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Sample records for acute salinity challenges

  1. The effects of acute salinity challenges on osmoregulation in Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidally changing salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Benjamin P; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the differences in osmoregulatory capacity among Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, reared in freshwater (FW), in seawater (SW) or under tidally driven changes in salinity. This was addressed through the use of an abrupt exposure to a change in salinity. We measured changes in: (1) plasma osmolality and prolactin (PRL) levels; (2) pituitary expression of prolactin (PRL) and its receptors, PRLR1 and PRLR2; (3) branchial expression of PRLR1, PRLR2, Na(+)/Cl(-) co-transporter (NCC), Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) co-transporter (NKCC), α1a and α1b isoforms of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), aquaporin 3 (AQP3) and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3). Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidal environment successfully adapted to SW while fish reared in FW did not survive a transfer to SW beyond the 6 h sampling. With the exception of CFTR, the change in the expression of ion pumps, transporters and channels was more gradual in fish transferred from tidally changing salinities to SW than in fish transferred from FW to SW. Upon transfer to SW, the increase in CFTR expression was more robust in tidal fish than in FW fish. Tidal and SW fish successfully adapted when transferred to FW. These results suggest that Mozambique tilapia reared in a tidally changing salinity, a condition that more closely represents their natural history, gain an adaptive advantage compared with fish reared in FW when facing a hyperosmotic challenge.

  2. Effects of acute change in salinity and moulting on the infection of white leg shrimp (Penaeus vannamei) with white spot syndrome virus upon immersion challenge.

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    Van Thuong, K; Van Tuan, V; Li, W; Sorgeloos, P; Bossier, P; Nauwynck, H

    2016-12-01

    In the field, moulting and salinity drop in the water due to excessive rainfall have been mentioned to be risk factors for WSSV outbreaks. Therefore, in this study, the effect of an acute change in environmental salinity and shedding of the old cuticle shell on the susceptibility of Penaeus vannamei to WSSV was evaluated by immersion challenge. For testing the effect of abrupt salinity stress, early premoult shrimp that were acclimated to 35 g L(-1) were subjected to salinities of 50 g L(-1) , 35 g L(-1) , 20 g L(-1) , 10 g L(-1) and 7 g L(-1) or 5 g L(-1) and simultaneously exposed to 10(5.5)  SID50 mL(-1) of WSSV for 5 h, after which the salinity was brought back to 35 g L(-1) . Shrimp that were transferred from 35 g L(-1) to 50 g L(-1) , 35 g L(-1) and 20 g L(-1) did not become infected with WSSV. Shrimp became infected with WSSV after an acute salinity drop from 35 g L(-1) to 10 g L(-1) and lower. The mortality in shrimp, subjected to a salinity change to 10 g L(-1) , 7 g L(-1) and 5 g L(-1) , was 6.7%, 46.7% and 53.3%, respectively (P shrimp in early premoult, moulting and post-moult were immersed in sea water containing 10(5.5)  SID50 mL(-1) of WSSV. The resulting mortality due to WSSV infection in shrimp inoculated during early premoult (0%), ecdysis (53.3%) and post-moult (26.72%) demonstrated that a significant difference exists in susceptibility of shrimp during the short moulting process (P shrimp are at risk for a WSSV infection. These findings have important implications for WSSV control measures. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  4. SMOS: The Challenging Sea Surface Salinity Measurement From Space

    OpenAIRE

    Font, Jordi; Camps, Adriano; Borges, A; Martin-Neira, Manuel; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reul, Nicolas; Kerr, Yann; Hahne, A.; Mecklenburg, Suzanne

    2010-01-01

    Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, European Space Agency, is the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring sea surface salinity from space. It uses an L-band microwave interferometric radiometer with aperture synthesis (MIRAS) that generates brightness temperature images, from which both geophysical variables are computed. The retrieval of salinity requires very demanding performances of the instrument in terms of calibration and stability. This paper highlights the importa...

  5. Improvement of Salinity Stress Tolerance in Rice: Challenges and Opportunities

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    Thi My Linh Hoang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is an important staple crop that feeds more than one half of the world’s population and is the model system for monocotyledonous plants. However, rice is very sensitive to salinity and is the most salt sensitive cereal crop with a threshold of 3 dSm−1 for most cultivated varieties. Despite many attempts using different strategies to improve salinity tolerance in rice, the achievements so far are quite modest. This review aims to discuss challenges that hinder the improvement of salinity stress tolerance in rice as well as potential opportunities for enhancing salinity stress tolerance in this important crop.

  6. Normal Saline Versus Hypertonic 3% Saline: It’s Efficacy in Non-Acute Rhinosinusitis

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    Nezamoddin Berjis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinusitis is one of the most common diseases in general and in otolaryngology practice, but the optimal therapeutic options have not yet been fully developed. This manuscript will try to compare normal saline nasal douching with hypertonic saline in reducing symptoms and improving its signs. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients suffering from non acute rhinosinusitis, documented by history, physical examination and radiologic studies were divided into normal saline and hypertonic saline groups, each consisting of 57 patients. data were obtained by physical examination and a questionnaire.. Results:  Type of treatment had no significant effect on headache, morning dryness of mouth and pharynx and fatigue. Nontheless, nasal congestion, purulent discharge and postnasal discharge were reported to have improved in the group treated with hypertonic saline versus the normal saline group. Patient satisfaction also showed better scores in the hypertonic saline group. Conclusion: Hypertonic saline (3% is more effective for nasal irrigation  than normal saline in chronic rhinosinusitis.

  7. Hypertonic 3% Saline in Comparison with 0.9% (Normal Saline in Treatment of Acute Bronchiolitis

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    Abdul-karem Jasem Mohammed Al-bahadily

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundBronchiolitis is the commonest cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infant. Respiratory syncytial virus is the commonest cause of bronchiolitis. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of nebulized 3% hypertonic saline and salbutamol in the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in comparison with nebulized 0.9% saline and salbutamol.Materials and MethodsA prospective case second multicenter study was done at two pediatric tertiary centers at the period from 1st of December 2014 to 31 of March 2015. A total of 100 previously well infant and children of age 1-24 months with clinical diagnoses of bronchiolitis who were admitted to the hospital were included. They were divided into two groups, the study group received 4 ml of nebulized hypertonic 3% saline (for 14 days, and second group received 4 ml of nebulized normal 0.9% saline (for 14 days, each co-administer with 0.5 ml salbutamol.ResultsAll patients with acute bronchiolitis having similar baseline characteristic, mean age 4.9 + Standard deviation (SD months, male gender constitutes 68% of the patients and the majority (67% of the cases were below 6 months. The mean of clinical severity score at admission was 6.4 for normal saline (NS group and 6.6 for hypertonic 3% saline (HS group. The mean length of hospital stay of normal saline group = 4.3 + Standard deviation (SD day and for hypertonic saline group was = 4.7 + Standard deviation (SD day.ConclusionWe didn’t find any advantage of hypertonic 3% saline over 0.9% normal saline in terms of length of hospital stay and clinical severity score.

  8. Challenges in uncomplicated acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fernando Resende; Ana Beatriz Almeida; Jose Costa Maia; Renato Bessa Melo

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the most common abdominal emergencies requiring surgery. It still represents, however, a challenging diagnosis. In order to facilitate this process, several scoring systems were developed, namely, the Alvarado score, acute inflammatory response and Raja Isteri Pengiran Anak Saleha Appendicitis scores, which are the most used in clinical practice. This clinical condition encompasses a wide spectrum of clinical presentations, from the uncomplicated form to the one with diffuse peritonitis. Treatment of uncomplicated acute appendicitis remains a matter of discussion. Although appen-dectomy has been regarded as the gold-standard, conservative management with antibi-otics is gaining more and more acceptance. The approach to appendectomy constitutes another controversial issue, namely, its performance through an open or a laparoscopic approach, which seems to be establishing itself, in some centers, as the standard of care. With this paper, we intend to give some insight on the aforementioned topics, through a review of the available literature on uncomplicated appendicitis.

  9. Hypertonic saline challenge in an adult epidemiological survey.

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    Rabone, S J; Phoon, W O; Anderson, S D; Wan, K C; Seneviratne, M; Gutierrez, L; Brannan, J

    1996-06-01

    Bronchial provocation tests using pharmacological agents such as methacholine or histamine are used in epidemiological studies to identify asthma despite recognition of limitations in specificity, positive predictive value and availability of reagents. Hypertonic saline (4.5%) bronchial challenge (HSBC), although less sensitive than pharmacological challenges, is reportedly highly specific in diagnosing current asthma. Added advantages are that reagents are cheap, stable and recognized by participants. Thus, HSBC may offer benefits over pharmacological tests in epidemiological surveys. This paper reports on the second field survey using the test, a study of 99 adults from the timber industry in Western Australia. The test is described and critically appraised as a practical epidemiological tool for assessing asthma prevalence. At a cutoff point of 20% FEV, fall, HSBC was positive in 8% of subjects, appeared specific for asthma, was safe, well-accepted and easy to use in the field.

  10. Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced acute liver dysfunction in rats.

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    Xu, X-F; Zhang, J

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver dysfunction, rats were divided into control, LPS, and LPS plus saturated hydrogen saline (LPS+H(2)) groups. Treatment with saturated hydrogen saline prolonged the median survival time and reduced liver dysfunction. Moreover, saturated hydrogen saline significantly reduced pathological alterations in liver tissues, the number of ballooned hepatocytes, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver tissues (Phydrogen saline treatment. Saturated hydrogen saline also decreased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), phosphorylated Jun kinase (p-JNK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) levels, and increased p38 activation (Phydrogen saline may attenuate LPS-induced acute liver dysfunction in rats, possibly by reducing inflammation and cell apoptosis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-kappaB, and Smac may contribute to saturated hydrogen saline-mediated liver protection.

  11. Emergency anesthesia for evacuating a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage in a child overdosed with hypertonic saline

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    Chulananda Goonasekera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A previously healthy 1-year-old child with a traumatic acute subdural hemorrhage received 10 times higher dose of hypertonic saline inadvertently immediately before surgery. This case report describes deviations in fluid management needed to alleviate salt toxicity and its adverse effects during surgery under anesthesia perioperatively. The child made an uneventful recovery with no evident residual damage at follow-up.

  12. Effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, A.; Yonemura, K.; Ohishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Honda, N.

    1988-05-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Forty-eight hours after the i.v. injection of uranyl acetate (UA, 5 mg/kg), inulin clearance rate (Cin) decreased to approximately 43% of the control value in water drinking rats (P less than 0.005). Animals receiving continuous isotonic saline infusion following UA showed higher urine flow and Cin (60% of control, P less than 0.01), and lessened intratubular cast formation when compared with water-drinking ARF rats. A short-term saline infusion following UA did not attenuate the decline in Cin (43% of control). An inverse relationship was found between Cin and the number of casts (r = -0.75, P less than 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that standardized partial regression coefficient is statistically significant between Cin and cast formation (-0.69, P less than 0.05), but not between Cin and tubular necrosis (-0.07, P greater than 0.05). Renin depletion caused by DOCA plus saline drinking did not attenuate the decline in Cin in ARF (47% of control). No significant difference was found in urinary uranium excretion between water-drinking and saline-infused ARF rats. The findings suggest that continuous saline infusion following UA attenuates the decline in Cin in ARF rats; and that this beneficial effect of saline loading is associated with lessened cast formation rather than with suppressed renin-angiotensin activity or enhanced urinary-uranium excretion.

  13. Acute extracellular fluid volume changes increase ileocolonic resistance to saline flow in anesthetized dogs

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    Santiago Jr. A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of acute extracellular fluid volume changes on saline flow through 4 gut segments (ileocolonic, ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and proximal colon, perfused at constant pressure in anesthetized dogs. Two different experimental protocols were used: hypervolemia (iv saline infusion, 0.9% NaCl, 20 ml/min, volume up to 5% body weight and controlled hemorrhage (up to a 50% drop in mean arterial pressure. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 6 was gradually and significantly decreased during the expansion (17.1%, P<0.05 and expanded (44.9%, P<0.05 periods while mean ileal flow (N = 7 was significantly decreased only during the expanded period (38%, P<0.05. Mean colonic flow (N = 7 was decreased during expansion (12%, P<0.05 but returned to control levels during the expanded period. Mean ileocolonic sphincter flow (N = 6 was not significantly modified. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 10 was also decreased after hemorrhage (retracted period by 17% (P<0.05, but saline flow was not modified in the other separate circuits (N = 6, 5 and 4 for ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic groups, respectively. The expansion effect was blocked by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, iv both on the ileocolonic (N = 6 and ileal (N = 5 circuits. Acute extracellular fluid volume retraction and expansion increased the lower gastrointestinal resistances to saline flow. These effects, which could physiologically decrease the liquid volume being supplied to the colon, are possible mechanisms activated to acutely balance liquid volume deficit and excess.

  14. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Renal Injury in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting ROS and NF-κB Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Qiao Shi; Kang-Shu Liao; Kai-Liang Zhao; Wei-Xing Wang; Teng Zuo; Wen-Hong Deng; Chen Chen; Jia Yu; Wen-Yi Guo; Xiao-Bo He; Ablikim Abliz; Peng Wang; Liang Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2), a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce •OH and ONOO− selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group) or normal saline (SO and SAP group) through tail intravenously (6 mL/k...

  15. Acute hepatitis C: Prospects and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More than 170 million people worldwide have chronic hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed because it is commonly asymptomatic. Most infected patients are unaware of their condition until the symptoms of chronic infection manifest. Treatment of acute hepatitis C is something of a paradox because spontaneous resolution is possible and many patients do not have symptoms.However, several factors provide a rationale for treating patients who have acute hepatitis C. Compared with acute hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a worse prognosis, the need for more intensive treatment,longer treatment duration, and a decrease in successful treatment outcomes. Conversely, early intervention is associated with improved viral eradication, using a regimen that is better tolerated, less expensive, more convenient, and of shorter duration than the currently approved combination therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  16. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Wen Wu [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Hong Gang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Fan, Lie Ying [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Sun, Qiang [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Xin Yun [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Cai, Jian Mei [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Sun, Xue Jun, E-mail: sunxjk@hotmail.com [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wang2929@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-03-05

    Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

  17. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFE CTS OF NEBULISED 3% HYPERTONIC SALINE, 0.9% NORMAL SALINE AND SALBUTALMOL IN MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE BRONCHIOLITIS AMONG INDIAN CHILDREN

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    Gaurav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of nebulised 3% hypertonic saline , 0.9% saline and salbutamol in patients of acute bronchiolitis . DESIGN: R andomised controlled trial . SETTING: tertiary care teaching hospital . MATERIAL AND METHODS: 100 Children with age 1 to 24 months admitted in hospital with clinical diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis for 2 consecutive years were included in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups – 3% hypertonic saline (HS , 0.9% norm al saline and salbutalmol. 4 doses of nebulisation at an interval of 6 hours were given daily in each group till discharge. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in the study population was 5.7 ± 3.4 months. Maximum number of the patients i.e. 65.7% belong ed to the age group of 0 - 6 months. There was male preponderance in all 3 groups. Baseline Clinical Severity (CS scores in 3%HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups were 5.9±1.5 , 5.5±1.0 and 5.1±2.3 respectively (p=0.146. After treatment , the CS scor es dropped to 1.0±1.1 , 3.3±0.5 and 1.9±1.1 in 3%HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups respectively on the 3 rd day of treatment (p<0.01. Length of hospital stay in 3% HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups was 3.4±1.7 , 4.9±1.4 and 3.7±1.9 days respectively , which was found to be statistically significant (p= 0.001. CONCLUSION: 3% Hypertonic Saline nebulization (without additional bronchodilators is an effective and safe treatment in patients of acute bronchiolitis. It significantly reduces th e CS scores and length of hospital stay as compared to 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol nebulizations.

  18. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Acute Renal Injury in Sodium Taurocholate-Induced Severe Acute Pancreatitis by Inhibiting ROS and NF-κB Pathway

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    Qiao Shi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2, a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce •OH and ONOO− selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group or normal saline (SO and SAP group through tail intravenously (6 mL/kg and compensated subcutaneously (20 mL/kg after successful modeling. Results showed that hydrogen-rich saline attenuated the following: (1 serum Cr and BUN, (2 pancreatic and renal pathological injuries, (3 renal MDA, (4 renal MPO, (5 serum IL-1β, IL-6, and renal TNF-α, HMGB1, and (6 tyrosine nitration, IκB degradation, and NF-κB activation in renal tissues. In addition, it increased the level of IL-10 and SOD activity in renal tissues. These results proved that hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis, presumably because of its detoxification activity against excessive ROS, and inhibits the activation of NF-κB by affecting IκB nitration and degradation. Our findings highlight the potential value of hydrogen-rich saline as a new therapeutic method on acute renal injury in severe acute pancreatitis clinically.

  19. Hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced severe acute pancreatitis by inhibiting ROS and NF-κB pathway.

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    Shi, Qiao; Liao, Kang-Shu; Zhao, Kai-Liang; Wang, Wei-Xing; Zuo, Teng; Deng, Wen-Hong; Chen, Chen; Yu, Jia; Guo, Wen-Yi; He, Xiao-Bo; Abliz, Ablikim; Wang, Peng; Zhao, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen (H2), a new antioxidant, was reported to reduce (•)OH and ONOO(-) selectively and inhibit certain proinflammatory mediators to product, without disturbing metabolic redox reactions or ROS involved in cell signaling. We herein aim to explore its protective effects on acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis and its possible mechanisms. Rats were injected with hydrogen-rich saline (HRS group) or normal saline (SO and SAP group) through tail intravenously (6 mL/kg) and compensated subcutaneously (20 mL/kg) after successful modeling. Results showed that hydrogen-rich saline attenuated the following: (1) serum Cr and BUN, (2) pancreatic and renal pathological injuries, (3) renal MDA, (4) renal MPO, (5) serum IL-1β, IL-6, and renal TNF-α, HMGB1, and (6) tyrosine nitration, IκB degradation, and NF-κB activation in renal tissues. In addition, it increased the level of IL-10 and SOD activity in renal tissues. These results proved that hydrogen-rich saline attenuates acute renal injury in sodium taurocholate-induced acute pancreatitis, presumably because of its detoxification activity against excessive ROS, and inhibits the activation of NF-κB by affecting IκB nitration and degradation. Our findings highlight the potential value of hydrogen-rich saline as a new therapeutic method on acute renal injury in severe acute pancreatitis clinically.

  20. [Nebulized hypertonic saline and acute viral bronchiolitis in infants: current aspects].

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    Sauvaget, E; David, M; Bresson, V; Retornaz, K; Bosdure, E; Dubus, J-C

    2012-06-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis affects infants, is frequent, and can be severe. Its treatment is only based on symptoms. Hypertonic saline (HS) may act favorably in this situation by fighting virus-induced dehydration of the airway liquid surface. Because of an osmotic action, HS attracts the water from the epithelial cells and improves mucociliary clearance. Five double-blind placebo-controlled studies concerning hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis showed that repeated nebulizations of 3% HS induce a 20% improvement in the clinical severity score and reduced the hospital length of stay by 24h. Tolerance is excellent. On the other hand, a few questions remain unresolved: what is the optimal salt concentration? What is the recommended nebulizer? What is the best frequency for nebulizer use? Can nebulized HS be used at home? What are the results with systematic physiotherapy when HS is used?

  1. Acute inhalation of hypertonic saline does not improve mucociliary clearance in all children with cystic fibrosis

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    Kelly Amber

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known of how mucociliary clearance (MCC in children with cystic fibrosis (CF and normal pulmonary function compares with healthy adults, or how an acute inhalation of 7% hypertonic saline (HS aerosol affects MCC in these same children. Methods We compared MCC in 12 children with CF and normal pulmonary function after an acute inhalation of 0.12% saline (placebo, or HS, admixed with the radioisotope 99 mtechnetium sulfur colloid in a double-blind, randomized, cross-over study. Mucociliary clearance on the placebo day in the children was also compared to MCC in 10 healthy, non-CF adults. Mucociliary clearance was quantified over a 90 min period, using gamma scintigraphy, and is reported as MCC at 60 min (MCC60 and 90 min (MCC90. Results Median [interquartile range] MCC60 and MCC90 in the children on the placebo visit were 15.4 [12.4-24.5]% and 19.3 [17.3-27.8%]%, respectively, which were similar to the adults with 17.8 [6.4-28.7]% and 29.6 [16.1-43.5]%, respectively. There was no significant improvement in MCC60 (2.2 [-6.2-11.8]% or MCC90 (2.3 [-1.2-10.5]% with HS, compared to placebo. In addition, 5/12 and 4/12 of the children showed a decrease in MCC60 and MCC90, respectively, after inhalation of HS. A post hoc subgroup analysis of the change in MCC90 after HS showed a significantly greater improvement in MCC in children with lower placebo MCC90 compared to those with higher placebo MCC90 (p = 0.045. Conclusions These data suggest that percent MCC varies significantly between children with CF lung disease and normal pulmonary functions, with some children demonstrating MCC values within the normal range and others showing MCC values that are below normal values. In addition, although MCC did not improve in all children after inhalation of HS, improvement did occur in children with relatively low MCC values after placebo. This finding suggests that acute inhalation of hypertonic saline may benefit a subset of

  2. Challenges for Implementing Salinity Gradient Energy Power Plants at River Mouths

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    Alvarez-Silva, O. A.; Osoria Arias, A. F.; Winter, C.

    2016-12-01

    Salinity gradient energy (SGE) is the clean and renewable energy that can be obtained from the controlled mixing of two waters with different salt concentration. River mouths, where fresh water mixes with seawater, are manifest locations for harnessing SGE, since these systems provide the sought salinity gradients, abundant water resources worldwide and are usually located close to cities and industries. The advances in research and development of the technologies for harnessing this energy source have been huge in the last decade, however, still several challenges have to be faced before its commercial implementation at river mouths. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of the factors inherent to the river mouths that restrict the exploitation of SGE in those systems, including: (i) the effects of the stratification and the water quality on the technical suitability of the systems; (ii) the limitations on the freshwater extraction for ensuring the sustainability of the river mouths; and (iii) the effect of the spatio-temporal variability of the salinity structure on the reliability of the power plants. This analysis was carried out at global scale for almost thousand river mouths and in a more detailed scale for the Magdalena River mouth (Colombia). For the global scale, the main results show that (i) 49% of the analyzed systems are suitable locations for harnessing SGE; (ii) 625 TWh/y are extractable from river mouths worldwide; (iii) the average capacity factor of SGE plants at river mouths is 84%; and (iv) 286 systems in 64 countries have a potential capacity of 10 MW or greater. Meanwhile, for the local scale, the results show that the water quality may be the most important factor limiting the site-specific potential. Despite the limitations, the SGE generation at river mouths shows to be a promising alternative energy source in the mid-term.

  3. Acute kidney injury in pregnancy: a clinical challenge.

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    Machado, Susana; Figueiredo, Nuno; Borges, Andreia; São José Pais, Maria; Freitas, Luís; Moura, Paulo; Campos, Mário

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy declined significantly over the second half of the 20th century; however, it is still associated with major maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. A set of systemic and renal physiological adaptive mechanisms occur during a normal gestation that will constrain several changes in laboratory parameters of renal function, electrolytes, fluid and acid-base balances. The diagnosis of acute kidney injury in pregnancy is based on the serum creatinine increase. The usual formulas for estimating glomerular filtration rate are not validated in this population. During the first trimester of gestation, acute kidney injury develops most often due to hyperemesis gravidarum or septic abortion. In the third trimester, the differential diagnosis is more challenging for the obstetrician and the nephrologist and comprises some pathologies that are reviewed in this article: preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome, acute fatty liver of pregnancy and thrombotic microangiopathies.

  4. An enriched environment reduces the stress level and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine treatment and by saline after chronic morphine treatment in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia; Sun, Jinling; Xue, Zhaoxia; Li, Xinwang

    2014-06-18

    This study investigated the relationships among an enriched environment, stress levels, and drug addiction. Mice were divided randomly into four treatment groups (n=12 each): enriched environment without restraint stress (EN), standard environment without restraint stress (SN), enriched environment with restraint stress (ES), and standard environment with restraint stress (SS). Mice were reared in the respective environment for 45 days. Then, the ES and SS groups were subjected to restraint stress daily (2 h/day) for 14 days, whereas the EN and SN groups were not subjected to restraint stress during this stage. The stress levels of all mice were tested in the elevated plus maze immediately after exposure to restraint stress. After the 2-week stress testing period, mice were administered acute or chronic morphine (5 mg/kg) treatment for 7 days. Then, after a 7-day withdrawal period, the mice were injected with saline (1 ml/kg) or morphine (5 mg/kg) daily for 2 days to observe locomotor activity. The results indicated that the enriched environment reduced the stress and locomotor activity induced by acute morphine administration or saline after chronic morphine treatment. However, the enriched environment did not significantly inhibit locomotor activity induced by morphine challenge. In addition, the stress level did not mediate the effect of the enriched environment on drug-induced locomotor activity after acute or chronic morphine treatment.

  5. Comparison of salbutamol with normal saline and salbutamol with magnesium sulphate in the treatment of severe acute asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S; Sutradhar, S R; Miah, A H; Bari, M A; Hasan, M J; Alam, M K; Tariquzzaman, M; Sarker, C N

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy and safety of nebulized magnesium sulphate with salbutamol to normal saline with salbutamol as the initial treatment of severe acute asthma patients. The present study was designed as a randomized open controlled clinical trial. The study was conducted Mymensingh Medical College Hospital over a period of 11 months from December 2009 to October 2010. Patients admitted with severe acute asthma having inclusion criteria were the study population. Among 120 study population 60 were in salbutamol with magnesium sulphate group and 60 were in salbutamol with normal saline group. The study finding showed that peak flow at baseline was similar in two groups. At 10 minutes after nebulization, the mean±SD percentage increase in peak flow was greater in magnesium sulphate group (20±4%) than in the normal saline salbutamol group (13±3%). At 20 minutes the percentage increase in peak flow was greater in magnesium sulphate group (35±7%) than in the normal saline salbutamol group (24±6%) p value salbutamol group reached PEF near to 60% which is not in saline salbutamol group. There was no significant changed in respiratory rate, pulse rate, systolic, diastolic blood pressure and clinical evidence of unwanted adverse effect.

  6. Effect of blood transfusion, dopamine, or normal saline on neurogenic shock secondary to acutely raised intracranial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimifar, M; Tator, C H; Shanlin, R J; Sole, M J

    1989-06-01

    An experimental model to simulate acutely raised intracranial pressure due to a rapidly expanding intracranial space-occupying lesion was used to produce neurogenic shock. Forty-one rats in neurogenic shock (defined as a mean systemic arterial pressure (SAP) of less than 60 mm Hg) were subjected to various treatments to increase the mean SAP to a level of more than 80 mm Hg. The control group with neurogenic shock received no treatment, and the six treatment groups received infusions of: whole blood, packed cells, plasma, normal saline, dopamine, or a combination of dopamine and saline. Detrimental effects were observed after transfusion of packed cells or whole blood, which caused further deterioration of mean SAP. Although dopamine or the combination of dopamine and saline were both effective (p = 0.0001) for reversing hypotension, the combination was the most effective. If this rat paradigm correlates with human disease, these results indicate that, in the absence of hypovolemia, neurogenic shock due to acute intracranial hypertension should be treated with a combined transfusion of dopamine and normal saline, but not blood since the latter could have a detrimental effect.

  7. Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen can relieve tissue-damaging oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Injection of hydrogen-rich saline is an effective method for transporting molecular hydrogen. We hypothesized that hydrogen-rich saline would promote the repair of spinal cord injury induced by Allen′s method in rats. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after injury, then once daily for 2 weeks, 0.25 mL/kg hydrogen-rich saline was infused into the subarachnoid space through a catheter. Results at 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks after injury showed that hydrogen-rich saline markedly reduced cell death, inflammatory cell infiltration, serum malondialdehyde content, and caspase-3 immunoreactivity, elevated serum superoxide dismutase activity and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity, and improved motor function in the hindlimb. The present study confirms that hydrogen-rich saline injected within 2 weeks of injury effectively contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury in the acute stage.

  8. Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-long Wang; Qing-shan Zhang; Kai-di Zhu; Jian-feng Sun; Ze-peng Zhang; Jian-wen Sun; Ke-xiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen can relieve tissue-damaging oxidative stress, inlfammation and apoptosis. Injection of hydrogen-rich saline is an effective method for transporting molecular hydrogen. We hypothe-sized that hydrogen-rich saline would promote the repair of spinal cord injury induced by Allen’s method in rats. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after injury, then once daily for 2 weeks, 0.25 mL/kg hydrogen-rich saline was infused into the subarachnoid space through a catheter. Results at 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks after injury showed that hydrogen-rich saline marked-ly reduced cell death, inlfammatory cell inifltration, serum malondialdehyde content, and caspa se-3 immunoreactivity, elevated serum superoxide dismutase activity and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity, and improved motor function in the hindlimb. The present study conifrms that hydrogen-rich saline injected within 2 weeks of injury effectively contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury in the acute stage.

  9. Ionic and Amino Acid Regulation in Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria in Response to Salinity Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most marine mollusks are osmoconformers, in that, their body fluid osmolality changes in the direction of the change in environmental salinity. Marine mollusks exhibit a number of osmoregulatory mechanisms to cope with either hypo- or hyperosmotic stress. The effects of changes in salinity on the osmoregulatory mechanisms of the hard clam (Meretrix lusoria, an economically important species of marine bivalve for Taiwan have not been determined. In this study, we examined the effect of exposure to hypo (10‰- and hyper (35‰-osmotic salinity on hard clams raised at their natural salinity (20‰. The osmolality, [Na+], and [Cl-] of the hard clam hemolymph were changed in the same direction as the surrounding salinity. Further, the contents of total free amino acids including taurine in the gills and mantles were significantly upregulated in hard clam with increasing salinity. The gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA activity, the important enzyme regulating cellular inorganic ions, was not affected by the changed salinity. Mantle NKA activity, however, was stimulated in the 35‰ SW treatment. The taurine transporter (TAUT is related to the regulation of intracellular contents of taurine, the dominant osmolyte. Herein, a TAUT gene of hard clam was cloned and a TAUT antibody was derived for the immunoblotting. The TAUT mRNA expression of the mantle in hard clam was significantly stimulated in 35‰ SW, but protein expression was not modulated by the changed salinity. In gills of the hard clam with 10‰ SW, both TAUT mRNA and protein expressions were significantly stimulated, and it may reflect a feedback regulation from the decreased gills taurine content under long-term hypoosmotic acclimation. These findings suggest that TAUT expression is regulated differently in gills and mantles following exposure to alterations in environmental salinity. Taken together, this study used the physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches to simultaneously explore

  10. Ionic and Amino Acid Regulation in Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) in Response to Salinity Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Po-Ling; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Most marine mollusks are osmoconformers, in that, their body fluid osmolality changes in the direction of the change in environmental salinity. Marine mollusks exhibit a number of osmoregulatory mechanisms to cope with either hypo- or hyperosmotic stress. The effects of changes in salinity on the osmoregulatory mechanisms of the hard clam (Meretrix lusoria, an economically important species of marine bivalve for Taiwan) have not been determined. In this study, we examined the effect of exposure to hypo (10‰)- and hyper (35‰)-osmotic salinity on hard clams raised at their natural salinity (20‰). The osmolality, [Na(+)], and [Cl(-)] of the hard clam hemolymph were changed in the same direction as the surrounding salinity. Further, the contents of total free amino acids including taurine in the gills and mantles were significantly upregulated in hard clam with increasing salinity. The gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, the important enzyme regulating cellular inorganic ions, was not affected by the changed salinity. Mantle NKA activity, however, was stimulated in the 35‰ SW treatment. The taurine transporter (TAUT) is related to the regulation of intracellular contents of taurine, the dominant osmolyte. Herein, a TAUT gene of hard clam was cloned and a TAUT antibody was derived for the immunoblotting. The TAUT mRNA expression of the mantle in hard clam was significantly stimulated in 35‰ SW, but protein expression was not modulated by the changed salinity. In gills of the hard clam with 10‰ SW, both TAUT mRNA and protein expressions were significantly stimulated, and it may reflect a feedback regulation from the decreased gills taurine content under long-term hypoosmotic acclimation. These findings suggest that TAUT expression is regulated differently in gills and mantles following exposure to alterations in environmental salinity. Taken together, this study used the physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches to simultaneously explore the

  11. Gibberellins in Penicillium strains: Challenges for endophyte-plant host interactions under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Ana Lúcia; Enguita, Francisco J

    2016-02-01

    The genus Penicillium is one of the most versatile "mycofactories", comprising some species able to produce gibberellins, bioactive compounds that can modulate plant growth and development. Although plants have the ability to synthesize gibberellins, their levels are lower when plants are under salinity stress. It has been recognized that detrimental abiotic conditions, such as saline stress, have negative effects on plants, being the availability of bioactive gibberellins a critical factor for their growth under this conditions. This review summarizes the interplay existing between endophytic Penicillium strains and plant host interactions, with focus on bioactive gibberellins production as a fungal response that allows plants to overcome salinity stress.

  12. Influence factors of salt-sensitive hypertension and responses of blood pressure and urinary sodium and potassium excretion to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶舟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of saltsensitive hypertension and to observe changes of blood pressures and urinary sodium and potassium excretion in response to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients in China.Methods Essential hypertensive patients from Beijing Jinzhan second community were included in this study.Salt-sensitivity was determined via the improved Sullivan’s acute oral saline loading

  13. Effectiveness of 3% hypertonic saline nebulization in acute bronchiolitis among Indian children: A quasi-experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harsh V.; Gupta, Vivek V.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Baidwan, Amitoz S.; George, Pardeep P.; Shah, Jay C.; Shinde, Kushal; Malik, Ruku; Chitkara, Neha; Bajaj, Krushnan V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 0.9% normal saline with nebulized 0.9% normal saline with salbutamol in patients of acute viral bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into three groups, that is, 3% HS group, 0.9% normal saline group and 0.9% saline with salbutamol group. Four doses at interval of 6 h were given daily until discharge. Average CS score and length of hospital stay were compared. One-way analysis of variance paired t-test and Chi-square test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ages of the patients in three groups were 6.03 ± 3.71, 5.69 ± 3.34 and 5.48 ± 3.35 respectively. The 3rd day CS scores for all the groups were 1.0 ± 1.1, 1.9 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 0.5 respectively (P = 0.000). The average length of hospital stay was 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.4 days respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The present study concludes that 3% HS nebulization (without additional bronchodilators) is an effective and safe treatment for nonasthmatic, moderately ill patients of acute bronchiolitis. The economic benefit of this comparably priced modality of treatment can be enormous in terms of hospital costs with parents returning to work sooner. PMID:27141475

  14. Effectiveness of 3% hypertonic saline nebulization in acute bronchiolitis among Indian children: A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh V Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline (HS and 0.9% normal saline with nebulized 0.9% normal saline with salbutamol in patients of acute viral bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into three groups, that is, 3% HS group, 0.9% normal saline group and 0.9% saline with salbutamol group. Four doses at interval of 6 h were given daily until discharge. Average CS score and length of hospital stay were compared. One-way analysis of variance paired t-test and Chi-square test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ages of the patients in three groups were 6.03 ± 3.71, 5.69 ± 3.34 and 5.48 ± 3.35 respectively. The 3rd day CS scores for all the groups were 1.0 ± 1.1, 1.9 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 0.5 respectively (P = 0.000. The average length of hospital stay was 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.4 days respectively (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The present study concludes that 3% HS nebulization (without additional bronchodilators is an effective and safe treatment for nonasthmatic, moderately ill patients of acute bronchiolitis. The economic benefit of this comparably priced modality of treatment can be enormous in terms of hospital costs with parents returning to work sooner.

  15. Ionic and photosynthetic homeostasis in quinoa challenged by drought and salinity – mechanisms of tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian Richardt

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) grown under field conditions was exposed to five irrigation water salinities (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m–1; 4 : 1 NaCl : CaCl2 molar ratio) from flowering, and divided between full irrigation and progressive drought (PD) during seed filling. Quinoa demonstrated...... homeostatic mechanisms which contributed to quinoa’s extraordinary tolerance. Salinity increased K+ and Na+ uptake by 60 and 100 kg ha–1, respectively, resulting in maintenance of cell turgor by osmotic adjustment, and a 50% increase of the leaf’s fresh weight (FW) : dry weight (DW) ratio and non...

  16. Salty or Sweet: Exploring the Challenges of Groundwater Salinization Within a Sustainability Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Tate, E.

    2012-12-01

    In semi-arid to arid landscapes under intensive irrigation, groundwater salinization can be a persistent and critical problem, leading to reduced agricultural productivity, limited access to fresh drinking water, and ultimately desertification. It is estimated that in India alone, problems of salinity are now affecting over 6 million hectares of agricultural land. In villages of the Mewat district of Haryana in Northern India, subsistence-level farming is the primary source of income, and farming families live under serious threat from increasing salinity levels, both in terms of crop production and adequate supplies of drinking water. The Institute for Rural Research and Development (IRRAD), a non-governmental organization (NGO) working in Mewat, has taken an innovative approach in this area to problems of groundwater salinization, using check dams and rainwater harvesting ponds to recharge aquifers in the freshwater zones of upstream hill areas, and to create freshwater pockets within the saline groundwater zones of down-gradient areas. Initial, pilot-scale efforts have led to apparent success in raising groundwater levels in freshwater zones and changing the dynamics of encroaching groundwater salinity, but the expansion of such efforts to larger-scale restoration is constrained by the availability of adequate resources. Under such resource constraints, which are typical of international development work, it becomes critical to utilize a decision-analysis framework to quantify both the immediate and long-term effectiveness and sustainability of interventions by NGOs such as IRRAD. In the present study, we have developed such a framework, linking the climate-hydrological dynamics of monsoon driven systems with village-scale socio-economic attributes to evaluate the sustainability of current restoration efforts and to prioritize future areas for intervention. We utilize a multi-dimensional metric that takes into account both physical factors related to water

  17. Challenges in the management of acute peptic ulcer bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, James Y W; Barkun, Alan; Fan, Dai-ming; Kuipers, Ernst J; Yang, Yun-sheng; Chan, Francis K L

    2013-06-08

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding is a common medical emergency worldwide, a major cause of which are bleeding peptic ulcers. Endoscopic treatment and acid suppression with proton-pump inhibitors are cornerstones in the management of the disease, and both treatments have been shown to reduce mortality. The role of emergency surgery continues to diminish. In specialised centres, radiological intervention is increasingly used in patients with severe and recurrent bleeding who do not respond to endoscopic treatment. Despite these advances, mortality from the disorder has remained at around 10%. The disease often occurs in elderly patients with frequent comorbidities who use antiplatelet agents, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and anticoagulants. The management of such patients, especially those at high cardiothrombotic risk who are on anticoagulants, is a challenge for clinicians. We summarise the published scientific literature about the management of patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, identify directions for future clinical research, and suggest how mortality can be reduced.

  18. Special nutrition challenges: current approach to acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Mary S; Phipps, Shauna C

    2014-02-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI), previously known as acute renal failure, is defined as a sudden decline in glomerular filtration rate with accumulation of metabolic waste products, toxins, and drugs, as well as alteration in the intrinsic functions of the kidney. Reports of mortality are as high as 80%, with numerous contributing causes including infection, cardiorespiratory complications, and cardiovascular disease. Concurrent with the high prevalence of critical illness in this population is the protein energy wasting (PEW), seen in up to 42% of patients upon intensive care unit admission. The pathophysiologic derangements of critical illness, the low energy and protein stores, and uremic complications require early nutrition intervention to attenuate the inflammatory response and oxidative stress, improve endothelial function, stabilize blood sugar, and preserve lean body mass. This article addresses the unique challenges of nutrition support for the patient with AKI in the setting of critical illness and renal replacement therapy. Evidence-based recommendations are provided to meet the macronutrient and micronutrient requirements of this heterogeneous and complex patient population.

  19. Effect of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment in Emergency Departments on the Hospitalization Rate for Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angoulvant, François; Bellêttre, Xavier; Milcent, Karen; Teglas, Jean-Paul; Claudet, Isabelle; Le Guen, Christèle Gras; de Pontual, Loïc; Minodier, Philippe; Dubos, François; Brouard, Jacques; Soussan-Banini, Valérie; Degas-Bussiere, Vanessa; Gatin, Amélie; Schweitzer, Cyril; Epaud, Ralph; Ryckewaert, Amélie; Cros, Pierrick; Marot, Yves; Flahaut, Philippe; Saunier, Pascal; Babe, Philippe; Patteau, Géraldine; Delebarre, Mathilde; Titomanlio, Luigi; Vrignaud, Bénédicte; Trieu, Thanh-Van; Tahir, Abdelilah; Regnard, Delphine; Micheau, Pascale; Charara, Oussama; Henry, Simon; Ploin, Dominique; Panjo, Henri; Vabret, Astrid; Bouyer, Jean; Gajdos, Vincent

    2017-08-07

    Acute bronchiolitis is the leading cause of hospitalization among infants. Previous studies, underpowered to examine hospital admission, have found a limited benefit of nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment in the pediatric emergency department (ED). To examine whether HS nebulization treatment would decrease the hospital admission rate among infants with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis. The Efficacy of 3% Hypertonic Saline in Acute Viral Bronchiolitis (GUERANDE) study was a multicenter, double-blind randomized clinical trial on 2 parallel groups conducted during 2 bronchiolitis seasons (October through March) from October 15, 2012, through April 15, 2014, at 24 French pediatric EDs. Among the 2445 infants (6 weeks to 12 months of age) assessed for inclusion, 777 with a first episode of acute bronchiolitis with respiratory distress and no chronic medical condition were included. Two 20-minute nebulization treatments of 4 mL of HS, 3%, or 4 mL of normal saline (NS), 0.9%, given 20 minutes apart. Hospital admission rate in the 24 hours after enrollment. Of the 777 infants included in the study (median age, 3 months; interquartile range, 2-5 months; 468 [60.2%] male), 385 (49.5%) were randomized to the HS group and 387 (49.8%) to the NS group (5 patients did not receive treatment). By 24 hours, 185 of 385 infants (48.1%) in the HS group were admitted compared with 202 of 387 infants (52.2%) in the NS group. The risk difference for hospitalizations was not significant according to the mixed-effects regression model (adjusted risk difference, -3.2%; 95% CI, -8.7% to 2.2%; P = .25). The mean (SD) Respiratory Distress Assessment Instrument score improvement was greater in the HS group (-3.1 [3.2]) than in the NS group (-2.4 [3.3]) (adjusted difference, -0.7; 95% CI, -1.2 to -0.2; P = .006) and similarly for the Respiratory Assessment Change Score. Mild adverse events, such as worsening of cough, occurred more frequently among children in the HS group

  20. Regulation by arbuscular mycorrhizae of the integrated physiological response to salinity in plants: new challenges in physiological and molecular studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel; Porcel, Rosa; Azcón, Charo; Aroca, Ricardo

    2012-06-01

    Excessive salt accumulation in soils is a major ecological and agronomical problem, in particular in arid and semi-arid areas. Excessive soil salinity affects the establishment, development, and growth of plants, resulting in important losses in productivity. Plants have evolved biochemical and molecular mechanisms that may act in a concerted manner and constitute the integrated physiological response to soil salinity. These include the synthesis and accumulation of compatible solutes to avoid cell dehydration and maintain root water uptake, the regulation of ion homeostasis to control ion uptake by roots, compartmentation and transport into shoots, the fine regulation of water uptake and distribution to plant tissues by the action of aquaporins, the reduction of oxidative damage through improved antioxidant capacity and the maintenance of photosynthesis at values adequate for plant growth. Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis can help the host plants to cope with the detrimental effects of high soil salinity. There is evidence that AM symbiosis affects and regulates several of the above mentioned mechanisms, but the molecular bases of such effects are almost completely unknown. This review summarizes current knowledge about the effects of AM symbiosis on these physiological mechanisms, emphasizing new perspectives and challenges in physiological and molecular studies on salt-stress alleviation by AM symbiosis.

  1. Comparision Of The Efficacy Of Nebulized L-Epinephrine, Salbutamoland Normal Saline In Acute Bronchiolitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mussavi

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Background:Acute bronchiolitis is the most common form of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy.There are numerous contradictory reports regarding the efficacy of nebulized bronchodilators in the management of infants with acute bronchiolitis. This study was designed to compare the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine with salbutamol for treatment of the disease.Methods:In a randomized clinical trial, 72 infants with moderately severe bronchiolitis were enrolled in three equal groups. Three doses of epinephrine, salbutamol, and normal saline as a placebo nebulized with oxygen were given at 20 minute intervals. Oxygen saturation, respiratory rate and distress were recorded before intervention and I0 minutes after each dose of the drugs. Results: At the end of the study, pre- and post-treatment mean oxygen saturation values, clinical scores and respiratory rates showed significant differences between the epinephrine and salbutamol groups in comparison with the placebo group. The results were more significant in the epinephrine group than other groups. After the treatment course 66%, 50%, and 25% of patients in epinephrine, salbutamol, and placebo groups respectively showed significant improvement at a degree that they could be sent home. No serious side effects were observed.Conclusion: Both nebulized epinephrine and salbutamol improved oxygenation and decreased respiratory distress better than normal saline. L-epinephrim was more effective in relieving respiratory distress and improving oxygen saturation as well as the need for hospitalization than nebulized salbutamol.

  2. Effects of Salinity Challenge on Ion Regulation in Early and Late Upstream Migrating Sea Lamprey, Petromyzon marinus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diogo Ferreira-Martins

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus, is an anadromous species in which the adults re-enter freshwater, and migrate upstream for terminal spawning. A reduction in salinity tolerance has been document in migrants although the underlying mechanisms have not been characterized. The aim of this study was to determine the capacity for marine osmoregulation in late, upstream migrants by characterizing the morphological and physiological effects of salinity challenge from a molecular perspective. For this two experiments were performed using early and late upstream migrants. Animals salinity limited was found to be 17.5‰ for late upstream migrants, thought some early migrants were able to perform at 24‰. A number of relevant blood and intestinal parameters were measured to assess ionoregulatory and biochemical changes as well as the expression of key ion-transport related proteins by immunoblotting (IB [Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase, carbonic anhydrase, and Na+:K+:2Cl-contransporter]. NKA activity was also measured, in addition to oxidative stress indicators. The Na+ and Cl- levels with plasma and intestinal fluid were quantified and it was found that in non performing animals these fluids approached environmental concentrations (osmoconforming and failure of drinking mechanism, respectively. A drop in hematocrit was also observed with plasma lactate indicating hemolytic anemia. Plasma [ALT], GST activity and [GSH] were used to assess oxidative damage to tissues. An increase in Na+/K+-ATPase activity in mid-intestine in late migrants and posterior intestine in early migrates showed a potentially adaptive ionoregulatory response to salinity increase. (FCT grant PTDC/MAR/98035/2008.

  3. Rapid Endovascular Catheter Core Cooling combined with cold saline as an Adjunct to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention For the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction (The CHILL-MI trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Lang, Irene;

    2014-01-01

    : In a multicenter study, 120 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (care. Hypothermia was initiated...... incidence of heart failure and a possible effect in patients with early anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions need confirmation. (Efficacy of Endovascular Catheter Cooling Combined With Cold Saline for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction [CHILL-MI]; NCT01379261)....

  4. Drinking and Na+/K+ ATPase activity during early development of European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax - Ontogeny and short-term regulation following acute salinity changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Varsamos, S.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.; Charmantier, G.; Flik, G.

    2004-01-01

    The short-term osmoregulatory capacity of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) larvae and juveniles at consecutive developmental stages was evaluated by an analysis of drinking rates and whole-body and branchial Na+/K+ ATPase activity. The effect of acute salinity stress on those parameters was assessed

  5. Acute intermittent porphyria and pregnancy: an obstetric challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Meena

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Acute intermittent porphyria is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by a mutation in the gene coding for the porphobillinogen deaminase enzymes in heam biosynthesis. The disease manifests as acute attacks of neuropsychiatric dysfunction and neurovisceral manifestations presenting as acute abdomen. In pregnancy, 54% patient has exacerbation of attacks in the form of seizures and acute abdomen occurs due to hormonal changes. Prevalence of acute intermittent porphyria is 1-2/200000 in general. Here we report a case of 36 year old women, G4P1L2A2 presenting at 10+4 weeks of gestation requesting pregnancy termination. Patient was diagnosed as case of acute intermittent porphyria with porphyic polyneuropathy 6 months back. At that time her main symptoms were acute pain abdomen with numbness and weakness in all four limbs. Her urinary porphobillinogen and 5 ALA raised. Her CECT of brain and nerve conduction studies were normal. Since then she is on Tablet Gabapentin 300 mg H.S. She underwent successful pregnancy termination by suction and evacuation under spinal anesthesia and she refused for copper-T insertion. Only safe drugs were used for procedure and she was discharged with advice of barrier contraception. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 542-544

  6. Hypertonic saline enhances host response to bacterial challenge by augmenting receptor-independent neutrophil intracellular superoxide formation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether hypertonic saline (HTS) infusion modulates the host response to bacterial challenge. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in 30 Balb-C mice by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli (5 x 107 organisms per animal). In 10 mice, resuscitation was performed at 0 and 24 hours with a 4 mL\\/kg bolus of HTS (7.5% NaCl), 10 animals received 4 mL\\/kg of normal saline (0.9% NaCl), and the remaining animals received 30 mL\\/kg of normal saline. Samples of blood, spleen, and lung were cultured at 8 and 36 hours. Polymorphonucleocytes were incubated in isotonic or hypertonic medium before culture with E. coli. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow cytometry, whereas intracellular bacterial killing was measured after inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin B. Intracellular formation of free radicals was assessed by the molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and ERK-1 phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation were determined. Data are represented as means (SEM), and an analysis of variance test was performed to gauge statistical significance. RESULTS: Significantly reduced bacterial culture was observed in the animals resuscitated with HTS when compared with their NS counterparts, in blood (51.8 +\\/- 4.3 vs. 82.0 +\\/- 3.3 and 78.4 +\\/- 4.8, P = 0.005), lung (40.0 +\\/- 4.1 vs. 93.2 +\\/- 2.1 and 80.9 +\\/- 4.7, P = 0.002), and spleen (56.4 +\\/- 3.8 vs. 85.4 +\\/- 4.2 and 90.1 +\\/- 5.9, P = 0.05). Intracellular killing of bacteria increased markedly (P = 0.026) and superoxide generation was enhanced upon exposure to HTS (775.78 +\\/- 23.6 vs. 696.57 +\\/- 42.2, P = 0.017) despite inhibition of MAP kinase and NFkappaB activation. CONCLUSIONS: HTS significantly enhances intracellular killing of bacteria while attenuating receptor-mediated activation of proinflammatory cascades.

  7. Acute kidney injury in pregnancy: a clinical challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, S.; Figueiredo, N.; Borges, A.; Pais, MS; Freitas, L; Moura, P.; Campos, M.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of acute kidney injury in pregnancy declined significantly over the second half of the 20th century; however, it is still associated with major maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. A set of systemic and renal physiological adaptive mechanisms occur during a normal gestation that will constrain several changes in laboratory parameters of renal function, electrolytes, fluid and acid-base balances. The diagnosis of acute kidney injury in pregnancy is based on the serum c...

