparation of histologic tissue sections that were examined for the presence of bacteria with the help of Giemsa stain.RESULTS: Culture of tissue biopsies revealed bacterial growth in 18 out of 20 patients with lymphocytic colitis mostly Escherichia coli(14/18), which was found in all rectosigmoid specimens (14/14), but only in 8/14 and 6/14 of splenic and hepatic flexure specimens respectively. In two of these cases, E coliwas associated with proteus. Proteus was found only in one case, Klebsiella in two cases, and Staphylococcus aureus in one case. In the control group, only 2 out of 10 controls showed the growth of E coliin their biopsy cultures.Histopathology showed rod-shaped bacilli in the tissue sections of 12 out of 14 cases with positive E coliin their specimen's culture. None of the controls showed these bacteria in histopathological sections.CONCLUSION: This preliminary study reports an association between E coliand lymphocytic colitis, based on histological and culture observations. Serotyping and molecular studies are in process to assess the role of E coliin the pathogenesis of lymphocytic colitis.

  1. Microscopic Colitis: What Do We Know About Pathogenesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisani, Laura Francesca; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Vecchi, Maurizio; Pastorelli, Luca

    2016-02-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic diarrhea. The 2 most frequent forms of MC are collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis. Over the past years, the incidence and prevalence of microscopic colitis are rising and this is largely attributed to a greater awareness, and concomitantly an increasing number of diagnoses. Patients with microscopic colitis report watery, nonbloody diarrhea of chronic course, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue that may impair patient's health-related quality of life. The underlying mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of microscopic colitis remain unspecified but is probably multifactorial. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis may represent specific mucosal responses to different luminal agents in predisposed individuals, resulting in an uncontrolled immune response. Genetic predisposition, altered modulation of cytokines and miRNAs, and aberrant response to drugs seem to be involved in the development of MC. Despite the progress of knowledge, still many questions remain unsolved regarding the etiology, pathophysiology, and optimal management of MC. This review gives an update on the immunological aspects of collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis.

  2. Protective effects of citicoline on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ek, Rauf Onur; Serter, Mukadder; Ergin, Kemal; Cecen, Serpil; Unsal, Cengiz; Yildiz, Yuksel; Bilgin, Mehmet D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline on the development of colitis and antioxidant parameters in rats subjected to tribenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Twenty four Wistar Albino female rats were divided into four subgroups (n=6) (control, colitis control, colitis + 50 mg/kg citicoline, colitis + 250 mg/kg citicoline). Colitis was induced using an enema of TNBS and ethanol; following which citicoline was administrated for 3 days and effects of citicoli...

  3. Unique gene expression and MR T2 relaxometry patterns define chronic murine dextran sodium sulphate colitis as a model for connective tissue changes in human Crohn's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Breynaert

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total. Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T 2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. RESULTS: Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn's colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. CONCLUSIONS: Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn's disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of

  4. Parvovirus B19 in an Immunocompetent Adult Patient with Acute Liver Failure: An Underdiagnosed Cause of Acute Non-A-E Viral Hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Kee Ho

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are occasional pediatric reports of parvovirus B19-associated transient acute hepatitis and hepatic failure. A case of a 34-year-old immunocompetent woman who developed severe and prolonged but self-limited acute hepatitis and myelosuppression following acute parvovirus B19 infection is reported. Parvovirus B19 may be the causative agent in some adult cases of acute non-A-E viral hepatitis and acute liver failure.

  5. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Aitken, Jesse D.; Malleshappa, Madhu; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mainly comprised of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease are complex and multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. For the past 20 years, to study human IBD mechanistically, number of murine models of colitis has been developed. These models are indispensable tools to decipher underlying mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis as well as to evaluate number potential therapeutics. Among various chemical induced colitis models, DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human ulcerative colitis. This model has both advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered when employed. The current protocol aimed to extensively describe the DSS-induced colitis model, focusing on its detailed protocol as well as factors that could affect DSS-induced pathology. PMID:24510619

  6. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassaing, Benoit; Aitken, Jesse D; Malleshappa, Madhu; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-02-04

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), mainly comprising ulcerative colitis and Crohn's Disease, are complex and multifactorial diseases with unknown etiology. For the past 20 years, to study human IBD mechanistically, a number of murine models of colitis have been developed. These models are indispensable tools to decipher underlying mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis as well as to evaluate a number of potential therapeutics. Among various chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human ulcerative colitis. This model has both advantages and disadvantages that must be considered when employed. This protocol describes the DSS-induced colitis model, focusing on details and factors that could affect DSS-induced pathology.

  7. Antibody to eosinophil cationic protein suppresses dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kazuko Shichijo; Kazuya Makiyama; Chun-Yang Wen; Mutsumi Matsuu; Toshiyuki Nakayama; Masahiro Nakashima; Makoto Ihara; Ichiro Sekine

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To produce an antibody against rat eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and to examine the effects of the antibody in rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis.METHODS: An antibody was raised against rat ECP. Rats were treated with 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 d and received the antibody or normal serum. The colons were exarmined histologically and correlated with clinical symptoms.Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis were estimated as a grade of inflammation.RESULTS: The ECP antibody stained the activated eosinophils around the injured crypts in the colonic mucosa.Antibody treatment reduced the severity of colonic ulceration and acute clinical symptoms (diarrhea and/or blood-stained stool). Body weight gain was significantly greater and the colon length was significantly longer in anti-ECP-treated rats than in normal serum-treated rats. Expression of ECP in activated eosinophils was associated with the presence of erosions and inflammation. The number of Ki-67-positive cells in the regenerated surface epithelium increased in anti-ECP-treated rats compared with normal serum-treated rats. Western blot analysis revealed reduced expression of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in anti-ECP-treated rats.CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that treatment with ECP antibody, improved DSS-induced colitis in rats, possibly by increasing the regenerative activity of the colonic epithelium and downregulation of the immune response,and suggest that anti-ECP may promote intestinal wound healing in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC).

  8. A recombinant cystatin from Ascaris lumbricoides attenuates inflammation of DSS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, S; Barrios, L; Zakzuk, J; Regino, R; Ahumada, V; Franco, L; Ocampo, Y; Caraballo, L

    2017-04-01

    Helminthiasis may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Information about immunomodulators from Ascaris lumbricoides is scarce, but could be important considering the co-evolutionary relationships between helminths and humans. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant cystatin from A. lumbricoides on an acute model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. From an A. lumbricoides cDNA library, we obtained a recombinant cystatin (rAl-CPI). Protease activity inhibition was demonstrated on cathepsin B and papain. Immunomodulatory effects were evaluated at two intraperitoneal doses (0.5 and 0.25 μg/G) on mice with DSS-induced colitis. Body weight, colon length, Disease Activity Index (DAI), histological inflammation score, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, gene expression of cytokines and cytokines levels in colon tissue were analysed. Treatment with rAl-CPI significantly reduced DAI, MPO activity and inflammation score without toxic effects. Also, IL-10 and TGF-B gene overexpression was observed in rAl-CPI-treated group compared to DSS-exposed control and healthy mice. Furthermore, a reduction in IL-6 and TNF-A expression was found, and this was confirmed by the levels of these cytokines in colonic tissue. In conclusion, rAl-CPI reduces inflammation in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, probably by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing pro-inflammatory ones. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Idelalisib-induced colitis and skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Muhammad Bader; Al-Taee, Ahmad; Meeks, Marshall; Fesler, Mark; Hurley, M Yadira; Cao, Dengfeng; Lai, Jin-Ping

    2017-04-01

    Idelalisib is a selective inhibitor of the delta isoform of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase which was approved by the United States Federal Drug Administration in 2014 for the treatment of relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia and indolent non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Drug-induced injury of the gastrointestinal tract is a relatively frequent but usually under-recognized disease entity. We report the case of a 56-year-old male with a history of relapsed follicular lymphoma status post allogenic bone marrow transplant who developed severe diarrhea with a skin eruption mimicking graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) 6 months after starting idelalisib. He underwent a colonoscopy demonstrating a grossly normal-appearing colon and terminal ileum. Biopsies taken during the procedure revealed mild active ileitis, colitis, and proctitis with frequent epithelial apoptosis, and focal intra-epithelial lymphocytosis. Skin biopsies revealed sub-acute spongiotic dermatitis suggestive of either contact dermatitis or an eczematous drug reaction. Symptoms were attributed to idelalisib given their resolution with withdrawal of the drug in conjunction with the skin and colonic biopsies. High clinical suspicion and awareness of the histological features of idelalisib-associated colitis is important to distinguish it from potential mimickers such as GVHD and infectious colitis.

  10. Genetic deletion of dectin-1 does not affect the course of murine experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinsbroek Sigrid EM

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD result from an imbalance in the intestinal immune response towards the luminal microbiome. Dectin-1 is a widely expressed pattern recognition receptor that recognizes fungi and upon recognition it mediates cytokine responses and skewing of the adaptive immune system. Hence, dectin-1 may be involved in the pathogenesis of IBD. Methods We assessed the responses of dectin-1 deficient macrophages to the intestinal microbiota and determined the course of acute DSS and chronic Helicobacter hepaticus induced colitis in dectin-1 deficient mice. Results We show that the mouse intestinal microbiota contains fungi and the cytokine responses towards this microbiota were significantly reduced in dectin-1 deficient macrophages. However, in two different colitis models no significant differences in the course of inflammation were found in dectin-1 deficient mice compared to wild type mice. Conclusions Together our data suggest that, although at the immune cell level there is a difference in response towards the intestinal flora in dectin-1 deficient macrophages, during intestinal inflammation this response seems to be redundant since dectin-1 deficiency in mice does not affect intestinal inflammation in experimental colitis.

  11. Effects of parenteral fish oil lipid emulsions on colon morphology and cytokine expression after experimental colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Garib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study the effects of different protocols of fish oil lipid emulsion (FOLE infusion on acute inflammation in a rat model of colitis. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (n = 51 were randomized into 5 groups to receive parenteral infusion of saline (SS or soybean oil lipid emulsion (SO, as controls, and FOLE composed of: fish oil alone (FO; a mixture (9:1 v/v of SO with FO (SO/FO; or 30% soybean oil, 30% medium-chain triglycerides, 25% olive oil, and 15% fish oil (SMOF. After 72 h of intravenous infusion, experimental colitis was induced with acetic acid. After 24 h, colonic samples were analyzed for histological and cytokine changes. Results: In relation SS group, macroscopic necrosis was less frequent in the FO group and histological necrosis was more frequent in the SMOF group. There was a direct and inverse relation of colon interleukin (IL-1 and IL-4 respectively, with histological necrosis. In comparison to the SS group, FO increased IL-4 and IFN-gamma and decreased TNF-alpha, SO/FO decreased TNF-alpha, and SMOF increased IL-1 and decreased IL- 4. Conclusion: In acetic acid-induced colitis, the isolate infusion of FOLE composed of fish oil alone was more advantageous in mitigating inflammation than the infusion of FOLE containing other oils, and this difference may be due the influences of their different fatty acid contents.

  12. Rectal prolapse in a child: an unusual presentation of Clostridium difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shu-Ching; Yang, Yao-Jong; Lee, Chung-Ta

    2011-04-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis after short-course antibiotics is rare in children. We report a 14-month-old girl who presented with rectal prolapse complicated with Clostridium difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis after a 4-day course of oral cefuroxime for treatment of acute otitis media. Abdominal sonogram showed a pelvic mass, and computed tomography revealed thickened wall of the rectum. Sigmoidoscopy demonstrated discrete yellowish plaques adherent to an edematous mucosa. Stool cultures for C difficile were positive and C difficile toxins A and B were detected in her stool. Histological examination of colonic biopsy showed superficial erosion of the mucosa and the adherent pseudomembranes. She achieved a full recovery after discontinuing cefuroxime. Our case implied that C difficile infection should be considered in children presenting with rectal prolapse, especially when they are taking or have recently received antibiotic therapy. Supportive therapy and discontinuation of antibiotics are generally sufficient for patients with C difficile-associated pseudomembranous colitis who present with mild diarrheal illness.

  13. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) in TNBS colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Ana Beatriz Albino; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramón; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Trigo, José Roberto; Vilegas, Wagner; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Souza-Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2013-03-07

    In Brazilian traditional medicine, Arctium lappa (Asteraceae), has been reported to relieve gastrointestinal symptoms. In the present study, we investigated the effects of the lactone sesquiterpene onopordopicrin enriched fraction (ONP fraction) from Arctium lappa in an experimental colitis model induced by 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and performed experiments to elucidate the underlying action mechanisms involved in that effect. ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) was orally administered 48, 24 and 1 h prior to the induction of colitis and 24 h after. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and -2 protein expressions by western blotting and immunohistochemistry assays. TNBS group was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration, increased MPO activity and TNF-α levels. On the contrary, ONP fraction (25 and 50 mg/kg) treatment significantly reduced the macroscopic inflammation scores (pArctium lappa exert marked protective effects in acute experimental colitis, confirming and justifying, at least in part, the popular use of this plant to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cytomegalovirus-associated colitis causing diarrhea in an immunocompetent patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Carter; David Olchovsky; Russell Pokroy; David Ezra

    2006-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis rarely occurs in immunocompetent patients. We report a case of disabling and life threatening diarrhea in an immunocompetent elderly woman due to CMV colitis. The diagnosis of CMV was based on histological examination of tissues biopsied at colonoscopy, positive CMV antigen and high CMV-IgM titer in peripheral blood samples and a good response to systemic gancyclovir treatment.We conclude that CMV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of colitis in elderly immunocompetent patients.

  15. Colitis amebiasis with symptom of occasional dripped anal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandono, Hadi

    2007-01-01

    Colitis amebiasis is usually characterized by bloody and mucous diarrhea, abdominal pain and anal discomfort. However, there is unusual manifestation of colitis amebiasis, such as occasional dripped anal bleeding, which sometimes spouted. Therefore, we often do not suspect such symptoms for colitis amebiasis. Laboratory examination includes complete laboratory test, coagulation and hematologic test, ICT TBC and colonoscopy. The pathology anatomy examination reveals positive results of trophozoites. Treatment by using metronidazole tablet provides good result for this disease.

  16. Bacterial colonization of colonic crypt mucous gel and disease activity in ulcerative colitis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowan, Fiachra

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: To optimize total bacterial 16S rRNA quantification in microdissected colonic crypts in healthy controls and patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and to characterize the findings with disease activity. BACKGROUND: Microscopic and molecular techniques have recently converged to allow bacterial enumeration in remote anatomic locations [eg, crypt-associated mucous gel (CAMG)]. The aims of this study were to combine laser capture microdissection (LCM) and 16S rRNA-based quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) to determine total bacterial copy number in CAMG both in health and in UC and to characterize the findings with disease activity. METHODS: LCM was used to microdissect CAMG from colonic mucosal biopsies from controls (n = 20) and patients with acute (n = 10) or subacute (n = 10) UC. Pan-bacterial 16S rRNA copy number per millimeter square in samples from 6 locations across the large bowel was obtained by qPCR using Desulfovibrio desulfuricans as a reference strain. Copy numbers were correlated with the UC disease activity index (UCDAI) and the simple clinical colitis activity index (SCCAI). RESULTS: Bacterial colonization of CAMG was detectable in all groups. Copy numbers were significantly reduced in acute UC. In subacute colitis, there was a positive correlation between copy number and UCDAI and SCCAI in the ascending, transverse and sigmoid colon. CONCLUSIONS: This study describes a sensitive method of quantitatively assessing bacterial colonization of the colonic CAMG. A positive correlation was found between CAMG bacterial load and subacute disease activity in UC, whereas detectable bacterial load was reduced in acute UC.

  17. Current Status of the Treatment of Fulminant Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer Márquez, Manuel; Hernández Martínez, Álvaro; Reina Duarte, Ángel; Rosado Cobián, Rafael

    2015-05-01

    Fulminant colitis is not a well-defined entity, that constitutes a severe complication. It usually occurs in the course of úlcerative colitis and Clostridium difficile colitis. A multidisciplinary management combining gastroenterologist and surgeons is crucial with intensive medical treatment and early surgery in non-responders. It is important to distinguish if we are facing a flare of IBD or, on the contrary, it is an infectious colitis, due to the fact that although general therapeutic measures to adopt will be the same, they will demand opposed specific measures.

  18. Current Approach to the Evaluation and Management of Microscopic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Thomas G; Pardi, Darrell S

    2017-02-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhea, particularly in the elderly. The accompanying symptoms, which include abdominal pain and fatigue, can markedly impair patients' quality of life. Diagnosis is based upon characteristic histologic findings of the colonic mucosa. This review focuses on the current approach to evaluation and management of patients with microscopic colitis. Although the incidence of microscopic colitis has been increasing over time, recent epidemiological studies show stabilization at 21.0-24.7 cases per 100,000 person-years. Recent research has further expanded our knowledge of the underlying pathophysiology and emphasized the entity of drug-induced microscopic colitis and the association with celiac disease. Two recent randomized studies have confirmed the effectiveness of oral budesonide for both induction and maintenance treatment of microscopic colitis and is now endorsed by the American Gastroenterological Association as first-line treatment. The incidence of microscopic colitis has stabilized at just over 20 cases per 100,000 person-years. Celiac disease and drug-induced microscopic colitis should be considered in all patients diagnosed with microscopic colitis. There are a number of treatments available for patients with microscopic colitis; however, budesonide is the only option well studied in controlled trials and is effective for both induction and maintenance treatment.

  19. Pseudomembranous Colitis: Not Always Caused by Clostridium difficile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek M. Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Although classically pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile, it can result from several etiologies. Certain medications, chemical injury, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia, and other infectious pathogens can reportedly cause mucosal injury and subsequent pseudomembrane formation. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with vascular disease who was incorrectly diagnosed with refractory C. difficile infection due to the presence of pseudomembranes. Further imaging, endoscopy, and careful histopathology review revealed chronic ischemia as the cause of her pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea. This case highlights the need for gastroenterologists to consider non-C. difficile etiologies when diagnosing pseudomembranous colitis.

  20. Ulcerative colitis six years after colon cancer: only a coincidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellakis, Minas; Makatsoris, Thomas; Gkermpesi, Maria; Peroukidis, Stavros; Kalofonos, Haralabos

    2014-01-01

    The association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer is well known. Ulcerative colitis is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, and this risk increases with the activity and duration of bowel inflammation. Here we describe the case of a 52-year-old man who developed ulcerative colitis 6 years after the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer. Although this could be a coincidence, there could be additional possibilities, like pre-existence of quiescent colitis, late effect of therapy, or maybe the existence of common pathogenetic factors contributing to the development of ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer. PMID:24855393

  1. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P sleep deprivation.

  2. Pseudomembranous Colitis: Not Always Caused by Clostridium difficile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Derek M; Urrunaga, Nathalie H; De Groot, Hannah; von Rosenvinge, Erik C; Xie, Guofeng; Ghazi, Leyla J

    2014-01-01

    Although classically pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile, it can result from several etiologies. Certain medications, chemical injury, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia, and other infectious pathogens can reportedly cause mucosal injury and subsequent pseudomembrane formation. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with vascular disease who was incorrectly diagnosed with refractory C. difficile infection due to the presence of pseudomembranes. Further imaging, endoscopy, and careful histopathology review revealed chronic ischemia as the cause of her pseudomembranous colitis and diarrhea. This case highlights the need for gastroenterologists to consider non-C. difficile etiologies when diagnosing pseudomembranous colitis.

  3. Fulminant Pseudomembranous Colitis Presenting as Sigmoid Stricture and Severe Polyposis with Clinical Response to Intracolonic Vancomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Sai Wah; Li, Kin Kong

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Severe diseases carry significant morbidities such as septic shock, acute kidney injury, bowel perforation, and mortality. Immunocompromising conditions increase the risk of developing the disease but whether these individuals suffer a more fulminant course or warrant a more potent first-line treatment is still controversial issue. Hereby we report a case of a cirrhotic patient with life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis complicated by colonic stricture, initially refractory to standard treatment but with subsequent improvement on intracolonic vancomycin.

  4. Fulminant Pseudomembranous Colitis Presenting as Sigmoid Stricture and Severe Polyposis with Clinical Response to Intracolonic Vancomycin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai Wah Cheung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile infection (CDI is the most common cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea. Severe diseases carry significant morbidities such as septic shock, acute kidney injury, bowel perforation, and mortality. Immunocompromising conditions increase the risk of developing the disease but whether these individuals suffer a more fulminant course or warrant a more potent first-line treatment is still controversial issue. Hereby we report a case of a cirrhotic patient with life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis complicated by colonic stricture, initially refractory to standard treatment but with subsequent improvement on intracolonic vancomycin.

  5. Azathioprine-associated myelodysplastic syndrome in two patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Omer F; Keane, Margaret G; McCartney, Sara; Khwaja, Asim; Bloom, Stuart L

    2013-07-01

    Azathioprine is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent in post-transplantation regimens and autoimmune diseases. An increased risk of lymphoma with thiopurine therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease has been described previously; however, there are few reported cases of azathioprine therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukaemia. We report two patients with ulcerative colitis who subsequently developed azathioprine-related myelodysplastic syndrome. It is imperative that gastroenterologists remain vigilant for this rare complication as this subset of patients has a particularly poor prognosis. These cases are also important in considering the risk of open-ended thiopurine therapy.

  6. The Mutyh base excision repair gene influences the inflammatory response in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Casorelli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Mutyh DNA glycosylase is involved in the repair of oxidized DNA bases. Mutations in the human MUTYH gene are responsible for colorectal cancer in familial adenomatous polyposis. Since defective DNA repair genes might contribute to the increased cancer risk associated with inflammatory bowel diseases, we compared the inflammatory response of wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice to oxidative stress. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The severity of colitis, changes in expression of genes involved in DNA repair and inflammation, DNA 8-oxoguanine levels and microsatellite instability were analysed in colon of mice treated with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS. The Mutyh(-/- phenotype was associated with a significant accumulation of 8-oxoguanine in colon DNA of treated mice. A single DSS cycle induced severe acute ulcerative colitis in wild-type mice, whereas lesions were modest in Mutyh(-/- mice, and this was associated with moderate variations in the expression of several cytokines. Eight DSS cycles caused chronic colitis in both wild-type and Mutyh(-/- mice. Lymphoid hyperplasia and a significant reduction in Foxp3(+ regulatory T cells were observed only in Mutyh(-/- mice. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate that, in this model of ulcerative colitis, Mutyh plays a major role in maintaining intestinal integrity by affecting the inflammatory response.

  7. Muscadine Grape (Vitis rotundifolia) or Wine Phytochemicals Reduce Intestinal Inflammation in Mice with Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ruiqi; Kim, Min-Hyun; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gao, Chi; Gu, Liwei

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of phytochemical extracts from muscadine grapes or wine on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice and to investigate cellular mechanisms. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were gavaged with muscadine grape phytochemicals (MGP) or muscadine wine phytochemicals (MWP), respectively, for 14 days. Acute colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. An additional two groups of mice served as healthy and disease controls. Results indicated that MGP or MWP significantly prevented weight loss, reduced disease activity index, and preserved colonic length compared to the colitis group (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity as well as the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in colon (p ≤ 0.05). MGP or MWP caused down-regulation of the NF-κB pathway by inhibiting the phosphorylation and degradation of IκB in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that phytochemicals from muscadine grape or wine mitigate ulcerative colitis via attenuation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and modulation of the NF-κB pathway.

  8. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestin......OBJECTIVE: Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small......-intestinal biopsies, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal...

  9. Ileal pouch surgery for ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon P Bach; Neil J Mortensen

    2007-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing and remitting disease characterised by chronic mucosal and submucosal inflammation of the colon and rectum.Treatment may vary depending upon the extent and severity of inflammation. Broadly speaking medical treatments aim to induce and then maintain remission.Surgery is indicated for inflammatory disease that is refractory to medical treatment or in cases of neoplastic transformation. Approximately 25% of patients with UC ultimately require colectomy. Ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) has become the standard of care for patients with ulcerative colitis who ultimately require colectomy. This review will examine indications for IPAA, patient selection, technical aspects of surgery,management of complications and long term outcome following this procedure.

  10. Obstructive Colitis Proximal to Obstructive Colorectal Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Kyung Chang

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The term “obstructive colitis” refers to ulceroinflammatory lesions occurring in the colon proximal to a completely or partially obstructing lesion. It has been referred to by various terms in the literature. This entity differs from the carcinoma of the colon that complicates true ulcerative colitis where there is involvement distal to the neoplasm as well as proximal to it. Although it has appeared in the literature over several decades, it remains an uncommon and troublesome disease. In Yonsei University Medical Center, for 11 years from January 1996 to December 2006 we encountered seven patients with obstructing colorectal carcinoma complicated by obstructive colitis. Here we report our cases to share our experience and to review the literature to facilitate the recognition and proper management of this rare disease entity.

  11. Varied Clinical Manifestations of Amebic Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Chad J; Fleming, Rhonda; Boman, Darius A; Zuckerman, Marc J

    2015-11-01

    Invasive amebiasis is common worldwide, but infrequently observed in the United States. It is associated with considerable morbidity in patients residing in or traveling to endemic areas. We review the clinical and endoscopic manifestations of amebic colitis to alert physicians to the varied clinical manifestations of this potentially life-threatening disease. Copyright ©Most patients present with watery or bloody diarrhea. Less common presentations of amebic colitis include abdominal pain, overt gastrointestinal bleeding, exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease, or the incidental association with colon cancer. Amebic liver abscesses are the most frequent complication. Rectosigmoid involvement may be found on colonoscopy; however, most case series have reported that the cecum is the most commonly involved site, followed by the ascending colon. Endoscopic evaluation should be used to assist in the diagnosis, with attention to the observation of colonic inflammation, ulceration, and amebic trophozoites on histopathological examination.

  12. Hemolytic uremic syndrome and Clostridium difficile colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Keshtkar-Jahromi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS can be associated with different infectious etiologies, but the relationship between pseudomembranous colitis and HUS was first described in the 1970s in some childhood patients. There is very limited published literature on Clostridium difficile-associated HUS. We report a case of C. difficile-related HUS in an adult patient and provide a review of the literature.

  13. Hemolytic uremic syndrome and Clostridium difficile colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshtkar-Jahromi, Maryam; Mohebtash, Mahsa

    2012-01-01

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) can be associated with different infectious etiologies, but the relationship between pseudomembranous colitis and HUS was first described in the 1970s in some childhood patients. There is very limited published literature on Clostridium difficile-associated HUS. We report a case of C. difficile-related HUS in an adult patient and provide a review of the literature. PMID:23882375

  14. Ischemic Colitis after Weight-Loss Medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Comay

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous weight-loss medications have received cautious support due to their association with pulmonary hypertension and valvular heart disease. However, newer drugs are increasingly being recommended as potentially safer and more efficacious. We report a case of ischemic colitis possibly linked to the use of a weight-loss drug, and review the literature to highlight an important latent consequence of these medications.

  15. Ischemic Colitis in an Endurance Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chase Grames

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A 20-year-old female running the Marine Corps Marathon developed diarrhea at mile 12. After finishing the race she noted that she was covered in bloody stool. A local emergency department suspected ischemic colitis. After discharge, her primary care physician instructed her to discontinue the use of all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Her symptoms resolved and she returned to running without any complications. This paper describes the pathophysiology, diagnostic approach, and management options.

  16. Sulfasalazine-Induced Pancytopenia in Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NS Neki

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Sulfasalazine is a well-established disease-modifying agent. It is commonly used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and inflammatory bowel disease. The most frequently reported adverse effects are gastrointestinal effects, headache, dizziness and rash; myelosuppression can also occur. Patients treated with sulfasalazine can develop thrombocytopenia which is immune mediated. We report a case of ulcerative colitis that was on sulfasalazine subsequently developing thrombocytopenia.

  17. TRPV1 sensitization mediates postinflammatory visceral pain following acute colitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lapointe, Tamia K; Basso, Lilian; Iftinca, Mircea C; Flynn, Robyn; Chapman, Kevin; Dietrich, Gilles; Vergnolle, Nathalie; Altier, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    .... Although the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel has been postulated as an important mediator of visceral hypersensitivity, its functional role in postinflammatory pain remains elusive...

  18. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A; Yaylali, Asl; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments.

  19. Animal Models of Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manasa Kanneganti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that affect individuals throughout life. Although the etiology and pathogenesis of IBD are largely unknown, studies with animal models of colitis indicate that dysregulation of host/microbial interactions are requisite for the development of IBD. Patients with long-standing IBD have an increased risk for developing colitis-associated cancer (CAC, especially 10 years after the initial diagnosis of colitis, although the absolute number of CAC cases is relatively small. The cancer risk seems to be not directly related to disease activity, but is related to disease duration/extent, complication of primary sclerosing cholangitis, and family history of colon cancer. In particular, high levels and continuous production of inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and chemokines, by colonic epithelial cells (CECs and immune cells in lamina propria may be strongly associated with the pathogenesis of CAC. In this article, we have summarized animal models of CAC and have reviewed the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlining the development of carcinogenic changes in CECs secondary to the chronic inflammatory conditions in the intestine. It may provide us some clues in developing a new class of therapeutic agents for the treatment of IBD and CAC in the near future.

  20. Novel topical therapies for distal colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ian; Craig; Lawrance

    2010-01-01

    Distal colitis(DC) can be effectively treated with topical 5ASA agents.Suppositories target the rectum while enemas can reliably reach the splenic flexure.Used in combination with oral 5ASAs,the control of the inflammation is even more effective.Unfortunately,resistant DC does occur and can be extremely challenging to manage.In these patients,the use of steroids,immunosuppressants and the anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents are often required.These,however,can be associated with systemic side effects and are not always effective.The investigation of new topical therapeutic agents is thus required as they are rarely associated with significant blood drug levels and side effects are infrequent.Some of the agents that have been proposed for use in resistant distal colitis include butyrate,cyclosporine and nicotine enemas as well as tacrolimus suppositories and tacrolimus,ecabet sodium,arsenic,lidocaine,rebamipide and Ridogrel enemas.Some of these agents have demonstrated impressive results but the majority of the agents have only been assessed in small open-labelled patient cohorts.Further work is thus required with the investigation of promising agents in the context of randomized double-blinded placebo controlled trials.This review aims to highlight those potentially effective therapies in the management of resistant distal colitis and to promote interest in furthering their investigation.

  1. Low-temperature self-limiting atomic layer deposition of wurtzite InN on Si(100

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Haider

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we report on self-limiting growth of InN thin films at substrate temperatures as low as 200 °C by hollow-cathode plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (HCPA-ALD. The precursors used in growth experiments were trimethylindium (TMI and N2 plasma. Process parameters including TMI pulse time, N2 plasma exposure time, purge time, and deposition temperature have been optimized for self-limiting growth of InN with in ALD window. With the increase in exposure time of N2 plasma from 40 s to 100 s at 200 °C, growth rate showed a significant decrease from 1.60 to 0.64 Å/cycle. At 200 °C, growth rate saturated as 0.64 Å/cycle for TMI dose starting from 0.07 s. Structural, optical, and morphological characterization of InN were carried out in detail. X-ray diffraction measurements revealed the hexagonal wurtzite crystalline structure of the grown InN films. Refractive index of the InN film deposited at 200 °C was found to be 2.66 at 650 nm. 48 nm-thick InN films exhibited relatively smooth surfaces with Rms surface roughness values of 0.98 nm, while the film density was extracted as 6.30 g/cm3. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS measurements depicted the peaks of indium, nitrogen, carbon, and oxygen on the film surface and quantitative information revealed that films are nearly stoichiometric with rather low impurity content. In3d and N1s high-resolution scans confirmed the presence of InN with peaks located at 443.5 and 396.8 eV, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM and selected area electron diffraction (SAED further confirmed the polycrystalline structure of InN thin films and elemental mapping revealed uniform distribution of indium and nitrogen along the scanned area of the InN film. Spectral absorption measurements exhibited an optical band edge around 1.9 eV. Our findings demonstrate that HCPA-ALD might be a promising technique to grow crystalline wurtzite InN thin films at low substrate temperatures.

  2. Atomic layer deposition-Sequential self-limiting surface reactions for advanced catalyst "bottom-up" synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Junling; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Stair, Peter C.

    2016-06-01

    Catalyst synthesis with precise control over the structure of catalytic active sites at the atomic level is of essential importance for the scientific understanding of reaction mechanisms and for rational design of advanced catalysts with high performance. Such precise control is achievable using atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is similar to chemical vapor deposition (CVD), except that the deposition is split into a sequence of two self-limiting surface reactions between gaseous precursor molecules and a substrate. The unique self-limiting feature of ALD allows conformal deposition of catalytic materials on a high surface area catalyst support at the atomic level. The deposited catalytic materials can be precisely constructed on the support by varying the number and type of ALD cycles. As an alternative to the wet-chemistry based conventional methods, ALD provides a cycle-by-cycle "bottom-up" approach for nanostructuring supported catalysts with near atomic precision. In this review, we summarize recent attempts to synthesize supported catalysts with ALD. Nucleation and growth of metals by ALD on oxides and carbon materials for precise synthesis of supported monometallic catalyst are reviewed. The capability of achieving precise control over the particle size of monometallic nanoparticles by ALD is emphasized. The resulting metal catalysts with high dispersions and uniformity often show comparable or remarkably higher activity than those prepared by conventional methods. For supported bimetallic catalyst synthesis, we summarize the strategies for controlling the deposition of the secondary metal selectively on the primary metal nanoparticle but not on the support to exclude monometallic formation. As a review of the surface chemistry and growth behavior of metal ALD on metal surfaces, we demonstrate the ways to precisely tune size, composition and structure of bimetallic metal nanoparticles. The cycle-by-cycle "bottom up" construction of bimetallic (or multiple

  3. Self-limiting arthritis among patients fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis in a very early arthritis cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norli, Ellen Sauar; Brinkmann, Gina H; Kvien, Tore K; Bjørneboe, Olav; Haugen, Anne J; Nygaard, Halvor; Thunem, Cathrine; Lie, Elisabeth; Mjaavatten, Maria D

    2016-12-01

    To study occurrence of and factors associated with self-limiting arthritis among patients fulfilling the 2010 ACR/EULAR classification criteria for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (2010 RA criteria) in patients with ≤16 weeks׳ duration of joint swelling. We applied the 2010 RA criteria in 1118 patients included in a 2-year longitudinal cohort. In all, 256 patients fulfilled the 2010 RA criteria at baseline; outcome was defined as either "self-limiting arthritis" (no DMARD use during follow-up, no swollen joints at last assessment, and no final clinical diagnosis of RA) or "persistent disease." The associations between baseline characteristics, including the components of the 2010 RA criteria score, and outcomes were studied. In total, 36 of 256 patients (14.1%) classified as having RA had self-limiting arthritis. These patients differed from patients with persistent disease according to ACPA positivity (11.1% vs. 65.0%, p < 0.001), duration of joint swelling (median = 47.5 vs. 66.0 days, p = 0.002), 2010 RA criteria points (median = 6.0 vs. 7.0, p < 0.001), and ever smoking (52.8% vs. 74.5%, p = 0.01). Having no serology points and no duration points were independent predictors of self-limiting arthritis. The rate of self-limiting arthritis was 2.7% vs. 29.4% among ACPA positive vs. ACPA negative patients (p < 0.001), and 32.5% when duration of joint swelling was <4 weeks vs. 10.6% with longer duration (p < 0.001). Negative ACPA status, short duration of joint swelling and being a never smoker were factors associated with self-limiting arthritis in early arthritis patients classified as having RA at presentation. Our findings contribute to identify patients who potentially do not need DMARDs and who should not be included in early RA clinical drug trials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Catalytic self-limited assembly at hard templates: a mesoscale approach to graphene nanoshells for lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Hong-Jie; Liang, Jiyuan; Zhu, Lin; Huang, Jia-Qi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Guo, Xuefeng; Ding, Weiping; Zhu, Wancheng; Zhang, Qiang

    2014-11-25

    Hollow nanostructures afford intriguing structural features ranging from large surface area and fully exposed active sites to kinetically favorable mass transportation and tunable surface permeability. The unique properties and potential applications of graphene nanoshells with well-defined small cavities and delicately designed graphene shells are strongly considered. Herein, a mesoscale approach to fabricate graphene nanoshells with a single or few graphene layers and quite small diameters through a catalytic self-limited assembly of nanographene on in situ formed nanoparticles was proposed. The graphene nanoshells with a diameter of ca. 10-30 nm and a pore volume of 1.98 cm(3) g(-1) were employed as hosts to accommodate the sulfur for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries. A very high initial discharge capacity of 1520 mAh g(-1), corresponding to 91% sulfur utilization rate at 0.1 C, was achieved on a graphene nanoshell/sulfur composite with 62 wt % loading. A very high retention of 70% was maintained when the current density increased from 0.1 C to 2.0 C, and an ultraslow decay rate of 0.06% per cycle during 1000 cycles was detected.

  5. Light-induced growth of monodisperse silver nanoparticles with tunable SPR properties and wavelength self-limiting effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xianliang; Lombardi, John R.

    2008-08-01

    We present a technique for the tunable synthesis of a variety of monodisperse silver nanoparticles. Utilizing different optical wavelengths to irradiate initially grown seed crystals, the size and shape of the products can be controlled. Monitoring the absorption spectrum during growth, we observe that initially the absorption maximum shifts to longer wavelengths and broadens, indicating increasing particle size and dispersion. Remarkably, this effect gradually comes to a halt and reverses, displaying a shift to shorter wavelengths and simultaneously narrower bandwidths, until on completion, a final size and relatively narrow distribution is reached. The final morphology is found to depend on control of the laser wavelength and power. Discs, triangular prisms as well as pyramidal and pentagonal prisms may be produced. A process based on a wavelength dependent self-limiting mechanism governed by the surface plasmon resonance controlling the photochemical reduction of particles is suggested. By a similar mechanism, we show that by using a sodium lamp instead of a laser as an excitation source, a monodisperse sample of nanotetrahedra can be produced.

  6. Synergistic COX2 Induction by IFNγ and TNFα Self-Limits Type-1 Immunity in the Human Tumor Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Jeffrey L; Obermajer, Nataša; Odunsi, Kunle; Edwards, Robert P; Kalinski, Pawel

    2016-04-01

    Maintenance of CTL-, Th1-, and NK cell-mediated type-1 immunity is essential for effective antitumor responses. Unexpectedly, we observed that the critical soluble mediators of type-1 immune effector cells, IFNγ and TNFα, synergize in the induction of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2), the key enzyme in prostaglandin (PG)E2 synthesis, and the subsequent hyperactivation of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC) within the tumor microenvironment (TME) of ovarian cancer patients. MDSC hyperactivation by type-1 immunity and the resultant overexpression of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS/NOS2), IL10, and additional COX2 result in strong feedback suppression of type-1 immune responses. This paradoxical immune suppression driven by type-1 immune cell activation was found to depend on the synergistic action of IFNγ and TNFα, and could not be reproduced by either of these factors alone. Importantly, from a therapeutic standpoint, these negative feedback limiting type-1 responses could be eliminated by COX2 blockade, allowing amplification of type-1 immunity in the ovarian cancer TME. Our data demonstrate a new mechanism underlying the self-limiting nature of type-1 immunity in the human TME, driven by the synergistic induction of COX2 by IFNγ and TNFα, and provide a rationale for targeting the COX2-PGE2 axis to enhance the effectiveness of cancer immunotherapies.