  8. The acute salinity changes activate the dual pathways of endocrine responses in the brain and pituitary of tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aruna, Adimoolam; Nagarajan, Ganesan; Chang, Ching-Fong

    2015-01-15

    To analyze and compare the stress and osmoregulatory hormones and receptors in pituitary during acute salinity changes, the expression patterns of corticotropin releasing hormone (crh) in hypothalamus, prolactin (prl) releasing peptide (pRrp) in telencephalon and diencephalon, glucocorticoid receptors 2 (gr2), and mineralocorticoid receptor (mr), crh-r, pro-opiomelanocorticotropin (pomc), pRrp, prl, dopamine 2 receptor (d2-r), growth hormone (gh), gh-receptor (gh-r) and insulin-like growth hormone (igf-1) transcripts in pituitary were characterized in euryhaline tilapia. The results indicate that the crh transcripts increased in the hypothalamus and rostral pars distalis of the pituitary after the transfer of fish to SW. Similarly, the pRrp transcripts were more abundant in SW acclimated tilapia forebrain and hypothalamus. The crh-r, gr2 and mr transcripts were more expressed in rostral pars distalis and pars intermedia of pituitary at SW than FW tilapia. The data indicate that the SW acclimation stimulates these transcripts in the specific regions of the brain and pituitary which may be related to the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal (HPI)-axis. The results of dual in situ hybridization reveal that the transcripts of crh-r, gr2 and mr with pomc are highly co-localized in corticotrophs of pituitary. Furthermore, we demonstrate high expression of pRrp in the brain and low expression of pRrp and prl transcripts in the pituitary of SW fish. No crh-r and corticosteroid receptors were co-localized with prl transcripts in the pituitary. The gh-r and igf-1 mRNA levels were significantly increased in SW acclimated tilapia pituitary whereas there was no difference in the gh mRNA levels. The data suggest that the locally produced pRrp and d2-r may control and regulate the expression of prl mRNA in pituitary. Therefore, the dual roles of pRrp are involved in the stress (via brain-pituitary) and osmoregulatory (via pituitary) pathways in tilapia exposed to

  9. ACUTE METHANOL INTOXICATIONS – A CHALLENGE FOR CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petko Marinov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methanol (CH3OH is a monohydric alcohol, vastly used both in housekeeping and industry. Although the acute methanol intoxications are rare, they may include life-threatening symptoms, substantial lethality and negative consequences such as neurological disorders and vision damage. Aim of the work is to conduct a retrospective study on the acute methanol intoxications within Varna region for a 10-year period (2006-2015. Material/Methods: This study covers 39 patients of the Clinic for Intensive Treatment of Acute Intoxications and Toxicoallergies at Naval Hospital – Varna, all of which had their diagnosis confirmed, including gas chromatography methods. Results: Methanol intoxication prevalence showed male/female ratio close to 2.9:1. The major part of the cases concerned economically active population, the age group of 25-60 being the most affected. In all instances an oral methanol intake has been involved. Death occurred in 14 cases (35.9%

  10. Acute pancreatitis in pregnancy: a challenge for the clinician

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi Miglani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is one of the very rare events in pregnancy associated with high maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. We are presenting a case of acute pancreatitis in a 25 year old G2P1L1 at 33 weeks of gestation with previous LSCS who presented to us with hypertension, epigastric pain, vomiting. Investigations revealed hyperamylysemia, hypertriglyceridemia and deranged liver enzymes. After examination and investigations, diagnosis of acute pancreatitis with pregnancy was made. She underwent caesarean section for obstetric hemorrhage and was put in intensive care for 3 days. She was discharged after. 1 week and is under regular follow up for past 6 months. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(7.000: 2448-2449

  11. Frequency of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Treated With Normal Saline after Off-Pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Sheybani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI is a common postoperative complication of cardiac surgery, which is associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This study investigated the frequency of postoperative AKI in low risk adult patients undergoing off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG.Materials & Methods: All consecutive adult patients of American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA class II and III, who were transferred to the post-operative cardiac surgery ICU after off-pump CABG and were low risk for AKI from October 2013 to September 2014 at Emam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran were enrolled in this prospective cohort study at a teaching hospital. The patients were explored for AKI development, based on risk-injury-failure-loss- end stage kidney disease (RIFLE and acute kidney injury network (AKIN criteria, frequency of metabolic acidosis, hypernatremia, hyperchloremia, and length of stay in ICU.Results: According to the results of the present study, 479 patients with the mean age of 60.8±10.75 yrs were included. AKI occurred in 22 (4.4% and23 (4.8% patients, based on both the RIFLE and AKIN criteria, respectively with the highest rate of AKI, reported on the third and fourth post-operative days. Additionally, hyperchloremia and hypernatremia were observed in 71 (14.8% and 76 (15.9% patients, respectively. Only one case of mortality occurred during the study. Metabolic acidosis was reported in 112 (23.4% patients with a high anion gap in 60 (12.5% cases.Conclusion: The current study demonstrated that hypernatremia and metabolic acidosis but not AKI are frequently seen in patients receiving normal saline following off pump CABG with low risk for AKI.

  12. Challenges of estimating the annual caseload of severe acute malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deconinck, Hedwig; Pesonen, Anaïs; Hallarou, Mahaman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Reliable prospective estimates of annual severe acute malnutrition (SAM) caseloads for treatment are needed for policy decisions and planning of quality services in the context of competing public health priorities and limited resources. This paper compares the reliability of SAM...

  13. Limb apraxia in acute ischemic stroke: a neglected clinical challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schell, Caroline; Suchan, Julia; Himmelbach, Marc; Haarmeier, Thomas; Borchers, Svenja

    2014-04-01

    Symptoms of limb apraxia and executive dysfunctions are currently not explicitly considered by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and, thus, not routinely tested by clinicians in the acute care of patients with suspected stroke. Neuropsychological testing, clinical examination, MRI, and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were performed in a right-handed patient with acute onset of left-sided sensorimotor hemiparesis due to a right hemisphere ischemic stroke. Deficits in the execution of meaningless and meaningful gestures were not detected properly on initial clinical examination but were revealed later on through neuropsychological testing. Instead, the patient's inability to respond to specific instructions in the acute care setting was mistaken to reflect severe deficits in auditory comprehension. fMRI revealed right-hemispheric localization of language in the right-handed patient. We suggest including a bedside test for limb apraxia symptoms in acute clinical care of stroke patients. The distinction between deficits in limb praxis and impairments of language can be complicated owing to the common hemispheric co-localization of the two functions.

  14. Challenges of treating a 466-kilogram man with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N; Decker, Brian; Seele, Louis; Hellman, Richard N

    2008-07-01

    Caring for super obese patients (body mass index > 50 kg/m(2)) presents a number of complex and unique clinical challenges, particularly when acute kidney injury is present. We describe our experience treating the heaviest individual with acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy reported to date. A 24-year-old black man was admitted to our hospital with fever, vomiting, progressive weakness, shortness of breath, and hemoptysis. Admission weight was 1,024 lbs (466 kg), height was 6 ft 4 in (1.9 m), and body mass index was 125 kg/m(2). During hospitalization, the patient experienced oligoanuric acute kidney injury and required initiation of continuous and subsequently intermittent renal replacement therapy. This clinical scenario identifies the many challenges involved in caring for super obese patients with acute kidney injury and may be a harbinger of what awaits the nephrology community in the obesity pandemic era.

  15. Rapid Aspirin Challenge in Patients with Aspirin Allergy and Acute Coronary Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Kevin A; White, Andrew A

    2016-02-01

    Aspirin allergy in a patient with acute coronary syndrome represents one of the more urgent challenges an allergist may face. Adverse reactions to aspirin are reported in 1.5% of patients with coronary artery disease. A history of adverse reaction to aspirin often leads to unnecessary withholding of this medication or use of alternative antiplatelet therapy which may be inferior or more costly. Aspirin therapy has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease. Rapid aspirin challenge/desensitization in the aspirin allergic patient has been consistently shown to be both safe and successful in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

  16. Different expression patterns of renal Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α-isoform-like proteins between tilapia and milkfish following salinity challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Kai; Chung, Chang-Hung; Cheng, Hui Chen; Tang, Cheng-Hao; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-12-01

    Euryhaline teleosts can survive in a broad range of salinity via alteration of the molecular mechanisms in certain osmoregulatory organs, including in the gill and kidney. Among these mechanisms, Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA) plays a crucial role in triggering ion-transporting systems. The switch of NKA isoforms in euryhaline fish gills substantially contributes to salinity adaptation. However, there is little information about switches in the kidneys of euryhaline teleosts. Therefore, the responses of the renal NKA α-isoform protein switch to salinity challenge in euryhaline tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and milkfish (Chanos chanos) with different salinity preferences were examined and compared in this study. Immunohistochemical staining in tilapia kidneys revealed the localization of NKA in renal tubules rather than in the glomeruli, similar to our previous findings in milkfish kidneys. Protein abundance in the renal NKA pan α-subunit-like, α1-, and α3-isoform-like proteins in seawater-acclimated tilapia was significantly higher than in the freshwater group, whereas the α2-isoform-like protein exhibited the opposite pattern of expression. In the milkfish, higher protein abundance in the renal NKA pan α-subunit-like and α1-isoform-like proteins was found in freshwater-acclimated fish, whereas no difference was found in the protein abundance of α2- and α3-isoform-like proteins between groups. These findings suggested that switches for renal NKA α-isoforms, especially the α1-isoform, were involved in renal osmoregulatory mechanisms of euryhaline teleosts. Moreover, differences in regulatory responses of the renal NKA α-subunit to salinity acclimation between tilapia and milkfish revealed that divergent mechanisms for maintaining osmotic balance might be employed by euryhaline teleosts with different salinity preferences.

  17. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  18. Rethinking the epidemiology of acute myocardial infarction: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Robert W; Go, Alan S

    2010-05-10

    During the previous decade, many strategies for preventing acute myocardial infarction found to be efficacious in randomized controlled trials have been adopted by physicians in the community. Although evaluations of quality improvement typically focus on process measures at the hospital, practice, or clinician level, assessment of improvements in health outcomes remains the true test for the successful translation of evidence into practice. We performed a review of the current literature examining trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction in communities. We focused specifically on the group of population-based studies that have examined trends in myocardial infarction incidence. Few population-based studies have examined recent temporal trends in the incidence of myocardial infarction, overall and by type. Existing studies have been largely limited by modest sample sizes, limited diversity within the study populations, the use of composite end points that combine disparate outcomes, and the inability to characterize the effect of long-term outpatient medication use on observed trends in incidence and severity of myocardial infarction. More contemporary assessments of community-wide changes in the epidemiology of myocardial infarction are needed to help assess the effectiveness of primary prevention and to identify areas for potential improvement.

  19. Challenges in secondary prevention after acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piepoli, Massimo F; Corrà, Ugo; Dendale, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, each year more than 7 million people experience myocardial infarction, in which one-year mortality rates are now in the range of 10%, but vary with patient characteristics. The consequences are even more dramatic: among patients who survive, 20% suffer a second cardiovascular event...... in the first year and approximately 50% of major coronary events occur in those with a previous hospital discharge diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease. The people behind these numbers spur this call for action. Prevention after myocardial infarction is crucial to reduce risk and suffering. Evidence......-based interventions include optimal medical treatment with anti-platelets and statins, achievement of blood pressure, lipid and blood glucose targets, and appropriate lifestyle changes. The European Society of Cardiology and its constituent bodies are determined to embrace this challenge by developing a consensus...

  20. Side effects induced by the acute levodopa challenge in Parkinson’s Disease and atypical parkinsonisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostile, Giovanni; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Contrafatto, Donatella; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Raciti, Loredana; Luca, Antonina; Zappia, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute levodopa challenge may be performed to predict levodopa chronic responsiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate frequency of side effects during the acute levodopa challenge in PD and atypical parkinsonisms. Methods We enrolled 34 de novo PD patients and 29 patients affected by atypical parkinsonisms (Multiple System Atrophy, MSA, n = 10; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, PSP, n = 12 and Corticobasal Degeneration, CBD, n = 7) who underwent an acute levodopa challenge. Side effects occurring during test were recorded. Results Side effects were more frequent among atypical parkinsonisms as unique group when compared to PD patients (64.3% versus 23.5%; p-value 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 4.36 (95%CI 1.40–13.5). Each atypical parkinsonisms showed almost double occurrence of side effects (MSA 90%, PSP 41.7% and CBD 57%). Conclusions Side effects during acute levodopa challenge may be frequent in atypical parkinsonisms. This information could be useful in order to better prepare the patient for the test. Furthermore, it could represent a useful cue in differential diagnosis with PD. PMID:28207803

  1. SUPPRESSION OF ANGⅡ AFTER ACUTE SALINE LOAD ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHANGES OF PLASMA ANP AND SODIUM METABOLISM IN SALT-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永兴; 刘治全; 刘艳; 侯嵘; 叶涛

    2003-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma AngⅡ,ANP and their relationship with urine sodium excretion in salt sensitive hypertension. Methods The salt sensitivity was determined by acute saline loading test in 173 primary hypertensives of Stage Ⅰ or Stage Ⅱ. Plasma AngⅡand ANP was determined by radioimmunoassay. Results After acute salt load, AngⅡ was suppressed inadequately. The plasma ANP secretion was not increased. The urine sodiun excretion was delayed, Na+ in RBC was increased in salt sensitive subjects. The plasma ANP was decreased in the salt sensitive subjects without AngⅡ suppressed. The 24 hours urine sodium excretion was lower than those AngⅡ suppressed.Conclusion The changes of plasma RAS are not homogeneous after salt load. Those without the plasma AngⅡ suppressed have more severe sodium metabolism abnormalities and the endogenous ANP secretion is impaired in salt sensitive patients.

  2. Nebulized hypertonic saline treatment reduces both rate and duration of hospitalization for acute bronchiolitis in infants: an updated meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Ju; Lee, Wen-Li; Wang, Chuang-Ming; Chou, Hsin-Hsu

    2014-12-01

    Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS) treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD) and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS) [duration of hospitalization: WMD = -0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -1.38 to -0.54, p bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = -0.77, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = -0.85, 95% CI = -1.30 to -0.39, p bronchiolitis in infants.

  3. Cardiac function in an endothermic fish: cellular mechanisms for overcoming acute thermal challenges during diving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiels, H A; Galli, G L J; Block, B A

    2015-02-07

    Understanding the physiology of vertebrate thermal tolerance is critical for predicting how animals respond to climate change. Pacific bluefin tuna experience a wide range of ambient sea temperatures and occupy the largest geographical niche of all tunas. Their capacity to endure thermal challenge is due in part to enhanced expression and activity of key proteins involved in cardiac excitation-contraction coupling, which improve cardiomyocyte function and whole animal performance during temperature change. To define the cellular mechanisms that enable bluefin tuna hearts to function during acute temperature change, we investigated the performance of freshly isolated ventricular myocytes using confocal microscopy and electrophysiology. We demonstrate that acute cooling and warming (between 8 and 28°C) modulates the excitability of the cardiomyocyte by altering the action potential (AP) duration and the amplitude and kinetics of the cellular Ca(2+) transient. We then explored the interactions between temperature, adrenergic stimulation and contraction frequency, and show that when these stressors are combined in a physiologically relevant way, they alter AP characteristics to stabilize excitation-contraction coupling across an acute 20°C temperature range. This allows the tuna heart to maintain consistent contraction and relaxation cycles during acute thermal challenges. We hypothesize that this cardiac capacity plays a key role in the bluefin tunas' niche expansion across a broad thermal and geographical range. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wielgosz, R.; Bell, S. A.; Camões, M. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Dexter, P.; Dickson, A. G.; Fisicaro, P.; Harvey, A. H.; Heinonen, M.; Hellmuth, O.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; McDougall, T. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Ridout, P.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Stoica, D.; Wolf, H.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  5. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: Oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R; Wielgosz, R; Bell, S A; Camões, M F; Cooper, J R; Dexter, P; Dickson, A G; Fisicaro, P; Harvey, A H; Heinonen, M; Hellmuth, O; Kretzschmar, H-J; Lovell-Smith, J W; McDougall, T J; Pawlowicz, R; Ridout, P; Seitz, S; Spitzer, P; Stoica, D; Wolf, H

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth's radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest "greenhouse" gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organisations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  6. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: In vivo and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martinez Gaspar Martins, Camila [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Menezes, Eliana Jaime de; Mussoi Giacomin, Marina [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Wood, Chris M. [McMaster University, Department of Biology, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-17

    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC{sub 50} and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) {mu}M Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) {mu}M Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC{sub 50} values were expressed as the free Cu{sup 2+} ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) {mu}M free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) {mu}M free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu{sup 2+} activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) {mu}M Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) {mu}M Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2 h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this 'steady-state' period. This finding

  7. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Camila De Martinez Gaspar; Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; de Menezes, Eliana Jaime; Giacomin, Marina Mussoi; Wood, Chris M; Bianchini, Adalto

    2011-01-17

    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC(50) and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) μM Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) μM Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC(50) values were expressed as the free Cu(2+) ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) μM free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) μM free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu(2+) activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) μM Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) μM Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this "steady-state" period. This finding was corroborated by a significant

  8. Molecular characterization and transcriptional regulation of the Na +/K+ ATPase α subunit isoforms during development and salinity challenge in a teleost fish, the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armesto, Paula; Campinho, Marco A; Rodríguez-Rúa, Ana; Cousin, Xavier; Power, Deborah M; Manchado, Manuel; Infante, Carlos

    2014-09-01

    In the present work, five genes encoding different Na(+),K(+) ATPase (NKA) α-isoforms in the teleost Solea senegalensis are described for the first time. Sequence analysis of predicted polypeptides revealed a high degree of conservation across teleosts and mammals. Phylogenetic analysis clustered the five genes into three main clades: α1 (designated atp1a1a and atp1a1b), α2 (designated atp1a2) and α3 (designated atp1a3a and atp1a3b) isoforms. Transcriptional analysis in larvae showed distinct expression profiles during development. In juvenile tissues, the atp1a1a gene was highly expressed in osmoregulatory organs, atp1a2 in skeletal muscle, atp1a1b in brain and heart and atp1a3a and atp1a3b mainly in brain. Quantification of mRNA abundance after a salinity challenge showed that atp1a1a transcript levels increased significantly in the gill of soles transferred to high salinity water (60 ppt). In contrast, atp1a3a transcripts increased at low salinity (5 ppt). In situ hybridization (ISH) analysis revealed that the number of ionocytes expressing atp1a1a transcripts in the primary gill filaments was higher at 35 and 60 ppt than at 5 ppt and remained undetectable or at very low levels in the lamellae at 5 and 35 ppt but increased at 60 ppt. Immunohistochemistry showed a higher number of positive cells in the lamellae. Whole-mount analysis of atp1a1a mRNA in young sole larvae revealed that it was localized in gut, pronephric tubule, gill, otic vesicle, yolk sac ionocytes and chordacentrum. Moreover, atp1a1a mRNAs increased at mouth opening (3 DPH) in larvae incubated at 36 ppt with a greater signal in gills.

  9. Nebulized Hypertonic Saline Treatment Reduces Both Rate and Duration of Hospitalization for Acute Bronchiolitis in Infants: An Updated Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Ju Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nebulized hypertonic saline (HS treatment reduced the length of hospitalization in infants with acute bronchiolitis in a previous meta-analysis. However, there was no reduction in the admission rate. We hypothesized that nebulized HS treatment might significantly decrease both the duration and the rate of hospitalization if more randomized controlled trials (RCTs were included. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL without a language restriction. A meta-analysis was performed based on the efficacy of nebulized HS treatment in infants with acute bronchiolitis. We used weighted mean difference (WMD and risk ratio as effect size metrics. Eleven studies were identified that enrolled 1070 infants. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased the duration and rate of hospitalization compared with nebulized normal saline (NS [duration of hospitalization: WMD = −0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI = −1.38 to −0.54, p < 0.001; rate of hospitalization: risk ratio = 0.59, 95% CI = 0.37–0.93, p = 0.02]. Furthermore, nebulized HS treatment had a beneficial effect in reducing the clinical severity (CS score of acute bronchiolitis infants post-treatment (Day 1: WMD = −0.77, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.24, p = 0.005; Day 2: WMD = −0.85, 95% CI = −1.30 to −0.39, p < 0.001; Day 3: WMD = −1.14, 95% CI = −1.69 to −0.58, p < 0.001. There was no decrease in the rate of readmission (risk ratio = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.68–1.73, p = 0.74. Nebulized HS treatment significantly decreased both the rate and the duration of hospitalization. Due to the efficacy and cost-effectiveness, HS should be considered for the treatment of acute bronchiolitis in infants.

  10. Indicators: Salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinity is the dissolved salt content of a body of water. Excess salinity, due to evaporation, water withdrawal, wastewater discharge, and other sources, is a chemical sterssor that can be toxic for aquatic environments.

  11. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion.

  12. Challenges in the treatment of patients with essential thrombocythemia and acute coronary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doesch, Christina; Krämer, Björn; Geisler, Tobias; May, Andreas E; Kroeber, Stefan-Martin; Kandolf, Reinhard; Gawaz, Meinrad

    2008-04-01

    Essential thrombocythemia (ET) is an acquired clonal hematological stem-cell disorder that is characterized by a persistent increase in platelet count over 600,000/microl and elevated megakaryocyte levels in the bone marrow. Patients with ET are on the one hand at risk of thrombosis and on the other hand of hemorrhagic events especially in patients with very high platelet accounts. We report two illustrative cases with ET and acute coronary syndrome from our recent clinical experience illustrating the challenges in the antithrombotic treatment of these patients.

  13. Practically Saline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Schroeder MD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In December 2014, the Food and Drug Administration issued a recall of all Wallcur simulation products due to reports of their use in clinical practice. We present a case of septic shock and multiorgan failure after the accidental intravenous infusion of a nonsterile Wallcur simulation product. Case. The patient presented with symptoms of rigors and dyspnea occurring immediately after infusion of Wallcur Practi-0.9% saline. Initial laboratory evidence was consistent with severe septic shock and multiorgan dysfunction. His initial lactic acid level was 9 mmol/L (reference range = 0.5-2.2, and he had evidence of acute kidney injury and markers of disseminated intravascular coagulation. All 4 blood culture bottles isolated multidrug-resistant Empedobacter brevis. The patient recovered from his illness and was discharged with ciprofloxacin therapy per susceptibilities. Discussion. This patient represents the first described case of severe septic shock associated with the infusion of a Wallcur simulation product. Intravenous inoculation of a nonsterile fluid is rare and exposes the patient to unusual environmental organisms, toxins, or unsafe fluid characteristics such as tonicity. During course of treatment, we identified the possible culprit to be a multidrug-resistant isolate of Empedobacter brevis. We also discuss the systemic failures that led to this outbreak.

  14. Challenges in implementing individualized medicine illustrated by antimetabolite therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Borst, Louise; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Predicting the response to medical therapy and subsequently individualizing the treatment to increase efficacy or reduce toxicity has been a longstanding clinical goal. Not least within oncology, where many patients fail to be cured, and others are treated to or beyond the limit......, but also multiplied the complex interaction of genetic and other laboratory parameters that can be used for therapy adjustments. Thus, with the advances in the laboratory techniques, post laboratory issues have become major obstacles for treatment individualization. Many of these challenges have been...... illustrated by studies involving childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), where each patient may receive up to 13 different anticancer agents over a period of 2-3 years. The challenges include i) addressing important, but low-frequency outcomes, ii) difficulties in interpreting the impact of single drug...

  15. Involvement of AMPK in alcohol dehydrogenase accentuated myocardial dysfunction following acute ethanol challenge in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Scott, Glenda I; Ren, Jun

    2010-06-23

    Binge alcohol drinking often triggers myocardial contractile dysfunction although the underlying mechanism is not fully clear. This study was designed to examine the impact of cardiac-specific overexpression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on ethanol-induced change in cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis, insulin and AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) signaling. ADH transgenic and wild-type FVB mice were acutely challenged with ethanol (3 g/kg/d, i.p.) for 3 days. Oral glucose tolerance test, cardiac AMP/ATP levels, cardiac contractile function, intracellular Ca(2+) handling and AMPK signaling (including ACC and LKB1) were examined. Ethanol exposure led to glucose intolerance, elevated plasma insulin, compromised cardiac contractile and intracellular Ca(2+) properties, downregulated protein phosphatase PP2A subunit and PPAR-gamma, as well as phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and LKB1, all of which except plasma insulin were overtly accentuated by ADH transgene. Interestingly, myocardium from ethanol-treated FVB mice displayed enhanced expression of PP2Calpha and PGC-1alpha, decreased insulin receptor expression as well as unchanged expression of Glut4, the response of which was unaffected by ADH. Cardiac AMP-to-ATP ratio was significantly enhanced by ethanol exposure with a more pronounced increase in ADH mice. In addition, the AMPK inhibitor compound C (10 microM) abrogated acute ethanol exposure-elicited cardiomyocyte mechanical dysfunction. In summary, these data suggest that the ADH transgene exacerbated acute ethanol toxicity-induced myocardial contractile dysfunction, intracellular Ca(2+) mishandling and glucose intolerance, indicating a role of ADH in acute ethanol toxicity-induced cardiac dysfunction possibly related to altered cellular fuel AMPK signaling cascade.

  16. Reduced triglyceride secretion in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in obese compared to lean mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki eUchida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG storage in tissues such as liver, heart and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after fasting. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.

  17. Clinical semiology and neuroradiologic correlates of acute hypernatremic osmotic challenge in adults: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, F Y; Szóllics, A; Szólics, M; Nagelkerke, N; Ljubisavljevic, M

    2013-12-01

    The complex interplay between hypernatremic osmotic disturbances and cerebral lesions is yet to be clarified. In this review, we discuss, on the basis of the reported data of hypernatremic CNS challenge in the adult population, the clinical and radiologic features of the condition. Our search captured 20 case studies and 1 case series with 30 patients in total who acquired acute hypernatremia due to different etiologies and developed CNS lesions. We explored the associations between premorbid conditions, clinical presentation, hypernatremic state, correction rate, and radiologic appearance, including the localization of brain lesions and the outcomes. The results revealed that altered mental status was the most commonly reported symptom and osmotic demyelination syndrome in the form of extrapontine myelinolysis was the prevailing radiologic pattern. Finally, we contrasted, when appropriate, clinical and experimental data related to hypernatremic and hyponatremic osmotic insults to aid the understanding of the pathophysiology of CNS osmotic brain injury.

  18. OmniGen-AF supplementation modulated the physiological and acute phase responses of Brahman heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Prince Agri Products) on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-weaned heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Brahman heifers (n=24; 183±5 kilograms) from the Texas AgriLife Research Center in Overton...

  19. Prenatal transportation alters the acute phase response (APR) of bull calves exposed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if prenatal transportation influences the acute phase response (APR) to a postnatal Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pregnant Brahman cows (n=96) matched by age and parity were separated into transported (TRANS; n=48; transported for 2 hours on gestational day...

  20. Rising to the Challenge: Acute Stress Appraisals and Selection Centre Performance in Applicants to Postgraduate Specialty Training in Anaesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Martin J.; Gale, Thomas C. E.; McGrath, John S.; Wilson, Mark R.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an…

  1. The effect of yeast cell wall supplementation on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.9+/-2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and tra...

  2. Yeast cell wall supplementation alters the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding yeast cell wall (YCW) products on the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred newly-received heifers to an endotoxin challenge. Heifers (n = 24; 219 ± 2.4 kg) were separated into treatment groups receiving a Control diet (n = 8), ...

  3. Dried citrus pulp modulates the physiological and acute phase responses of crossbred heifers to an endotoxin challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study examined the effect of feeding dried citrus pulp (CP) pellets on the physiological and acute phase responses (APR) of newly-received crossbred heifers to an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide; LPS) challenge. Heifers (n=24; 218.3±2.4 kg) were obtained from commercial sale barns and transported...

  4. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  5. Salinity Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Walter R.

    1987-01-01

    Discussed are the costs of deriving energy from the earth's natural reserves of salt. Argues that, as fossil fuel supplies become more depleted in the future, the environmental advantages of salinity power may prove to warrant its exploitation. (TW)

  6. Proteomic approach for acute-phase proteins of hemolymph and muscles in Scylla serrata challenged by a pathogenic bactedum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenjie; SU Jing; WANG Guizhong; WANG Sanying

    2006-01-01

    Acute-phase response is documented to be a significant mechanism of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates.In this study,proteomic methodologies were applied for different protein expressions in hemolymph of Scylla serrata challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus after immunization,and in muscles of the crabs separately challenged by V.parahaemolyticus.V.anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila.Up-regulated cryptocyanin is documented in the hemolymph and up-regulated calexcitin,wingless(fragment)and tachykinin-related peptide in the muscle as acute-phase proteins.All the four altered proteins were responsible for bacterial stress,but cryptocyanin seemed to be a memory response protein against the challenge by a live bacterium after immunization of the live cells.These up-regulated proteins can be indicative of an understanding of immunity of a crab.

  7. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  8. Advances and challenges in the management of acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ogilvie syndrome).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Arpana; Vargas, H David

    2012-03-01

    Although acute colonic pseudo-obstruction (ACPO), also known as Ogilvie syndrome, is a well-known clinical entity, in many respects it remains poorly understood and continues to challenge physicians and surgeons alike. Our understanding of ACPO continues to evolve and its epidemiology has changed as new conditions have been identified predisposing to ACPO with critical illness providing the common thread among them. A physician must keep ACPO high in the list of differential diagnoses when dealing with the patient experiencing abdominal distention, and one must be prepared to employ and interpret imaging studies to exclude mechanical obstruction. Rapid diagnosis is the key, and institution of conservative measures often will lead to resolution. Fortunately, when this fails pharmacologic intervention with neostigmine often proves effective. However, it is not a panacea: consensus on dosing does not exist, administration techniques vary and may impact efficacy, contraindications limit its use, and persistence and or recurrence of ACPO mandate continued search for additional medical therapies. When medical therapy fails or is contraindicated, endoscopy offers effective intervention with advanced techniques such as decompression tubes or percutaneous endoscopic cecostomy providing effective results. Operative intervention remains the treatment of last resort; surgical outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, a surgeon should be aware of all options for decompression-conservative, pharmacologic, and endoscopic-and use them in best combination to the advantage of patients who often suffer from significant concurrent illnesses making them poor operative candidates.

  9. Functional diets modulate the acute phase protein response in Oncorhynchus mykiss subjected to chronic stress and challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Osses, Darlyng; Carrera-Naipil, Crisleri; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa

    2017-07-01

    The acute phase response to pathogens alters the production of proinflammatory cytokines that, in turn, activate the synthesis of acute phase proteins. These proteins neutralize, prevent, and indicate tissue damage, thereby influencing the specific immune response and allowing the organism to regain homeostasis. Functional diets based in pre- and probiotics are used in aquaculture to improve fish health and resistance to diseases, but there is an information gap on the mechanisms involved in these effects and if these diets are efficient when fish are raised under high stocking densities. This study aimed an evaluation of the acute phase response in Oncorhynchus mykiss fed functional diets supplemented with pre- and probiotics (i.e. mannan-oligosaccharides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively) and challenged by either Vibrio anguillarum or chronic stress via maintenance under high stocking densities. For this, the relative expression of acute phase response related genes in liver, and of inflammatory response related genes in head kidney was evaluated by RT-qPCR. The supplemented diets differentially modulated the acute phase protein response to the assessed challenge conditions, specifically evidencing an overexpression of the genes HAPT, SAA, LECT2, and IL-1β under chronic stress and of HAPT, IL-1β, IL8, and LECT2 at 24 h post-challenge with V. anguillarum. The observed early-stage regulation of acute phase proteins and of the immune response by the probiotic S. cerevisiae and by prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides suggests that both supplements have high immunostimulatory potentials for fish farmed under high stocking densities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Pheochromocytoma presenting as an acute coronary syndrome complicated by acute heart failure: The challenge of a great mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Damiano Sanna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with a highly variable clinical presentation. The serious and potentially lethal cardiovascular complications of these tumors are related to the effects of secreted catecholamines. We describe a case of a 50-year-old woman urgently admitted to our hospital because of symptoms and clinical and instrumental findings consistent with an acute coronary syndrome complicated by acute heart failure. Urgent coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries. During her hospital stay, the recurrence of episodes characterized by a sudden increase in blood pressure, cold sweating, and nausea allowed us to hypothesize a pheochromocytoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of urinary catecholamines and by the finding of a left adrenal mass on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was critically reappraised and reviewed as a cardiac manifestation of a pheochromocytoma during catecholaminergic crisis.

  11. Acute bithalamic infarct manifesting as sleep-like coma: A diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honig, Asaf; Eliahou, Ruth; Eichel, Roni; Shemesh, Ari Aharon; Ben-Hur, Tamir; Auriel, Eitan

    2016-12-01

    Bilateral thalamic infarction (BTI) typically presents as a sleep-like coma (SLC) without localizing signs, posing a diagnostic challenge that may lead the treating physician to search for toxic or metabolic causes and delay treatment. We review our experience with BTI of different etiologies, and emphasize the critical role of timely imaging, diagnosis, and management in a series of 12 patients with a presentation of SLC and acute BTI who were managed in our Medical Centers from 2006-2015. In 11/12, urgent head CT scans showed normal brain tissue, while diffusion-weighted (DWI) MRI revealed symmetric bilateral thalamic hyperintense lesions with variable degrees of brainstem involvement. In 1/12, CT scans revealed a contralateral subacute stroke from a thalamic infarct 1month earlier with a unilateral hyperintense lesion on DWI-MRI. From clinical and imaging findings (DWI-MRI, CT angiography and venography), etiology was attributed to embolic causes (cardio-embolism, artery-to-artery mechanism), small vessel disease, or deep sinus vein thrombosis secondary to dural arteriovenous (AV) fistula. Three patients had good outcomes after prompt diagnosis and optimal treatment in <3hours (intravenous tissue plasminogen activator in two patients cardio-embolic etiology and neuro-endovascular repair in one patient with venous infarction due to a dural AV fistula). The diagnosis was made beyond the therapeutic window in seven patients, who were left with significant neurological sequelae. Higher awareness of BTI presenting as SLC is warranted. Optimal patient management includes urgent DWI-MRI. In cases of BTI, further imaging workup is indicated to provide a comprehensive assessment for etiology. Early diagnosis and prompt, targeted intervention are crucial.

  12. Tolerância aguda e crônica de adultos de beta, Betta splendens, à salinidade da água Acute and chronic salinity tolerance in adult siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jener Alexandre Sampaio Zuanon

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar a tolerância de Betta splendens à salinidade da água, realizou-se um experimento em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis concentrações de sal na água (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 e 15 g de sal comum/L de água, cada uma com cinco repetições (1 peixe/repetição. Fêmeas adultas de Betta splendens foram alojadas individualmente em aquários mantidos em estufa incubadora, a 26 ± 0,2 ºC e fotoperíodo de 12 horas. Os peixes foram alimentados até a saciedade, uma vez ao dia, com ração comercial. Foram mensurados o consumo diário de ração e a sobrevivência dos peixes a cada 12 horas. Para avaliar o efeito agudo da salinidade, foram calculados o tempo médio de sobrevivência e a salinidade letal mediana-96 horas, enquanto o efeito crônico (18 dias foi avaliado pelo cálculo da salinidade máxima de sobrevivência e da salinidade letal mediana. O tempo médio de sobrevivência foi significativamente menor na salinidade de 15 g/L. A salinidade letal mediana-96 horas estimada foi de 11,88 g/L, a salinidade máxima de sobrevivência entre 6 e 7 g/L, e a salinidade letal mediana de 9,35 g/L. Observou-se interação significativa entre as salinidades da água e o tempo de alimentação. Considerando que é uma espécie de água doce, o beta possui alta tolerância à salinidade da água.Salinity tolerance of Betta splendens was evaluated in a complete randomized design, with six salt concentrations in the water (0; 3; 6; 9; 12 and 15 g common salt/L with five replications (1 fish/replication. Adult female B. splendens were individually placed in aquariums in an incubation chamber at 26 ± 0.2ºC and 12-hour photoperiod. Fish were fed to satiation, once a day, with commercial diet. Feed intake and survival rate were measured every 12 hours. To evaluate the effect of acute salinity, the mean survival time and median lethal salinity-96 h were calculated, while the chronic effect (18 days was assessed by calculating

  13. Rising to the challenge: acute stress appraisals and selection centre performance in applicants to postgraduate specialty training in anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Martin J; Gale, Thomas C E; McGrath, John S; Wilson, Mark R

    2016-05-01

    The ability to work under pressure is a vital non-technical skill for doctors working in acute medical specialties. Individuals who evaluate potentially stressful situations as challenging rather than threatening may perform better under pressure and be more resilient to stress and burnout. Training programme recruitment processes provide an important opportunity to examine applicants' reactions to acute stress. In the context of multi-station selection centres for recruitment to anaesthesia training programmes, we investigated the factors influencing candidates' pre-station challenge/threat evaluations and the extent to which their evaluations predicted subsequent station performance. Candidates evaluated the perceived stress of upcoming stations using a measure of challenge/threat evaluation-the cognitive appraisal ratio (CAR)-and consented to release their demographic details and station scores. Using regression analyses we determined which candidate and station factors predicted variation in the CAR and whether, after accounting for these factors, the CAR predicted candidate performance in the station. The CAR was affected by the nature of the station and candidate gender, but not age, ethnicity, country of training or clinical experience. Candidates perceived stations involving work related tasks as more threatening. After controlling for candidates' demographic and professional profiles, the CAR significantly predicted station performance: 'challenge' evaluations were associated with better performance, though the effect was weak. Our selection centre model can help recruit prospective anaesthetists who are able to rise to the challenge of performing in stressful situations but results do not support the direct use of challenge/threat data for recruitment decisions.

  14. Modulation of the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs supplemented with an all-natural Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce the stress and acute phase responses (APR) following an acute lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n = 20; 6.4 +/- 0.2 kg body weight) were obtained and transported to an ...

  15. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  16. [Clinical case--voluminous diaphragmatic hernia--surgically acute abdomen: diagnostic and therapeutical challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, D; Savlovschi, C; Borcan, R; Pantu, H; Serban, D; Gradinaru, S; Smarandache, G; Trotea, T; Branescu, C; Musat, L; Comandasu, M; Priboi, M; Baldir, M; Sandolache, B; Oprescu, S

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old male patient admitted in the surgery section of the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest and diagnosed with acute abdomen. The minimal clinical-paraclinical investigation (i.e., thorax-pulmonary Xray, biological probes) raises questions as to the differentiated diagnosis and other associated diseases, also suggesting the existence of voluminous diaphragmatic hernia. The CT thorax-abdomen examination confirms the diaphragmatic hernia suspicion, with intra-thorax ascent of the colon up to the anterior C4 level, but does not explain the abdominal suffering; thus we suspected a biliary ileus or acute appendicitis. Medial laparotomy was imperative. Intrasurgically peritonitis was noticed located by gangrenous acute apendicitis, perforated, with coprolite, for which apendictomy and lavage-drainage pf the peritoneal cavity was performed. Post-surgical status: favourable to recovery.

  17. Acute Chagas Disease: New Global Challenges for an Old Neglected Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Daniela V.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, and although over 100 years have passed since the discovery of Chagas disease, it still presents an increasing problem for global public health. A plethora of information concerning the chronic phase of human Chagas disease, particularly the severe cardiac form, is available in the literature. However, information concerning events during the acute phase of the disease is scarce. In this review, we will discuss (1) the current status of acute Chagas disease cases globally, (2) the immunological findings related to the acute phase and their possible influence in disease outcome, and (3) reactivation of Chagas disease in immunocompromised individuals, a key point for transplantation and HIV infection management. PMID:25077613

  18. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Eze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008. Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Results: Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer′s patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Conclusion: Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of

  19. Early treatment of hypertension in acute ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic stroke: progress achieved, challenges, and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2014-03-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of stroke. Additionally, high blood pressure (BP) in the acute cerebrovascular event is associated with poor outcome, and a high percentage of stroke survivors have inadequate control of hypertension. The present is a systematic review of prospective, randomized, and controlled trials carried out on safety and efficacy of antihypertensive treatment of both subtypes of acute stroke. Six trials involving 7512 patients were included, which revealed controversies on the speed and the goals of treatment. These controversies could be due at least in part, from the fact that some studies analyzed the results of antihypertensive treatment in ischemic and intracerebral hemorrhagic subtypes of acute stroke together, and from a different prevalence of past-stroke in the randomized groups. Further research is necessary to establish whether standard antihypertensive treatment provides greater benefit than simple observation in patients with ischemic acute stroke and Stage 2 hypertension of JNC 7, albeit they were not candidates for acute reperfusion. In that case, the target reduction in BP could be 10% to 15% within 24 hours. The recently published INTERACT 2 has provided evidence that patients with hemorrhagic stroke may receive intensive antihypertensive treatment safely with the goal of reducing systolic BP to levels no lower than 130 mm Hg. It is important to take into account that marked BP lowering in acute stroke increases the risk of poor outcome by worsening cerebral ischemia from deterioration of cerebral blood flow autoregulation. Copyright © 2014 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Mucormycosis Rhinosinusitis at Diagnosis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostics and Management Challenges in a Low-Middle-income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandegari, Elham; Fu, Ligia; Arambú, Carolina; Montoya, Sandra; Peña, Armando; Johnson, Kyle M; Perfect, John R; Caniza, Miguela A

    2015-04-01

    We present the case of an adolescent with mucor rhinosinusitis diagnosed concomitantly with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at a hospital in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. We also discuss the challenges faced in the dual management of hematologic malignancies and invasive fungal disease in a low-middle-income country, such as access to diagnostics, immunosuppressants, imaging, and antifungals. Despite these shortcomings, the patient was successfully treated for both the diseases. Low-middle-income country hospitals can effectively treat invasive fungal diseases by providing adequate diagnostic and support services, which can improve the outcomes of pediatric cancer patients.

  1. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Pedro G; Kebreab, Ermias; Hung, Silas S O; Fadel, James G; Lee, Seunghyung; Fangue, Nann A

    2015-01-01

    Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor) among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i) a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii) an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii) the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental stressors in the

  2. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro G Vaz

    Full Text Available Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD for which significant climate change-derived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, climate change will likely have more physiological effect on young sturgeon stages, which in turn may affect growth performance. In this study, the two species were challenged in a multiple-factor experimental setting, first to levels of feeding rate, and then to salinity levels for different time periods. Data analysis included generalized additive models to select predictors of growth performance (measured by condition factor among the environmental stressors considered and a suite of physiological variables. Using structural equation modeling, a path diagram is proposed to quantify the main linkages among nutrition status, salinity, osmoregulation variables, and growth performances. Three major trends were anticipated for the growth performance of green and white sturgeon in the juvenile stage in the SFBD: (i a decrease in prey abundance will be highly detrimental for the growth of both species; (ii an acute increase in salinity within the limits studied can be tolerated by both species but possibly the energy spent in osmoregulation may affect green sturgeon growth within the time window assessed; (iii the mechanism of synergistic effects of nutrition and salinity changes will be more complex in green sturgeon, with condition factor responding nonlinearly to interactions of salinity and nutrition status or time of salinity exposure. Green sturgeon merits special scientific attention and conservation effort to offset the effects of feed restriction and salinity as key environmental

  3. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for α1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations.Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contraproductive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals.When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APPs measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APPs.

  4. Erythema multiforme due to arsenic trioxide in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish V Badarkhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self-limited, Type IV hypersensitivity reactions associated with infections and drugs. In this case of acute promyelocytic leukemia, EM diagnosed during the induction phase was mistakenly attributed to vancomycin used to treat febrile neutropenia during that period. However, the occurrence of the lesions of EM again during the consolidation phase with arsenic trioxide (ATO lead to a re-evaluation of the patient and both the Naranjo and World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre scale showed the causality association as “probable.” The rash responded to topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. This rare event of EM being caused by ATO may be attributed to the genetic variation of methyl conjugation in the individual which had triggered the response, and the altered metabolic byproducts acted as a hapten in the subsequent keratinocyte necrosis.

  5. Acute coronary syndromes. Challenging accepted post-MI serum potassium targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Diepen, Sean; Granger, Christopher B

    2012-02-28

    On the basis of high-quality observational data, Goyal et al. have found that serum potassium levels <3.5 mmol/l or ≥4.5 mmol/l are associated with increased in-hospital mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction. We discuss whether target potassium levels in clinical practice and guidelines should be changed to 3.5–4.5 mmol/l.

  6. Estimation of genetic parameters and genotype-by-environment interactions related to acute ammonia stress in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) juveniles at two different salinity levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xia; Luan, Sheng; Cao, Baoxiang; Meng, Xianhong; Sui, Juan; Dai, Ping; Luo, Kun; Shi, Xiaoli; Hao, Dengchun; Han, Guomin; Kong, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Regarding the practical farming of Litopenaeus vannamei, the deterioration of water quality from intensive culture systems and environmental pollution is a common but troublesome problem in the cultivation of this species. The toxicities that result from deteriorating water quality, such as that from ammonia stress, have lethal effects on juvenile shrimp and can increase their susceptibility to pathogens. The toxicity of ammonia plays an important role in the frequently high mortality during the early stage on shrimp farms. However, little information is available regarding the genetic parameters of the ammonia tolerance of juveniles in the early stage, but this information is necessary to understand the potential for the genetic improvement of this trait. Considering the euryhalinity of L. vannamei and the fact that low salinity can increase the toxicity of ammonia stress, we estimated the heritability of ammonia tolerance in juveniles in 30‰ (normal) and 5‰ (low) salinity in this study using the survival time (ST) at individual level and the survival status at the half-lethal time (SS50) at the family level. In the normal and low salinity conditions and for the merged data, the heritability estimates of the ST (0.784±0.070, 0.575±0.068, and 0.517±0.058, respectively) and SS50 (0.402±0.061, 0.216±0.050, and 0.264±0.050, respectively) were all significantly greater than zero, which indicates that the ammonia-tolerance of shrimp can be greatly improved. So it might provide an alternative method to reduce mortality, help to enhance resistance to pathogens and reduce the occurrence of infectious diseases. The significant positive genetic correlation between ST and body length suggested that ammonia is more toxic to shrimp in the early stage. The medium-strength genetic correlations of the ST and SS50 between the two environments (0.394±0.097 and 0.377±0.098, respectively) indicate a strong genotype-by-environment (G×E) interaction for ammonia tolerance

  7. Efficacy and tolerability of an ectoine mouth and throat spray compared with those of saline lozenges in the treatment of acute pharyngitis and/or laryngitis: a prospective, controlled, observational clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dörte; Lindemann, Torben; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Scherner, Olaf; Knop, Markus; Bilstein, Andreas; Mösges, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this observational trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a mouth and throat spray containing ectoine in the treatment of acute pharyngitis and/or laryngitis. The outcome was compared with control treatment using saline lozenges. This study was designed as a prospective, controlled, non-randomized, observational multicenter clinical trial and was conducted in Germany. The study population consisted of 95 patients. The decision for treatment with either spray or lozenges was based on the patients' preference for pharyngeal or oral application. Investigators assessed symptoms specific to acute pharyngitis/laryngitis and determined the pharyngitis symptom score. Both patients and investigators evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of the treatment applied. Treatment with the spray showed higher efficacy, 1.95 ± 0.81 versus 1.68 ± 0.67 (investigators) and 1.97 ± 0.88 versus 1.57 ± 0.69 (patients, p ectoine-based spray showed superior efficacy in treating acute pharyngitis and/or laryngitis.

  8. CHALLENGES IN TREATMENT OF RENAL GRAFT ACUTE ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR of kidney allograft remain controversial. We report the case of early severe AMR after primary kidney transplantation. The graft removal was considered in the absence of treatment efficacy and in the presence of systemic infl ammatory response syndrome. However, at surgery the graft looked normal and it was not removed. The repeated treatment course (plasmapheresis, antithymocyte globulin, intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab was effective. The patient has good and stable graft function in 1 year after transplantation. 

  9. Acute myeloid dendritic cell leukaemia with specific cutaneous involvement: a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferran, M; Gallardo, F; Ferrer, A M; Salar, A; Pérez-Vila, E; Juanpere, N; Salgado, R; Espinet, B; Orfao, A; Florensa, L; Pujol, R M

    2008-05-01

    Myeloid or type 1 dendritic cell leukaemia is an exceedingly rare haematopoietic neoplasm characterized by a specific immunophenotypic profile close to plasmacytoid dendritic cell and acute myelogenous leukaemia. A 77-year-old man presenting specific cutaneous infiltration by myeloid dendritic cell leukaemia is reported. The clinical features as well as the cutaneous histopathological and immunohistochemical features led to the initial diagnosis of CD4+/CD56+ haematodermic neoplasm. However, extensive immunophenotypic studies performed from peripheral blood blasts disclosed that leukaemic cells expressed myeloid dendritic cell markers, confirming the diagnosis. The diagnostic difficulties of specific cutaneous involvement by myeloid dendritic cell leukaemia on the basis of routine histopathological and immunohistochemical features are highlighted.

  10. Clinical Observation of Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Acute Massive Cerebral Infarction%高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德; 谢向前; 蒙泽明; 李忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿的临床疗效。方法:选取本院神经内科收治的急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿患者46例,所有患者均经头颅CT或MRI检查确诊。按随机数字表法将患者分为两组,每组各23例。观察组(高渗盐水组)使用3%高渗盐水进行脱水治疗,对照组(甘露醇组)使用20%甘露醇进行脱水治疗,比较两组患者治疗前和治疗后神经功能缺损程度(MESSS评分)以及血钠、血钾、血肌酐、血浆渗透压的改变。结果:两组治疗后第3天和第5天后神经功能缺损程度均较前减轻(P0.05),对照组治疗5 d后出现血钾偏低4例,血肌酐升高伴少尿(急性肾功能不全)1例。结论:3%高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿疗效确切,不良反应少,值得临床进一步研究和推广应用。%Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of hypertonic saline in treatment of acute massive cerebral infarction.Method:46 patients with acute massive cerebral infarction treated in the neurology department of our hospital were selected,all patients were diagnosed by CT or MRI,and the 46 patients were randomly divided into two groups,23 in each group,the observation group(hypertonic saline group)using 3%hypertonic saline for dehydration treatment,the control group(mannitol group)with 20% mannitol dehydration treatment,the degree of neurological impairment(MESSS score )and the change of the blood sodium,potassium,creatinine ,plasma osmolality was observed in both groups of patients before treatment and after treatment. Result:Three and five days after treatment,the degree of neurological impairment(MESSS score)in both groups of patients were reduced(P0.05),while in the control group,four cases appear low potassium,one case of elevated serum creatinine with oliguria(acute renal failure). Conclusion:The efficacy of 3%hypertonic saline in treatment of acute massive

  11. Diagnostic challenges of Wilson's disease presenting as acute pancreatitis, cholangitis, and jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinson, Elchanan; Shahbari, Azmi; Shibli, Fahmi; Chervinsky, Elena; Trougouboff, Philippe; Markel, Arie

    2013-11-27

    Wilson's disease is a rare disorder of copper transport in hepatic cells, and may present as cholestatic liver disease; pancreatitis and cholangitis are rarely associated with Wilsons's disease. Moreover, cases of Wilson's disease presenting as pigmented gallstone pancreatitis have not been reported in the literature. In the present report, we describe a case of a 37-year-old man who was admitted with jaundice and abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, cholangitis, and obstructive jaundice caused by pigmented gallstones that were detected during retrograde cholangiopancreatography. However, because of his long-term jaundice and the presence of pigmented gallstones, the patient underwent further evaluation for Wilson's disease, which was subsequently confirmed. This patient's unique presentation exemplifies the overlap in the clinical and laboratory parameters of Wilson's disease and cholestasis, and the difficulties associated with their differentiation. It suggests that Wilson's disease should be considered in patients with pancreatitis, cholangitis, and severe protracted jaundice caused by pigmented gallstones.