  7. Acupuncture Treatment for 76 Cases of Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Ulcerative colitis is also called nonspecific chronic ulcerative colitis. The author of this essay has treated 76 such cases with acupuncture and obtained satisfactory therapeutic effect. Meanwhile, the results were compared with 45 cases treated with azulfidine.A report follows.

  8. Samtidig debut af kollagen colitis og mb. Crohn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Nielsen, Preben Løvgreen; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2002-01-01

    A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed.......A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed....

  9. Coexisting cytomegalovirus infection in immunocompetent patients with Clostridium difficile colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Khee-Siang; Lee, Wen-Ying; Yu, Wen-Liang

    2016-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) colitis usually occurs in immunocompromised patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection, organ transplantation, and malignancy receiving chemotherapy or ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive agents. However, CMV colitis is increasingly recognized in immunocompetent hosts. Notably, CMV colitis coexisting with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in apparently healthy individuals has been published in recent years, which could result in high morbidity and mortality. CMV colitis is a rare but possible differential diagnosis in immunocompetent patients with abdominal pain, watery, or especially bloody diarrhea, which could be refractory to standard treatment for CDI. As a characteristic of CDI, however, pseudomembranous colitis may be only caused by CMV infection. Real-time CMV-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for blood and stool samples may be a useful and noninvasive diagnostic strategy to identify CMV infection when treatment of CDI eventually fails to show significant benefits. Quantitative CMV-PCR in mucosal biopsies may increase the diagnostic yield of traditional histopathology. CMV colitis is potentially life-threatening if severe complications occur, such as sepsis secondary to colitis, massive colorectal bleeding, toxic megacolon, and colonic perforation, so that may necessitate pre-emptive antiviral treatment for those who are positive for CMV-PCR in blood and/or stool samples while pending histological diagnosis.

  10. Metabolic and inflammatory faecal markers in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Lassen, Inge Nordgaard; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis.......To evaluate the excretion of the inflammatory and metabolic faecal markers calprotectin, lactoferrin, and short-chain fatty acids in symptomatic and quiescent collagenous colitis....

  11. Current misunderstandings in the management of ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochsenkühn, T.; D'Haens, G.

    2011-01-01

    Past and ongoing therapeutic concepts for ulcerative colitis have only been moderately successful. A significant proportion of patients with ulcerative colitis will still have to undergo colectomy and overall half of the patients do not achieve sustained remission, leading to impairment of physical

  12. Samtidig debut af kollagen colitis og mb. Crohn

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Nielsen, Preben Løvgreen; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2002-01-01

    A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed.......A case report of a 69-year-old man with synchronous onset and diagnosis of collagenous colitis and Crohn's disease is discussed....

  13. Dr.Dong Demao's Experience in Treating Chronic Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐凌云

    2004-01-01

    @@ Chronic ulcerative colitis (chronic non-specific ulcerative colitis) is a kind of non-specific inflammation occurred in the colonic mucosa layers. As a lingering and troublesome condition that often attacks people aged 20-40, it is characterized by recurrent diarrhea, abdominal pain, pus- and mucus-stained stools in clinic.

  14. Long-Term Natural History and Complications of Collagenous Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh J Freeman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Microscopic forms of colitis have been described, including collagenous colitis, a possibly heterogeneous disorder. Collagenous colitis most often appears to have an entirely benign clinical course that usually responds to limited treatment. Sometimes significant extracolonic disorders, especially arthritis, spondylitis, thyroiditis and skin disorders, such as pyoderma gangrenosum, dominate the clinical course and influence the treatment strategy. However, rare fatalities have been reported and several complications, some severe, have been attributed directly to the colitis. Toxic colitis and toxic megacolon may develop. Concomitant gastric and small intestinal inflammatory disorders have been described including celiac disease and more extensive collagenous inflammatory disease. Colonic ulceration has been associated with the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, while other forms of inflammatory bowel disease, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn disease, may evolve directly from collagenous colitis. Submucosal ‘dissection’, colonic fractures, or mucosal tears and perforation, possibly from air insufflation during colonoscopy, have been reported. Similar changes may result from increased intraluminal pressures that may occur during radiological imaging of the colon. Neoplastic disorders of the colon may also occur during the course of collagenous colitis, including colon carcinoma and neuroendocrine tumours (ie, carcinoids. Finally, lymphoproliferative disease has been reported.

  15. Sonographic and Endoscopic Findings in Cocaine-Induced Ischemic Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Thomas; Wilkens, Rune; Bonderup, Ole Kristian

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine-induced ischemic colitis is a recognized entity. The diagnosis is based on clinical and endoscopic findings. However, diagnostic imaging is helpful in the evaluation of abdominal symptoms and prior studies have suggested specific sonographic findings in ischemic colitis. We report...

  16. Inherited determinants of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleynen, Isabelle; Boucher, Gabrielle; Jostins, Luke

    2016-01-01

    (-4)). INTERPRETATION: Our data support a continuum of disorders within inflammatory bowel disease, much better explained by three groups (ileal Crohn's disease, colonic Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis) than by Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis as currently defined. Disease location is an intrinsic aspect...

  17. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate Inhibits HMGB1-Dependent Inflammation and Ameliorates Colitis in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Vitali

    Full Text Available High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1 is a DNA-binding protein that is released from injured cells during inflammation. Advances in targeting HMGB1 represent a major challenge to improve the treatment of acute/chronic inflammation.This study is aimed at verifying whether the inhibition of HMGB1 through dipotassium glycyrrhizate (DPG is a good strategy to reduce intestinal inflammation.Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, HT29, human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma, Caco2, and murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, were cultured to investigate the effect of DPG on the secretion of HMGB1. Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice through administration of 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS; a combined treatment with DSS and 3 or 8 mg/kg/day DPG was used to investigate the effects of DPG on intestinal inflammation. Animals were euthanized at seventh day and colonic samples underwent molecular and histological analyses.DPG significantly reduces in vitro the release of HMGB1 in the extracellular matrix as well as expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6, by inhibiting HMGB1. Moreover, DPG significantly decreases the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. Murine colonic samples show decreased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6, as well as HMGB1 receptors, RAGE and TLR4. Finally, HMGB1, abundantly present in the feces of mice with DSS-induced colitis, is strongly reduced by DPG.HMGB1 is an early pro-inflammatory cytokine and an active protagonist of mucosal gut inflammation. DPG exerts inhibitory effects against HMGB1 activity, significantly reducing intestinal inflammation. Thus, we reason that DPG could represent an innovative tool for the management of human intestinal inflammation.

  18. Dipotassium Glycyrrhizate Inhibits HMGB1-Dependent Inflammation and Ameliorates Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitali, Roberta; Palone, Francesca; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Negroni, Anna; Cavone, Leonardo; Costanzo, Manuela; Aloi, Marina; Dilillo, Anna; Stronati, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Background High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a DNA-binding protein that is released from injured cells during inflammation. Advances in targeting HMGB1 represent a major challenge to improve the treatment of acute/chronic inflammation. Aim This study is aimed at verifying whether the inhibition of HMGB1 through dipotassium glycyrrhizate (DPG) is a good strategy to reduce intestinal inflammation. Methods Human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, HT29, human epithelial colorectal adenocarcinoma, Caco2, and murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7, were cultured to investigate the effect of DPG on the secretion of HMGB1. Acute colitis was induced in C57BL/6 mice through administration of 3% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS); a combined treatment with DSS and 3 or 8 mg/kg/day DPG was used to investigate the effects of DPG on intestinal inflammation. Animals were euthanized at seventh day and colonic samples underwent molecular and histological analyses. Results DPG significantly reduces in vitro the release of HMGB1 in the extracellular matrix as well as expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6, by inhibiting HMGB1. Moreover, DPG significantly decreases the severity of DSS-induced colitis in mice. Murine colonic samples show decreased mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6, as well as HMGB1 receptors, RAGE and TLR4. Finally, HMGB1, abundantly present in the feces of mice with DSS-induced colitis, is strongly reduced by DPG. Conclusions HMGB1 is an early pro-inflammatory cytokine and an active protagonist of mucosal gut inflammation. DPG exerts inhibitory effects against HMGB1 activity, significantly reducing intestinal inflammation. Thus, we reason that DPG could represent an innovative tool for the management of human intestinal inflammation. PMID:23840500

  19. A study of the effects of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2012-04-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) from Rosaceae family is a fruit tree cultivated in many countries mainly in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of quince juice (QJ) and quince hydroalcoholic extract (QHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) in rats. Rats were grouped (n=6) and fasted for 36 h before colitis induction. TNBS was instilled into the colon with a hydroalcoholic carrier and then treatments were made for 5 days starting 6 h after colitis induction with different doses of QJ (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), QHE (200, 500 & 800 mg/kg) orally, QJ (400 mg/kg) and QHE (200 and 500 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Albeit the examined doses of QJ and QHE were apparently effective to reduce the extent of UC lesions, only the greatest doses (500 and 800 mg/kg) resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/Length ratio as an illustrative of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished with quince treatments while the results correlated with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that QJ and QHE were effective to diminish inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis. Although QHE with different doses was effective in induced colitis, the dose and/or route of administration dependency was not confirmed. So quince fractions could be considered as a suitable anticolitic alternative, however further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting.

  20. Dual effects of a high-protein diet on DSS-treated mice during colitis resolution phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Annaïg; Blais, Anne; Coelho, Desire; Capron, Juliette; Maarouf, Manar; Benamouzig, Robert; Lancha, Antonio H; Walker, Francine; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François

    2016-10-01

    The impact of the dietary protein level on the process of colonic mucosal inflammation and subsequent recovery remains largely unknown. In this study, we fed DSS-treated mice with either a normoproteic (NP) or a high-protein (HP) isocaloric diet from the beginning of the 5-day dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) treatment to 14 days later. Measurements of colitis indicators (colon weight:length ratio, myeloperoxidase activity, cytokine expressions) showed a similar level of colonic inflammation in both DSS groups during the colitis induction phase. However, during the colitis resolution phase, inflammation intensity was higher in the DSS-HP group than in the DSS-NP group as evidenced by higher inflammatory score and body weight loss. This coincided with a higher mortality rate. In surviving animals, an increase in colonic crypt height associated with a higher number of colon epithelial cells per crypt, and TGF-β3 content was observed in the DSS-HP vs. DSS-NP group. Moreover, colonic expression patterns of tight junction proteins and E-cadherin were also different according to the diet. Altogether, our results indicate that the HP diet, when given during both the induction and resolution periods of DSS-induced colitis, showed deleterious effects during the post-induction phase. However, HP diet ingestion was also associated with morphological and biochemical differences compatible with higher colonic epithelium restoration in surviving animals, indicating an effect of the dietary protein level on colonic crypt repair after acute inflammation. These data highlight the potential impact of the dietary protein amount during the colitis course. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  1. UNC5B receptor deletion exacerbates DSS-induced colitis in mice by increasing epithelial cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Li, Dean Y; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2014-07-01

    The netrin-1 administration or overexpression is known to protect colon from acute colitis. However, the receptor that mediates netrin-1 protective activities in the colon during colitis remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that UNC5B receptor is a critical mediator of protective function of netrin-1 in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis using mice with partial deletion of UNC5B receptor. DSS colitis was performed in mice with partial genetic UNC5B deficiency (UNC5B(+/-) mice) or wild-type mice to examine the role of endogenous UNC5B. These studies were supported by in vitro models of DSS-induced apoptosis in human colon epithelial cells. WT mice developed colitis in response to DSS feeding as indicated by reduction in bw, reduction in colon length and increase in colon weight. These changes were exacerbated in heterozygous UNC5B knockout mice treated with DSS. Periodic Acid-Schiff stained section shows damages in colon epithelium and mononuclear cell infiltration in WT mice, which was further increased in UNC5B heterozygous knockout mice. This was associated with large increase in inflammatory mediators such as cytokine and chemokine expression and extensive apoptosis of epithelial cells in heterozygous knockout mice as compared to WT mice. Overexpression of UNC5B human colon epithelial cells suppressed DSS-induced apoptosis and caspase-3 activity. Moreover, DSS induced large amount of netrin-1 and shRNA mediated knockdown of netrin-1 induction exacerbated DSS-induced epithelial cell apoptosis. Our results suggest that UNC5B is a critical mediator of cell survival in response to stress in colon.

  2. Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease: factor XIII, inflammation and haemostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, R; Leugner, F; Katschinski, M; Immel, A; Kraus, M; Egbring, R; Göke, B

    1994-01-01

    An important role has been ascribed to plasma factor XIII (FXIII) in inflammation and wound healing. FXIII is necessary for fibrin stabilization and interacts with connective tissue and adhesive proteins and cells. In a prospective study, FXIII activity and parameters of coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation, were determined in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC; 13 active, 22 moderate) and Crohn's disease (CD; 36 active, 45 moderate). FXIII levels were lower in active than in moderate UC and CD, and were < 70% of normal values in 7/13 patients with active UC, and in 7/36 patients with active CD, although the median values did not fall below the normal range. FXIII was somewhat higher in active UC patients responding to therapy. The FXIII levels were widely scattered, and low values appear to be due to greatly enhanced turnover. A correlation between FXIII and the systemic levels of markers of activation of haemostasis and inflammation was lacking, but there was a correlation with the extent of bowel involvement. FXIII levels were lower in the patients with involvement beyond the sigmoid colon in CU (p = 0.0045), and both small and large bowel segments in CD (p = 0.0223) patients. This points to local consumption and/or loss of FXIII within the inflamed tissue, and provides an argument for FXIII substitution in the treatment of acute episodes of inflammatory bowel diseases.

  3. 5-ASA in ulcerative colitis: Improving treatment compliance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cosimo Prantera; Marina Rizzi

    2009-01-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds are a highly effective treatment for ulcerative colitis (UC). While UC patient compliance in clinical studies is over 90%, only 40% of patients in every day life take their prescribed therapy. Adherence to medication has been emphasized recently by a Cochrane meta-analysis that has suggested that future trials of 5-ASA in UC should look at patient compliance rather than drug efficacy. Better compliance can be obtained by reducing the number of tablets and times of administration. Given that the 5-ASA formulations have different delivery systems that split the active moiety in various regions of the intestine, it is particularly important that an adequate dose of the drug arrives at the inflamed part of the colon. 5-ASA Multi matrix (MMx) is a novel, high strength (1.2 g), oral formulation designed for once-daily dosing. It releases the active moiety throughout the colon. Different studies with this compound have shown that it is as effective as 5-ASA enema in the treatment of mild-to-moderate, left-sided UC, and is comparable to a pH-dependent, delayed release 5-ASA (Asacol(R)), even if given once daily. Recently, the effectiveness in the acute phase of UC has been confirmed also in maintenance. In conclusion, at present, 5-ASA MMx seems theoretically the best agent for maintaining patient compliance, and consequently, treatment effectiveness.

  4. Necrotic stercoral colitis: Importance of computed tomography findings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Hsien Wu; Li-Jen Wang; Yon-Cheong Wong; Chen-Chih Huang; Chien-Cheng Chen; Chao-Jan Wang; Jen-Feng Fang; Chuen Hsueh

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To study the computed tomography (CT) signs in facilitating early diagnosis of necrotic stercoral colitis(NSC).METHODS: Ten patients with surgically and pathologically confirmed NSC were recruited from the Clinico-Pathologic-Radiologic conference at Chang Gung MemorialHospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. Their CT images and medical records were reviewed retrospectively to correlate CT findings with clinical presentation.RESULTS: All these ten elderly patients with a mean age of 77.1 years presented with acute abdomen at our Emergency Room. Nine of them were with systemic medmedical disease and 8 with chronic constipation. Seven were with leukocytosis, two with low-grade fever, two with peritoneal sign, and three with hypotensive shock. Only one patient was with radiographic detected abnormal gas. Except the crux of fecal impaction, the frequency of the CT signs of NSC were, proximal colon dilatation (20%),colon wall thickening (60%), dense mucosa (62.5%),mucosal sloughing (10%), perfusion defect (70%),pericolonic stranding (80%), abnormal gas (50%) with pneumo-mesocolon (40%) in them, pericolonic abscess(20%). The most sensitive signs in decreasing order were pericolonic stranding, perfusion defect, dense mucosal,detecting about 80%, 70%, and 62.5% of the cases, respectively.CONCLUSION: Awareness of NSC and familiarity with the CT diagnostic signs enable the differential diagnosis between NSC and benign stool impaction.

  5. Antiviral treatment in patients with cytomegalovirus positive ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kadir; Ozturk

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus(CMV) is a common virus in patients with ulcerative colitis receiving immunosuppressive drugs. Many studies suggested that CMV infection is an exacerbating factor in patients with ulcerative colitis. The role of CMV in exacerbations of ulcerative colitis has been discussed. One of studies starting this discussion is an article entitled "CMV positive ulcerative colitis: A single center experience and literature review" by Kopylov et al. However, we think that there are some points that should be emphasized about the study. Especially, the small number of patients in the study has led to meaningless results. Large controlled prospective trials are needed to clarify the benefit of antiviral therapy for active ulcerative colitis patients.

  6. Pathogenesis and biomarkers of carcinogenesis in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsteinsdottir, Sigrun; Gudjonsson, Thorkell; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2011-01-01

    One of the most serious complications of ulcerative colitis is the development of colorectal cancer. Screening patients with ulcerative colitis by standard histological examination of random intestinal biopsy samples might be inefficient as a method of cancer surveillance. This Review focuses...... on the current understanding of the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer and how this knowledge can be transferred into patient management to assist clinicians and pathologists in identifying patients with ulcerative colitis who have an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Inflammation....... Although progress has been made in the understanding of inflammation-driven carcinogenesis, markers based on these findings possess insufficient sensitivity or specificity to be usable as reliable biomarkers for risk of colorectal cancer development in patients with ulcerative colitis. However, screening...

  7. Ulcerative colitis six years after colon cancer: only a coincidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakellakis M

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Minas Sakellakis,1 Thomas Makatsoris,1 Maria Gkermpesi,2 Stavros Peroukidis,1 Haralabos Kalofonos11Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, 2Department of Pathology, University, Hospital of Patras, Patras, GreeceAbstract: The association between inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer is well known. Ulcerative colitis is a risk factor for the development of colorectal cancer, and this risk increases with the activity and duration of bowel inflammation. Here we describe the case of a 52-year-old man who developed ulcerative colitis 6 years after the diagnosis and treatment of colon cancer. Although this could be a coincidence, there could be additional possibilities, like pre-existence of quiescent colitis, late effect of therapy, or maybe the existence of common pathogenetic factors contributing to the development of ulcerative colitis and colorectal cancer.Keywords: ulcerative, colitis, colorectal, cancer, inflammation

  8. A case of pseudomembranous colitis associated with rifampin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji Young; Kim, Joon Seok; Jeung, Sun Jong; Kim, Myung Sook; Kim, Seok Chan

    2004-12-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis is known to develop with long-term antibiotic administration, but antitubercular agents are rarely reported as a cause of this disease. We experienced a case of pseudomembranous colitis associated with rifampin. The patient was twice admitted to our hospital for the management of frequent bloody, mucoid, jelly-like diarrhea and lower abdominal pain that developed after antituberculosis therapy that included rifampin. Sigmoidoscopic appearance of the rectum and sigmoid colon and mucosal biopsy were compatible with pseudomembranous colitis. The antitubercular agents were discontinued and metronidazole was administered orally. The patient's symptoms were resolved within several days. The antituberculosis therapy was changed to isoniazid, ethambutol and pyrazinamide after a second bout of colitis. The patient had no further recurrence of diarrhea and abdominal pain. We report here on a case of pseudomembranous colitis associated with rifampin.