  12. Decontamination of multiple casualties who are chemically contaminated: a challenge for acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon F J; Chilcott, Rob P; Wilson, James C; Kamanyire, Robie; Baker, David J; Hallett, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have been contaminated by chemical compounds present a number of difficulties to emergency departments, in particular, the risk of secondary contamination of healthcare staff and facilities. The Department of Health in the United Kingdom has provided equipment to decontaminate chemically contaminated casualties who present at emergency departments. The capacity of this equipment is limited, and although both the ambulance and fire services have equipment to cope with mass casualties at the scene of a chemical incident, there is still the possibility that acute hospitals will be overwhelmed by large numbers of self-presenting patients. The risks and potential consequences of this gap in resilience are discussed and a number of possible practical solutions are proposed.

  13. INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION AND HYPERSENSITIVITY PARAMETERS UNDER GUINEA PIG MODEL OF ACUTE ASTHMA WITH MULTIPLE CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parilova, O O; Shandrenko, S G

    2015-01-01

    An immunoregulatory role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of adaptive immune responses associated with allergic diseases is very important. The present study extended these observations by the examination of the reciprocal changes in characteristic immunologic parameters of the disease and NO level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. Development of guinea pig Th2 mediated asthma was accompanied by increasing the level of allergic markers: ovalbumin (OVA) specific IgG and IL-4. We demonstrated that the infiltrate of airway cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation. The level of intracellular NO formation significantly correlated with plasma allergen specific IgG value in OVA-induced asthma. The presented data evidence that the elevated intracellular NO level in BAL fluid may reflect a nitrosative stress in respiratory tract in general, when allergic asthma exacerbation is present.

  14. Surgical management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding:still a major challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czymek, Ralf; Großmann, Anja; Roblick, Uwe; Schmidt, Andreas; Fischer, Frank; Bruch, Hans-Peter; Hildebrand, Philipp

    2012-05-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) that cannot be managed with conservative interventional techniques is a life-threatening condition. This study assesses patient outcome and the role of different risk factors. We retrospectively analyzed data from 91 patients (58 men, 33 women) admitted between 2000 and 2009 and who underwent surgery for UGIB requiring transfusion. Mean patient age was 67.4 years. Overall mortality was 34.1%. Causes of bleeding were duodenal ulcer in 57 patients (62.6%) and gastric ulcer in 25 (27.5%). A median number of 21 blood units (range 6-120) were transfused. Surgical treatment consisted of non-resective surgery (52.7%), Billroth II (31.9%), Billroth I (4.4%) or gastric wedge resection (4.4%). The use of anticoagulants (p=0.040), a need for postoperative ventilation (p=0.007) and an intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay >7 days (p=0.004) were identified as significant risk factors for mortality. Transfusions of more than 10 units of blood (p=0.013), the need for further surgery (p=0.021), a prolonged ICU length of stay (p=0.000) and recurrent bleeding (p=0.029) we identified as significant risk factors for postoperative complications (such as pneumonia, sepsis, re-bleeding and anastomotic leakage). Over the past decade, mortality has not decreased in patients requiring surgery for acute UGIB despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances, explained by the fact that these cases represent a negative selection of patients after unsuccessful conservative treatment as well as by the rising age of the population and associated increases in comorbidity. Resective surgery, a need for postoperative ventilation and a prolonged ICU length of stay should be added to the list of significant risk factors for mortality.

  15. Acute triventricular hydrocephalus caused by choroid plexus cysts: a diagnostic and neurosurgical challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spennato, Pietro; Chiaramonte, Carmela; Cicala, Domenico; Donofrio, Vittoria; Barbarisi, Manlio; Nastro, Anna; Mirone, Giuseppe; Trischitta, Vincenzo; Cinalli, Giuseppe

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Intraventricular choroid plexus cysts are unusual causes of acute hydrocephalus in children. Radiological diagnosis of intraventricular choroid plexus cysts is difficult because they have very thin walls and fluid contents similar to CSF and can go undetected on routine CT studies. METHODS This study reports the authors' experience with 5 patients affected by intraventricular cysts originating from the choroid plexus. All patients experienced acute presentation with rapid neurological deterioration, sometimes associated with hypothalamic dysfunction, and required urgent surgery. In 2 cases the symptoms were intermittent, with spontaneous remission and sudden clinical deteriorations, reflecting an intermittent obstruction of the CSF pathway. RESULTS Radiological diagnosis was difficult in these cases because a nonenhanced CT scan revealed only triventricular hydrocephalus, with slight lateral ventricle asymmetry in all cases. MRI with driven-equilibrium sequences and CT ventriculography (in 1 case) allowed the authors to accurately diagnose the intraventricular cysts that typically occupied the posterior part of the third ventricle, occluding the aqueduct and at least 1 foramen of Monro. The patients were managed by urgent implantation of an external ventricular drain in 1 case (followed by endoscopic surgery, after completing a diagnostic workup) and by urgent endoscopic surgery in 4 cases. Endoscopic surgery allowed the shrinkage and near-complete removal of the cysts in all cases. Use of neuronavigation and a laser were indispensable. All procedures were uneventful, resulting in restoration of normal neurological conditions. Long-term follow-up (> 2 years) was available for 2 patients, and no complications or recurrences occurred. CONCLUSIONS This case series emphasizes the necessity of an accurate and precise identification of the possible causes of triventricular hydrocephalus. Endoscopic surgery can be considered the ideal treatment of choroid plexus

  16. The Epistemological and Didactical Challenges Involved in Teaching Socially Acute Questions. The Example of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Simonneaux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are being asked to manage a specific didactic situation which falls into the category of what we have proposed to call “socially acute questions (SAQs”. A SAQ is a question which is acute in society, in background knowledge and in knowledge taught. Thus, teaching SAQs demands socio-epistemological reflexivity in the processes of knowledge production and in the social conditions in which this knowledge emerges; teaching SAQs will give priority to interdisciplinary, scientific and ethical reasoning. The split between ideology and science can certainly be examined when considering a socially acute question which is the subject of debate in society. In the example of the globalization taught: the diversity of analysis in the economic domain gives rise to great uncertainty because it justifies practically opposing policies; within a transdisciplinary framework, the globalization includes concepts, ideologies or social practices in a double movement of standardization and differentiation. By way of SAQs, we have attempted to show that learning stakes are numerous. However didactic choices must be supported by socio-epistemological survey, the identification of an epistemological posture and the definition of a didactic strategy.Les enseignants sont appelés à gérer une situation didactique spécifique dans l’enseignement des «questions socialement vives (QSV ». Les QSV sont des questions qui donnent lieu à débat dans la société, dans les savoirs scientifiques et dans l’enseignement. Ainsi, l‘enseignement des QSV nécessite une réflexivité socio-épistémologique dans le processus de production du savoir et dans les conditions sociales d’émergence de ces savoirs; l’enseignement des QSV donnera la priorité au raisonnement interdisciplinaire, scientifique et éthique. La scission entre l‘idéologie et la science peut être examinée lors de l‘examen d‘une QSV qui fait l‘objet d‘un débat dans la soci

  17. Immunomodulatory properties of gamithromycin and ketoprofen in lipopolysaccharide-challenged calves with emphasis on the acute-phase response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plessers, Elke; Wyns, Heidi; Watteyn, Anneleen; Pardon, Bart; De Baere, Siegrid; Sys, Stanislas U; De Backer, Patrick; Croubels, Siska

    2016-03-01

    Macrolide antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been reported to be modulators of the innate immune response, irrespectively of their antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory actions. Therefore, it was our objective to evaluate whether the macrolide gamithromycin (GAM) and the NSAID ketoprofen (KETO) attenuate the acute-phase response in calves, and whether their combined administration is beneficial due to synergistic and/or additive effects. To this end, both drugs, as well as their combination, were studied in a previously developed inflammation model, i.e., the induction of an acute-phase response by an intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge (0.5 μg/kg body weight). Sixteen 4-week-old Holstein-Friesian calves were randomized into 4 groups: a positive control (+CONTR) group, receiving LPS but no pharmacological treatment (n=4) and a GAM (n=4), a KETO (n=4) and a GAM-KETO (n=4) group, receiving the respective drugs 1h prior to LPS administration. Clinical scoring and blood collection were performed at regular time points until 72 h post LPS challenge. Plasma concentrations of the selected cytokines (tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6)), acute-phase protein (serum amyloid A (SAA)) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were subsequently quantified. Pre-treatment with GAM had no effect in the inflammation model compared to the +CONTR group. KETO, on the other hand, completely inhibited depression, anorexia and fever. This remarkable influence was associated with a significant reduction of PGE2 synthesis by KETO, while the effect on TNF-α, IL-6 and SAA was not straightforward. The combined administration of GAM and KETO provided no synergistic or additive effects in this model, neither clinically nor regarding the studied inflammatory mediators. In conclusion, KETO entirely inhibited PGE2 synthesis, fever development and depression, while GAM did not exert any effect in this model. These results promote the concomitant

  18. SARS (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME – A NEW CHALLENGE FOR THE MANKIND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrej Trampuž

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome is a recently recognized new infectious respiratory illness, which first appeared in southern China in November 2002, and has since then within months spread to 29 countries. In total, 8437 cases and 813 deaths occurred (situation as of August 1, 2003. SARS is caused by a novel coronavirus that is primarily spread by large droplet transmission, less commonly by surface contamination or by air (airborne. Around half of the infected were health care workers; the majority of cases acquired the infection in the hospital.Conclusions. Incubation period of SARS is 2 to 10 days. Early manifestations include fever, myalgia, and headache, followed 2 to 4 days later by cough, shortness of breath, and diarrhea. In 10–20% of patients, tracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation is required. Case-fatality is approximately 15%, in patients aged 60 years or older may be higher than 40%. There is no specific therapy or vaccine, and management consists of supportive care. This article summarizes updated information regarding epidemiology, clinical features, etiologic agent, modes of transmission of the disease, and infection control measures to contain SARS.

  19. Neutrophil engagement and septic challenge in acute experimental pancreatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw Ha(c); Marek Dobosz; Jan J Kaczor; Robert Rzepko; Ewa Aleksandrowicz-Wrona; Zdzis(l)aw Wajda; Zbigniew (S)ledziński; Jacek Krajewski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of neutrophil adhesion molecule blockade with monoclonal antibody (MoAb CD11b) and E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)administration on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: AP was induced by four ip injections of cerulein (Cn) at 1-h intervals. MoAb CD 11b and LPS were administered at the beginning of the experiment.RESULTS: The neutrophil count and chemiluminescence were diminished at the beginning of AP. The oxidative stress parameters were found within the pancreatic gland. MoAb CD 11b used for AP resulted in a significant reduction of pancreatic infiltration and pancreatitis oxidative stress parameters. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6)was not detected in AP animals, whereas high serum IL-6 concentration was noted only in animals receiving LPS.CONCLUSION: Neutrophils are involved in pancreatic damage in the early stage of AP. Neutrophil infiltration reduction protects the pancreatic gland from destruction during AP. LPS does not change the early course of Cn pancreatitis in rats.

  20. Testicular relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: The challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Relapse of disease is documented in 15-20% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Although testicular relapse is rare with modern risk-adapted treatment protocols, earlier, the testes were a frequently encountered site of relapse and were designated as "drug sanctuaries". Purpose : This descriptive study was designed to assess the pattern of testicular relapse and to identify high-risk factors. Materials and Methods : Data obtained from case records of 407 boys with ALL were analyzed. Fine needle aspiration cytology was carried out in children presenting with painless enlargement of testi(es. Bone marrow aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid examination were performed concomitantly to confirm or exclude disease at these sites. Results : Testicular relapse was documented in 30 boys. It was isolated in 17 patients and associated with bone marrow and/or central nervous system relapse in 13. At relapse, nine boys were over the age of 10 years. The majority were very early and early relapsers. Hyperleucocytosis was documented in five of 30 and seven of 137 relapsers and nonrelapsers, respectively (P = 0.04. Twelve of the 30 boys with testicular relapse were treated with testicular irradiation, reinduction and maintenance therapy. The estimated median overall survival was 33 months. Conclusion : Testicular relapse, which depends on the therapy administered, may manifest several months/years after completion of treatment. The high incidence of testicular relapse in our series implicates the need of revaluation of our protocol and incorporation of high/intermediate dose methotrexate therapy upfront.

  1. Acute human brain responses to intracortical microelectrode arrays: Challenges and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo eFernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The emerging field of neuroprosthetics is focused on the development of new therapeutic interventions that will be able to restore some lost neural function by selective electrical stimulation or by harnessing activity recorded from populations of neurons. As more and more patients benefit from these approaches, the interest in neural interfaces has grown significantly and a new generation of penetrating microelectrode arrays are providing unprecedented access to the neurons of the CNS. These microelectrodes have active tip dimensions that are similar in size to neurons and because they penetrate the nervous system, they provide selective access to these cells (within a few microns. However, the very long-term viability of chronically implanted microelectrodes and the capability of recording the same spiking activity over long time periods still remain to be established and confirmed in human studies. Here we review the main responses to acute implantation of microelectrode arrays, and emphasize that it will become essential to control the neural tissue damage induced by these intracortical microelectrodes in order to achieve the high clinical potentials accompanying this technology.

  2. Cardioprotection and pharmacological therapies in acute myocardial infarction: Challenges in the current era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Rodriguez, Alberto; Abreu-Gonzalez, Pedro; Reiter, Russel J

    2014-03-26

    In patients with an acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction, timely myocardial reperfusion using primary percutaneous coronary intervention is the most effective therapy for limiting myocardial infarct size, preserving left-ventricular systolic function and reducing the onset of heart failure. Within minutes after the restoration of blood flow, however, reperfusion itself results in additional damage, also known as myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. An improved understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying reperfusion injury has resulted in the identification of several promising pharmacological (cyclosporin-A, exenatide, glucose-insulin-potassium, atrial natriuretic peptide, adenosine, abciximab, erythropoietin, metoprolol and melatonin) therapeutic strategies for reducing the severity of myocardial reperfusion injury. Many of these agents have shown promise in initial proof-of-principle clinical studies. In this article, we review the pathophysiology underlying myocardial reperfusion injury and highlight the potential pharmacological interventions which could be used in the future to prevent reperfusion injury and improve clinical outcomes in patients with coronary heart disease.

  3. The SMOS ocean salinity retrieval algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, J.

    2009-04-01

    SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) will be, from spring 2009, the first space mission attempting the determination of sea surface salinity using microwave L-band radiometry. The SMOS aperture synthesis technique poses strict requirements to instrument calibration and stability for a successful brightness temperature image reconstruction. Besides this, the low sensitivity of Tb to salinity, even at L-band, and the still not fully developed/validated emissivity models at this frequency taking into account all the physical processes that impact on it, mainly the effects of surface roughness, plus the need of removing from the recorded signal the contributions of scattered radiation from external sources (sun, galaxy) result in a really challenging salinity determination by SMOS. In this presentation we review the approach implemented in SMOS for salinity retrieval from the calibrated brightness temperature maps. The different processing steps are summarily described, as well as their implementation status and validation in the SMOS level 2 salinity processor.

  4. Challenges for the implementation of World Health Organization guidelines for acute stress, PTSD, and bereavement: a qualitative study in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Jeremy C; Adaku, Alex; Nakku, Juliet; Odokonyero, Raymond; Okello, James; Musisi, Seggane; Augustinavicius, Jura; Greene, M Claire; Alderman, Steve; Tol, Wietse A

    2016-03-15

    In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) published new guidelines for the management of conditions specifically related to stress, including symptoms of acute stress, bereavement, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is important to evaluate potential challenges for the implementation of these guidelines in low-resource settings, however, there is a dearth of research in this area. The current qualitative study aimed to assess perspectives on the feasibility and acceptability of the new guidelines in four clinics that provide mental health services in post-conflict northern Uganda. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 mental health-care providers and program developers in northern Uganda to address three major research objectives: (1) describe the current standard practices and guidelines used for treating conditions related to stress in Uganda; (2) identify barriers and challenges associated with implementing the new WHO guidelines; and (3) identify and describe potential strategies for overcoming these barriers and challenges. An emergent thematic analysis was used to develop a coding scheme for the transcribed interviews. Practices for managing conditions related to stress included group psychological interventions, psychoeducation, and medication for clients with severe signs and symptoms. Several themes were identified from the interviews on barriers to guideline implementation. These included (1) a lack of trained and qualified mental health professionals to deliver WHO-recommended psychological interventions; (2) a perception that psychological interventions developed in high-income countries would not be culturally adaptable in Uganda; and (3) reluctance about blanket statements regarding medication for the management of acute stress symptoms and PTSD. Identified strategies for overcoming these barriers included (1) training and capacity building for current mental health staff; (2) a stepped care approach to mental health services; and

  5. Challenges in implementing individualized medicine illustrated by antimetabolite therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Borst, Louise; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    of acceptable toxicity, an individualized therapeutic approach is indicated. The mapping of the human genome and technological developments in DNA sequencing, gene expression profiling, and proteomics have raised the expectations for implementing genotype-phenotype data into the clinical decision process......, but also multiplied the complex interaction of genetic and other laboratory parameters that can be used for therapy adjustments. Thus, with the advances in the laboratory techniques, post laboratory issues have become major obstacles for treatment individualization. Many of these challenges have been...... or single gene response data that often vary across treatment protocols, iii) combining disease and host genomics with outcome variations, and iv) physicians' reluctance in implementing potentially useful genotype and phenotype data into clinical practice, since unjustified downward or upward dose...

  6. Successful vaccination strategies that protect aged mice from lethal challenge from influenza virus and heterologous severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, Timothy; Whitmore, Alan; Long, Kristin; Ferris, Martin; Rockx, Barry; Funkhouser, William; Donaldson, Eric; Gralinski, Lisa; Collier, Martha; Heise, Mark; Davis, Nancy; Johnston, Robert; Baric, Ralph S

    2011-01-01

    Newly emerging viruses often circulate as a heterogeneous swarm in wild animal reservoirs prior to their emergence in humans, and their antigenic identities are often unknown until an outbreak situation. The newly emerging severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and reemerging influenza virus cause disproportionate disease in the aged, who are also notoriously difficult to successfully vaccinate, likely due to immunosenescence. To protect against future emerging strains, vaccine platforms should induce broad cross-reactive immunity that is sufficient to protect from homologous and heterologous challenge in all ages. From initial studies, we hypothesized that attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particle (VRP) vaccine glycoproteins mediated vaccine failure in the aged. We then compared the efficacies of vaccines bearing attenuated (VRP(3014)) or wild-type VEE glycoproteins (VRP(3000)) in young and aged mice within novel models of severe SARS-CoV pathogenesis. Aged animals receiving VRP(3000)-based vaccines were protected from SARS-CoV disease, while animals receiving the VRP(3014)-based vaccines were not. The superior protection for the aged observed with VRP(3000)-based vaccines was confirmed in a lethal influenza virus challenge model. While the VRP(3000) vaccine's immune responses in the aged were sufficient to protect against lethal homologous and heterologous challenge, our data suggest that innate defects within the VRP(3014) platform mediate vaccine failure. Exploration into the mechanism(s) of successful vaccination in the immunosenescent should aid in the development of successful vaccine strategies for other viral diseases disproportionately affecting the elderly, like West Nile virus, influenza virus, norovirus, or other emerging viruses of the future.

  7. Silicon Deprivation Does Not Significantly Modify the Acute White Blood Cell Response but Does Modify Tissue Mineral Distribution Response to an Endotoxin Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    An experiment with rats was conducted to determine whether silicon deprivation affects the acute-phase immune response to an endotoxin challenge. Weanling female rats were assigned to two weight-matched groups of 24; one group was fed a basal diet containing about 1.9 µg Si/kg, the other group was f...

  8. Comparative time-course study on pituitary and branchial response to salinity challenge in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) and Nile tilapia (O. niloticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velan, Ariel; Hulata, Gideon; Ron, Micha; Cnaani, Avner

    2011-12-01

    The physiological response of Mozambique and Nile tilapia transferred from fresh to brackish (15 ppt) water was compared during a one-week time course. Response in the pituitary was measured by the gene expression pattern of prolactin (PRL I), growth hormone (GH), and calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), while the response in the gills was measured by the gene expression pattern of the prolactin receptor (PRL-R), Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC), and by activity and expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase (NKA). The time-course curves of plasma osmolality levels indicate a rapid elevation 24 h after transfer, which later decreased and maintained at stable level. PRL I expression decreased in both species, but with stronger response in the Nile tilapia, while no differences were found in the slightly elevated levels of GH mRNA. The branchial response demonstrated a faster up-regulation of NKA and NKCC in the Mozambique tilapia, but similar levels after a week, while Nile tilapia had stronger and constant down-regulation of NCC. The time-course response of the measured osmoregulatory parameters indicate that 24 h after transfer is a critical time point for brackish-water adaptation. The differences in responses to saltwater challenge between Mozambique and Nile tilapia shown in this study may be associated with the differences in saltwater tolerance between these two tilapiine species.

  9. Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) brain cells respond to hyperosmotic challenge by inducing myo-inositol biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Alison M; Yang, Jun; Sacchi, Romina; Fangue, Nann A; Hammock, Bruce D; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-12-15

    This study aimed to determine the regulation of the de novo myo-inositol biosynthetic (MIB) pathway in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) brain following acute (25 ppt) and chronic (30, 60 and 90 ppt) salinity acclimations. The MIB pathway plays an important role in accumulating the compatible osmolyte, myo-inositol, in cells in response to hyperosmotic challenge and consists of two enzymes, myo-inositol phosphate synthase and inositol monophosphatase. In tilapia brain, MIB enzyme transcriptional regulation was found to robustly increase in a time (acute acclimation) or dose (chronic acclimation) dependent manner. Blood plasma osmolality and Na(+) and Cl(-) concentrations were also measured and significantly increased in response to both acute and chronic salinity challenges. Interestingly, highly significant positive correlations were found between MIB enzyme mRNA and blood plasma osmolality in both acute and chronic salinity acclimations. Additionally, a mass spectrometry assay was established and used to quantify total myo-inositol concentration in tilapia brain, which closely mirrored the hyperosmotic MIB pathway induction. Thus, myo-inositol is a major compatible osmolyte that is accumulated in brain cells when exposed to acute and chronic hyperosmotic challenge. These data show that the MIB pathway is highly induced in response to environmental salinity challenge in tilapia brain and that this induction is likely prompted by increases in blood plasma osmolality. Because the MIB pathway uses glucose-6-phosphate as a substrate and large amounts of myo-inositol are being synthesized, our data also illustrate that the MIB pathway likely contributes to the high energetic demand posed by salinity challenge.

  10. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  11. Effects of different antimicrobial treatments on serum acute phase responses and leucocyte counts in pigs after a primary and a secondary challenge infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjölund, M; Fossum, C; Martín de la Fuente, A J; Alava, M; Juul-Madsen, H R; Lampreave, F; Wallgren, P

    2011-07-16

    The susceptibility to an initial challenge and a re-challenge inoculation with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was analysed in pigs that were treated with antimicrobials of different efficacies following the first exposure to A pleuropneumoniae. In brief, 30 nine-week-old specific pathogen-free pigs were allocated to five groups of six. After acclimatisation, four groups were inoculated with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. At the onset of clinical signs, three of the groups of pigs were treated with enrofloxacin, tetracycline or penicillin. A fourth group served as the inoculated control and the fifth group as a control group that had not been inoculated. On day 28, all five groups were re-challenged with the same strain of A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 as had been used in the first inoculation. No treatments were carried out at this time. The acute phase responses and differential leucocyte counts were monitored in detail after both inoculations. Leucocytosis and acute phase responses in the forms of serum amyloid A, pig-major acute phase protein and haptoglobin were recorded in all of the inoculated groups after the onset of clinical signs following the first inoculation. A porcine mannan-binding lectin-A response was less evident in the pigs. Acute phase responses resembling those of the first inoculation were observed in the pigs that had not previously been inoculated and in the pigs treated with enrofloxacin. Acute phase responses were not recorded in the other three groups, where the pigs had seroconverted to A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2 following the first inoculation.

  12. Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced lung dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Jin

    2015-09-01

    Acute lung injury induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) is caused by pulmonary inflammation and pulmonary vascular permeability. Activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase causes inflammation, and proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress induce autophagy, a catabolic mechanism responsible for protein degradation and recycling of damaged proteins and cytoplasmic organelles. If not controlled, excessive autophagy responses can result in cell death. In this study, we pretreated rats with saturated hydrogen saline, and examined the molecular mechanism by which saturated hydrogen saline attenuates LPS-induced acute lung dysfunction. Sixty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups--a control group, an LPS group, or an LPS plus saturated hydrogen saline (LPS + H2) group. Treatment with saturated hydrogen saline prolonged the median survival time of rats and reduced lung dysfunction induced by LPS. Moreover, saturated hydrogen saline significantly attenuated LPS-mediated induction of serum tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6, myeloperoxidase, and malondialdehyde (P hydrogen saline decreased the number of autophagosomes and LC3I/II expression. Saturated hydrogen saline also attenuated the LPS-mediated increase in apoptosis and p38 expression. Taken together, saturated hydrogen saline may attenuate LPS-induced acute lung dysfunction in rats by reducing inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis involving the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Challenge of Managing Fusiform Basilar Artery Aneurysms: From Acute Ischemic Stroke to a Massive Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Bezerra

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the case of a patient with acute brain stem ischemic stroke who was found to have a fusiform basilar aneurysm with a thrombus within the dilated vessel. Three days after the ischemic stroke, the patient had a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage and died. This case illustrates the difficulties in the acute management of ischemic events in patients with basilar fusiform aneurysms, because the natural history of this disease encompasses both bleeding and thrombosis.

  14. Effects of pathogenic bacterial challenge after acute sublethal ammonia-N exposure on heat shock protein 70 expression in Botia reevesae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Chuanjie; Zhao, Daxian; Gong, Quan; Qi, Zemin; Zou, Yuanchao; Yue, Xingjian; Xie, Biwen

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of pathogenic bacterial challenge after acute sublethal ammonia-N exposure on heat shock protein 70 expression in Botia reevesae. After ammonia-N exposure at a constant concentration of 7.21 ± 0.10 mg L(-1) for 96 h, B. reevesae was challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. Quantitative PCR analysis showed predominant and significant expression of HSP70 in liver, gill, skin, spleen and kidney (P ammonia-N exposure and A. hydrophila challenge. Furthermore, following A. hydrophila challenge after ammonia-N exposure, HSP70 mRNA expression was significantly upregulated in kidney and gill tissues, although its expression levels were significantly lower than those detected following A. hydrophila challenge or ammonia-N exposure individually. These results indicate that B. reevesae HSP70 is involved in resistance to pathogenic bacteria. It is hypothesized that ammonia-N results in the downregulation of HSP70 mRNA in immune organs after an A. hydrophila challenge, thus lowering their resistance to pathogenic stress.

  15. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge.

  16. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager;

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  17. Salinity and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salinity on greenhouse grown crops, especially when grown in substrate systems, differs from the impact of salinity on crops grown under field conditions. The most striking difference between greenhouse and field conditions is the overall much higher concentrations of nutrients in gree

  18. Physiological responses to digestion in low salinity in the crabs Carcinus maenas and Cancer irroratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Chantelle M; Patton, Richard L; Whiteley, Nia M; Driedzic, William R; McGaw, Iain J

    2016-01-01

    Osmoregulation and digestion are energetically demanding, and crabs that move into low salinity environments to feed must be able to balance the demands of both processes. Achieving this balance may pose greater challenges for weak than for efficient osmoregulators. This study examined the rate of oxygen consumption (MO2) of Carcinus maenas (efficient osmoregulator) and Cancer irroratus (weak osmoregulator) as a function of feeding and hyposaline stress. The MO2 increased 2-fold in both species following feeding. The MO2 increased and remained elevated in fasted crabs during acute hyposaline exposure. When hyposaline stress occurred after feeding, C. maenas responded with an immediate summation of the MO2 associated with feeding and hyposaline stress, whereas C. irroratus reacted with a partial summation of responses in a salinity of 24‰, but were unable to sum responses in 16‰. C. irroratus exhibited longer gut transit times. This may be due to an inability to regulate osmotic water onload as efficiently as C. maenas. Mechanical digestion in crabs can account for a significant portion of SDA, and a short term interruption led to the delay in summation of metabolic demands. Although protein synthesis is reported to account for the majority of SDA, this did not appear to be the case here. Protein synthesis rates were higher in C. irroratus but neither feeding or salinity affected protein synthesis rates of either species which suggests that protein synthesis can continue in low salinity as long as substrates are available.

  19. Salinity modulates thermotolerance, energy metabolism and stress response in amphipods Gammarus lacustris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kseniya P. Vereshchagina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Temperature and salinity are important abiotic factors for aquatic invertebrates. We investigated the influence of different salinity regimes on thermotolerance, energy metabolism and cellular stress defense mechanisms in amphipods Gammarus lacustris Sars from two populations. We exposed amphipods to different thermal scenarios and determined their survival as well as activity of major antioxidant enzymes (peroxidase, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and parameters of energy metabolism (content of glucose, glycogen, ATP, ADP, AMP and lactate. Amphipods from a freshwater population were more sensitive to the thermal challenge, showing higher mortality during acute and gradual temperature change compared to their counterparts from a saline lake. A more thermotolerant population from a saline lake had high activity of antioxidant enzymes. The energy limitations of the freshwater population (indicated by low baseline glucose levels, downward shift of the critical temperature of aerobic metabolism and inability to maintain steady-state ATP levels during warming was observed, possibly reflecting a trade-off between the energy demands for osmoregulation under the hypo-osmotic condition of a freshwater environment and protection against temperature stress.

  20. Saline Nasal Irrigation for Upper Respiratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Acute and chronic upper respiratory conditions are common and expensive disorders with enormous impact on patient quality of life and society at large. Saline nasal irrigation (SNI), a therapy with roots in Ayurvedic medicine that bathes the nasal mucosa with in spray or liquid saline, has been used as adjunctive care for upper respiratory conditions. In liquid form, SNI has been found to be effective adjunctive care by the Cochrane Collaboration for symptoms associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Less conclusive clinical trial evidence supports its use in spray and liquid forms as adjunctive treatment for mild-to-moderate allergic rhinitis and acute upper respiratory infections. Consensus or expert opinion recommendations exist for SNI as a treatment for a variety of other conditions including rhinitis of pregnancy. SNI appears safe; side effects are minimal and transient. It can be recommended by clinicians to interested patients with a range of upper respiratory conditions in the context of patient education and printed instructional handouts. PMID:19904896

  1. A European pharmaceutical company initiative challenging the regulatory requirement for acute toxicity studies in pharmaceutical drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Delongeas, Jean-Luc; Donald, Elizabeth; Dreher, David; Festag, Matthias; Kervyn, Sophie; Lampo, Ann; Nahas, Kamil; Nogues, Vicente; Ockert, Deborah; Quinn, Kirsty; Old, Sally; Pickersgill, Nigel; Somers, Kev; Stark, Claudia; Stei, Peter; Waterson, Lynne; Chapman, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    Regulatory guidelines indicate acute toxicity studies in animals are considered necessary for pharmaceuticals intended for human use. This is the only study type where lethality is mentioned as an endpoint. The studies are carried out, usually in rodents, to support marketing of new drugs and to identify the minimum lethal dose. A European initiative including 18 companies has undertaken an evidence-based review of acute toxicity studies and assessed the value of the data generated. Preclinical and clinical information was shared on 74 compounds. The analysis indicated acute toxicity data was not used to (i) terminate drugs from development (ii) support dose selection for repeat dose studies in animals or (iii) to set doses in the first clinical trials in humans. The conclusion of the working group is that acute toxicity studies are not needed prior to first clinical trials in humans. Instead, information can be obtained from other studies, which are performed at more relevant doses for humans and are already an integral part of drug development. The conclusions have been discussed and agreed with representatives of regulatory bodies from the US, Japan and Europe.

  2. Acute infection with venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon particles catalyzes a systemic antiviral state and protects from lethal virus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Jennifer L; Thompson, Joseph M; Whitmore, Alan C; Webb, Drue L; Johnston, Robert E

    2009-12-01

    The host innate immune response provides a critical first line of defense against invading pathogens, inducing an antiviral state to impede the spread of infection. While numerous studies have documented antiviral responses within actively infected tissues, few have described the earliest innate response induced systemically by infection. Here, utilizing Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) replicon particles (VRP) to limit infection to the initially infected cells in vivo, a rapid activation of the antiviral response was demonstrated not only within the murine draining lymph node, where replication was confined, but also within distal tissues. In the liver and brain, expression of interferon-stimulated genes was detected by 1 to 3 h following VRP footpad inoculation, reaching peak expression of >100-fold over that in mock-infected animals. Moreover, mice receiving a VRP footpad inoculation 6, 12, or 24 h prior to an otherwise lethal VEE footpad challenge were completely protected from death, including a drastic reduction in challenge virus titers. VRP pretreatment also provided protection from intranasal VEE challenge and extended the average survival time following intracranial challenge. Signaling through the interferon receptor was necessary for antiviral gene induction and protection from VEE challenge. However, VRP pretreatment failed to protect mice from a heterologous, lethal challenge with vesicular stomatitis virus, yet conferred protection following challenge with influenza virus. Collectively, these results document a rapid modulation of the host innate response within hours of infection, capable of rapidly alerting the entire animal to pathogen invasion and leading to protection from viral disease.

  3. Erythrocyte heat shock protein responses to chronic (in vivo) and acute (in vitro) temperature challenge in diploid and triploid salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranyan, Pillai V; Ross, Neil W; Benfey, Tillmann J

    2017-04-01

    This research investigated how ploidy level (diploid versus triploid) affects the heat shock protein (HSP) response in erythrocytes under different thermal stress regimes, both in vivo and in vitro, in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) in order to address the question of why triploids typically have reduced thermal tolerance. A preliminary study confirmed that identical volumes of diploid and triploid erythrocytes (which equates to a smaller number of larger cells for triploids compared to diploids) did not differ in total protein synthesis rates. After chronic (100d) acclimation of fish to 5, 15 and 25°C, triploid erythrocytes had lower HSP70, HSP90, heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and ubiquitin (free and total) levels than diploids in both species. Furthermore, Atlantic salmon erythrocytes showed significantly higher protein breakdown (based on conjugated ubiquitin levels) in triploids than diploids after acute heat stress in vitro, but no significant difference was detected between ploidies after acute cold stress. These results indicate that: 1) triploid erythrocytes synthesize more total protein per cell than diploids as a result of increased cell size; 2) triploids have sufficient total HSP levels for survival under low stress conditions; and 3) the lower basal titres of HSPs in triploids may be a handicap when combating acute stress. Taken together, this suggests that triploids are limited in their ability to withstand thermal stress because of a reduced ability to maintain proteostasis under stressful conditions.

  4. Acute mammary and liver transcriptome responses after an intramammary Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge in postpartal dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, Andrea; Zhou, Zheng; Graugnard, Daniel E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Palladino, Alejandro R; Cardoso, Felipe C; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the bovine mammary and liver transcriptome and its consequences on metabolic biomarkers and liver tissue composition. At 7 days of lactation, 7 cows served as controls (CTR) and 7 cows (LPS) received an intramammary Escherichia coli LPS challenge. The mammary and liver tissues for transcriptomic profiling were biopsied at 2.5 h from challenge. Liver composition was evaluated at 2.5 h and 7 days after challenge, and blood biomarkers were analyzed at 2, 3, 7 and 14 days from challenge. In mammary tissue, the LPS challenge resulted in 189 differentially expressed genes (DEG), with 20 down-regulated and 169 up-regulated. In liver tissue, there were 107 DEG in LPS compared with CTR with 42 down-regulated and 65 up-regulated. In mammary, bioinformatics analysis highlighted that LPS led to activation of NOD-like receptor signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways. In liver, LPS resulted in an overall inhibition of fatty acid elongation in mitochondria and activation of the p53 signaling pathway. The LPS challenge induced changes in liver lipid composition, a systemic inflammation (rise of blood ceruloplasmin and bilirubin), and an increase in body fat mobilization. The data suggest that cells within the inflamed mammary gland respond by activating mechanisms of pathogen recognition. However, in the liver the response likely depends on mediators originating from the udder that affect liver functionality and specifically fatty acid metabolism (β-oxidation, ketogenesis, and lipoprotein synthesis).

  5. Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mite allergen challenges reduce stratum corneum ceramides in an experimental dog model of acute atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Jessica; Paps, Judy; Bäumer, Wolfgang; Olivry, Thierry

    2012-12-01

    Ceramides are essential stratum corneum (SC) lipids and they play a pivotal role in maintaining effective cutaneous barrier function. The present study aimed at determining the effect of a Dermatophagoides farinae house dust mite (Df-HDM) allergen challenge on SC ceramides of atopic dogs experimentally sensitized to these allergens. Six Df-HDM-sensitized atopic Maltese-beagle dogs were used. Prechallenge SC was obtained by cyanoacrylate stripping. One week later, the dogs were challenged topically with Df-HDM allergens, which resulted in mild to moderate inflammation 24 h later. Two weeks after challenge, SC of lesional and nonlesional skin was obtained. Finally, SC was collected from challenge sites 2 months after lesion resolution. The different SC lipids were quantified blindly by thin-layer chromatography. Significantly lower amounts of ceramides [AH], [AP], [AS], [NP], [EOP], [NS] and [EOS] were observed in lesional SC compared with prechallenge samples, while no significant effect was found on the amount of other lipids, including cholesterol and free fatty acids. The ceramide profile of nonlesional skin generally showed the same postchallenge reduction pattern. Ceramide amounts returned to normal within 2 months after lesion remission. These findings suggest that the allergic reactions caused by Df-HDM allergens lead to a selective reduction of SC ceramides, not only at sites of inflammation but also at sites away from those of allergen application. There is normalization of ceramide amounts after inflammation subsides. These observations suggest that the deficiency of ceramides observed in canine atopic skin occurs, at least in part, secondary to inflammation. © 2012 The Authors. Veterinary Dermatology © 2012 ESVD and ACVD.

  6. Challenges and opportunities associated with the introduction of assistant practitioners supporting the work of registered nurses in NHS acute hospital trusts in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilsbury, Karen; Adamson, Joy; Atkin, Karl; Bloor, Karen; Carr-Hill, Roy; McCaughan, Dorothy; McKenna, Hugh; Wakefield, Ann

    2011-04-01

    To understand the challenges and opportunities associated with the introduction of assistant practitioner (AP) roles supporting the work of ward-based registered nurses (RNs) in National Health Service (NHS) acute hospital trusts in England. Three case studies of NHS acute hospital trusts. This paper presents qualitative findings, drawing on documentary data sources and data generated through interviews and focus group discussions. Introduction of APs into ward-based nursing teams has been variable, and often driven by external pressures rather than perceived organizational need. This, along with little national guidance, has created some confusion about the role, but at the same time has permitted flexible role development through 'negotiated compromise' at local level. While there are various areas of potential improvement in policy and practice, APs are generally perceived to have the potential to make a valuable contribution to patient care. Findings from this study will help policy-makers, organizations and practitioners understand factors that enable and/or inhibit the integration of new assistant roles within existing occupational structures to develop innovative services and enhance patient care. These factors are important when considering how care will be delivered to maximize the skills of the entire nursing workforce.

  7. Correlation between the Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (UPDRS) during L-dopa acute challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merello, Marcelo; Gerschcovich, Eliana Roldan; Ballesteros, Diego; Cerquetti, Daniel

    2011-11-01

    While Movement Disorders Society Unified Parkinson's Disease rating scale (MDS-UPDRS) validation has been exhaustive; performance evaluation to detect acute changes arising after administration of a single dose of L-dopa has yet to be explored. To determine the correlation between UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS during the acute challenge with Ldopa and the MDS-UPDRS equivalent to 30% cutoff score of UPDRS for defining responsiveness, 64 patients were assessed. Consecutive assessments were performed immediately before and after administration of a single dose of L-dopa/carbidopa 250/25 mg using the motor section of the UPDRS and the MDS-UPDRS. Good diagnostic accuracy, consistent with published findings of high correlation between scales was observed. Area under the curve (AUC) was 0.99 (CI = 0.97-1.00, P UPDRS and MDS-UPDRS and that the 30% of variation in UPDRS score used for predicting sustained long term L-dopa response was equivalent to 24% in MDS-UPDRS.

  8. Physiological benefits of being small in a changing world: responses of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch to an acute thermal challenge and a simulated capture event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Clark

    Full Text Available Evidence is building to suggest that both chronic and acute warm temperature exposure, as well as other anthropogenic perturbations, may select for small adult fish within a species. To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated physiological and anatomical attributes associated with size-specific responses to an acute thermal challenge and a fisheries capture simulation (exercise+air exposure in maturing male coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. Full-size females were included for a sex-specific comparison. A size-specific response in haematology to an acute thermal challenge (from 7 to 20 °C at 3 °C h(-1 was apparent only for plasma potassium, whereby full-size males exhibited a significant increase in comparison with smaller males ('jacks'. Full-size females exhibited an elevated blood stress response in comparison with full-size males. Metabolic recovery following exhaustive exercise at 7 °C was size-specific, with jacks regaining resting levels of metabolism at 9.3 ± 0.5 h post-exercise in comparison with 12.3 ± 0.4 h for full-size fish of both sexes. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption scaled with body mass in male fish with an exponent of b = 1.20 ± 0.08. Jacks appeared to regain osmoregulatory homeostasis faster than full-size males, and they had higher ventilation rates at 1 h post-exercise. Peak metabolic rate during post-exercise recovery scaled with body mass with an exponent of b~1, suggesting that the slower metabolic recovery in large fish was not due to limitations in diffusive or convective oxygen transport, but that large fish simply accumulated a greater 'oxygen debt' that took longer to pay back at the size-independent peak metabolic rate of ~6 mg min(-1 kg(-1. Post-exercise recovery of plasma testosterone was faster in jacks compared with full-size males, suggesting less impairment of the maturation trajectory of smaller fish. Supporting previous studies, these findings suggest that environmental change and non

  9. Fish bone foreign body presenting with an acute fulminating retropharyngeal abscess in a resource-challenged center: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole Ezekiel O

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A retropharyngeal abscess is a potentially life-threatening infection in the deep space of the neck, which can compromise the airway. Its management requires highly specialized care, including surgery and intensive care, to reduce mortality. This is the first case of a gas-forming abscess reported from this region, but not the first such report in the literature. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-month-old Yoruba baby girl with a gas-forming retropharyngeal abscess secondary to fish bone foreign body with laryngeal spasm that was managed in the recovery room. We highlight specific problems encountered in the management of this case in a resource-challenged center such as ours. Conclusion We describe an unusual presentation of a gas-forming organism causing a retropharyngeal abscess in a child. The patient's condition was treated despite the challenges of inadequate resources for its management. We recommend early recognition through adequate evaluation of any oropharyngeal injuries or infection and early referral to the specialist with prompt surgical intervention.

  10. Pielonefritis enfisematosa aguda bilateral: Un desafío terapéutico Acute bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis: A therapeutic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo J. Melero

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available La pielonefritis enfisematosa es una forma poco común de infección renal, caracterizada por la presencia de bacterias coliformes productoras de gas que afecta preferentemente a los pacientes diabéticos. Comunicamos el caso de una mujer diabética de 57 años de edad que ingresó en el hospital por un shock séptico, signos de pielonefritis enfisematosa aguda bilateral y cetoacidosis diabética. En los cultivos de las muestras de orina y sangre desarrolló Escherichia coli. La paciente fue tratada exitosamente con antibióticos de amplio espectro por un tiempo prolongado, control diabético y medidas de sostén solamente. No fue necesario el drenaje con catéteres o la nefrectomía para superar esta situación potencialmente letal.Emphysematous pyelonephritis is a rare form of kidney infection characterized by the presence of gas-forming coliform bacteria which affects more frequently diabetic subjects. We report the case of a 57-years-old diabetic woman, who was admitted in septic shock, signs of acute bilateral emphysematous pyelonephritis, and diabetic ketoacidosis. Both blood and urine cultures yielded Escherichia coli. The patient was successfully treated using long-term broad-spectrum antibiotics, diabetic control and supportive measures alone. Catheter drainage and nephrectomy were not necessary to overcome this life threatening situation.

  11. Breast Implants: Saline vs. Silicone

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... differ in material and consistency, however. Saline breast implants Saline implants are filled with sterile salt water. ... of any age for breast reconstruction. Silicone breast implants Silicone implants are pre-filled with silicone gel — ...

  12. Salinity influences the biochemical response of Crassostrea angulata to Arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Anthony; Figueira, Etelvina; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Freitas, Rosa

    2016-07-01

    The increasing rate of occurrence and persistence of climatic events causing salinity shifts, in combination with contamination, may further challenge organisms response to environmental stress. Hence, we studied the effects of different salinity levels (10, 20, 30 and 40) on the response of the oyster Crassostrea angulata to Arsenic (As) exposure (4 mg L(-1)). Total As, Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in oyster tissues were determined. Biochemical analysis were performed to assess osmotic regulation (CA), metabolism (ETS), enzymatic (SOD, CAT and GSTs) and non-enzymatic (GSH/GSSG and LPO) markers of oxidative stress. Results obtained showed significantly higher metabolic activities in oysters maintained in low salinity (10) exposure, coupled with higher As accumulation, as well as higher SOD and CAT activities, compared to higher salinities (30 and 40). GSTs activity and LPO levels were higher in oysters exposed to As at salinities 20, 30 and 40, compared to the same conditions without As. From our findings we concluded that the response of C. angulata to As is influenced by salinity. At the lowest salinity (10) oysters accumulated higher As concentrations, here attributed to higher metabolic rate involved in physiological osmoregulation, also stimulating antioxidant related enzymes activity (SOD and CAT) and thus preventing increased LPO (higher ETS activity also observed without As). On the contrary, at salinities 30 and 40 with As, antioxidant SOD and CAT were inhibited, enabling for LPO generation. Given our results, the effects of As on the oysters antioxidant capacity appears to be more deleterious under higher salinities (20, 30 and 40), comparing to salinity 10. The differentiated responses demonstrated in the present study in C. angulata oysters exposed to As under different salinities, bring new insights on the mechanisms of environmental adaptability of this species, namely to salinity shifts, and the interactions between such alterations and As

  13. Newly diagnosed glucose intolerance and prognosis after acute myocardial infarction: comparison of post-challenge versus fasting glucose concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Minako; Takagi, Tsutomu; Yamamuro, Atsushi; Kaji, Shuichiro; Yoshikawa, Junichi; Furukawa, Yutaka

    2012-01-01

    Background Recent studies have demonstrated that newly diagnosed glucose intolerance is common among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The purpose of this study was to assess the long-term clinical cardiovascular outcomes in participants with AMI with abnormal fasting glucose compared with normal fasting glucose and an abnormal oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) compared with a normal OGTT. Methods A prospective study was performed in 275 consecutive patients with AMI, 85 of whom had pre-diagnosed diabetes mellitus (DM). Those without DM were divided into two groups based on the 75 g OGTT at the time of discharge. Abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) was defined as 2 h glucose ≥140 mg/dl; 78 patients had normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and 112 had AGT. The same patients were also reclassified into the normal fasting glucose group (NFG; n=168) or the impaired fasting glucose group (IFG; n=22). The association between the glucometabolic status and long-term major adverse cardiovascular event rates was evaluated. Results Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the AGT group had a worse prognosis than the NGT group and an equivalent prognosis to the DM group (p<0.0005). Cox proportional hazard model analysis showed that the HR of AGT to NGT for major adverse cardiovascular event rates was 2.65 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.15, p=0.004) while the HR of DM to NGT was 3.27 (1.68 to 6.38, p=0.0005). However, Cox HR of IFG to NFG for major adverse cardiovascular event rates was 1.83 (0.86 to 3.87), which was not significant. Conclusion In patients with AMI, an abnormal OGTT is a better risk factor for future adverse cardiovascular events than impaired fasting blood glucose. PMID:22581733

  14. The Effects of Acute Copper and Ammonia Challenges on Ammonia and Urea Excretion by the Blue Crab Callinectes sapidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, Alex M; Jorge, Marianna Basso; Wood, Chris M; Martins, Camila M G; Bianchini, Adalto

    2017-04-01

    Copper (Cu) is a persistent environmental contaminant that elicits several physiological disturbances in aquatic organisms, including a disruption in ammonia regulation. We hypothesized that exposure to Cu in a model crustacean (blue crab, Callinectes sapidus) acclimated to brackish water (2 ppt) would lead to hyperammonemia by stimulating an increase in ammonia production and/or by inhibiting ammonia excretion. We further hypothesized that urea production would represent an ammonia detoxification strategy in response to Cu. In a pilot experiment, exposure to 0, 100, and 200 µg/L Cu for 6 h caused significant concentration-dependent increases in ammonia excretion (J amm). Based on these results, an acute 24-h 100 µg/L Cu exposure was conducted and this similarly caused an overall stimulation of J amm during the 24-h period, indicative of an increase in ammonia production. Terminal haemolymph total ammonia content (T amm) was unchanged, suggesting that while ammonia production was increased, there was no inhibition of the excretion mechanism. In support of our second hypothesis, urea excretion (J urea) increased in response to Cu exposure; haemolymph [urea] was unaffected. This suggested that urea production also was increased. To further test the hypothesis that J urea increased to prevent hyperammonemia during Cu exposure, crabs were exposed to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 2.5 mmol/L NH4HCO3) for 12 h in a separate experiment. This led to a fourfold increase in haemolymph T amm, whereas J urea increased only transiently and haemolymph [urea] was unchanged, indicating that urea production likely does not contribute to the attenuation of hyperammonemia in blue crabs. Overall, Cu exposure in blue crabs led to increased ammonia and urea production, which were both eliminated by excretion. These results may have important implications in aquaculture systems where crabs may be exposed to elevated Cu and/or ammonia.

  15. Heat-tolerant versus heat-sensitive Bos taurus cattle: influence of air temperature and breed on the acute phase response to a provocative immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Burdick Sanchez, N C; Chaffin, R; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Spiers, D E

    2013-10-01

    The difference in the acute phase response of a heat-tolerant and a heat-sensitive Bos taurus breed to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge when housed at different air temperatures (Ta) was studied. Angus (ANG; heat-sensitive; n = 11; 306 ± 26 kg BW) and Romosinuano (RO; heat-tolerant; n = 10; 313 ± 32 kg BW) heifers were transported from the USDA Agricultural Research Service SubTropical Agricultural Research Station in Florida to the Brody Environmental Chambers at the University of Missouri, Columbia. Heifers were housed in stanchions in 4 temperature-controlled environmental chambers. Initially, Ta in the 4 chambers was cycling at thermoneutrality (TN; 18.5°C-23.5°C) for a 1-wk adjustment period, followed by an increase in 2 of the 4 chambers to cycling heat stress (HS; 24°C-38°C) for 2 wk. On day 19, heifers were fitted with jugular catheters and rectal temperature (RT) recording devices. On day 20, heifers were challenged with LPS (0.5 μg/kg BW; 0 h), sickness behavior scores (SBSs) were recorded, and blood samples were collected at 0.5-h intervals from -2 to 8 h and again at 24 h relative to LPS challenge at 0 h. Serum was isolated and stored at -80°C until analyzed for cortisol and cytokine concentrations. A breed by Ta interaction (P heat-tolerant RO and heat-sensitive ANG heifers under different Ta which may aid in elucidating differences in productivity, disease resistance, and longevity among cattle breeds. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. EFFECT OF ACUTE SALINITY STRESS ON SOLUBLE PROTEIN, HEMOCYANIN, HAEMOLYMPH GLUCOSE AND HEPATOPANCREAS GLYCOGEN OF ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS%急性高渗胁迫对中华绒螯蟹雄蟹组织中可溶性蛋白质、血蓝蛋白、血糖与肝糖原含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦如; 李二超; 陈立侨; 王晓丹; 张凤英; 高露姣; 龙丽娜

    2012-01-01

    12h at salinity 30%o, and then gradually increased after 24h. All these results indicated that E. sinensis could produce physiological and biochemical adaptation to maintain a stable osmotic pressure during acute salinity stress. Carbohydrate and protein play important roles in the osmoregulation of crustaceans. E. sinensis could use carbohydrate first to provide energy under acute salinity stress. The higher the salinity, the faster the haemolymph glucose was consumed, and it also recovered more quickly. This observation suggested that carbohydrate could be a direct source in osmoregulation. The crabs may use protein to maintain the balance of osmotic pressure under high salinity by metabolizing the protein into free amino acids. Beside providing free amino acids, hemocyanin also can carry oxygen to meet the needs for physiological activities. Therefore, more attention should be paid to carbohydrate and protein supplied under salinity stress. The ratio of free amino acids maintaining the balance of osmotic pressure and supplying energy by oxidation and the utilization of lipid in osmoregulation require further study. Since the lipid contents in haemolymph and hepatopancreas were not determined in this study, the role of body lipid in E. sinensis was not discussed here and should be further examined.%实验以淡水(0.3‰)处理组为对照,研究了急性高渗胁迫(盐度16‰和30‰)对中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)雄蟹血淋巴和肝胰腺中可溶性蛋白质、血蓝蛋白、血糖及肝糖原含量的影响.结果显示,与对照组相比,进入16‰及30‰盐度后,蟹的血淋巴中可溶性蛋白质含量从6-48h显著降低(P0.05),而30‰盐度组其血糖含量早在6-12h时就有显著的下降(P<0.05),到24h则开始逐渐升高.研究表明,在急性盐度胁迫下,糖类和蛋白质对中华绒螯蟹渗透压调节起重要的作用,其优先利用糖类的分解获得所需的能量,其中盐度越高,机体内葡萄糖的消耗越快,

  17. Tolerância de juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae ao choque agudo de salinidade em laboratório Acute salinity tolerance of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Sampaio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O pampo Trachinotus marginatus é uma espécie com potencial para piscicultura, mas a sua utilização pode ser limitada pelas variações de salinidade comuns em estuários ou em ambientes super-salinos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à salinidade de juvenis de T. marginatus em laboratório. Foram testadas 12 salinidades em duplicata (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65 e 75‰ e um tratamento controle (35‰. Dez peixes (comprimento total: 20,7±2,3mm e peso úmido: 427±113mg foram colocados em tanques plásticos de 3L. A temperatura da água foi mantida em 24ºC com um banho termostatisado, aeração constante e, a cada 24 horas, os meios experimentais foram completamente renovados. Após 96 horas de exposição, as salinidades letais médias inferior e superior, com os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC 95%, foram estimadas em 6,99‰ (IC 95% = 6,86-7,13‰ e 58,50‰ (IC 95% = 56,81-60,24‰, respectivamente. Estes resultados permitem caracterizar esta espécie como eurialina. O estudo da influência da salinidade sobre T. marginatus deve ser aprofundado, buscando avaliar principalmente os efeitos sobre o crescimento, de modo que seja possível determinar o potencial do seu cultivo em ambientes com diferentes salinidades.The pompano Trachinotus marginatus shows good potential for aquaculture, but the success of its culture might be limited by the salinity fluctuations common in estuaries or in hyper-saline environments. The objective of this work was to establish the salinity tolerance of juvenile T. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Twelve salinities (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65, and 75‰ plus a control (35‰ were tested in duplicate. Groups of ten fish (total length: 20.7±2,3mm and wet weight: 427±113mg were placed in plastic tanks with 3L of water. A water bath was set to control the temperature at 24ºC, water was continuously aerated, and completely exchanged

  18. Influence of salinity on toxicity of cadmium and chromium to the blue crab, Callinectes sapidus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, P.M.; Robertson, P.B.

    1979-01-01

    This study reports the lethal concentrations of cadmium and chromium to juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus, in acute toxicity tests at three different salinities. This economically important crustacean ranges throughout estuaries from fresh water to marine salinities, and may be subject to heavy metal pollution in industrial areas.

  19. A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perricone Nicholas V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that elevated circulating levels of glucose and insulin accelerate risk factors for a wide range of disorders. Low-risk interventions that could suppress glucose without raising insulin levels could offer significant long-term health benefits. Methods To address this issue, we conducted two sequential studies, the first with two phases. In the first phase of Study 1, baseline fasting blood glucose was measured in 20 subjects who consumed 70 grams of sucrose in water and subsequently completed capillary glucose measurements at 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes (Control. On day-2 the same procedure was followed, but with subjects simultaneously consuming a novel formula containing l-arabinose and a trivalent patented food source of chromium (LA-Cr (Treatment. The presence or absence of the LA-Cr was blinded to the subjects and testing technician. Comparisons of changes from baseline were made between Control and Treatment periods. In the second phase of Study 1, 10 subjects selected from the original 20 competed baseline measures of body composition (DXA, a 43-blood chemistry panel and a Quality of Life Inventory. These subjects subsequently took LA-Cr daily for 4 weeks completing daily tracking forms and repeating the baseline capillary tests at the end of each of the four weeks. In Study 2, the same procedures used in the first phase were repeated for 50 subjects, but with added circulating insulin measurements at 30 and 60 minutes from baseline. Results In both studies, as compared to Control, the Treatment group had significantly lower glucose responses for all four testing times (AUC = P P = Conclusions As compared to a placebo control, consumption of a LA-Cr formula after a 70-gram sucrose challenge was effective in safely lowering both circulating glucose and insulin levels. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov, NCT0110743

  20. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  1. Effects of salinity on leaf breakdown: Dryland salinity versus salinity from a coalmine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Felix G; Bundschuh, Mirco; Zubrod, Jochen P; Schäfer, Ralf B; Thompson, Kristie; Kefford, Ben J

    2016-08-01

    Salinization of freshwater ecosystems as a result of human activities represents a global threat for ecosystems' integrity. Whether different sources of salinity with their differing ionic compositions lead to variable effects in ecosystem functioning is unknown. Therefore, the present study assessed the impact of dryland- (50μS/cm to 11,000μS/cm) and coalmine-induced (100μS/cm to 2400μS/cm) salinization on the leaf litter breakdown, with focus on microorganisms as main decomposer, in two catchments in New South Wales, Australia. The breakdown of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves decreased with increasing salinity by up to a factor of three. Coalmine salinity, which is characterised by a higher share of bicarbonates, had a slightly but consistently higher breakdown rate at a given salinity relative to dryland salinity, which is characterised by ionic proportions similar to sea water. Complementary laboratory experiments supported the stimulatory impact of sodium bicarbonates on leaf breakdown when compared to sodium chloride or artificial sea salt. Furthermore, microbial inoculum from a high salinity site (11,000μS/cm) yielded lower leaf breakdown at lower salinity relative to inoculum from a low salinity site (50μS/cm). Conversely, inoculum from the high salinity site was less sensitive towards increasing salinity levels relative to inoculum from the low salinity site. The effects of the different inoculum were the same regardless of salt source (sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride and artificial sea salt). Finally, the microorganism-mediated leaf litter breakdown was most efficient at intermediate salinity levels (≈500μS/cm). The present study thus points to severe implications of increasing salinity intensities on the ecosystem function of leaf litter breakdown, while the underlying processes need further scrutiny.

  2. Salinity controls on Na incorporation in Red Sea planktonic foraminifera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezger, E. M.; Nooijer, L. J.; Boer, W.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Reichart, G. J.

    2016-12-01

    Whereas several well-established proxies are available for reconstructing past temperatures, salinity remains challenging to assess. Reconstructions based on the combination of (in)organic temperature proxies and foraminiferal stable oxygen isotopes result in relatively large uncertainties, which may be reduced by application of a direct salinity proxy. Cultured benthic and planktonic foraminifera showed that Na incorporation in foraminiferal shell calcite provides a potential independent proxy for salinity. Here we present the first field calibration of such a potential proxy. Living planktonic foraminiferal specimens from the Red Sea surface waters were collected and analyzed for their Na/Ca content using laser ablation quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Using the Red Sea as a natural laboratory, the calibration covers a broad range of salinities over a steep gradient within the same water mass. For both Globigerinoides ruber and Globigerinoides sacculifer calcite Na/Ca increases with salinity, albeit with a relatively large intraspecimen and interspecimen variability. The field-based calibration is similar for both species from a salinity of 36.8 up to 39.6, while values for G. sacculifer deviate from this trend in the northernmost transect. It is hypothesized that the foraminifera in the northernmost part of the Red Sea are (partly) expatriated and hence should be excluded from the Na/Ca-salinity calibration. Incorporation of Na in foraminiferal calcite therefore provides a potential proxy for salinity, although species-specific calibrations are still required and more research on the effect of temperature is needed.

  3. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  4. Aquarius Instrument and Salinity Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.

    2011-01-01

    Aquarius has been designed to map the surface salinity field of the global ocean from space a parameter important for understanding ocean circulation and its relationship to climate and the global water cycle. Salinity is measured remotely from space by measuring the thermal emission from the ocean surface. This is done at the low frequency end of the microwave spectrum (e.g. 1.4 GHz) where the emission is sufficiently sensitive to changes in salinity to be detected with sophisticated radiometers. The goal is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean by providing maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. These are challenging requirements that have led to some unique features of the instrument. These include: a) The addition of a co-located scatterometer to help provide a correction for roughness; b) The addition of a polarimetric channel (third Stokes parameter) to the radiometer to help correct for Faraday rotation; c) Asun-synchronous orbit with a 6 pm ascending equatorial crossing to minimize Faraday rotation and with the antennas looking away from the sun toward the nighttime side to minimize contamination by radiation from the sun; and d) An antenna designed to limit side lobes in the direction of rays from the sun. In addition, achieving the accuracy goal of 0.2 psu requires averaging over one month and to do this requires a highly stable radiometer. Aquarius has three separate radiometers that image in pushbroom fashion with the three antenna beams looking across track. The antenna is a 2.5-m diameter, offset parabolic reflector with three feed horns and the three beams are arranged to image with the boresight aligned to look across track, roughly perpendicular to the spacecraft heading and pointing away from the Sun. The three beams point at angles of theta = 25.8 deg., 33.8 deg. and 40.3 deg. with respect to the spacecraft

  5. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Carlos Flores-González

    Full Text Available There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline.We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay.A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011. Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively.In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before.EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  6. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-González, J Carlos; Matamala-Morillo, Miguel A; Rodríguez-Campoy, Patricia; Pérez-Guerrero, Juan J; Serrano-Moyano, Belén; Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa; Lechuga-Sancho, Alfonso M

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. EudraCT 2009-016042-57.

  7. Alterations in ventral and dorsal striatal allosteric A2AR-D2R receptor-receptor interactions after amphetamine challenge: Relevance for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintsuk, Julia; Borroto-Escuela, Dasiel O; Lai, Terence K Y; Liu, Fang; Fuxe, Kjell

    2016-10-29

    Striatal dopamine D2R homodimerization is increased in the dorsal striatum after acute amphetamine challenge and in the amphetamine-induced sensitized state, a well-known animal model of schizophrenia. Therefore, it was tested if the increase in D2R homoreceptor complexes found after acute amphetamine challenge in the saline or the amphetamine sensitized state leads to changes in the antagonistic adenosine A2AR-D2R interactions in the striatum. [(3)H]-raclopride binding was performed in membrane preparations from the ventral and dorsal striatum involving competition with the D2R like agonist quinpirole. In the ventral striatum CGS 21680 produced a significant increase of the KiH values (pvalues in saline sensitized rats after amphetamine challenge. However, in the dorsal striatum a significant change did not develop in the KiH values when expressed in percent of the corresponding values in saline sensitized rats after amphetamine challenge. In fact, the non-significant change was in the opposite direction towards a reduction of the KiH values. Taken together, a reduced affinity of the high affinity D2 agonist binding site (KiH value) developed in the ventral but not in the dorsal striatum as a result of increased antagonistic allosteric A2AR-D2R interactions in the amphetamine-induced sensitized state versus the saline sensitized state after an acute amphetamine challenge. The selective reappearance of antagonistic A2AR-D2R receptor-receptor interactions in the ventral striatum after amphetamine challenge in the amphetamine sensitized rat may give one possible mechanism for the atypical antipsychotic-like actions of A2AR receptor agonists.

  8. Effects of oceanic salinity on body condition in sea snakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brischoux, François; Rolland, Virginie; Bonnet, Xavier; Caillaud, Matthieu; Shine, Richard

    2012-08-01

    Since the transition from terrestrial to marine environments poses strong osmoregulatory and energetic challenges, temporal and spatial fluctuations in oceanic salinity might influence salt and water balance (and hence, body condition) in marine tetrapods. We assessed the effects of salinity on three species of sea snakes studied by mark-recapture in coral-reef habitats in the Neo-Caledonian Lagoon. These three species include one fully aquatic hydrophiine (Emydocephalus annulatus), one primarily aquatic laticaudine (Laticauda laticaudata), and one frequently terrestrial laticaudine (Laticauda saintgironsi). We explored how oceanic salinity affected the snakes' body condition across various temporal and spatial scales relevant to each species' ecology, using linear mixed models and multimodel inference. Mean annual salinity exerted a consistent and negative effect on the body condition of all three snake species. The most terrestrial taxon (L. saintgironsi) was sensitive to salinity over a short temporal scale, corresponding to the duration of a typical marine foraging trip for this species. In contrast, links between oceanic salinity and body condition in the fully aquatic E. annulatus and the highly aquatic L. laticaudata were strongest at a long-term (annual) scale. The sophisticated salt-excreting systems of sea snakes allow them to exploit marine environments, but do not completely overcome the osmoregulatory challenges posed by oceanic conditions. Future studies could usefully explore such effects in other secondarily marine taxa such as seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals.

  9. Do human lymphocytes exposed to the fallout of the Chernobyl accident exhibit an adaptive response? Part 3. Challenge with bleomycin in lymphocytes from children hit by the initial acute dose of ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tedeschi, Bruna; Caporossi, Daniela; Vernole, Patrizia [Department of Public Health and Cell Biology, University of Rome `Tor Vergata`, Rome (Italy); Padovani, Laura; Mauro, Francesco [Environmental Department, ENEA Casaccia, Rome (Italy)

    1996-07-05

    In the present paper, we report data on the possible adaptive response, induced in vivo by exposure to ionizing radiation to a challenge treatment with the radiomimetic glycopeptide bleomycin (BLM). Lymphocytes from children living in Pripjat at the time of the Chernobyl accident, and thus hit by the initial acute dose of ionizing radiation, were treated for the last 5 h of culture with 0.004 U/ml BLM. Significantly lower chromosome damage was found only in lymphocytes from children who, independently of the initial acute exposure to ionizing radiation, still showed a {sup 137}Cs internal contamination, due to persistent continuous exposure to low doses of radiation. The present results indicate that past exposure to acute high dose of ionizing radiation does not interfere with resistance to BLM which is related to internal contamination.

  10. Global challenges in acute diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jai K; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood diarrhea is the most common cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in the low and middle-income countries. The burden of child mortality because of diarrhea has declined, but still a lot is desired not only to reduce diarrhea-specific mortality but reduce the overall incidence, and hence the morbidity associated with childhood diarrhea. A recent Lancet series on diarrhea suggests that amplification of the current interventions can eliminate virtually all preventable diarrhea deaths. A refocused attention and strategy and collective effort from the multilateral entities to promote water sanitation and hygiene, rotavirus vaccination, nutrition, and improved case management can bridge gaps and tackle the existing undue burden of deaths because of diarrhea. Investment toward preventing and controlling childhood diarrhea should be a priority, especially when the existing solution is plausible for implementation at scale and in underprivileged settings.

  11. Sinusitis (acute)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute sinusitis is defined pathologically, by transient inflammation of the mucosal lining of the paranasal sinuses lasting less than 4 weeks. Clinically, it is characterised by nasal congestion, rhinorrhoea, facial pain, hyposmia, sneezing, and, if more severe, additional malaise and fever. It affects 1−5% of the adult population each year in Europe. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments in people with clinically diagnosed acute sinusitis, and with radiologically or bacteriologically confirmed acute sinusitis? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to August 2007 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 19 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: antibiotics (amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides, different doses [amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, doxycycline, cephalosporins, macrolides], long-course regimens), antihistamines, cephalosporins or macrolides, decongestants (xylometazoline, phenylephrine, pseudoephedrine), doxycycline, saline nasal washes, steam inhalation, and topical corticosteroids (intra-nasal). PMID:19450327

  12. Electronic Nose Breathprints Are Independent of Acute Changes in Airway Caliber in Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan van der Maten

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Molecular profiling of exhaled volatile organic compounds (VOC by electronic nose technology provides breathprints that discriminate between patients with different inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and COPD. However, it is unknown whether this is determined by differences in airway caliber. We hypothesized that breathprints obtained by electronic nose are independent of acute changes in airway caliber in asthma. Ten patients with stable asthma underwent methacholine provocation (Visit 1 and sham challenge with isotonic saline (Visit 2. At Visit 1, exhaled air was repetitively collected pre-challenge, after reaching the provocative concentration (PC20 causing 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 and after subsequent salbutamol inhalation. At Visit 2, breath was collected pre-challenge, post-saline and post-salbutamol. At each occasion, an expiratory vital capacity was collected after 5 min of tidal breathing through an inspiratory VOC-filter in a Tedlar bag and sampled by electronic nose (Cyranose 320. Breathprints were analyzed with principal component analysis and individual factors were compared with mixed model analysis followed by pairwise comparisons. Inhalation of methacholine led to a 30.8 ± 3.3% fall in FEV1 and was followed by a significant change in breathprint (p = 0.04. Saline inhalation did not induce a significant change in FEV1, but altered the breathprint (p = 0.01. However, the breathprint obtained after the methacholine provocation was not significantly different from that after saline challenge (p = 0.27. The molecular profile of exhaled air in patients with asthma is altered by nebulized aerosols, but is not affected by acute changes in airway caliber. Our data demonstrate that breathprints by electronic nose are not confounded by the level of airway obstruction.

  13. Salinity Gradients for Sustainable Energy: Primer, Progress, and Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Ngai Yin; Brogioli, Doriano; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Nijmeijer, Kitty

    2016-11-15

    Combining two solutions of different composition releases the Gibbs free energy of mixing. By using engineered processes to control the mixing, chemical energy stored in salinity gradients can be harnessed for useful work. In this critical review, we present an overview of the current progress in salinity gradient power generation, discuss the prospects and challenges of the foremost technologies - pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), reverse electrodialysis (RED), and capacitive mixing (CapMix) and provide perspectives on the outlook of salinity gradient power generation. Momentous strides have been made in technical development of salinity gradient technologies and field demonstrations with natural and anthropogenic salinity gradients (for example, seawater-river water and desalination brine-wastewater, respectively), but fouling persists to be a pivotal operational challenge that can significantly ebb away cost-competitiveness. Natural hypersaline sources (e.g., hypersaline lakes and salt domes) can achieve greater concentration difference and, thus, offer opportunities to overcome some of the limitations inherent to seawater-river water. Technological advances needed to fully exploit the larger salinity gradients are identified. While seawater desalination brine is a seemingly attractive high salinity anthropogenic stream that is otherwise wasted, actual feasibility hinges on the appropriate pairing with a suitable low salinity stream. Engineered solutions are foulant-free and can be thermally regenerative for application in low-temperature heat utilization. Alternatively, PRO, RED, and CapMix can be coupled with their analog separation process (reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and capacitive deionization, respectively) in salinity gradient flow batteries for energy storage in chemical potential of the engineered solutions. Rigorous techno-economic assessments can more clearly identify the prospects of low-grade heat conversion and large-scale energy storage

  14. Transcriptomic response to low salinity stress in gills of the Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dongxu; Pan, Luqing; Zhao, Qun; Ren, Qin

    2015-12-01

    The Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (L. vannamei), is one of the most farmed species. Salinity is an important environmental factor that affects its growth and distribution. However, the molecular mechanism of the shrimp in response to salinity stress remains largely unclear. High-throughput sequencing is a helpful tool to analyze the molecular response to salinity challenge in shrimp. In the present study, the transcriptomic responses of the gills in L. vannamei under low salinity stress were detected by Illumina's digital gene expression system. A total of 10,725,789 and 10,827,411 reads were generated from the non-changed and low salinity changed groups, respectively. 64,590 Unigenes with an average length of 764 bp were generated. Compared with the control, 585 genes were differentially expressed under low salinity. GO functional analysis and KEGG pathway analysis indicated some vital genes in response to the challenge. Ten genes related to osmoregulation and ambient salinity adaption were selected to validate the DGE results by RT-qPCR. This work provides valuable information to study the mechanism of salinity adaption in L. vannamei. Genes and pathways from the results will be beneficial to reveal the molecular basis of osmoregulation. It also gives an insight into the response to the salinity challenge in L. vannamei.

  15. Salinity effects on Atlantic sturgeon growth and osmoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus Mitchill, 1815) is an anadromous sturgeon species, yet little is known with regard to its osmoregulatory ability and habitat use at early life stages. In order to examine whether salinity poses a physiological challenge to juvenile Atlantic stur...

  16. Toxicity of trace element and salinity mixtures to striped bass (Morone saxatilis) and Daphnia magna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwyer, F.J.; Burch, S.A.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Hunn, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Acute toxicity tests with reconstituted water were conducted to investigate the relationship between water hardness, salinity, and a mixture of trace elements found in irrigation drain waters entering Stillwater Wildlife Management Area (SWMA), near Fallon, Nevada. The SWMA has been the site of many fish kills in recent years, and previous toxicity studies indicated that one drain water, Pintail Bay, was acutely toxic to organisms acclimated or cultured in fresh water or salt water. This toxicity could reflect both the ionic composition of this saline water and the presence of trace elements. The lowest water salinity tested with Daphnia magna was near the upper salinity tolerance of these organisms; therefore, we were unable to differentiate between the toxic effects of ion composition and those of trace elements. In toxicity tests conducted with striped bass (Morone saxatilis), we found that the extent to which salinity was lethal to striped bass depended on the ion composition of that salinity. Survival of striped bass increased as hardness increased. In addition, a trace element mixture was toxic to striped bass, even though the concentrations of individual elements were below expected acutely lethal concentrations. Although salinity is an important water quality characteristic, the ionic composition of the water must be considered when one assesses the hazard of irrigation drain waters to aquatic organisms.

  17. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  18. Application of green remediation on soil salinity treatment : A review on halophytoremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Chavoshi Borujeni, Sattar; Nirola, Ramkrishna; Hassanli, Ali; Beecham, Simon; Alaghmand, Sina; Saint, Chris; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The salinity of soil and water resources is one of the economically expensive challenges to achieve sustainable development across the world. Salinity, which is a major environmental issue for both arid and semi-arid regions, is highly stressful for vegetation and adds to other stresses including wa

  19. Application of green remediation on soil salinity treatment : A review on halophytoremediation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nouri, Hamideh; Chavoshi Borujeni, Sattar; Nirola, Ramkrishna; Hassanli, Ali; Beecham, Simon; Alaghmand, Sina; Saint, Chris; Mulcahy, Dennis

    2017-01-01

    The salinity of soil and water resources is one of the economically expensive challenges to achieve sustainable development across the world. Salinity, which is a major environmental issue for both arid and semi-arid regions, is highly stressful for vegetation and adds to other stresses including

  20. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  1. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  2. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  3. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  4. Salinity and suspended matter variations in the Tay estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, John

    2005-03-01

    The concept of salinity-induced density layering in estuaries was first demonstrated from the upper reaches of the Tay. In this study the nature of the layering and its variation through the tidal cycle is demonstrated from time series of observations taken at many locations within this estuary. Thorough mixing of the waters on the rising tide, as defined by depth profiles of salinity, is commonly replaced by salinity layering during the high water slack period. This condition continues into the falling tide. Frequently the mixed waters are abruptly replaced by stratified waters within the half-hourly sampling interval. This is attributed to the activity of longitudinal fronts, manifest as surficial foam bands, along which water masses shear past each other on both the flood and ebb tides. Offsetting of transverse salinity coutours along the fronts is introduced to explain apparent complexities in surface water salinity distributions measured at high water slack. Suspended particulate matter concentrations increase towards the limit of the saline water intrusion before decreasing headwards into the freshwater zone of the estuary. The suspensions in the water column may also be displaced by the lateral offsetting of the waters along the fronts. The recognition of the presence of fronts, and a knowledge of their impact on the estuarine waters may provide an alternative means of understanding the flow characteristics of these challenging water bodies. The techniques of spatial and temporal averaging normally widely used today may not be the most realistic approach to analysis of the flows.

  5. Constitutive, but Not Challenge-Induced, Interleukin-10 Production Is Robust in Acute Pre-Pubescent Protein and Energy Deficits: New Support for the Tolerance Hypothesis of Malnutrition-Associated Immune Depression Based on Cytokine Production in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Woodward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance model of acute (i.e., wasting pre-pubescent protein and energy deficits proposes that the immune depression characteristic of these pathologies reflects an intact anti-inflammatory form of immune competence that reduces the risk of autoimmune reactions to catabolically released self antigens. A cornerstone of this proposition is the finding that constitutive (first-tier interleukin(IL-10 production is sustained even into the advanced stages of acute malnutrition. The IL-10 response to inflammatory challenge constitutes a second tier of anti-inflammatory regulation and was the focus of this investigation. Weanling mice consumed a complete diet ad libitum, a low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor, or the complete diet in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus, and their second-tier IL-10 production was determined both in vitro and in vivo using lipopolysaccharide (LPS and anti-CD3 as stimulants of innate and adaptive defences, respectively. Both early (3 days and advanced (14 days stages of wasting pathology were examined and three main outcomes emerged. First, classic in vitro systems are unreliable for discerning cytokine production in vivo. Secondly, in diverse forms of acute malnutrition declining challenge-induced IL-10 production may provide an early sign that anti-inflammatory control over immune competence is failing. Thirdly, and most fundamentally, the investigation provides new support for the tolerance model of malnutrition-associated inflammatory immune depression.

  6. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  7. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kearney

    Full Text Available Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival and N sudelli (0% survival, while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival. L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival.

  8. 40 CFR 230.25 - Salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Salinity gradients. 230.25 Section 230... Physical and Chemical Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.25 Salinity gradients. (a) Salinity... fresh or salt water may change existing salinity gradients. For example, partial blocking of...

  9. Salinity triggers proline synthesis in peanut leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ashrafuzzaman

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the magnitude of proline accumulation under different salinity levels, a salinity-imposed experiment was conducted. The peanut seedlings were cultured hydroponically for 7 days before imposing salinity and then grown further for another 7 days under salinity-loaded condition. Results showed that shoot dry matter, relative water content, chlorophyll and K+ decreased significantly with increasing salinity. In contrast, Na+, hydrogen peroxide and proline increased with increasing...

  10. Narrow and broad senses on salinity scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The narrow sense and applicable limit of Practical Salinity Scale 1978 (PSS78) and volumetric titration using silver nitrate to measure the salinity of non-conservative oceanwater are discussed.The salinity obtained by electrical conductivity method and chlorinity salinity method obviously deviates from the absolute salinity (SA). The Density Salinity Scale (DSS98) proposed by the writers can be extensively used in conservative and non-conservative water samples.The merits of the density salinity scale are as follows,(1) The Density Salinity Scale is only related to seawater mass and its buoyant effect, and is not influenced by the variation in seawater composition, and therefore, has high reliability, and repeatability for salinity determination.(2) The salinity values measured by the DSS98 have a conservative property. For oceanwater samples the salinity values are the same as those determined by the PSS78; for non-conservative water samples (e.g. samples from industrial sources), the salinity values are close to the absolute salinity values in comparison with those measured by the PSS78 and the Knudsen method.(3)For a solution with given solute mass, the solution concentration can be converted into the corresponding salinity by the Density Salinity Scale using the expansion coefficient of the solution and the calibration coefficient of the partial molar volume of the solute.

  11. Peripheral viral challenge elevates extracellular glutamate in the hippocampus leading to seizure hypersusceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Holly C; Konat, Gregory W; Reed, Miranda N

    2017-02-28

    Peripheral viral infections increase seizure propensity and intensity in susceptible individuals. We have modeled this comorbidity by demonstrating that the acute phase response instigated by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of a viral mimetic, polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PIC), induces protracted hypersusceptibility to kainic acid-induced seizures. We have further demonstrated that PIC challenge robustly increases the level of tonic extracellular glutamate and neuronal excitability in the hippocampus. This study was undertaken to determine a relationship between tonic glutamate and seizure susceptibility following PIC challenge. Briefly, glutamate-sensing microelectrodes were permanently implanted into the CA1 of 8-week-old female C57BL/6 mice. Following a 3-day recovery, acute phase response was induced by i.p. injection of 12 mg/kg of PIC, while saline-injected mice served as controls. Tonic glutamate was measured at 1, 2, 3 and 4 days after PIC challenge. PIC challenge induced an approximately fourfold increase in tonic glutamate levels measured after 24 h. The levels gradually declined to the baseline values within 4 days. Twenty-four hours after PIC challenge, the mice featured an approximately threefold increase in cumulative seizure scores and twofold increase in the duration of status epilepticus induced by subcutaneous injection of 12 mg/kg of kainic acid. Seizure scores positively correlated with pre-seizure tonic glutamate. Moreover, seizures resulted in a profound (76%) elevation of extracellular glutamate in the CA1 of PIC-challenged but not saline-injected mice. Our results implicate the increase in extracellular glutamate as a mediator of seizure hypersusceptibility induced by peripheral viral challenge.

  12. A Challenge for Diagnosing Acute Liver Injury with Concomitant/Sequential Exposure to Multiple Drugs: Can Causality Assessment Scales Be Utilized to Identify the Offending Drug?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Lim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Drug-induced hepatotoxicity most commonly manifests as an acute hepatitis syndrome and remains the leading cause of drug-induced death/mortality and the primary reason for withdrawal of drugs from the pharmaceutical market. We report a case of acute liver injury in a 12-year-old Hispanic boy, who received a series of five antibiotics (amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, vancomycin, ampicillin/sulbactam, and clindamycin for cervical lymphadenitis/retropharyngeal cellulitis. Histopathology of the liver biopsy specimen revealed acute cholestatic hepatitis. All known causes of acute liver injury were appropriately excluded and (only drug-induced liver injury was left as a cause of his cholestasis. Liver-specific causality assessment scales such as Council for the International Organization of Medical Sciences/Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method scoring system (CIOMS/RUCAM, Maria and Victorino scale, and Digestive Disease Week-Japan were applied to seek the most likely offending drug. Although clindamycin is the most likely cause by clinical diagnosis, none of causality assessment scales aid in the diagnosis.

  13. The plasma membrane transport systems and adaptation to salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mohamed Magdy F

    2014-11-15

    Salt stress represents one of the environmental challenges that drastically affect plant growth and yield. Evidence suggests that glycophytes and halophytes have a salt tolerance mechanisms working at the cellular level, and the plasma membrane (PM) is believed to be one facet of the cellular mechanisms. The responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in contrasting species/cultivars were discussed. The review provides a comprehensive overview of the recent advances describing the crucial roles that the PM transport systems have in plant adaptation to salt. Several lines of evidence were presented to demonstrate the correlation between the PM transport proteins and adaptation of plants to high salinity. How alterations in these transport systems of the PM allow plants to cope with the salt stress was also addressed. Although inconsistencies exist in some of the information related to the responses of the PM transport proteins to salinity in different species/cultivars, their key roles in adaptation of plants to high salinity is obvious and evident, and cannot be precluded. Despite the promising results, detailed investigations at the cellular/molecular level are needed in some issues of the PM transport systems in response to salinity to further evaluate their implication in salt tolerance.

  14. Clinical experiences of normal saline pressed injection via lumbar puncture in the treatment of apnea due to acute tonsillar hernia%采用腰穿加压注液方法抢救急性枕骨大孔疝致呼吸停止的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆虎; 曲春城; 魏麟; 李新钢; 李刚; 费昶; 孙金龙; 王成伟; 张庆林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical experiences of normal saline pressed injection via lumbar puncture in the treatment of acute tonsillar hernia induced apnea.This procedure was routinely carried out after external ventricular drainage and/or lesion removal via open craniotomy.Methods During the period of 1969 to 2005,a total of 43 patients failed to regain respiratory after external ventricular drainage using rapid small hole cranio-puncture apparatus or lesion removal via open craniotomy.They underwent lumbar puncture and normal saline was pressed injected via a lumbar puncture needle.The patient data were retrospectively analyzed.Results Eleven of 43 patients had spontaneous respiration and fully recovered (25.6% ),16 patients regained respiration but died eventually (37.2% ) and 16 patients failed to regain respiration ( 37.2% ).The effective rate was 62.8%.Conclusion For the patients failing to regain respiration after external ventricular drainage or supratentorial lesion removal via open craniotomy,the conservative treatment should not be the first choice.The pressed injection of normal saline via lumbar puncture may rescue some patients.%目的 总结应用快速细孔钻颅脑室体外引流术或开颅病变清除减压术后,进行腰穿加压注液抢救枕骨大孔疝所致呼吸骤停患者的经验.方法 自1969至2005年山东大学齐鲁医院及山东大学第二医院共同采用腰穿加压注液方法,救治43例急性枕骨大孔疝患者,43例均为进行快速细孔钻颅脑室外引流或幕上病变开颅清除减压术后,自主呼吸仍不恢复者.结果 43例中11例(25.6%)不仅恢复自主呼吸且完全康复,16例(37.2%)出现不同时间的自主呼吸但最终死亡,无自主呼吸恢复迹象者16例(37.2%).结论 因急性枕骨大孔疝致呼吸停止,应用快速细孔钻颅脑室引流,或幕上病变开颅清除减压术后,自主呼吸仍无恢复的患者,给予腰穿加压注液有可能使部分患者获救.

  15. Determining Salinity by Simple Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This paper describes the construction and use of a simple salinometer. The salinometer is composed, mainly, of a milliammeter and a battery and uses the measurement of current flow to determine the salinity of water. A complete list of materials is given, as are details of construction and operation of the equipment. The use of the salinometer in…

  16. Effects of Slow-stroke Back Massage on Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in the Pediatrics with Acute Leukemia: a Challenge of Controlling Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Miladinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of chemotherapy in the pediatrics with cancer which affect their quality of life. Use of some methods of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is problematic. Because, leukemia patients are at risk of infection and bleeding, therefore the use of acupressure, acupuncture, and deep massage can be risky in these patients. Slow- stroke back massage is applied on the surface of body, so does not have complications. No study has addressed the effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatrics with acute leukemia in the world.  Material and methods This study was a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT, double blind and repeated measures design. In this RCT, 45 school age children with acute leukemia were placed in the massage and control groups. Before start of the study, at the day of chemotherapy administration (day 1th, only nausea and vomiting were measured. Then during 6 days next (day 2 through 7, the intervention group received 5-minutes Super Smash Bros. Melee (SSBM, immediately before start of each session of chemotherapy. Nausea was measured during chemotherapy, 0.5 h and 3 h after each session of chemotherapy in the two groups. Also vomiting was recorded during 24 h after each session of chemotherapy. Repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square, and t-test were used for analysis. Results Most of pediatrics were male (58.13%, and suffered from Acute myeloid leukemia (AML (81.7%. The repeated measure analysis showed that in the intervention group, the SSBM reduced progressive mean of nausea severity and frequency of vomit over time. While, this side effects have slightly increased over time in the control group. Conclusion The results of this study are suggesting that SSBM, as a non-pharmacologic, easy and safe method, is effective in controlling Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in the pediatrics with acute leukemia.

  17. Bulk Moisture and Salinity Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurge, Mark; Monje, Oscar; Prenger, Jessica; Catechis, John

    2013-01-01

    Measurement and feedback control of nutrient solutions in plant root zones is critical to the development of healthy plants in both terrestrial and reduced-gravity environments. In addition to the water content, the amount of fertilizer in the nutrient solution is important to plant health. This typically requires a separate set of sensors to accomplish. A combination bulk moisture and salinity sensor has been designed, built, and tested with different nutrient solutions in several substrates. The substrates include glass beads, a clay-like substrate, and a nutrient-enriched substrate with the presence of plant roots. By measuring two key parameters, the sensor is able to monitor both the volumetric water content and salinity of the nutrient solution in bulk media. Many commercially available moisture sensors are point sensors, making localized measurements over a small volume at the point of insertion. Consequently, they are more prone to suffer from interferences with air bubbles, contact area of media, and root growth. This makes it difficult to get an accurate representation of true moisture content and distribution in the bulk media. Additionally, a network of point sensors is required, increasing the cabling, data acquisition, and calibration requirements. measure the dielectric properties of a material in the annular space of the vessel. Because the pore water in the media often has high salinity, a method to measure the media moisture content and salinity simultaneously was devised. Characterization of the frequency response for capacitance and conductance across the electrodes was completed for 2-mm glass bead media, 1- to 2-mm Turface (a clay like media), and 1- to 2-mm fertilized Turface with the presence of root mass. These measurements were then used to find empirical relationships among capacitance (C), the dissipation factor (D), the volumetric water content, and the pore water salinity.

  18. The effect of 3% and 6% hypertonic saline in viral bronchiolitis: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jasmijn; Hochs, Anne H J; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja; Boehmer, Annemie L M; Smeets, Carien C J M; Brackel, Hein; van Gent, René; Wesseling, Judith; Logtens-Stevens, Danielle; de Moor, Ronald; Rosias, Philippe P R; Potgieter, Steph; Faber, Marianne R; Hendriks, Han J E; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G; Loza, Bettina F

    2014-10-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common disorder in young children that often results in hospitalisation. Except for a possible effect of nebulised hypertonic saline (sodium chloride), no evidence-based therapy is available. This study investigated the efficacy of nebulised 3% and 6% hypertonic saline compared with 0.9% hypertonic saline in children hospitalised with viral bronchiolitis. In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, children hospitalised with acute viral bronchiolitis were randomised to receive either nebulised 3%, 6% hypertonic saline or 0.9% normal saline during their entire hospital stay. Salbutamol was added to counteract possible bronchial constriction. The primary endpoint was the length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were need for supplemental oxygen and tube feeding. From the 292 children included in the study (median age 3.4 months), 247 completed the study. The median length of hospital stay did not differ between the groups: 69 h (interquartile range 57), 70 h (IQR 69) and 53 h (IQR 52), for 3% (n=84) and 6% (n=83) hypertonic saline and 0.9% (n=80) normal saline, respectively, (p=0.29). The need for supplemental oxygen or tube feeding did not differ significantly. Adverse effects were similar in the three groups. Nebulisation with hypertonic saline (3% or 6% sodium chloride) although safe, did not reduce the length of stay in hospital, duration of supplemental oxygen or tube feeding in children hospitalised with moderate-to-severe viral bronchiolitis.

  19. A rare case of perforated "sub-hepatic appendicitis" - a challenging differential diagnosis of acute abdomen based on the combination of appendicitis and maldescent of the caecum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapponi, Costanza; Jannasch, Olof; Petersen, Manuela; Lessel, Wiebke; Bruns, Christiane; Meyer, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Unusual locations of the appendix vermiformis can result in delay in appropriate diagnosis and treatment of appendicitis. So an inflamed appendix in a sub-hepatic caecum caused by caecal maldescent for example can mimic cholecystitis, the pain being localized in the right upper quadrant. Here, we present a case of perforated sub-hepatic appendicitis with peritonitis, requiring open ileocaecal resection. Review of the existing literature has demonstrated that this pathology is uncommon, yet not so rare as one might presume. In conclusion, surgeons should be aware of this possibility in the diagnostic and therapeutic management of acute abdomen. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  20. Challenges of implementing national guidelines for the control and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection in acute care hospitals in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2009-03-01

    Of the 49 acute care hospitals in Ireland that responded to the survey questionnaire drafted by the Infection Control Subcommittee of the Health Protection Surveillance Centre\\'s Strategy for the Control of Antimicrobial Resistance in Ireland, 43 reported barriers to the full implementation of national guidelines for the control and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection; these barriers included poor infrastructure (42 hospitals), inadequate laboratory resources (40 hospitals), inadequate staffing (39 hospitals), and inadequate numbers of isolation rooms and beds (40 hospitals). Four of the hospitals did not have an educational program on hand hygiene, and only 17 had an antibiotic stewardship program.

  1. Salinity management in the Rio Grande Bosque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan M. H. Hendrickx; J. Bruce J. Harrison; Jelle Beekma; Graciela Rodriguez-Marin

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses management options for salinity control in the Rio Grande Bosque. First, salt sources are identified and quantified. Capillary rise of ground water is the most important cause for soil salinization in the bosque. Next, a riparian salt balance is presented to explain the different mechanisms for soil salinization. Finally, the advantages and...

  2. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank; Hilburn, Kyle; Lagerloef, Gary; Le Vine, David

    2012-01-01

    The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration [2] converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to molecular oxygen, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind, which is addressed in more detail in section 3. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water [3], [4] and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing only v-pol TB are used for this last step.

  3. The Effect of Salinity on Egg Development and Viability of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Natalie E; Barber, Iain

    2016-02-01

    Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids commonly infect three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in brackish and freshwaters, but infections are typically absent from marine populations. Here we provide an experimental test of the salinity tolerance of S. solidus eggs, to determine the role of salinity in limiting the distribution of infection in coastal zones. We find that S. solidus eggs, derived from the in vitro culture of 3 different plerocercoids, developed normally in salinities of up to 12.5‰, but above this egg viability dropped rapidly, and no egg hatching was observed at salinities above 20‰. Our results are consistent with the distribution of infections in natural stickleback populations and add resolution to previous descriptive observations on salinity tolerance in S. solidus. They also demonstrate that S. solidus presents a novel disease challenge to marine populations of three-spined sticklebacks entering brackish and freshwater environments.

  4. Saline Water Irrigation Scheduling Through a Crop-Water-Salinity Production Function and a Soil-Water-Salinity Dynamic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang-Ren; KANG Shao-Zhong; LI Fu-heng; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Jian-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Using a crop-water-salinity production function and a soil-water-salinity dynamic model, optimal irrigation scheduling was developed to maximize net return per irrigated area. Plot and field experiments were used to obtain the crop water sensitivity index, the salinity sensitivity index, and other parameters. Using data collected during 35 years to calculate the 10-day mean precipitation and evaporation, the variation in soil salinity concentrations and in the yields of winter wheat and cotton were simulated for 49 irrigation scheduling that were combined from 7 irrigation schemes over 3 irrigation dates and 7 salinity concentrations of saline irrigation water (fresh water and 6 levels of saline water). Comparison of predicted results with irrigation data obtained from a large area of the field showed that the model was valid and reliable. Based on the analysis of the investment cost of the irrigation that employed deep tube wells or shallow tube wells, a saline water irrigation schedule and a corresponding strategy for groundwater development and utilization were proposed. For wheat or cotton, if the salinity concentration was higher than 7.0 g L-1 in groundwater, irrigation was needed with only fresh water; if about 5.0 g L-1, irrigation was required twice with fresh water and once with saline water; and if not higher than 3.0 g L-1, irrigation could be solely with saline water.

  5. Effect of Different Alternate Irrigation Strategies using Saline and Non-Saline Water on Corn Yield, Salinity and Moisture Distribution in Soil Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Kiani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lack of water and deterioration in the quality of soil and water resources are considered to be the prime cause of reduced crop yield in arid and semi-arid regions ‘More crop per drop’ by trickle irrigation, deficit irrigation, and uncommon water are the best strategies for mitigating water crises. Different irrigation management strategies are needed to increase production in different areas. In areas where sufficient water is available, a full irrigation strategy could be a suitable option, while in areas where water is limited, deficit irrigation would be an appropriate method, and finally in areas where water resources are saline, management strategies for achieving sustainable production as well as economic yields would be suitable. Maize is the third most important grain crop in the world following wheat and rice and it is the main source of nutrition for humans and animals. Because of the importance of maize in the world, increasing maize production under environmental stresses is a big challenge for agricultural scientists. Different methods of irrigation and the use of saline water that had satisfactory results for increasing agricultural production have been studied by several investigators . The main objective of this study was to establish an efficient use of limited water resources as well as to explore the possibility of replacing saline water with fresh water using different management techniques. Materials and Methods: A field experiment was conducted over two maize cropping seasons (2012–2013 in northern Iran (Gorgan Agricultural Research Station to compare different alternate irrigation scenarios using saline water on corn yield, salinity and soil moisture distribution in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Treatments were: T1 and T2 = 100 and 50 % of crop water requirement with non-saline water, respectively; T3 and T4 = variable and fixed full irrigation with saline and non-saline

  6. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, L.P. van

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies

  7. Successes and challenges of using whole exome sequencing to identify novel genes underlying an inherited predisposition for thoracic aortic aneurysms and acute aortic dissections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewicz, Dianna M; Regalado, Ellen S; Shendure, Jay; Nickerson, Deborah A; Guo, Dong-chuan

    2014-02-01

    Thoracic aortic aneurysms involving the aortic root and/or ascending aorta can lead to acute aortic dissections. Approximately 20% of patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (TAAD) have a family history of the disease, referred to as familial TAAD (FTAAD) that can be inherited in an autosomal dominant manner with variable expression with respect to disease presentation, age of onset and associated features. Whole exome sequencing (WES) has been used to identify causative mutations in novel genes for TAAD. The strategy used to reduce the large number of rare variants identified using WES is to sequence distant relatives with TAAD and filter for heterozygous rare variants that are shared between the relatives, predicted to disrupt protein function and segregate with the TAAD phenotype in other family members. Putative genes are validated by identifying additional families with a causative mutation in the genes. This approach has successfully identified novel genes for FTAAD.

  8. Expression of acute phase proteins and inflammatory cytokines in mouse mammary gland following Staphylococcus aureus challenge and in response to milk accumulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nazemi, Sasan; Aalbæk, Bent; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads

    2014-01-01

    We used a mouse model of pathogenic (Staphylococcus aureus) and non-pathogenic (teat sealing) mammary inflammation to investigate mRNA expression of several inflammatory cytokines and acute phase proteins (APP) in mammary tissue and liver, and the appearance of some of these factors in plasma...... in combination might provide a tool for diagnostic discrimination between mastitis caused by pathogenic invasion and milk accumulation, and hence allow for better targeting of antibiotic therapy. In comparison with mammary expression, expression of cytokines in liver tissue was up-regulated to a similar...... or lesser extent, whilst expression of APP was up-regulated to a much greater extent. The first appearance of increased cytokine and APP concentrations in plasma and of milk amyloid A (MAA) in milk occurred in advance of the measurable up-regulation of expression, hence their origin cannot be stated...

  9. Clinical research about the curative effect of hypertonic saline on acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury%高渗盐水抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万宝; 刘剑; 乔着意; 赵庆波; 王梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨高渗盐水(hypertonic saline,HS)在急诊科抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压患者首次降颅压治疗中的临床疗效.方法 颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压患者60例,随机分为3%HS组(20例)、10%HS组(20例)和20%甘露醇(mannitol,MT)组(20例).3%HS组静脉给予3%HS 260 mL,10%HS组静脉给予10%HS 80 mL,MT组静脉给予20%MT 250 mL,并于用药前及用药后30、60、90 min和2、3、4、5 h监测颅内压(intracranial pressure,ICP)、平均动脉压(mean artery pressure,MAP),记录尿量,观察生命体征变化,监测血生化指标.结果 ①HS组于用药后30 min ICP达到最大降幅,显著早于MT组(P0.05).③静脉快速滴注3%HS、10%HS和20%MT后脑灌注压(CPP)均显著升高(P0.05),但3%HS作用持续时间较10%HS、20%MT显著延长(P<0.05).结论 ①与MT比较,HS抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压起效更快、更持久,维持ICP更平稳.②两种浓度HS都能显著升高MAP,具有显著扩容作用.③三组均能升高CPP,以3%HS持续时间较长.%Objective To investigate the curative effect of hypertonic saline (HS) on the patients with acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury in emergency department.Methods Patients with acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury were divided into three groups including 3% HS group, 10% HS group and 20% mannitol (MT) group randomly.The intracranial pressure(ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood pressure(BP), cerebral perfusion pressure( CPP), urine output and blood biochemical parameters were recorded before the treatment and at 30, 60, 90 min and 2, 3, 4, 5 h after 3% HS 260 mL, 10% HS 80 mL and 20% MT 250 mL treatment respectively.Results ①The ICP decreased greatly at 30 min after HS treatment, which was earlier than in MT group(P < 0.05).Moreover, decreased ICP of 3% HS group maintained for 4 h,which was better than other groups(P < 0.05).②The MAP increased after treatment in HS

  10. Hydrogeologic processes in saline systems: Playas, sabkhas, and saline lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yechieli, Y.; Wood, W.W.