  9. Microscopic colitis: Current status, present and future challenges: statements of the European Microscopic Colitis Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münch, A; Aust, D; Bohr, J; Bonderup, O; Fernández Bañares, F; Hjortswang, H; Madisch, A; Munck, L K; Ström, M; Tysk, C; Miehlke, S

    2012-10-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory bowel disease presenting with chronic, non-bloody watery diarrhoea and few or no endoscopic abnormalities. The histological examination reveals mainly two subtypes of MC, lymphocytic or collagenous colitis. Despite the fact that the incidence in MC has been rising over the last decades, research has been sparse and our knowledge about MC remains limited. Specialists in the field have initiated the European Microscopic Colitis Group (EMCG) with the primary goal to create awareness on MC. The EMCG is furthermore a forum with the intention to promote clinical and basic research. In this article statements and comments are given that all members of the EMCG have considered being of importance for a better understanding of MC. The paper focuses on the newest updates in epidemiology, symptoms and diagnostic criteria, pathophysiology and highlights some unsolved problems. Moreover, a new treatment algorithm is proposed on the basis of new evidence from well-designed, randomized control trials. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Colonic production of nitric oxide gas in ulcerative colitis, collagenous colitis and uninflamed bowel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Nordgaard, I; Matzen, P

    2002-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) produced in excess by the inflamed human colon is generally considered a pathway of mucosal damage. In an attempt to quantify colonic mucosal production of NO in various forms of colitis we performed 'steady-state' gas perfusion of whole colon in 11 patients with ulcerative...

  11. Amoebiasis Presenting as Acute Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Imai, Jin; Mizukami, Hajime; Uda, Shuji; Yamamoto, Soichiro; Nomura, Eiji; Tajiri, Takuma; Watanabe, Norihito; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2016-12-20

    We report a case of amoebic appendicitis without colitis symptoms. Acute appendicitis is commonly encountered by gastroenterologists in their daily practice. The number of cases of amoebiasis increases annually in Japan, and is thought to be associated with an increase in sexually transmitted disease or travel to endemic areas. However, acute amoebic appendicitis is rare and the prognosis is very poor compared to nonamoebic appendicitis. In our case, appendectomy was performed immediately after onset, and the patient was discharged without complications. It is difficult to differentiate between amoebic and nonamoebic appendicitis preoperatively, and the possibility of amoebic appendicitis should be kept in mind.

  12. [Acute ischemic proctitis following an epileptic attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klintmann, C.K.; Hillingso, J.G.; Glenthøj, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Acute ischemic proctitis is a rare diagnosis mainly because the rectum is supplied by an extensive arterial network. Consequently, in more than 90% of patients with ischemic colitis the rectum is spared. Previously reported cases are related to severe vascular insufficiency of the rectal circulat......Acute ischemic proctitis is a rare diagnosis mainly because the rectum is supplied by an extensive arterial network. Consequently, in more than 90% of patients with ischemic colitis the rectum is spared. Previously reported cases are related to severe vascular insufficiency of the rectal...... circulation caused by systemic atherosclerosis, usually following aortic or aortoiliac operations. We report one case of acute ischemic proctitis following an epileptic attack Udgivelsesdato: 2008/9/29...

  13. Habitability for Complex Life and the Development and Self-Limitations of the Biotic Enhancement of Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartzman, D. W.; Volk, T.

    2014-12-01

    We submit that the tightly coupled coevolution of biota and climate is a critical driver of the self-organization of the biosphere over geologic time. The long-term carbon biogeochemical cycle includes a major influence of biology relevant to climatic, namely the biotic enhancement of weathering (BEW). According to a meta-analysis of field and experimental evidence, the likely magnitude of the present BEW is roughly two orders of magnitude, the culmination of its progressive increase over geologic time. Within the context of modeling this long-term cycle, this value can be used to estimate the likely abiotic temperature history of the Earth's surface, assuming plausible initial temperatures, and histories of volcanic outgassing and continental crust growth. The result of this modeling is that the Earth would have been habitable for thermophilic life (growing above 50 deg C) for the past 4.4 billion years, but not for low-temperature life, including plants and animals. Hence biospheric cooling due to biotic actions allowed the emergence of complex life. Much larger increases in BEW are self-limiting, since the atmospheric CO2 level would plunge below the lower limit potentially for photosynthesis, thereby driving a decline in the biological productivity and global BEW, related to reduced plant and soil activities, with the system being kept at this threshold or going back to higher CO2 levels, with scenarios dependent on volcanic outgassing and solar inputs. We will present astrobiological implications of this modeling. References: Schwartzman D (1999, 2002) Life, Temperature, and the Earth: The Self Organizing Biosphere. Columbia Univ. Press; Schwartzman, D. (2013) Keynote: The Geobiology of Weathering: The 13th Hypothesis. Goldschmidt Conference. (Schwartzman D. and Brantley S. (2013) Mineral. Mag. 77(5): 2170); Volk T (1998) Gaia's Body: Toward a Physiology of Earth. Copernicus.

  14. Crohn's and colitis in children and adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew S Day; Oren Ledder; Steven T Leach; Daniel A Lemberg

    2012-01-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis can be grouped as the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD).These conditions have become increasingly common in recent years,including in children and young people.Although much is known about aspects of the pathogenesis of these diseases,the precise aetiology is not yet understood,and there remains no cure.Recent data has illustrated the importance of a number of genes-several of these are important in the onset of IBD in early life,including in infancy.Pain,diarrhoea and weight loss are typical symptoms of paediatric Crohn's disease whereas bloody diarrhoea is more typical of colitis in children.However,atypical symptoms may occur in both conditions:these include isolated impairment of linear growth or presentation with extra-intestinal manifestations such as erythèma nodosum.Growth and nutrition are commonly compromised at diagnosis in both Crohn's disease and colitis.Consideration of possible IBD and completion of appropriate investigations are essential to ensure prompt diagnosis,thereby avoiding the consequences of diagnostic delay.Patterns of disease including location and progression of IBD in childhood differ substantially from adultonset disease.Various treatment options are available for children and adolescents with IBD.Exclusive enteral nutrition plays a central role in the induction of remission of active Crohn's disease.Medical and surgical therapies need to considered within the context of a growing and developing child.The overall management of these chronic conditions in children should include multi-disciplinary expertise,with focus upon maintaining control of gut inflammation,optimising nutrition,growth and quality of life,whilst preventing disease or treatment-related complications.

  15. Small-bowel permeability in collagenous colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildt, Signe; Madsen, Jan L; Rumessen, Jüri J

    2006-01-01

    Collagenous colitis (CC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease that affects the colon. However, some patients with CC present with accompanying pathologic small-bowel manifestations such as coeliac disease, defects in bile acid absorption and histopathologic changes in small-intestinal biopsies......, indicating that CC is a pan-intestinal disease. In small-intestinal disease, the intestinal barrier function may be impaired, and the permeability of the small intestine altered. The purpose of this research was to study small-bowel function in patients with CC as expressed by intestinal permeability....

  16. Colitis fulminante asociada a Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    BANNURA C,GUILLERMO; ROSS R,GONZALO; GABLER N,FERNANDO; ESPERGUEL G,CARLOS

    2012-01-01

    Se presenta el caso de una paciente de 46 años sometida a una artroplastía de cadera bilateral que presenta diarrea secundaria a infección por Clostridium difficile (CD), que fi1e tratada con metronidazol y vancomicina por 10 días con buena evolución. Reingresa 3 días después con un cuadro caracterizado por fiebre, compromiso del estado general, diarrea, distensión abdominal, deshidratación y signos de hipotensión. La tomografía computada (TC) mostró imágenes compatibles con colitis pseudomem...

  17. Colitis ulcerosa idiopática

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Herrera, Manuel; Patiño Camargo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Los Profesores Manuel Sánchez Herrera y Luis Patiño Camargo presentan un caso de Colitis Ulcerosa Idiopática. Hacen la exposición de motivos, presentan a la Academia la historia clínica, y detallado estudio anatomopatológico, sustentando su opinión en frente de los otros diagnósticos considerados, especialmente el de Amibiasis aguda.II En vista de tratarse de un caso controvertido, por intermedio de la Embajada de Colombia en Inglaterra consultan el concepto de autoridad del Prof. Philip Mans...

  18. [Treatment of microscopic colitis - what's new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonciarz, Maciej; Szkudłapski, Dawid; Eszyk, Jerzy; Smagacz, Justyna; Kopała, Marek

    2016-10-19

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is frequent, although still uncommonly diagnosed, cause of chronic diarrhea. The etiopathology of MC is unknown but this disease has strong influence on patient's quality of life (measured by health-related quality of life - HRQoL). MC is characterized by microscopic abnormalities in large bowel's mucosa whereas endoscopic and radiological examination findings are normal. The treatment of MC is an essential social and financial problem due to its frequency in society. Thanks to the results of some controlled research which judged efficiency of some medicines as well as advisory groups recommendations, the MC therapy is nowadays going from empiric to accordance with evidence based medicine.

  19. Colitis ulcerativa idiopática

    OpenAIRE

    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-01-01

    La colitis ulcerativa es una enfermedad crónica, inflamatoria y ulcerosa, que se origina en la mucosa del colon y se caracteriza por la inflamación crónica del tracto gastrointestinal, casi siempre por una diarrea, que puede ser profusa y sanguinolenta. Se trata de un paciente masculino, de 35 años de edad, de raza blanca, con antecedentes de salud previa, que acude al médico por presentar desde hace cuatro meses diarreas con sangre, moco y pus, acompañado de dolor abdominal, astenia, anorexi...

  20. Encapsulated mesalamine granules (Apriso) for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-18

    Apriso (Salix) is a new formulation of mesalamine (5-aminosalicylic acid; 5-ASA) approved by the FDA for maintenance of remission in mild to moderate ulcerative colitis (UC). Mesalamine is a locally acting antiinflammatory agent that is widely used both to maintain and induce remission in inflammatory bowel disease. Various mesalamine formulations have been developed to target drug delivery to areas of the small intestine and colon. Most of these agents require frequent dosing and have a high pill burden. The newest products--Lialda, introduced in 2007, and now Apriso--can be dosed once daily.

  1. Cellular and Molecular Immunopathogenesis of Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzhen Zhang; Xuhui Zhao; Dechun Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory disease of the rectal and colonic mucosa and seems to result from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment and the immune system. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of UC. Evidence from animal models also suggests that an altered immune response to the commensal microflora of the host plays a central role in the development of UC. So in this review, we elucidate the cells and molecules which are implicated in the immunopathogenesis of the disease from four aspects: antigens in the intestine, dendritic cells, toll like receptors and NF-κB in the UC.

  2. Anaerobic bacteria, the colon and colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, W E

    1980-02-01

    Anaerobic bacteria constitute more than 90% of the bacteria in the colon. An anaerobic environment is needed to maintain their growth and the production of short-chain fatty acids by these bacteria from carbohydrates. Short-chain fatty acids are rapidly absorbed and essential for metabolic as well as functional welfare of the colonic mucosa. The importance of these acids in water absorption and in the patogenesis of colitis is discussed in relation to the concept of "energy deficiency diseases" of the colonic mucosa.

  3. Histiocytic ulcerative colitis in a French bulldog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Masanari; Takase, Katsuaki

    2003-03-01

    A 9-month-old French bulldog was referred for signs of chronic large bowel diarrhea. The dog had an increased frequency of defecation, tenesmus and hematochezia. Flexible colonoscopy showed hyperemia, irregularities and ulcerations with multifocal hemorrhages in the mucosa from the descending colon to the proximal rectum. Multiple colonic biopsies were characterized by infiltrations of PAS positive histiocytes in the lamina propria. A diagnosis of histiocytic ulcerative colitis (HUC) was made, and the animal showed only minimal improvement, although it was treated with nutritional and medical therapies. This is the second case of HUC in French bulldog, a breed which has ancestral relations to Boxer dogs.

  4. Genetic Deletion of Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1/TIMP-1 Alters Inflammation and Attenuates Fibrosis in Dextran Sodium Sulphate-induced Murine Models of Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breynaert, Christine; de Bruyn, Magali; Arijs, Ingrid; Cremer, Jonathan; Martens, Erik; Van Lommel, Leentje; Geboes, Karel; De Hertogh, Gert; Schuit, Frans; Ferrante, Marc; Vermeire, Séverine; Ceuppens, Jan; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Van Assche, Gert

    2016-11-01

    Increased levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 [TIMP-1] have been detected in both inflammatory and fibrotic lesions in Crohn's disease. In a murine model of chronic inflammation, fibrosis was associated with an increase in TIMP-1 and inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-mediated degradation. We investigated the effect of TIMP-1 deficiency in acute and chronic murine models of colitis. Colitis was induced via oral administration of dextran sodium sulphate [DSS] to B6.129S4-Timp1(tm1Pds)/J knock-out [KO] and C57BL/6J wild-type [WT] mice. Levels of inflammation and fibrosis were assessed and gelatin zymographies and gene expression microarrays were performed. Compared with WT mice, TIMP-1 KO mice had higher inflammatory parameters after acute DSS administration and developed less fibrosis after chronic DSS administration. MMP-2 levels were increased in WT versus TIMP-1 KO mice with acute colitis, whereas a trend for higher proMMP-9 levels was observed in WT versus TIMP-1 KO mice with chronic colitis. In control conditions, several immune-related genes [e.g Ido1, Cldn8] were differentially expressed between young TIMP-1 KO and WT mice, but to a lesser extent between older TIMP-1 KO and WT mice. In response to DSS, the gene expression pattern was significantly different between young TIMP-1 KO and WT mice, whereas it was similar in older TIMP-1 KO and WT mice. TIMP-1 deficiency leads to differential expression of immune-related genes and to attenuated development of fibrosis. Unravelling the role of TIMP-1 in intestinal remodelling is necessary to develop more effective and more targeted therapeutic strategies for intestinal fibrosis. Copyright © 2016 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Transhepatic fibrinolysis of mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis in a patient with ulcerative colitis: A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alfredo Guglielmi; Francesca Fior; Orsolya Halmos; Gian Franco Veraldi; Lorenzo Rossaro; Andrea Ruzzenente; Claudio Cordiano

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To present a case of acute mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis treated with thrombolytic therapy in a patient with ulcerative colitis in acute phase and to review the literature on thrombolytic therapy of mesenteric-portal system. Treatment of acute portal vein thrombosis has ranged from conservative treatment with thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy to surgical treatment with thrombectomy and/or intestinal resection.METHODS: We treated our patient with intraportal infusion of plasminogen activator and then heparin through a percutaneous transhepatic catheter.RESULTS: Thrombus resolved despite premature interruption of the thrombolytic treatment for neurological complications, which subsequently resolved.CONCLUSION: Conservative management with plasminogen activator, could be considered as a good treatment for patients with acute porto-mesenteric thrombosis.

  6. Inhibitory Effect of Recombinant IL-25 on the Development of Dextran Sulfate Sodium Induced Experimental Colitis in Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.S. Salum Mchenga; Danan Wang; Cheng Li; Fengping Shan; Changlong Lu

    2008-01-01

    The role of interleukin 25 (IL-25) in a number of human diseases still has not been extensively studied, here we attempt to evaluate the role of recombinant IL-25 (rIL-25) in the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)induced experimental colitis. Acute colitis was induced in female C57BL/6 mice by oral administration of 2.5% DSS in drinking water ad libitum. At the same time as the start of DSS exposure, mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.4 μg of rIL-25 or PBS. Then disease activity index (DAI), histological changes and survival rate were observed. The levels of IL-17, IL-23, and TGF-β1 in colon tissues were determined by ELISA, and the production of IL-17 by CD4+/CD8+ T cells was detected by intracellular flow cytometry. In contrast to the DSS treated mice, DSS + rIL-25 treated mice displayed a lower DAI, limited histological changes and prolonged survival. The levels of IL-23 and TGF-β1 were significantly elevated in the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice compared to the DSS treated mice. There was no significant difference in the production of IL-17 in colon tissues and CD4+/CD8+ T cells between the DSS + rIL-25 treated mice and DSS treated mice. Our findings suggest the role of IL-25 in inhibiting development and progression of acute colitis in DSS-induced mouse colitis model. Cellular & Molecular Immunology. 2008;5(6):425-431.

  7. Diagnostic Yield of Microscopic Colitis in Open Access Endoscopy Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Derek; Miick, Ronald; Chang, Faye; Hillard, Robert; Choudhary, Abhishek; Ashraf, Imran; Bechtold, Matthew; Diaz-Arias, Alberto

    2011-08-01

    The diagnostic yield in open access endoscopy has been evaluated which generally support the effectiveness and efficiency of open access endoscopy. With a few exceptions, diagnostic yield studies have not been performed in open access endoscopy for more specific conditions. Therefore, we conducted a study to determine the efficiency of open access endoscopy in the detection of microscopic colitis as compared to traditional referral via a gastroenterologist. A retrospective search of the pathology database at the University of Missouri for specimens from a local open access endoscopy center was conducted via SNOMED code using the terms: "microscopic", "lymphocytic", "collagenous", "spirochetosis", "focal active colitis", "melanosis coli" and "histopathologic" in the diagnosis line for the time period between January 1, 2004 and May 25, 2006. Specimens and colonoscopy reports were reviewed by a single pathologist. Of 266 consecutive patients with chronic diarrhea and normal colonoscopies, the number of patients with microscopic disease are as follows: Lymphocytic colitis (n = 12, 4.5%), collagenous colitis (n = 17, 6.4%), focal active colitis (n = 15, 5.6%), and spirochetosis (n = 2, 0.4%). The diagnostic yield of microscopic colitis in this study of an open access endoscopy center does not differ significantly from that seen in major medical centers. In terms of diagnostic yield, open access endoscopy appears to be as effective in diagnosing microscopic colitis.

  8. Grim19 Attenuates DSS Induced Colitis in an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Kyung; Lee, Seung Hoon; Lee, Seon-Young; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Kwon, Jeong-Eun; Seo, Hyeon-Beom; Lee, Han Hee; Lee, Bo-In; Park, Sung-Hwan; Cho, Mi-La

    2016-01-01

    DSS induced colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract, which destabilizes the gut and induces an uncontrolled immune response. Although DSS induced colitis is generally thought to develop as a result of an abnormally active intestinal immune system, its pathogenesis remains unclear. Gene associated with retinoid interferon induced mortality (Grim) 19 is an endogenous specific inhibitor of STAT3, which regulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. In this study, we investigated the influence of GRIM19 in a DSS induced colitis mouse model. We hypothesized that Grim19 would ameliorate DSS induced colitis by altering STAT3 activity and intestinal inflammation. Grim19 ameliorated DSS induced colitis severity and protected intestinal tissue. The expression of STAT3 and proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β and TNF-α in colon and lymph nodes was decreased significantly by Grim19. Moreover, DSS induced colitis progression in a Grim19 transgenic mouse line was inhibited in association with a reduction in STAT3 and IL-17 expression. These results suggest that Grim19 attenuates DSS induced colitis by suppressing the excessive inflammatory response mediated by STAT3 activation.