    2002-01-01

    Pans, playas, sabkhas, salinas, saline lakes, and salt flats are hydrologically similar, varying only in their boundary conditions. Thus, in evaluating geochemical processes in these systems, a generic water and solute mass-balance approach can be utilized. A conceptual model of a coastal sabkha near the Arabian Gulf is used as an example to illustrate the various water and solute fluxes. Analysis of this model suggests that upward flux of ground water from underlying formations could be a major source of solutes in the sabkha, but contribute only a small volume of the water. Local rainfall is the main source of water in the modeled sabkha system with a surprisingly large recharge-to-rainfall ratio of more than 50%. The contribution of seawater to the solute budget depends on the ratio of the width of the supratidal zone to the total width and is generally confined to a narrow zone near the shoreline of a typical coastal sabkha. Because of a short residence time of water, steady-state flow is expected within a short time (50,000 years). The solute composition of the brine in a closed saline system depends largely on the original composition of the input water. The high total ion content in the brine limits the efficiency of water-rock interaction and absorption. Because most natural systems are hydrologically open, the chemistry of the brines and the associated evaporite deposits may be significantly different than that predicted for hydrologically closed systems. Seasonal changes in temperature of the unsaturated zone cause precipitation of minerals in saline systems undergoing evaporation. Thus, during the hot dry season months, minerals exhibit retrograde solubility so that gypsum, anhydrite and calcite precipitate. Evaporation near the surface is also a major process that causes mineral precipitation in the upper portion of the unsaturated zone (e.g. halite and carnallite), provided that the relative humidity of the atmosphere is less than the activity of water

  11. Protocol for a human in vivo model of acute cigarette smoke inhalation challenge in smokers with COPD: monitoring the nasal and systemic immune response using a network biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Clare L; Galloway-Phillipps, Neil; Armstrong, Paul C; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D; Brearley, Christopher; Ito, Mari; Tunstall, Tanushree; Elkin, Sarah; Kon, Onn Min; Hansel, Trevor T; Paul-Clark, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoke contributes to a diverse range of diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disorders and many cancers. There currently is a need for human challenge models, to assess the acute effects of a controlled cigarette smoke stimulus, followed by serial sampling of blood and respiratory tissue for advanced molecular profiling. We employ precision sampling of nasal mucosal lining fluid by absorption to permit soluble mediators measurement in eluates. Serial nasal curettage was used for transcriptomic analysis of mucosal tissue. Methods and analysis Three groups of strictly defined patients will be studied: 12 smokers with COPD (GOLD Stage 2) with emphysema, 12 matched smokers with normal lung function and no evidence of emphysema, and 12 matched never smokers with normal spirometry. Patients in the smoking groups are current smokers, and will be given full support to stop smoking immediately after this study. In giving a controlled cigarette smoke stimulus, all patients will have abstained from smoking for 12 h, and will smoke two cigarettes with expiration through the nose in a ventilated chamber. Before and after inhalation of cigarette smoke, a series of samples will be taken from the blood, nasal mucosal lining fluid and nasal tissue by curettage. Analysis of plasma nicotine and metabolites in relation to levels of soluble inflammatory mediators in nasal lining fluid and blood, as well as assessing nasal transcriptomics, ex vivo blood platelet aggregation and leucocyte responses to toll-like receptor agonists will be undertaken. Implications Development of acute cigarette smoke challenge models has promise for the study of molecular effects of smoking in a range of pathological processes. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the West London National Research Ethics Committee (12/LO/1101). The study findings will be presented at conferences and will be reported in peer-reviewed journals

  12. mRNA expression profiles of heat shock proteins of wild and salinity-tolerant swimming crabs, Portunus trituberculatus, subjected to low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X N; Mu, C K; Zhang, C; Wang, Y F; Song, W W; Li, R H; Wang, C L

    2014-08-29

    Challenged by the low salinity, 4 parts per thousand (4 ppt), for 72h, the survivals of swimming crabs (Portunus trituberculatus) were collected as the screened group (SG, tolerant to low salinity). Aiming at identifying the mechanism of low salinity tolerance, quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the expression profiles of 4 HSP genes (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90-1, HSP90-2) in the hepatopancreas of wild (WG) and screened (SG) groups of P. trituberculatus exposed to low salinity (4 ppt). The results showed that 3 of the candidate genes (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90-1) exhibited similarly downregulated expression profiles in the first 3 h (P crabs. The results indicate that HSP genes are involved in the adaptation of crabs to low salinity exposure, and that different HSPs have diverse functions in response to low salinity stress in P. trituberculatus. In addition, HSP expression in SG indicates that this group is more tolerant to low salinity conditions compared to WG.

  13. Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-03-23

    Background: Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results: We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions: Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  14. Impact of nutrition and salinity changes on biological performances of green and white sturgeon

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro G Vaz; Ermias Kebreab; Hung, Silas S. O.; Fadel, James G.; Seunghyung Lee; Fangue, Nann A.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Vaz et al. Green and white sturgeon are species of high conservational and economic interest, particularly in the San Francisco Bay Delta (SFBD) for which significant climate changederived alterations in salinity and nutritional patterns are forecasted. Although there is paucity of information, it is critical to test the network of biological responses underlying the capacity of animals to tolerate current environmental changes. Through nutrition and salinity challenges, cli...

  15. Saline Ground Water and Irrigation Water on Root Zone Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinisation of land and rivers is a problem of national importance in India. Appropriate land management options to alleviate salinisation should be chosen with knowledge of the effects of land management on stream flow, stream salinity, stream salt load and land productivity. The Management of Catchment Salinisation (MCS modelling approach has been described in earlier work. It links a one-dimensional soil water model with a groundwater model to investigate the effects of management options in study areas of approximately 50 km2. The one dimensional model is used to characterize the annual soil water balance as a function of underlying aquifer Vpotential for all required combinations of soil, vegetation and groundwater salinity. It includes the effect of salt accumulation on plant water use. A groundwater model is then used to estimate the depth to water table across the study area that reflects the topography, hydrogeology and the distribution of vegetation. The MCS model is used to investigate the potential effects of future land use scenarios on catchment salt and water balance. Land use scenarios that have been considered include: forest plantations, revegetation with native trees and shrubs, and development of small areas of crops (10 to 20 ha irrigated with groundwater. This project focuses on the development of small crop areas irrigated with groundwater and investigates the sustainability of these schemes. It also compares the reduction of catchment salt load export under irrigation development with the reduction under afforestation

  16. Adopted: A practical salinity scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards has recommended the adoption of a Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and a corresponding new International Equation of State of Seawater, 1980. A full account of the research leading to their recommendation is available in the series Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science.The parent organizations have accepted the panel's recommendations and have set January 1, 1982, as the date when the new procedures, formulae, and tables should replace those now in use.

  17. Pathophysiological and immune cell responses in calves prior to and following lung challenge with formalin-killed Pasteurella multocida biotype A:3 and protection studies involving subsequent homologous live challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowling, A; Hodgson, J C; Dagleish, M P; Eckersall, P D; Sales, J

    2004-08-01

    Pneumonic pasteurellosis is a common respiratory infection in cattle that has major economic and welfare implications world-wide and the incidence in the UK due to Pasteurella multocida, currently the same as that associated with Mannheimia haemolytica, is increasing. Whereas much is known regarding the pathogenesis of M. haemolytica infections little information is available on the pathogenic process of pasteurellosis initiated by P. multocida. In the present work calf systemic and innate immune responses to intratracheal challenge with formalin-killed P. multocida biotype A:3 and to subsequent experimental lung infection with live P. multocida were investigated. Eight-week-old calves were challenged intratracheally on day 0 with either 10(9) colony forming units (cfu) of formalin-killed P. multocida biotype A:3 in 300 ml saline (n = 10) or 300 ml saline alone (n = 10), followed, at day 21, by challenge with 10(9) cfu live P. multocida. Pathophysiological and lung phagocyte responses were assessed by clinical monitoring, sequential lung lavage and blood sampling. Results for samples obtained before, during and after challenge showed clinical and acute phase protein responses to both bacterial culture and saline control treatments, although higher responses were associated with bacterial challenge. Phagocytosis of P. multocida during 1h incubation periods with lavaged cells in vitro was unaffected by exposure in vivo to killed P. multocida and there was evidence that P. multocida was able to survive intracellularly during this assay. There was no indication that lung exposure to formalin-killed P. multocida conferred protection against subsequent homologous live challenge.

  18. Recurrence of a t(8;21-Positive Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Form of a Granulocytic Sarcoma Involving Cranial Bones: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Di Veroli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS is a rare extramedullary solid tumor defined as an accumulation of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells. It can cooccur with or precede the acute myeloid leukemia (AML as well as following treated AML. The incidence of GS in AML patients is 3–8% but it significantly rises in M2 FAB subtype AML. This variety of AML harbors t(8;21 in up to 20–25% of cases (especially in children and black ones of African origin and, at a molecular level, it is characterized by the generation of a fusion gene known as RUNX1-RUNX1T1. Approximately 10% of M2 AML patients will develop GS, as a consequence, the t(8;21 and the relative transcript represent the most common cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in GS. FLT3-ITD mutation was rarely described in AML patients presenting with GS. FLT3 ITD is generally strongly associated with poor prognosis in AML, and is rarely reported in patients with t(8;21. GS presentation is extremely variable depending on organs involved; in general, cranial bones and sinus are very rarely affected sites. We report a rare case of GS occurring as a recurrence of a previously treated t(8;21, FLT3-ITD positive AML, involving mastoid bones and paravertebral tissues.

  19. Population specific salinity tolerance in eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Boström, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors impacting distribution of marine plants and sub-optimal salinities may result in increased resource use and decreased production.We studied the performance and salinity tolerance of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) originating from two regions with different ambient...... salinities: a low saline (salinity 6) and a high saline (salinity 20) population. Plants fromboth populationswere exposed to a series of fixed salinities (2, 4, 6, 9, 12.5, 15, 20 and 25) for 5 weeks. Both plant origin and salinity affected plant performance significantly. Plant production decreasedwith...... decreasing salinity in both populations,while mortality increased in lowsalinity only in plants originating from the high saline population. The better performance of the low saline population in the lowest salinities indicates a horizontal shift in salinity tolerance among populationswith different origin...

  20. Acute pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... its blood vessels. This problem is called acute pancreatitis. Acute pancreatitis affects men more often than women. Certain ... pancreatitis; Pancreas - inflammation Images Digestive system Endocrine glands Pancreatitis, acute - CT scan Pancreatitis - series References Forsmark CE. Pancreatitis. ...

  1. Cystitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncomplicated urinary tract infection; UTI - acute cystitis; Acute bladder infection; Acute bacterial cystitis ... cause. Menopause also increases the risk for a urinary tract infection. The following also increase your chances of having ...

  2. Introduction of a Microsoft Excel-based unified electronic weekend handover document in Acute and General Medicine in a DGH: aims, outcomes and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostelec, Pablo; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro; Emanuele Garbelli, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    On-call weekends in medicine can be a busy and stressful time for junior doctors, as they are responsible for a larger pool of patients, most of whom they would have never met. Clinical handover to the weekend team is extremely important and any communication errors may have a profound impact on patient care, potentially even resulting in avoidable harm or death. Several senior clinical bodies have issued guidelines on best practice in written and verbal handover. These include: standardisation, use of pro forma documents prompting doctors to document vital information (such as ceiling of care/resuscitation status) and prioritisation according to clinical urgency. These guidelines were not consistently followed in our hospital site at the onset of 2014 and junior doctors were becoming increasingly dissatisfied with the handover processes. An initial audit of handover documents used across the medical division on two separate weekends in January 2014, revealed high variability in compliance with documentation of key information. For example, ceiling of care was documented for only 14-42% of patients and resuscitation status in 26-72% of patients respectively. Additionally, each ward used their own self-designed pro forma and patients were not prioritised by clinical urgency. Within six months from the introduction of a standardised, hospital-wide weekend handover pro forma across the medical division and following initial improvements to its layout, ceiling of therapy and resuscitation status were documented in approximately 80% of patients (with some minor variability). Moreover, 100% of patients in acute medicine and 75% of those in general medicine were prioritised by clinical urgency and all wards used the same handover pro forma.

  3. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Robert ER

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos

  4. Effect of Cu toxicity at different salinity on selective group of juvenile pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU You-jun; LI Jia-er; CAI Wen-chao

    2014-01-01

    Effects of copper toxicity and salinity shock on selective group of juvenile pompano Trachinotus ovatus were investigated. The fish were exposed to different Cu2+ concentrations of 0 (blank), 0.02 (C1), 0.05 (C2), 0.10 (C3), and 0.15 mg·L-1 (C4) at a salinity of 10‰ or 40‰ for 96 h, with the salinity of 29‰ as the control. The results showed that the effects of the acute salinity stimulation to survival rates of pompano between control (29‰) and lower or higher salinity for 96 h were not significant (p>0.05). However, the survival rates in each treatment were decreased with the increase of Cu2+concentration. The dominant factor influencing body moisture of the fish was salinity, and there was no sign that body moisture was correlated with exposure to Cu2+. The gill lamellas in high level of Cu2+concentration (C4 treatments) were abnormal under the salinity of 40‰ and extremely curly under the salinity of 10‰. Hemorrhage in gill was observed in the two C4 treatments. Under transmission electron microscope, pillar cells in gill lamellas appeared deformed and ruptured in some areas of the epithelia in the higher concentration of Cu2+, resulting in the death of the fish due to the destruction of gill tissue, elevation of the arithmetic mean distance from water to blood, the decrease of oxygen diffusion capacity, and other physiological functions. These findings indicate that the pompano might suffer much more pressure when encountered with Cu2+ pollution and low salinity.

  5. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  6. High salinity tolerance of the Red Sea coral Fungia granulosa under desalination concentrate discharge conditions: an in situ photophysiology experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2014-11-10

    Seawater reverse osmosis desalination concentrate may have chronic and/or acute impacts on the marine ecosystems in the near-field area of the discharge. Environmental impact of the desalination plant discharge is supposedly site- and volumetric- specific, and also depends on the salinity tolerance of the organisms inhabiting the water column in and around a discharge environment. Scientific studies that aim to understand possible impacts of elevated salinity levels are important to assess detrimental effects to organisms, especially for species with no mechanism of osmoregulation, e.g., presumably corals. Previous studies on corals indicate sensitivity toward hypo- and hyper-saline environments with small changes in salinity already affecting coral physiology. In order to evaluate sensitivity of Red Sea corals to increased salinity levels, we conducted a long-term (29 days) in situ salinity tolerance transect study at an offshore seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) discharge on the coral Fungia granulosa. While we measured a pronounced increase in salinity and temperature at the direct outlet of the discharge structure, effects were indistinguishable from the surrounding environment at a distance of 5 m. Interestingly, corals were not affected by varying salinity levels as indicated by measurements of the photosynthetic efficiency. Similarly, cultured coral symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium displayed remarkable tolerance levels in regard to hypo- and hypersaline treatments. Our data suggest that increased salinity and temperature levels from discharge outlets wear off quickly in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, F. granulosa seem to tolerate levels of salinity that are distinctively higher than reported for other corals previously. It remains to be determined whether Red Sea corals in general display increased salinity tolerance, and whether this is related to prevailing levels of high(er) salinity in the Red Sea in comparison to other oceans.

  7. ENSO signature in the SMOS sea surface salinity maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballabrera, J.; Umbert, M.; Hoareau, N.; Turiel, A.; Font, J.

    2012-12-01

    Until recently, the role of salinity observations in the operational simulation and prediction of ENSO was neglected because of the historical lack of observations and because leading intermediate coupled models had significant predictive skill without directly accounting for salinity effects. In Ballabrera-Poy et al., (2002), the potential role of sea surface salinity (SSS) observations on the statistical predictions of ENSO was investigated. It was shown that, although SSS observations would play little role in statistical nowcasts of ENSO, they would provide a significant role in the 6-12 month predictions. The European Space Agency (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) Earth Explorer opportunity mission was launched on November 2, 2009, becoming the first satellite mission addressing the challenge of measuring SSS from space with the help of MIRAS (Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis), a novel two-dimensional interferometer operating at L-band (1.4 GHz). Although the L-band frequency is the optimal for ocean salinity measurements, the retrieval of SSS information requires special care because of the low sensitivity of the brightness temperature to SSS: from 0.2-0.8 K per salinity unit. Maps of 10-day averages of SSS in 1x1 degree boxes are distributed by the SMOS Barcelona Expert Centre on Radiometric Calibration and Ocean Salinity (SMOS-BEC, http://www.smos-bec.icm.csic.es). These maps are derived from the SMOS reprocessing campaign released to the SMOS user community in March 2011, and span the period from January 2010 through December 2011. The current accuracy of these SSS maps ranges from 0.2-0.4, depending on the ocean region being considered (Umbert et al., 2012). During the period of the reprocessing campaign, the equatorial Pacific has been in a quasi-continuous La Niña state. During the cold phases of ENSO, positive anomalies of SSS are expected with a largest anomalous values in the western warm-fresh pool. The anomalies

  8. Salinity Temperature and Roughness Remote Scanner (STARRS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Provides spatially continuous high-resolution surface salinity imagery in a synoptic manner from small aircraft. Its output complements data collected from...

  9. SOIL SALINITY MAPPING USING MULTITEMPORAL LANDSAT DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Azabdaftari

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010 are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index, BI (Brightness Index and SI (Salinity Index are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index, SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field’s electrical conductivity (EC measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR and multiple linear regression (MLR are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  10. Relating river discharges to salinity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, X.; Liu, W. T.

    2014-12-01

    New river discharge data are brought together with spacebased sea surface salinity measurements by Aquarius and SMOS to demonstrate the role of river discharge in salinity changes near three river mouths: the Mississippi, the Ganges, and the Amazon. The characteristics of the seasonal cycle and the year-to-year changes of the river runoff are described. Various versions of the satellite salinity data are compared. The relative roles of river discharge, surface water flux, and horizontal advection in changing surface salinity in regions near the river mouths are examined. Satellite measurements of SSS clearly track movements of the fresh water from river discharges. Besides the river discharge, E-P plays an important role in the seasonal salinity variation near the Ganges and Irrawaddy River mouths. For the Mississippi and Amazon river mouths, central and eastern ITCZ, E-P contributes very little to the salinity seasonal change. In the central and eastern ITCZ, contribution of advection to the salinity tendency is clearly identified. Both salinity and salinity tendency are dominated by semi-annual cycle in the Atlantic ITCZ between 5ºN to 9ºN, whereas annual cycle dominates at other latitudes.

  11. Soil Salinity Mapping Using Multitemporal Landsat Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azabdaftari, A.; Sunar, F.

    2016-06-01

    Soil salinity is one of the most important problems affecting many areas of the world. Saline soils present in agricultural areas reduce the annual yields of most crops. This research deals with the soil salinity mapping of Seyhan plate of Adana district in Turkey from the years 2009 to 2010, using remote sensing technology. In the analysis, multitemporal data acquired from LANDSAT 7-ETM+ satellite in four different dates (19 April 2009, 12 October 2009, 21 March 2010, 31 October 2010) are used. As a first step, preprocessing of Landsat images is applied. Several salinity indices such as NDSI (Normalized Difference Salinity Index), BI (Brightness Index) and SI (Salinity Index) are used besides some vegetation indices such as NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index), RVI (Ratio Vegetation Index), SAVI (Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index) and EVI (Enhamced Vegetation Index) for the soil salinity mapping of the study area. The field's electrical conductivity (EC) measurements done in 2009 and 2010, are used as a ground truth data for the correlation analysis with the original band values and different index image bands values. In the correlation analysis, two regression models, the simple linear regression (SLR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) are considered. According to the highest correlation obtained, the 21st March, 2010 dataset is chosen for production of the soil salinity map in the area. Finally, the efficiency of the remote sensing technology in the soil salinity mapping is outlined.

  12. Aquatic insects in a multistress environment: cross-tolerance to salinity and desiccation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallarés, Susana; Botella-Cruz, María; Arribas, Paula; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2017-04-01

    Exposing organisms to a particular stressor may enhance tolerance to a subsequent stress, when protective mechanisms against the two stressors are shared. Such cross-tolerance is a common adaptive response in dynamic multivariate environments and often indicates potential co-evolution of stress traits. Many aquatic insects in inland saline waters from Mediterranean-climate regions are sequentially challenged with salinity and desiccation stress. Thus, cross-tolerance to these physiologically similar stressors could have been positively selected in insects of these regions. We used adults of the saline water beetles Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae) and Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae) to test cross-tolerance responses to desiccation and salinity. In independent laboratory experiments, we evaluated the effects of (i) salinity stress on the subsequent resistance to desiccation and (ii) desiccation stress (rapid and slow dehydration) on the subsequent tolerance to salinity. Survival, water loss and haemolymph osmolality were measured. Exposure to stressful salinity improved water control under subsequent desiccation stress in both species, with a clear cross-tolerance (enhanced performance) in N. baeticus In contrast, general negative effects on performance were found under the inverse stress sequence. The rapid and slow dehydration produced different water loss and haemolymph osmolality dynamics that were reflected in different survival patterns. Our finding of cross-tolerance to salinity and desiccation in ecologically similar species from distant lineages, together with parallel responses between salinity and thermal stress previously found in several aquatic taxa, highlights the central role of adaption to salinity and co-occurring stressors in arid inland waters, having important implications for the species' persistence under climate change. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  13. Soil salinity detection from satellite image analysis: an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morshed, Md Manjur; Islam, Md Tazmul; Jamil, Raihan

    2016-02-01

    This paper attempts to detect soil salinity from satellite image analysis using remote sensing and geographic information system. Salinity intrusion is a common problem for the coastal regions of the world. Traditional salinity detection techniques by field survey and sampling are time-consuming and expensive. Remote sensing and geographic information system offer economic and efficient salinity detection, monitoring, and mapping. To predict soil salinity, an integrated approach of salinity indices and field data was used to develop a multiple regression equation. The correlations between different indices and field data of soil salinity were calculated to find out the highly correlated indices. The best regression model was selected considering the high R (2) value, low P value, and low Akaike's Information Criterion. About 20% variation was observed between the field data and predicted EC from the satellite image analysis. The precision of this salinity detection technique depends on the accuracy and uniform distribution of field data.

  14. IGF-I and branchial IGF receptor expression and localization during salinity acclimation in striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Luckenbach, John Adam; Madsen, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of the IGF-I system and the expression and cellular localization of IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR) were studied in the gill of a euryhaline teleost during salinity acclimation. Exposure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic challenges induced small...... in either plasma IGF-I, liver, or gill IGF-I mRNA, or gill IGF-IR mRNA levels. In a separate experiment, FW-acclimated fish were injected with saline or IGF-I prior to a 24-h SW challenge. Rapid regain of osmotic balance following SW transfer was hindered by IGF-I. Immunohistochemistry revealed...

  15. The effect of fluid overload by saline infusion on heart rate variability in men during sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vena, Daniel; Yadollahi, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Fluid shift from the legs and into the neck during sleep has been shown to increase tissue pressure around the upper airway and increase sleep apnea severity. Recently, acute fluid overload via saline infusion during sleep was shown to increase sleep apnea severity in an older men (≥ 40 years of age) but not the younger men (heart rate variability metrics (HRV). Eighteen healthy men (10 in the younger group and 8 in the older group) slept for up to 3 hours during the day while ≈ 2L of saline was intravenously injected during sleep. An electrocardiogram was collected continuously during the sleep period. Two five minute segments of stage 1 or 2 sleep were selected for analysis of HRV: one before saline infusion and one after completion of saline infusion. Time- and frequency domain metrics of HRV were used to characterize autonomic nervous system response. Results generally showed increased HRV as measured by time-domain statistical measures in the younger men after saline infusion. In the frequency domain, the change in high frequency power from pre- to post-saline infusion was significantly greater in the younger compared to the older men. In addition, there was a borderline significant trend showing an increase in HF power from pre- to post-saline infusion in the younger, but not the older men. These results suggest that only in the younger men and not the older men, parasympathetic nervous activity increased in response to acute fluid overload. This might be one of the mechanisms that increased the severity of OSA in older and not the younger men.

  16. Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a tropical arboviral infection that can have severe hemorrhagic complication.Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is rare and is a big challenge in neurosurgery.To perform surgery for management of acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is a controversial issue.Here, the authors try to summarize the previous reports on this topic and compare neurosurgery versus conservative management.

  17. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking also slows down the healing process. Acute bronchitis treatment Most cases of acute bronchitis can be treated at home.Drink fluids, but ... bronchial tree. Your doctor will decide if this treatment is right for you. Living with acute bronchitis Most cases of acute bronchitis go away on ...

  18. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S.

    . The dominant factors leading to the dormation of the little known subsurface salinity minimum appear to be, (1) transport of the low salinity water by the northeast monsoon coastal current along the west coast of India and subsequent increase in the surface...

  19. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a science activity in which the student investigates methods of calibration of a simple conductivity meter via a hands-on inquiry technique. Conductivity is mathematically compared to salinity using a point slope formula and graphical techniques. Sample solutions of unknown salinity are provided so that the students can sharpen their…

  20. Protective Effect of Genistein on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwang; XU Tao; LIAN Qingquan; ZENG Bangxiong; ZHANG Bing; XIE Yubo

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of genistein on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats, and explore the underlying mechanisms, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: saline control, genistein alone, lipopolysaccaride alone, and genistein pretreatment. Each treatment group consisted of eight animals. Animals were observed for 6 h after LPS challenge, and the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio of the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) protein content were used as a measure of lung injury. Neutrophil recruitment and activation were evaluated by BALF cellularity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. RT-PCR analysis was performed in lung tissue to assess gene expression of ICAM-1. The histopathological changes were also observed using the HE staining of lung tissue. Our results showed that lung injury parameters, including the wet/dry weight ratio and protein content in BALF, were significantly higher in the LPS alone group than in the saline control group (P<0.01). In the LPS alone group, a larger number of neutrophils and greater MPO activity in cell-free BAL and lung homogenates were observed when compared with the saline control group (P<0.01). There was a significant increase in lung ICAM-1 mRNA in response to LPS challenge (P< 0. 01, group L versus group S).Genistein pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced changes in these indices. LPS caused extensive lung damage, which was also lessened after genistein pretreatment. All above-mentioned parameters in the genistein alone group were not significantly different from those of the saline control group. It is concluded that genistein pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced lung injury in rats.This beneficial effect of genistein may involves, in part, an inhibition of neutrophilic recruitment and activity, possibly through an inhibition of lung ICAM-1 expression.

  1. Biochar Mitigates Salinity Stress in Potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akhtar, S S; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in a climate-controlled greenhouse to investigate the growth, physiology and yield of potato in response to salinity stress under biochar amendment. It was hypothesized that addition of biochar may improve plant growth and yield by mitigating the negative effect...... of salinity through its high sorption ability. From tuber bulking to harvesting, the plants were exposed to three saline irrigations, that is 0, 25 and 50 mm NaCl solutions, respectively, and two levels of biochar (0 % and 5 % W/W) treatments. An adsorption study was also conducted to study the Na+ adsorption...... capability of biochar. Results indicated that biochar was capable to ameliorate salinity stress by adsorbing Na+. Increasing salinity level resulted in significant reductions of shoot biomass, root length and volume, tuber yield, photosynthetic rate (An), stomatal conductance (gs), midday leaf water...

  2. Therapeutic Efficacy of Saline and Glucose Saline against Dermally applied Sulphur Mustard Intoxication in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugendran

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A single dose of saline or glucose-saline (5 mg glucose/kg offered similar protection to mice against sulphur mustard intoxication, the extent of survival being 83 per cent as against 33 per cent without treatment. All the animals were protected when the treatment was extended by another two consecutive days in the glucose-saline treated group. Both saline and glucose-saline treatments could ameliorate the haemoconcentration as well as normalise pO/sub 2/ and % oxygen saturation. The protection conferred is attributed to the probable replenishment of fluid loss.

  3. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  4. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt.

  5. The acute transcriptional response of the coral Acropora millepora to immune challenge: expression of GiMAP/IAN genes links the innate immune responses of corals with those of mammals and plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Yvonne; Forêt, Sylvain; Hayward, David C; Ainsworth, Tracy; King, Rob; Ball, Eldon E; Miller, David J

    2013-06-14

    As a step towards understanding coral immunity we present the first whole transcriptome analysis of the acute responses of Acropora millepora to challenge with the bacterial cell wall derivative MDP and the viral mimic poly I:C, defined immunogens provoking distinct but well characterised responses in higher animals. These experiments reveal similarities with the responses both of arthropods and mammals, as well as coral-specific effects. The most surprising finding was that MDP specifically induced three members of the GiMAP gene family, which has been implicated in immunity in mammals but is absent from Drosophila and Caenorhabditis. Like their mammalian homologs, GiMAP genes are arranged in a tandem cluster in the coral genome. A phylogenomic survey of this gene family implies ancient origins, multiple independent losses and lineage-specific expansions during animal evolution. Whilst functional convergence cannot be ruled out, GiMAP expression in corals may reflect an ancestral role in immunity, perhaps in phagolysosomal processing.

  6. Salinity Tolerance and Growth Response of Juvenile Oreochromis mossambicus at Different Salinity Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Jamil; Muhammad Shoaib; Faisal Ameer; LIN Hong

    2004-01-01

    Juveniles of Oreochromis mossambicus with initial wet weights of 0.0382±0.0859 g and initial total lengths of 0.735±1.425 cm were tested for their salinity tolerance. The juveniles were subjected to five salinity levels for a period of seventy-five days. These salinity levels correspond to the salinities found along the creek and in estuarine regions. Each set of experiments was conducted at a fifteen day intervals. The weight, length and survival rate were calculated. No mortality was observed at salinity levels 0, 5, 10 and 15, while the juveniles faced slight mortality at 20 in the same environmental conditions, including the diet. There was no significant difference in specific growth rate at all salinity levels. The juveniles of O.mossambicus could survive up to 20 salinity. These results suggest that this species can grow and be exploited commercially in brackish waters, rivers and estuarine regions.

  7. SMOS sea surface salinity maps of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Olmedo, Estrella; Turiel, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Martinez, Justino; Portabella, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    years of SMOS data acquisitions. The second is the modification of the filtering criterion to account for the statistical distributions of SSS at each ocean grid point. This allows retrieving a value of SSS which is less affected by outliers originated from RFI and other effects. We will provide an assessment of the quality of these new SSS products in the Arctic, as well as illustrate the potential of these maps to monitor the main river discharges to the Arctic Ocean. [1] Font, J.; Camps, A.; Borges, A.; Martín-Neira, M.; Boutin, J.; Reul, N.; Kerr, Y.; Hahne, A. & Mecklenburg, S. SMOS: The Challenging Sea Surface Salinity Measurement From Space Proceedings of the IEEE, 2010, 98, 649 -665

  8. O desafio de diagnosticar tromboembolia pulmonar aguda em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica The challenge of diagnosing acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto

    2005-12-01

    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a challenging task. In order to update knowledge of the subject and offer suggestions regarding conduct, we evaluated various studies addressing this theme, including case reports and case series. In addition, we reviewed diagnostic approaches to acute pulmonary thromboembolism, and we reflect upon that topic. The clinical probability of pulmonary thromboembolism concomitant to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is typically intermediate, as is positivity on the ventilation-perfusion lung scan. Diagnostic algorithms should take that into consideration.

  9. Estuarine Salinity Mapping From Airborne Radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J. P.; Gao, Y.; Cook, P. L. M.; Ye, N.

    2016-12-01

    Estuaries are critical ecosystems providing both ecological habitat and human amenity including boating and recreational fishing. Salinity gradients, caused by the mixing of fresh and salt water, exert an overwhelming control on estuarine ecology and biogeochemistry as well as being a key tracer for model calibration. At present, salinity monitoring within estuaries typically uses point measurements or underway boat-based methods, which makes sensing of localised phenomena such as upwelling of saline bottom water difficult. This study has pioneered the use of airborne radiometry (passive microwave) sensing as a new method to remotely quantify estuarine salinity, allowing rapid production of high resolution surface salinity maps. The airborne radiometry mapping was conducted for the Gippsland Lakes, the largest estuary in Australia, in February, July, October and November of 2015, using the Polarimetric L-band Microwave Radiometer (PLMR). Salinity was retrieved from the brightness temperature collected by PLMR with results validated against boat sampling conducted concurrently with each flight. Results showed that the retrieval accuracy of the radiative transfer model was better than 5 ppt for most flights. The spatial, temporal and seasonal variations of salinity observed in this study are also analysed and discussed.

  10. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  11. Investigation of soil salinity to distinguish boundary line between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Investigation of soil salinity to distinguish boundary line between saline and agricultural ... Plain which is one of the important agricultural production centers in the area. Therefore, careful monitoring of lands near salinity boundary in the area ...

  12. Differential Expression of Salinity Resistance Gene on Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Salinity resistance and differential gene expression associated with salinity in cotton germplasm were studied,because of the large scale area of salinity in China,and its significant negative effects on

  13. Sea-surface salinity: the missing measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker, Erich F.; Koblinsky, Chester

    2003-04-01

    Even the youngest child knows that the sea is salty. Yet, routine, global information about the degree of saltiness and the distribution of the salinity is not available. Indeed, the sea surface salinity measurement is a key missing measurement in global change research. Salinity influences circulation and links the ocean to global change and the water-cycle. Space-based remote sensing of important global change ocean parameters such as sea-surface temperature and water-cycle parameters such as precipitation have been available to the research community but a space-based global sensing of salinity has been missing. In July 2002, the National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) announced that the Aquarius mission, focused on the global measurement of sea surface salinity, is one of the missions approved under its ESSP-3 program. Aquarius will begin a risk-reduction phase during 2003. Aquarius will carry a multi-beam 1.4 GHz (L-band) radiometer used for retrieving salinity. It also will carry a 1.2 GHz (L-band) scatterometer used for measuring surface roughness. Aquarius is tentatively scheduled for a 2006 launch into an 8-day Sun-synchronous orbit. Aquarius key science data product will be a monthly, global surface salinity map at 100 km resolution with an accuracy of 0.2 practical salinity units. Aquarius will have a 3 year operational period. Among other things, global salinity data will permit estimates of sea surface density, or buoyancy, that drives the ocean's three-dimensional circulation.

  14. Salinity and survival of Martesia striata (Linn) in Cochin harbour

    OpenAIRE

    Cheriyan, P.V.; Cherian, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    The effects of salinity variations on the survival of Martesia striata from Cochin harbour are presented. It is observed that at least a few of the animals survive the low saline conditions during monsoon. Laboratory experiments showed the lethal salinity as 6‰ when animals acclimatised in 34‰ were subjected to abrupt changes in salinity. But acclimatisation to 17‰ salinity showed a downward shift in the lethal salinity to 4‰. The present observations indicate that M. striata is euryhaline ar...

  15. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronchitis is an inflammation of the bronchial tubes, the airways that carry air to your lungs. It ... chest tightness. There are two main types of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis ...

  16. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001087.htm Bronchitis - acute To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflamed tissue in the main ...

  17. A Quantitative Profiling Method of Phytohormones and Other Metabolites Applied to Barley Roots Subjected to Salinity Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Da; Lutz, Adrian; Hill, Camilla B.; Callahan, Damien L.; Roessner, Ute

    2017-01-01

    As integral parts of plant signaling networks, phytohormones are involved in the regulation of plant metabolism and growth under adverse environmental conditions, including salinity. Globally, salinity is one of the most severe abiotic stressors with an estimated 800 million hectares of arable land affected. Roots are the first plant organ to sense salinity in the soil, and are the initial site of sodium (Na+) exposure. However, the quantification of phytohormones in roots is challenging, as they are often present at extremely low levels compared to other plant tissues. To overcome this challenge, we developed a high-throughput LC-MS method to quantify ten endogenous phytohormones and their metabolites of diverse chemical classes in roots of barley. This method was validated in a salinity stress experiment with six barley varieties grown hydroponically with and without salinity. In addition to phytohormones, we quantified 52 polar primary metabolites, including some phytohormone precursors, using established GC-MS and LC-MS methods. Phytohormone and metabolite data were correlated with physiological measurements including biomass, plant size and chlorophyll content. Root and leaf elemental analysis was performed to determine Na+ exclusion and K+ retention ability in the studied barley varieties. We identified distinct phytohormone and metabolite signatures as a response to salinity stress in different barley varieties. Abscisic acid increased in the roots of all varieties under salinity stress, and elevated root salicylic acid levels were associated with an increase in leaf chlorophyll content. Furthermore, the landrace Sahara maintained better growth, had lower Na+ levels and maintained high levels of the salinity stress linked metabolite putrescine as well as the phytohormone metabolite cinnamic acid, which has been shown to increase putrescine concentrations in previous studies. This study highlights the importance of root phytohormones under salinity stress and

  18. SALINITY EFFECT ON SEEDLING GROWTH, WATER, SODIUM ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    Key words : Mangrove, Avicennia germinans, salinity, ionic transport, Cameroon. RESUME. EFFET DE LA ... plant structures and physiological features explain their ... concentrations from roots to leaves of A. ..... Trees, 13 : 125 - 130. Sobrado ...

  19. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  20. Evaluation of Different Soil Salinity Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Arid Ecosystems, Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elhag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategies. Nevertheless, water resources in Saudi Arabia are under stress and groundwater levels are depleted rapidly due to heavy abstraction that may exceed crop water requirements in most of the cases due to high evaporation rates. The excess use of irrigational water leads to severe soil salinity problems. Applications of remote sensing technique in agricultural practices became widely distinctive and cover multidisciplinary principal interests on both local and regional levels. The most important remote sensing applications in agricultural practices are vegetation indices which are related to vegetation and water especially in an arid environment. Soil salinity mapping in an arid ecosystem using remote sensing data is a demanding task. Several soil salinity indices were implemented and evaluated to detect soil salinity effectively and quantitatively. Thematic maps of soil salinity were satisfactorily produced and assessed.

  1. Tuning of redox regulatory mechanisms, reactive oxygen species and redox homeostasis under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain eSazzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g. the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH, alternative oxidase (AOX, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants.

  2. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  3. Spatial and environmental components of evolutionary change: interactive effects of salinity and temperature on Fucus vesiculosus as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, G.

    1987-09-01

    Intertidal algae experience aerial temperatures as well as those of ambient seawater and, during their periods of emergence, are subject to considerable variation in salinity. The eastern Atlantic distribution of Fucus vesiculosus L. (Phaeophyta) lies within the 5° and 20° August isotherms. Experiments indicate that this plant can survive temperatures above and below these at normal salinity (34‰). However, at extreme temperatures it is evidently much more susceptible to saline changes than at those of the limiting isotherms. Thus the temperature limits for surviving acute saline change appear to give a better biogeographical fit than temperature alone. Nevertheless, the presence of F. vesiculosus in estuaries at or near both geographical limits is inconsistent with the experimental results obtained from British plants. Some population divergence may therefore have occurred.

  4. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  5. A Short Non-Saline Sprinkling Increases the Tuber Weights of Saline Sprinkler Irrigated Potatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob M. Stevens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous work has shown that a short non-saline sprinkling, following saline sprinkling, increased crop growth. We incorporated this finding into an investigation of two approaches to the conjunctive use of saline and non-saline water sources for sprinkler irrigation of potatoes viz., (i mixing waters prior to application, and (ii keeping waters temporally separate, that is commencing each irrigation with saline water and finishing it with non-saline sprinkling. The latter approach delayed canopy senescence and increased tuber weight by at least 150%. Under both approaches, soil salinities and leaf and tuber concentrations of Na+ and Cl− were similar. Thus, the advantages of a non-saline sprinkling cannot be explained in terms of its effect on either soil osmotic potential or bulk tissue concentrations of putatively toxic ions Na+ and Cl−. We propose that the positive effect of finishing irrigations with a non-saline sprinkling may be attributed to either dilution, and hence increase in osmotic potential, of the water film that remains on the leaf after each irrigation or its effect on the distribution of the putatively toxic ions Na+ and Cl− within tissue.

  6. [Investigation and canonical correspondence analysis of salinity contents in secondary salinization greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong

    2014-12-01

    The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled.

  7. Yield and yield components of wheat as affected by salinity and inoculation with Azospirillum strains from saline or non-saline soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Haji Nia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In many arid and semi-arid areas of the world where sustainability of agriculture is limited by salinity, use of biological potential may be a key component of sustainable plant production. A greenhouse experiment was used to test the effectiveness of inoculation with Azospirillum strains isolated from saline or non-saline soil in alleviating the salinity stress in wheat plants grown with irrigation water with different electrical conductivities (ECw of 0.7, 4, 8 and 12 dS m−1. Inoculation with the two isolates increased salinity tolerance of wheat plants; the saline-adapted isolate significantly increased shoot dry weight and grain yield under severe water salinity. The component of grain yield most affected by inoculation was grains per plant. Plants inoculated with saline-adapted Azospirillum strains had higher N concentrations at all water salinity levels.

  8. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made

  9. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  10. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  11. Pain patterns after distension of the gallbladder in patients with acute cholecystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, H V; Jensen, P; Højgaard, L;

    1998-01-01

    and the cystic duct opening pressure. METHODS: Twelve patients (nine women, three men) treated with cholecystostomy for acute cholecystitis were investigated. Simultaneous cholescintigraphy and measurement of changes in intraluminal gallbladder pressure after injections of saline through a gallbladder catheter...

  12. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  13. Preparation and swelling behavior of polyvinyl alcohol physiological saline gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) physiological saline gel was prepared using physiological saline solution of the polymer by freezing and thawing method. The influences of the concentration of PVA, freezing and thawing cycle times and solvent swelling media on the swelling properties of PVA saline gel were investigated. The result show that the electrolytical ions have great effect on the swelling behavior of PVA saline gel. The equilibrium swelling ratio of PVA saline gel in aqueous swelling media is larger than that in saline swelling media. Also, the equilibrium swelling ratios of PVA saline gel in aqueous and in saline media decrease with the increase of gel concentration and the increase of freezing and thawing cycle times. The decreasing speed of equilibrium swelling ratio with the increase of freezing and thawing cycle times of PVA gel in distilled water is faster than that in physiological saline. The swelling kinetic equation can sufficiently describe the swelling behavior of PVA physiological saline gel.

  14. A new method to retrieve salinity profiles from sea surface salinity observed by SMOS satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tingting; CHEN Zhongbiao; HE Yijun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to retrieve salinity profiles from the sea surface salinity (SSS) observed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The main vertical patterns of the salinity profiles are firstly extracted from the salinity profiles measured by Argo using the empirical orthogonal function. To determine the time coefficients for each vertical pattern, two statistical models are developed. In the linear model, a transfer function is proposed to relate the SSS observed by SMOS (SMOS_SSS) with that measured by Argo, and then a linear relationship between the SMOS_SSS and the time coefficient is established. In the nonlinear model, the neural network is utilized to estimate the time coefficients from SMOS_SSS, months and positions of the salinity profiles. The two models are validated by comparing the salinity profiles retrieved from SMOS with those measured by Argo and the climatological salinities. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the linear and nonlinear model are 0.08–0.16 and 0.08–0.14 for the upper 400 m, which are 0.01–0.07 and 0.01–0.09 smaller than the RMSE of climatology. The error sources of the method are also discussed.

  15. Lessons from crop plants struggling with salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabot, Catalina; Sibole, John V; Barceló, Juan; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2014-09-01

    Salinity is a persistent problem, causing important losses in irrigated agriculture. According to global climate change prediction models, salinity is expected to expand in the near future. Although intensive studies have been conducted on the mechanisms by which plants cope with saline conditions, the multi-component nature of salt stress tolerance has rendered most plant breeding efforts to improve the plant's response to salinity unsuccessful. This occurs despite the extensive genetic diversity shown by higher plants for salt tolerance and the similar mechanisms found in salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes in response to the presence of excess of salts in the growth media. On the other hand, there is an urge to increase crop yield to the maximum to cope with the growing world population demands for food and fuel. Here, we examine some major elements and signaling mechanisms involved in the plant's response to salinity following the pathway of salt-footprints from the soil environment to leaf. Some of the possible contrasting determinants for a better-balanced resource allocation between salt tolerance and plant growth and yield are considered.

  16. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  17. Salinity transfer in bounded double diffusive convection

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yantao; Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Sun, Chao; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The double diffusive convection between two parallel plates is numerically studied for a series of parameters. The flow is driven by the salinity difference and stabilized by the thermal field. Our simulations are directly compared to experiments by Hage and Tilgner (\\emph{Phys. Fluids} 22, 076603 (2010)) for several sets of parameters and reasonable agreement is found. This in particular holds for the salinity flux and its dependence on the salinity Rayleigh number. Salt fingers are present in all simulations and extend through the entire height. The thermal Rayleigh number seems to have minor influence on salinity flux but affects the Reynolds number and the morphology of the flow. Next to the numerical calculation, we apply the Grossmann-Lohse theory for Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard flow to the current problem without introducing any new coefficients. The theory successfully predicts the salinity flux both with respect to the scaling and even with respect to the absolute value for the numerical and experimental res...

  18. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution

  19. Progressive acclimation alters interaction between salinity and temperature in experimental Daphnia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Cláudia; Cuco, Ana P; Claro, Maria Teresa; Santos, Joana I; Pedrosa, M Arminda; Gonçalves, Fernando; Castro, Bruno B

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stressors rarely act in isolation, giving rise to interacting environmental change scenarios. However, the impacts of such interactions on natural populations must consider the ability of organisms to adapt to environmental changes. The phenotypic adaptability of a Daphnia galeata clone to temperature rise and salinisation was investigated in this study, by evaluating its halotolerance at two different temperatures, along a short multigenerational acclimation scenario. Daphniids were acclimated to different temperatures (20°C and 25°C) and salinities (0gL(-1) and 1gL(-1), using NaCl as a proxy) in a fully crossed design. The objective was to understand whether acclimation to environmental stress (combinations of temperature and salinity) influenced the response to the latter exposure to these stressors. We hypothesize that acclimation to different temperature×salinity regimes should elicit an acclimation response of daphniids to saline stress or its interaction with temperature. Acute (survival time) and chronic (juvenile growth) halotolerance measures were obtained at discrete timings along the acclimation period (generations F1, F3 and F9). Overall, exposure temperature was the main determinant of the acute and chronic toxicity of NaCl: daphniid sensitivity (measured as the decrease of survival time or juvenile growth) was consistently higher at the highest temperature, irrespective of background conditions. However, this temperature-dependent effect was nullified after nine generations, but only when animals had been acclimated to both stressors (high salinity and high temperature). Such complex interaction scenarios should be taken in consideration in risk assessment practices.

  20. Options for salinity mitigation in the Murray-Darling Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Schrobback, Peggy; Adamson, David; Quiggin, John

    2008-01-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin faces increasing pressure on water quantity and quality. In 2006-07, salt interception schemes implemented as part of the Murray–Darling Basin Salinity Management strategy removed over 470,000 tonnes of salt from the water supply, reducing the salinity of water flowing to Adelaide by about 200 EC units. However, the costs of salinity mitigation schemes are increasing. With possible continuing declines in average inflows, costs of salinity and salinity mitigation are...

  1. Genetic diversity analysis of salinity related germplasm in cotton

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Zhang; Wuwei Ye; Junjuan Wang; Baoxiang Fan; Delong Wang

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic variation of salinity related cotton germplasm, 47 upland cotton accessions including 23 salinity tolerant materials and 24 salinity sensitive materials were explored using 88 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. We detected a total of 338 alleles at 88 SSR loci with an average of 3.841 alleles per locus, 333 of these alleles were detected in salinity tolerant germplasm and 312 alleles in salinity sensitive germplasm. Mean polymorphism information content (PIC),...

  2. Acute cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Halpin, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Acute cholecystitis causes unremitting right upper quadrant pain, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, and fever, and if untreated can lead to perforations, abscess formation, or fistulae. About 95% of people with acute cholecystitis have gallstones.It is thought that blockage of the cystic duct by a gallstone or local inflammation can lead to acute cholecystitis, but we don't know whether bacterial infection is also necessary.

  3. Oceanographic profile Temperature, Salinity and other measurements collected using bottle and high resolution CTD from the CHALLENGER (UK cruises 1962 to present) and other platforms in the Coastal N Atlantic, North Atlantic and other locations from 24 December 1988 to 16 August 2000 (NODC Accession 0000419)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — CTD, bottle, and other data were collected in the coastal North Atlantic and other locations from the Challenger and other platforms from 24 December 1988 to 16...

  4. Electromagnetic simulations for salinity index error estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Andrzej; Szypłowska, Agnieszka; Kafarski, Marcin; Nakonieczna, Anna; Skierucha, Wojciech

    2017-01-01

    Soil salinity index (SI) is a measure of salt concentration in soil water. The salinity index is calculated as a partial derivative of the soil bulk electrical conductivity (EC) with respect to the bulk dielectric permittivity (DP). The paper focused on the impact of different sensitivity zones for measured both EC and DP on the salinity index determination accuracy. For this purpose, a set of finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations was prepared. The simulations were carried out on the model of a reflectometric probe consisting of three parallel rods inserted into a modelled material of simulated DP and EC. The combinations of stratified distributions of DP and EC were tested. An experimental verification of the simulation results on selected cases was performed. The results showed that the electromagnetic simulations can provide useful data to improve accuracy of the determination of soil SI.

  5. Regional-scale assessment of soil salinity in the Red River Valley using multi-year MODIS EVI and NDVI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, D B; Lesch, S M; Corwin, D L; Ulmer, M G; Anderson, K A; Potts, D J; Doolittle, J A; Matos, M R; Baltes, M J

    2010-01-01

    The ability to inventory and map soil salinity at regional scales remains a significant challenge to scientists concerned with the salinization of agricultural soils throughout the world. Previous attempts to use satellite or aerial imagery to assess soil salinity have found limited success in part because of the inability of methods to isolate the effects of soil salinity on vegetative growth from other factors. This study evaluated the use of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) imagery in conjunction with directed soil sampling to assess and map soil salinity at a regional scale (i.e., 10-10(5) km(2)) in a parsimonious manner. Correlations with three soil salinity ground truth datasets differing in scale were made in Kittson County within the Red River Valley (RRV) of North Dakota and Minnesota, an area where soil salinity assessment is a top priority for the Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS). Multi-year MODIS imagery was used to mitigate the influence of temporally dynamic factors such as weather, pests, disease, and management influences. The average of the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) for a 7-yr period exhibited a strong relationship with soil salinity in all three datasets, and outperformed the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). One-third to one-half of the spatial variability in soil salinity could be captured by measuring average MODIS EVI and whether the land qualified for the Conservation Reserve Program (a USDA program that sets aside marginally productive land based on conservation principles). The approach has the practical simplicity to allow broad application in areas where limited resources are available for salinity assessment.

  6. Adaptation of teleosts to very high salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverty, Gary; Skadhauge, Erik

    2012-01-01

    A number of species of euryhaline teleosts have the remarkable ability to adapt and survive in environments of extreme salinity, up to two or even three times the osmolality of seawater. This review looks at some of the literature describing the adaptive changes that occur, primarily with intesti......A number of species of euryhaline teleosts have the remarkable ability to adapt and survive in environments of extreme salinity, up to two or even three times the osmolality of seawater. This review looks at some of the literature describing the adaptive changes that occur, primarily...

  7. [Acute rhinosinusitis: diagnostics and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarevich, I A; Kozlov, V S

    2013-01-01

    Acute rhinosinusitis is a challenging clinical problem due to its high prevalence. The overwhelming majority of the cases of acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) have viral etiology. Clinical manifestations of viral and bacterial rhinosinusitis can be very similar. Similar expert communities have proposed their recommendations on diagnostics and treatment of acute rhinosinusitis in the recent decade. These recommendations are underlain by the principles of evidence-based medicine, take into consideration the result of reliable investigations, and reflect the opinions of leading specialists in otorhinolaryngology, allergology and immunology. The present review contains the analysis of consensus documents and recommendations. The results of ongoing research provide convincing evidence of the effectiveness of intranasal application of corticosteroids in the patients presenting with acute rhinosinusitis. Antibacterial therapy of acute rhinosinusitis is indicated only in the case of severe or complicated clinical course of the disease.