  9. Obstructive ileus caused by phlebosclerotic colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Heo, Ju Yeol; Paik, Woo Hyun; Bae, Won Ki; Kim, Nam-Hoon; Kim, Kyung-Ah; Lee, June Sung

    2016-01-01

    A 57-year-old man with chronic kidney disease and a history of using numerous herbal medications visited Inje University Ilsan Paik Hospital for abdominal pain and vomiting. An abdominal radiograph showed diffuse small bowel distension containing multiple air-fluid levels and extensive calcifications along the colon. Computed tomography showed colon wall thickening with diffuse calcification along the colonic mesenteric vein and colonic wall. Colonoscopy, performed without bowel preparation, showed bluish edematous mucosa from the transverse to the distal sigmoid colon, with multiple scar changes. At the mid transverse colon, a stricture was noted and the scope could not pass through. A biopsy of the stricture site revealed nonspecific changes. The patient was diagnosed with phlebosclerotic colitis. After the colonoscopy, the obstructive ileus spontaneously resolved, and the patient was discharged without an operation. Currently, after 2 months of follow-up, the patient has remained asymptomatic. Herein, we report the rare case of an obstructive ileus caused by phlebosclerotic colitis with a colon stricture. PMID:27799889

  10. Golimumab for the treatment of ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Löwenberg M

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Mark Löwenberg,1 Nanne KH de Boer,2 Frank Hoentjen3 1Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 2Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, VU University Medical Centre, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; 3Inflammatory Bowel Disease Center, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Abstract: The introduction of therapeutic antibodies against tumor necrosis factor (TNF had a major impact on the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC. Infliximab and adalimumab are powerful agents that are used for remission induction and maintenance therapy in UC and have an acceptable safety profile. However, a proportion of UC patients for whom therapy with anti-TNF agents is indicated fail or become intolerant to treatment with infliximab or adalimumab. Hence, there remains an unmet need for novel anti-TNF agents. Golimumab (Simponi®, a human anti-TNF antibody that is administered by monthly subcutaneous injections, is the most recently introduced TNF blocker for the treatment of UC. Here, we will discuss recent literature on clinical efficacy and safety of golimumab induction and maintenance treatment in patients with UC. Furthermore, we will discuss the positioning of golimumab for UC in current treatment algorithms. Keywords: ulcerative colitis, UC, antitumor necrosis factor, TNF, antibodies, golimumab

  11. Colitis ulcerativa idiopática

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Torreblanca Xiques

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available La colitis ulcerativa es una enfermedad crónica, inflamatoria y ulcerosa, que se origina en la mucosa del colon y se caracteriza por la inflamación crónica del tracto gastrointestinal, casi siempre por una diarrea, que puede ser profusa y sanguinolenta. Se trata de un paciente masculino, de 35 años de edad, de raza blanca, con antecedentes de salud previa, que acude al médico por presentar desde hace cuatro meses diarreas con sangre, moco y pus, acompañado de dolor abdominal, astenia, anorexia y pérdida de peso, y en ocasiones de fiebre de 39 grados centígrados. Se realizaron estudios hematológicos, radiológicos y endoscópicos. Se confirmó el diagnóstico por anatomía patológica de colitis ulcerativa idiopática. Se aplicó terapéutica actualizada con el uso de mesalazina. El paciente evolucionó satisfactoriamente

  12. Diagnosis and classification of ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Karsten; Roggenbuck, Dirk; Laass, Martin W

    2014-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic relapsing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) characterised by superficial mucosal ulceration, rectal bleeding, diarrhoea, and abdominal pain. In contrast to Crohn's disease (CrD), UC is restricted to the colon and the inflammation is limited to the mucosal layer. Classic UC affects the colon in a retrograde and continuous fashion starting from the rectum and extending proximally. Dependent on the anatomic extent of involvement, UC can be classified as proctitis, left-sided colitis, or pancolitis. Inflammatory arthropathies and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) are the most common and clinically most important extraintestinal manifestations of UC. The aetiopathogenesis of UC is incompletely understood, but immune-mediated mechanisms are responsible for dysregulated immune responses against intraluminal antigens in genetically predisposed individuals. The diagnosis is based on the history, as well as clinical, radiological, endoscopic and histological features. Autoantibodies, mainly antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) and anti-goblet cell antibodies (GAB) may be helpful in the early diagnosis of UC and in differentiating it from CrD.

  13. Prebiotics and synbiotics in ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, Axel; Sjöberg, Klas

    2017-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon with unclear pathogenesis. A dysbiotic intestinal microbiota is regarded as a key component in the disease process and there has been significant interest in developing new treatments which target the microbiota. To give an overview of the studies to date investigating prebiotics and synbiotics for the treatment of UC. A literature search of PubMed and related search engines was carried out using the terms "ulcerative colitis" in combination with "prebiotic", "synbiotic" or "dietary fibre". In total 17 studies on humans examining the effect of prebiotics in UC were found. Five major groups could be distinguished. Fructo-oligosaccharides were tried in six studies (mean 35 patients included, range 9-121). One study found a clinical response while two demonstrated indirect evidence of an effect. Germinated barley foodstuff was used in 8 studies (mean 38 patients, range 10-63). One study found an endoscopic response, while four noted a clinical response and two some indirect effects. Galacto-oligosaccharides, lactulose and resveratrol were used in one study each (mean 48 patients, range 41-52). One study found an endoscopic response and one a clinical response. There is yet inadequate evidence - especially in humans - to support any particular prebiotic in the clinical management of UC. However, due to the bulk of evidence supporting the effect of the microbiota on colonic inflammation, there is enough potential to justify further high-quality clinical trials investigating this subject.

  14. Management and treatment of distal ulcerative colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Calafiore

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ulcerative colitis (UC is a chronic inflammatory condition that is confined to the colonic mucosa. Its main symptoms include diarrhea, rectal bleeding and abdominal pain. Approximately two-thirds of UC patients have disease confined distal to the splenic flexure, which can be treated effectively with topical therapy. This means the active drug can be delivered directly to the site of inflammation, limiting the systemic absorption and potential side effects. Topical treatment with aminosalicylates is the most effective approach in the treatment of these forms, provided that the formulation reaches the upper margin of the disease. Given this, the suppository formulation is the treatment of choice for proctitis and distal sigmoiditis. Thanks to their proximal spread, enemas, foams and gels represent the treatment of choice for proctosigmoiditis and for distal ulcerative colitis. Oral aminosalicylates are less effective than topical therapies in patients with active disease, while the combination of topical and oral treatment is more effective in patients refractory to topical or oral mono-therapy. Topically administered aminosalicylates play an important role in the maintenance of remission, but the long-term adhesion to therapy is poor. For this reason, the oral formulation is the first-line therapy in the maintenance of remission. Refractory patients can be treated with topical steroids or systemic steroids and TNF-alpha inhibitors in severe forms.

  15. Golimumab: clinical update on its use for ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardi, D; Fiorino, G; Allocca, M; Bravatà, I; Danese, S

    2015-03-01

    Monoclonal antibodies directed against tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNF-α agents) have dramatically changed the therapeutical approach to inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. A new anti-TNF drug, golimumab, has recently been approved for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis. Its efficacy has been demonstrated by preclinical and clinical studies and the drug showed an efficacy and safety profile in line with the other anti-TNF agents, such as infliximab and adalimumab. This review gives an overview on golimumab in the treatment of moderate to severe ulcerative colitis.

  16. The temporal evolution of histological abnormalities in microscopic colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Julie; Heiberg Engel, Peter Johan; Wildt, Signe

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Microscopic colitis (MC) is a common cause of chronic watery diarrhoea but long-term follow-up data are sparse. Methods: We performed a retrospective review of health records and all pathology reports in a regional cohort of patients with MC to describe the change in pre......- and post-diagnostic colon biopsies. Results: MC was diagnosed in 468 patients with collagenous colitis (CC), 361 with lymphocytic colitis (LC) and 226 with incomplete MC (MCi). The 2014 incidence of CC, LC and MCi was 14.5, 14.9 and 5 per 105. Biopsies from both right and left colon were obtained in 237...

  17. Edible ginger-derived nanoparticles: A novel therapeutic approach for the prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel disease and colitis-associated cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Viennois, Emilie; Prasad, Meena; Zhang, Yunchen; Wang, Lixin; Zhang, Zhan; Han, Moon Kwon; Xiao, Bo; Xu, Changlong; Srinivasan, Shanthi; Merlin, Didier

    2016-09-01

    There is a clinical need for new, more effective treatments for chronic and debilitating inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In this study, we characterized a specific population of nanoparticles derived from edible ginger (GDNPs 2) and demonstrated their efficient colon targeting following oral administration. GDNPs 2 had an average size of ∼230 nm and exhibited a negative zeta potential. These nanoparticles contained high levels of lipids, a few proteins, ∼125 microRNAs (miRNAs), and large amounts of ginger bioactive constituents (6-gingerol and 6-shogaol). We also demonstrated that GDNPs 2 were mainly taken up by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and macrophages, and were nontoxic. Using different mouse colitis models, we showed that GDNPs 2 reduced acute colitis, enhanced intestinal repair, and prevented chronic colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). 2D-DIGE/MS analyses further identified molecular target candidates of GDNPs 2 involved in these mouse models. Oral administration of GDNPs 2 increased the survival and proliferation of IECs and reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β), and increased the anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and IL-22) in colitis models, suggesting that GDNPs 2 has the potential to attenuate damaging factors while promoting the healing effect. In conclusion, GDNPs 2, nanoparticles derived from edible ginger, represent a novel, natural delivery mechanism for improving IBD prevention and treatment with an added benefit of overcoming limitations such as potential toxicity and limited production scale that are common with synthetic nanoparticles.

  18. Experimental colitis in rats induces de novo synthesis of cytokines at distant intestinal sites: role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourad, Fadi H; Hamdi, Tamim; Barada, Kassem A; Saadé, Nayef E

    2016-06-01

    Increased levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed in various segments of histologically-intact small intestine in animal models of acute and chronic colitis. Whether these cytokines are produced locally or spread from the inflamed colon is not known. In addition, the role of gut innervation in this upregulation is not fully understood. To examine whether cytokines are produced de novo in the small intestine in two rat models of colitis; and to investigate the role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in the synthesis of these inflammatory cytokines. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of iodoacetamide (IA) or trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Using reverse transcriptase (RT) and real-time PCR, TNF-α, and IL-10 mRNA expression was measured in mucosal scrapings of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon at different time intervals after induction of colitis. Capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA) were ablated using subcutaneous injections of capsaicin at time 0, 8 and 32 h, and the experiment was repeated at specific time intervals to detect any effect on cytokines expression. TNF-α mRNA expression increased by 3-40 times in the different intestinal segments (pcolitis. CSPA ablation completely inhibited this upregulation in the small intestine, but not in the colon. Similar results were obtained in TNBS-induced colitis at 24 h. Intestinal IL-10 mRNA expression significantly decreased at 12 h and then increased by 6-43 times (pcolitis induction, respectively (both pcolitis induction. Inflammatory cytokines are produced de novo in distant intestinal segments in colitis. CSPA fibers play a key role in the upregulation of this synthesis.

  19. Low molecular weight heparin relieves experimental colitis in mice by downregulating IL-1β and inhibiting syndecan-1 shedding in the intestinal mucosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-fei Wang

    Full Text Available Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH exhibits anti-inflammatory properties, but its effect on inflammation in colitis remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effects of LMWH on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced colitis in mice, in which acute colitis progresses to chronic colitis, and to explore the potential mechanism involved in this process. C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control, DSS, and DSS plus LMWH groups (n = 18. Disease activity was scored by a disease activity index (DAI. Histological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE staining. The mRNA levels of syndecan-1, interleukin (IL-1β, and IL-10 were determined by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Protein expression of syndecan-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry. The serum syndecan-1 level was examined by a dot immunobinding assay. LMWH ameliorated the disease activity of colitis induced by DSS administration in mice. Colon destruction with the appearance of crypt damage, goblet cell loss, and a larger ulcer was found on day 12 after DSS administration, which was greatly relieved by the treatment of LMWH. LMWH upregulated syndecan-1 expression in the intestinal mucosa and reduced the serum syndecan-1 level on days 12 and 20 after DSS administration (P<0.05 vs. DSS group. In addition, LMWH significantly decreased the expression of both IL-1β and IL-10 mRNA on days 12 and 20 (P<0.05 vs. DSS group. LMWH has therapeutic effects on colitis by downregulating inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting syndecan-1 shedding in the intestinal mucosa.

  20. Longitudinal analysis of inflammation and microbiota dynamics in a model of mild chronic dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Fazio, Luigia; Cavazza, Elena; Spisni, Enzo; Strillacci, Antonio; Centanni, Manuela; Candela, Marco; Praticò, Chiara; Campieri, Massimo; Ricci, Chiara; Valerii, Maria Chiara

    2014-02-28

    To characterize longitudinally the inflammation and the gut microbiota dynamics in a mouse model of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. In animal models, the most common method used to trigger colitis is based on the oral administration of the sulfated polysaccharides DSS. The murine DSS colitis model has been widely adopted to induce severe acute, chronic or semi-chronic colitis, and has been validated as an important model for the translation of mice data to human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, it is now clear that models characterized by mild intestinal damage are more accurate for studying the effects of therapeutic agents. For this reason, we have developed a murine model of mild colitis to study longitudinally the inflammation and microbiota dynamics during the intestinal repair processes, and to obtain data suitable to support the recovery of gut microbiota-host homeostasis. All plasma cytokines evaluated, except IL-17, began to increase (P microbiota. After 3 d of DSS administration, we observed a major reduction in Bacteroidetes/Prevotella and a corresponding increase in Bacillaceae, with respect to control mice. In particular, Bacteroidetes/Prevotella decreased from a relative abundance of 59.42%-33.05%, while Bacillaceae showed a concomitant increase from 2.77% to 10.52%. Gut microbiota rapidly shifted toward a healthy profile during the recovery phase and returned normal 4 d after DSS withdrawal. Cyclooxygenase 2 expression started to increase 4 d after DSS withdrawal (P < 0.05), when dysbiosis had recovered, and continued to increase during the recovery phase. Taken together, these data indicated that a chronic phase of intestinal inflammation, characterized by the absence of dysbiosis, could be obtained in mice using a single DSS cycle. Dysbiosis contributes to the local and systemic inflammation that occurs in the DSS model of colitis; however, chronic bowel inflammation is maintained even after recovery from dysbiosis.

  1. Ciprofloxacin induced acute generallised exanthematous pustulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Caterina Foti; Paolo Romita; Giovanni Zanframundo; Mario Mastrolonardo; Gianni Angelini; Gianfranco Calogiuri; Eustacchio Nettis; Domenico Bonamonte

    2017-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is an uncommon and self-limiting skin rash commonly caused by drugs and is characterized by the acute onset of fever, pustulosis, and neutrophilia from 4 to 10 days after the drug intake. We describe a case of AGEP in a 61-year-old woman that was hospitalized for the acute onset of fever, erythroderma, and pustulosis. Clinical history revealed that she had been treating a bacterial inguinal intertrigo for 4 days with ciprofloxacin 500 mg table...

  2. Concomitant herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis in a man with ulcerative colitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phadke, Varun K.; Friedman-Moraco, Rachel J.; Quigley, Brian C.; Farris, Alton B.; Norvell, J. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Herpesvirus infections often complicate the clinical course of patients with inflammatory bowel disease; however, invasive disease due to herpes simplex virus is distinctly uncommon. Methods: We present a case of herpes simplex virus colitis and hepatitis, review all the previously published cases of herpes simplex virus colitis, and discuss common clinical features and outcomes. We also discuss the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and management of herpes simplex virus infections, focusing specifically on patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Results: A 43-year-old man with ulcerative colitis, previously controlled with an oral 5-aminosalicylic agent, developed symptoms of a colitis flare that did not respond to treatment with systemic corticosteroid therapy. One week later he developed orolabial ulcers and progressive hepatic dysfunction, with markedly elevated transaminases and coagulopathy. He underwent emergent total colectomy when imaging suggested bowel micro-perforation. Pathology from both the colon and liver was consistent with herpes simplex virus infection, and a viral culture of his orolabial lesions and a serum polymerase chain reaction assay also identified herpes simplex virus. He was treated with systemic antiviral therapy and made a complete recovery. Conclusions: Disseminated herpes simplex virus infection with concomitant involvement of the colon and liver has been reported only 3 times in the published literature, and to our knowledge this is the first such case in a patient with inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of invasive herpes simplex virus infections increases with some, but not all immunomodulatory therapies. Optimal management of herpes simplex virus in patients with inflammatory bowel disease includes targeted prophylactic therapy for patients with evidence of latent infection, and timely initiation of antiviral therapy for those patients suspected to have invasive disease. PMID:27759636

  3. Microscopic colitis: a descriptive clinical cohort study of 795 patients with collagenous and lymphocytic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellander, Marie-Rose; Ekbom, Anders; Hultcrantz, Rolf; Löfberg, Robert; Öst, Åke; Björk, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic colitis is a common cause of chronic diarrhoea in the Scandinavian countries. This report comprises demographic data, clinical and endoscopic features, and occurrence of coeliac and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in a large urban cohort of patients with lymphocytic colitis (LC) and collagenous colitis (CC). A total of 795 patients with microscopic colitis from two hospitals in Stockholm were included. Medical records were reviewed and clinical data, including endoscopic and histological findings, were compiled. Forty-three percent had CC (female:male ratio 3.7:1) and 57% had LC (female:male ratio 2.7:1). The mean age at diagnosis of CC was 63 years and of LC was 59 years (p = 0.005). Clinical features were similar in both entities, but the intensity of symptoms differed. Watery diarrhoea was reported in 55% in CC patients versus in 43% in LC patients (p = 0.0014), and nocturnal diarrhoea in 28% versus 18% (p = 0.002). Subtle endoscopic mucosal findings were reported in 37% of the CC patients and in 25% of the LC patients (p = 0.0011). Colorectal adenomatous polyps were found in 5.3% of all patients. Coeliac disease occurred in 6% and IBD occurred in 2.1% of all patients. Clinical features of LC and CC are similar but not identical. CC seems to be a more severe type of bowel inflammation and LC tends to occur earlier in life. Both forms might indeed feature endoscopic findings despite the designation 'microscopic'. Our study confirms the strong association with coeliac disease.

  4. Spectrum of non-inflammatory bowel disease and non-infectious colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ioannis E Koutroubakis

    2008-01-01

    A variety of inflammatory diseases of the colon,which can be differentiated from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and infectious colitis by their clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics,are reported as nonIBD and non-infectious colitis.These diseases include microscopic colitis,ischemic colitis,segmental colitis associated with diverticula,radiation colitis,diversion colitis,eosinophilic colitis and Behcet's colitis.The etiopathogenesis of most of these diseases remains obscure and the epidemiological data are rather limited.These conditions are often troublesome for the patient and are associated with diagnostic difficulties for the physician.In many cases the treatment is empirical and there is a need for future research using randomized controlled trials.

  5. Cytomegalovirus colitis in hospitalized inflammatory bowel disease patients in Taiwan: a referral center study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meng-Tzu; Tung, Chien-Chih; Lee, Yi-Shuan; Leong, Yew-Loong; Shieh, Ming-Jium; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wang, Cheng-Yi; Wong, Jau-Min; Wei, Shu-Chen

    2017-02-13

    Colitis is exacerbated in patients with concurrent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We assessed the prevalence and clinical features of CMV colitis in hospitalized IBD patients. A retrospective study reviewed the data from January 1, 1998 through December 31, 2013 compiled at the National Taiwan University Hospital. The CMV colitis patients' demographic data, clinical information, treatment regimens, pathologic findings, and outcome were analyzed. A total of 673 IBD patients were hospitalized during the study period. There were 312 patients diagnosed with Crohn's disease (CD) and 361 with ulcerative colitis (UC). CMV colitis was diagnosed as having positive inclusion bodies in colonic tissue. Six of the 312 CD patients (1.9%) and five of the 361 UC patients (1.4%) were diagnosed with CMV colitis. Compared to CD patients without CMV colitis, patients with CMV colitis were more often older (p colitis flare-ups after the index admission. The prevalence of CMV colitis in hospitalized IBD inpatients was 1.6% in Taiwan. Two associated factors for CMV colitis in hospitalized IBD patients were that they were elderly in CD and were on higher doses of steroids. Routine histopathology studies and/or PCR for refractory colitis patients are suggested to diagnose CMV colitis. Once the diagnosis is made, antiviral treatment is recommended to decrease the colitis relapse rate.

  6. Laboratory markers in ulcerative colitis: Current insights and future advances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michele; Cioffi; Antonella; De; Rosa; Rosalba; Serao; Ilaria; Picone; Maria; Teresa; Vietri

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis(UC)and Crohn’s disease(CD)are the major forms of inflammatory bowel diseases(IBD)in man.Despite some common features,these forms can be distinguished by different genetic predisposition,risk factors and clinical,endoscopic and histological characteristics.The aetiology of both CD and UC remains unknown,but several evidences suggest that CD and perhaps UC are due to an excessive immuneresponse directed against normal constituents of the intestinal bacterial flora.Tests sometimes invasive are routine for the diagnosis and care of patients with IBD.Diagnosis of UC is based on clinical symptoms combined with radiological and endoscopic investigations.The employment of non-invasive biomarkers is needed.These biomarkers have the potential to avoid invasive diagnostic tests that may result in discomfort and potential complications.The ability to determine the type,severity,prognosis and response to therapy of UC,using biomarkers has long been a goal of clinical researchers.We describe the biomarkers assessed in UC,with special reference to acute-phase proteins and serologic markers and thereafter,we describe the new biological markers and the biological markers could be developed in the future:(1)serum markers of acute phase response:The laboratory tests most used to measure the acute-phase proteins in clinical practice are the serum concentration of C-reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate.Other biomarkers of inflammation in UC include platelet count,leukocyte count,and serum albumin and serum orosomucoid concentrations;(2)serologic markers/antibodies:In the last decades serological and immunologic biomarkers have been studied extensively in immunology and have been used in clinical practice to detect specific pathologies.In UC,the presence of these antibodies can aid as surrogate markers for the aberrant host immune response;and(3)future biomarkers:The development of biomarkers in UC will be very important in the future.The progress

  7. Pivotal Role of Carbohydrate Sulfotransferase 15 in Fibrosis and Mucosal Healing in Mouse Colitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Suzuki

    Full Text Available Induction of mucosal healing (MH is an important treatment goal in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Although the molecular mechanisms underlying MH in IBD is not fully explored, local fibrosis would contribute to interfere mucosal repair. Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 15 (CHST15, which catalyzes sulfation of chondroitin sulfate to produce rare E-disaccharide units, is a novel mediator to create local fibrosis. Here we have used siRNA-based approach of silencing CHST15 in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS induced colitis in mice, human colon fibroblasts and cancer cell lines. In a DSS-induced acute colitis model, CHST15 siRNA reduced CHST15 mRNA in the colon, serum IL-6, disease activity index (DAI and accumulation of F4/80+ macrophages and ER-TR7+ fibroblasts, while increased Ki-67+ epithelial cells. In DSS-induced chronic colitis models, CHST15 siRNA reduced CHST15 mRNA in the colon, DAI, alpha-smooth muscle actin+ fibroblasts and collagen deposition, while enhanced MH as evidenced by reduced histological and endoscopic scores. We also found that endoscopic submucosal injection achieved effective pancolonic delivery of CHST15 siRNA in mice. In human CCD-18 Co cells, CHST15 siRNA inhibited the expression of CHST15 mRNA and selectively reduced E-units, a specific product biosynthesized by CHST15, in the culture supernatant. CHST15 siRNA significantly suppressed vimentin in both TGF-ß-stimulated CCD18-Co cells and HCT116 cells while up-regulated BMP7 and E-cadherin in HCT116 cells. The present study demonstrated that blockade CHST15 represses colonic fibrosis and enhances MH partly though reversing EMT pathway, illustrating a novel therapeutic opportunity to refractory and fibrotic lesions in IBD.

  8. Selecting lactic acid bacteria for their safety and functionality by use of a mouse colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Catherine; Poiret, Sabine; Goudercourt, Denise; Dennin, Veronique; Leyer, Gregory; Pot, Bruno

    2006-09-01

    Studies showed that specific probiotics might provide therapeutic benefits in inflammatory bowel disease. However, a rigorous screening of new probiotics is needed to study possible adverse interactions with the host, particularly when intended for administration to individuals with certain health risks. In this context, the objective of this study was to investigate the role of three lactobacilli (LAB) on intestinal inflammation and bacterial translocation using variations of the mouse model of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis. We first compared the in vitro ability of LAB to survive gastrointestinal tract (GIT) conditions and their ability to persist in the GIT of mice following daily oral administration. As a control, we included a nonprobiotic Lactobacillus paracasei strain, previously isolated from an endocarditis patient. Feeding high doses of LAB strains to healthy and to TNBS-treated mice did not induce any detrimental effect or abnormal translocation of the bacteria. Oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius Ls-33 had a significant preventive effect on colitis in mice, while Lactobacillus plantarum Lp-115 and Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM did not. None of the three selected LAB strains translocated to extraintestinal organs of TNBS-treated mice. In contrast, L. paracasei exacerbated colitis under severe inflammatory conditions and translocated to extraintestinal organs. This study showed that evaluations of the safety and functionality of new probiotics are recommended. We conclude that not all lactobacilli have similar effects on intestinal inflammation and that selected probiotics such as L. salivarius Ls-33 may be considered in the prevention or treatment of intestinal inflammation.

  9. Gallic acid attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced experimental colitis in BALB/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandurangan AK

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Ashok Kumar Pandurangan,1,2 Nooshin Mohebali,2 Mohd Esa Norhaizan,1,3 Chung Yeng Looi2 1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia; 3Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, MalaysiaAbstract: Gallic acid (GA is a polyhydroxy phenolic compound that has been detected in various natural products, such as green tea, strawberries, grapes, bananas, and many other fruits. In inflammatory bowel disease, inflammation is promoted by oxidative stress. GA is a strong antioxidant; thus, we evaluated the cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory role of GA in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS-induced mouse colitis model. Experimental acute colitis was induced in male BALB/c mice by administering 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days. The disease activity index; colon weight/length ratio; histopathological analysis; mRNA expressions of IL-21 and IL-23; and protein expression of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 were compared between the control and experimental mice. The colonic content of malondialdehyde and the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase activity were examined as parameters of the redox state. We determined that GA significantly attenuated the disease activity index and colon shortening, and reduced the histopathological evidence of injury. GA also significantly (P<0.05 reduced the expressions of IL-21 and IL-23. Furthermore, GA activates/upregulates the expression of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, including UDP-GT and NQO1, in DSS-induced mice. The findings of this study demonstrate the protective effect of GA on experimental colitis, which is probably due to an antioxidant nature of GA.Keywords: IL-21, NQO1, MDA, enzymic antioxidants

  10. Anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping Zheng; Feng-Li Niu; Wen-Zhong Liu; Yao Shi; Lun-Gen Lu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory mechanism of oxymatrine in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis of rats.METHODS: Acute colitis was induced by giving 2% DSS orally in drinking water for 8 d. Twenty-six male rats were randomized into oxymatrine-treated group (group A, 10rats), DSS control (group B, 10 rats) and normal control (group C, 6 rats). The rats in group A were injected from d 1 to 11 and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11.The rats in group B were treated with 0.9% saline in an equal volume as group A and drank 2% DSS solution from d 4 to 11. The rats in group C were treated with 0.9% saline as group B from d 1 to 11 and drank water normally. Diarrhea and bloody stool as well as colonic histology were observed. The levels of serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) were determined by ELISA, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)activity and the expression of inter-cellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in colonic mucosa were detected by immunohistochernistry method.RESULTS: Compared with DSS control group, the inflammatory symptoms and histological damages of colonic mucosa in oxymatrine-treated group were significantly improved, the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB, ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa were significantly reduced.CONCLUSION: The fact that oxymatrine can reduce the serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and the expression of NF-κB and ICAM-1 in colonic mucosa in DSS-induced colitis of rats indicates that oxymatrine may ameliorate the colonic inflammation and thus alleviate diarrhea and bloody stool.

  11. Clostridium difficile causing acute renal failure: Case presentation and review

    OpenAIRE

    Arrich, Jasmin; Sodeck, Gottfried H.; Sengölge, Gürkan; Konnaris, Christoforos; Müllner, Marcus; Anton N Laggner; Domanovits, Hans

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Clostridium difficile infection is primarily a nosocomial infection but asymptomatic carriers of Clostridium difficile can be found in up to 5% of the general population. Ampicillin, cephalosporins and clindamycin are the antibiotics that are most frequently associated with Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea or colitis. Little is known about acute renal failure as a consequence of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea.

  12. Extraintestinal manifestations in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isene, Rune; Bernklev, Tomm; Høie, Ole

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (Crohn's disease [CD] and ulcerative colitis [UC]), symptoms from outside the gastrointestinal tract are frequently seen, and the joints, skin, eyes, and hepatobiliary area are the most usually affected sites (called extraintestinal...

  13. Clostridium difficile Infection Worsens the Prognosis of Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Negrón

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of Clostridium difficile infections among ulcerative colitis (UC patients is well characterized. However, there is little knowledge regarding the association between C difficile infections and postoperative complications among UC patients.

  14. Faecal mucus degrading glycosidases in ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, J M; Gallimore, R; Elias, E; Allan, R N; Kennedy, J F

    1985-08-01

    Because the normal faecal flora includes bacteria which can produce mucus-digesting glycosidases, it follows that increased digestion of colonic mucus by these bacterial enzymes could be important in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. Faecal activities of potential mucus-degrading glycosidases have therefore been assayed in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease and normal controls. The enzymes alpha-D-galactosidase, beta-D-galactosidase, beta-NAc-D-glucosaminidase alpha-L-fucosidase and neuraminidase were assayed. Considerable glycosidase activity was present in most faecal samples. Similar activities of all the enzymes assayed were found in faeces from patients with ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and normal controls and there was no significant correlation with disease activity. These results imply that relapse of ulcerative colitis is not initiated by increased degradation of colonic mucus by faecal glycosidases but do not exclude a role for bacterial mucus degradation in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis.

  15. A Review of Qingchang Shuan for Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Yan-cheng; TANG Zhi-peng; MA Gui-tong; GONG Yu-ping; LIU Wen; ZHANG Ya-li; WANG Xin-zhong

    2010-01-01

    @@ Qingchang Shuan(清肠栓)is a commonly used Chinese herbal suppository for treatment of ulcerative colitis(UC).It has the effects of clearing away heat and toxic materials, and promoting tissue regeneration by removing blood stasis.

  16. Ulcerative colitis may not necessarily be rare as previously thought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With increasing westernized life style, greater utilization and accessibility to modern medical practice,availability of ... Nigerian Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology ... Keywords: Ulcerative colitis, modern medicine, Nigeria middle belt.

  17. Microproteinuria Predicts Organ Failure in Patients Presenting with Acute Pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertilsson, Sara; Swärd, Per; Håkansson, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: The disease course of acute pancreatitis (AP) ranges from mild and self-limiting to severe inflammation, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no universally accepted and reliable predictors for severity. Microproteinuria has been associated...

  18. The TNBS-induced colitis animal model: An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Efstathios Antoniou; Georgios Antonios Margonis; Anastasios Angelou; Anastasia Pikouli; Paraskevi Argiri; Ioannis Karavokyros; Apostolos Papalois; Emmanouil Pikoulis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite recent advances the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease remains incompletely understood. A variety of animal models have been utilized in an effort to provide further insights and develop more therapeutic options. In order to simulate, to an extent, the pathogenesis and the clinical course of the disease, TNBS induced colitis is often used. Various approaches for inducing TNBS -colitis have been described in the literature. Methods/results: In this review, we sought to pres...

  19. Reactive arthritis induced by recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allison Marr

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Clostridium difficile colitis is a common infection that can be difficult to resolve and may result in recurrent infections. Reactive arthritis is a rare presentation of this disease and its treatment is not well differentiated in the literature. We describe a case of reactive arthritis occurring in a patient with a history of recurrent Clostridium difficile colitis while currently receiving a taper of oral vancomycin. His arthritis symptoms resolved with corticosteroids and continued treatment with anticlostridial antibiotics.

  20. "Cat scratch colon" in a patient with ischemic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Eui Ju; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Choi, Dae Han; Kim, Eui Bae; Jeon, Seong Ran; Hong, Su Jin; Kim, Jin-Oh

    2015-03-01

    "Cat scratch colon" is a gross finding characterized by hemorrhagic mucosal scratches on colonoscopy. It is usually associated with a normal colon and is rarely associated with collagenous colitis. In a previous report, cat scratch colon was noted in the cecum and ascending colon, but has also been observed in the distal transverse colon. The patient in this study was also diagnosed with ischemic colitis that may have played a role in the development of cat scratch colon.

  1. Ulcerative colitis Presenting as leukocytoclastic vasculitis of skin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabiye Akbulut; Ersan Ozaslan; Firdevs Topal; Levent Albayrak; Burcak Kayhan; Cumali Efe

    2008-01-01

    A number of cutaneous changes are known to occur in the course of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD),including pyoderma gangrenosum, erythema nodosum,perianal disease, erythematous eruptions, urticaria, and purpura. However, occurrence of skin manifestations prior to the development of ulcerative colitis is a rare occasion. Here, we report a case of ulcerative colitis associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis in which the intestinal symptoms became overt 8 mo after the development of skin lesions.

  2. Dipeptidyl peptidase expression during experimental colitis in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazbeck, Roger; Sulda, Melanie L; Howarth, Gordon S

    2010-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection.......We have previously demonstrated that inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase (DP) activity partially attenuates dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) colitis in mice. The aim of this study was to further investigate the mechanisms of this protection....

  3. Bifidobacterium infantis attenuates colitis by regulating T cell subset responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Li; Yuan, Kai-Tao; Yu, Li; Meng, Qing-Hong; Chung, Peter Chee-Keung; Yang, Ding-Hua

    2014-01-01

    AIM: to investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium infantis (B. infantis) on the T cell subsets and in attenuating the severity of experimental colitis in mice. METHODS: Normal BALB/c mice were fed different doses of B. infantis for 3 wk, and T cell subsets and related cytokine profiles in mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs) were detected by flow cytometry and real-time RT-PCR. Colitis was induced by administration of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice. Before colitis induction, mice were fed high dose B. infantis for 3 wk. Cytokine profiles in MLNs and histological changes of colonic tissue were examined 6 d after colitis induction. RESULTS: No significant change in cytokine profiles was observed in normal mice fed low dose B. infantis. However, Th1-related cytokines (IL-2, IFN-γ, IL-12p40), Th17-related transcription factor and cytokines (RORγt, IL-21, IL-23), regulatory T cell (Treg)-related transcription factor and cytokines (Foxp3, IL-10) were increased in normal mice fed high dose B. infantis. Furthermore, flow cytometry assay showed B. infantis increased the numbers of CD4+Foxp3+ Tregs and Th17 cells in MLNs. Colitis was successfully induced by TNBS in mice, characterized by colonic inflammation and aberrant Th1 and Th17 responses. Feeding high dose B. infantis for 3 wk before colitis induction decreased the inflammatory cell infiltration and goblet cell depletion and restored the intestinal epithelium. In addition, B. infantis feeding reduced Th1-related cytokines (T-bet, IL-2 and IFN-γ) and Th17-related cytokines (IL-12p40, RORγt, IL-17A, IL-21 and IL-23), and increased Treg-related molecules (Foxp3, IL-10 and TGF-β) in colitis mice. CONCLUSION: B. infantis effectively attenuates TNBS-induced colitis by decreasing Th1 and Th17 responses and increasing Foxp3+ Treg response in the colonic mucosa. PMID:25561798

  4. Microscopic colitis: a review for the surgical endoscopist

    OpenAIRE

    Datta, Indraneel; Brar, Savtaj S.; Andrews, Christopher N; Dupre, Marc; Ball, Chad G.; Buie, W. Donald; Beck, Paul L.

    2009-01-01

    Microscopic colitis (MC) is an inflammatory condition of the colon distinct from Crohn disease or ulcerative colitis that can cause chronic diarrhea as well as cramping and bloating. Although it was first described 30 years ago, awareness of this entity as a cause of diarrhea has only become more widespread recently. Up to 20% of adults with chronic diarrhea who have an endoscopically normal colonoscopy may have MC. Endoscopic and radiological examinations are usually normal, but histology re...

  5. Pseudomembranous Colitis: Not Always Caused by Clostridium difficile

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Although classically pseudomembranous colitis is caused by Clostridium difficile, it can result from several etiologies. Certain medications, chemical injury, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemia, and other infectious pathogens can reportedly cause mucosal injury and subsequent pseudomembrane formation. We present the case of a middle-aged woman with vascular disease who was incorrectly diagnosed with refractory C. difficile infection due to the presence of pseudomembrane...