  8. Spectral reflectance characteristics of soils in northeastern Brazil as influenced by salinity levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Luiz Guilherme Medeiros; Freire, Maria Betânia Galvão Dos Santos; Wilcox, Bradford Paul; Green, Colleen Heather Machado; De Araújo, Rômulo José Tolêdo; De Araújo Filho, José Coelho

    2016-11-01

    In northeastern Brazil, large swaths of once-productive soils have been severely degraded by soil salinization, but the true extent of the damage has not been assessed. Emerging remote sensing technology based on hyperspectral analysis offers one possibility for large-scale assessment, but it has been unclear to what extent the spectral properties of soils are related to salinity characteristics. The purpose of this study was to characterize the spectral properties of degraded (saline) and non-degraded agricultural soils in northeastern Brazil and determine the extent to which these properties correspond to soil salinity. We took soil samples from 78 locations within a 45,000-km(2) site in Pernambuco State. We used cluster analysis to group the soil samples on the basis of similarities in salinity and sodicity levels, and then obtained spectral data for each group. The physical properties analysis indicated a predominance of the coarse sand fraction in almost all the soil groups, and total porosity was similar for all the groups. The chemical analysis revealed different levels of degradation among the groups, ranging from non-degraded to strongly degraded conditions, as defined by the degree of salinity and sodicity. The soil properties showing the highest correlation with spectral reflectance were the exchangeable sodium percentage followed by fine sand. Differences in the reflectance curves for the various soil groups were relatively small and were not significant. These results suggest that, where soil crusts are not present, significant challenges remain for using hyperspectral remote sensing to assess soil salinity in northeastern Brazil.

  9. Salinity-induced regulation of the myo-inositol biosynthesis pathway in tilapia gill epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, Romina; Li, Johnathon; Villarreal, Fernando; Gardell, Alison M; Kültz, Dietmar

    2013-12-15

    The myo-inositol biosynthesis (MIB) pathway converts glucose-6-phosphate to the compatible osmolyte myo-inositol that protects cells from osmotic stress. Using proteomics, the enzymes that constitute the MIB pathway, myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) and inositol monophosphatase 1 (IMPA1), are identified in tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) gill epithelium. Targeted, quantitative, label-free proteomics reveals that they are both upregulated during salinity stress. Upregulation is stronger when fish are exposed to severe (34 ppt acute and 90 ppt gradual) relative to moderate (70 ppt gradual) salinity stress. IMPA1 always responds more strongly than MIPS, suggesting that MIPS is more stable during salinity stress. MIPS is N-terminally acetylated and the corresponding peptide increases proportionally to MIPS protein, while non-acetylated N-terminal peptide is not detectable, indicating that MIPS acetylation is constitutive and may serve to stabilize the protein. Hyperosmotic induction of MIPS and IMPA1 is confirmed using western blot and real-time qPCR and is much higher at the mRNA than at the protein level. Two distinct MIPS mRNA variants are expressed in the gill, but one is more strongly regulated by salinity than the other. A single MIPS gene is encoded in the tilapia genome whereas the zebrafish genome lacks MIPS entirely. The genome of euryhaline tilapia contains four IMPA genes, two of which are expressed, but only one is salinity regulated in gill epithelium. The genome of stenohaline zebrafish contains a single IMPA gene. We conclude that the MIB pathway represents a major salinity stress coping mechanism that is regulated at multiple levels in euryhaline fish but absent in stenohaline zebrafish.

  10. Soil Salinity: Effect on Vegetable Crop Growth. Management Practices to Prevent and Mitigate Soil Salinization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Manuel Almeida Machado

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a major problem affecting crop production all over the world: 20% of cultivated land in the world, and 33% of irrigated land, are salt-affected and degraded. This process can be accentuated by climate change, excessive use of groundwater (mainly if close to the sea, increasing use of low-quality water in irrigation, and massive introduction of irrigation associated with intensive farming. Excessive soil salinity reduces the productivity of many agricultural crops, including most vegetables, which are particularly sensitive throughout the ontogeny of the plant. The salinity threshold (ECt of the majority of vegetable crops is low (ranging from 1 to 2.5 dS m−1 in saturated soil extracts and vegetable salt tolerance decreases when saline water is used for irrigation. The objective of this review is to discuss the effects of salinity on vegetable growth and how management practices (irrigation, drainage, and fertilization can prevent soil and water salinization and mitigate the adverse effects of salinity.

  11. Batteries for efficient energy extraction from a water salinity difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Mantia, Fabio; Pasta, Mauro; Deshazer, Heather D; Logan, Bruce E; Cui, Yi

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na(2-x)Mn(5)O(10) nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future.

  12. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na2-xMn 5O10 nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Acute nierschade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.E.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  14. The influence of salinity on toxicological effects of arsenic in digestive gland of clam Ruditapes philippinarum using metabolomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chenglong; WU Huifeng; LIU Xiaoli; ZHAO Jianmin; YU Junbao; YIN Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Ruditapes philippinarum,a clam that thrives in intertidal zones of various salinities,is a useful biomonitor to marine contaminants.We investigated the influence of dilution to 75% and 50% of normal seawater salinity (31.1) on the responses of the digestive gland of R.philippinarum to arsenic exposure (20 μg/L),using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics.After acute arsenic exposure for 48 h,salinity-dependent differential metabolic responses were detected.In normal seawater,arsenic exposure increased the concentrations of branched-chain amino acids,and of threonine,proline,phosphocholine and adenosine,and it decreased the levels of alanine,hypotaurine,glucose,glycogen and ATP in the digestive glands.Differential changes in metabolic biomarkers observed at lower salinity (~23.3)included elevation of succinate,taurine and ATP,and depletion of branched-chain amino acids,threonine and glutamine.Unique effects of arsenic at the lowest salinity (~15.6) included down-regulation of glutamate,succinate and ADP,and up-regulation of phosphocholine.We conclude that salinity influences the metabolic responses of this clam to arsenic.

  15. Investigations in Marine Chemistry: Salinity I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    Presented is a unit designed for curriculum infusion and which relies on the hands-on discovery method as an instructive device. The student is introduced to the theory of a functioning salt water conductivity meter. The student explores the resistance of salt water as salinity increases and he treats the data which he has gathered,…

  16. Evaluation of lettuce genotypes for salinity tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most commonly used salad vegetables and considered to be a relatively salt sensitive crop. Salinity is a major constraint to crop production in all important lettuce districts of the U.S., and the water quality problem is exacerbated by the climate change. In order to identify ...

  17. ASSESSING THE IMPACTS OF SALINITY AND NUTRIENT ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy seagrass beds were once found throughout the shallow areas of Narragansett Bay, R.I. but have disappeared due to infilling, pollution and disease. In Greenwich Bay, a highly developed embayment within Narragansett Bay, Ruppia maritima has colonized an area on the northern shore once dominated by Zostera marina. This area is sandy, which may allow groundwater seepage. Ruppia is extremely salinity tolerant, and may also be more nutrient tolerant than Zostera. A six week microcosm experiment at two salinity (20 and 30 ppt) and 4 nutrient (0, 5, 10, and 30 µM inorganic N) levels to test their relative tolerance was conducted in 2014. Treatments were renewed daily to simulate tidal flushing and the exposure water was dosed with 15N for the first week of the experiment. At the end of the experiment, the plants were weighed and measured, and dried for later isotopic analysis. In the first experiment, Ruppia had significant structural responses to both nutrients and salinity; there was a slight decline in root weight and a decrease in the total number of shoots with increasing nutrients. Average Ruppia blade length decreased with increasing nutrients and this decrease was more evident at 30 ppt. In contrast, Zostera had no significant structural differences. For both species, there were no differences in shoot or root/rhizome weights in any treatment, nor were there differences in isotopic results due to salinity. However, δ15N in the tissue increase

  18. Biomass production on saline-alkaline soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturvedi, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    In a trial of twelve tree species (both nitrogen fixing and non-fixing) for fuel plantations on saline-alkaline soil derived from Gangetic alluvium silty clay, Leucaena leucocephala failed completely after showing rapid growth for six months. Results for other species at age two showed that Prosopis juliflora had the best productivity.

  19. Estimation of salinity power potential in India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Das, V.K.; RamaRaju, D.V.

    at the estuaries where freshwater flows into the sea or wherever sources of different salinities exist. In India, the total freshwater discharge from rivers and streams flowing into the seas around amounts to about 23 x 103 m3/sec which could provide a power...

  20. CROP DENSITY AND IRRIGATION WITH SALINE WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Feinerman, Eli

    1983-01-01

    The economic implications of plant density for irrigation water use under saline conditions are investigated, utilizing the involved physical and biological relationships. The analysis considers a single crop and is applied to cotton data. The results suggest that treating plant density as an endogenous control variable has substantial impact on profits and the optimal quantities and qualities of the applied irrigation water.

  1. Environmental geophysics mapping salinity and water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Salinity and fresh water are two sides of the same coin, most conveniently measured by electrical conductivity; they can now be mapped rapidly in three dimensions using airborne electromagnetics (AEM). Recent developments in the calibration of airborne data against in-field measurements and

  2. About uncertainties in practical salinity calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Le Menn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a quantity computed, in the actual state of the art, from conductivity ratio measurements, knowing temperature and pressure at the time of the measurement and using the Practical Salinity Scale algorithm of 1978 (PSS-78 which gives practical salinity values S. The uncertainty expected on PSS-78 values is ±0.002, but nothing has ever been detailed about the method to work out this uncertainty, and the sources of errors to include in this calculation. Following a guide edited by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM, this paper assess, by two independent methods, the uncertainties of salinity values obtained from a laboratory salinometer and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD measurements after laboratory calibration of a conductivity cell. The results show that the part due to the PSS-78 relations fits is sometimes as much significant as the instruments one's. This is particularly the case with CTD measurements where correlations between the variables contribute to decrease largely the uncertainty on S, even when the expanded uncertainties on conductivity cells calibrations are largely up of 0.002 mS/cm. The relations given in this publication, and obtained with the normalized GUM method, allow a real analysis of the uncertainties sources and they can be used in a more general way, with instruments having different specifications.

  3. Cuticle hydrocarbons in saline aquatic beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Botella-Cruz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocarbons are the principal component of insect cuticle and play an important role in maintaining water balance. Cuticular impermeability could be an adaptative response to salinity and desiccation in aquatic insects; however, cuticular hydrocarbons have been poorly explored in this group and there are no previous data on saline species. We characterized cuticular hydrocarbons of adults and larvae of two saline aquatic beetles, namely Nebrioporus baeticus (Dytiscidae and Enochrus jesusarribasi (Hydrophilidae, using a gas chromatograph coupled to a mass spectrometer. The CHC profile of adults of both species, characterized by a high abundance of branched alkanes and low of unsaturated alkenes, seems to be more similar to that of some terrestrial beetles (e.g., desert Tenebrionidae compared with other aquatic Coleoptera (freshwater Dytiscidae. Adults of E. jesusarribasi had longer chain compounds than N. baeticus, in agreement with their higher resistance to salinity and desiccation. The more permeable cuticle of larvae was characterized by a lower diversity in compounds, shorter carbon chain length and a higher proportion of unsaturated hydrocarbons compared with that of the adults. These results suggest that osmotic stress on aquatic insects could exert a selection pressure on CHC profile similar to aridity in terrestrial species.

  4. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Weaned Pig Skeletal Muscle after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs constitute a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in skeletal muscle development and disease. Several acute inflammation conditions including sepsis and cancer are characterized by a loss of skeletal muscle due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. As a well-known inducer of acute inflammation, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge can cause serious skeletal muscle wasting. However, knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the course of inflammatory muscle catabolism is still very limited. In this study, RNA extracted from the skeletal muscle of pigs injected with LPS or saline was subjected to small RNA deep sequencing. We identified 304 conserved and 114 novel candidate miRNAs in the pig. Of these, four were significantly increased in the LPS-challenged samples and five were decreased. The expression of five miRNAs (ssc-miR-146a-5p, ssc-miR-221-5p, ssc-miR-148b-3p, ssc-miR-215 and ssc-miR-192 were selected for validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which found that ssc-miR-146a-5p and ssc-miR-221-5p were significantly upregulated in LPS-challenged pig skeletal muscle. Moreover, we treated mouse C2C12 myotubes with 1000 ng/mL LPS as an acute inflammation cell model. Expression of TNF-α, IL-6, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 mRNA was strongly induced by LPS. Importantly, miR-146a-5p and miR-221-5p also showed markedly increased expression in LPS-treated C2C12 myotubes, suggesting the two miRNAs may be involved in muscle catabolism systems in response to acute inflammation caused by a LPS challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine miRNA expression profiles in weaned pig skeletal muscle challenged with LPS, and furthers our understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of inflammatory muscle catabolism.

  5. [PROTEOMIC ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIVE MECHANISMS TO SALINITY STRESS IN MARINE GASTROPODS LITTORINA SAXATILIS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraeva, O A; Maltseva, A L; Mikhailova, N A; Granovitch, A I

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is one of the most important abiotic environmental factors affecting marine animals. If salinity deviate from optimum, adaptive mechanisms switch on to maintain organism's physiological activity. In this study, the reaction of the snails Littorina saxatilis from natural habitats and in response to experimental salinity decreasing was analyzed on proteomic level. The isolation of all snails inside their shells and gradually declining mortality was observed under acute experimental salinity decrease (down to 10 per hundred). Proteomic changes were evaluated in the surviving experimental mollusks compared to control individual using differential 2D gel-electrophoresis (DIGE) and subsequent LC-MS/MS-identification of proteins. Approximately 10% of analyzed proteins underwent up- or down regulation during the experiment. Proteins of folding, antioxidant response, intercellular matrix, cell adhesion, cell signaling and metabolic enzymes were identified among them. Proteome changes observed in experimental hypoosmotic stress partially reproduced in the proteomes of mollusks that live in conditions of natural freshening (estuaries). Possible mechanisms involved in the adaptation process of L. saxatilis individuals to hypo-osmotic stress are discussed.

  6. Recurrent acute pancreatitis: From the editor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    @@ This special issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology contains a number of articles focusing on acute recurrent pancreatitis,a clinical entity that still remains a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in clinical practice.

  7. Biodiversity patterns of soil ciliates along salinity gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Xu, Kuidong

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated ciliate diversity in saline soils with a salinity range from 6.5 to 65 psu by the morphological method of the Ludox-quantitative protargol stain (QPS) and the molecular techniques of ciliate-specific clone library and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. No active ciliates could be detected with the Ludox-QPS method, while high molecular diversity of ciliates was found. The highest ciliate molecular diversity was obtained from the soil at salinity of 8.9 psu, moderate diversity was found at salinity of 6.5 psu, and the diversity sharply decreased at salinity of 50.5 psu. By contrast, the number of ciliate classes clearly decreased with increasing soil salinity: six, five, four and two classes from sites with salinity of 6.5 psu, 8.9 psu, 29.5 psu and 50.5 psu, respectively. Ciliate diversity pattern is different from that of bacteria, whose diversity is also high in extremely saline environments. Meanwhile, the composition of ciliate community was significantly different along salinity gradient. Colpodea and Oligohymenophorea were diverse in soils at salinity less than 29.5 psu, while absent in soils with salinity above 50.5 psu. BIOENV analysis indicated soil salinity and water content were the main factors regulating the distribution of ciliates in saline soils.

  8. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  9. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pancreatitis Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is defined as ... pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for almost 1 ...

  10. Acute Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out of balance. Acute kidney failure — also called acute renal failure or acute kidney injury — develops rapidly over ... 2015. Palevsky PM. Definition of acute kidney injury (acute renal failure). http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed April ...

  11. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  12. The Impact of Different Fertigation Practices and Initial Soil Salinity on Soil N and Salinity Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Wen-zhi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For studying the impact of different fertigation practices and initial soil salinity on soil N and salinity transport, large Plexi-glass columns (18.2 cm in diameter and 100 cm long assembled from sandy loam (Inner Mongolia and saturation optimum design were employed to simulate a range of initial soil salinity conditions in soil profile and fertigation practices. (4~8 L solution with 20 g urea dissolved was applied evenly and slowly to the surface of each column. Nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in soil and discharge from the outlet were sampled and the electrical conductivity of soil and the chloride ion concentration of discharges were also measured. Findings from this study include: (1 high initial salinity in soil had a certain impact on the changes of water content of vertical soil section with the time being after large amount of water irrigation and it might increase the rate of infiltration; (2 the amount of irrigation water significantly affected the transport of soil salinity; (3 high soil salinity content was likely to promote the conversion of urea nitrogen to ammonium nitrogen and it might also play an active role in ammonium nitrogen accumulation in drainage; (4 There is a sound linear relation between the cumulative content of chloride ion and that of nitrate nitrogen in the drainage and soil profile (r2 = 0.8221 and 0.7442.

  13. Transport Characteristics of Soil Salinity in Saline-alkali Land under Water Storage and Drainage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; LI; Jichang; HAN

    2015-01-01

    To test the variation and transport of soil salinity in saline- alkali land under water storage and drainage treatments,an experimental model was established in Fuping,Shaanxi Province,2009. The variation of soil salinity during 0- 160 cm soil depth under the two treatments was determined and analyzed. Results showed that the average soil water content under water storage treatment was 4. 47% higher than that under drainage treatment,which means that the water storage treatment could help to improve soil moisture to satisfy the crop’s growth needs. The profile distribution of soil soluble solids( TDS),anion( Cl-,HCO3-,SO2-4) and cation( Ca2 +,Na+,K+) content and the variation of soil p H were also measured and analyzed. PCA( Principal Component Analysis) was used to explore the relationship between the soil salinity and its ions,which showed that the water storage treatment could significantly decrease the surface salinity of soil and accelerate the desalination of topsoils,and finally,the soil quality was improved significantly,demonstrating that the water storage treatment has a remarkable effect on soil salinity management.

  14. Evolution of a saline wetland in western boreal Canada: a study based on diatoms, pollen, and non-pollen palynomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volik, O.; Petrone, R. M.; Wells, C. M.; Hall, R. I.; Price, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems, which comprise over 50% of northern Alberta's land base, are under increasing pressures as a result of intensive development related to oil sands extraction. According to provincial guidelines, mined area must be reclaimed to an "equivalent capacity" and should contain ~33% wetlands by area. Paleoecological studies have proven useful for the development of restoration strategies through establishment of pre-disturbance baselines and assessing the possibility of returning ecosystems to pre-disturbance state. The task of wetland reclamation is challenged by salinization in the post mined environment, thus understanding the evolution of natural saline wetlands will aid in the development of improved reclamation strategies. The study was carried out in a natural saline wetland situated ~10 km southeast of Fort McMurray, Alberta. Paleoecological changes were investigated using diatoms, pollen and non-pollen palynomorphs in sediment cores taken from a pond in the central part of the wetland. Variations in physicochemical properties and microfossils assemblages in the core demonstrate dynamic changes associated with saline wetland initiation and its trajectory. The transition from clay sediments, characterized by low concentration of microfossils, to gyttja indicates that lake drainage preceded establishment of the wetland. Upcore shifts in microfossil assemblages reflect cycling between periods of very high salinity (recorded by a dominance of marine-brackish and brackish diatoms) followed by period of decreased salinity (indicted by a rise in fresh-brackish species) with gradual increases in salinity thereafter. Identification of the processes driving variation in salinity over time may be useful in the post-mined reclamation setting. Assessment of temporal changes in ecosystem functioning associated with differences in level of dissolved salts may lead to different reclamation approaches capable of dealing with the higher salinity conditions.

  15. Approach to acute, recurrent, and chronic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Timothy P; Freeman, Martin L

    2008-06-01

    Pancreatitis can manifest as a one-time episode, recurring attacks, or chronic pain. It is caused by numerous factors ranging from alcohol consumption to gallstones to subtle obstructive causes and occult autoimmune disorders. As a result, determining the etiology and effectively treating the causes and consequences of pancreatitis can be challenging. This article reviews the diagnosis and management of acute, acute recurrent, and chronic pancreatitis, focusing on more challenging scenarios.

  16. Duration of Hospitalization in Association with Type of Inhalation Therapy Used in the Management of Children with Nonsevere, Acute Bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie M. Pinto

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: Prolonged hospitalization of children younger than 2 years with acute, nonsevere bronchiolitis is associated with administration of nebulized 3% saline, independent of age, clinical presentation of disease, or inclusion of other treatments in their management.

  17. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity avoidance...

  18. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  19. Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...

  20. Challenges in comparing the acute cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) vs. electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in major depression: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Schuchinsky, Maria; Gerkensmeier, Imke; Loo, Colleen

    2017-03-02

    The present study aimed to systematically compare the cognitive outcomes of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in head-to-head studies with major depression (MDD) patients. A systematic literature search identified six studies with 219 MDD patients that were too heterogeneous to reliably detect meaningful differences in acute cognitive outcomes after ECT vs. HF-rTMS. Cognitive effects of brain stimulation vary depending on the timeframe and methods of assessment, stimulation parameters, and maintenance treatment. Thus, acute and longer-term differences in cognitive outcomes both need to be investigated at precisely defined timeframes and with similar instruments assessing comparable functions.

  1. Hypertonic saline is more effective than normal saline in seasonal allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, P; Varricchio, A; Baggi, E; Bianchini, S; Capasso, M E; Torretta, S; Capaccio, P; Gasparini, C; Patria, F; Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a very common childhood disease that is associated with a significant reduction in the patients' quality of life. Its treatment combines educating the patients and their parents, immunotherapy and drug administration. However, even the best approach does not relieve the symptoms of a number of patients. Alternative therapies are particularly needed for children because the fear of adverse events frequently reduces parental compliance to the prescribed drugs, and immunotherapy is less easy to administer than in adults. In this prospective investigator-blinded study we evaluated whether children, with a documented history of seasonal grass pollen-related AR, benefit from nasal irrigation by assessing the effects on nasal signs and symptoms, on middle ear effusion and on adenoidal hypertrophy. We randomized children aged 5 to 9 years (median age 82 months) to normal saline or hypertonic saline (a 2.7% sodium chloride solution), administered twice-daily using a disposable 20 ml syringe, or no treatment. Nasal symptoms (rhinorrhea, itching, sneezing, nasal obstruction), swelling of turbinates, adenoid hypertrophy or middle ear effusion were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Two hundred and twenty children (normal saline: 80; hypertonic saline: 80; no treatment: 60) completed the study. After four weeks, all the considered items were significantly reduced in the group receiving hypertonic saline (P < 0.0001), whereas in the group receiving normal saline only rhinorrhea (P = 0.0002) and sneezing (P = 0.002) were significantly reduced. There was no significant change in any of the items in the control group. The duration of oral antihistamines was significantly lower in the children receiving hypertonic saline than in those treated with normal saline or in controls. No adverse events were reported and parental satisfaction and compliance with the procedure were globally very good, regardless of the solution used. Using our

  2. Efficacy of nebulised L-adrenaline with 3% hypertonic saline versus normal saline in bronchiolitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sharmin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bronchiolitis is one of the most common respiratory diseases requiring hospitalization. Nebulized epineph­rine and salbutamol therapy has been used in different centres with varying results. Objective: The objective of the study was to compare the efficacy of nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline with nebulised adrenaline diluted with normal saline in bronchiolitis. Methods: Fifty three infants and young children with bronchiolitis, age ranging from 2 months to 2 years, presenting in the emergency department of Manikganj Sadar Hospital were enrolled in the study. After initial evaluation, patients were randomized to receive either nebulized adrenaline I .5 ml ( 1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of3% hypertonic saline (group I ornebulised adrenaline 1.5 ml (1.5 mg diluted with 2 ml of normal saline (group II. Patients were evaluated again 30 minutes after nebulization. Results: Twenty eight patients in the group I (hypertonic saline and twenty five in groupII (normal saline were included in the study. After nebulization, mean respiratory rate decreased from 63.7 to 48.1 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 8.5 to 3.5 (p<.01 and mean oxygen satw·ation increased 94.7% to 96.9% (p<.01 in group I. In group II, mean respiratory rate decreased from 62.4 to 47.4 (p<.01, mean clinical severity score decreased from 7.2 to 4.1 (p<.01 and mean oxygen saturation increased from 94. 7% to 96. 7% (p<.01. Mean respiratory rate decreased by 16 in group I versus 14.8 (p>.05 in group 11, mean clinical severity score decreased by 4.6 in group versus 3 (p<.05 in group, and mean oxygen saturation increased by 2.2% and 1.9% in group and group respectively. Difference in reduction in clinical severity score was statistically significant , though the changes in respiratory rate and oxygen saturation were not statistically significant. Conclusion: The study concluded that both nebulised adrenaline diluted with 3% hypertonic saline and

  3. The Friction of Saline Ice on Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wallen-Russell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction of ice on other materials controls loading on offshore structures and vessels in the Arctic. However, ice friction is complicated, because ice in nature exists near to its melting point. Frictional heating can cause local softening and perhaps melting and lubrication, thus affecting the friction and creating a feedback loop. Ice friction is therefore likely to depend on sliding speed and sliding history, as well as bulk temperature. The roughness of the sliding materials may also affect the friction. Here we present results of a series of laboratory experiments, sliding saline ice on aluminium, and controlling for roughness and temperature. We find that the friction of saline ice on aluminium μice-al=0.1 typically, but that this value varies with sliding conditions. We propose physical models which explain the variations in sliding friction.

  4. 76 FR 61382 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  5. 75 FR 25877 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control ] Act of 1974...

  6. 78 FR 70574 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-26

    ....20350010.REG0000, RR04084000] Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  7. 77 FR 23508 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-19

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  8. 75 FR 27360 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  9. 75 FR 66389 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-28

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  10. Palaeoclimatic Indicators of China's Quaternary Saline Lake Sediments and Hydrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors classify saline lake sediments into the cold, warm and eurythermal phases, reveal the consistency between the zoning of hydrochemical types of modern saline lake water and climatic zoning and give climatic parameters under the conditions of typical cold phase (mirabilite and natron), warm phase (thenardite) and slightly warm phase (bloedite) saline lake deposition.

  11. 77 FR 61784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974 (Pub....

  12. 78 FR 23784 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-22

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council (Council) was established by the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Act of 1974...

  13. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  14. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Louw, Perry G.B.; Eeman, Sara; Siemon, Bernhard; Voortman, Bernard R.; Gunnink, Jan; Van Baaren, Esther S.; Oude Essink, Gualbert

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence an

  15. Microwave Radiometric Measurement of Sea Surface Salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    potential problems of polution and urban water sup- plies. Although salinity can be measured from a surface vessel, economic consider- ations advocate...Washington, DC 20350 Commander Naval Sea System Commandaa ComAinder ATTN: Mr. C. Smith, NAVSEA 63R* Nval Air Development Center "’-’. "Washington, DC...20362 ATTN: Mr. R. Bollard, Code 2062% .’* Warminster, PA 18974 • .’.Commander CNaval Sea System CommandCoimCander Headquarters Naval Air Systems

  16. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  17. Acute appendicitis in acute leukemia and the potential role of decitabine in the critically ill patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Warad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis in children with acute leukemia is uncommon and often recognized late. Immunocompromised host state coupled with the importance of avoiding treatment delays makes management additionally challenging. Leukemic infiltration of the appendix though rare must also be considered. Although successful conservative management has been reported, surgical intervention is required in most cases. We present our experience with acute appendicitis in children with acute leukemia and a case of complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia with a short course of decitabine. Decitabine may serve as bridging therapy in critically ill patients who are unable to undergo intensive chemotherapy.

  18. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  19. Spatio-temporal analysis of multi-year Landsat 7 data for regional scale soil salinity assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite decades of research in soil mapping, characterizing the spatial variability of soil salinity across broad regions remains a crucial challenge. This work explores the potential benefits of employing reflectance data from the six spectral bands (blue, 450-520 nrn; green, 520-600 nrn; red, 630-...

  20. Effects of Salinity on Oil Spill Dispersant Toxicity in Estuarine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical dispersants can be a useful tool to mitigate oil spills, but the potential risks to sensitive estuarine species should be carefully considered. To improve the decision making process, more information is needed regarding the effects of oil spill dispersants on the health of coastal ecosystems under variable environmental conditions such as salinity. The two oil dispersants used in this study were Corexit ® 9500 and Finasol ® OSR 52. Corexit ® 9500 was the primary dispersant used during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event, while Finasol® OSR 52 is another dispersant approved for oil spill response in the U.S., yet considerably less is known regarding its toxicity to estuarine species. The grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was used as a model estuarine species. It is a euryhaline species that tolerates salinities from brackish to full strength seawater. Adult and larval life stages were tested with each dispersant at three salinities, 5ppt, 20ppt, and 30ppt. Median acute lethal toxicity thresholds were calculated. Lipid peroxidation assays were conducted on surviving shrimp to investigate sublethal effects. The toxicity of both dispersants was significantly influenced by salinity, with greatest toxicity observed at the lowest salinity tested. Larval shrimp were significantly more sensitive than adult shrimp to both dispersants, and both life stages were significantly more sensitive to Finasol than to Corexit. Furthermore, significant sublethal effects were seen at higher concentrations of both dispersants compared to the control. These data will enable environmental managers to make informed decisions regarding dispersant use in future oil spills.

  1. Females have greater left ventricular twist mechanics than males during acute reductions to preload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alexandra M; Shave, Rob E; Stembridge, Mike; Eves, Neil D

    2016-07-01

    Compared to males, females have smaller left ventricular (LV) dimensions and volumes, higher ejection fractions (EF), and higher LV longitudinal and circumferential strain. LV twist mechanics determine ventricular function and are preload-dependent. Therefore, the sex differences in LV structure and myocardial function may result in different mechanics when preload is altered. This study investigated sex differences in LV mechanics during acute challenges to preload. With the use of conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography, LV structure and function were assessed in 20 males (24 ± 6.2 yr) and 20 females (23 ± 3.1 yr) at baseline and during progressive levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Fourteen participants (8 males, 6 females) were also assessed following a rapid infusion of saline. LV end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume (SV), and EF were reduced in both groups during LBNP (P mechanics following saline infusion. Females have larger LV twist and a faster untwisting velocity than males during large reductions to preload, supporting that females have a greater reliance on LV twist mechanics to maintain SV during severe reductions to preload.

  2. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  3. Anti-oxidative stress role of hydrogen-rich saline and its effect of mitogen-activated protein kinases pathway on hepatic injury of severe acute pancreatitis%氢饱和生理盐水在重症急性胰腺炎肝损伤中的抗氧化应激作用及对丝裂原活化蛋白激酶通路的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷涛; 石乔; 郭闻一; 陈辰; 赵亮; 阿布克力木; 孙荣泽; 梅方超; 李晨

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the impact of hydrogen-rich saline on mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway in hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation in acute necrotizing pancreatiis (ANP) and protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline on hepatic injury of ANP in rat.Methods Ninety male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups:sham operation group (SO group),ANP group and hydrogen-rich saline treatment group (HRS group),each group further divided into three (3,12,24 h) subgroup (n =10).ANP model was induced by retrograde infusion of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct.Hydrogen-rich saline was injected through the tail vein (6 ml/kg) and under the skin (20 ml/kg) at 5 minutes after the operation in HRS group.The rats of SO group and ANP group were administered by intravenous (6 ml/kg) and subcutaneous (20 ml/kg) injection with saline.Rats in each group were sacrificed at 3,12 and 24 h after the operation.The levels of serum amylase (AMY),lipase (LIP),alanine transaminase (ALT),aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and histopathological scores or grades of pancreatic and liver tissues were measured.Hepatic malondialdehyde content and superoxide dismutase activity were analyzed.Results The levels of serum AMY (U/L) (5 385 ± 572 vs.1 146±121),LIP (U/L) (1 924.9±105.4vs.86.5±8.9),ALT (U/L) (156.9±15.8 vs.56.1±5.4),AST (U/L) (448.5 ±53.0 vs.124.6 ± 14.7),and histopathological scores of pancreatic tissues (13.79 ± 1.36 vs.0.38 ±0.53) in ANP group increased significantly than SO group (P <0.05).serum AMY (U/L) (5 567 ±512 vs.5 385 ±572) and LIP (U/L) (1 856.8 ± 149.3 vs.1 924.9 ± 105.4) in HRS group decreased than ANP group,but no statistical significance (P > 0.05).serum ALT (U/L) (134.8±11.8 vs.156.9±15.8),AST (U/L) (326.6±20.5 vs.448.5±53.0) and hepatic histopathological grades (17.1 vs.23.1) in HRS group decreased significantly than ANP group (P < 0.05).Hepatic superoxide dismutase activity decreased in ANP

  4. The complementary role of SMOS sea surface salinity observations for estimating global ocean salinity state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zeting; Cheng, Lijing; Zhu, Jiang; Lin, Renping

    2016-06-01

    Salinity is a key ocean state property, changes in which reveal the variation of the water cycle and the ocean thermohaline circulation. However, prior to this century, in situ salinity observations were extremely sparse, which decreased the reliability of simulations of ocean general circulation by ocean and climate models. In 2009, sea surface salinity (SSS) observations covered the global ocean via the European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission, and several versions of global SSS products were subsequently released. How can these data benefit model performance? Previous studies found contradictory results. In this work, we assimilated SMOS-SSS data into the LASG/IAP Climate system Ocean Model (LICOM) using the Ensemble Optimum Interpolation (EnOI) assimilation scheme. To assess and quantify the contribution of SMOS-SSS data to model performance, several tests were conducted. The results indicate that the CECOS/CATDS 2010.V02 SMOS-SSS product can significantly improve model simulations of sea surface/subsurface salinity fields. This study provides the basis for the future assimilation of SMOS-SSS data for short-range climate forecasting.

  5. Effect of Initial Soluble Salt Composition of Saline Soil on Salinity Tolerance of Barley Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENQI-RONG; LIUZHAO-PU; 等

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out on a marine saline soil to study the effect of initial soluble Na/Ca ratio of saline soil on the salinity tolerance of barley plant.The results showed that (1) the Na/Ca ratio affected significantly the dry weight of the plant at an earlier stage of growth,the critical values of initial Na/Ca ratio at which the plant could grow normally on soils containing salts of 2.5,3.5 and 4.5g kg-1 were 30,20 and 15,respectively;(2)smaller Na/Ca ratio resulted in a considerable decrease in Na accumulation but a great increase in K accumulation in the barley plant;and (3) the plasmallema of barley leaf were badly injured when the Na/Ca ratio was more than 30 and the increase of Na content of plant caused an exudation of K from the leaf cells.Some critical indexes were suggested for the cultivation of barley plant on marine saline soils and could be used as reference in the biological reclamation of marine saline soils.

  6. Chemical and isotopic constrains on the origin of brine and saline groundwater in Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Zongyu; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Zhenghong; Xu, Jiaming; Peng, Yurong

    2016-08-01

    The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine. The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen suggested that the origin of brine was from paleorecharge water which experienced mixing of modern water in shallow aquifer. δ(37)Cl values ranged from -0.02 to 3.43 ‰ (SMOC), and reflecting mixing of different sources. The Cl isotopic compositions suggest that the dissolution of halite by paleometeoric water had a great contribution to the salinity of brine, and the contributions of the residual seawater and the dissolution of halite by the Yellow River water could be excluded.

  7. Challenged Pragmatism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet; Vinding, Niels Valdemar

    2013-01-01

    of religious faith have made religious claims and thereby challenged a secular understanding of the Danish labour market. This raises the question of the extent to which the religion of the individual can be accepted in the general public sphere. At the same time, religious ethos organisations have argued...

  8. Evaluating physiological responses of plants to salinity stress

    KAUST Repository

    Negrão, S.

    2016-10-06

    Background Because soil salinity is a major abiotic constraint affecting crop yield, much research has been conducted to develop plants with improved salinity tolerance. Salinity stress impacts many aspects of a plant’s physiology, making it difficult to study in toto. Instead, it is more tractable to dissect the plant’s response into traits that are hypothesized to be involved in the overall tolerance of the plant to salinity. Scope and conclusions We discuss how to quantify the impact of salinity on different traits, such as relative growth rate, water relations, transpiration, transpiration use efficiency, ionic relations, photosynthesis, senescence, yield and yield components. We also suggest some guidelines to assist with the selection of appropriate experimental systems, imposition of salinity stress, and obtaining and analysing relevant physiological data using appropriate indices. We illustrate how these indices can be used to identify relationships amongst the proposed traits to identify which traits are the most important contributors to salinity tolerance. Salinity tolerance is complex and involves many genes, but progress has been made in studying the mechanisms underlying a plant’s response to salinity. Nevertheless, several previous studies on salinity tolerance could have benefited from improved experimental design. We hope that this paper will provide pertinent information to researchers on performing proficient assays and interpreting results from salinity tolerance experiments.

  9. Refined Modeling of Water Temperature and Salinity in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongming; ZHENG Yonghong; QIU Dahong

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas is one of the essential tasks in water quality control and management. This paper takes a refined forecasting model of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas as a basic target. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation and k- turbulence model, taking the characteristics of coastal areas into account, a refined model for water temperatureand salinity in coastal areas has been developed to simulate the seasonal variations of water temperatureand salinity fields in the Hakata Bay, Japan. The model takes into account the effects of a variety ofhydrodynamic and meteorological factors on water temperature and salinity. It predicts daily fluctuations in water temperature and salinity at different depths throughout the year. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water temperature and salinity observations in the Hakata Bay,Japan.

  10. Diagnosis of acute neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Acute and subacute polyneuropathies present diagnostic challenges since many require prompt initiation of treatment in order to limit axonal degeneration and since an exact and detailed diagnosis is a prerequisite for making the correct choice of treatment. It is for instance of utmost importance...... to recognize whether the underlying pathological changes are due to demyelination or to axonal degeneration and electrodiagnostic tests can thus in most cases contribute considerably to the securing of an exact diagnosis. The specific and characteristic electrophysiological findings in the different types...

  11. Supplementary Material for: Growth curve registration for evaluating salinity tolerance in barley

    KAUST Repository

    Meng, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Smarthouses capable of non-destructive, high-throughput plant phenotyping collect large amounts of data that can be used to understand plant growth and productivity in extreme environments. The challenge is to apply the statistical tool that best analyzes the data to study plant traits, such as salinity tolerance, or plant-growth-related traits. Results We derive family-wise salinity sensitivity (FSS) growth curves and use registration techniques to summarize growth patterns of HEB-25 barley families and the commercial variety, Navigator. We account for the spatial variation in smarthouse microclimates and in temporal variation across phenotyping runs using a functional ANOVA model to derive corrected FSS curves. From FSS, we derive corrected values for family-wise salinity tolerance, which are strongly negatively correlated with Na but not significantly with K, indicating that Na content is an important factor affecting salinity tolerance in these families, at least for plants of this age and grown in these conditions. Conclusions Our family-wise methodology is suitable for analyzing the growth curves of a large number of plants from multiple families. The corrected curves accurately account for the spatial and temporal variations among plants that are inherent to high-throughput experiments.

  12. River salinity on a mega-delta, an unstructured grid model approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricheno, Lucy; Saiful Islam, Akm; Wolf, Judith

    2014-05-01

    With an average freshwater discharge of around 40,000 m3/s the BGM (Brahmaputra Ganges and Meghna) river system has the third largest discharge worldwide. The BGM river delta is a low-lying fertile area covering over 100,000 km2 mainly in India and Bangladesh. Approximately two-thirds of the Bangladesh people work in agriculture and these local livelihoods depend on freshwater sources directly linked to river salinity. The finite volume coastal ocean model (FVCOM) has been applied to the BGM delta in order to simulate river salinity under present and future climate conditions. Forced by a combination of regional climate model predictions, and a basin-wide river catchment model, the 3D baroclinic delta model can determine river salinity under the current climate, and make predictions for future wet and dry years. The river salinity demonstrates a strong seasonal and tidal cycle, making it important for the model to be able to capture a wide range of timescales. The unstructured mesh approach used in FVCOM is required to properly represent the delta's structure; a complex network of interconnected river channels. The model extends 250 km inland in order to capture the full extent of the tidal influence and grid resolutions of 10s of metres are required to represent narrow inland river channels. The use of FVCOM to simulate flows so far inland is a novel challenge, which also requires knowledge of the shape and cross-section of the river channels.

  13. Acute tonsillitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidell, Doug; Shapiro, Nina L

    2012-08-01

    Acute tonsillitis is an inflammatory process of the tonsillar tissues and is usually infectious in nature. Acute infections of the palatine tonsils predominantly occur in school-aged children, but patients of any age may be affected. Tonsillitis of viral origin is usually treated with supportive care. Bacterial tonsillitis is most commonly caused by Streptococcus pyogenes. Polymicrobial infections and viral pathogens are also important sources of infection. Penicillins remain the treatment of choice for S. pyogenes tonsillitis, and augmented aminopenicillins have gained utility in concert with the increasing incidence of beta-lactamase producing bacteria. We describe the anatomic features and the immunologic function of the palatine tonsils, including a detailed discussion of history and physical examination findings, treatment recommendations, and possible complications of acute tonsillitis. Establishing an accurate diagnosis and initiating appropriate treatment are key components of managing this common pathologic process.

  14. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ≥10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ≥30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ≥30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  15. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  16. Hemodynamic effects of acute digitalization several months after acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressl, J; Jandová, R; Jebavý, P; Kasalický, J; Widimský, J

    1975-01-01

    Left ventricular function was investigated at rest and during exercise by heart catheterization in 15 patients 3-5 months after acute myocardial infarction. The effect of 1 mg digoxin i.v. in ten patients was correlated to placebo (saline solution) in five patients. A significant decrease of the left ventricular enddiastolic pressure, increase of left ventricular systolic ejection fraction and a shift of the left ventricular function curve to left upwards was found after digoxin with no changes in the placebo group. This beneficial effect of acute digitalization in patients convalescing from uncomplicated myocardial infarction without clinical signs of manifest heart failure could have therapeutic implication.

  17. Towards a paleo-salinity proxy: Decreasing D/H fractionation in algal and bacterial lipids with increasing salinity in Christmas Island saline ponds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachse, D.; Sachs, J. P.

    2007-12-01

    We investigated the effect of a wide range of salinities (13 -149 PSU) on the D/H ratio of lipids in microbial mat sediments from hypersaline ponds on Christmas Island. The hydrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δD values) of total lipid extracts, and the individual hydrocarbons heptadecane, heptadecene, octadecane, octadecene, diploptene and phytene from algae and bacteria, became increasingly enriched in deuterium as salinity increased, spanning a range of 100‰ while lake water δD values spanned a range of just 12‰. D/H fractionation between lipids and source water thus decreased as salinity increased. Isotope fractionation factors (αlipid-water) were strongly correlated with salinity and increased in all compound classes studied. The apparent isotope fractionation (ɛlipid-water) decreased by 0.8 to 1.1‰ per PSU increase in salinity. Differences in the hydrogen isotopic composition of lipids derived from three biosynthetic pathways (acetogenic, MVA and DOXP/MEP) remained similar irrespective of the salinity, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the observed αlipid-water - salinity relationship originates prior to the last common biosynthetic branching point, the Calvin Cycle. These findings imply that caution must be exercised when attempting to reconstruct source water δD values using lipid δD values from aquatic environments that may have experienced salinity variations of ~3 PSU or more (based on a 1‰ per PSU response of D/H fractionation to salinity changes, and a lipid δD measurement precision of 3‰). On the other hand our results can be used to establish a paleo-salinity proxy based on algal and bacterial lipid δD values if salinity variations exceeded ~3 PSU and/or if additional constraints on source water δD values can be made.

  18. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  19. The Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Early Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, Thomas; Wentz, Frank J.; Lagerloef, Gary; LeVine, David

    2012-01-01

    The Aquarius L-band radiometer/scatterometer system is designed to provide monthly salinity maps at 150 km spatial scale to a 0.2 psu accuracy. The sensor was launched on June 10, 2011, aboard the Argentine CONAE SAC-D spacecraft. The L-band radiometers and the scatterometer have been taking science data observations since August 25, 2011. The first part of this presentation gives an overview over the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The instrument calibration converts Aquarius radiometer counts into antenna temperatures (TA). The salinity retrieval algorithm converts those TA into brightness temperatures (TB) at a flat ocean surface. As a first step, contributions arising from the intrusion of solar, lunar and galactic radiation are subtracted. The antenna pattern correction (APC) removes the effects of cross-polarization contamination and spillover. The Aquarius radiometer measures the 3rd Stokes parameter in addition to vertical (v) and horizontal (h) polarizations, which allows for an easy removal of ionospheric Faraday rotation. The atmospheric absorption at L-band is almost entirely due to O2, which can be calculated based on auxiliary input fields from numerical weather prediction models and then successively removed from the TB. The final step in the TA to TB conversion is the correction for the roughness of the sea surface due to wind. This is based on the radar backscatter measurements by the scatterometer. The TB of the flat ocean surface can now be matched to a salinity value using a surface emission model that is based on a model for the dielectric constant of sea water and an auxiliary field for the sea surface temperature. In the current processing (as of writing this abstract) only v-pol TB are used for this last process and NCEP winds are used for the roughness correction. Before the salinity algorithm can be operationally implemented and its accuracy assessed by comparing versus in situ measurements, an extensive calibration and validation

  20. The interaction between tide and salinity barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchanok Srivihok

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there is a number of salinity barrier utilization and this kind of structure becomes more common in estuarine areas. However, the construction of barrier at the river mouth or inside the river results in amplification of tide due to creation of standing tide at the barrier. This standing tide creates two major problems, namely, the overspill of salinewater during high water and bank erosion during low water along the tidal reach downstream of the barrier. In this study, the analytical model is developed to determine the river hydraulic behaviors which affects by tide, river flow and barrier structure of the Bang Pakong River, Thailand. The analytical model of tide and river flow of the Chao Phraya River is adopted and adjusted to determine the tide characteristics modified by river flow. Moreover, the analytical model of tide and salinity barrier would then be developed by cooperating of the analytical model of tide and river flow interaction together with tidal flow cooscillating tide theory. It is found from this study that the analytical model of the Chao Phraya River which is suitable for high freshwater discharge underestimates damping modulus and friction slope which requires adjustment for low freshwater discharge of the Bang Pakong River. The analytical model of tide and salinity barrier can be finally used to predict the water level downstream of the barrier. The model overestimated the water level fluctuation during the unsteady flow from upstream which may be because of the assumption of steady flow condition in the model development due to limited data available after the construction.

  1. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, J. K.; Skov, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger

    2013-01-01

    We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...... and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale...

  2. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Inger

    We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...... and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale...

  3. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Inger

    We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...... and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale...

  4. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part of th...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region.......This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...

  5. Effects of inhaled L-arginine administration in a murine model of acute asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Arikan-Ayyildiz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity in the airways decreases L-arginine and causes deficiency of bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO in asthma. As, it is suggested that L-arginine may have therapeutic potential in asthma treatment, we aimed to investigate the effects of inhaled L-arginine on oxygen saturation (SaO₂ and airway histology in a murine model of acute asthma. Twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I, II, III and IV (control. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. After establishement of acute asthma attack by metacholine administration, the mice were treated with inhaled L-arginine (Group I, saline (Group II and budesonide (Group III, respectively. SaO₂was measured by pulse oximeter just before and 5 min after methacholine. A third measurement of SaO₂was also obtained 15 min after drug administration in these study groups. Inflammation in the lung tissues of the sacrificed animals were scored to determine the effects of the study drugs. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was determined. The results indicated that inflammatory scores significantly improved in groups receiving study drugs when compared with placebo and L-arginine was similar in decreasing scores when compared with budesonide. SaO₂had a tendency to increase after L-arginine administration after acute asthma attack and this increase was statistically significant (p=0.043. Eosinophilia in BAL significantly reduced in group receiving L-arginine when compared with placebo (p<0.05. Thus in this study we demonstrated that L-arginine improved SaO₂and inflammatory scores in an acute model of asthma.

  6. Saline dust storms and their ecological impacts in arid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jilili; Abuduwaili

    2010-01-01

    In many arid and semiarid regions,saline playas represent a significant source of unconsoli-dated sediments available for aeolian transport,and severe saline dust storms occur frequently due to human disturbance.In this study,saline dust storms are reviewed systematically from the aspects of con-cept,general characteristics,conditions of occurrence,distribution and ecological impact.Our researches showed that saline dust storms are a kind of chemical dust storm originating in dry lake beds in arid and semiarid regions;large areas of unconsolidated saline playa sediments and frequent strong winds are the basic factors to saline dust storm occurrence;there are differentiation characteristics in deposition flux and chemical composition with wind-blown distance during saline dust storm diffusion;and saline dust storm diffusion to some extent increases glacier melt and results in soil salinization in arid regions.An under-standing of saline dust storms is important to guide disaster prevention and ecological rehabilitation.

  7. Integrating water by plant roots over spatially distributed soil salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homaee, Mehdi; Schmidhalter, Urs

    2010-05-01

    In numerical simulation models dealing with water movement and solute transport in vadose zone, the water budget largely depends on uptake patterns by plant roots. In real field conditions, the uptake pattern largely changes in time and space. When dealing with soil and water salinity, most saline soils demonstrate spatially distributed osmotic head over the root zone. In order to quantify such processes, the major difficulty stems from lacking a sink term function that adequately accounts for the extraction term especially under variable soil water osmotic heads. The question of how plants integrate such space variable over its rooting depth remains as interesting issue for investigators. To move one step forward towards countering this concern, a well equipped experiment was conducted under heterogeneously distributed salinity over the root zone with alfalfa. The extraction rates of soil increments were calculated with the one dimensional form of Richards equation. The results indicated that the plant uptake rate under different mean soil salinities preliminary reacts to soil salinity, whereas at given water content and salinity the "evaporative demand" and "root activity" become more important to control the uptake patterns. Further analysis revealed that root activity is inconstant when imposed to variable soil salinity. It can be concluded that under heterogeneously distributed salinity, most water is taken from the less saline increment while the extraction from other root zone increments with higher salinities never stops.

  8. Effect of water or saline intake on heat-induced limb vasodilation in dehydrated baboons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, K L; Proppe, D W

    1990-02-01

    Dehydration markedly attenuates the increase in hindlimb blood flow elicited by environmental heating (EH) in baboons. This study sought to determine the importance of gradually produced increases in body fluid osmolality and decreases in body fluid volume in producing this attenuation. The hindlimb blood flow increases during EH of seven unanesthetized chronically instrumented baboons were examined during euhydration, dehydration (64-68 h of water deprivation), and after ad libitum oral rehydration with either water or a hyperosmotic saline solution. EH consisted of acute exposure to ambient temperatures of 38-42 degrees C until internal temperature reached 39.5 degrees C. Dehydration depressed the maximal external iliac artery blood flow (MIBF) and iliac vascular conductance (IVC) attained during EH in the euhydrated state by 37 and 43%, respectively. Rehydration with either water or saline solution, however, restored maximal MIBF and IVC to euhydrated levels. Because plasma osmolality remained at dehydrated levels after rehydration with saline, hyperosmolality does not produce the dehydration-induced attenuation in hindlimb blood flow.

  9. [Pregnancy and acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczki, Dániel

    2016-05-15

    Pregnancy-related ischemic strokes play an important role in both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Changes in hemostaseology and hemodynamics as well as risk factors related to or independent from pregnancy contribute to the increased stroke-risk during gestation and the puerperium. Potential teratogenic effects make diagnostics, acute therapy and prevention challenging. Because randomized, controlled trials are not available, a multicenter registry of patients with gestational stroke would be desirable. Until definite guidelines emerge, management of acute ischemic stroke during pregnancy remains individual, involving experts and weighing the risks and benefits.