  6. Unique Gene Expression and MR T2 Relaxometry Patterns Define Chronic Murine Dextran Sodium Sulphate Colitis as a Model for Connective Tissue Changes in Human Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breynaert, Christine; Dresselaers, Tom; Perrier, Clémentine; Arijs, Ingrid; Cremer, Jonathan; Van Lommel, Leentje; Van Steen, Kristel; Ferrante, Marc; Schuit, Frans; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul; Himmelreich, Uwe; Ceuppens, Jan L.; Geboes, Karel; Van Assche, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Chronically relapsing inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis are hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in connective tissue in a chronic murine model resulting from repeated cycles of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) ingestion, to mimic the relapsing nature of the human disease. Materials and Methods C57BL/6 mice were exposed to DSS in drinking water for 1 week, followed by a recovery phase of 2 weeks. This cycle of exposure was repeated for up to 3 times (9 weeks in total). Colonic inflammation, fibrosis, extracellular matrix proteins and colonic gene expression were studied. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry was studied as a potential non-invasive imaging tool to evaluate bowel wall inflammation and fibrosis. Results Repeated cycles of DSS resulted in a relapsing and remitting disease course, which induced a chronic segmental, transmural colitis after 2 and 3 cycles of DSS with clear induction of fibrosis and remodeling of the muscular layer. Tenascin expression mirrored its expression in Crohn’s colitis. Microarray data identified a gene expression profile different in chronic colitis from that in acute colitis. Additional recovery was associated with upregulation of unique genes, in particular keratins, pointing to activation of molecular pathways for healing and repair. In vivo MRI T2 relaxometry of the colon showed a clear shift towards higher T2 values in the acute stage and a gradual regression of T2 values with increasing cycles of DSS. Conclusions Repeated cycles of DSS exposure induce fibrosis and connective tissue changes with typical features, as occurring in Crohn’s disease. Colonic gene expression analysis revealed unique expression profiles in chronic colitis compared to acute colitis and after additional recovery, pointing to potential new targets to intervene with the induction of fibrosis. In vivo T2 relaxometry is a promising non-invasive assessment of inflammation and fibrosis

  7. Daily spinal mechanical loading as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back pain: A case-control study using the 24-Hour Schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.P. Bakker (Eric); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); C. Lucas (Cees); H.J.C.M.F. Koning (Hans); R.J. de Haan (Rob); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA case-control study was conducted to assess the daily loading of the spine as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back pain (acute LBP). Acute LBP is a benign, self-limiting disease, with a recovery rate of 80-90% within 6 weeks irrespective of the treatment type. Unfortunately, re

  8. Daily spinal mechanical loading as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back pain: A case-control study using the 24-Hour Schedule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.W.P. Bakker (Eric); A.P. Verhagen (Arianne); C. Lucas (Cees); H.J.C.M.F. Koning (Hans); R.J. de Haan (Rob); B.W. Koes (Bart)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractA case-control study was conducted to assess the daily loading of the spine as a risk factor for acute non-specific low back pain (acute LBP). Acute LBP is a benign, self-limiting disease, with a recovery rate of 80-90% within 6 weeks irrespective of the treatment type. Unfortunately, re

  9. Budesonide for ulcerative colitis Budesonida en el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Marín-Jiménez

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we examined studies published on oral and topical formulations of budesonide (Entocort® and Budenofalk®, in Spain: Entocord® and Intestifalk® for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. This glycocorticosteroid has a potent local action and an important first-pass liver metabolism. It has proven successful over the last years as a controlled-release formulation. It obtained results similar to prednisolone, without the latter's significant suppression of plasma cortisol. Many publications exist on the effects of oral budesonide for the treatment of Crohn's disease (CD. These have led to the registration of this drug for the treatment of CD. Studies on oral formulations of budesonide for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC are scarce. After reviewing published evidence, we suggest the conduction of controlled trials for the treatment of UC to obtain evidence-based efficacy and safety results in order to benefit patients with this form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD.En esta revisión repasamos los estudios publicados hasta la fecha con las formulaciones orales y las preparaciones tópicas rectales de budesonida (Entocort® y Budenofalk®, en España Entocord® e Intestifalk® para el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa. Este glucocorticosteroide de una elevada acción tópica y un importante metabolismo de primer paso hepático se ha utilizado en los últimos años como una formulación de liberación controlada, proporcionando resultados similares a la prednisolona pero sin suprimir de forma apreciable los niveles de cortisol plasmático. Aunque se han publicado muchos estudios sobre los efectos de la budesonida oral para el tratamiento de la enfermedad de Crohn, los estudios sobre esta misma forma galénica de administración de budesonida para el tratamiento de los pacientes con colitis ulcerosa son escasos. Después de revisar los trabajos publicados al respecto, se sugiere la necesidad de realizar un estudio controlado

  10. Kefir treatment ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senol, Altug; Isler, Mehmet; Sutcu, Recep; Akin, Mete; Cakir, Ebru; Ceyhan, Betul M; Kockar, M Cem

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the preventive effect of kefir on colitis induced with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in rats. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar-albino rats were randomized into four groups: normal control, kefir-control, colitis, and kefir-colitis groups. Rats in the normal and kefir-control groups were administered tap water as drinking water for 14 d. Rats in the colitis and kefir-colitis groups were administered a 3% DSS solution as drinking water for 8-14 d to induce colitis. Rats in the kefir-control and kefir-colitis groups were administered 5 mL kefir once a day for 14 d while rats in the normal control and colitis group were administered an identical volume of the placebo (skim milk) using an orogastric feeding tube. Clinical colitis was evaluated with reference to the disease activity index (DAI), based on daily weight loss, stool consistency, and presence of bleeding in feces. Rats were sacrificed on the 15th day, blood specimens were collected, and colon tissues were rapidly removed. Levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-10, malondialdehyde, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were measured in colon tissue. RESULTS: The DAI was lower in the kefir-colitis group than in the colitis group (on the 3rd and 5th days of colitis induction; P colitis group between days 2 and 6 of colitis induction when compared to the normal control and kefir-control groups. The DAI was statistically higher only on the 6th day in the kefir-colitis group when compared to that in the normal control groups. Increased colon weight and decreased colon length were observed in colitis-induced rats. Mean colon length in the colitis group was significantly shorter than that of the kefir-control group. Kefir treatment significantly decreased histologic colitis scores (P colitis group was significantly higher than in the kefir-control group (P colitis-induced TNF-α increase (P colitis group were significantly higher than those in the

  11. Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hugh James Freeman

    2008-01-01

    An inflammatory process that involves the sigmoid colonic segment associated with diverticular disease (SCAD) appears to be a distinct clinical and pathological disorder. It has been described in older adults, often presenting with rectal bleeding. Host of the patients seem to respond to treatment only with a 5-aminosalicylate, but some spontaneously resolve with no treatment. Endoscopic evaluation usually shows a non-specific inflammatory process localized in the sigmoid colon alone that may resolve completely with histologically normal colonic mucosa. Repeated symptomatic events with discrete episodes of segmental colitis may occur, but most patients have an entirely benign clinical course. Definition of the underlying molecular events that occur with SCAD may be critically important in understanding the critical elements present in a colonic inflammatory process that can completely resolve without pharmacological or biological treatment.

  12. Pseudomembranous colitis revisited: spectrum of imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramachandran, I. [Department of Radiology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom); Sinha, R. [Department of Radiology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: rakesh.sinha@swh.nhs.uk; Rodgers, P. [Department of Radiology, Leicester Royal Infirmary, University Hospitals of Leicester NHS Trust, Leicester LE1 5WW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    In recent years there has been a marked increase in the incidence of pseudomembranous colitis (PMC). PMC is more common in patients over 65 years of age and can cause significant morbidity. The purpose of this article is to review the imaging features of PMC on plain radiography, sonography, computed tomography (CT), scintigraphy and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). It is important to recognize the imaging findings of PMC using different imaging methods and encourage urgent confirmation of the diagnosis serologically, as the differential includes other fulminant colitides for which colectomy may be the required. Awareness of the spectrum of imaging findings of PMC can help radiologists make the primary or incidental diagnosis of PMC.

  13. Colitis detection on abdominal CT scans by rich feature hierarchies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiamin; Lay, Nathan; Wei, Zhuoshi; Lu, Le; Kim, Lauren; Turkbey, Evrim; Summers, Ronald M.

    2016-03-01

    Colitis is inflammation of the colon due to neutropenia, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn disease), infection and immune compromise. Colitis is often associated with thickening of the colon wall. The wall of a colon afflicted with colitis is much thicker than normal. For example, the mean wall thickness in Crohn disease is 11-13 mm compared to the wall of the normal colon that should measure less than 3 mm. Colitis can be debilitating or life threatening, and early detection is essential to initiate proper treatment. In this work, we apply high-capacity convolutional neural networks (CNNs) to bottom-up region proposals to detect potential colitis on CT scans. Our method first generates around 3000 category-independent region proposals for each slice of the input CT scan using selective search. Then, a fixed-length feature vector is extracted from each region proposal using a CNN. Finally, each region proposal is classified and assigned a confidence score with linear SVMs. We applied the detection method to 260 images from 26 CT scans of patients with colitis for evaluation. The detection system can achieve 0.85 sensitivity at 1 false positive per image.

  14. Plasma interleukin-18 reflects severity of ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alicja Wiercinska-Drapalo; Robert Flisiak; Jerzy Jaroszewicz; Danuta Prokopowicz

    2005-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ulcerative colitis activity and plasma or mucosal concentrations of interleukin (IL)-18.METHODS:Il-18 concentrations were measured in plasma and mucosal samples from 15 patients with active ulcerative colitis (UC).RESULTS: The mean plasma concentration of IL-18 measured in all patients (422±88 pg/mL) doubled the mean value in healthy controls (206±32 pg/mL); however,the difference was not statistically significant. Plasma IL-18 levels revealed a significant positive correlation with scored endoscopic degree of mucosal injury, disease activity index, clinical activity index and C-reactive protein concentration. The mean concentration of plasma IL-18 was significantly higher in patients with severe ulcerative colitis (535±115 pg/mL) than in patients with mild ulcerative colitis (195±41 pg/mL), and in healthy controls.Although the mucosal mean IL-18 concentration in severe ulcerative colitis (2 523±618 pg/mg protein) doubled values observed in mild one (1 347±308 pg/mg protein), there was no statistically significant difference.CONCLUSION: Plasma IL-18 can be considered as a surrogate marker helpful in evaluation of ulcerative colitis activity.

  15. Hypersensitive prostaglandin and thromboxane response to hormones in rabbit colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zipser, R.D.; Patterson, J.B.; Kao, H.W.; Hauser, C.J.; Locke, R.

    1985-10-01

    Inflammation of the colon is associated with increased production of prostaglandins (PG) and thromboxanes (Tx), and these eicosanoids may contribute to the inflammatory, secretory, and motility dysfunctions in colitis. To evaluate the potential role of peptide hormones in the enhanced eicosanoid release, colitis was established in rabbits by a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction to dinitrochlorobenzene and by an immune-complex-mediated reaction. PG and Tx were identified in the venous effluent of isolated perfused colons by radiochromatography after ( UC)arachidonic acid prelabeling, as well as by bioassay, and then quantitated by immunoassay. The two colitis models were morphologically similar. Basal release of PGE2, PGI2, and TxA2 was two- to threefold greater from colitis tissue than from control tissue. Bradykinin (BK) and angiotensin II (ANG II) increased release of UC-labeled eicosanoids, whereas several gastrointestinal hormones had no effect. In control colons, BK and ANG II increased PGE2 and PGI2 release (by about 2-fold) but did not alter TxA2. In contrast, BK and ANG II markedly exaggerated the release of eicosanoids in colitis. Since BK and possibly ANG II are increased at sites of inflammation, the hypersensitive eicosanoid response to these peptides may augment the eicosanoid-mediated manifestations of colitis.

  16. Luteolin ameliorates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice possibly through activation of the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Shen, Lei; Luo, Hesheng

    2016-11-01

    Luteolin has a reputation for being a safe and effective natural antioxidant that has strong radical scavenging and cell protective properties. The role of oxidative stress in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been well established and is increasingly highlighted. Thus, we studied the protective effect of luteolin administration in a mouse model of experimental colitis. Experimental acute colitis was induced by administering 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of mice for 7days. The disease activity index (DAI); colon length; histological assessment; mRNA levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and NADP(H): quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1); protein expression of Nrf2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS); colon malondialdehyde (MDA) levels; and the activity levels of colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were examined. Luteolin (20 and 50mg/kg) significantly attenuated the DAI, colon shortening and histological damage. In addition, luteolin administration effectively decreased the expression of inflammatory mediators, such as iNOS, TNF-α and IL-6. Luteolin also decreased the colonic content of MDA. The activities of colonic SOD and CAT and the levels of Nrf2 and its downstream targets, HO-1 and NQO1, were elevated by luteolin treatment. These observations indicate that luteolin may suppress experimental colitis through the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Level of Fecal Calprotectin Correlates With Endoscopic and Histologic Inflammation and Identifies Patients With Mucosal Healing in Ulcerative Colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theede, Klaus; Holck, Susanne; Ibsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), mucosal healing is an important goal of treatment. However, mucosal healing is difficult to determine on the basis of clinical evaluation alone, and endoscopy is uncomfortable and can cause complications. Fecal calprotectin (FC) is a ma......BACKGROUND & AIMS: In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), mucosal healing is an important goal of treatment. However, mucosal healing is difficult to determine on the basis of clinical evaluation alone, and endoscopy is uncomfortable and can cause complications. Fecal calprotectin (FC...... or inactive UC who underwent sigmoidoscopy at Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre from September 2012 through 2014. Endoscopic inflammation was evaluated by using the Mayo Endoscopic Score (MES) and Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity (UCEIS) and histologic inflammatory activity by a slightly...... modified Harpaz Index, which measures acute inflammation. The Partial Mayo Score was used to measure the clinical disease activity. RESULTS: A cutoff level of FC of 192 mg/kg identified patients with endoscopic evidence of mucosal healing, which was based on the MES and UCEIS, with positive predictive...

  18. Treatment of severe steroid refractory ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gert Van Assche; Séverine Vermeire; Paul Rutgeerts

    2008-01-01

    Although systemic steroids are highly efficacious in ulcerative colitis (UC),failure to respond to steroids sUll poses an important challenge to the surgeon and physician alike. Even if the life Lime risk of a fulminant UC flare is only 20%, this condition is potentially life threatening and should be managed in hospital. If patients fail 3 to 5 d of intravenous corticosteroids and optimal supportive care, they should be considered for any of three options: intravenous cyclosporine (2 mg/kg for 7 d, and serum level controlled),infliximab (5 mg/kg N,0-2-6 wk) or total colectomy.The choice between these three options is a medicalsurgical decision based on clinical signs, radiological and endoscopic findings and blood analysis (CRP, serum albumin).Between 65 and 85% of patients will initially respond to cyclosporine and avoid colectomy on the short term. Over 5 years only 50% of initial responders avoid colectomy and outcomes are better in patients naive to azathioprine (bridging strategy).The data on infliximab as a medical rescue in fulminant colitis are more limited although the efficacy of this anti tumor necrosis factor (TNF) monoclonal antibody has been demonstrated in a controlled trial. Controlled data on the comparative efficacy of cyclosporine and infliximab are not available at this moment. Both drugs are immunosuppressants and are used in combination with steroids and azathioprine, which infers a risk of serious, even fatal, opportunistic infections. Therefore,patients not responding to these agents within 5-7 d should be considered for colectomy and responders should be closely monitored for infections.

  19. Bifidobacterium infantis strains with and without a combination of Oligofructose and Inulin (OFI attenuate inflammation in DSS-induced colitis in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahrne Siv

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease is thought to be through different factors and there is a relationship between the gut flora and the risk of its development. Probiotics can manipulate the microflora in chronic inflammation and may be effective in treating inflammation. Bifidobacterium are saccharolytic and their growth in the gut can be promoted by non-absorbable carbohydrates and its increase in the colon appears to be of benefit. Methods Oligofructose and inulin (OFI alone and the two B. infantis DSM 15158 and DSM 15159 with and without OFI, were fed to Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days prior to colitis induction and administrations continued for another 7 days with the DSS. Colitis severity assessed using a Disease Activity Index. Samples were collected 7 days after colitis induction, for intestinal bacterial flora, bacterial translocation, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, myeloperoxidase (MPO, cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-10 and TGF-β and malondialdehyde (MDA. Results OFI alone or the B. infantis strains with and without OFI improved significantly the DAI and decreased colonic MPO activity. Colonic tissue IL-1β decreased significantly in all treated groups except B. infantis DSM 15158. MDA decreased significantly in B. infantis DSM 15159 with and without OFI compared to colitis control. Succinic acid increased significantly in OFI group with and without DSM 15159 compared to all groups. Sum values of propionic, succinic acid and butyric acid increased significantly in all groups compare to the colitis control. Bacterial translocation to mesenteric lymph nodes decreased significantly in all groups compared to colitis control. Translocation to the liver decreased significantly in all groups compare to the colitis control and OFI + B. infantis DSM 15158 groups. Conclusion Administrations of OFI and Bifidobacterium improve DSS-induced acute colitis and have an anti-inflammatory effect. Major differences in effect

  20. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P=0.026 but lower Clostridium (P=0.004, Bifidobacterium spp. (P=0.009, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P=0.008 than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P≤0.05, while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P≤0.05 compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.

  1. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia and pneumomediastinum in an anti-TNFα naive patient with ulcerative colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James C Lee; Deborah C Bell; Richard M Guinness; Tariq Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    We report the case of a 21-year-old man who was noted to have pneumomediast inum dur ing an admission for an acute flare of ulcerative colitis. At that time, he was on maintenance treatment with azathioprine at a dose of 1.25 mg/kg per day, and had not received supplementary steroids for 9 mo. He had never received anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α therapy. Shortly after apparently effective treatment with intravenous steroids and an increased dose of azathioprine, he developed worsening colitic and new respiratory symptoms, and was diagnosed with Pneumocystis jiroveci ( carinii) pneumonia (PCP). Pneumomediastinum is rare in immunocompetent hosts, but is a recognized complication of PCP in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients, although our patient 's HIV test was negative. Treatment of PCP with co-trimoxazole resulted in resolution of both respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, without the need to increase the steroid dose. There is increasing vigilance for opportunistic infections in patients with inflammatory bowel disease following the advent of anti-TNFα therapy. This case emphasizes the importance of considering the possibility of such infections in all patients with inflammatory bowel disease, irrespective of the immunosuppressants they receive, and highlights the potential of steroid-responsive opportunistic infections to mimic worsening colitic symptoms in patients with ulcerative colitis.

  2. Quantitative Analysis of Intestinal Flora of Uygur and Han Ethnic Chinese Patients with Ulcerative Colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ping; Cui, Min; Wang, Haikun; Gao, Hongliang; Wang, Lei; Yang, Tao; Cheng, Yongbo

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To study the correlation between intestinal flora and ulcerative colitis by analyzing the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in the intestinal of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients and healthy controls with Uygur and Han ethnic. Methods. Bacterial genomic DNA was extracted from fecal samples and analyzed with real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to identify the abundance of Bacteroides, Fusobacterium, Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii. Results. The samples from UC patients, Uygur and Han ethnic combined, had higher abundance of Bacteroides (P = 0.026) but lower Clostridium (P = 0.004), Bifidobacterium spp. (P = 0.009), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (P = 0.008) than those from healthy controls. Among UC patients, Bacteroides population was raised in acute UC patients (P ≤ 0.05), while the abundance of Clostridium, Bifidobacterium spp., Fusobacterium, and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii decreased (P ≤ 0.05) compared with the remission. In both UC patients group and control group, no difference was observed in the abundance of these 5 bacteria between the Han and the Uygur group. Conclusions. Variations in the abundance of these five bacterial strains in intestines may be associated with the occurrence of UC in Uygur and Han populations; however, these variations were not associated with ethnic difference.

  3. Clostridium difficile-induced colitis in mice is independent of leukotrienes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trindade, Bruno C; Theriot, Casey M; Leslie, Jhansi L; Carlson, Paul E; Bergin, Ingrid L; Peters-Golden, Marc; Young, Vincent B; Aronoff, David M

    2014-12-01

    Clostridium difficile is the major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhea and pseudomembranous colitis in healthcare settings. However, the host factors involved in the intestinal inflammatory response and pathogenesis of C. difficile infection (CDI) are largely unknown. Here we investigated the role of leukotrienes (LTs), a group of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators, in CDI. Notably, the neutrophil chemoattractant LTB4, but not cysteinyl (cys) LTs, was induced in the intestine of C57BL/6 mice infected with either C. difficile strain VPI 10463 or strain 630. Genetic or pharmacological ablation of LT production did not ameliorate C. difficile colitis or clinical signs of disease in infected mice. Histological analysis demonstrated that intestinal neutrophilic inflammation, edema and tissue damage in mice during acute and severe CDI were not modulated in the absence of LTs. In addition, CDI induced a burst of cytokines in the intestine of infected mice in a LT-independent manner. Serum levels of anti-toxin A immunoglobulin (Ig) G levels were also not modulated by endogenous LTs. Collectively, our results do not support a role for LTs in modulating host susceptibility to CDI in mice.