  10. Amoebae and Legionella pneumophila in saline environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gast, Rebecca J; Moran, Dawn M; Dennett, Mark R; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A; Amaral-Zettler, Linda A

    2011-03-01

    Amoeboid protists that harbor bacterial pathogens are of significant interest as potential reservoirs of disease-causing organisms in the environment, but little is known about them in marine and other saline environments. We enriched amoeba cultures from sediments from four sites in the New England estuarine system of Mt. Hope Bay, Massachusetts and from sediments from six sites in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Cultures of amoebae were enriched using both minimal- and non-nutrient agar plates, made with fresh water, brackish water or saltwater. Recovered amoeba cultures were assayed for the presence of Legionella species using nested polymerase chain reactions (PCR) and primers specific for the genus. Positive samples were then screened with nested amplification using primers specific for the macrophage infectivity potentiator surface protein (mip) gene from L. pneumophila. Forty-eight percent (185 out of 388) of isolated amoeba cultures were positive for the presence of Legionella species. Legionella pneumophila was detected by PCR in 4% of the amoeba cultures (17 out of 388), and most of these amoebae were growing on marine media. Our results show that amoebae capable of growing in saline environments may harbor not only a diverse collection of Legionella species, but also species potentially pathogenic to humans.

  11. Sexually dimorphic effects of neonatal immune system activation with lipopolysaccharide on the behavioural response to a homotypic adult immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that acute immune activation during the early postnatal period with the Gram-negative endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alters a variety of physiological and behavioural processes in the adult animal. For example, neonatal LPS exposure affects disease susceptibility later in life, though these effects appear to be modulated by time of exposure, sex, and immune stimulus. The current study examined sex differences in the effect of neonatal LPS treatment on the locomotor activity response to adult LPS administration. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50 microg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Later in adulthood (postnatal day 92), all animals were subjected to an adult LPS challenge and were injected (i.p.) with 200 microg/kg LPS. Two hours after injection, animals were placed in a non-novel open-field and locomotor activity was assessed for 30 min. Body weights were determined both at the time of injection and 24h later to examine LPS-induced weight loss. Adult males treated neonatally with LPS exhibited significantly less horizontal and vertical activity in response to the LPS challenge relative to males treated neonatally with saline. This effect was not observed in females. Thus, the current study provides important evidence of sexual dimorphism in the long-term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on the responses to an adult homotypic immune challenge in rats. These findings have potential clinical significance given that neonatal exposure to pathogens is a fairly common occurrence and Gram-negative bacteria are a common cause of neonatal bacterial infections.

  12. SPOT5 imagery for soil salinity assessment in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teggi, S.; Costanzini, S.; Despini, F.; Chiodi, P.; Immordino, F.

    2012-10-01

    Soil salinization is a form of topsoil degradation due to the formation of soluble salts at deleterious levels. This phenomenon can seriously compromise vegetation health and agricultural productivity, and represents a worldwide environmental problem. Remote sensing is a very useful tool for soil salinization monitoring and assessment. In this work we show some results of a study aimed to define a methodology for soil salinity assessment in Iraq based on SPOT 5 imagery. This methodology allows the identification of salinized soils primarily on bare soils. Subsequently some soil salinity assessment can be done on vegetated soils. On bare soil the identification of salt is based on spectral analysis, using the Minimum Noise Fraction transformation and several indexes found in literature. In case of densely vegetated soils the methodology for the discrimination of salinized soils has been integrated with the results obtained from the classification of vegetation coverage.

  13. Ceftriaxone attenuates acute cocaine‐evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens of the rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, B A; Tallarida, C S; Scholl, J L; Forster, G L; Unterwald, E M; Rawls, S M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Ceftriaxone is a β‐lactam antibiotic and glutamate transporter activator that reduces the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants. Ceftriaxone also reduces locomotor activation following acute psychostimulant exposure, suggesting that alterations in dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens contribute to its mechanism of action. In the present studies we tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with ceftriaxone disrupts acute cocaine‐evoked dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. Experimental Approach Adult male Sprague–Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or ceftriaxone (200 mg kg−1, i.p. × 10 days) and then challenged with cocaine (15 mg kg−1, i.p.). Motor activity, dopamine efflux (via in vivo microdialysis) and protein levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the dopamine transporter and organic cation transporter as well as α‐synuclein, Akt and GSK3β were analysed in the nucleus accumbens. Key Results Ceftriaxone‐pretreated rats challenged with cocaine displayed reduced locomotor activity and accumbal dopamine efflux compared with saline‐pretreated controls challenged with cocaine. The reduction in cocaine‐evoked dopamine levels was not counteracted by excitatory amino acid transporter 2 blockade in the nucleus accumbens. Pretreatment with ceftriaxone increased Akt/GSK3β signalling in the nucleus accumbens and reduced levels of dopamine transporter, TH and phosphorylated α‐synuclein, indicating that ceftriaxone affects numerous proteins involved in dopaminergic transmission. Conclusions and Implications These results are the first evidence that ceftriaxone affects cocaine‐evoked dopaminergic transmission, in addition to its well‐described effects on glutamate, and suggest that its ability to attenuate cocaine‐induced behaviours, such as psychomotor activity, is due in part to reduced dopaminergic neurotransmission in the nucleus accumbens. PMID:26375494

  14. Acute viral bronchiolitis in South Africa: Strategies for management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, H J; Madhi, S A; White, D A; Masekela, R; Risenga, S; Lewis, H; Feldman, C; Morrow, B; Jeena, P

    2016-04-01

    Management of acute viral bronchiolitis is largely supportive. There is currently no proven effective therapy other than oxygen for hypoxic children. The evidence indicates that there is no routine benefit from inhaled, rapid short-acting bronchodilators, adrenaline or ipratropium bromide for children with acute viral bronchiolitis. Likewise, there is no demonstrated benefit from routine use of inhaled or oral corticosteroids, inhaled hypertonic saline nebulisation, montelukast or antibiotics. The last should be reserved for children with severe disease, when bacterial co-infection is suspected. Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease remains a challenge. A specific RSV monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, administered as an intramuscular injection, is available for children at risk of severe bronchiolitis, including premature infants, young children with chronic lung disease, immunodeficiency, or haemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Prophylaxis should be commenced at the start of the RSV season and given monthly during the season. The development of an RSV vaccine may offer a more effective alternative to prevent disease, for which the results of clinical trials are awaited. Education of parents or caregivers and healthcare workers about diagnostic and management strategies should include the following: bronchiolitis is caused by a virus; it is seasonal; it may start as an upper respiratory tract infection with low-grade fever; symptoms are cough and wheeze, often with fast breathing; antibiotics are generally not needed; and the condition is usually self limiting, although symptoms may occur for up to four weeks in some children.

  15. ECONOMIC IMPACTS OF DRYLAND SALINITY FOR GRAINS INDUSTRIES

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper explores some possible economic impacts of worsening salinity severity and extent in the grains industry across Australia. It also looks at the potential to increase agricultural profits through remediation. The analysis is based on a spatial model of agricultural profits and salinity related crop/pasture yield losses. It is estimated that grains industry farming profits across Australia would rise by an upper limit $138 million per year were salinity costlessly removed from the la...

  16. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  17. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  18. Influence of salinity and water content on soil microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Yan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is one of the most serious land degradation problems facing world. Salinity results in poor plant growth and low soil microbial activity due to osmotic stress and toxic ions. Soil microorganisms play a pivotal role in soils through mineralization of organic matter into plant available nutrients. Therefore it is important to maintain high microbial activity in soils. Salinity tolerant soil microbes counteract osmotic stress by synthesizing osmolytes which allows them to maintain their cell turgor and metabolism. Osmotic potential is a function of the salt concentration in the soil solution and therefore affected by both salinity (measured as electrical conductivity at a certain water content and soil water content. Soil salinity and water content vary in time and space. Understanding the effect of changes in salinity and water content on soil microorganisms is important for crop production, sustainable land use and rehabilitation of saline soils. In this review, the effects of soil salinity and water content on microbes are discussed to guide future research into management of saline soils.

  19. Salinity inversions in the thermocline under upwelling favorable winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchard, Hans; Basdurak, N. Berkay; Gräwe, Ulf; Knoll, Michaela; Mohrholz, Volker; Müller, Selina

    2017-02-01

    This paper discusses and explains the phenomenon of salinity inversions in the thermocline offshore from an upwelling region during upwelling favorable winds. Using the nontidal central Baltic Sea as an easily accessible natural laboratory, high-resolution transect and station observations in the upper layers are analyzed. The data show local salinity minima in the strongly stratified seasonal thermocline during summer conditions under the influence of upwelling favorable wind. A simple analytical box model using parameters (including variation by means of a Monte Carlo method) estimated from a hindcast model for the Baltic Sea is constructed to explain the observations. As a result, upwelled water with high salinity and low temperature is warmed up due to downward surface heat fluxes while it is transported offshore by the Ekman transport. The warming of upwelled surface water allows maintenance of stable stratification despite the destabilizing salinity stratification, such that local salinity minima in the thermocline can be generated. Inspection of published observations from the Benguela, Peruvian, and eastern tropical North Atlantic upwelling systems shows that also there salinity inversions occur in the thermocline, but in these cases thermocline salinity shows local maxima, since upwelled water has a lower salinity than the surface water. It is hypothesized that thermocline salinity inversions should generally occur offshore from upwelling regions whenever winds are steady enough and surface warming is sufficiently strong.

  20. High-pressure saline washing of allografts reduces bacterial contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirn, M Y; Salmela, P M; Vuento, R E

    2001-02-01

    60 fresh-frozen bone allografts were contaminated on the operating room floor. No bacterial growth was detected in 5 of them after contamination. The remaining 55 grafts had positive bacterial cultures and were processed with three methods: soaking in saline, soaking in antibiotic solution or washing by high-pressure saline. After high-pressure lavage, the cultures were negative in three fourths of the contaminated allografts. The corresponding figures after soaking grafts in saline and antibiotic solution were one tenth and two tenths, respectively. High-pressure saline cleansing of allografts can be recommended because it improves safety by reducing the superficial bacterial bioburden.

  1. Differential Expression of Salinity Resistance Gene on Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wu-wei; YU Shu-xun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Salinity resistance and differential gene expression associated with salinity in cotton germplasm were studied,because of the large scale area of salinity in China,and its significant negative effects on the cotton production.The salinityresisted genes and their differential expression were studied under the stress of NaCI on cotton.There were found,under the NaCI stress,1644 genes differentially expressed from the salinity-sensitive cotton and only 817 genes differentially expressed from the salinityresisted cotton.

  2. Endoscopic transgastric debridement and drainage for splenic necrosis following an acute episode in chronic alcoholic pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binek, J; Fretz, C; Meyenberger, C

    2006-06-01

    Management of the complications and sequelae of acute and chronic pancreatitis is a clinical challenge. We report a case of successful transgastric drainage of splenic necrosis after occlusion of the splenic vessels during an acute episode in chronic pancreatitis.

  3. Does salinity change determine zooplankton variability in the saline Qarun Lake (Egypt)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shabrawy, Gamal M.; Anufriieva, Elena V.; Germoush, Mousa O.; Goher, Mohamed E.; Shadrin, Nickolai V.

    2015-11-01

    Zooplankton and 14 abiotic variables were studied during August 2011 at 10 stations in Lake Qarun, Egypt. Stations with the lowest salinity and highest nutrient concentrations and turbidity were close to the discharge of waters from the El-Bats and El-Wadi drainage systems. A total of 15 holozooplankton species were identified. The salinity in Lake Qarun increased and fluctuated since 1901: 12 g/L in 1901; 8.5 g/L in 1905; 12.0 g/L in 1922; 30.0 g/L in 1985; 38.7 g/L in 1994; 35.3 g/L in 2006, and 33.4 g/L in 2011. The mean concentration of nutrients (nitrate, nitrite and orthophosphate) gradually increased from 35, 0.16 and 0.38 µg/L, respectively, in 1953-1955 to 113, 16.4, and 30.26 µg/L in 2011. From 1999-2003 some decrease of species diversity occurred. Average total zooplankton density was 30 000 ind./m3 in 1974-1977; 356 125 ind./m3 in 1989; 534 000 ind./m3 in 1994-1995; from 965 000 to 1 452 000 ind./m3 in 2006, and 595 000 ind./m3 in 2011. A range of long-term summer salinity variability during the last decades was very similar to a range of salinity spatial variability in summer 2011. There is no significant correlation between zooplankton abundance and salinity in spatial and long-term changes. We conclude that salinity fluctuations since at least 1955 did not directly drive the changes of composition and abundance of zooplankton in the lake. A marine community had formed in the lake, and it continues to change. One of the main drivers of this change is a regular introduction and a pressure of alien species on the existent community. Eutrophication also plays an important role. The introduction of Mnemiopsis leidyi, first reported in 2014, may lead to a start of a new stage of the biotic changes in Lake Qarun, when eutrophication and the population dynamics of this ctenophore will be main drivers of the ecosystem change.

  4. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Meier, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    in salinity tolerance and gene expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from two populations distributed across a steep salinity gradient, we observed high mortality (45% North Sea cod and 80% Baltic Sea cod) in a reciprocal common garden setup. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for expression of hsp70 and Na....... The findings strongly suggest that Atlantic cod are adapted to local saline conditions, despite relatively low levels of neutral genetic divergence between populations...

  5. SMOS salinity in the subtropical North Atlantic salinity maximum. Part II: Two-dimensional horizontal thermohaline variability

    OpenAIRE

    Kolodziejczyk, Nicolas; Hernandez, Olga; Boutin, Jacqueline; Reverdin, Gilles

    2015-01-01

    International audience; The horizontal thermohaline seasonal variability of the surface ocean is investigated in the subtropical North Atlantic Surface Salinity Maximum (SSSmax) region. Satellite sea surface temperature and salinity are used, along with high-resolution thermosalinograph data, and Argo interpolated products, to study the horizontal two-dimensional field of density and thermohaline variability. During late winter, compensated temperature and salinity gradients at large and meso...

  6. SPS Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Chapochnikova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    In future the SPS should be able to transfer to the LHC the beam produced by a completely new pre-injector chain and required by the LHC for different upgrade scenarios. The issues related to this extremely challenging task are presented together with some possible ways of overcoming the problems that arise. Besides an increase in injection energy provided by PS2, these measures can include both an SPS vacuum chamber upgrade against the e-cloud and operation with larger longitudinal emittance for beam stability. As a result the power plant of the SPS RF system must be doubled. The SPS upgrade will also need the improvement or replacement of many other machine elements.

  7. Paratethys forcing of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Van Baak, Christiaan; Flecker, Rachel; Grothe, Arjen; Marzocchi, Alice; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.97-5.33 Ma), there is increasing evidence for the presence of fresh water input, not only during the final Lago-mare stage but even during times of evaporite formation. Here we present new strontium isotopic data from two well-dated Messinian sections in the Black and Caspian seas, which show remarkably similar Sr-values as the ones recorded in the Mediterranean during the final phase of the salinity crisis. This strongly suggests that a major fresh water pulse in the Mediterranean originated from the Paratethys. It highlights the importance of a Mediterranean-Black Sea connection during the entire MSC, adding an enormous drainage basin to the Mediterranean water balance. The presence of Paratethyan fauna in the Mediterranean Lago-Mare deposits has fuelled long-lasting controversies over the connectivity between the Mediterranean and Paratethys and contemporary sea level drops in both basins. We furthermore use results of sub-precessional climate simulations to calculate the freshwater budget of the Mediterranean and Paratethys in the Messinian. Using these numerical constraints, we propose a Mediterranean outflow pump as an alternative scenario for the most dramatic hydrological changes in the MSC. This "pump" mechanism significantly enhanced Paratethyan inflow to the Mediterranean, creating 1) suitable conditions for gypsum to form and 2) Lago-mare fauna to migrate and thrive. When the Mediterranean sea level finally reached the height of the Gibraltar sill, Mediterranean outflow restarted there and enhanced exchange with the Atlantic. During this reorganisation of the circulation, brackish and hypersaline waters were pumped out of the Mediterranean, and open marine conditions were re-established without major flooding at the Mio-Pliocene boundary.

  8. Acute Pancreatitis Concomitant Acute Coronary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okay Abacı

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory syndrome with unpredictable progression to systemic inflammation and multi-organ dysfunction. As in our case rarely, acute pancreatitis can be presented with the coexistance of acute coronary syndrome. To prevent a misdiagnosis of acute situation presented with chest or abdominal pain, physicians must be aware for coexisting pathophysiologies and take into account the differential diagnosis of all life-threatening causes such as cardiac ischemia or acute abdominal situations.

  9. Substantial effect of acute hydration on blood pressure in patients with autonomic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Boesen, F

    1987-01-01

    The effect of acute hydration on arterial blood pressure levels was investigated in ten patients with severe postural hypotension due to autonomic failure. Blood pressure and heart rate were determined in the supine and 60-degree head-up tilted position. Plasma volume and left ventricular ejection...... fraction were measured in the supine position. Measurements were repeated after rapid infusion of 11 of isotonic saline. Acute hydration resulted in increased supine mean blood pressure levels (P less than 0.01) despite normal plasma volumes in all patients. The postural reductions in mean blood pressure...... were reduced from 40 mmHg before to 20 mmHg after saline (median values, P less than 0.01). The results indicate that normal plasma volumes do not ensure optimal circulatory status in patients with autonomic failure. Acute hydration with isotonic saline may be used for immediate corrections of blood...

  10. Spatial variability of soil salinity in coastal saline soil at different scales in the Yellow River Delta, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuoran; Zhao, Gengxing; Gao, Mingxiu; Chang, Chunyan

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore the spatial variability of soil salinity in coastal saline soil at macro, meso and micro scales in the Yellow River delta, China. Soil electrical conductivities (ECs) were measured at 0-15, 15-30, 30-45 and 45-60 cm soil depths at 49 sampling sites during November 9 to 11, 2013. Soil salinity was converted from soil ECs based on laboratory analyses. Our results indicated that at the macro scale, soil salinity was high with strong variability in each soil layer, and the content increased and the variability weakened with increasing soil depth. From east to west in the region, the farther away from the sea, the lower the soil salinity was. The degrees of soil salinization in three deeper soil layers are 1.14, 1.24 and 1.40 times higher than that in the surface soil. At the meso scale, the sequence of soil salinity in different topographies, soil texture and vegetation decreased, respectively, as follows: depression >flatland >hillock >batture; sandy loam >light loam >medium loam >heavy loam >clay; bare land >suaeda salsa >reed >cogongrass >cotton >paddy >winter wheat. At the micro scale, soil salinity changed with elevation in natural micro-topography and with anthropogenic activities in cultivated land. As the study area narrowed down to different scales, the spatial variability of soil salinity weakened gradually in cultivated land and salt wasteland except the bare land.

  11. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  12. The challenge of change in acute mental health services: measuring staff perceptions of barriers to change and their relationship to job status and satisfaction using a new measure (VOCALISE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Caroline; Callard, Felicity; Flach, Clare; Williams, Paul; Sayer, Jane; Wykes, Til

    2014-02-20

    Health services are subject to frequent changes, yet there has been insufficient research to address how staff working within these services perceive the climate for implementation. Staff perceptions, particularly of barriers to change, may affect successful implementation and the resultant quality of care. This study measures staff perceptions of barriers to change in acute mental healthcare. We identify whether occupational status and job satisfaction are related to these perceptions, as this might indicate a target for intervention that could aid successful implementation. As there were no available instruments capturing staff perceptions of barriers to change, we created a new measure (VOCALISE) to assess this construct. All nursing staff from acute in-patient settings in one large London mental health trust were eligible. Using a participatory method, a nurse researcher interviewed 32 staff to explore perceptions of barriers to change. This generated a measure through thematic analyses and staff feedback (N = 6). Psychometric testing was undertaken according to standard guidelines for measure development (N = 40, 42, 275). Random effects models were used to explore the associations between VOCALISE, occupational status, and job satisfaction (N = 125). VOCALISE was easy to understand and complete, and showed acceptable reliability and validity. The factor analysis revealed three underlying constructs: 'confidence,' 'de-motivation' and 'powerlessness.' Staff with negative perceptions of barriers to change held more junior positions, and had poorer job satisfaction. Qualitatively, nursing assistants expressed a greater sense of organisational unfairness in response to change. VOCALISE can be used to explore staff perceptions of implementation climate and to assess how staff attitudes shape the successful outcomes of planned changes. Negative perceptions were linked with poor job satisfaction and to those occupying more junior roles, indicating a

  13. High-resolution model for estimating the economic and policy implications of agricultural soil salinization in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, Paul D.; Mauter, Meagan S.

    2017-09-01

    This work introduces a generalizable approach for estimating the field-scale agricultural yield losses due to soil salinization. When integrated with regional data on crop yields and prices, this model provides high-resolution estimates for revenue losses over large agricultural regions. These methods account for the uncertainty inherent in model inputs derived from satellites, experimental field data, and interpreted model results. We apply this method to estimate the effect of soil salinity on agricultural outputs in California, performing the analysis with both high-resolution (i.e. field scale) and low-resolution (i.e. county-scale) data sources to highlight the importance of spatial resolution in agricultural analysis. We estimate that soil salinity reduced agricultural revenues by 3.7 billion (1.7–7.0 billion) in 2014, amounting to 8.0 million tons of lost production relative to soil salinities below the crop-specific thresholds. When using low-resolution data sources, we find that the costs of salinization are underestimated by a factor of three. These results highlight the need for high-resolution data in agro-environmental assessment as well as the challenges associated with their integration.

  14. Salinity of oceanic hydrothermal fluids: a fluid inclusion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehlig, Pierre

    1991-03-01

    An extensive microthermometric study of quartz, epidote, plagioclase, anhydrite and sphalerite-hosted fluid inclusions from ophiolitic [Semail (Oman) and Trinity (California) ophiolites] and oceanic (East Pacific Rise hydrothermal vents, Gorringe Bank, ODP Leg 111 Hole 504B) crust has been carried out in order to constrain a model accounting for wide salinity variations measured in the oceanic hydrothermal fluids. Recorded salinities in fluid inclusions vary between 0.3 and 52 wt% NaCl eq. However, more than 60% of the mean (± standard deviation) salinities of the samples are within the range 3.2 ± 0.3wt% NaCl eq (= microthermometric error) and the mean salinity of all fluid inclusions (without the brines) is 4.0 wt% NaCl eq with a standard deviation of 1.6 wt% NaCl eq. Whereas most samples display slightly higher salinities than seawater, several samples exhibit very high salinities (more than two times that of seawater). These high salinities are restricted to the plagiogranites (Semail and Trinity ophiolites) which mark the top of the fossil magma chamber, in the transition zone between the plutonic sequence and the sheeted dyke complex. The fluid inclusion population studied in the plagiogranites is characterized by the occurrence of four major fluid inclusion families: (1) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase; (2) low-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions with pseudocritical homogenization; (3) low- to medium-salinity Liquid/Vapor fluid inclusions which homogenize into the vapor phase; and (4) high-salinity Liquid/Vapor/Halite fluid inclusions which homogenize into the liquid phase by halite dissolution and exhibit salinities as high as 52 wt% NaCl eq. These fluid inclusion families are interpreted as resulting from phase separation occurring in hydrothermal or magmatic fluids within the transition zone between the hydrothermal system and the magma chamber at temperatures higher than 500°C. Very low

  15. Salinity adaptation of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Columbia River estuary (Pacific Northwest, USA): Physiological and molecular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal; Boese, Bruce L.; Taylor, Louise; Reusser, Deborah; Rodriguez, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine salinity stress tolerances of two populations of the invasive species New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one population from a high salinity environment in the Columbia River estuary and the other from a fresh water lake. In 1996, New Zealand mud snails were discovered in the tidal reaches of the Columbia River estuary that is routinely exposed to salinity at near full seawater concentrations. In contrast, in their native habitat and throughout its spread in the western US, New Zealand mud snails are found only in fresh water ecosystems. Our aim was to determine whether the Columbia River snails have become salt water adapted. Using a modification of the standard amphipod sediment toxicity test, salinity tolerance was tested using a range of concentrations up to undiluted seawater, and the snails were sampled for mortality at daily time points. Our results show that the Columbia River snails were more tolerant of acute salinity stress with the LC50 values averaging 38 and 22 Practical Salinity Units for the Columbia River and freshwater snails, respectively. DNA sequence analysis and morphological comparisons of individuals representing each population indicate that they were all P. antipodarum. These results suggest that this species is salt water adaptable and in addition, this investigation helps elucidate the potential of this aquatic invasive organism to adapt to adverse environmental conditions.

  16. Nutritional and health challenges of pastoralist populations in Kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines nutritional and health challenges facing pastoralists who ... Global acute malnutrition rates for the last five years ranged from 10 to 28%. ... during droughts, which have been worsened by increasing climate change.

  17. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-03

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  18. Acute Rhabdomyolysis Following Synthetic Cannabinoid Ingestion

    OpenAIRE

    Adedinsewo, Demilade A.; Oluwaseun Odewole; Taylor Todd

    2016-01-01

    Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ...

  19. Sensory findings after stimulation of the thoracolumbar fascia with hypertonic saline suggest its contribution to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Andreas; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Magerl, Walter; Benrath, Justus; Klein, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-02-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline into deep tissues of the back (subcutis, muscle, or the surrounding fascia) can induce acute low back pain (LBP). So far, no study has analyzed differences in temporal, qualitative, and spatial pain characteristics originating from these tissues. The current study aimed to investigate the role of the thoracolumbar fascia as a potential source of LBP. In separate sessions, 12 healthy subjects received ultrasound-guided bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.9%) or hypertonic saline (5.8%) into the erector spinae muscle, the thoracolumbar fascia (posterior layer), and the overlying subcutis. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity, duration, quality, and spatial extent. Pressure pain thresholds were determined pre and post injection. Injections of hypertonic saline into the fascia resulted in significantly larger area under the curve of pain intensity over time than injections into subcutis (Pfascia or subcutis. Pain radiation and pain affect evoked by fascia injection exceeded those of the muscle (Pfascia injection (burning, throbbing, and stinging) suggested innervation by both A- and C-fiber nociceptors. These findings show that the thoracolumbar fascia is the deep tissue of the back that is most sensitive to chemical stimulation, making it a prime candidate to contribute to nonspecific LBP but not to localized pressure hyperalgesia. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Durum wheat and barley productivity in saline-drought environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Katerji, N.; Mastrorilli, M.; Hoorn, van J.W.; Lahmer, F.Z.; Hamdy, A.; Oweis, T.

    2009-01-01

    In two Successive years, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum Desf.) and barley (Hodeum vulgare L.) were tested in a factorial salinity-drought experiment, combining three levels of salinity and two levels of drought. The two drought treatments were obtained by applying irrigation water when the pre-dawn

  1. Ground water dependence of endangered ecosystems: Nebraska's eastern saline wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, F Edwin; Ayers, Jerry F; Gosselin, David C

    2007-01-01

    Many endangered or threatened ecosystems depend on ground water for their survival. Nebraska's saline wetlands, home to a number of endangered species, are ecosystems whose development, sustenance, and survival depend on saline ground water discharge at the surface. This study demonstrates that the saline conditions present within the eastern Nebraska saline wetlands result from the upwelling of saline ground water from within the underlying Dakota Aquifer and deeper underlying formations of Pennsylvanian age. Over thousands to tens of thousands of years, saline ground water has migrated over regional scale flowpaths from recharge zones in the west to the present-day discharge zones along the saline streams of Rock, Little Salt, and Salt Creeks in Lancaster and Saunders counties. An endangered endemic species of tiger beetle living within the wetlands has evolved under a unique set of hydrologic conditions, is intolerant to recent anthropogenic changes in hydrology and salinity, and is therefore on the brink of extinction. As a result, the fragility of such systems demands an even greater understanding of the interrelationships among geology, hydrology, water chemistry, and biology than in less imperiled systems where adaptation is more likely. Results further indicate that when dealing with ground water discharge-dependent ecosystems, and particularly those dependent on dissolved constituents as well as the water, wetland management must be expanded outside of the immediate surface location of the visible ecosystem to include areas where recharge and lateral water movement might play a vital role in wetland hydrologic and chemical mixing dynamics.

  2. 76 FR 24515 - Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-02

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory Council AGENCY: Bureau of... Committee Act, the Bureau of Reclamation announces that the Colorado River Basin Salinity Control Advisory...) 524-3826; e-mail at: kjacobson@usbr.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Colorado River Basin...

  3. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  4. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a weak zone (shear strength 500–1450 Pa) was observed ∼30 cm below the marsh surface, coinciding with the base of rooting. High salinity wetlands had no such zone (shear strengths > 4500 Pa) and contained deeper rooting. Storm waves during Hurricane Katrina produced shear stresses between 425–3600 Pa, sufficient to cause widespread erosion of the low salinity wetlands. Vegetation in low salinity marshes is subject to shallower rooting and is susceptible to erosion during large magnitude storms; these conditions may be exacerbated by low inorganic sediment content and high nutrient inputs. The dramatic difference in resiliency of fresh versus more saline marshes suggests that the introduction of freshwater to marshes as part of restoration efforts may therefore weaken existing wetlands rendering them vulnerable to hurricanes. PMID:20660777

  5. Dynamics of rainwater lenses on upward seeping saline groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eeman, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Fresh water is generally a limited resource in coastal areas which are often densely populated. In low-lying areas, groundwater is mostly saline and both agriculture and freshwater nature depend on a thin lens of rainwater that is formed by precipitation surplus on top of saline, upward seeping grou

  6. Towards decadal soil salinity mapping using Landsat time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingwang; Weng, Yongling; Tao, Jinmei

    2016-10-01

    Salinization is one of the major soil problems around the world. However, decadal variation in soil salinization has not yet been extensively reported. This study exploited thirty years (1985-2015) of Landsat sensor data, including Landsat-4/5 TM (Thematic Mapper), Landsat-7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) and Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager), for monitoring soil salinity of the Yellow River Delta, China. The data were initially corrected for atmospheric effects, and then matched the spectral bands of EO-1 (Earth Observing One) ALI (Advanced Land Imager). Subsequently, soil salinity maps were derived with a previously developed PLSR (Partial Least Square Regression) model. On intra-annual scale, the retrievals showed that soil salinity increased in February, stabilized in March, and decreased in April. On inter-annual scale, soil salinity decreased within 1985-2000 (-0.74 g kg-1/10a, p < 0.001), and increased within 2000-2015 (0.79 g kg-1/10a, p < 0.001). Our study presents a new perspective for use of multiple Landsat data in soil salinity retrieval, and further the understanding of soil salinization development over the Yellow River Delta.

  7. Salinity stress effects changed during Aloe vera L. vegetative growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal-Ali Olfati

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Salt stress is a limiting factor of plant growth and yield, and becoming a serious problem in the world so in reason to determine salinity effect on aloe growth experiment was conducted in a greenhouse as a bi-factorial in completely randomized experimental design with three replications. Aloe plants irrigated with nutrient solution containing different level of NaCl (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 ms on December and harvesting took place three time with one month interval on January, February and March. Results revealed that salinity affected number of leaf, plant height, number of sprout, root weight, plant weight, leaf weight, total gel weight, and root dry weight. Variance analysis also showed that sampling time relieves significant effect on number of leaf, plant height, and root length, number of sprout, root weight, plant weight, leaf weight and total gel weight. All measured characteristics were highest for control. Interaction between salinity and sampling time on plant height, plant weight, leaf weight and total gel weight showed that these traits decreased in all salinity levels when sampled 30 days after transplanting and the lowest value was related to highest salinity. This result was similar 60 and 90 days after transplanting. Interaction between salinity and sampling time on root length showed that the highest root length was obtained in 2 and 4 ms salinity level when sampled 30 days after transplanting. However all salinity levels also decreased root length 90 days after transplanting.

  8. Constructed wetlands for saline wastewater treatment: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saline wastewater originating from sources such as agriculture, aquaculture, and many industrial sectors usually contains high levels of salts and other contaminants, which can adversely affect both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Therefore, the treatment of saline wastewater (removal of both sa...

  9. Varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to saline conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adolf, V I; Shabala, S; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study aimed to assess varietal differences of quinoa’s tolerance to salinity and to investigate physiological mechanisms conferring these differences. Methods Production of biomass in fourteen varieties grown under saline conditions was analysed in a pot experiment. For two contrasting...

  10. Investigation of Lake Water Salinity by Using Four-Band Salinity Algorithm on WorldView-2 Satellite Image for a Saline Industrial Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budakoǧlu, Murat; Karaman, Muhittin; Damla Uça Avcı, Z.; Kumral, Mustafa; Geredeli (Yılmaz), Serpil

    2014-05-01

    Salinity of a lake is an important characteristic since, these are potentially industrial lakes and the degree of salinity can significantly be used for determination of mineral resources and for the production management. In the literature, there are many studies of using satellite data for salinity related lake studies such as determination of salinity distribution and detection of potential freshwater sources in less salt concentrated regions. As the study area Lake Acigol, located in Denizli (Turkey) was selected. With it's saline environment, it's the major sodium sulphate production resource of Turkey. In this study, remote sensing data and data from a field study was used and correlated. Remote sensing is an efficient tool to monitor and analyze lake properties by using it complementary to field data. Worldview-2 satellite data was used in this study which consists of 8 bands. At the same time with the satellite data acquisition, a field study was conducted to collect the salinity values in 17 points of the laker with using YSI 556 Multiparametre for measurements. The values were measured as salinity amount in grams per kilogram solution and obtained as ppt unit. It was observed that the values vary from 34 ppt - 40.1 ppt and the average is 38.056 ppt. In Thalassic serie, the lake was in mixoeuhaline state in the time of issue. As a first step, ATCOR correction was performed on satellite image for atmospheric correction. There were some clouds on the lake field, hence it was decided to continue the study by using the 12 sampling points which were clear on the image. Then, for each sampling point, a spectral value was obtained by calculating the average at a 11*11 neighborhood. The relation between the spectral reflectance values and the salinity was investigated. The 4-band algorithm, which was used for determination of chlorophyll-a distribution in highly turbid coastal environment by Wei (2012) was applied. Salinity α (Λi-1 / Λj-1) * (Λk-1 / Λm-1) (i

  11. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  12. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  13. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  14. Desalination leading to Salinity Variations in Kuwait Marine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad E. Al-Dousari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statements: The salinity of seawater is a critical issue for desalination process. Approach: The salinity changes in the coastal waters of Kuwait due to large scale power and desalination activity were evaluated. Results: Systematic sampling campaigns were planned to cover the uptake and outfall of the desalination plant spreading evenly the sampling points to cover the freshwater input zone of Arabian Gulf in north. The salinity observations are critical both for the desalination process and for integrity of the marine environment, which is critical in case of Kuwait. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results showed compliance of Kuwait EPA salinity standard in the area with a difference of around 4 ppt salinity increase at outfall compared to uptake zone.

  15. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleka Mlisana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. METHODS: 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8. Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR = 3.2; 1.4-7.1, rash (OR = 6.1; 2.4-15.4, sore throat (OR = 2.7; 1.0-7.6, weight loss (OR = 4.4; 1.5-13.4, genital ulcers (OR = 8.0; 1.6-39.5 and vaginal discharge (OR = 5.4; 1.6-18.4. A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  16. Reduced salinity tolerance in the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) is associated with rapid development of a gill interlamellar cell mass: implications of high-saline spills on native freshwater salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Salvatore D; Matheson, Derrick; He, Yuhe; Goss, Greg G

    2016-01-01

    Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) are salmonids that have a strict freshwater existence in post-glacial North America. Oil and gas development is associated with production of high volumes of hypersaline water. With planned industrial expansion into northern areas of Canada and the USA that directly overlap grayling habitat, the threat of accidental saline water release poses a significant risk. Despite this, we understand little about the responses of grayling to hypersaline waters. We compared the physiological responses and survivability of Arctic grayling and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to tolerate an acute transfer to higher saline waters. Arctic grayling and rainbow trout were placed directly into 17 ppt salinity and sampled at 24 and 96 h along with control animals in freshwater at 24 h. Serum sodium, chloride and osmolality levels increased significantly in grayling at both 24 and 96 h time points, whereas trout were able to compensate for the osmoregulatory disturbance by 96 h. Sodium-potassium ATPase mRNA expression responses to salinity were also compared, demonstrating the inability of the grayling to up-regulate the seawater isoform nkaα1b. Our results demonstrated a substantially lower salinity tolerance in grayling. We also found a significant salinity-induced morphological gill remodelling by Arctic grayling, as demonstrated by the rapid growth of an interlamellar cell mass by 24 h that persisted at 96 h. We visualized and quantified the appearance of the interlamellar cell mass as a response to high salinity, although the functional significance remains to be understood fully. Compared with rainbow trout, which are used as an environmental regulatory species, Arctic grayling are unable to compensate for the osmotic stressors that would result from a highly saline produced water spill. Given these new data, collaboration between fisheries and the oil and gas industry will be vital in the long-term conservation strategies

  17. Iatrogenic Dysnatremias in Children with Acute Gastroenteritis in High-Income Countries: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviu Grisaru

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAcute gastroenteritis (AGE causing dehydration with or without dysnatremias is a common childhood health challenge. While it is accepted that oral rehydration therapy is preferred, clinical factors or parent and healthcare provider preferences may lead to intravenous rehydration (IVR. Isotonic solutions are increasingly recommended in most scenarios requiring IVR. Nevertheless, children with AGE, having ongoing losses of water and electrolytes, represent a unique population.ObjectivesTo evaluate the association between acquired dysnatremias and IVR in children with AGE.MethodsA systematic search of MEDLINE database was conducted through September 14, 2016. Observational studies and clinical trials conducted in high-income countries were included. The Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach was used to evaluate the overall quality of evidence for each outcome.Results603 papers were identified of which 6 were included (3 randomized controlled trials and 3 observational studies. Pooling of patient data was not possible due to significantly different interventions or exposures. Single studies results demonstrated that within 24 h, administration of isotonic saline was not associated with a significant decline in serum sodium while hypotonic solutions (0.2–0.45% saline were associated, in one study, with mean serum sodium declines from 1.3 mEq/L (139.2, SD 2.9–137.9, SD 2.5 in 133 young infants (aged 1–28 months, to 5.7 (SD 3.1 mEq/L in a subgroup of 18 older children (age mean 5.8, SD 2.7 years. Both isotonic and hypotonic saline were shown to be associated with improvement of baseline hyponatremia in different studies. Baseline hypernatremia was corrected within 4–24 h in 81/83 (99.6% children using hypotonic saline IVR.ConclusionThere is a paucity of publications assessing the risk for acquired dysnatremias associated with IVR in children with AGE. Current high-quality evidence

  18. Impacts of irrigation regimes with saline water on carrot productivity and soil salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Nagaz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A three-year study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different irrigation regimes with saline water on soil salinity, yield and water productivity of carrot as a fall-winter crop under actual commercial-farming conditions in the arid region of Tunisia. Carrot was grown on a sandy soil and surface-irrigated with a water having an ECi of 3.6 dS/m. For the three years, a complete randomized block design with four replicates was used to evaluate five irrigation regimes. Four irrigation methods were based on the use of soil water balance (SWB to estimate irrigation amounts and timing while the fifth consisted of using traditional farmers practices. SWB methods consisted in replacement of cumulated ETc when readily available water is depleted with levels of 100% (FI-100, 80% (DI-80 and 60% (DI-60. FI-100 was considered as full irrigation while DI-80 and DI-60 were considered as deficit irrigation regimes. Regulated deficit irrigation regime where 40% reduction is applied only during ripening stage (FI-DI60 was also used. Farmer method (Farmer consisted in giving fixed amounts of water (25 mm every 7 days from planting till harvest. Results on carrot production and soil salinization are globally consistent between the three-year experiments and shows significant difference between irrigation regimes. Higher soil salinity in the root zone is observed at harvest under DI-60 (3.1, 3.4, 3.9 dS/m, respectively, for the three years and farmer irrigation (3.3, 3.6, 3.9 dS/m treatments compared to FI-100 treatment (2.3, 2.6 and 3.1 dS/m. Relatively low ECe values were also observed under FI-DI60 and DI-80 treatments with respectively (2.7, 3, 3.5 dS/m and (2.5, 2.9, 3.3 dS/m. ECe values under the different irrigation treatments were generally lower than or equal to the EC of irrigation water used. Rainfall received during fall and/or winter periods (57, 26 and 29 mm, respectively, during the three years contributed probably to leaching soluble

  19. Isolation of the combined water content and salinity effects on ERT measurement to locate the preferential flow pathways in water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindt, Naaran; Rahav, Matan; Furman, Alex; Wallach, Rony

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been used for measuring the dynamics of water flow in soils without disturbing the soil, and recently for identifying the preferential flow pathways that are reported to develop in water repellent soils. Since electrical resistivity is affected mainly by soil saturation and salinity, and given that in many cases salinity in the root zone reaches high values, the isolation of spatial and temporal distribution of water content or salinity in the root zone from ERT scans is a challenge. A model for transient variation of soil water content and salinity within a well-mixed soil unit was developed in the frame of this challenge. The model aims to isolate the temporal changes in water content from subsequent ERT scans. The model assumes that four stages of water dynamics occur in the root zone during an irrigation cycle: 1) Soil water content decreases by evapotranspiration - no irrigation, 2) Irrigation with saline water begins, water content increases but remains below field capacity - negligible drainage, 3) Irrigation continues and drainage starts as the water content becomes higher than field capacity, and 4) Irrigation stops, water content is higher than field capacity, and water content decreases by drainage and evapotranspiration. These four stages restart when drainage stops and water content decreases solely by evapotranspiration. The model was solved analytically and successfully applied to a series of sequential ERT scans accomplished during and between subsequent irrigation events for a soil that was rendered hydrophobic by olive trees irrigated with saline water, and a soil in a citrus orchard that was rendered hydrophobic by prolonged effluent irrigation. The suggested model helps in distinguishing between the temporal changes in water content and salinity within a given soil volume, locating the preferential plow pathways, and tracking the spatial and temporal salinity variation within the root zone during and

  20. salinity Budget analysis of of Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shan; nie, xunwei; Qu, Tangdong

    2013-04-01

    Western pacific warm pool plays an important role in governing global climate variability. In particular, the unique salinity structures of warm pool, barrier layer and salinity front, have significant impacts on the heat content accumulation and zonal migration of warm pool surface water, which further modulate the formation and development of tropical climate phenomenon, such as El Niño, MJO and EAM. In order to have better understanding of how warm pool salinity contributes to climate change the salinity budget of warm pool are investigated using results from a model of the Consortium for Estimating the Circulation and Climate of the Ocean (ECCO). The results show that the salinity budget of warm pool and its components have significant seasonal and annual variability. The surface freshwater flux is the dominant element of salinity budget, which is well balanced by the other ocean dynamic terms. However among all the terms of ocean dynamics, mixing is most significant, whereas advection and entrainment are not dominant, unlike most other region. The further analysis of lagged correlation coefficient between the salinity budget, salinity budget components and NIÑO 3.4 reveals that the salinity budget is highly related to El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The results indicate that the annual variability of warm pool salinity budget has a notable correlation coefficient with NIÑO 3.4 (0.7); Mealwhile,variabilities of each components of Ocean dynamics,including diffusion, advection and mixing are found to be highly correlated to ENSO.The local barrier layer is believed to be a major reason.

  1. Geochemical tracers to evaluate hydrogeologic controls on river salinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie J; Bassett, R L; Liu, Beiling; Wolf, Christopher P; Doremus, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The salinization of rivers, as indicated by salinity increases in the downstream direction, is characteristic of arid and semiarid regions throughout the world. Historically, salinity increases have been attributed to various mechanisms, including (1) evaporation and concentration during reservoir storage, irrigation, and subsequent reuse; (2) displacement of shallow saline ground water during irrigation; (3) erosion and dissolution of natural deposits; and/or (4) inflow of deep saline and/or geothermal ground water (ground water with elevated water temperature). In this study, investigation of salinity issues focused on identification of relative salinity contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources in the Lower Rio Grande in the New Mexico-Texas border region. Based on the conceptual model of the system, the various sources of water and, therefore, salinity to the Lower Rio Grande were identified, and a sampling plan was designed to characterize these sources. Analysis results for boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta(2)H), and strontium ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) isotopes, as well as basic chemical data, confirmed the hypothesis that the dominant salinity contributions are from deep ground water inflow to the Rio Grande. The stable isotopic ratios identified the deep ground water inflow as distinctive, with characteristic isotopic signatures. These analyses indicate that it is not possible to reproduce the observed salinization by evapotranspiration and agricultural processes alone. This investigation further confirms that proper application of multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers can be used to identify and constrain multiple sources of solutes in complex river systems.

  2. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  3. Chimeric severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) S glycoprotein and influenza matrix 1 efficiently form virus-like particles (VLPs) that protect mice against challenge with SARS-CoV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye V.; Massare, Michael J.; Barnard, Dale L.; Kort, Thomas; Nathan, Margret; Wang, Lei; Smith, Gale

    2011-01-01

    SARS-CoV was the cause of the global pandemic in 2003 that infected over 8000 people in 8 months. Vaccines against SARS are still not available. We developed a novel method to produce high levels of a recombinant SARS virus-like particles (VLPs) vaccine containing the SARS spike (S) protein and the influenza M1 protein using the baculovirus insect cell expression system. These chimeric SARS VLPs have a similar size and morphology to the wild type SARS-CoV. We tested the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of purified chimeric SARS VLPs and full length SARS S protein vaccines in a mouse lethal challenge model. The SARS VLP vaccine, containing 0.8 μg of SARS S protein, completely protected mice from death when administered intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) routes in the absence of an adjuvant. Likewise, the SARS VLP vaccine, containing 4 μg of S protein without adjuvant, reduced lung virus titer to below detectable level, protected mice from weight loss, and elicited a high level of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV. Sf9 cell-produced full length purified SARS S protein was also an effective vaccine against SARS-CoV but only when co-administered IM with aluminum hydroxide. SARS-CoV VLPs are highly immunogenic and induce neutralizing antibodies and provide protection against lethal challenge. Sf9 cell-based VLP vaccines are a potential tool to provide protection against novel pandemic agents. PMID:21762752

  4. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  5. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  6. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-22

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  7. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, particularly younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  8. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute renal arterial thrombosis; Renal artery embolism; Acute renal artery occlusion; Embolism - renal artery ... kidney can often result in permanent kidney failure. Acute arterial occlusion of the renal artery can occur after injury or trauma to ...

  9. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E McDunn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic

  10. Acute total sleep deprivation potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotor-stimulant effects and behavioral sensitization in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Luis P; Fukushiro, Daniela F; Hollais, André W; Mári-Kawamoto, Elisa; Costa, Jacqueline M; Berro, Laís F; Aramini, Tatiana C F; Wuo-Silva, Raphael; Andersen, Monica L; Tufik, Sergio; Frussa-Filho, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that a prolonged period (48 h) of paradoxical sleep deprivation (PSD) potentiates amphetamine (AMP)-induced behavioral sensitization, an animal model of addiction-related neuroadaptations. In the present study, we examined the effects of an acute short-term deprivation of total sleep (TSD) (6h) on AMP-induced behavioral sensitization in mice and compared them to the effects of short-term PSD (6 h). Three-month-old male C57BL/6J mice underwent TSD (experiment 1-gentle handling method) or PSD (experiment 2-multiple platforms method) for 6 h. Immediately after the sleep deprivation period, mice were tested in the open field for 10 min under the effects of saline or 2.0 mg/kg AMP. Seven days later, to assess behavioral sensitization, all of the mice received a challenge injection of 2.0 mg/kg AMP and were tested in the open field for 10 min. Total, peripheral, and central locomotion, and grooming duration were measured. TSD, but not PSD, potentiated the hyperlocomotion induced by an acute injection of AMP and this effect was due to an increased locomotion in the central squares of the apparatus. Similarly, TSD facilitated the development of AMP-induced sensitization, but only in the central locomotion parameter. The data indicate that an acute period of TSD may exacerbate the behavioral effects of AMP in mice. Because sleep architecture is composed of paradoxical and slow wave sleep, and 6-h PSD had no effects on AMP-induced hyperlocomotion or sensitization, our data suggest that the deprivation of slow wave sleep plays a critical role in the mechanisms that underlie the potentiating effects of TSD on both the acute and sensitized addiction-related responses to AMP.

  11. Acute Appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tind, Sofie; Qvist, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The classification of acute appendicitis (AA) into various grades is not consistent, partly because it is not clear whether the perioperative or the histological findings should be the foundation of the classification. When comparing results from the literature on the frequency...... patients were included. In 116 (89 %) of these cases, appendicitis was confirmed histological. There was low concordance between the perioperative and histological diagnoses, varying from 16 to 76 % depending on grade of AA. Only 44 % of the patients receiving antibiotics postoperatively had a positive...... peritoneal fluid cultivation. CONCLUSION: There was a low concordance in clinical and histopathological diagnoses of the different grades of appendicitis. Perioperative cultivation of the peritoneal fluid as a standard should be further examined. The potential could be a reduced postoperative antibiotic use...

  12. A review of anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yeyuan; Roberts, Deborah J

    2010-01-01

    Large volumes of saline (> 2% w/v NaCl) wastewaters are discharged from many industries; e.g. seafood processing, textile dyeing, oil and gas production, tanneries and drinking water treatment processes. Although anaerobic treatment would be the most cost-effective and sustainable technology for the treatment of many of these saline wastewaters, the salinity is considered to be inhibitory to anaerobic biological treatment processes. The recent applications of salt-tolerant cultures for the treatment of wastewaters from seafood processing and ion-exchange processes suggest that biological systems can be used to treat salty wastewaters. Additionally, organisms capable of anaerobic degradation of contaminants in saline solutions have been observed in marine sediments and have been characterized during the last two decades. This manuscript provides a review of the recent research on anaerobic treatment of saline wastewater and bacterial consortia capable of the anaerobic degradation of pollutants in saline solutions, documenting that the biological treatment of saline wastewaters is promising.

  13. Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles: salinization of fresh water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Wollheim, W. M.; Duan, S.; Gorman, J. K.; Haq, S.; Hohman, S.; Smith, R. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The built environment often changes quickly in response to human activities, thus contributing to an evolution of stream chemistry over time. Depending upon development and management strategies, these changes can result in pulses and/or long-term trends. Here, we explore patterns of evolving salinization of fresh water over time, and we evaluate the potential water quality implications of fresh water salinization. We show that there has been global salinization of freshwater across urbanizing landscapes over a century. We also show that human-accelerated weathering in watersheds and river alkalinization can further influence regional rates of salinization (in addition to anthropogenic sources such as road salts, sewage leaks, etc.). Finally, we investigate how salinization of fresh water can impact stream sediment fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in watersheds across a land use gradient at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. The impacts of salinization on mobilization and uptake of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in streams warrant further consideration in water quality management strategies. Overall, we propose that salinization can be a "universal tracer" of watershed urbanization globally with major regional consequences for drinking water and evolution of biogeochemical cycles in freshwater ecosystems.

  14. Response of Arctic marine microalgae to changes of salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An algal assemblage collected from the bottom of floe in the Greenland Sea was batchcultured at 1 ± 1℃ and 10 salinity gradients varied from 4.0 to 90.8 for 19 d. The growth for both the algal community and individual populations was characterized by an initial lag phase of six days followed by positive growth. Maximum growth rates were obtained as 0.19/d for the algal community and 0.32 to 0.39 d- 1 for individual populations for the whole experiment period, which mostly occurred at the lower salinities. The competition between the algal species and the evolution of the algal assemblages under the salinity changes was checked. After 14-d culture, the dominating algae in the lower salinities were centric diatoms, pennate diatoms and phytoflagellates, while ones in the higher salinities almost belonged to pennate diatoms. It is suggested that the sea ice algal community from the Greenland Sea prefer lower salinities to higher ones, and the decrease in salinity in small ranges could stimulate the growth of sea ice algae.