  4. Clostridium difficile 027-associated pseudomembranous colitis after short-term treatment with cefuroxime and cephalexin in an elderly orthopedic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard Kirstine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 has become increasingly prevalent in European countries. The clinical picture varies from self-limiting diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis with toxic megacolon and ultimately death. Use of antibiotics is the principal risk factor; others include comorbidity, advanced age and hospitalization. However even with extensive knowledge of risk factors, it remains difficult to define “minimum risk,” as illustrated by the following case. Case presentation An 80-year-old Danish man in good health was hospitalized for a penetrating knee injury. He received 5 days of intravenous cefuroxime after surgical revision and was discharged with oral cephalexin. Post-discharge he suffered from abdominal discomfort and was readmitted with ileus 4 days after discharge, i.e. 10 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. His condition deteriorated, and pseudomembranous colitis was diagnosed. Due to lack of response to vancomycin and metronidazole, a total colectomy was performed. Stool cultures were positive for CD 027. Conclusion Short-term use of cephalosporins may have induced CD 027 infection, and the patient’s age was the only identifiable risk factor for the fulminant course. Thus, even short-term prophylactic treatment with cephalosporins cannot be considered entirely safe.

  5. Optineurin deficiency in mice contributes to impaired cytokine secretion and neutrophil recruitment in bacteria-driven colitis

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    Thean S. Chew

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is associated with delayed neutrophil recruitment and bacterial clearance at sites of acute inflammation as a result of impaired secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. To investigate the impaired cytokine secretion and confirm our previous findings, we performed transcriptomic analysis in macrophages and identified a subgroup of individuals with CD who had low expression of the autophagy receptor optineurin (OPTN. We then clarified the role of OPTN deficiency in: macrophage cytokine secretion; mouse models of bacteria-driven colitis and peritonitis; and zebrafish Salmonella infection. OPTN-deficient bone-marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs stimulated with heat-killed Escherichia coli secreted less proinflammatory TNFα and IL6 cytokines despite similar gene transcription, which normalised with lysosomal and autophagy inhibitors, suggesting that TNFα is mis-trafficked to lysosomes via bafilomycin-A-dependent pathways in the absence of OPTN. OPTN-deficient mice were more susceptible to Citrobacter colitis and E. coli peritonitis, and showed reduced levels of proinflammatory TNFα in serum, diminished neutrophil recruitment to sites of acute inflammation and greater mortality, compared with wild-type mice. Optn-knockdown zebrafish infected with Salmonella also had higher mortality. OPTN plays a role in acute inflammation and neutrophil recruitment, potentially via defective macrophage proinflammatory cytokine secretion, which suggests that diminished OPTN expression in humans might increase the risk of developing CD.

  6. Retrotransposition of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 is associated with colitis but not tumors in a murine colitic cancer model.

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    Takeshi Otsubo

    Full Text Available Long interspersed element-1 (L1 is a transposable element that can move within the genome, potentially leading to genome diversity and modified gene function. Although L1 activity in somatic cells is normally suppressed through DNA methylation, some L1s are activated in tumors including colorectal carcinoma. However, how L1-retrotransposition (L1-RTP is involved in gastrointestinal disorders remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that L1-RTP in somatic cells might contribute to colitis-associated cancer (CAC. To address this, we employed an experimental model of CAC using transgenic L1-reporter mice carrying a human L1-EGFP reporter gene. Mice were subjected to repeated cycles of colitis induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS in drinking water with injection of carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM. L1-RTP levels were measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the newly inserted reporter EGFP in various tissues and cell types, including samples obtained by laser microdissection and cell sorting with flow cytometry. DNA methylation levels of the human L1 promoter were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. AOM+DSS-treated mice exhibited significantly higher levels of L1-RTP in whole colon tissue during the acute phase of colitis when compared with control naïve mice. L1-RTP levels in whole colon tissue were positively correlated with the histological severity of colitis and degree of neutrophil infiltration into the lamina propria (LP, but not with tumor development in the colon. L1-RTP was enriched in LP mesenchymal cells rather than epithelial cells (ECs, myeloid, or lymphoid cells. DNA methylation levels of the human L1 promoter region showed a negative correlation with L1-RTP levels. L1-RTP was absent from most tumors found in 22-week-old mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that L1-RTP was induced in the mouse CAC mucosa in accordance with the acute inflammatory response; however, retrotransposition appears

  7. Intestinal Epithelial Serum Amyloid A Modulates Bacterial Growth In Vitro and Pro-Inflammatory Responses in Mouse Experimental Colitis

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    Wang Yu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serum Amyloid A (SAA is a major acute phase protein of unknown function. SAA is mostly expressed in the liver, but also in other tissues including the intestinal epithelium. SAA reportedly has anti-bacterial effects, and because inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD result from a breakdown in homeostatic interactions between intestinal epithelia and bacteria, we hypothesized that SAA is protective during experimental colitis. Methods Intestinal SAA expression was measured in mouse and human samples. Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS colitis was induced in SAA 1/2 double knockout (DKO mice and in wildtype controls. Anti-bacterial effects of SAA1/2 were tested in intestinal epithelial cell lines transduced with adenoviral vectors encoding the CE/J SAA isoform or control vectors prior to exposure to live Escherichia coli. Results Significant levels of SAA1/SAA2 RNA and SAA protein were detected by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry in mouse colonic epithelium. SAA3 expression was weaker, but similarly distributed. SAA1/2 RNA was present in the ileum and colon of conventional mice and in the colon of germfree mice. Expression of SAA3 was strongly regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides in cultured epithelial cell lines, whereas SAA1/2 expression was constitutive and not LPS inducible. Overexpression of SAA1/2 in cultured epithelial cell lines reduced the viability of co-cultured E. coli. This might partially explain the observed increase in susceptibility of DKO mice to DSS colitis. SAA1/2 expression was increased in colon samples obtained from Crohn's Disease patients compared to controls. Conclusions Intestinal epithelial SAA displays bactericidal properties in vitro and could play a protective role in experimental mouse colitis. Altered expression of SAA in intestinal biopsies from Crohn's Disease patients suggests that SAA is involved in the disease process..

  8. Anti-inflammatory effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised biomass from a microalga in a murine recurrent colitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Román, Javier; Talero, Elena; Rodríguez-Luna, Azahara; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-12-01

    Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Microalgal species are a promising source of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins, which are lipid mediators with a key role in the resolution of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised biomass from Chlamydomonas debaryana on a recurrent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice model. Moderate chronic inflammation of the colon was induced in BALB/c mice by weekly intracolonic instillations of low dose of TNBS. Administration of the lyophilised microalgal biomass started 2 weeks before colitis induction and was continued throughout colitis development. Mice were killed 48 h after the last TNBS challenge. Oral administration of the microalgal biomass reduced TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation, evidenced by an inhibition of body weight loss, an improvement in colon morphology and a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17. This product also down-regulated colonic expressions of inducible nitric oxide, cyclo-oxygenase 2 and NF-κB, as well as increased PPAR-γ. In addition, lyophilised microalgal biomass up-regulated the expressions of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 and the target gene heme oxygenase 1. This study describes for the first time the prophylactic effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised microalgae biomass from C. debaryana in the acute phase of a recurrent TNBS-induced colitis model in mice. These findings suggest the potential use of this microalga, or derived oxylipins, as a nutraceutical in the treatment of IBD.

  9. Best practice in the management of mild-to-moderately active ulcerative colitis and achieving maintenance of remission using mesalazine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkholm, P.; Michetti, P.; Probert, C.S.

    2010-01-01

    management from the patient perspective based on a range of clinical and patient-focused evidence. By highlighting patient preferences in disease management it is envisaged that this review will aid physicians to optimize treatment decisions with the different mesalazine preparations available. Eur J...... improve not only patient quality of life, and decrease the number harmed by adverse events from more potent drugs, but can also save valuable healthcare costs by avoiding high-cost treatment interventions associated with acute ulcerative colitis. This review will consider several elements of mesalazine...

  10. Flt3/Flt3L Participates in the Process of Regulating Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells in DSS-Induced Colitis

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    Jing-Wei Mao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunoregulation between dendritic cells (DCs and regulatory T cells (T-regs plays an important role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC. Recent research showed that Fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3 and Flt3 ligand (Flt3L were involved in the process of DCs regulating T-regs. The DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human UC. In this study, we observe the disease activity index (DAI and histological scoring, detect the amounts of DCs and T-regs and expression of Flt3/Flt3L, and investigate Flt3/Flt3L participating in the process of DCs regulating T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Our findings suggest that the reduction of Flt3 and Flt3L expression may possibly induce colonic immunoregulatory imbalance between CD103+MHCII+DCs and CD4+CD25+FoxP3+T-regs in DSS-induced colitis. Flt3/Flt3L participates in the process of regulating DCS and T-regs in the pathogenesis of UC, at least, in the acute stage of this disease.

  11. Refractory ulcerative colitis accompanied with cytomegalovirus colitis and multiple liver abscesses:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Takuya Inoue; Ken Toshina; Takashi Nishikawa; Norihiro Hamamoto; Ken Nakagawa; Ken-Ichi Katsu; Ichiro Hirata; Yutaro Egashira; Kumi Ishida; Ken Kawakami; Eijiro Morita; Naoko Murano; Shingo Yasumoto; Mitsuyuki Murano

    2005-01-01

    Various hepato-biliary complications are an increased incidence in patients with inflammatory bowel disease,and portal bacteremia is well documented in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). However, few reports mention UC in association with liver abscesses. Recently, there are several reports describing cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in association with disease exacerbation and steroid refractoriness in patients with UC. Here we present a case of refractory UC accompanied with multiple liver abscesses and CMV colitis. The patient, a 72-year-old male, with a five-year history of repeated admissions to our hospital for UC, presented with an exacerbation of his UC.Sigmoidoscopy performed on admission suggested that his UC was exacerbated, then he was given prednisolone and mesalazine orally, and betamethasone enemas.However, he had exacerbated symptoms. Repeat sigmoidoscopy revealed multiple longitudinal ulcers and pseudopolyps in the rectosigmoid colon. Although immunohistochemical staining of biopsy specimens and the serum testing for antigenemia were negative on admission and after the repeat sigmoidoscopy, they became histologically positive for CMV. Nonetheless, the patient developed spiking fevers, soon after ganciclovir was administered. Laboratory studies revealed an increased white cell count with left shift, and Enterococcus fecalis grew in blood cultures. An abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was obtained and the diagnosis of liver abscesses associated with UC was made, based on CT results. The hepatic abscesses were successfully treated with intravenous meropenem for 6 wk, without further percutaneous drainage. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of multiple liver abscesses that develop during UC exacerbation complicated by CMV colitis.

  12. Secondary pouchitis in a post-operative patient with ulcerative colitis, successfully treated by salvage surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuji Toiyama; Toshimitsu Araki; Shigeyuki Yoshiyama; Chikao Miki; Masato Kusunoki

    2005-01-01

    We report a case of secondary pouchitis, defined as a mucosal inflammatory lesion in the ileal reservoir provoked by pouch-related complication following total colectomy and pouch anal anastomosis, which was successfully treated by salvage surgery. A 20-year-old woman with ulcerative colitis developed acute severe bloody diarrhea following proctocolectomy, ileal pouchanal anastomosis and diverting ileostomy. She was diagnosed as having a secondary pouchitis mainly caused by a peripouch abscess and partly concerned with the abnormal pouch formation. The remnantrectum and ileal pouch were excised and ileal pouch-anal anastomosis and diverting ileostomy were constructed.The postoperative course was uneventful with no sign of pouchitis. Salvage surgery may be indicated to treat secondary pouchitis when caused by surgery-related complications.

  13. Clostridium difficile associated infection, diarrhea and colitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perry Hookman; Jamie S Barkin

    2009-01-01

    A new, hypervirulent strain of Clostridium difficile, called NAP1/BI/027, has been implicated in C. difficile outbreaks associated with increased morbidity and mortality since the early 2000s. The epidemic strain is resistant to fluoroquinolones in vitro, which was infrequent prior to 2001. The name of this strain reflects its characteristics, demonstrated by different typing methods: pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (NAP1), restriction endonuclease analysis (BI) and polymerase chain reaction (027). In 2004 and 2005, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasized that the risk of C. difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) is increased, not only by the usual factors, including antibiotic exposure, but also gastrointestinal surgery/manipulation, prolonged length of stay in a healthcare setting, serious underlying illness, immune-compromising conditions, and aging. Patients on proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have an elevated risk, as do peripartum women and heart transplant recipients. Before 2002, toxic megacolon in C. difficile-associated colitis (CDAC), was rare, but its incidence has increased dramatically. Up to twothirds of hospitalized patients may be infected with C. difficile. Asymptomatic carriers admitted to healthcare facilities can transmit the organism to other susceptible patients, thereby becoming vectors. Fulminant colitis is reported more frequently during outbreaks of C. difficile infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). C. difficile infection with IBD carries a higher mortality than without underlying IBD. This article reviews the latest information on C. difficile infection, including presentation, vulnerable hosts and choice of antibiotics, alternative therapies, and probiotics and immunotherapy. We review contact precautions for patients with known or suspected C. difficileassociated disease. Healthcare institutions require accurate and rapid diagnosis for early detection of possible outbreaks, to initiate

  14. Infliximab induces clinical, endoscopic and histological responses in refractory ulcerative colitis Infliximab induce respuesta clínica, endoscópica e histológica en la colitis ulcerosa refractaria

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    F. Bermejo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: infliximab is a monoclonal antiTNF-α antibody that has repeatedly shown to be effective in the management of Crohn's disease. However, data are scarce about its efficacy in ulcerative colitis. Aim: to describe the joint experience of three Spanish hospitals in the use of infliximab in patients with active refractory ulcerative colitis. Patients and methods: we present seven cases of ulcerative colitis (6 with chronic active disease despite immunosuppressive therapy, and one with acute steroid-refractory ulcerative colitis treated with infliximab 5 mg/kg of body weight. Clinical response was evaluated by means of the Clinical Activity Index at 2, 4 and 8 weeks after initial infusion. Biochemical (erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein, endoscopic, and histological changes were also assessed. Results: mean age of patients was 45.8 ± 17 years (range 23-77; 4 were female. No adverse effects were recorded. Inflammatory activity diminished significantly in 6 of 7 patients (85.7%; CI 95%: 42-99% both from a clinical (p = 0.01 and biochemical (p Introducción: infliximab, un anticuerpo monoclonal quimérico antiTNF-α ha demostrado su eficacia en pacientes con enfermedad de Crohn. Sin embargo, son escasos los datos sobre su efectividad en el tratamiento de la colitis ulcerosa. Objetivo: describir la experiencia conjunta de 3 hospitales españoles en el uso de infliximab en enfermos con CU activa resistente a otros tratamientos. Pacientes y métodos: se presentan 7 casos de colitis ulcerosa (6 con enfermedad crónicamente activa a pesar de tratamiento con inmunosupresor y 1 con colitis aguda grave refractaria a esteroides tratados con infliximab a dosis de 5 mg/kg de peso. Se evaluó la respuesta clínica mediante un Índice de Actividad Clínica trascurridas 2, 4 y 8 semanas de la infusión inicial. Así mismo, se estudiaron los cambios analíticos (velocidad de sedimentación y proteína C reactiva, endoscópicos e histol

  15. Microscopic colitis : prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, WJ; van Baarlen, J; Kleibeuker, JH; Kolkman, JJ

    2005-01-01

    Background: Microscopic colitis presents with chronic diarrhoea with or without abdominal pain. Microscopic colitis is an important cause of chronic diarrhoea. It can be distributed throughout the colon, as well as limited to the right colon. Microscopic colitis is associated with coeliac disease. W

  16. Microscopic colitis : prevalence and distribution throughout the colon in patients with chronic diarrhoea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijs, WJ; van Baarlen, J; Kleibeuker, JH; Kolkman, JJ

    Background: Microscopic colitis presents with chronic diarrhoea with or without abdominal pain. Microscopic colitis is an important cause of chronic diarrhoea. It can be distributed throughout the colon, as well as limited to the right colon. Microscopic colitis is associated with coeliac disease.

  17. A rare presentation of ischemic pseudomembranous colitis due to Escherichia coli O157:H7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Jessica B; Risbano, Michael; Groshong, Steve D; Frankel, Stephen K

    2007-07-15

    Escherichia coli Ol57:H7 infection ranges from mild diarrheal illness to severe hemorrhagic colitis but may rarely be complicated by pseudomembranous colitis and/or necrosis. Herein, we report a sporadic case of ischemic E. coli Ol57:H7 pseudomembranous colitis in an adult that occurred during a national outbreak of E. coli Ol57:H7 in the United States.

  18. Evaluation of false remission in ulcerative colitis and the need for a revised disease activity index

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    Alaa Elgamal

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion About 70% of our patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical remission had an active disease. Clinical remission in ulcerative colitis can be best expressed as true and false remission depending on histological grading in a revised ulcerative colitis disease activity index. Some inflammatory markers can be useful for the detection of true remission.

  19. A critical role for cellular inhibitor of protein 2 (cIAP2) in colitis-associated colorectal cancer and intestinal homeostasis mediated by the inflammasome and survival pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, M; Dupaul-Chicoine, J; Champagne, C; Skeldon, A; Morizot, A; Saleh, M

    2016-01-01

    Cellular inhibitors of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) are critical arbiters of cell death and key mediators of inflammation and innate immunity. cIAP2 is frequently overexpressed in colorectal cancer and in regenerating crypts of ulcerative colitis patients. However, its corresponding functions in intestinal homeostasis and underlying mechanisms in disease pathogenesis are poorly understood. We found that mice deficient in cIAP2 exhibited reduced colitis-associated colorectal cancer tumor burden but, surprisingly, enhanced susceptibility to acute and chronic colitis. The exacerbated colitis phenotype of cIAP2-deficient mice was mediated by increased cell death and impaired activation of the regenerative inflammasome-interleukin-18 (IL-18) pathway required for tissue repair following injury. Accordingly, administration of recombinant IL-18 or pharmacological inhibition of caspases or the kinase RIPK1 protected cIAP2-deficient mice from colitis and restored intestinal epithelial barrier architecture. Thus, cIAP2 orchestrates intestinal homeostasis by exerting a dual function in suppressing cell death and promoting intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and crypt regeneration.

  20. Diagnosis and management of microscopic colitis: current perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohr, Johan; Wickbom, Anna; Hegedus, Agnes; Nyhlin, Nils; Hultgren Hörnquist, Elisabeth; Tysk, Curt

    2014-01-01

    Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis, together constituting microscopic colitis, are common causes of chronic diarrhea. They are characterized clinically by chronic nonbloody diarrhea and a macroscopically normal colonic mucosa where characteristic histopathological findings are seen. Previously considered rare, they now have emerged as common disorders that need to be considered in the investigation of the patient with chronic diarrhea. The annual incidence of each disorder is five to ten per 100,000 inhabitants, with a peak incidence in 60- to 70-year-old individuals and a predominance of female patients in collagenous colitis. The etiology and pathophysiology are not well understood, and the current view suggests an uncontrolled mucosal immune reaction to various luminal agents in predisposed individuals. Clinical symptoms comprise chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, fatigue, weight loss, and fecal incontinence that may impair the patient’s health-related quality of life. An association is reported with other autoimmune disorders, such as celiac disease, thyroid disorders, diabetes mellitus, and arthritis. The best-documented treatment, both short-term and long-term, is budesonide, which induces clinical remission in up to 80% of patients after 8 weeks’ treatment. However, after successful budesonide therapy is ended, recurrence of clinical symptoms is common, and the best possible long-term management deserves further study. The long-term prognosis is good, and the risk of complications, including colonic cancer, is low. We present an update of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of microscopic colitis. PMID:25170275