  15. Decadal changes in salinity in the oceanic subtropical gyres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Bryce A.; Subrahmanyam, Bulusu

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed spatial and temporal salinity trends in five subtropical gyre regions over the past six decades using Simple Ocean Data Assimilation (SODA) reanalysis with a focus on the subsurface salinity of the upper 1000 m of the ocean. Our results indicate an overall salinity increase within the mixed layer, and a salinity decrease at depths greater than 200 m in the global subtropical gyres over 61 years, of which each individual gyre was analyzed in further detail. We determine that freshwater fluxes at the air-sea interface are the primary drivers of the sea surface salinity (SSS) signature over these open ocean regions by quantifying the advective contribution within the surface layer. This was demonstrated through a mixed layer salinity budget in each subtropical gyre based on the vertically integrated advection and entrainment of salt. Our analysis of decadal variability of fluxes into and out of the gyres reveals little change in the strength of the mean currents through this region despite an increase in the annual export of salt in all subtropical gyres, with the meridional component dominating the zonal. This study reveals that the salt content of E-P maximum waters advected into the subtropical gyres is increasing over time. A combination of increasing direct evaporation over the regions with increasing remote evaporation over nearby E-P maxima is believed to be the main driver in increasing salinity of the subtropical oceans, suggesting an intensification of the global water cycle over decadal time scales.

  16. Development of Saline Flow Systems in Closed Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, J. M.; Halford, K. J.; Garcia, C.

    2011-12-01

    Saline playas frequently occur in closed basins, such as the Humboldt Salt Marsh in Dixie Valley, in west-central Nevada. This playa is the terminus of a local groundwater flow system, is comprised of dense clay, and has shallow groundwater salinities more than 5 times the salinity of sea water (TDS concentrations of 172,000 to 311,900 mg/L). The saline system has developed and continues to expand as surface runoff and groundwater evaporates from the playa surface and dissolved solutes remain. Negligible discharge of fresh groundwater occurs where the saline system is present, because the fresh-water / saltwater interface that abuts the playa is analogous hydraulically to interfaces in coastal aquifers. The period of time necessary to develop a relatively isolated saline flow system was quantified by simulating a hypothetical cross-section with a variable-density groundwater flow and transport model (SEAWAT). Preliminary analysis suggests that the perimeter of saline system expands between 10 and 100 m every 10,000 years.

  17. Effects of hypertonic saline vs normal saline in lactate depuration after cardiovascular surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atehortúa-López, Luis Horacio; Mendoza-Franco, Ray; Escobar-Serna, José Fernando; Urrego, Luis Alejandro; Alzate, Fernando; Jaimes, Fabian

    2017-03-11

    The postoperative care of patients exposed to cardiac surgery frequently require a thorough reanimation with intravenous fluids but crystalloid solutions like normal saline may increase the interstitial edema, and also it is well known that fluid overload increases mortality. To compare the effect of 7.5% hypertonic saline (HS) with 0.9% normal saline (NS) in the lactate depuration and the hemodynamic response of patients during the first day after on-pump cardiovascular surgery. Patients who were 18 years of age and older with coronary artery disease and/or heart valve disease, and who went to bypass surgery and/or cardiac valve replacement were included and randomly allocated to receive 4mL/kg of HS or NS intravenously for 30min once were admitted to the ICU. We measured lactate, arterial blood gases, HR, CVP and PWP on 0, 6, 12 and 24h after being admitted to the ICU. The analysis was carried out with an intention-to-treat principle. A total of 494 patients were evaluated and 102 were included and assigned to the HS groups (51 patients) or NS (51 patients). Participants' average age was 59±14 years and 59.8% were men. We did not observe any statistically significant difference between two groups in the lactate depuration or in any of the secondary outcomes. Our study failed to show better lactate depuration using a dose of HS, and did not evidence a higher incidence of adverse effects in the HS group. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  18. A California Winery Wastewater Survey: Assessing the Salinity Challenge for Wastewater Reuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increasing scarcity of water and tighter regulations for discharge make onsite wastewater reuse an attractive prospect for the California wine industry. This study reports winery wastewater (WW) data from eighteen Northern California (Northern CA) wineries. The current study provides a baseline ...

  19. ADDRESSING ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES UNDER COMPREHENSIVE UTILIZATION OF GEOTHERMAL SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN DAGESTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sh. Ramazanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of the study is to develop technologies for processing geothermal brine produced with the extraction of oil as well as to solve environmental problems in the region.Methods. In order to determine the chemical composition and radioactivity of the geothermal water and solid samples, we used atomic absorption and gamma spectrometry. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the technology was made on the basis of experimental studies.Results. In the geothermal water, eight radionuclides were recognized and quantified with the activity of 87 ± 5 Bq / dm3. For the processing of this water to produce lithium carbonate and other components we propose a technological scheme, which provides a step of water purification from radio-nuclides. As a result of aeration and alkalinization, we can observe deactivation and purification of the geothermal water from mechanical impurities, iron ions, hydrogen carbonates and organic substances. Water treatment allows recovering lithium carbonate, magnesite caustic powder and salt from geothermal water. The mother liquors produced during manufacturing operations meet the requirements for the water suitable for waterflooding of oil reservoirs and can be injected for maintaining the reservoir pressure of the deposits.Conclusion. The implementation of the proposed processing technology of mineralized geothermal water produced with the extraction of oil in the Northern Dagestan will contribute to extend the life of the oil fields and improve the environmental problems. It will also allow import substitution in Russia for lithium carbonate and edible salt.

  20. Saline aquifer mapping project in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study of saline aquifers in the southeastern United States to evaluate the potential use of brackish or saline water from the deeper portions of the Floridan aquifer system and the underlying Coastal Plain aquifer system (Fig. 1). The objective of this study is to improve the overall understanding of the available saline water resources for potential future development. Specific tasks are to (1) develop a digital georeferenced database of borehole geophysical data to enable analysis and characterization of saline aquifers (see locations in Fig. 1), (2) identify and map the regional extent of saline aquifer systems and describe the thickness and character of hydrologic units that compose these systems, and (3) delineate salinity variations at key well sites and along section lines to provide a regional depiction of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces. Electrical resistivity and induction logs, coupled with a variety of different porosity logs (sonic, density, and neutron), are the primary types of borehole geophysical logs being used to estimate the water quality in brackish and saline formations. The results from the geophysical log calculations are being compared to available water-quality data obtained from water wells and from drill-stem water samples collected in test wells. Overall, the saline aquifer mapping project is helping to improve the understanding of saline water resources in the area. These aquifers may be sources of large quantities of water that could be treated by using reverse osmosis or similar technologies, or they could be used for aquifer storage and recovery systems.

  1. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafsson, Bo G. [Oceanus Havsundersoekningar, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m{sup 3}/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say {+-}1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m{sup 3}/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the

  2. Acute diarrhea: evidence-based management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Kátia Galeão; Castro Antunes, Margarida Maria de; Silva, Gisélia Alves Pontes da

    2015-01-01

    To describe the current recommendations on the best management of pediatric patients with acute diarrheal disease. PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar. There has been little progress in the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) in recent decades, despite being widely reported by international guidelines. Several studies have been performed to improve the effectiveness of ORS. Intravenous hydration with isotonic saline solution, quickly infused, should be given in cases of severe dehydration. Nutrition should be ensured after the dehydration resolution, and is essential for intestinal and immune health. Dietary restrictions are usually not beneficial and may be harmful. Symptomatic medications have limited indication and antibiotics are indicated in specific cases, such as cholera and moderate to severe shigellosis. Hydration and nutrition are the interventions with the greatest impact on the course of acute diarrhea. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Acute bronchiolitis in infants, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common medical emergency situations in infancy, and physicians caring for acutely ill children will regularly be faced with this condition. In this article we present a summary of the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis, and focus on guidelines for the treatment of bronchiolitis in infants. The cornerstones of the management of viral bronchiolitis are the administration of oxygen and appropriate fluid therapy, and overall a “minimal handling approach” is recommended. Inhaled adrenaline is commonly used in some countries, but the evidences are sparse. Recently, inhalation with hypertonic saline has been suggested as an optional treatment. When medical treatment fails to stabilize the infants, non-invasive and invasive ventilation may be necessary to prevent and support respiratory failure. It is important that relevant treatment algorithms exist, applicable to all levels of the treatment chain and reflecting local considerations and circumstances. PMID:24694087

  4. Plant growth promoting properties of Halobacillus sp. and Halomonas sp. in presence of salinity and heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desale, Prithviraj; Patel, Bhargav; Singh, Sukrit; Malhotra, Aakshi; Nawani, Neelu

    2014-08-01

    Salinity and heavy metal stress are challenging problems in agriculture. Here we report the plant growth promoting ability of three moderate halophiles, Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6, in presence of both salinity and heavy metal stress. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 can tolerate 25, 21, and 29% NaCl, respectively and grow in presence of 1 mM cobalt, cadmium, and nickel and 0.04 mM mercury and 0.03 mM silver. Halobacillus sp. ADN1, Halomonas sp. MAN5, and Halobacillus sp. MAN6 produced 152.5, 95.3, and 167.3 µg/ml indole acetic acid (IAA) and could solubilize 61, 53, and 75 parts per million (ppm) phosphate, respectively in the presence of 15% NaCl. The production of IAA and solubilization of phosphate was well retained in the presence of salinity and heavy metals like 1 mM cadmium, 0.7 mM nickel, 0.04 mM mercury, and 0.03 mM silver. Besides, the strains showed amylase and protease activities and could produce hydrogen cyanide and ammonia in presence of salinity and heavy metals. A mixture of three strains enhanced the root growth of Sesuvium portulacastrum under saline and heavy metal stress, where the root length increased nearly 4.5 ± 0.6 times and root dry weight increased 5.4 ± 0.5 times as compared to control. These strains can thus be useful in microbial assisted phytoremediation of polluted saline soils.

  5. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  6. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  7. Aquarius Salinity Retrieval Algorithm: Final Pre-Launch Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, Frank J.; Le Vine, David M.

    2011-01-01

    This document provides the theoretical basis for the Aquarius salinity retrieval algorithm. The inputs to the algorithm are the Aquarius antenna temperature (T(sub A)) measurements along with a number of NCEP operational products and pre-computed tables of space radiation coming from the galaxy and sun. The output is sea-surface salinity and many intermediate variables required for the salinity calculation. This revision of the Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) is intended to be the final pre-launch version.

  8. Aquarius and Remote Sensing of Sea Surface Salinity from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.; Torrusio, S.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius is an L-band radiometer and scatterometer instrument combination designed to map the salinity field at the surface of the ocean from space. The instrument is designed to provide global salinity maps on a monthly basis with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu. The science objective is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the surface salinity field in the open ocean. This data will promote understanding of ocean circulation and its role in the global water cycle and climate.

  9. Acute mixed cellular and humoral rejection of renal allograft with leucopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, D K; Hota, J K; Malhotra, V

    2011-08-01

    Diagnosis and management of acute renal allograft dysfunction often pose challenge to nephrologists during practice. Acute rejection is a major cause of acute graft dysfunction but is rare in patients with leucopenia. Acute rejection can have either humoral or cellular components or sometimes mixed components. Mixed acute cellular and humoral rejection often present as steroid resistant rejection. Here we report a patient with live related renal transplant recipient with acute graft dysfunction with leucopenia who was found to have mixed acute cellular and humoral rejection.

  10. Differential response to soil salinity in endangered key tree cactus: implications for survival in a changing climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Joie; Maschinski, Joyce; Hughes, Phillip; McAuliffe, Joe; Roncal, Julissa; Powell, Devon; Sternberg, Leonel O'reilly

    2012-01-01

    Understanding reasons for biodiversity loss is essential for developing conservation and management strategies and is becoming increasingly urgent with climate change. Growing at elevations cactus (Pilosocereus robinii) experienced 84 percent loss of total stems from 1994 to 2007. The most severe losses of 99 and 88 percent stems occurred in the largest populations in the Lower Keys, where nine storms with high wind velocities and storm surges, occurred during this period. In contrast, three populations had substantial stem proliferation. To evaluate possible mortality factors related to changes in climate or forest structure, we examined habitat variables: soil salinity, elevation, canopy cover, and habitat structure near 16 dying or dead and 18 living plants growing in the Lower Keys. Soil salinity and elevation were the preliminary factors that discriminated live and dead plants. Soil salinity was 1.5 times greater, but elevation was 12 cm higher near dead plants than near live plants. However, distribution-wide stem loss was not significantly related to salinity or elevation. Controlled salinity trials indicated that salt tolerance to levels above 40 mM NaCl was related to maternal origin. Salt sensitive plants from the Lower Keys had less stem growth, lower root:shoot ratios, lower potassium: sodium ratios and lower recovery rate, but higher δ (13)C than a salt tolerant lineage of unknown origin. Unraveling the genetic structure of salt tolerant and salt sensitive lineages in the Florida Keys will require further genetic tests. Worldwide rare species restricted to fragmented, low-elevation island habitats, with little or no connection to higher ground will face challenges from climate change-related factors. These great conservation challenges will require traditional conservation actions and possibly managed relocation that must be informed by studies such as these.

  11. Acute pancreatitis in early postpartum period: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis (AP during peripartum is a rare life-threatening condition which poses as a real challenge for clinician to diagnose it early. Here, we present a case of severe AP occurring in early postpartum period.

  12. Maintenance and broadening of the ocean’s salinity distribution by the water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Zika, Jan D.; Skliris, Nikolaos; Nurser, A. J. George; Josey, Simon A; Mudryk, Lawrence; Laliberté, Frédéric; Marsh, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The global water cycle leaves an imprint on ocean salinity through evaporation and precipitation. It has been proposed that observed changes in salinity can be used to infer changes in the water cycle. Here salinity is characterized by the distribution of water masses in salinity coordinates. Only mixing and sources and sinks of freshwater and salt can modify this distribution. Mixing acts to collapse the distribution, making saline waters fresher and fresh waters more saline. Hence, in stead...

  13. Rainfall Predictions From Global Salinity Anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, R. W.; Li, L.; Liu, T.

    2016-12-01

    We have discovered that sea surface salinity (SSS) is a better seasonal predictor of terrestrial rainfall than sea surface temperature (SST) or the usual pressure modes of atmospheric variability. In many regions, a 3-6 month lead of SSS over rainfall on land can be seen. While some lead is guaranteed due to the simple conservation of water and salt, the robust seasonal lead for SSS in some places is truly remarkable, often besting traditional SST and pressure predictors by a very significant margin. One mechanism for the lead has been identified in the recycling of water on land through soil moisture in regional ocean to land moisture transfers. However, a global search has yielded surprising long-range SSS-rainfall teleconnections. It is suggested that these teleconnections indicate a marked sensitivity of the atmosphere to where rain falls on the ocean. That is, the latent heat of evaporation is by far the largest energy transfer from ocean to atmosphere and where the atmosphere cashes in this energy in the form of precipitation is well recorded in SSS. SSS also responds to wind driven advection and mixing. Thus, SSS appears to be a robust indicator of atmospheric energetics and moisture transport and the timing and location of rainfall events is suggested to influence the subsequent evolution of the atmospheric circulation. In a sense, if the fall of a rain drop is at least equivalent to the flap of a butterfly's wings, the influence of a billion butterfly rainstorm allows for systematic predictions beyond the chaotic nature of the turbulent atmosphere. SSS is found to be particularly effective in predicting extreme precipitation or droughts, which makes its continued monitoring very important for building societal resilience against natural disasters.

  14. Ultrasonic Measurements of Unconsolidated Saline Sediments During Freeze/Thaw Cycles: The Seismic Properties of Cryopeg Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, S.; Ajo Franklin, J. B.

    2013-12-01

    Saline permafrost and cryopegs (hypersaline unfrozen layers/zones within permafrost) are widespread in the Arctic coastal area as a result of marine transgression and regression in recent geological history. Owing to the freezing-point depression effect of soluble salts, they contain more unfrozen water than non-saline frozen sediments when subjected to the same permafrost temperatures (e.g., from 0 to -15 °C). Mapping subsurface cryopeg structure remains a challenging geophysical task due to the poor penetration of GPR in highly conductive fluids and related limitations for lower frequency EM techniques. Seismic profiling, particularly surface wave characterization, provides one possible approach to delineate the extent of cryopeg bodies. However, interpretation of such surveys is currently limited by the sparse database of measurements examining the seismic properties of unconsolidated materials saturated with saline fluids at sub-zero temperatures. We present the results of experiments examining seismic velocity in the ultrasonic range for both synthetic and natural permafrost sediments during freeze/thaw cycles; in these experiments, use of a range of brine salinities allows us to evaluate the properties of cryopeg sediments at in-situ conditions, a prerequisite for quantitative interpretation of seismic imaging results. Because of the abundant unfrozen water and less developed inter-granular ice structure, the seismic properties of saline permafrost typically falls between frozen and unfrozen soils. We conducted ultrasonic measurements of a freeze-thaw cycle on 20-30 Ottawa sand (grain size 590-840 μm) as well as natural mineral soils from the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO) saturated with brines of different salinities (0-2.5 M NaCl). For each salinity, seismic properties were measured using the ultrasonic (~1 MHz) pulse-transmission method in the temperature range from 20 to -30 °C. Similar to sediments saturated with low salinity fluids, seismic

  15. Phylogenetic Signals of Salinity and Season in Bacterial Community Composition Across the Salinity Gradient of the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herlemann, Daniel P. R.; Lundin, Daniel; Andersson, Anders F.; Labrenz, Matthias; Jürgens, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the key processes that control bacterial community composition has enabled predictions of bacterial distribution and function within ecosystems. In this study, we used the Baltic Sea as a model system to quantify the phylogenetic signal of salinity and season with respect to bacterioplankton community composition. The abundances of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing reads were analyzed from samples obtained from similar geographic locations in July and February along a brackish to marine salinity gradient in the Baltic Sea. While there was no distinct pattern of bacterial richness at different salinities, the number of bacterial phylotypes in winter was significantly higher than in summer. Bacterial community composition in brackish vs. marine conditions, and in July vs. February was significantly different. Non-metric multidimensional scaling showed that bacterial community composition was primarily separated according to salinity and secondly according to seasonal differences at all taxonomic ranks tested. Similarly, quantitative phylogenetic clustering implicated a phylogenetic signal for both salinity and seasonality. Our results suggest that global patterns of bacterial community composition with respect to salinity and season are the result of phylogenetically clustered ecological preferences with stronger imprints from salinity. PMID:27933046

  16. The Challenging Experience Questionnaire: Characterization of challenging experiences with psilocybin mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Frederick S; Bradstreet, Matthew P; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Johnson, Matthew W; Griffiths, Roland R

    2016-12-01

    Acute adverse psychological reactions to classic hallucinogens ("bad trips" or "challenging experiences"), while usually benign with proper screening, preparation, and support in controlled settings, remain a safety concern in uncontrolled settings (such as illicit use contexts). Anecdotal and case reports suggest potential adverse acute symptoms including affective (panic, depressed mood), cognitive (confusion, feelings of losing sanity), and somatic (nausea, heart palpitation) symptoms. Responses to items from several hallucinogen-sensitive questionnaires (Hallucinogen Rating Scale, the States of Consciousness Questionnaire, and the Five-Dimensional Altered States of Consciousness questionnaire) in an Internet survey of challenging experiences with the classic hallucinogen psilocybin were used to construct and validate a Challenging Experience Questionnaire. The stand-alone Challenging Experience Questionnaire was then validated in a separate sample. Seven Challenging Experience Questionnaire factors (grief, fear, death, insanity, isolation, physical distress, and paranoia) provide a phenomenological profile of challenging aspects of experiences with psilocybin. Factor scores were associated with difficulty, meaningfulness, spiritual significance, and change in well-being attributed to the challenging experiences. The factor structure did not differ based on gender or prior struggle with anxiety or depression. The Challenging Experience Questionnaire provides a basis for future investigation of predictors and outcomes of challenging experiences with classic hallucinogens. © The Author(s) 2016.

  17. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography with agitated saline injection to differentiate between atrial septal defects and echo drop-out artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alherbish, Aws; Shanks, Miriam; Choy, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of multiple atrial septal defects is less challenging with 3-D transesophageal echocardiography. However, the common occurrence of echo drop-out (acoustic shadow) artifacts with 3-D echocardiography can make the differentiation between a second defect and an artifact challenging. Agitated saline injection with direct visualization using 3-D echocardiography can help resolve this by allowing visualization of the bubbles crossing from true defects.

  18. Acute Myopericarditis Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval İzdeş

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Acute coronary syndromes among young adults are relatively low when compared with older population in the intensive care unit. Electrocardiographic abnormalities mimicking acute coronary syndromes may be caused by non-coronary syndromes and the differential diagnosis requires a detailed evaluation. We are reporting a case of myopericarditis presenting with acute ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes simulating acute coronary syndrome. In this case report, the literature is reviewed to discuss the approach to distinguish an acute coronary syndrome from myopericarditis. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2011; 9:68-70

  19. The role of nitric oxide in saline-induced natriuresis and diuresis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, W T; Banks, R O

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to determine to what extent nitric oxide (NO) mediates the natriuretic and diuretic responses to acute isotonic saline (0.9 gram % NaCl) volume expansion (SVE, 0.5 ml min-1 kg-1). Studies were performed on 49 pentobarbital anesthetized (65 mg/kg) female Sprague-Dawley rats with or without a NO synthase inhibitor, Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (LNA). Group 1 received saline at 27 microliter/min for 1 hr (baseline) and then SVE for 1 hr; Groups 2-4 received LNA at 10, 150, and 200 microgram kg-1 min-1, respectively, for 1 hr followed by LNA + SVE. To determine to what extent inhibition of NOS would reverse an ongoing SVE-induced natriuresis and diuresis, Group 5 was saline-volume-expanded for hours 1 and 2 whereas Group 6 was administered SVE during the first hour and then SVE + 150 microgram kg -1 min-1 LNA during the second hour. SVE caused a significant (P natriuresis or diuresis in these animals). Along these lines, there was a small but significant positive linear correlation coefficient (r = 0.41, P = 0.05) between sodium excretion values and corresponding MAP values in SVE control rats but not in Groups 3-4 during SVE (r = 0.28, P = 0.26). The current data demonstrate that 1) NO does not mediate SVE-induced hyperfiltration in the rat, 2) NO also does not mediate SVE-induced natriuresis or diuresis, and 3), consistent with other reports, NO appears to mediate pressure natriuresis and diuresis.

  20. Comparative study of anticoagulation versus saline flushes in continuous renal replacement therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagarik Amit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic heparinization during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT is associated with disadvantage of risk of bleeding. This study analyses the efficacy of frequent saline flushes compared with heparin anticoagulation to maintain filter life. From January 2004 to November 2007, 65 critically ill patients with acute renal failure underwent CRRT. Continuous venovenous hemodialfiltration (CVVHDF was performed using Diapact Braun CRRT machine. 1.7% P.D. fluid was used as dialysate. 0.9% NS with addition of 10% Ca Gluconate, Magnesium Sulphate, Soda bicarbonate and Potassium Chloride added sequentially in separate units were used for replacement, carefully monitoring their levels. Anticoagulation of extracorporeal circuit was achieved with unfractionated heparin (250-500 units alternate hour in 35 patients targeting aPTT of 45-55 seconds. No anticoagulation was used in 30 patients with baseline APTT > 55 seconds and extracorporeal circuit was maintained with saline flushes at 30 min interval. 65 pa-tients including 42 males. Co-morbidities were comparable in both groups. HMARF was signifi-cantly more common in heparin group while Sepsis was comparable in both the groups. CRRT parameters were similar in both groups. Average filter life in heparin group was 26 ± 6.4 hours while it was 24.5 ± 6.36 hours in heparin free group ( P=NS. Patients receiving heparin had 16 bleeding episodes (0.45/patient while only four bleeding episodes occurred in heparin free group (0.13/patient, P< 0.05. Mortality was 71% in heparin group and 67% in heparin free group. Frequent saline flushes is an effective mode of maintainance of extracorporeal circuit in CRRT when aPTT is already on the higher side, with significantly decreased bleeding episodes.

  1. Model plant systems in salinity and drought stress proteomics studies: a perspective on Arabidopsis and Sorghum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngara, R; Ndimba, B K

    2014-11-01

    More than a decade after the sequencing of its genome, Arabidopsis still stands as the epitome of a model system in plant biology. Arabidopsis proteomics has also taught us great lessons on different aspects of plant growth, development and physiology. Without doubt our understanding of basic principles of plant biology would not have been this advanced if it were not for knowledge gained using Arabidopsis as a model system. However, with the projections of global climate change and rapid population growth, it is high time we evaluate the applicability of this model system in studies aimed at understanding abiotic stress tolerance and adaptation, with a particular emphasis on maintaining yield under hot and dry environmental conditions. Because of the innate nature of sorghum's tolerance to drought and moderate tolerance to salinity stresses, we believe sorghum is the next logical model system in such studies amongst cereals. In this acute view, we highlight the importance of Arabidopsis as a model system, briefly discuss its potential limitations in drought and salt stress studies, and present our views on the potential usefulness of sorghum as a model system for cereals in drought and salinity stress proteomic studies.

  2. The effect of hypertonic saline dextran solutions on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in anaesthetised piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, M; Kerbaul, F; Roussel, L; Imbert, M; Guidon, C

    2002-10-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) is a regulatory mechanism by which blood is diverted from poorly ventilated to better ventilated areas of the lung. The aim of the present study was to assess the extent to which hypertonic saline dextran and dextran solutions modify the magnitude of HPV during isovolumic haemodilution in intact acutely instrumented piglets. Eighteen large white piglets were anesthetised and assigned to two groups. Mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and cardiac output (Q), systemic arterial pressure and left arterial pressure (LAP) were measured. A decrease in Q was obtained by reducing venous return. This enabled measurement of transpulmonary pressures (mean PAP minus LAP) at four levels of Q in hyperoxia (inspiratory oxygen fraction (FiO2)=0.4) then in hypoxia (Fi,O2=0.1) in the two groups before blood soustraction (10 mL x kg(-1)) and after loading with sodium chloride (NaCl) 7.5% and dextran 6% or with dextran 6% alone. Dextran alone led to a decrease in mean PAP-LAP/Q values, and NaCl with dextran was associated with a significant shift of mean PAP-LAP/Q plots to higher pressures in hypoxia. Hypertonic saline dextran solution, as replacement fluid in isovolaemic haemodilution increased the magnitude of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, whereas dextran solution reduced it.

  3. Enhanced remediation of an oily sludge with saline water

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    Key words: Bioremediation, biostimulation, oily sludge, saline water, Bacillus subtilis. INTRODUCTION ... bioremediation such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (PAHs) with more than five ..... ecosystem impacted with crude oil. J. Appl. Sci.

  4. Effects of salinity stress on seedlings growth, mineral nutrients and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... extracted in 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone and absorption was measured in .... possibility is that salinity reduced photosynthesis, which in turn limited ... weakening of protein-pigment-lipid complex (Strogonov et al., 1970) and ...

  5. Highlights of the First 15 Months of Aquarius Salinity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerloef, Gary S. E.; Kao, Hsun-Ying; Wentz, Frank; LeVine, David M.; Yueh, Simon H.; Feldman, Gene C.

    2012-01-01

    Aquarius satellite salinity measurements are resolving the major global and regional spatial patterns, and temporal variations, since the start of routine data collection on 25 August 2011. This description includes the principal seasonal variations over the first annual cycle as observed by the mission. In particular, we identify the evolution of low salinity anomalies associated with the Atlantic and Pacific intertropical convergence zones (ITCZ), major river outflows such as the Amazon, a seasonal low salinity anomaly in the Panama bight, and other features. We also explore the links that the salinity variations have with precipitation and surface currents. We then will describe the variations related to the presently evolving 2012 El Nino, now evident, as it progresses through the summer and fall 2012. We conclude with a brief summary of the Aquarius data products and validation

  6. Salinity and Flow Monitoring in the San Francisco Bay Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report describes the utility and approximate cost of expanding the salinity water quality monitoring network along the axis of the San Francisco Estuary from Suisun Bay to Rio Vista on the Sacramento River.

  7. NOAA NDBC SOS - sea_water_practical_salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_water_practical_salinity data. Because of the nature of SOS...

  8. Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Lima Pace Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

  9. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰ on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold at 6‰. Salinities up to 4‰ prevented fertilization and hatching, proving their deleterious effects on oocytes and embryos. Therefore, media up to 4‰ salinity may be an alternative for icthyo prophylaxis, although fertilization and incubation must be done in freshwater medium

  10. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  11. Reclamation and Management of Saline and Alkali Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Katiyar, D.; Agrawal, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Soil is the most precious natural resource and thus requires proper management. Estimates show that the world as a whole is losing at least 3.0 ha of arable land every minute due to salinization or sodification. In India about 7.0 M ha land is affected by salinity and alkalinity. The problem...... to combat with the problem. The present review is an attempt to emphasize the problem of salinity and alkalinity of soils, its effect on plants and application of physical, chemical and biological methods of soil reclamation along with management issues...... of saline and alkali soils is old but its magnitude and intensity have been increasing because of poor land and water management practices. The proper land management by way of its reclamation involves physical, chemical and biological means, which are site specific and their integration is highly desirable...

  12. Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phosphorus and humic acid application alleviate salinity stress of pepper seedling. ... product that contains many elements which improve the soil fertility and increase the availability of nutrient elements. ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol.

  13. Long term Milford Lab Temperature and Salinity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity of sea water entering the Milford NOAA Laboratory has been being collected since 1948. From 1948-1974 the temperature data was collected at...

  14. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  15. 0.9% saline is neither normal nor physiological%0.9%盐水既不正常也不生理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng LI; Shi-ren SUN; John Q YAP; Jiang-hua CHEN; Qi QIAN

    2016-01-01

    folowing saline infusion. Clinically, saline infusion for patients post abdominal and cardiovascular surgery is associated with a greater number of adverse effects including more frequent blood product transfusion and bicarbonate therapy, reduced gastric blood flow, delayed recovery of gut function, impaired cardiac contractility in response to inotropes, prolonged hospital stay, and possibly increased mortality. In critically il patients, saline infusion, compared to balanced fluid infusions, in-creases the occurrence of acute kidney injury. In summary, saline is a highly acidic fluid. With the exception of saline infusion for patients with hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and volume depletion due to vomiting or upper gastroin-testinal suction, indiscriminate use, especialy for acutely il patients, may cause unnecessary complications and should be avoided. More education regarding saline-related effects and adequate electrolyte management is needed.

  16. No difference in acute effects of supplemental v. dietary calcium on blood pressure and microvascular function in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal: a cross-over randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Thaís da Silva; Leal, Priscila Mansur; Antunes, Vanessa Parada; Sanjuliani, Antonio Felipe; Klein, Márcia Regina Simas Torres

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that supplemental Ca (SC) increases the risk of cardiovascular events, whereas dietary Ca (DC) decreases the risk of cardiovascular events. Although frequently consumed with meals, it remains unclear whether Ca can mitigate or aggravate the deleterious effects of a high-fat meal on cardiovascular risk factors. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of SC or DC on blood pressure (BP) and microvascular function (MVF) in the postprandial period in obese women challenged with a high-fat meal. In this cross-over controlled trial, sixteen obese women aged 20-50 years were randomly assigned to receive three test meals (2908 kJ (695 kcal); 48 % fat): high DC (HDCM; 547 mg DC), high SC (HSCM; 500 mg SC-calcium carbonate) and low Ca (LCM; 42 mg DC). BP was continuously evaluated from 15 min before to 120 min after meals by digital photoplethysmography. Before and 120 min after meals, participants underwent evaluation of serum Ca and microvascular flow after postocclusive reactive hyperaemia (PORH) by laser speckle contrast imaging. Ionised serum Ca rose significantly only after HSCM. Systolic BP increased after the three meals, whereas diastolic BP increased after LCM and HDCM. Hyperaemia peak, hyperaemia amplitude and AUC evaluated after PORH decreased with LCM. After HDCM, there was a reduction in hyperaemia peak and hyperaemia amplitude, whereas HSCM decreased only hyperaemia peak. However, comparative analyses of the effects of three test meals on serum Ca, BP and MVF revealed no significant meal×time interaction. This study suggests that in obese women SC and DC do not interfere with the effects of a high-fat meal on BP and MVF.

  17. Comparative analysis of the acute response of the trout, O. mykiss, head kidney to in vivo challenge with virulent and attenuated infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and LPS-induced inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roher Nerea

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The response of the trout, O. mykiss, head kidney to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS or active and attenuated infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV and attINHV respectively intraperitoneal challenge, 24 and 72 hours post-injection, was investigated using a salmonid-specific cDNA microarray. Results The head kidney response to i.p. LPS-induced inflammation in the first instance displays an initial stress reaction involving suppression of major cellular processes, including immune function, followed by a proliferative hematopoietic-type/biogenesis response 3 days after administration. The viral response at the early stage of infection highlights a suppression of hematopoietic and protein biosynthetic function and a stimulation of immune response. In fish infected with IHNV a loss of cellular function including signal transduction, cell cycle and transcriptional activity 72 hours after infection reflects the tissue-specific pathology of IHNV infection. attIHNV treatment on the other hand shows a similar pattern to native IHNV infection at 24 hours however at 72 hours a divergence from the viral response is seen and replace with a recovery response more similar to that observed for LPS is observed. Conclusion In conclusion we have been able to identify and characterise by transcriptomic analysis two different types of responses to two distinct immune agents, a virus, IHNV and a bacterial cell wall component, LPS and a 'mixed' response to an attenuated IHNV. This type of analysis will lead to a greater understanding of the physiological response and the development of effective immune responses in salmonid fish to different pathogenic and pro-inflammatory agents.

  18. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from time series and underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the GULF CHALLENGER in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2004-05-10 to 2013-08-15 (NODC Accession 0073808)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0073808 includes chemical, meteorological, physical, time series and underway - surface data collected from GULF CHALLENGER in the North Atlantic...

  19. Nonlinear Allometric Equation for Crop Response to Soil Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Misle

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Crop response to soil salinity has been extensively studied, from empirical works to modelling approach, being described by different equations, first as a piecewise linear model. The equation employed can differ with actual response, causing miscalculation in practical situations, particularly at the higher extremes of the curve. The aim of this work is to propose a new equation, which allows determining the full response to salinity of plant species and to provide a verification using different experimental data sets. A new nonlinear equation is exposed supported by the allometric approach, in which the allometric exponent is salinity-dependent and decreases with the increase in relative salinity. A conversion procedure of parameters of the threshold-slope model is presented; also, a simple procedure for estimating the maximum salinity (zero-yield point when data sets are incomplete is exposed. The equation was tested in a wide range of experimental situations, using data sets from published works, as well as new measurements on seed germination. The statistical indicators of quality (R2, absolute sum of squares and standard deviation of residuals showed that the equation accurately fits the tested empirical results. The new equation for determining crop response to soil salinity is able to follow the response curve of any crop with remarkable accuracy and flexibility. Remarkable characteristics are: a maximum at minimum salinity, a maximum salinity point can be found (zero-yield depending on the data sets, and a meaningful inflection point, as well as the two points at which the slope of the curve equals unity, can be found.

  20. Remote Sensing of Salinity and Overview of Results from Aquarius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, D. M.; Dinnat, E. P.; Meissner, T.; Wentz, F.; Yueh, S. H.; Lagerloef, G. S. E.

    2015-01-01

    Aquarius is a combined active/passive microwave (L-band) instrument designed to map the salinity of global oceans from space. The specific goal of Aquarius is to monitor the seasonal and interannual variation of the large scale features of the sea surface salinity (SSS) field of the open ocean (i.e. away from land). The instrumentation has been designed to provide monthly maps with a spatial resolution of 150 km and an accuracy of 0.2 psu

  1. Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral,Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size dist...

  2. Effect of salinity and calcium on tomato fruit proteome

    OpenAIRE

    Faurobert, Mireille; Valot, Benoit; Bouchet, Jean-Paul; Grasselly, Dominique; Causse, Mathilde,; Ben Ahmed, Hela

    2013-01-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress that adversely affects plant growth and productivity. The physiology of the tomato in salty and nonsalty conditions has been extensively studied, providing an invaluable base to understand the responses of the plants to cultural practices. However few data are yet available at the proteomic level looking for the physiological basis of fruit development, under salt stress. Here, we report the effects of salinity and calcium on fruit proteome variations of two...

  3. Development of a coastal drought index using salinity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrads, Paul A.; Darby, Lisa S.

    2017-01-01

    A critical aspect of the uniqueness of coastal drought is the effects on the salinity dynamics of creeks, rivers, and estuaries. The location of the freshwater–saltwater interface along the coast is an important factor in the ecological and socioeconomic dynamics of coastal communities. Salinity is a critical response variable that integrates hydrologic and coastal dynamics including sea level, tides, winds, precipitation, streamflow, and tropical storms. The position of the interface determines the composition of freshwater and saltwater aquatic communities as well as the freshwater availability for water intakes. Many definitions of drought have been proposed, with most describing a decline in precipitation having negative impacts on the water supply. Indices have been developed incorporating data such as rainfall, streamflow, soil moisture, and groundwater levels. These water-availability drought indices were developed for upland areas and may not be ideal for characterizing coastal drought. The availability of real-time and historical salinity datasets provides an opportunity for the development of a salinity-based coastal drought index. An approach similar to the standardized precipitation index (SPI) was modified and applied to salinity data obtained from sites in South Carolina and Georgia. Using the SPI approach, the index becomes a coastal salinity index (CSI) that characterizes coastal salinity conditions with respect to drought periods of higher-saline conditions and wet periods of higher-freshwater conditions. Evaluation of the CSI indicates that it provides additional coastal response information as compared to the SPI and the Palmer hydrologic drought index, and the CSI can be used for different estuary types and for comparison of conditions along coastlines.

  4. Desertification, salinization, and biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazono, S.; Patino, Reynaldo; Taylor, C.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study determined long-term changes in fish assemblages, river discharge, salinity, and local precipitation, and examined hydrological drivers of biotic homogenization in a dryland river ecosystem, the Trans-Pecos region of the Rio Grande/Rio Bravo del Norte (USA/Mexico). Historical (1977-1989) and current (2010-2011) fish assemblages were analyzed by rarefaction analysis (species richness), nonmetric multidimensional scaling (composition/variability), multiresponse permutation procedures (composition), and paired t-test (variability). Trends in hydrological conditions (1970s-2010s) were examined by Kendall tau and quantile regression, and associations between streamfiow and specific conductance (salinity) by generalized linear models. Since the 1970s, species richness and variability of fish assemblages decreased in the Rio Grande below the confluence with the Rio Conchos (Mexico), a major tributary, but not above it. There was increased representation of lower-flow/higher-salinity tolerant species, thus making fish communities below the confluence taxonomically and functionally more homogeneous to those above it. Unlike findings elsewhere, this biotic homogenization was due primarily to changes in the relative abundances of native species. While Rio Conchos discharge was > 2-fold higher than Rio Grande discharge above their confluence, Rio Conchos discharge decreased during the study period causing Rio Grande discharge below the confluence to also decrease. Rio Conchos salinity is lower than Rio Grande salinity above their confluence and, as Rio Conchos discharge decreased, it caused Rio Grande salinity below the confluence to increase (reduced dilution). Trends in discharge did not correspond to trends in precipitation except at extreme-high (90th quantile) levels. In conclusion, decreasing discharge from the Rio Conchos has led to decreasing flow and increasing salinity in the Rio Grande below the confluence. This spatially uneven desertification and

  5. Oil and Protein Accumulation in Soybean Grains under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two factorial experiments based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications were conducted in 2007 and 2008, to evaluate grain development (four harvests and rate and duration of oil and protein accumulation in three soybean cultivars (�Williams�, �Zan� and �L17� under a non-saline (control and three saline (3, 6 and 9 ds/m NaCl conditions. Six seeds were sown in each pot filled with 900 g perlite, using 144 pots for each experiment. After emergence, seedlings were thinned and 4 plants were kept in each pot. Rate of oil accumulation up to maturity was not significantly affected by salinity. With increasing salinity, rate and percentage of protein accumulation, duration of oil and protein accumulation and oil and protein content per grain decreased, but oil percentage increased. Oil and protein yields per plant decreased as salinity increased. These reductions were mainly attributed to the short duration of protein and oil accumulation and grain yield per plant under saline conditions. �Williams� had the highest rate and duration of protein accumulation and rate of oil accumulation, but �L17� had the highest grain yield per plant. Consequently, differences in protein and oil yields per plant between these two cultivars were not statistically significant. However, �Zan� had the lowest protein and oil yields, due to the lowest grain yield per plant.

  6. Saline Groundwater from Coastal Aquifers As a Source for Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Shaked; Russak, Amos; Sivan, Orit; Yechieli, Yoseph; Rahav, Eyal; Oren, Yoram; Kasher, Roni

    2016-02-16

    Reverse osmosis (RO) seawater desalination is currently a widespread means of closing the gap between supply and demand for potable water in arid regions. Currently, one of the main setbacks of RO operation is fouling, which hinders membrane performance and induces pressure loss, thereby reducing system efficiency. An alternative water source is saline groundwater with salinity close to seawater, pumped from beach wells in coastal aquifers which penetrate beneath the freshwater-seawater interface. In this research, we studied the potential use of saline groundwater of the coastal aquifer as feedwater for desalination in comparison to seawater using fieldwork and laboratory approaches. The chemistry, microbiology and physical properties of saline groundwater were characterized and compared with seawater. Additionally, reverse osmosis desalination experiments in a cross-flow system were performed, evaluating the permeate flux, salt rejection and fouling propensities of the different water types. Our results indicated that saline groundwater was significantly favored over seawater as a feed source in terms of chemical composition, microorganism content, silt density, and fouling potential, and exhibited better desalination performance with less flux decline. Saline groundwater may be a better water source for desalination by RO due to lower fouling potential, and reduced pretreatment costs.

  7. Soil salinity detection. [Starr and Cameron Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Cuellar, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on nonsaline sites there was an intermixture of short and midgrass species. Differentiation between primarily undisturbed saline and nonsaline rangelands, in Starr County, is partially possible using film optical density readings from Skylab imagery. Differentiation among eight saline and nonsaline soil sites in Cameron County, using black and white and color film was not possible according to statistical results from both DMRT and correlation analysis. Linear analysis showed that Bendix 24-band MSS data (aircraft) collected at 1700 m and 4800 m, as well as Skylab and LANDSAT-1 MSS data, were significantly correlated to electrical conductivity readings. In Starr County, the best spectral band for detection of saline soil levels, using black and white SO-022 film, was in the 0.6 to 0.7 micron spectral region. In Cameron County, the best spectral bands for detection of saline soil levels were the 2.3 to 2.43 micron, 0.72 to 0.76 micron, 0.69 to 1.75 micron, and 0.7 to 1.1 micron spectral regions.

  8. Annual growth patterns of baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) along salinity gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brenda L.; Doyle, Thomas W.; Krauss, Ken W.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salinity on Taxodium distichum seedlings have been well documented, but few studies have examined mature trees in situ. We investigated the environmental drivers of T. distichum growth along a salinity gradient on the Waccamaw (South Carolina) and Savannah (Georgia) Rivers. On each river, T. distichum increment cores were collected from a healthy upstream site (Upper), a moderately degraded mid-reach site (Middle), and a highly degraded downstream site (Lower). Chronologies were successfully developed for Waccamaw Upper and Middle, and Savannah Middle. Correlations between standardized chronologies and environmental variables showed significant relationships between T. distichum growth and early growing season precipitation, temperature, and Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). Savannah Middle chronology correlated most strongly with August river salinity levels. Both lower sites experienced suppression/release events likely in response to local anthropogenic impacts rather than regional environmental variables. The factors that affect T. distichum growth, including salinity, are strongly synergistic. As sea-level rise pushes the freshwater/saltwater interface inland, salinity becomes more limiting to T. distichum growth in tidal freshwater swamps; however, salinity impacts are exacerbated by locally imposed environmental modifications.

  9. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  10. Influence of temperature and salinity on hydrodynamic forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Escobar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to introduce an innovative approach to offshore engineering so as to take variations in sea temperature and salinity into account in the calculation of hydrodynamic forces. With this in mind, a thorough critical analysis of the influence of sea temperature and salinity on hydrodynamic forces on piles like those used nowadays in offshore wind farms will be carried out. This influence on hydrodynamic forces occurs through a change in water density and viscosity due to temperature and salinity variation. Therefore, the aim here is to observe whether models currently used to estimate wave forces on piles are valid for different ranges of sea temperature and salinity apart from observing the limit when diffraction or nonlinear effects arise combining both effects with the magnitude of the pile diameter. Hence, specific software has been developed to simulate equations in fluid mechanics taking into account nonlinear and diffraction effects. This software enables wave produced forces on a cylinder supported on the sea bed to be calculated. The study includes observations on the calculation model's sensitivity as to a variation in the cylinder's diameter, on the one hand and, on the other, as to temperature and salinity variation. This software will enable an iterative calculation to be made for finding out the shape the pressure wave caused when a wave passes over will have for different pile diameters and water with different temperature and salinity.

  11. MICROBIAL EVALUATION OF NORMAL SALINE USED BY CONTACT LENS WEARERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUA SIEW SIANG

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Contact lens solutions should only be used for four weeks after first opening but this practice is not always followed. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the duration that contact lens wearers could use their normal saline without microbial contamination. Two brands of normal saline, OpticareTM and Klean & KareTM, were used by 30 contact lens wearers on alternate days. Samples were collected weekly for microbial evaluation. On an average, the duration of use without microbial contamination was four weeks. Half of the participants were able to use both bottles of their normal saline without microbial contamination for at least four weeks after first opening and this included nine participants who were able to use for at least eight weeks. The brands of normal saline, the frequency of use, the place where the normal saline was stored or used were not significantly related to the duration of contamination-free period. Of the 27 samples tested, 11 grew gram-positive bacteria and 16, gram-negative bacteria. The most common bacteria found were Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas species. None of the samples had Acanthamoeba spp. and no eye infection or irritation was reported. It was concluded that on an average, a bottle of sterile normal saline can be used for at least four weeks after first opening. Some users may be able to extend this expiry date to eight weeks, depending on the way the solution was used.

  12. Soil salinity prediction using electromagnetic induction method in gypsiferous soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouksila, Fethi; Persson, Magnus; Bahri, Akiça; Berndtsson, Ronny; Ben Slimane, Abir

    2017-04-01

    In arid and semiarid regions, secondary soil salinization is considered a main danger to the sustainability of irrigated land and agricultural production. Thus, accurate and rapid estimation of soil salinity should be readily available to farmers during crop development to increase productivity and to contribute to sustainable land planning aimed at mitigating soil degradation. Measurement of electrical conductivity in saturated paste extracts (ECe) is a standard method for which other salinity estimation methods are referenced. In the present study, we investigated the possibilities to use the EM38 to predict field ECe in a saline gypsiferous soil of the Saharian-climate Fatnassa oasis (Tunisia) under shallow and saline groundwater. On the 114 ha oasis, an experimental network system of 27 agricultural plots was chosen for monitoring soil properties (ECa-EM38, soil particle size, gypsum content, soil moisture, and ECe) and groundwater (depth, Dgw, electrical conductivity, and ECgw). Samples were taken during 4 years (2001 to 2004) at experimental plots and soil profiles were sampled at 0.2 m depth intervals to 1.2 m for physical and chemical analysis. The results showed that significant lnECe-EM relationships could be developed. However, results also indicated that for better accuracy of soil salinity prediction using the EM38, it is advisable to perform calibrations for each measurement period.

  13. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared.

  14. Simultaneous stressors: interactive effects of an immune challenge and dietary toxin can be detrimental to honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Angela; Pirk, Christian W W; Nicolson, Susan W

    2012-07-01

    Recent large-scale mortality of honeybee colonies is believed to be caused by multiple interactions between diseases, parasites, pesticide exposure, and other stress factors. To test whether a dual challenge has an additive effect in reducing survival, we experimentally stimulated the immune system of caged Apis mellifera scutellata workers from six colonies by injecting saline or Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and additionally fed them the alkaloid nicotine (0 μM, 3 μM and 300 μM in 0.63 M sucrose). Workers did not increase their sucrose intake to compensate for the immune system activation, and those injected with E. coli LPS decreased their intake on the highest nicotine concentration. In the single challenges, injection and high nicotine doses negatively affected survival. All injected worker groups showed reduced survival. Without nicotine, survival of the saline and E. coli LPS worker groups was similar, but survival of E. coli LPS-challenged workers dropped below that of the saline groups when additionally challenged by nicotine, with bees dying earlier at higher nicotine concentrations. In the dual challenge of saline injection and dietary nicotine, a reduced effect on survival was observed, with lower mortality than expected from the summed mortalities due to the single challenges. However, additive and synergistic effects on survival were observed in workers simultaneously challenged by E. coli LPS and nicotine, indicating that interactive effects of simultaneous pathogen exposure and dietary toxin are detrimental to honeybee fitness. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care.

  16. Accomplishments of Aquarius: NASA's first global Sea Surface Salinity Mission: a review of the technical findings to date

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Amit

    2014-10-01

    Launched 10 June 2011, the NASA's Aquarius instrument onboard the Argentine built and managed Satélite de Aplicaciones Científicas (SAC-D) has been tirelessly observing the open oceans, confirming and adding new knowledge to the not so vast measured records of our Earth's global oceans. This paper reviews the data collected over the last 3 years, it's findings, challenges and future work that is at hand for the sleepless oceanographers, hydrologists and climate scientists. Although routine data is being collected, a snapshot is presented from almost 3-years of flawless operations showing new discoveries and possibilities of lot more in the future. Repetitive calibration and validation of measurements from Aquarius continue together with comparison of the data to the existing array of Argo temperature/salinity profiling floats, measurements from the recent Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) in-situ experiment and research, and to the data collected from the European Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission. This all aids in the optimization of computer model functions to improve the basic understanding of the water cycle over the oceans and its ties to climate. The Aquarius mission operations team also has been tweaking and optimizing algorithms, reprocessing data as needed, and producing salinity movies that has never been seen before. A brief overview of the accomplishments, technical findings to date will be covered in this paper.

  17. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Charles PS

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  18. Acute otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Charles Ps

    2013-02-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as 'swimmer's ear', is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  19. Acute otitis externa

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Acute otitis externa, also known as ‘swimmer’s ear’, is a common disease of children, adolescents and adults. While chronic suppurative otitis media or acute otitis media with tympanostomy tubes or a perforation can cause acute otitis externa, both the infecting organisms and management protocol are different. This practice point focuses solely on managing acute otitis externa, without acute otitis media, tympanostomy tubes or a perforation being present.

  20. What are the effects of hypertonic saline plus furosemide in acute heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Zepeda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de nuevas terapias para resolver la resistencia a los diuréticos en insuficiencia cardiaca aguda se ha planteado la adición de suero hipertónico. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen nueve estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Se concluye que el suero hipertónico asociado a furosemida probablemente disminuye la mortalidad, estadía y reingreso hospitalario en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada.