WorldWideScience

Sample records for acute salinity challenges

  1. Sea Surface Salinity : Research Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpern, David; Lagerloef, Gary; Font, Jordi

    2012-01-01

    Sea surface salinity (SSS) can be important in regulating sea surface temperature (SST). Two technological breakthrough satellite SSS missions, Aquarius and Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS), are currently producing high-quality SSS data. This paper provides an overview of the importance of SSS for weather and climate applications and describes the Aquarius and SMOS missions. The newness of adequately sampled SSS data prompted a first-time at-sea field campaign devoted to improved understanding of SSS variations.

  2. Aerosolised hypertonic saline in hospitalized young children with acute bronchiolitis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    OpenAIRE

    Maheshkumar, K B; B.P. Karunakara; Nagalli, Manjunath Mallikarjuna; Mallikarjuna, H B

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Objectives: To determine the effectiveness of aerosolised 3% saline in hospitalised children with acute bronchiolitis. Design: Prospective, randomized, double blinded clinical study. Setting: Referral teaching hospital, from October 2007 to March 2009. Patients: 40 children [age less than 2 yrs] were enrolled sequentially and randomized into 2 groups [20 each; Group- A - 3% saline and Group-B [Normal saline]. Intervention: 4 nebulizations [3% saline or normal s...

  3. Saturated hydrogen saline attenuates endotoxin-induced acute liver dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X-F; Zhang, J

    2013-01-01

    To determine the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute liver dysfunction, rats were divided into control, LPS, and LPS plus saturated hydrogen saline (LPS+H(2)) groups. Treatment with saturated hydrogen saline prolonged the median survival time and reduced liver dysfunction. Moreover, saturated hydrogen saline significantly reduced pathological alterations in liver tissues, the number of ballooned hepatocytes, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in liver tissues (Phydrogen saline treatment. Saturated hydrogen saline also decreased phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK), phosphorylated Jun kinase (p-JNK), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB), and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspase (Smac) levels, and increased p38 activation (Phydrogen saline may attenuate LPS-induced acute liver dysfunction in rats, possibly by reducing inflammation and cell apoptosis. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), NF-kappaB, and Smac may contribute to saturated hydrogen saline-mediated liver protection.

  4. Beyond hydrogeologic evidence: challenging the current assumptions about salinity processes in the Corangamite region, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlhaus, P. G.; Cox, J. W.; Simmons, C. T.; Smitt, C. M.

    2008-11-01

    In keeping with the standard scientific methods, investigations of salinity processes focus on the collection and interpretation of contemporary scientific data. However, using multiple lines of evidence from non-hydrogeologic sources such as geomorphic, archaeological and historical records can substantially add value to the scientific investigations. By using such evidence, the validity of the assumptions about salinity processes in Australian landscapes is challenged, especially the assumption that the clearing of native vegetation has resulted in rising saline groundwater in all landscapes. In the Corangamite region of south-west Victoria, salinity has been an episodic feature of the landscapes throughout the Quaternary and was present at the time of the Aboriginal inhabitants and the first pastoral settlement by Europeans. Although surface-water salinity has increased in some waterways and the area of salinised land has expanded in some landscapes, there is no recorded evidence found which supports significant rises in groundwater following widespread land-use change. In many areas, salinity is an inherent component of the region’s landscapes, and sustains world-class environmental assets that require appropriate salinity levels for their ecological health. Managing salinity requires understanding the specific salinity processes in each landscape.

  5. Acute hepatitis C: Prospects and challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    More than 170 million people worldwide have chronic hepatitis C. Acute hepatitis C is rarely diagnosed because it is commonly asymptomatic. Most infected patients are unaware of their condition until the symptoms of chronic infection manifest. Treatment of acute hepatitis C is something of a paradox because spontaneous resolution is possible and many patients do not have symptoms.However, several factors provide a rationale for treating patients who have acute hepatitis C. Compared with acute hepatitis C, chronic hepatitis C is associated with a worse prognosis, the need for more intensive treatment,longer treatment duration, and a decrease in successful treatment outcomes. Conversely, early intervention is associated with improved viral eradication, using a regimen that is better tolerated, less expensive, more convenient, and of shorter duration than the currently approved combination therapies for chronic hepatitis C.

  6. Nebulized Isotonic Saline versus Water following a Laryngeal Desiccation Challenge in Classically Trained Sopranos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Muntz, Faye; Houtz, Daniel R.; Sauder, Cara; Elstad, Mark; Wright-Costa, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of nebulized isotonic saline (IS) versus sterile water (SW) on self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) and phonation threshold pressure (PTP) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge in classically trained sopranos. Method: In a double-blind, within-subject crossover design, 34 sopranos breathed dry air…

  7. Effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hishida, A.; Yonemura, K.; Ohishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Honda, N.

    1988-05-01

    Studies were performed to examine the effect of saline loading on uranium-induced acute renal failure (ARF) in rats. Forty-eight hours after the i.v. injection of uranyl acetate (UA, 5 mg/kg), inulin clearance rate (Cin) decreased to approximately 43% of the control value in water drinking rats (P less than 0.005). Animals receiving continuous isotonic saline infusion following UA showed higher urine flow and Cin (60% of control, P less than 0.01), and lessened intratubular cast formation when compared with water-drinking ARF rats. A short-term saline infusion following UA did not attenuate the decline in Cin (43% of control). An inverse relationship was found between Cin and the number of casts (r = -0.75, P less than 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that standardized partial regression coefficient is statistically significant between Cin and cast formation (-0.69, P less than 0.05), but not between Cin and tubular necrosis (-0.07, P greater than 0.05). Renin depletion caused by DOCA plus saline drinking did not attenuate the decline in Cin in ARF (47% of control). No significant difference was found in urinary uranium excretion between water-drinking and saline-infused ARF rats. The findings suggest that continuous saline infusion following UA attenuates the decline in Cin in ARF rats; and that this beneficial effect of saline loading is associated with lessened cast formation rather than with suppressed renin-angiotensin activity or enhanced urinary-uranium excretion.

  8. Acute extracellular fluid volume changes increase ileocolonic resistance to saline flow in anesthetized dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Jr. A.T.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of acute extracellular fluid volume changes on saline flow through 4 gut segments (ileocolonic, ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and proximal colon, perfused at constant pressure in anesthetized dogs. Two different experimental protocols were used: hypervolemia (iv saline infusion, 0.9% NaCl, 20 ml/min, volume up to 5% body weight and controlled hemorrhage (up to a 50% drop in mean arterial pressure. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 6 was gradually and significantly decreased during the expansion (17.1%, P<0.05 and expanded (44.9%, P<0.05 periods while mean ileal flow (N = 7 was significantly decreased only during the expanded period (38%, P<0.05. Mean colonic flow (N = 7 was decreased during expansion (12%, P<0.05 but returned to control levels during the expanded period. Mean ileocolonic sphincter flow (N = 6 was not significantly modified. Mean ileocolonic flow (N = 10 was also decreased after hemorrhage (retracted period by 17% (P<0.05, but saline flow was not modified in the other separate circuits (N = 6, 5 and 4 for ileal, ileocolonic sphincter and colonic groups, respectively. The expansion effect was blocked by atropine (0.5 mg/kg, iv both on the ileocolonic (N = 6 and ileal (N = 5 circuits. Acute extracellular fluid volume retraction and expansion increased the lower gastrointestinal resistances to saline flow. These effects, which could physiologically decrease the liquid volume being supplied to the colon, are possible mechanisms activated to acutely balance liquid volume deficit and excess.

  9. Hydrogen-rich saline ameliorates the severity of L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Han; Sun, Yan Ping; Li, Yang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Liu, Wen Wu [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xiang, Hong Gang [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Fan, Lie Ying [Department of Clinical Laboratory, Shanghai East Hospital, Tong Ji University, Shanghai 200120 (China); Sun, Qiang [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Xu, Xin Yun [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Cai, Jian Mei [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Ruan, Can Ping; Su, Ning; Yan, Rong Lin [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China); Sun, Xue Jun, E-mail: sunxjk@hotmail.com [Department of Diving Medicine, Faculty of Naval Medicine, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: wang2929@hotmail.com [Department of General Surgery, Shanghai Chang Zheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200003 (China)

    2010-03-05

    Molecular hydrogen, which reacts with the hydroxyl radical, has been considered as a novel antioxidant. Here, we evaluated the protective effects of hydrogen-rich saline on the L-arginine (L-Arg)-induced acute pancreatitis (AP). AP was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by giving two intraperitoneal injections of L-Arg, each at concentrations of 250 mg/100 g body weight, with an interval of 1 h. Hydrogen-rich saline (>0.6 mM, 6 ml/kg) or saline (6 ml/kg) was administered, respectively, via tail vein 15 min after each L-Arg administration. Severity of AP was assessed by analysis of serum amylase activity, pancreatic water content and histology. Samples of pancreas were taken for measuring malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase. Apoptosis in pancreatic acinar cell was determined with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick-end labeling technique (TUNEL). Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-{kappa}B) were detected with immunohistochemistry. Hydrogen-rich saline treatment significantly attenuated the severity of L-Arg-induced AP by ameliorating the increased serum amylase activity, inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, lipid oxidation and pancreatic tissue edema. Moreover, hydrogen-rich saline treatment could promote acinar cell proliferation, inhibit apoptosis and NF-{kappa}B activation. These results indicate that hydrogen treatment has a protective effect against AP, and the effect is possibly due to its ability to inhibit oxidative stress, apoptosis, NF-{kappa}B activation and to promote acinar cell proliferation.

  10. [Nebulized hypertonic saline and acute viral bronchiolitis in infants: current aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, E; David, M; Bresson, V; Retornaz, K; Bosdure, E; Dubus, J-C

    2012-06-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis affects infants, is frequent, and can be severe. Its treatment is only based on symptoms. Hypertonic saline (HS) may act favorably in this situation by fighting virus-induced dehydration of the airway liquid surface. Because of an osmotic action, HS attracts the water from the epithelial cells and improves mucociliary clearance. Five double-blind placebo-controlled studies concerning hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis showed that repeated nebulizations of 3% HS induce a 20% improvement in the clinical severity score and reduced the hospital length of stay by 24h. Tolerance is excellent. On the other hand, a few questions remain unresolved: what is the optimal salt concentration? What is the recommended nebulizer? What is the best frequency for nebulizer use? Can nebulized HS be used at home? What are the results with systematic physiotherapy when HS is used?

  11. A COMPARATIVE STUDY TO ASSESS THE EFFE CTS OF NEBULISED 3% HYPERTONIC SALINE, 0.9% NORMAL SALINE AND SALBUTALMOL IN MANAGEMENT OF ACUTE BRONCHIOLITIS AMONG INDIAN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of nebulised 3% hypertonic saline , 0.9% saline and salbutamol in patients of acute bronchiolitis . DESIGN: R andomised controlled trial . SETTING: tertiary care teaching hospital . MATERIAL AND METHODS: 100 Children with age 1 to 24 months admitted in hospital with clinical diagnosis of acute bronchiolitis for 2 consecutive years were included in the study. Participants were divided into 3 groups – 3% hypertonic saline (HS , 0.9% norm al saline and salbutalmol. 4 doses of nebulisation at an interval of 6 hours were given daily in each group till discharge. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients in the study population was 5.7 ± 3.4 months. Maximum number of the patients i.e. 65.7% belong ed to the age group of 0 - 6 months. There was male preponderance in all 3 groups. Baseline Clinical Severity (CS scores in 3%HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups were 5.9±1.5 , 5.5±1.0 and 5.1±2.3 respectively (p=0.146. After treatment , the CS scor es dropped to 1.0±1.1 , 3.3±0.5 and 1.9±1.1 in 3%HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups respectively on the 3 rd day of treatment (p<0.01. Length of hospital stay in 3% HS , 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol groups was 3.4±1.7 , 4.9±1.4 and 3.7±1.9 days respectively , which was found to be statistically significant (p= 0.001. CONCLUSION: 3% Hypertonic Saline nebulization (without additional bronchodilators is an effective and safe treatment in patients of acute bronchiolitis. It significantly reduces th e CS scores and length of hospital stay as compared to 0.9% Normal Saline and Salbutamol nebulizations.

  12. Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-long Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen can relieve tissue-damaging oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis. Injection of hydrogen-rich saline is an effective method for transporting molecular hydrogen. We hypothesized that hydrogen-rich saline would promote the repair of spinal cord injury induced by Allen′s method in rats. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after injury, then once daily for 2 weeks, 0.25 mL/kg hydrogen-rich saline was infused into the subarachnoid space through a catheter. Results at 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks after injury showed that hydrogen-rich saline markedly reduced cell death, inflammatory cell infiltration, serum malondialdehyde content, and caspase-3 immunoreactivity, elevated serum superoxide dismutase activity and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity, and improved motor function in the hindlimb. The present study confirms that hydrogen-rich saline injected within 2 weeks of injury effectively contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury in the acute stage.

  13. Hydrogen-rich saline injection into the subarachnoid cavity within 2 weeks promotes recovery after acute spinal cord injur y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-long Wang; Qing-shan Zhang; Kai-di Zhu; Jian-feng Sun; Ze-peng Zhang; Jian-wen Sun; Ke-xiang Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen can relieve tissue-damaging oxidative stress, inlfammation and apoptosis. Injection of hydrogen-rich saline is an effective method for transporting molecular hydrogen. We hypothe-sized that hydrogen-rich saline would promote the repair of spinal cord injury induced by Allen’s method in rats. At 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after injury, then once daily for 2 weeks, 0.25 mL/kg hydrogen-rich saline was infused into the subarachnoid space through a catheter. Results at 24 hours, 48 hours, 1 week and 2 weeks after injury showed that hydrogen-rich saline marked-ly reduced cell death, inlfammatory cell inifltration, serum malondialdehyde content, and caspa se-3 immunoreactivity, elevated serum superoxide dismutase activity and calcitonin gene-related peptide immunoreactivity, and improved motor function in the hindlimb. The present study conifrms that hydrogen-rich saline injected within 2 weeks of injury effectively contributes to the repair of spinal cord injury in the acute stage.

  14. Influence factors of salt-sensitive hypertension and responses of blood pressure and urinary sodium and potassium excretion to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘叶舟

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence factors of saltsensitive hypertension and to observe changes of blood pressures and urinary sodium and potassium excretion in response to acute oral saline loading among essential hypertensive patients in China.Methods Essential hypertensive patients from Beijing Jinzhan second community were included in this study.Salt-sensitivity was determined via the improved Sullivan’s acute oral saline loading

  15. Effectiveness of 3% hypertonic saline nebulization in acute bronchiolitis among Indian children: A quasi-experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsh V Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline (HS and 0.9% normal saline with nebulized 0.9% normal saline with salbutamol in patients of acute viral bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into three groups, that is, 3% HS group, 0.9% normal saline group and 0.9% saline with salbutamol group. Four doses at interval of 6 h were given daily until discharge. Average CS score and length of hospital stay were compared. One-way analysis of variance paired t-test and Chi-square test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ages of the patients in three groups were 6.03 ± 3.71, 5.69 ± 3.34 and 5.48 ± 3.35 respectively. The 3rd day CS scores for all the groups were 1.0 ± 1.1, 1.9 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 0.5 respectively (P = 0.000. The average length of hospital stay was 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.4 days respectively (P = 0.001. Conclusion: The present study concludes that 3% HS nebulization (without additional bronchodilators is an effective and safe treatment for nonasthmatic, moderately ill patients of acute bronchiolitis. The economic benefit of this comparably priced modality of treatment can be enormous in terms of hospital costs with parents returning to work sooner.

  16. Effectiveness of 3% hypertonic saline nebulization in acute bronchiolitis among Indian children: A quasi-experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Harsh V.; Gupta, Vivek V.; Kaur, Gurmeet; Baidwan, Amitoz S.; George, Pardeep P.; Shah, Jay C.; Shinde, Kushal; Malik, Ruku; Chitkara, Neha; Bajaj, Krushnan V.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effects of 3% hypertonic saline (HS) and 0.9% normal saline with nebulized 0.9% normal saline with salbutamol in patients of acute viral bronchiolitis. Materials and Methods: Participants were divided into three groups, that is, 3% HS group, 0.9% normal saline group and 0.9% saline with salbutamol group. Four doses at interval of 6 h were given daily until discharge. Average CS score and length of hospital stay were compared. One-way analysis of variance paired t-test and Chi-square test were utilized for statistical analysis. Results: The mean ages of the patients in three groups were 6.03 ± 3.71, 5.69 ± 3.34 and 5.48 ± 3.35 respectively. The 3rd day CS scores for all the groups were 1.0 ± 1.1, 1.9 ± 1.1 and 3.3 ± 0.5 respectively (P = 0.000). The average length of hospital stay was 3.4 ± 1.7, 3.7 ± 1.9 and 4.9 ± 1.4 days respectively (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The present study concludes that 3% HS nebulization (without additional bronchodilators) is an effective and safe treatment for nonasthmatic, moderately ill patients of acute bronchiolitis. The economic benefit of this comparably priced modality of treatment can be enormous in terms of hospital costs with parents returning to work sooner. PMID:27141475

  17. Ionic and photosynthetic homeostasis in quinoa challenged by drought and salinity – mechanisms of tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razzaghi, Fatemeh; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Jensen, Christian Richardt;

    2015-01-01

    -significant increase in elasticity enhanced crop water-capacitance. Day respiration (Rd) increased 2.7 times at high salinity but decreased 0.6 times during drought compared with control. Mesophyll conductance (gm) tended to be negatively affected by salinity as the increased succulence (FW : DW) possibly decreased...

  18. Ionic and Amino Acid Regulation in Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) in Response to Salinity Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Po-Ling; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Most marine mollusks are osmoconformers, in that, their body fluid osmolality changes in the direction of the change in environmental salinity. Marine mollusks exhibit a number of osmoregulatory mechanisms to cope with either hypo- or hyperosmotic stress. The effects of changes in salinity on the osmoregulatory mechanisms of the hard clam (Meretrix lusoria, an economically important species of marine bivalve for Taiwan) have not been determined. In this study, we examined the effect of exposure to hypo (10‰)- and hyper (35‰)-osmotic salinity on hard clams raised at their natural salinity (20‰). The osmolality, [Na(+)], and [Cl(-)] of the hard clam hemolymph were changed in the same direction as the surrounding salinity. Further, the contents of total free amino acids including taurine in the gills and mantles were significantly upregulated in hard clam with increasing salinity. The gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, the important enzyme regulating cellular inorganic ions, was not affected by the changed salinity. Mantle NKA activity, however, was stimulated in the 35‰ SW treatment. The taurine transporter (TAUT) is related to the regulation of intracellular contents of taurine, the dominant osmolyte. Herein, a TAUT gene of hard clam was cloned and a TAUT antibody was derived for the immunoblotting. The TAUT mRNA expression of the mantle in hard clam was significantly stimulated in 35‰ SW, but protein expression was not modulated by the changed salinity. In gills of the hard clam with 10‰ SW, both TAUT mRNA and protein expressions were significantly stimulated, and it may reflect a feedback regulation from the decreased gills taurine content under long-term hypoosmotic acclimation. These findings suggest that TAUT expression is regulated differently in gills and mantles following exposure to alterations in environmental salinity. Taken together, this study used the physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches to simultaneously explore the

  19. Ionic and Amino Acid Regulation in Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria) in Response to Salinity Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Hao; Yeh, Po-Ling; Lee, Tsung-Han

    2016-01-01

    Most marine mollusks are osmoconformers, in that, their body fluid osmolality changes in the direction of the change in environmental salinity. Marine mollusks exhibit a number of osmoregulatory mechanisms to cope with either hypo- or hyperosmotic stress. The effects of changes in salinity on the osmoregulatory mechanisms of the hard clam (Meretrix lusoria, an economically important species of marine bivalve for Taiwan) have not been determined. In this study, we examined the effect of exposure to hypo (10‰)- and hyper (35‰)-osmotic salinity on hard clams raised at their natural salinity (20‰). The osmolality, [Na(+)], and [Cl(-)] of the hard clam hemolymph were changed in the same direction as the surrounding salinity. Further, the contents of total free amino acids including taurine in the gills and mantles were significantly upregulated in hard clam with increasing salinity. The gill Na(+), K(+)-ATPase (NKA) activity, the important enzyme regulating cellular inorganic ions, was not affected by the changed salinity. Mantle NKA activity, however, was stimulated in the 35‰ SW treatment. The taurine transporter (TAUT) is related to the regulation of intracellular contents of taurine, the dominant osmolyte. Herein, a TAUT gene of hard clam was cloned and a TAUT antibody was derived for the immunoblotting. The TAUT mRNA expression of the mantle in hard clam was significantly stimulated in 35‰ SW, but protein expression was not modulated by the changed salinity. In gills of the hard clam with 10‰ SW, both TAUT mRNA and protein expressions were significantly stimulated, and it may reflect a feedback regulation from the decreased gills taurine content under long-term hypoosmotic acclimation. These findings suggest that TAUT expression is regulated differently in gills and mantles following exposure to alterations in environmental salinity. Taken together, this study used the physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches to simultaneously explore the

  20. Ionic and Amino Acid Regulation in Hard Clam (Meretrix lusoria in Response to Salinity Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hao Lin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Most marine mollusks are osmoconformers, in that, their body fluid osmolality changes in the direction of the change in environmental salinity. Marine mollusks exhibit a number of osmoregulatory mechanisms to cope with either hypo- or hyperosmotic stress. The effects of changes in salinity on the osmoregulatory mechanisms of the hard clam (Meretrix lusoria, an economically important species of marine bivalve for Taiwan have not been determined. In this study, we examined the effect of exposure to hypo (10‰- and hyper (35‰-osmotic salinity on hard clams raised at their natural salinity (20‰. The osmolality, [Na+], and [Cl-] of the hard clam hemolymph were changed in the same direction as the surrounding salinity. Further, the contents of total free amino acids including taurine in the gills and mantles were significantly upregulated in hard clam with increasing salinity. The gill Na+,K+-ATPase (NKA activity, the important enzyme regulating cellular inorganic ions, was not affected by the changed salinity. Mantle NKA activity, however, was stimulated in the 35‰ SW treatment. The taurine transporter (TAUT is related to the regulation of intracellular contents of taurine, the dominant osmolyte. Herein, a TAUT gene of hard clam was cloned and a TAUT antibody was derived for the immunoblotting. The TAUT mRNA expression of the mantle in hard clam was significantly stimulated in 35‰ SW, but protein expression was not modulated by the changed salinity. In gills of the hard clam with 10‰ SW, both TAUT mRNA and protein expressions were significantly stimulated, and it may reflect a feedback regulation from the decreased gills taurine content under long-term hypoosmotic acclimation. These findings suggest that TAUT expression is regulated differently in gills and mantles following exposure to alterations in environmental salinity. Taken together, this study used the physiological, biochemical and molecular approaches to simultaneously explore

  1. Salty or Sweet: Exploring the Challenges of Groundwater Salinization Within a Sustainability Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, N. B.; Van Meter, K. J.; Tate, E.

    2012-12-01

    In semi-arid to arid landscapes under intensive irrigation, groundwater salinization can be a persistent and critical problem, leading to reduced agricultural productivity, limited access to fresh drinking water, and ultimately desertification. It is estimated that in India alone, problems of salinity are now affecting over 6 million hectares of agricultural land. In villages of the Mewat district of Haryana in Northern India, subsistence-level farming is the primary source of income, and farming families live under serious threat from increasing salinity levels, both in terms of crop production and adequate supplies of drinking water. The Institute for Rural Research and Development (IRRAD), a non-governmental organization (NGO) working in Mewat, has taken an innovative approach in this area to problems of groundwater salinization, using check dams and rainwater harvesting ponds to recharge aquifers in the freshwater zones of upstream hill areas, and to create freshwater pockets within the saline groundwater zones of down-gradient areas. Initial, pilot-scale efforts have led to apparent success in raising groundwater levels in freshwater zones and changing the dynamics of encroaching groundwater salinity, but the expansion of such efforts to larger-scale restoration is constrained by the availability of adequate resources. Under such resource constraints, which are typical of international development work, it becomes critical to utilize a decision-analysis framework to quantify both the immediate and long-term effectiveness and sustainability of interventions by NGOs such as IRRAD. In the present study, we have developed such a framework, linking the climate-hydrological dynamics of monsoon driven systems with village-scale socio-economic attributes to evaluate the sustainability of current restoration efforts and to prioritize future areas for intervention. We utilize a multi-dimensional metric that takes into account both physical factors related to water

  2. Rapid Endovascular Catheter Core Cooling Combined With Cold Saline as an Adjunct to Percutaneous Coronary Intervention for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erlinge, David; Götberg, Matthias; Lang, Irene;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to confirm the cardioprotective effects of hypothermia using a combination of cold saline and endovascular cooling. BACKGROUND: Hypothermia has been reported to reduce infarct size (IS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions. METHODS: In...... incidence of heart failure and a possible effect in patients with early anterior ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions need confirmation. (Efficacy of Endovascular Catheter Cooling Combined With Cold Saline for the Treatment of Acute Myocardial Infarction [CHILL-MI]; NCT01379261)....

  3. Obstetrical acute renal failure: a challenging medical complication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute renal failure (ARF) is a syndrome characterised by rapid decline in glomerular filtration rate and retention of nitrogenous waste products such as urea and creatinine. The objective of this study was to study the prevalence, risk and outcome of women with obstetrical renal failure. Methods: This observational study was conducted in Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Liaquat University Hospital, Hyderabad, Pakistan from October 2009 to September 2010. Thirty-five patients with obstetrical acute renal failure were included in the study, patients with chronic renal diseases, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and renal stones were excluded from the study. A detailed history was followed by thorough examination and investigation. Their clinical history, physical examination and intake/urine output was recorded. Routine laboratory investigations were done related to each case and specialised investigations like renal scan, renal ultrasonography and renal biopsies were performed in selected cases where recovery was delayed for more than 3 weeks. Results: Total numbers of admissions in obstetric ward were 3,285. Pregnancy related acute renal failure was found in 35 (1.065%) women. Age ranged from 18-40 years. Most of the women belonged to age group 30-35. Out of 35 women 31.42% had postpartum haemorrhage. Ante partum haemorrhage was found in 25.71%, Eclampsia in 17.14%, DIC in 14.28%, and sepsis in 11.42%. Anuria was observed in 25 patients, remaining presented with oliguria (28.57%). Haemodialysis was done in 75% of patients, others were managed conservatively. Complete recovery was observed in 53% cases. Maternal mortality was 25.71% and foetal mortality was 22.85%. Conclusion: Pregnancy related ARF is one of the most common causes of ARF, it is a dangerous complication of pregnancy which carries very high mortality and morbidity. (author)

  4. Challenges of treating a 466-kilogram man with acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Allon N; Decker, Brian; Seele, Louis; Hellman, Richard N

    2008-07-01

    Caring for super obese patients (body mass index > 50 kg/m(2)) presents a number of complex and unique clinical challenges, particularly when acute kidney injury is present. We describe our experience treating the heaviest individual with acute kidney injury requiring renal replacement therapy reported to date. A 24-year-old black man was admitted to our hospital with fever, vomiting, progressive weakness, shortness of breath, and hemoptysis. Admission weight was 1,024 lbs (466 kg), height was 6 ft 4 in (1.9 m), and body mass index was 125 kg/m(2). During hospitalization, the patient experienced oligoanuric acute kidney injury and required initiation of continuous and subsequently intermittent renal replacement therapy. This clinical scenario identifies the many challenges involved in caring for super obese patients with acute kidney injury and may be a harbinger of what awaits the nephrology community in the obesity pandemic era.

  5. Hypertonic saline enhances host response to bacterial challenge by augmenting receptor-independent neutrophil intracellular superoxide formation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shields, Conor J

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine whether hypertonic saline (HTS) infusion modulates the host response to bacterial challenge. METHODS: Sepsis was induced in 30 Balb-C mice by intraperitoneal injection of Escherichia coli (5 x 107 organisms per animal). In 10 mice, resuscitation was performed at 0 and 24 hours with a 4 mL\\/kg bolus of HTS (7.5% NaCl), 10 animals received 4 mL\\/kg of normal saline (0.9% NaCl), and the remaining animals received 30 mL\\/kg of normal saline. Samples of blood, spleen, and lung were cultured at 8 and 36 hours. Polymorphonucleocytes were incubated in isotonic or hypertonic medium before culture with E. coli. Phagocytosis was assessed by flow cytometry, whereas intracellular bacterial killing was measured after inhibition of phagocytosis with cytochalasin B. Intracellular formation of free radicals was assessed by the molecular probe CM-H(2)DCFDA. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase p38 and ERK-1 phosphorylation, and nuclear factor kappa B (NFkappaB) activation were determined. Data are represented as means (SEM), and an analysis of variance test was performed to gauge statistical significance. RESULTS: Significantly reduced bacterial culture was observed in the animals resuscitated with HTS when compared with their NS counterparts, in blood (51.8 +\\/- 4.3 vs. 82.0 +\\/- 3.3 and 78.4 +\\/- 4.8, P = 0.005), lung (40.0 +\\/- 4.1 vs. 93.2 +\\/- 2.1 and 80.9 +\\/- 4.7, P = 0.002), and spleen (56.4 +\\/- 3.8 vs. 85.4 +\\/- 4.2 and 90.1 +\\/- 5.9, P = 0.05). Intracellular killing of bacteria increased markedly (P = 0.026) and superoxide generation was enhanced upon exposure to HTS (775.78 +\\/- 23.6 vs. 696.57 +\\/- 42.2, P = 0.017) despite inhibition of MAP kinase and NFkappaB activation. CONCLUSIONS: HTS significantly enhances intracellular killing of bacteria while attenuating receptor-mediated activation of proinflammatory cascades.

  6. Effect of Water Salinity on Acute Toxicity of Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss Larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Salari-joo

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Background and Objectives: Nanotechnology defined as understanding and controlling of materials at dimension between 1-100 nm, which show unusual physical and chemical properties. With Increasing development of nanotechnology, concerns associated with release of materials containing nanoparticles into the environment is rising. The purpose of this study is investigation of salinity effect on the acute toxicity of silver nanoparticles in rainbow trout fry (Oncorhynchusmykiss. Materials and Methods: In order to conduct the toxicity tests, the Caspian Seawater(12±0.2 ppt and (0.4 ppt as sources of brackish water and freshwater were used, respectively. Toxicity of silvernano particles were evaluated in brackish water and freshwater at concentrations of1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32and64ppm and  0.12, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4 and8 ppm, respectively. In addition, in order to investigate the quality of the used silver nanoparticles the Zetasizer, ICP, and TEM method were applied.Results: Results of 96-hour median lethal concentration(LC50 96h, showed that toxicity of silver nanoparticles for rain bow trout fry in brackish water is 12 times less than its toxicity in freshwater.Conclusion: According to the toxicity categories, analysis of the results showed that, for rainbow trout fry (1g, silver nanoparticles are classified as highly toxic agent substances in fresh water, and little toxic in brackish water, respectively. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  7. SUPPRESSION OF ANGⅡ AFTER ACUTE SALINE LOAD ASSOCIATED WITH THE CHANGES OF PLASMA ANP AND SODIUM METABOLISM IN SALT-SENSITIVE HYPERTENSION PATIENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永兴; 刘治全; 刘艳; 侯嵘; 叶涛

    2003-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma AngⅡ,ANP and their relationship with urine sodium excretion in salt sensitive hypertension. Methods The salt sensitivity was determined by acute saline loading test in 173 primary hypertensives of Stage Ⅰ or Stage Ⅱ. Plasma AngⅡand ANP was determined by radioimmunoassay. Results After acute salt load, AngⅡ was suppressed inadequately. The plasma ANP secretion was not increased. The urine sodiun excretion was delayed, Na+ in RBC was increased in salt sensitive subjects. The plasma ANP was decreased in the salt sensitive subjects without AngⅡ suppressed. The 24 hours urine sodium excretion was lower than those AngⅡ suppressed.Conclusion The changes of plasma RAS are not homogeneous after salt load. Those without the plasma AngⅡ suppressed have more severe sodium metabolism abnormalities and the endogenous ANP secretion is impaired in salt sensitive patients.

  8. Salinization and Saline Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  9. Co-expression of heat shock protein (HSP) 40 and HSP70 in Pinctada martensii response to thermal, low salinity and bacterial challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Yuehuan; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Shu; Yu, Ziniu

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 40 proteins are a family of molecular chaperones that bind to HSP70 through their J-domain and regulate the function of HSP70 by stimulating its adenosine triphosphatase activity. In the present study, a HSP40 homolog named PmHSP40 was cloned from the hemocytes of pearl oyster Pinctada martensii using EST and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) techniques. The full-length cDNA of PmHSP40 was 1251 bp in length, which included a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 75 bp, an open reading frame (ORF) of a 663 bp, and a 3' UTR of 513 bp. The deduced amino acid sequence of PmHSP40 contains a J domain in the N-terminus. In response to thermal and low salinity stress challenges, the expression of PmHSP40 in hemocytes and the gill were inducible in a time-dependent manner. After bacterial challenge, PmHSP40 transcripts in hemocytes increased and peaked at 6 h post injection. In the gill, PmHSP40 expression increased, similar to expression in hemocytes; however, transcript expression of PmHSP40 was significantly up-regulated at 12 h post injection. Furthermore, the transcripts of PmHSP70 showed similar kinetics as that of PmHSP40, with highest induction during thermal, low salinity stress and bacterial challenges. Altogether these results demonstrate that PmHSP40 is an inducible protein under thermal, low salinity and bacterial challenges, suggesting its involvement in both environmental and biological stresses, and in the innate immunity of the pearl oyster. PMID:26679110

  10. Sweat-inducing physiological challenges do not result in acute changes in hair cortisol concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass, Juliane; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Miller, Robert; Gao, Wei; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Stalder, Tobias

    2015-03-01

    Hair cortisol concentrations (HCC) are assumed to provide a stable, integrative marker of long-term systemic cortisol secretion. However, contrary to this assumption, some recent observations have raised the possibility that HCC may be subject to acute influences, potentially related to cortisol incorporation from sweat. Here, we provide a first detailed in vivo investigation of this possibility comprising two independent experimental studies: study I (N=42) used a treadmill challenge to induce sweating together with systemic cortisol reactivity while in study II (N=52) a sauna bathing challenge induced sweating without systemic cortisol changes. In both studies, repeated assessments of HCC, salivary cortisol, cortisol in sweat and individuals' sweating rate (single assessment) were conducted on the experimental day and at a next-day follow-up. Results across the two studies consistently revealed that HCC were not altered by the acute interventions. Further, HCC were found to be unrelated to acute salivary cortisol reactivity, sweat cortisol levels, sweating rate or the time of examination. In line with previous data, cortisol levels in sweat were strongly related to total salivary cortisol output across the examined periods. The present results oppose recent case report data by showing that single sweat-inducing interventions do not result in acute changes in HCC. Our data also tentatively speak against the notion that cortisol in sweat may be a dominant source of HCC. Further, our findings also indicate that HCC are not subject to diurnal variation. This research provides further support for hair cortisol analysis as a marker of integrated long-term systemic cortisol secretion.

  11. Acute kidney injury: risk factors and management challenges in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, Daniela; Balbi, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health problem in both developed and developing nations, negatively affecting patient morbidity and responsible for an estimated 1.4 million deaths per year. Although the International Society of Nephrology set a goal of eliminating preventable deaths from AKI by 2025, implementation of this program in developing countries presents major challenges not only because of the lack of resources but also because of the scarce data addressing the epidemiology and causes of AKI in developing countries, the limited health care resources to diagnose and treat AKI, and the poor awareness of the impact of AKI on patient outcomes. PMID:27578995

  12. Challenges in implementing individualized medicine illustrated by antimetabolite therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Borst, Louise; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    of acceptable toxicity, an individualized therapeutic approach is indicated. The mapping of the human genome and technological developments in DNA sequencing, gene expression profiling, and proteomics have raised the expectations for implementing genotype-phenotype data into the clinical decision process......, but also multiplied the complex interaction of genetic and other laboratory parameters that can be used for therapy adjustments. Thus, with the advances in the laboratory techniques, post laboratory issues have become major obstacles for treatment individualization. Many of these challenges have been...... illustrated by studies involving childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), where each patient may receive up to 13 different anticancer agents over a period of 2-3 years. The challenges include i) addressing important, but low-frequency outcomes, ii) difficulties in interpreting the impact of single drug...

  13. Acute toxicity, accumulation and tissue distribution of copper in the blue crab Callinectes sapidus acclimated to different salinities: In vivo and in vitro studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Martinez Gaspar Martins, Camila [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Barcarolli, Indianara Fernanda; Menezes, Eliana Jaime de; Mussoi Giacomin, Marina [Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Wood, Chris M. [McMaster University, Department of Biology, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); Bianchini, Adalto, E-mail: adaltobianchini@furg.br [Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Ciencias Fisiologicas - Fisiologia Animal Comparada, Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande (FURG), Campus Carreiros, Av. Italia km 8, 96201-900, Rio Grande, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-17

    In vivo and in vitro studies were performed to evaluate acute toxicity, organ-specific distribution, and tissue accumulation of copper in Callinectes sapidus acclimated to two different experimental salinities (2 and 30 ppt). Blue crabs were quite tolerant to copper. Acute dissolved copper toxicity (96-h LC{sub 50} and its corresponding 95% confident interval) was higher at salinity 2 ppt (5.3 (3.50-8.05) {mu}M Cu) than at 30 ppt (53.0 (27.39-102.52) {mu}M Cu). The difference between salinities can be completely explained based on the water chemistry because it disappeared when 96-h LC{sub 50} values were expressed as the free Cu{sup 2+} ion (3.1 (1.93-4.95) {mu}M free Cu at 2 ppt versus 5.6 (2.33-13.37) {mu}M free Cu at 30 ppt) or the Cu{sup 2+} activity (1.4 (0.88-2.26) {mu}M Cu activity at 2 ppt versus 1.7 (0.71-4.07) {mu}M Cu activity at 30 ppt). The relationships between gill Cu burden and % mortality were very similar at 2 and 30 ppt, in accord with the Biotic Ligand Model. In vivo experiments showed that copper concentration in the hemolymph is not dependent on metal concentration in the surrounding medium at either experimental salinity. They also showed that copper flux into the gills is higher than into other tissues analyzed, and that anterior and posterior gills are similarly important sites of copper accumulation at both experimental salinities. In vitro experiments with isolated-perfused gills showed that there is a positive relationship between copper accumulation in this tissue and the metal concentration in the incubation media for both anterior and posterior gills. A similar result was observed at both low and high salinities. Furthermore, in vitro experiments showed that copper accumulation in posterior gills is also positively and strongly dependent on the incubation time with copper. Gill copper accumulation occurred at a lower rate in the first 2 h of metal exposure, increasing markedly after this 'steady-state' period. This finding

  14. Reduced triglyceride secretion in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in obese compared to lean mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki eUchida

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity results in abnormally high levels of triglyceride (TG storage in tissues such as liver, heart and muscle, which disrupts their normal functions. Recently, we found that lean mice challenged with high levels of dietary fat store TGs in cytoplasmic lipid droplets in the absorptive cells of the intestine, enterocytes, and that this storage increases and then decreases over time after an acute dietary fat challenge. The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity on intestinal TG metabolism. More specifically we asked whether TG storage in and secretion from the intestine are altered in obesity. We investigated these questions in diet-induced obese (DIO and leptin-deficient (ob/ob mice. We found greater levels of TG storage in the intestine of DIO mice compared to lean mice in the fed state, but similar levels of TG storage after fasting. In addition, we found similar TG storage in the intestine of lean and DIO mice at multiple time points after an acute dietary fat challenge. Surprisingly, we found remarkably lower TG secretion from both DIO and ob/ob mice compared to lean controls in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Furthermore, we found altered mRNA levels for genes involved in regulation of intestinal TG metabolism in lean and DIO mice at fasting and in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. More specifically, we found that many of the genes related to TG synthesis, chylomicron synthesis, TG storage and lipolysis were induced in response to an acute dietary fat challenge in lean mice, but this induction was not observed in DIO mice. In fact, we found a significant decrease in intestinal mRNA levels of genes related to lipolysis and fatty acid oxidation in DIO mice in response to an acute dietary fat challenge. Our findings demonstrate altered TG handling by the small intestine of obese compared to lean mice.

  15. Metrological challenges for measurements of key climatological observables: oceanic salinity and pH, and atmospheric humidity. Part 1: overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wielgosz, R.; Bell, S. A.; Camões, M. F.; Cooper, J. R.; Dexter, P.; Dickson, A. G.; Fisicaro, P.; Harvey, A. H.; Heinonen, M.; Hellmuth, O.; Kretzschmar, H.-J.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; McDougall, T. J.; Pawlowicz, R.; Ridout, P.; Seitz, S.; Spitzer, P.; Stoica, D.; Wolf, H.

    2016-02-01

    Water in its three ambient phases plays the central thermodynamic role in the terrestrial climate system. Clouds control Earth’s radiation balance, atmospheric water vapour is the strongest ‘greenhouse’ gas, and non-equilibrium relative humidity at the air-sea interface drives evaporation and latent heat export from the ocean. On climatic time scales, melting ice caps and regional deviations of the hydrological cycle result in changes of seawater salinity, which in turn may modify the global circulation of the oceans and their ability to store heat and to buffer anthropogenically produced carbon dioxide. In this paper, together with three companion articles, we examine the climatologically relevant quantities ocean salinity, seawater pH and atmospheric relative humidity, noting fundamental deficiencies in the definitions of those key observables, and their lack of secure foundation on the International System of Units, the SI. The metrological histories of those three quantities are reviewed, problems with their current definitions and measurement practices are analysed, and options for future improvements are discussed in conjunction with the recent seawater standard TEOS-10. It is concluded that the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, BIPM, in cooperation with the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam, IAPWS, along with other international organizations and institutions, can make significant contributions by developing and recommending state-of-the-art solutions for these long standing metrological problems in climatology.

  16. Early weaning alters the acute-phase reaction to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, J A; Arthington, J D; Chase, C C

    2009-12-01

    Previous research indicates that early weaning before shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute-phase proteins (APP) and can increase feedlot performance in beef calves. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system of calves, thus hindering subsequent performance and health. Therefore, our objective was to determine if the innate immune response of early weaned calves (EW; 80 d of age) differed from normal-weaned calves (NW; 250 d of age) in response to an endotoxin challenge. Eighteen Brahman x Angus calves (8 and 10 EW and NW, respectively; 233 +/- 5 kg of BW) were used. Calves were maintained on pasture with supplement and then moved into individual pens for 1 wk of acclimation before the start of the study. Calves were fitted with an indwelling jugular catheter 1 d before LPS challenge (0 h; 1.0 microg/kg of BW, intravenously). Blood samples were collected at 30-min intervals from -2 to 8 h. Serum samples were stored at -80 degrees C until analyzed for cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), IL-1 beta, IL-6, interferon-gamma (IFN), ceruloplasmin, and haptoglobin. Whereas LPS increased serum cortisol (P or= 0.15) was observed. A weaning age x time interaction (P x time interaction (P challenge compared with that of NW calves. Additionally, the differential IFN response indicates that the immune system of EW calves may be more effective at recognizing and eliminating endotoxin. These data suggest that an altered innate immune system may be one of the factors responsible for the improved feedlot performance previously reported in EW calves. PMID:19717781

  17. Supplementation of Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product can attenuate the acute phase response following a lipopolysaccharide challenge in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to determine if feeding a Lactobacillus acidophilus fermentation product to weaned pigs would reduce stress and acute phase responses (APR) following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. Pigs (n=30; 6.4±0.1 kilograms body weight) were housed individually in pens with ad libi...

  18. Improved BVDV1b challenge model for evaluating efficacy of protection against clinical signs following acute infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: Efficacy of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccines in preventing acute infections is evaluated based on reduction of clinical disease. While high virulence BVDV2 strains are used in U.S. vaccine efficacy studies, the BVDV1 strain, NY-1, made available by the USDA as a challenge ...

  19. Proteomic approach for acute-phase proteins of hemolymph and muscles in Scylla serrata challenged by a pathogenic bactedum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wenjie; SU Jing; WANG Guizhong; WANG Sanying

    2006-01-01

    Acute-phase response is documented to be a significant mechanism of innate immunity in vertebrates and invertebrates.In this study,proteomic methodologies were applied for different protein expressions in hemolymph of Scylla serrata challenged by Vibrio parahaemolyticus after immunization,and in muscles of the crabs separately challenged by V.parahaemolyticus.V.anguillarum and Aeromonas hydrophila.Up-regulated cryptocyanin is documented in the hemolymph and up-regulated calexcitin,wingless(fragment)and tachykinin-related peptide in the muscle as acute-phase proteins.All the four altered proteins were responsible for bacterial stress,but cryptocyanin seemed to be a memory response protein against the challenge by a live bacterium after immunization of the live cells.These up-regulated proteins can be indicative of an understanding of immunity of a crab.

  20. Challenges faced in the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia in adolescents and young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine SR

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Selena R Levine,1 Jennifer L McNeer,2 Michael S Isakoff1 1Center for Cancer and Blood Disorders, Connecticut Children’s Medical Center and University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Hartford, CT, 2Section of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University of Chicago Comer Children's Hospital, Chicago, IL, USA Abstract: The survival rate for children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has dramatically improved over the last 50 years. However, for those in the adolescent and young adult (AYA age-group of 15–30 years with ALL, there has not been the same degree of improvement. Historically, pediatric and adult providers have utilized different treatment approaches based on clinical trials. However, studies that have compared the outcome of AYA patients with ALL treated on pediatric or adult clinical trials have generally shown substantially better outcomes for this patient population treated with the pediatric trials. Additionally, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been considered as part of intensified therapy for AYA patients with ALL. Herein, we review the outcomes with chemotherapy alone and with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, and explore the challenges faced in determining the ideal therapy for the AYA population of patients. Keywords: adolescent young adult oncology, leukemia, hematopoietic stem cell transplantation

  1. Targeting thrombin long-term after an acute coronary syndrome: Opportunities and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Caterina, Raffaele; Goto, Shinya

    2016-06-01

    Patients after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) are at increased risk of recurrent thrombotic events, justifying the search for additional antithrombotic treatments. The pathophysiology of ACS involves arterial thrombus formation, in turn occurring because of a combination of platelet activation and fibrin formation, with thrombin playing a key role in both. Antiplatelet therapy, targeting the thromboxane pathway and the ADP P2Y12 receptor has been widely accepted for secondary prevention after an ACS. Now, data from recent clinical trials in such patients also encourage the pursuit of inhibiting thrombin formation or thrombin-mediated platelet activation in addition to antiplatelet therapy. This "triple pathway inhibition", including inhibition of thrombin activity or thrombin receptor(s), is currently an option in pure ACS, but already a must in the setting of ACS accompanied by atrial fibrillation (AF), where anticoagulants have been shown to be much more effective than antiplatelet agents in preventing stroke. We here discuss the challenges of managing combined thrombin activity or receptor inhibition and antiplatelet therapy in all such patients. Translating this into practice still requires further studies and patient tailoring to fully exploit its potential. PMID:26994821

  2. Pheochromocytoma presenting as an acute coronary syndrome complicated by acute heart failure: The challenge of a great mimic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Damiano Sanna

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine tumor with a highly variable clinical presentation. The serious and potentially lethal cardiovascular complications of these tumors are related to the effects of secreted catecholamines. We describe a case of a 50-year-old woman urgently admitted to our hospital because of symptoms and clinical and instrumental findings consistent with an acute coronary syndrome complicated by acute heart failure. Urgent coronary angiography showed normal coronary arteries. During her hospital stay, the recurrence of episodes characterized by a sudden increase in blood pressure, cold sweating, and nausea allowed us to hypothesize a pheochromocytoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by elevated levels of urinary catecholamines and by the finding of a left adrenal mass on magnetic resonance imaging. The patient underwent left adrenalectomy. Therefore, the initial diagnosis was critically reappraised and reviewed as a cardiac manifestation of a pheochromocytoma during catecholaminergic crisis.

  3. Early Prognostic Evaluation of Acute Pancreatitis: An On-Going Challenge

    OpenAIRE

    Karan Kapoor; Banks, Peter A.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis remains a serious disease. In 2009, acute pancreatitis accounted for more than 274,000 hospital discharges, (ranking first among all gastrointestinal discharge diagnoses), with an aggregate cost of more than $2,500,000 (the costliest of all gastrointestinal disorders). It also ranked 14th among causes of death from gastrointestinal and liver diseases [1]. Mortality from acute pancreatitis is approximately 3% for interstitial pancreatitis [2], and 15% for necrotizing pancrea...

  4. Effects of Salmonella typhimurium Challenge on Swine Growth, Nitrogen Balance, Insulin-like Growth Factor-I, and Acute Phase Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Loughmiller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing barrows were used to determine the effects of an en teric disease challenge on nutrient balance, growth, acute phase proteins, and IGF-I. Pigs were challenged on d 0 with Salmonella typhimurium (S; N=21, or unchallenged and fed ad libitum (A; n=6, or unchallenged and pair-fed the same amount of feed as a challenged pig (P; n=8. Blood was collected on d -3, 1, 5, 9, and 15. A disease challenge  time interaction was observed for serum haptoglobin (P typhimurium challenge (P > 0.20. Results indicate that 66% of the short-term reductions in average daily gain from an acute S. typhimurium disease challenge are due to reductions in feed intake. The remaining differences are due to the acute phase immune response.

  5. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Eze, Kenneth C.; Salami, Taofeek A; James U Kpolugbo

    2014-01-01

    Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-yea...

  6. [Clinical case--voluminous diaphragmatic hernia--surgically acute abdomen: diagnostic and therapeutical challenges].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, D; Savlovschi, C; Borcan, R; Pantu, H; Serban, D; Gradinaru, S; Smarandache, G; Trotea, T; Branescu, C; Musat, L; Comandasu, M; Priboi, M; Baldir, M; Sandolache, B; Oprescu, S

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a 58-year old male patient admitted in the surgery section of the University Emergency Hospital of Bucharest and diagnosed with acute abdomen. The minimal clinical-paraclinical investigation (i.e., thorax-pulmonary Xray, biological probes) raises questions as to the differentiated diagnosis and other associated diseases, also suggesting the existence of voluminous diaphragmatic hernia. The CT thorax-abdomen examination confirms the diaphragmatic hernia suspicion, with intra-thorax ascent of the colon up to the anterior C4 level, but does not explain the abdominal suffering; thus we suspected a biliary ileus or acute appendicitis. Medial laparotomy was imperative. Intrasurgically peritonitis was noticed located by gangrenous acute apendicitis, perforated, with coprolite, for which apendictomy and lavage-drainage pf the peritoneal cavity was performed. Post-surgical status: favourable to recovery.

  7. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Eze

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008. Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Results: Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer′s patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Conclusion: Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of

  8. Acute abdominal pain in patients with lassa fever: Radiological assessment and diagnostic challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eze, Kenneth C.; Salami, Taofeek A.; Kpolugbo, James U.

    2014-01-01

    Background: To highlight the problems of diagnosis and management of acute abdomen in patients with lassa fever. And to also highlight the need for high index of suspicion of lassa fever in patients presenting with acute abdominal pain in order to avoid surgical intervention with unfavourable prognosis and nosocomial transmission of infections, especially in Lassa fever-endemic regions. Materials and Methods: A review of experiences of the authors in the management of lassa fever over a 4-year period (2004-2008). Literature on lassa fever, available in the internet and other local sources, was studied in November 2010 and reviewed. Results: Normal plain chest radiographic picture can change rapidly due to pulmonary oedema, pulmonary haemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Plain abdominal radiograph may show dilated bowels with signs of paralytic ileus or dynamic intestinal obstruction due to bowel wall haemorrhage or inflamed and enlarged Peyer's patches. Ultrasound may show free intra-peritoneal fluid due to peritonitis and intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. Bleeding into the gall bladder wall may erroneously suggest infective cholecystitis. Pericardial effusion with or without pericarditis causing abdominal pain may be seen using echocardiography. High index of suspicion, antibody testing for lassa fever and viral isolation in a reference laboratory are critical for accurate diagnosis. Conclusion: Patients from lassa fever-endemic regions may present with features that suggest acute abdomen. Radiological studies may show findings that suggest acute abdomen but these should be interpreted in the light of the general clinical condition of the patient. It is necessary to know that acute abdominal pain and vomiting in lassa fever-endemic areas could be caused by lassa fever, which is a medical condition. Surgical option should be undertaken with restraint as it increases the morbidity, may worsen the prognosis and increase the risk of nosocomial transmission

  9. Mucormycosis Rhinosinusitis at Diagnosis of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostics and Management Challenges in a Low-Middle-income Country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandegari, Elham; Fu, Ligia; Arambú, Carolina; Montoya, Sandra; Peña, Armando; Johnson, Kyle M; Perfect, John R; Caniza, Miguela A

    2015-04-01

    We present the case of an adolescent with mucor rhinosinusitis diagnosed concomitantly with acute lymphoblastic leukemia at a hospital in Tegucigalpa, Honduras. We also discuss the challenges faced in the dual management of hematologic malignancies and invasive fungal disease in a low-middle-income country, such as access to diagnostics, immunosuppressants, imaging, and antifungals. Despite these shortcomings, the patient was successfully treated for both the diseases. Low-middle-income country hospitals can effectively treat invasive fungal diseases by providing adequate diagnostic and support services, which can improve the outcomes of pediatric cancer patients. PMID:24942033

  10. Early weaning alters the acute phase immune response to an endotoxin challenge in beef cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research indicates that early weaning prior to shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute phase proteins (APP), and can increase subsequent performance in the feedlot. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system...

  11. Early weaning alters the acute phase response to an endotoxin challenge in beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research indicates that early weaning prior to shipment can reduce transportation-induced increases in acute phase proteins (APP), and can increase subsequent performance in the feedlot. These data suggest that the combination of weaning and transport stress may compromise the immune system...

  12. Acute phase reactants, challenge in the near future of animal production and veterinary medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The future of acute phase proteins (APPs) in science is discussed in this paper. Many functions and associated pathological processes of APPs are unknown. Extrahepatic formation in local tissues needs attention. Local serum amyloid A (SAA) formation may be involved in deposition of AA-amyloid induced by conformational change of SAA resulting in amyloid formation, having tremendous food safety implications. Amyloidogenesis is enhanced in mouse fed beta pleated sheet-rich proteins. The local amyloid in joints of chicken and mammary corpora amylacea is discussed. Differences in glycosylation of glycoproteins among the APPs, as has been shown for α1-acid glycoprotein, have to be considered. More knowledge on the reactivity patterns may lead to implication of APPs in the diagnostics and staging of a disease. Calculation of an index from values of several acute phase variables increases the power of APPs in monitoring unhealthy individuals in animal populations.Vaccinations, just as infections in eliciting acute phase response seem to limit the profitability of vaccines because acute phase reactions are contraproductive in view of muscle anabolism. Interest is focused on amino acid patterns and vitamins in view of dietary nutrition effect on sick and convalescing animals.When inexpensive methodology such as liquid phase methods (nephelometry, turbidimetry) or protein array technology for rapid APPs measurement is available, APPs have a future in routine diagnostics. Specific groups of patients may be screened or populations monitored by using APPs.

  13. Erythema multiforme due to arsenic trioxide in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A diagnostic challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish V Badarkhe

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythema multiforme (EM is an acute, self-limited, Type IV hypersensitivity reactions associated with infections and drugs. In this case of acute promyelocytic leukemia, EM diagnosed during the induction phase was mistakenly attributed to vancomycin used to treat febrile neutropenia during that period. However, the occurrence of the lesions of EM again during the consolidation phase with arsenic trioxide (ATO lead to a re-evaluation of the patient and both the Naranjo and World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre scale showed the causality association as “probable.” The rash responded to topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. This rare event of EM being caused by ATO may be attributed to the genetic variation of methyl conjugation in the individual which had triggered the response, and the altered metabolic byproducts acted as a hapten in the subsequent keratinocyte necrosis.

  14. Erythema multiforme due to arsenic trioxide in a case of acute promyelocytic leukemia: A diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badarkhe, Girish V; Sil, Amrita; Bhattacharya, Sabari; Nath, Uttam Kumar; Das, Nilay Kanti

    2016-01-01

    Erythema multiforme (EM) is an acute, self-limited, Type IV hypersensitivity reactions associated with infections and drugs. In this case of acute promyelocytic leukemia, EM diagnosed during the induction phase was mistakenly attributed to vancomycin used to treat febrile neutropenia during that period. However, the occurrence of the lesions of EM again during the consolidation phase with arsenic trioxide (ATO) lead to a re-evaluation of the patient and both the Naranjo and World Health Organization-Uppsala Monitoring Centre scale showed the causality association as "probable." The rash responded to topical corticosteroids and antihistamines. This rare event of EM being caused by ATO may be attributed to the genetic variation of methyl conjugation in the individual which had triggered the response, and the altered metabolic byproducts acted as a hapten in the subsequent keratinocyte necrosis. PMID:27114640

  15. Acute kidney injury: risk factors and management challenges in developing countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce, Daniela; Balbi, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Daniela Ponce, Andre Balbi Department of Medicine, Botucatu School of Medicine, Sao Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major global health problem in both developed and developing nations, negatively affecting patient morbidity and responsible for an estimated 1.4 million deaths per year. Although the International Society of Nephrology set a goal of eliminating preventable deaths from AKI by 2025, implementation of this program in developing countries presents ma...

  16. Hematocrit and plasma osmolality values of young-of-year shortnose sturgeon following acute exposures to combinations of salinity and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegeweid, J.R.; Black, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the physiological capabilities of young-of-year (YOY) shortnose sturgeon. In this study, plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were measured for YOY shortnose sturgeon following 48-h exposures to 12 different combinations of salinity and temperature. Hematocrit levels varied significantly with temperature and age, and plasma osmolalities varied significantly with salinity and age. Plasma osmolality and hematocrit values were similar to previously published values for other sturgeons of similar age and size in similar treatment conditions. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  17. CHALLENGES IN TREATMENT OF RENAL GRAFT ACUTE ANTIBODY-MEDIATED REJECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Sushkov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic criteria and treatment protocols for acute antibody-mediated rejection (AMR of kidney allograft remain controversial. We report the case of early severe AMR after primary kidney transplantation. The graft removal was considered in the absence of treatment efficacy and in the presence of systemic infl ammatory response syndrome. However, at surgery the graft looked normal and it was not removed. The repeated treatment course (plasmapheresis, antithymocyte globulin, intravenous immunoglobulin and rituximab was effective. The patient has good and stable graft function in 1 year after transplantation. 

  18. Diagnostic challenges of Wilson's disease presenting as acute pancreatitis, cholangitis, and jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinson, Elchanan; Shahbari, Azmi; Shibli, Fahmi; Chervinsky, Elena; Trougouboff, Philippe; Markel, Arie

    2013-11-27

    Wilson's disease is a rare disorder of copper transport in hepatic cells, and may present as cholestatic liver disease; pancreatitis and cholangitis are rarely associated with Wilsons's disease. Moreover, cases of Wilson's disease presenting as pigmented gallstone pancreatitis have not been reported in the literature. In the present report, we describe a case of a 37-year-old man who was admitted with jaundice and abdominal pain. The patient was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, cholangitis, and obstructive jaundice caused by pigmented gallstones that were detected during retrograde cholangiopancreatography. However, because of his long-term jaundice and the presence of pigmented gallstones, the patient underwent further evaluation for Wilson's disease, which was subsequently confirmed. This patient's unique presentation exemplifies the overlap in the clinical and laboratory parameters of Wilson's disease and cholestasis, and the difficulties associated with their differentiation. It suggests that Wilson's disease should be considered in patients with pancreatitis, cholangitis, and severe protracted jaundice caused by pigmented gallstones.

  19. Decontamination of multiple casualties who are chemically contaminated: a challenge for acute hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Simon F J; Chilcott, Rob P; Wilson, James C; Kamanyire, Robie; Baker, David J; Hallett, Anthony

    2008-01-01

    Patients who have been contaminated by chemical compounds present a number of difficulties to emergency departments, in particular, the risk of secondary contamination of healthcare staff and facilities. The Department of Health in the United Kingdom has provided equipment to decontaminate chemically contaminated casualties who present at emergency departments. The capacity of this equipment is limited, and although both the ambulance and fire services have equipment to cope with mass casualties at the scene of a chemical incident, there is still the possibility that acute hospitals will be overwhelmed by large numbers of self-presenting patients. The risks and potential consequences of this gap in resilience are discussed and a number of possible practical solutions are proposed.

  20. Update: outbreak of acute febrile illness among athletes participating in Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000--Borneo, Malaysia, 2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-19

    During September 7-11, 2000, CDC was notified by the Idaho Department of Health, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services, and the GeoSentinel Global Surveillance Network of at least 20 cases of acute febrile illness in three countries; all ill patients had participated in the Eco-Challenge-Sabah 2000 multisport expedition race in Borneo, Malaysia, during August 21-September 3, 2000. Participants included athletes from 29 U.S. states and 26 countries. This report updates the ongoing investigation of this outbreak through December 2, which suggests that Leptospira were the cause of illness and that water from the Segama River was the primary source of infection. Participants in adventure sports and exotic tourism should be aware of potential exposure to unusual and emerging infectious agents. PMID:11215718

  1. INTERCONNECTION BETWEEN NITRIC OXIDE FORMATION AND HYPERSENSITIVITY PARAMETERS UNDER GUINEA PIG MODEL OF ACUTE ASTHMA WITH MULTIPLE CHALLENGES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parilova, O O; Shandrenko, S G

    2015-01-01

    An immunoregulatory role of nitric oxide (NO) in the development of adaptive immune responses associated with allergic diseases is very important. The present study extended these observations by the examination of the reciprocal changes in characteristic immunologic parameters of the disease and NO level of bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cells under guinea pig model of acute asthma with multiple challenges. Development of guinea pig Th2 mediated asthma was accompanied by increasing the level of allergic markers: ovalbumin (OVA) specific IgG and IL-4. We demonstrated that the infiltrate of airway cells contributes to NO synthesis in the respiratory tract during allergic inflammation. The level of intracellular NO formation significantly correlated with plasma allergen specific IgG value in OVA-induced asthma. The presented data evidence that the elevated intracellular NO level in BAL fluid may reflect a nitrosative stress in respiratory tract in general, when allergic asthma exacerbation is present.

  2. 高渗盐水治疗脑卒中所致急性脑水肿的疗效观察%Curative effect observation of hypertonic saline treat acute cerebral edema caused by cerebral apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭霞; 田锴

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察高渗盐水治疗脑卒中所致急性脑水肿的疗效。方法选取2013年3月~2014年7月我院收治的脑卒中所致急性脑水肿患者60例,将其随机分为对照组和观察组,各30例。对照组静脉滴注甘露醇,观察组静脉滴注高渗盐水,两组患者均进行急性脑水肿高峰期脱水。术后观察两组患者的疗效。结果治疗后,观察组总有效率为93.33%,对照组总有效率为73.33%,观察组疗效明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论采用静脉滴注高渗盐水治疗脑卒中所致急性脑水肿,疗效显著,安全性高,操作简便,创伤面小,值得临床推广与使用。%Objective To investigate the clinical effect of hypertonic saline in the treatment of a. Methods We collected the stroke in our hospital from March 2013 to July in The information of 60 patients with acute cerebral edema was randomly divided into control group a. 30 cases in each group.The control group was treated by intravenous drip of mannitol, The observation group was treated by intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline, And two groups of patients with acute cerebral edema at the peak of dehydration.The clinical effec. Comparative analysis. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 93.33%after t. The total effective rate of the control group was 73.33%, and the clinical effect of the observati, the difference between the two groups was statistically signiifcant (P<0.05).Conclusion The clinical effect of intravenous infusion of hypertonic saline in the treatment of acute cerebra. High safety, simple operation, small trauma, it is worth promoting in clinical use.

  3. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  4. The Epistemological and Didactical Challenges Involved in Teaching Socially Acute Questions. The Example of Globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Simonneaux

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Teachers are being asked to manage a specific didactic situation which falls into the category of what we have proposed to call “socially acute questions (SAQs”. A SAQ is a question which is acute in society, in background knowledge and in knowledge taught. Thus, teaching SAQs demands socio-epistemological reflexivity in the processes of knowledge production and in the social conditions in which this knowledge emerges; teaching SAQs will give priority to interdisciplinary, scientific and ethical reasoning. The split between ideology and science can certainly be examined when considering a socially acute question which is the subject of debate in society. In the example of the globalization taught: the diversity of analysis in the economic domain gives rise to great uncertainty because it justifies practically opposing policies; within a transdisciplinary framework, the globalization includes concepts, ideologies or social practices in a double movement of standardization and differentiation. By way of SAQs, we have attempted to show that learning stakes are numerous. However didactic choices must be supported by socio-epistemological survey, the identification of an epistemological posture and the definition of a didactic strategy.Les enseignants sont appelés à gérer une situation didactique spécifique dans l’enseignement des «questions socialement vives (QSV ». Les QSV sont des questions qui donnent lieu à débat dans la société, dans les savoirs scientifiques et dans l’enseignement. Ainsi, l‘enseignement des QSV nécessite une réflexivité socio-épistémologique dans le processus de production du savoir et dans les conditions sociales d’émergence de ces savoirs; l’enseignement des QSV donnera la priorité au raisonnement interdisciplinaire, scientifique et éthique. La scission entre l‘idéologie et la science peut être examinée lors de l‘examen d‘une QSV qui fait l‘objet d‘un débat dans la soci

  5. Testicular relapse in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: The challenges and lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Kulkarni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Relapse of disease is documented in 15-20% of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Although testicular relapse is rare with modern risk-adapted treatment protocols, earlier, the testes were a frequently encountered site of relapse and were designated as "drug sanctuaries". Purpose : This descriptive study was designed to assess the pattern of testicular relapse and to identify high-risk factors. Materials and Methods : Data obtained from case records of 407 boys with ALL were analyzed. Fine needle aspiration cytology was carried out in children presenting with painless enlargement of testi(es. Bone marrow aspiration and cerebrospinal fluid examination were performed concomitantly to confirm or exclude disease at these sites. Results : Testicular relapse was documented in 30 boys. It was isolated in 17 patients and associated with bone marrow and/or central nervous system relapse in 13. At relapse, nine boys were over the age of 10 years. The majority were very early and early relapsers. Hyperleucocytosis was documented in five of 30 and seven of 137 relapsers and nonrelapsers, respectively (P = 0.04. Twelve of the 30 boys with testicular relapse were treated with testicular irradiation, reinduction and maintenance therapy. The estimated median overall survival was 33 months. Conclusion : Testicular relapse, which depends on the therapy administered, may manifest several months/years after completion of treatment. The high incidence of testicular relapse in our series implicates the need of revaluation of our protocol and incorporation of high/intermediate dose methotrexate therapy upfront.

  6. Neutrophil engagement and septic challenge in acute experimental pancreatitis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stanislaw Ha(c); Marek Dobosz; Jan J Kaczor; Robert Rzepko; Ewa Aleksandrowicz-Wrona; Zdzis(l)aw Wajda; Zbigniew (S)ledziński; Jacek Krajewski

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the influence of neutrophil adhesion molecule blockade with monoclonal antibody (MoAb CD11b) and E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)administration on experimental acute pancreatitis (AP).METHODS: AP was induced by four ip injections of cerulein (Cn) at 1-h intervals. MoAb CD 11b and LPS were administered at the beginning of the experiment.RESULTS: The neutrophil count and chemiluminescence were diminished at the beginning of AP. The oxidative stress parameters were found within the pancreatic gland. MoAb CD 11b used for AP resulted in a significant reduction of pancreatic infiltration and pancreatitis oxidative stress parameters. Serum interleukin-6 (IL-6)was not detected in AP animals, whereas high serum IL-6 concentration was noted only in animals receiving LPS.CONCLUSION: Neutrophils are involved in pancreatic damage in the early stage of AP. Neutrophil infiltration reduction protects the pancreatic gland from destruction during AP. LPS does not change the early course of Cn pancreatitis in rats.

  7. Motor response to acute dopaminergic challenge with apomorphine and levodopa in Parkinson's disease: implications for the pathogenesis of the on-off phenomenon.

    OpenAIRE

    Colosimo, C.; MERELLO, M; Hughes, A J; Sieradzan, K; A. J. Lees

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To evaluate the contribution of postsynaptic changes to motor fluctuations, three groups of parkinsonian patients with differing responses to treatment were acutely challenged with two dopaminergic drugs-apomorphine and levodopa-having different mechanisms of action. METHODS--Forty two patients with Parkinson's disease (14 untreated, eight with a stable response to levodopa, and 20 with levodopa induced motor fluctuations) were challenged on two consecutive days with apomorphine a...

  8. Clinical Observation of Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Acute Massive Cerebral Infarction%高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死的临床观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄德; 谢向前; 蒙泽明; 李忠

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿的临床疗效。方法:选取本院神经内科收治的急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿患者46例,所有患者均经头颅CT或MRI检查确诊。按随机数字表法将患者分为两组,每组各23例。观察组(高渗盐水组)使用3%高渗盐水进行脱水治疗,对照组(甘露醇组)使用20%甘露醇进行脱水治疗,比较两组患者治疗前和治疗后神经功能缺损程度(MESSS评分)以及血钠、血钾、血肌酐、血浆渗透压的改变。结果:两组治疗后第3天和第5天后神经功能缺损程度均较前减轻(P0.05),对照组治疗5 d后出现血钾偏低4例,血肌酐升高伴少尿(急性肾功能不全)1例。结论:3%高渗盐水治疗急性期大面积脑梗死脑水肿疗效确切,不良反应少,值得临床进一步研究和推广应用。%Objective:To investigate the clinical efficacy of hypertonic saline in treatment of acute massive cerebral infarction.Method:46 patients with acute massive cerebral infarction treated in the neurology department of our hospital were selected,all patients were diagnosed by CT or MRI,and the 46 patients were randomly divided into two groups,23 in each group,the observation group(hypertonic saline group)using 3%hypertonic saline for dehydration treatment,the control group(mannitol group)with 20% mannitol dehydration treatment,the degree of neurological impairment(MESSS score )and the change of the blood sodium,potassium,creatinine ,plasma osmolality was observed in both groups of patients before treatment and after treatment. Result:Three and five days after treatment,the degree of neurological impairment(MESSS score)in both groups of patients were reduced(P0.05),while in the control group,four cases appear low potassium,one case of elevated serum creatinine with oliguria(acute renal failure). Conclusion:The efficacy of 3%hypertonic saline in treatment of acute massive

  9. Challenges in implementing individualized medicine illustrated by antimetabolite therapy of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nersting, Jacob; Borst, Louise; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-01-01

    , but also multiplied the complex interaction of genetic and other laboratory parameters that can be used for therapy adjustments. Thus, with the advances in the laboratory techniques, post laboratory issues have become major obstacles for treatment individualization. Many of these challenges have been......ABSTRACT: Predicting the response to medical therapy and subsequently individualizing the treatment to increase efficacy or reduce toxicity has been a longstanding clinical goal. Not least within oncology, where many patients fail to be cured, and others are treated to or beyond the limit...... adjustments could increase the of risk of relapse or life-threatening complications. In this review we use childhood ALL therapy as a model and discuss these issues, and how they may be addressed....

  10. 在不同盐度下氯氰菊酯对凡纳滨对虾的急性毒性效应研究%Study on the Acute Toxicity of Cypermethrin on Litopenaeus vannamei in Different Salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱勇; 严峰; 曾嶒; 熊泽泉

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为不同盐度下氯氰菊酯的使用和调控提供科学依据.[方法]采用静水生物法,研究了不同盐度下氯氰菊酯对凡纳滨对虾的急性毒性效应.[结果]在盐度20和5下氯氰菊酯对凡纳滨对虾的24、48、72、96h半致死浓度(LC50)分别为0.767、0.440、0.383、0.038 2 μg/L和0.437、0.313、0.203、0.170 μg/L.在中、低盐度下氯氰菊酯对凡纳滨对虾的安全浓度(SC)分别为0.038 2和0.017 0μg/L.[结论]极低浓度的氯氰菊酯农药残留就可能会威胁凡纳滨对虾的养殖安全,应尽可能减少在虾塘及附近使用氯氰菊酯.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide scientific basis for the use and control of cypermethrin in different salinity. [ Method] U-sing static bioassay test, the acute toxicity effect of cypermethrin on Litopenaeus vannamei in different salinity were studied. [ Result ] 24, 48, 72, 96 h LCX of cypermethrin to L vannamei in the salinity of 20 and 5 were 0.767, 0.440, 0.383, 0.038 2 |xg/L and 0.437,0.313,0. 203 and 0.170 fig/L respectively. In medium and low salinity, the safe concentration of cypermethrin to L. vannamei was 0.038 2 and 0.017 0 p.g/L respectively. [Conclusion] Very low concentrations of cypermethrin pesticide residues might threaten the safety of L. vannamei culture, so the use of cypermethrin should be reduced as possible in shrimp pond and its surrounding area.

  11. Efficacy and tolerability of an ectoine mouth and throat spray compared with those of saline lozenges in the treatment of acute pharyngitis and/or laryngitis: a prospective, controlled, observational clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dörte; Lindemann, Torben; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Scherner, Olaf; Knop, Markus; Bilstein, Andreas; Mösges, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this observational trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a mouth and throat spray containing ectoine in the treatment of acute pharyngitis and/or laryngitis. The outcome was compared with control treatment using saline lozenges. This study was designed as a prospective, controlled, non-randomized, observational multicenter clinical trial and was conducted in Germany. The study population consisted of 95 patients. The decision for treatment with either spray or lozenges was based on the patients' preference for pharyngeal or oral application. Investigators assessed symptoms specific to acute pharyngitis/laryngitis and determined the pharyngitis symptom score. Both patients and investigators evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of the treatment applied. Treatment with the spray showed higher efficacy, 1.95 ± 0.81 versus 1.68 ± 0.67 (investigators) and 1.97 ± 0.88 versus 1.57 ± 0.69 (patients, p laryngitis.

  12. Efficacy and tolerability of an ectoine mouth and throat spray compared with those of saline lozenges in the treatment of acute pharyngitis and/or laryngitis: a prospective, controlled, observational clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Dörte; Lindemann, Torben; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Scherner, Olaf; Knop, Markus; Bilstein, Andreas; Mösges, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this observational trial was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a mouth and throat spray containing ectoine in the treatment of acute pharyngitis and/or laryngitis. The outcome was compared with control treatment using saline lozenges. This study was designed as a prospective, controlled, non-randomized, observational multicenter clinical trial and was conducted in Germany. The study population consisted of 95 patients. The decision for treatment with either spray or lozenges was based on the patients' preference for pharyngeal or oral application. Investigators assessed symptoms specific to acute pharyngitis/laryngitis and determined the pharyngitis symptom score. Both patients and investigators evaluated the tolerability and efficacy of the treatment applied. Treatment with the spray showed higher efficacy, 1.95 ± 0.81 versus 1.68 ± 0.67 (investigators) and 1.97 ± 0.88 versus 1.57 ± 0.69 (patients, p pharyngitis and/or laryngitis. PMID:27126336

  13. Hypertonic saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, P D

    1999-11-01

    A key feature in the successful resuscitation of dehydrated or endotoxemic ruminants is the total amount of sodium administered. Administration of small volumes of HS and HSD offer major advantages over large volumes of isotonic saline because HS and HSD do not require intravenous catheterization or periodic monitoring, and are therefore suitable for use in the field. Hypertonic saline and HSD exert their beneficial effect by rapidly increasing preload and transiently decreasing afterload. Contrary to early reports, HS and HSD decrease cardiac contractility and do not activate a pulmonary reflex. The osmolality of HS and HSD should be 2400 mOsm/L (7.2% NaCl solution, 8 times normal plasma osmolality). Use of HS and HSD solutions of different osmolality to 2400 mOsm/L should be avoided at all costs, as too low a tonicity removes the main advantages of HS (low cost, decreased infusion time), whereas too high a tonicity may cause rapid vasodilation and decreased cardiac contractility, resulting in death. Rapid administration (> 1 mL/kg-1/min-1) of HS (2400 mOsm/L) should be avoided, as the induced hypotension may be fatal when coupled with a transient decrease in cardiac contractility. For treating dehydrated adult ruminants, HS (2400 mOsm/L, 4-5 mL/kg i.v. over 4-5 minutes) should be administered through the jugular vein and the cow allowed to drink water. This means that 2 L of HS should be administered to adult cattle. HSD should be administered in conjunction with isotonic oral electrolyte solutions to all calves 8% or more dehydrated (eyes recessed > or = 4 mm into the orbit, cervical skin tent duration > 6 seconds) or calves with reduced cardiac output (fetlock temperature isotonic oral electrolyte solution. This means that 120-200 mL of HSD of HSD should be administered to a calf. HSD should be routinely administered to severely depressed or comatose calves, as HSD provides the fastest method of resuscitation while rapidly reversing the effects of hyperkalemia

  14. Saline Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 Figure 2 These images of the Saline Valley area, California, were acquired March 30, 2000 and cover a full ASTER scene (60 by 60 km). Each image displays data from a different spectral region, and illustrates the complementary nature of surface compositional information available as a function of wavelength. This image displays visible and near infrared bands 3, 2, and 1 in red, green, and blue (RGB). Vegetation appears red, snow and dry salt lakes are white, and exposed rocks are brown, gray, yellow and blue. Rock colors mainly reflect the presence of iron minerals, and variations in albedo. Figure 1 displays short wavelength infrared bands 4, 6, and 8 as RGB. In this wavelength region, clay, carbonate, and sulfate minerals have diagnostic absorption features, resulting in distinct colors on the image. For example, limestones are yellow-green, and purple areas are kaolinite-rich. Figure 2 displays thermal infrared bands 13, 12 and 10 as RGB. In this wavelength region, variations in quartz content appear as more or less red; carbonate rocks are green, and mafic volcanic rocks are purple. The image is located at 36.8 degrees north latitude and 117.7 degrees west longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  15. Soil and water salinization and the development of organic saline crops

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermans, B.G.H.; Hospers - Brands, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Saline water and soils present an increasing problem for agriculture. Adaptation strategies of agriculture include selection of existing crops on salt tolerance, and development of new tolerant or halophyte crops. Saline areas are often located close to sensitive nature, and at least in The Netherlands, the development of saline crops represent a challenge to sustainable and organic agriculture. We tested salt tolerance of two new plant species that have some prospects as future crops: S...

  16. Effects of a Dissostichus mawsoni-CaM recombinant proteins feed additive on the juvenile orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) under the acute low temperature challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Sheng-Wei; Wang, Wei-Na; Cai, Luo; Qi, Zeng-Hua; Wang, Cong; Liu, Yuan; Peng, Chang-Lian; Chen, Liang-Biao

    2015-10-01

    The effects of Dissostichus mawsoni-Calmodulin (Dm-CaM) on growth performance, enzyme activities, respiratory burst, MDA level and immune-related gene expressions of the orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) exposed to the acute low temperature stress were evaluated. The commercial diet supplemented with Dm-CaM protein was fed to the groupers for 6 weeks. No significant difference was observed in the specific growth rates, weight gains and survivals. After the feeding trial, the groupers were exposed to acute low temperature challenge. The groupers fed with Dm-CaM additive diet showed a significant decrease in the respiratory burst activity, while the blood cell number increased significantly at 25 °C by comparing with the control and additive control group. The enzymatic activity of SOD, ACP and ALP increased significantly in Dm-CaM additive group, while MDA level maintained stable with the lowest value. qRT-PCR analysis indicated that the up-regulated transcript expressions of CaM, C3, SOD2, LysC and HSPA4 were observed in Dm-CaM additive group. These results indicated that Dm-CaM additive diet may regulate the grouper immune response to the acute low temperature challenge.

  17. Measuring Salinity by Conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapworth, C. J.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines procedures for constructing an instrument which uses an electrode and calibration methods to measure the salinity of waters in environments close to and affected by a saline estuary. (Author/DC)

  18. A European pharmaceutical company initiative challenging the regulatory requirement for acute toxicity studies in pharmaceutical drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Sally; Delongeas, Jean-Luc; Donald, Elizabeth; Dreher, David; Festag, Matthias; Kervyn, Sophie; Lampo, Ann; Nahas, Kamil; Nogues, Vicente; Ockert, Deborah; Quinn, Kirsty; Old, Sally; Pickersgill, Nigel; Somers, Kev; Stark, Claudia; Stei, Peter; Waterson, Lynne; Chapman, Kathryn

    2008-04-01

    Regulatory guidelines indicate acute toxicity studies in animals are considered necessary for pharmaceuticals intended for human use. This is the only study type where lethality is mentioned as an endpoint. The studies are carried out, usually in rodents, to support marketing of new drugs and to identify the minimum lethal dose. A European initiative including 18 companies has undertaken an evidence-based review of acute toxicity studies and assessed the value of the data generated. Preclinical and clinical information was shared on 74 compounds. The analysis indicated acute toxicity data was not used to (i) terminate drugs from development (ii) support dose selection for repeat dose studies in animals or (iii) to set doses in the first clinical trials in humans. The conclusion of the working group is that acute toxicity studies are not needed prior to first clinical trials in humans. Instead, information can be obtained from other studies, which are performed at more relevant doses for humans and are already an integral part of drug development. The conclusions have been discussed and agreed with representatives of regulatory bodies from the US, Japan and Europe.

  19. Reduced cortisol and metabolic responses of thin ewes to an acute cold challenge in mid-pregnancy: implications for animal physiology and welfare.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else Verbeek

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low food availability leading to reductions in Body Condition Score (BCS; 0 indicates emaciation and 5 obesity in sheep often coincides with low temperatures associated with the onset of winter in New Zealand. The ability to adapt to reductions in environmental temperature may be impaired in animals with low BCS, in particular during pregnancy when metabolic demand is higher. Here we assess whether BCS affects a pregnant animal's ability to cope with cold challenges. METHODS: Eighteen pregnant ewes with a BCS of 2.7±0.1 were fed to attain low (LBC: BCS2.3±0.1, medium (MBC: BCS3.2±0.2 or high BCS (HBC: BCS3.6±0.2. Shorn ewes were exposed to a 6-h acute cold challenge in a climate-controlled room (wet and windy conditions, 4.4±0.1°C in mid-pregnancy. Blood samples were collected during the BCS change phase, acute cold challenge and recovery phase. RESULTS: During the BCS change phase, plasma glucose and leptin concentrations declined while free fatty acids (FFA increased in LBC compared to MBC (P<0.01, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively and HBC ewes (P<0.05, P<0.01 and P<0.01, respectively. During the cold challenge, plasma cortisol concentrations were lower in LBC than MBC (P<0.05 and HBC ewes (P<0.05, and FFA and insulin concentrations were lower in LBC than HBC ewes (P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively. Leptin concentrations declined in MBC and HBC ewes while remaining unchanged in LBC ewes (P<0.01. Glucose concentrations and internal body temperature (T(core increased in all treatments, although peak T(core tended to be higher in HBC ewes (P<0.1. During the recovery phase, T4 concentrations were lower in LBC ewes (P<0.05. CONCLUSION: Even though all ewes were able to increase T(core and mobilize glucose, low BCS animals had considerably reduced cortisol and metabolic responses to a cold challenge in mid-pregnancy, suggesting that their ability to adapt to cold challenges through some of the expected pathways was reduced.

  20. Acute mammary and liver transcriptome responses after an intramammary Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide challenge in postpartal dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minuti, Andrea; Zhou, Zheng; Graugnard, Daniel E; Rodriguez-Zas, Sandra L; Palladino, Alejandro R; Cardoso, Felipe C; Trevisi, Erminio; Loor, Juan J

    2015-04-01

    The study investigated the effect of an intramammary lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the bovine mammary and liver transcriptome and its consequences on metabolic biomarkers and liver tissue composition. At 7 days of lactation, 7 cows served as controls (CTR) and 7 cows (LPS) received an intramammary Escherichia coli LPS challenge. The mammary and liver tissues for transcriptomic profiling were biopsied at 2.5 h from challenge. Liver composition was evaluated at 2.5 h and 7 days after challenge, and blood biomarkers were analyzed at 2, 3, 7 and 14 days from challenge. In mammary tissue, the LPS challenge resulted in 189 differentially expressed genes (DEG), with 20 down-regulated and 169 up-regulated. In liver tissue, there were 107 DEG in LPS compared with CTR with 42 down-regulated and 65 up-regulated. In mammary, bioinformatics analysis highlighted that LPS led to activation of NOD-like receptor signaling, Toll-like receptor signaling, RIG-I-like receptor signaling and apoptosis pathways. In liver, LPS resulted in an overall inhibition of fatty acid elongation in mitochondria and activation of the p53 signaling pathway. The LPS challenge induced changes in liver lipid composition, a systemic inflammation (rise of blood ceruloplasmin and bilirubin), and an increase in body fat mobilization. The data suggest that cells within the inflamed mammary gland respond by activating mechanisms of pathogen recognition. However, in the liver the response likely depends on mediators originating from the udder that affect liver functionality and specifically fatty acid metabolism (β-oxidation, ketogenesis, and lipoprotein synthesis).

  1. Cardiac oxygen limitation during an acute thermal challenge in the European perch: effects of chronic environmental warming and experimental hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Andreas; Brijs, Jeroen; Clark, Timothy D; Gräns, Albin; Jutfelt, Fredrik; Sandblom, Erik

    2016-08-01

    Oxygen supply to the heart has been hypothesized to limit cardiac performance and whole animal acute thermal tolerance (CTmax) in fish. We tested these hypotheses by continuously measuring venous oxygen tension (Pvo2) and cardiovascular variables in vivo during acute warming in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) from a reference area during summer (18°C) and a chronically heated area (Biotest enclosure) that receives warm effluent water from a nuclear power plant and is normally 5-10°C above ambient (24°C at the time of experiments). While CTmax was 2.2°C higher in Biotest compared with reference perch, the peaks in cardiac output and heart rate prior to CTmax occurred at statistically similar Pvo2 values (2.3-4.0 kPa), suggesting that cardiac failure occurred at a common critical Pvo2 threshold. Environmental hyperoxia (200% air saturation) increased Pvo2 across temperatures in reference fish, but heart rate still declined at a similar temperature. CTmax of reference fish increased slightly (by 0.9°C) in hyperoxia, but remained significantly lower than in Biotest fish despite an improved cardiac output due to an elevated stroke volume. Thus, while cardiac oxygen supply appears critical to elevate stroke volume at high temperatures, oxygen limitation may not explain the bradycardia and arrhythmia that occur prior to CTmax Acute thermal tolerance and its thermal plasticity can, therefore, only be partially attributed to cardiac failure from myocardial oxygen limitations, and likely involves limiting factors on multiple organizational levels. PMID:27280433

  2. Physiological responses to digestion in low salinity in the crabs Carcinus maenas and Cancer irroratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Chantelle M; Patton, Richard L; Whiteley, Nia M; Driedzic, William R; McGaw, Iain J

    2016-01-01

    Osmoregulation and digestion are energetically demanding, and crabs that move into low salinity environments to feed must be able to balance the demands of both processes. Achieving this balance may pose greater challenges for weak than for efficient osmoregulators. This study examined the rate of oxygen consumption (MO2) of Carcinus maenas (efficient osmoregulator) and Cancer irroratus (weak osmoregulator) as a function of feeding and hyposaline stress. The MO2 increased 2-fold in both species following feeding. The MO2 increased and remained elevated in fasted crabs during acute hyposaline exposure. When hyposaline stress occurred after feeding, C. maenas responded with an immediate summation of the MO2 associated with feeding and hyposaline stress, whereas C. irroratus reacted with a partial summation of responses in a salinity of 24‰, but were unable to sum responses in 16‰. C. irroratus exhibited longer gut transit times. This may be due to an inability to regulate osmotic water onload as efficiently as C. maenas. Mechanical digestion in crabs can account for a significant portion of SDA, and a short term interruption led to the delay in summation of metabolic demands. Although protein synthesis is reported to account for the majority of SDA, this did not appear to be the case here. Protein synthesis rates were higher in C. irroratus but neither feeding or salinity affected protein synthesis rates of either species which suggests that protein synthesis can continue in low salinity as long as substrates are available. PMID:26459987

  3. Physiological responses to digestion in low salinity in the crabs Carcinus maenas and Cancer irroratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penney, Chantelle M; Patton, Richard L; Whiteley, Nia M; Driedzic, William R; McGaw, Iain J

    2016-01-01

    Osmoregulation and digestion are energetically demanding, and crabs that move into low salinity environments to feed must be able to balance the demands of both processes. Achieving this balance may pose greater challenges for weak than for efficient osmoregulators. This study examined the rate of oxygen consumption (MO2) of Carcinus maenas (efficient osmoregulator) and Cancer irroratus (weak osmoregulator) as a function of feeding and hyposaline stress. The MO2 increased 2-fold in both species following feeding. The MO2 increased and remained elevated in fasted crabs during acute hyposaline exposure. When hyposaline stress occurred after feeding, C. maenas responded with an immediate summation of the MO2 associated with feeding and hyposaline stress, whereas C. irroratus reacted with a partial summation of responses in a salinity of 24‰, but were unable to sum responses in 16‰. C. irroratus exhibited longer gut transit times. This may be due to an inability to regulate osmotic water onload as efficiently as C. maenas. Mechanical digestion in crabs can account for a significant portion of SDA, and a short term interruption led to the delay in summation of metabolic demands. Although protein synthesis is reported to account for the majority of SDA, this did not appear to be the case here. Protein synthesis rates were higher in C. irroratus but neither feeding or salinity affected protein synthesis rates of either species which suggests that protein synthesis can continue in low salinity as long as substrates are available.

  4. World Health organization guidelines for management of acute stress, PTSD, and bereavement: key challenges on the road ahead.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wietse A Tol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wietse Tol and colleagues discuss some of the key challenges for implementation of new WHO guidelines for stress-related mental health disorders in low- and middle-income countries. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  5. Salinity and water quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of salinity on greenhouse grown crops, especially when grown in substrate systems, differs from the impact of salinity on crops grown under field conditions. The most striking difference between greenhouse and field conditions is the overall much higher concentrations of nutrients in gree

  6. Physiological benefits of being small in a changing world: responses of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) to an acute thermal challenge and a simulated capture event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Timothy D; Donaldson, Michael R; Pieperhoff, Sebastian; Drenner, S Matthew; Lotto, Andrew; Cooke, Steven J; Hinch, Scott G; Patterson, David A; Farrell, Anthony P

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is building to suggest that both chronic and acute warm temperature exposure, as well as other anthropogenic perturbations, may select for small adult fish within a species. To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated physiological and anatomical attributes associated with size-specific responses to an acute thermal challenge and a fisheries capture simulation (exercise+air exposure) in maturing male coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Full-size females were included for a sex-specific comparison. A size-specific response in haematology to an acute thermal challenge (from 7 to 20 °C at 3 °C h(-1)) was apparent only for plasma potassium, whereby full-size males exhibited a significant increase in comparison with smaller males ('jacks'). Full-size females exhibited an elevated blood stress response in comparison with full-size males. Metabolic recovery following exhaustive exercise at 7 °C was size-specific, with jacks regaining resting levels of metabolism at 9.3 ± 0.5 h post-exercise in comparison with 12.3 ± 0.4 h for full-size fish of both sexes. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption scaled with body mass in male fish with an exponent of b = 1.20 ± 0.08. Jacks appeared to regain osmoregulatory homeostasis faster than full-size males, and they had higher ventilation rates at 1 h post-exercise. Peak metabolic rate during post-exercise recovery scaled with body mass with an exponent of b~1, suggesting that the slower metabolic recovery in large fish was not due to limitations in diffusive or convective oxygen transport, but that large fish simply accumulated a greater 'oxygen debt' that took longer to pay back at the size-independent peak metabolic rate of ~6 mg min(-1) kg(-1). Post-exercise recovery of plasma testosterone was faster in jacks compared with full-size males, suggesting less impairment of the maturation trajectory of smaller fish. Supporting previous studies, these findings suggest that environmental change and non

  7. Physiological benefits of being small in a changing world: responses of Coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch to an acute thermal challenge and a simulated capture event.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy D Clark

    Full Text Available Evidence is building to suggest that both chronic and acute warm temperature exposure, as well as other anthropogenic perturbations, may select for small adult fish within a species. To shed light on this phenomenon, we investigated physiological and anatomical attributes associated with size-specific responses to an acute thermal challenge and a fisheries capture simulation (exercise+air exposure in maturing male coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch. Full-size females were included for a sex-specific comparison. A size-specific response in haematology to an acute thermal challenge (from 7 to 20 °C at 3 °C h(-1 was apparent only for plasma potassium, whereby full-size males exhibited a significant increase in comparison with smaller males ('jacks'. Full-size females exhibited an elevated blood stress response in comparison with full-size males. Metabolic recovery following exhaustive exercise at 7 °C was size-specific, with jacks regaining resting levels of metabolism at 9.3 ± 0.5 h post-exercise in comparison with 12.3 ± 0.4 h for full-size fish of both sexes. Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption scaled with body mass in male fish with an exponent of b = 1.20 ± 0.08. Jacks appeared to regain osmoregulatory homeostasis faster than full-size males, and they had higher ventilation rates at 1 h post-exercise. Peak metabolic rate during post-exercise recovery scaled with body mass with an exponent of b~1, suggesting that the slower metabolic recovery in large fish was not due to limitations in diffusive or convective oxygen transport, but that large fish simply accumulated a greater 'oxygen debt' that took longer to pay back at the size-independent peak metabolic rate of ~6 mg min(-1 kg(-1. Post-exercise recovery of plasma testosterone was faster in jacks compared with full-size males, suggesting less impairment of the maturation trajectory of smaller fish. Supporting previous studies, these findings suggest that environmental change and non

  8. Fish bone foreign body presenting with an acute fulminating retropharyngeal abscess in a resource-challenged center: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyewole Ezekiel O

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction A retropharyngeal abscess is a potentially life-threatening infection in the deep space of the neck, which can compromise the airway. Its management requires highly specialized care, including surgery and intensive care, to reduce mortality. This is the first case of a gas-forming abscess reported from this region, but not the first such report in the literature. Case presentation We present a case of a 16-month-old Yoruba baby girl with a gas-forming retropharyngeal abscess secondary to fish bone foreign body with laryngeal spasm that was managed in the recovery room. We highlight specific problems encountered in the management of this case in a resource-challenged center such as ours. Conclusion We describe an unusual presentation of a gas-forming organism causing a retropharyngeal abscess in a child. The patient's condition was treated despite the challenges of inadequate resources for its management. We recommend early recognition through adequate evaluation of any oropharyngeal injuries or infection and early referral to the specialist with prompt surgical intervention.

  9. A combination of l-arabinose and chromium lowers circulating glucose and insulin levels after an acute oral sucrose challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perricone Nicholas V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A growing body of research suggests that elevated circulating levels of glucose and insulin accelerate risk factors for a wide range of disorders. Low-risk interventions that could suppress glucose without raising insulin levels could offer significant long-term health benefits. Methods To address this issue, we conducted two sequential studies, the first with two phases. In the first phase of Study 1, baseline fasting blood glucose was measured in 20 subjects who consumed 70 grams of sucrose in water and subsequently completed capillary glucose measurements at 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes (Control. On day-2 the same procedure was followed, but with subjects simultaneously consuming a novel formula containing l-arabinose and a trivalent patented food source of chromium (LA-Cr (Treatment. The presence or absence of the LA-Cr was blinded to the subjects and testing technician. Comparisons of changes from baseline were made between Control and Treatment periods. In the second phase of Study 1, 10 subjects selected from the original 20 competed baseline measures of body composition (DXA, a 43-blood chemistry panel and a Quality of Life Inventory. These subjects subsequently took LA-Cr daily for 4 weeks completing daily tracking forms and repeating the baseline capillary tests at the end of each of the four weeks. In Study 2, the same procedures used in the first phase were repeated for 50 subjects, but with added circulating insulin measurements at 30 and 60 minutes from baseline. Results In both studies, as compared to Control, the Treatment group had significantly lower glucose responses for all four testing times (AUC = P P = Conclusions As compared to a placebo control, consumption of a LA-Cr formula after a 70-gram sucrose challenge was effective in safely lowering both circulating glucose and insulin levels. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov, NCT0110743

  10. EFFECT OF ACUTE SALINITY STRESS ON SOLUBLE PROTEIN, HEMOCYANIN, HAEMOLYMPH GLUCOSE AND HEPATOPANCREAS GLYCOGEN OF ERIOCHEIR SINENSIS%急性高渗胁迫对中华绒螯蟹雄蟹组织中可溶性蛋白质、血蓝蛋白、血糖与肝糖原含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王悦如; 李二超; 陈立侨; 王晓丹; 张凤英; 高露姣; 龙丽娜

    2012-01-01

    12h at salinity 30%o, and then gradually increased after 24h. All these results indicated that E. sinensis could produce physiological and biochemical adaptation to maintain a stable osmotic pressure during acute salinity stress. Carbohydrate and protein play important roles in the osmoregulation of crustaceans. E. sinensis could use carbohydrate first to provide energy under acute salinity stress. The higher the salinity, the faster the haemolymph glucose was consumed, and it also recovered more quickly. This observation suggested that carbohydrate could be a direct source in osmoregulation. The crabs may use protein to maintain the balance of osmotic pressure under high salinity by metabolizing the protein into free amino acids. Beside providing free amino acids, hemocyanin also can carry oxygen to meet the needs for physiological activities. Therefore, more attention should be paid to carbohydrate and protein supplied under salinity stress. The ratio of free amino acids maintaining the balance of osmotic pressure and supplying energy by oxidation and the utilization of lipid in osmoregulation require further study. Since the lipid contents in haemolymph and hepatopancreas were not determined in this study, the role of body lipid in E. sinensis was not discussed here and should be further examined.%实验以淡水(0.3‰)处理组为对照,研究了急性高渗胁迫(盐度16‰和30‰)对中华绒螯蟹(Eriocheir sinensis)雄蟹血淋巴和肝胰腺中可溶性蛋白质、血蓝蛋白、血糖及肝糖原含量的影响.结果显示,与对照组相比,进入16‰及30‰盐度后,蟹的血淋巴中可溶性蛋白质含量从6-48h显著降低(P0.05),而30‰盐度组其血糖含量早在6-12h时就有显著的下降(P<0.05),到24h则开始逐渐升高.研究表明,在急性盐度胁迫下,糖类和蛋白质对中华绒螯蟹渗透压调节起重要的作用,其优先利用糖类的分解获得所需的能量,其中盐度越高,机体内葡萄糖的消耗越快,

  11. Tolerância de juvenis do pampo Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae ao choque agudo de salinidade em laboratório Acute salinity tolerance of juvenile pompano Trachinotus marginatus (Teleostei, Carangidae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís André Sampaio

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O pampo Trachinotus marginatus é uma espécie com potencial para piscicultura, mas a sua utilização pode ser limitada pelas variações de salinidade comuns em estuários ou em ambientes super-salinos. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a tolerância à salinidade de juvenis de T. marginatus em laboratório. Foram testadas 12 salinidades em duplicata (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65 e 75‰ e um tratamento controle (35‰. Dez peixes (comprimento total: 20,7±2,3mm e peso úmido: 427±113mg foram colocados em tanques plásticos de 3L. A temperatura da água foi mantida em 24ºC com um banho termostatisado, aeração constante e, a cada 24 horas, os meios experimentais foram completamente renovados. Após 96 horas de exposição, as salinidades letais médias inferior e superior, com os respectivos intervalos de confiança (IC 95%, foram estimadas em 6,99‰ (IC 95% = 6,86-7,13‰ e 58,50‰ (IC 95% = 56,81-60,24‰, respectivamente. Estes resultados permitem caracterizar esta espécie como eurialina. O estudo da influência da salinidade sobre T. marginatus deve ser aprofundado, buscando avaliar principalmente os efeitos sobre o crescimento, de modo que seja possível determinar o potencial do seu cultivo em ambientes com diferentes salinidades.The pompano Trachinotus marginatus shows good potential for aquaculture, but the success of its culture might be limited by the salinity fluctuations common in estuaries or in hyper-saline environments. The objective of this work was to establish the salinity tolerance of juvenile T. marginatus under laboratory conditions. Twelve salinities (0, 6, 8, 10, 15, 25, 45, 55, 58, 61, 65, and 75‰ plus a control (35‰ were tested in duplicate. Groups of ten fish (total length: 20.7±2,3mm and wet weight: 427±113mg were placed in plastic tanks with 3L of water. A water bath was set to control the temperature at 24ºC, water was continuously aerated, and completely exchanged

  12. Field and Laboratory Investigations on Seismic Properties of Unconsolidated Saline Permafrost

    OpenAIRE

    Dou, Shan

    2015-01-01

    Saline permafrost is mechanically weak and very sensitive to temperature disturbances, which makes its degradation particularly worrisome in a warming climate. For the purposes of hazard mitigation and prevention, it is crucial to gain knowledge about the properties and distributions of saline permafrost. However, one major challenge is that saline permafrost is hard to access, as it often is covered with a surficial layer of non-saline permafrost. Seismic methods are cost-effective methods ...

  13. Saline groundwater in crystalline bedrock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The State-of-art report describes research made on deep saline groundwaters and brines found in crystalline bedrock, mainly in site studies for nuclear waste disposal. The occurrence, definitions and classifications of saline groundwaters are reviewed with a special emphasis on the different theories concerning the origins of saline groundwaters. Studies of the saline groundwaters in Finland and Sweden have been reviewed more thoroughly. Also the mixing of different bodies of groundwaters, observations of the contact of saline groundwaters and permafrost, and the geochemical modelling of saline groundwaters as well as the future trends of research have been discussed. (orig.)

  14. Saturated hydrogen saline protects the lung against oxygen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Juan; Liu, Kan; Kang, Zhimin; Cai, Jianmei; Liu, Wenwu; Xu, Weigang; Li, Runping; Tao, Hengyi; Zhang, John H; Sun, Xuejun

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to high oxygen concentrations leads to acute lung injury, including lung tissue and alveolar edema formation, congestion, intra-alveolar hemorrhage, as well as endothelial and epithelial cell apoptosis or necrosis. Several studies have reported that molecular hydrogen is an efficient antioxidant by gaseous rapid diffusion into tissues and cells. Moreover, consumption of water with dissolved molecular hydrogen to a saturated level (hydrogen water) prevents stress-induced cognitive decline in mice and superoxide formation in mice. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of saturated hydrogen saline on pulmonary injury-induced exposure to >98% oxygen at 2.5 ATA for five hours. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, saline group and saturated hydrogen saline group. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining were used to examine histological changes. The lung wet to dry (W/D) weight ratio was calculated. The concentration of protein and total cell counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were measured. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum and BALF were measured by spectrophotometer. The light microscope findings showed that saturated hydrogen saline reduced the impairment when compared with the saline group: Saturated hydrogen saline decreased lung edema, reduced LDH activity in BALF and serum, and decreased total cells and protein concentration in BALF. These results demonstrated that saturated hydrogen saline alleviated hyperoxia-induced pulmonary injury, which was partly responsible for the inhibition of oxidative damage. PMID:20568549

  15. Constitutive, but Not Challenge-Induced, Interleukin-10 Production Is Robust in Acute Pre-Pubescent Protein and Energy Deficits: New Support for the Tolerance Hypothesis of Malnutrition-Associated Immune Depression Based on Cytokine Production in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Woodward

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The tolerance model of acute (i.e., wasting pre-pubescent protein and energy deficits proposes that the immune depression characteristic of these pathologies reflects an intact anti-inflammatory form of immune competence that reduces the risk of autoimmune reactions to catabolically released self antigens. A cornerstone of this proposition is the finding that constitutive (first-tier interleukin(IL-10 production is sustained even into the advanced stages of acute malnutrition. The IL-10 response to inflammatory challenge constitutes a second tier of anti-inflammatory regulation and was the focus of this investigation. Weanling mice consumed a complete diet ad libitum, a low-protein diet ad libitum (mimicking incipient kwashiorkor, or the complete diet in restricted daily quantities (mimicking marasmus, and their second-tier IL-10 production was determined both in vitro and in vivo using lipopolysaccharide (LPS and anti-CD3 as stimulants of innate and adaptive defences, respectively. Both early (3 days and advanced (14 days stages of wasting pathology were examined and three main outcomes emerged. First, classic in vitro systems are unreliable for discerning cytokine production in vivo. Secondly, in diverse forms of acute malnutrition declining challenge-induced IL-10 production may provide an early sign that anti-inflammatory control over immune competence is failing. Thirdly, and most fundamentally, the investigation provides new support for the tolerance model of malnutrition-associated inflammatory immune depression.

  16. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  17. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  18. Groundwater salinity and environmental change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation and release of salinity from near surface environments takes place naturally as a result of climatic cycles and environmental change. Salinity stratification, both in the saturated and unsaturated zones of aquifers, may be used in certain circumstances to record past recharge events and periods of drought. Chloride, in conjunction with the stable isotopes δ18O, δ2H and other chemical and stable or radioactive indicator parameters, enables the origins of salinity and the timing of these events to be determined. Salinity may be used as a practical tool in water resource investigation to estimate recharge and discharge, to investigate palaeohydrology and in the understanding and management of groundwater in coastal regions. Human impacts have severely disturbed the natural salinity balance, especially in the past 100 years, and examples of human intervention are presented relating to dryland salinity, irrigation effects and overexploitation. (author)

  19. Effect of hypertonic saline treatment on the inflammatory response after hydrochloric acid-induced lung injury in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Augusto Holms

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:Hypertonic saline has been proposed to modulate the inflammatory cascade in certain experimental conditions, including pulmonary inflammation caused by inhaled gastric contents. The present study aimed to assess the potential anti-inflammatory effects of administering a single intravenous dose of 7.5% hypertonic saline in an experimental model of acute lung injury induced by hydrochloric acid.METHODS:Thirty-two pigs were anesthetized and randomly allocated into the following four groups: Sham, which received anesthesia and were observed; HS, which received intravenous 7.5% hypertonic saline solution (4 ml/kg; acute lung injury, which were subjected to acute lung injury with intratracheal hydrochloric acid; and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline, which were subjected to acute lung injury with hydrochloric acid and treated with hypertonic saline. Hemodynamic and ventilatory parameters were recorded over four hours. Subsequently, bronchoalveolar lavage samples were collected at the end of the observation period to measure cytokine levels using an oxidative burst analysis, and lung tissue was collected for a histological analysis.RESULTS:Hydrochloric acid instillation caused marked changes in respiratory mechanics as well as blood gas and lung parenchyma parameters. Despite the absence of a significant difference between the acute lung injury and acute lung injury + hypertonic saline groups, the acute lung injury animals presented higher neutrophil and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage analysis. The histopathological analysis revealed pulmonary edema, congestion and alveolar collapse in both groups; however, the differences between groups were not significant. Despite the lower cytokine and neutrophil levels observed in the acute lung injury + hypertonic saline group, significant differences were not observed among the treated and non-treated groups

  20. Plant growth under high salinity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, M.; Brandenburg, W.A.

    2011-01-01

    Plants most suitable for growing under high saline or even seawater conditions are the ones naturally living under high saline circumstances. A series of tolerant or moderate salt tolerant plants are experimentally tested and described in literature. For many species of this group a threshold value

  1. Salt Flux,Salinity Intrusion and Estuarine Circulation in the Ota Diversion Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad SOLTANIASL

    2013-01-01

    The large salinity variation in estuaries may create a challenging environment for the ecological system. Changes in the balance between freshwater and saltwater can lead to the loss of species. Therefore, investigation of salinity intrusion in estuaries is important, both in terms of understanding the complex balance between the fluvial and tidal processes that affect the salinity intrusion within the estuary, and also in terms of formulating effective policies for sustainable development in...

  2. The myth of 0.9% saline: neither normal nor physiological.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Leon

    2015-01-01

    Normal saline is the crystalloid of choice for fluid resuscitation with its utility born out of the cholera epidemic of 1832. However, its ubiquitous usage is being challenged because of a growing body of evidence suggesting that a large volume infusion of normal saline does in fact have deleterious effects on multiple body systems. Careful considerations should be given to the physiological effects of using large amounts of normal saline as one would with another pharmacological agents. PMID:26335217

  3. Qualitative and Quantitative Contrast‐Enhanced Ultrasonographic Assessment of Cerulein‐Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, S.Y.; Nakamura, K.; Morishita, K.; Sasaki, N.; M. Murakami; Osuga, T.; Ohta, H; Yamasaki, M; Takiguchi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis (AP) is the most common disease of the canine exocrine pancreas, and accurate noninvasive diagnosis is challenging. Hypothesis/Objectives To determine the feasibility of using quantitative contrast‐enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) to detect pancreatic perfusional changes in cerulein‐induced AP in dogs. Animals Six adult female Beagles. Methods Each dog received 2 hours of IV infusion with 7.5 μg/kg/h of cerulein diluted in saline. As control, all dogs received 2 h...

  4. Effects of Slow-stroke Back Massage on Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting in the Pediatrics with Acute Leukemia: a Challenge of Controlling Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Miladinia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Nausea and vomiting are the most common side effects of chemotherapy in the pediatrics with cancer which affect their quality of life. Use of some methods of complementary medicine in leukemia patients is problematic. Because, leukemia patients are at risk of infection and bleeding, therefore the use of acupressure, acupuncture, and deep massage can be risky in these patients. Slow- stroke back massage is applied on the surface of body, so does not have complications. No study has addressed the effect of massage therapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in pediatrics with acute leukemia in the world.  Material and methods This study was a two-group randomized controlled trial (RCT, double blind and repeated measures design. In this RCT, 45 school age children with acute leukemia were placed in the massage and control groups. Before start of the study, at the day of chemotherapy administration (day 1th, only nausea and vomiting were measured. Then during 6 days next (day 2 through 7, the intervention group received 5-minutes Super Smash Bros. Melee (SSBM, immediately before start of each session of chemotherapy. Nausea was measured during chemotherapy, 0.5 h and 3 h after each session of chemotherapy in the two groups. Also vomiting was recorded during 24 h after each session of chemotherapy. Repeated measures ANOVA, Chi-square, and t-test were used for analysis. Results Most of pediatrics were male (58.13%, and suffered from Acute myeloid leukemia (AML (81.7%. The repeated measure analysis showed that in the intervention group, the SSBM reduced progressive mean of nausea severity and frequency of vomit over time. While, this side effects have slightly increased over time in the control group. Conclusion The results of this study are suggesting that SSBM, as a non-pharmacologic, easy and safe method, is effective in controlling Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV in the pediatrics with acute leukemia.

  5. The Mediterranean salinity crisis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsue, K.J.

    1988-08-01

    That the Mediterranean Sea underwent a salinity crisis during the Miocene (Messinian) is proven by the 1970 JOIDES deep sea drilling expedition. Subsequent work by ocean drilling and by studies on land have recorded the history of this crisis. Based upon the deep desiccated-basin model, the use of event-stratigraphy, calibrated by strontium-isotope dating and magnetostratigraphy, has enabled them to decipher the following events between 6.0 and 5.1 Ma: (1) deposition of marine diatom-rich sediments in a partially restricted basin, (2) first desiccation of the Mediterranean when Calcare di base was deposited at a time of isolation from the Atlantic because of a glacial eustatic drop of sea level, (3) influx of marine waters through southern Spanish basins to furnish brines for the deposition of the main salt, (4) Intra-Messinian desiccation, as evidenced by the erosional unconformity above the lower evaporite, (5) Intra-Messinian denudation, when reefs grew on Cyprus and marine sediments were deposited in basins, (6) frequency isolations due to oscillating sea level, when the upper evaporite was deposited, (7) Lago mare, formation of freshwater and brackish lakes due to influx of Paratethys water, (8) opening of the Gibraltar and Pliocene inundation of the Mediterranean.

  6. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minnen, L.P. van

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies

  7. Therapeutic effects of compound hypertonic saline on rats with sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Dong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sepsis is one of the major causes of death and is the biggest obstacle preventing improvement of the success rate in curing critical illnesses. Currently, isotonic solutions are used in fluid resuscitation technique. Several studies have shown that hypertonic saline applied in hemorrhagic shock can rapidly increase the plasma osmotic pressure, facilitate the rapid return of interstitial fluid into the blood vessels, and restore the effective circulating blood volume. Here, we established a rat model of sepsis by using the cecal ligation and puncture approach. We found that intravenous injection of hypertonic saline dextran (7.5% NaCl/6% dextran after cecal ligation and puncture can improve circulatory failure at the onset of sepsis. We found that the levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and intracellular adhesion molecule 1 levels in the lung tissue of cecal ligation and puncture rats treated with hypertonic saline dextran were significantly lower than the corresponding levels in the control group. We inferred that hypertonic saline dextran has a positive immunoregulatory effect and inhibits the overexpression of the inflammatory response in the treatment of sepsis. The percentage of neutrophils, lung myeloperoxidase activity, wet to dry weight ratio of lung tissues, histopathological changes in lung tissues, and indicators of arterial blood gas analysis was significantly better in the hypertonic saline dextran-treated group than in the other groups in this study. Hypertonic saline dextran-treated rats had significantly improved survival rates at 9 and 18 h compared to the control group. Our results suggest that hypertonic saline dextran plays a protective role in acute lung injury caused after cecal ligation and puncture. In conclusion, hypertonic/hyperoncotic solutions have beneficial therapeutic effects in the treatment of an animal model of sepsis.

  8. NOAA Average Annual Salinity (3-Zone)

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The 3-Zone Average Annual Salinity Digital Geography is a digital spatial framework developed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. These salinity...

  9. Challenges of implementing national guidelines for the control and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization or infection in acute care hospitals in the Republic of Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, Fidelma

    2009-03-01

    Of the 49 acute care hospitals in Ireland that responded to the survey questionnaire drafted by the Infection Control Subcommittee of the Health Protection Surveillance Centre\\'s Strategy for the Control of Antimicrobial Resistance in Ireland, 43 reported barriers to the full implementation of national guidelines for the control and prevention of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection; these barriers included poor infrastructure (42 hospitals), inadequate laboratory resources (40 hospitals), inadequate staffing (39 hospitals), and inadequate numbers of isolation rooms and beds (40 hospitals). Four of the hospitals did not have an educational program on hand hygiene, and only 17 had an antibiotic stewardship program.

  10. NOAA NOS SOS, EXPERIMENTAL - Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NOS SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have salinity data. *These services are for testing and evaluation use...

  11. World Ocean Atlas 2005, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World Ocean Atlas 2005 (WOA05) is a set of objectively analyzed (1° grid) climatological fields of in situ temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, Apparent Oxygen...

  12. Stochastic Modeling of Soil Salinity

    CERN Document Server

    Suweis, S; Van der Zee, S E A T M; Daly, E; Maritan, A; Porporato, A; 10.1029/2010GL042495

    2012-01-01

    A minimalist stochastic model of primary soil salinity is proposed, in which the rate of soil salinization is determined by the balance between dry and wet salt deposition and the intermittent leaching events caused by rainfall events. The long term probability density functions of salt mass and concentration are found by reducing the coupled soil moisture and salt mass balance equation to a single stochastic differential equation driven by multiplicative Poisson noise. The novel analytical solutions provide insight on the interplay of the main soil, plant and climate parameters responsible for long-term soil salinization. In particular, they show the existence of two distinct regimes, one where the mean salt mass remains nearly constant (or decreases) with increasing rainfall frequency, and another where mean salt content increases markedly with increasing rainfall frequency. As a result, relatively small reductions of rainfall in drier climates may entail dramatic shifts in long-term soil salinization trend...

  13. Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of bronchitis: acute and chronic. Most cases of acute bronchitis get better within several days. But your cough ... that cause colds and the flu often cause acute bronchitis. These viruses spread through the air when people ...

  14. Treatment of hemorrhagic shock with hypertonic saline solution modulates the inflammatory response to live bacteria in lungs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.I. Fernandes

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Shock and resuscitation render patients more susceptible to acute lung injury due to an exacerbated immune response to subsequent inflammatory stimuli. To study the role of innate immunity in this situation, we investigated acute lung injury in an experimental model of ischemia-reperfusion (I-R followed by an early challenge with live bacteria. Conscious rats (N = 8 in each group were submitted to controlled hemorrhage and resuscitated with isotonic saline (SS, 0.9% NaCl or hypertonic saline (HS, 7.5% NaCl solution, followed by intratracheal or intraperitoneal inoculation of Escherichia coli. After infection, toll-like receptor (TLR 2 and 4 mRNA expression was monitored by RT-PCR in infected tissues. Plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins 6 and 10 were determined by ELISA. All animals showed similar hemodynamic variables, with mean arterial pressure decreasing to nearly 40 mmHg after bleeding. HS or SS used as resuscitation fluid yielded equal hemodynamic results. Intratracheal E. coli inoculation per se induced a marked neutrophil infiltration in septa and inside the alveoli, while intraperitoneal inoculation-associated neutrophils and edema were restricted to the interseptal space. Previous I-R enhanced lung neutrophil infiltration upon bacterial challenge when SS was used as reperfusion fluid, whereas neutrophil influx was unchanged in HS-treated animals. No difference in TLR expression or cytokine secretion was detected between groups receiving HS or SS. We conclude that HS is effective in reducing the early inflammatory response to infection after I-R, and that this phenomenon is achieved by modulation of factors other than expression of innate immunity components.

  15. Larval tolerance to salinity in three species of Australian anuran: an indication of saline specialisation in Litoria aurea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian D Kearney

    Full Text Available Recent anthropogenic influences on freshwater habitats are forcing anuran populations to rapidly adapt to high magnitude changes in environmental conditions or face local extinction. We examined the effects of ecologically relevant elevated salinity levels on larval growth, metamorphosis and survival of three species of Australian anuran; the spotted marsh frog (Limnodynastes tasmaniensis, the painted burrowing frog (Neobatrachus sudelli and the green and golden bell frog (Litoria aurea, in order to better understand the responses of these animals to environmental change. Elevated salinity (16% seawater negatively impacted on the survival of L. tasmaniensis (35% survival and N sudelli (0% survival, while reduced salinity had a negative impact on L. aurea. (16% seawater: 85% survival; 0.4% seawater: 35% survival. L. aurea tadpoles survived in salinities much higher than previously reported for this species, indicating the potential for inter-populations differences in salinity tolerance. In L. tasmaniensis and L. aurea, development to metamorphosis was fastest in low and high salinity treatments suggesting it is advantageous for tadpoles to invest energy in development in both highly favourable and developmentally challenging environments. We propose that this response might either maximise potential lifetime fecundity when tadpoles experience favourable environments, or, facilitate a more rapid escape from pond environments where there is a reduced probability of survival.

  16. Clinical experiences of normal saline pressed injection via lumbar puncture in the treatment of apnea due to acute tonsillar hernia%采用腰穿加压注液方法抢救急性枕骨大孔疝致呼吸停止的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟庆虎; 曲春城; 魏麟; 李新钢; 李刚; 费昶; 孙金龙; 王成伟; 张庆林

    2012-01-01

    Objective To summarize the clinical experiences of normal saline pressed injection via lumbar puncture in the treatment of acute tonsillar hernia induced apnea.This procedure was routinely carried out after external ventricular drainage and/or lesion removal via open craniotomy.Methods During the period of 1969 to 2005,a total of 43 patients failed to regain respiratory after external ventricular drainage using rapid small hole cranio-puncture apparatus or lesion removal via open craniotomy.They underwent lumbar puncture and normal saline was pressed injected via a lumbar puncture needle.The patient data were retrospectively analyzed.Results Eleven of 43 patients had spontaneous respiration and fully recovered (25.6% ),16 patients regained respiration but died eventually (37.2% ) and 16 patients failed to regain respiration ( 37.2% ).The effective rate was 62.8%.Conclusion For the patients failing to regain respiration after external ventricular drainage or supratentorial lesion removal via open craniotomy,the conservative treatment should not be the first choice.The pressed injection of normal saline via lumbar puncture may rescue some patients.%目的 总结应用快速细孔钻颅脑室体外引流术或开颅病变清除减压术后,进行腰穿加压注液抢救枕骨大孔疝所致呼吸骤停患者的经验.方法 自1969至2005年山东大学齐鲁医院及山东大学第二医院共同采用腰穿加压注液方法,救治43例急性枕骨大孔疝患者,43例均为进行快速细孔钻颅脑室外引流或幕上病变开颅清除减压术后,自主呼吸仍不恢复者.结果 43例中11例(25.6%)不仅恢复自主呼吸且完全康复,16例(37.2%)出现不同时间的自主呼吸但最终死亡,无自主呼吸恢复迹象者16例(37.2%).结论 因急性枕骨大孔疝致呼吸停止,应用快速细孔钻颅脑室引流,或幕上病变开颅清除减压术后,自主呼吸仍无恢复的患者,给予腰穿加压注液有可能使部分患者获救.

  17. Intravenous naloxone in acute respiratory failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Ayres, J.; J Rees; Lee, T.; Cochrane, G M

    1982-01-01

    A 58-year-old man presented with acute on chronic respiratory failure. In the acute stage of his illness an infusion of the opiate antagonist naloxone caused an improvement in oxygen saturation as measured by ear oximetry from 74% to 85%, while a saline infusion resulted in a return of oxygen saturation to the original value. When he had recovered from the acute episode the same dose of naloxone had no effect on oxygen saturation. These findings suggest that in acute respiratory failure there...

  18. Challenges in predicting the need for coronary artery bypass grafting at presentation in patients with non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajendra H; Chen, Anita Y; Pollack, Charles V; Roe, Matthew T; Zalenski, Robert J; Clements, Elizabeth A; Gibler, W Brian; Ohman, E Magnus; Harrington, Robert A; Peterson, Eric D

    2006-09-01

    In the case of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndromes (NSTE-ACSs), the acute use of certain antiplatelet agents is complicated by concerns about perioperative bleeding risks in patients requiring coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) during the index hospitalization. As a result, clinicians often withhold potentially useful agents, such as clopidogrel, before determining patients' coronary anatomy. An accurate predictive model could allow for a better balance of this safety concern with the demonstrated benefits of agents such as clopidogrel. To create an accurate decision-making tool that would assess, at hospital presentation, the need for CABG in patients with NSTE-ACSs, we studied 61,974 high-risk patients with NSTE-ACS admitted to 311 CABG-capable hospitals participating in Can Rapid Risk Stratification of Unstable Angina Patients Suppress Adverse Outcomes With Early Implementation of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Guidelines (CRUSADE) from 2001 to 2003. A total of 8,395 patients (14%) underwent CABG during their initial hospital stay. A multivariate model was developed and identified 13 presenting clinical characteristics significantly associated with the likelihood of CABG (previous CABG, male gender, previous heart failure, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, renal insufficiency, ST depression and transient ST elevation, age > or = 75 years, previous percutaneous coronary intervention, family history of coronary artery disease, hypertension, trends in CABG rates, and previous stroke). This model had only modest predictive accuracy and calibration (c-index = 0.67). In conclusion, although certain presenting clinical features are associated with an increased likelihood of CABG in patients with NSTE-ACSs during the index hospitalization, it remains difficult to reliably identify, before diagnostic angiography, those who will subsequently undergo surgical revascularization. PMID:16923449

  19. Protocol for a human in vivo model of acute cigarette smoke inhalation challenge in smokers with COPD: monitoring the nasal and systemic immune response using a network biology approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Clare L; Galloway-Phillipps, Neil; Armstrong, Paul C; Mitchell, Jane A; Warner, Timothy D; Brearley, Christopher; Ito, Mari; Tunstall, Tanushree; Elkin, Sarah; Kon, Onn Min; Hansel, Trevor T; Paul-Clark, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoke contributes to a diverse range of diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disorders and many cancers. There currently is a need for human challenge models, to assess the acute effects of a controlled cigarette smoke stimulus, followed by serial sampling of blood and respiratory tissue for advanced molecular profiling. We employ precision sampling of nasal mucosal lining fluid by absorption to permit soluble mediators measurement in eluates. Serial nasal curettage was used for transcriptomic analysis of mucosal tissue. Methods and analysis Three groups of strictly defined patients will be studied: 12 smokers with COPD (GOLD Stage 2) with emphysema, 12 matched smokers with normal lung function and no evidence of emphysema, and 12 matched never smokers with normal spirometry. Patients in the smoking groups are current smokers, and will be given full support to stop smoking immediately after this study. In giving a controlled cigarette smoke stimulus, all patients will have abstained from smoking for 12 h, and will smoke two cigarettes with expiration through the nose in a ventilated chamber. Before and after inhalation of cigarette smoke, a series of samples will be taken from the blood, nasal mucosal lining fluid and nasal tissue by curettage. Analysis of plasma nicotine and metabolites in relation to levels of soluble inflammatory mediators in nasal lining fluid and blood, as well as assessing nasal transcriptomics, ex vivo blood platelet aggregation and leucocyte responses to toll-like receptor agonists will be undertaken. Implications Development of acute cigarette smoke challenge models has promise for the study of molecular effects of smoking in a range of pathological processes. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by the West London National Research Ethics Committee (12/LO/1101). The study findings will be presented at conferences and will be reported in peer-reviewed journals

  20. Effect of hydrogen-rich saline on acute kidney injury after orthotopic liver transplantation and the role of autophagy%饱和氢盐水对大鼠原位肝移植术后急性肾损伤的影响及自噬在其中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴莉; 杜洪印; 喻文立; 施东婧; 盛明薇; 杨超; 翁亦齐; 王树森

    2015-01-01

    -rich saline on acute kidney injury after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats and the role of autophagy.Methods Fifty-six healthy adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 220-250 g, served as donors and recipients.Thirty-two recipient rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups using a random number table: sham operation group (group S), OLT group, hydrogen-rich saline group (group HS) , and autophagy inhibitor chloroquine group (group CQ).In group S, laparotomy was performed, and the related blood vessels were isolated.The model of OLT was established in OLT, HS and CQ groups.In OLT and HS groups, normal saline and hydrogen-rich saline 6 ml/kg were injected, respectively, through the inferior vena cava at 5 min before anhepatic phase.In group CQ, chloroquine 60 mg/kg was injected intraperitoneally at 1 h before establishment of the model,and the other treatments were similar to those previously described in group HS.Blood samples were obtained at 6 h of neohepatic phase for determination of serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) concentrations.After the end of blood sampling, the left kidneys were removed for determination of malondialdehyde (MDA) content (using thiobarbituric acid method), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity (xanthine oxidase method), and cell apoptosis (using TUNEL), and for examination of the pathological changes of renal tissues.The damage to the renal tubules was scored.Apoptosis index (AI)was calculated.The expression of phosphorylated p53 (p-p53), activated caspase-3, cytochrome c (Cyt c) , microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 Ⅱ (LC3 Ⅱ) , and Beclin-1 was detected by Western blot analysis.Results Compared with group S, the levels of BUN, Cr, and MDA, AI, and renal tubular damage score were significantly increased, the SOD activity was decreased, and the expression of activated caspase-3, Cyt c and LC3 Ⅱ was up-regulated (P<0.05), and no significant change was found in p-p53 expression in group OLT (P>0

  1. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsaru, M; Smith, C; Merritt, J; Aizawa, T; Rojc, A

    2006-05-01

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA. PMID:16448819

  2. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsaru, M. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia)]. E-mail: mihai.borsaru@csiro.au; Smith, C. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia); Merritt, J. [Anglo Coal (Capcoal Management) Pty. Ltd., PMB, Middlemount. Qld. 4746 (Australia); Aizawa, T. [Suncoh Consultants Co., Ltd, 1-8-9, Kameido, Koto-Ku, Tokyo, 136-8522 (Japan); Rojc, A. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld. 4069 (Australia)

    2006-05-15

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA.

  3. In situ determination of salinity by PGNAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is a very important environmental issue all around the world. In many cases salinity was produced from human activities like farming and mining. Different soluble salts contribute to salinity, however, NaCl is the most common salt producing salinity. This work deals with the application of the prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technique for in situ determination of salinity. The technique is based on the measurement of chlorine, a component of the common salt, by PGNAA

  4. Narrow and broad senses on salinity scale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The narrow sense and applicable limit of Practical Salinity Scale 1978 (PSS78) and volumetric titration using silver nitrate to measure the salinity of non-conservative oceanwater are discussed.The salinity obtained by electrical conductivity method and chlorinity salinity method obviously deviates from the absolute salinity (SA). The Density Salinity Scale (DSS98) proposed by the writers can be extensively used in conservative and non-conservative water samples.The merits of the density salinity scale are as follows,(1) The Density Salinity Scale is only related to seawater mass and its buoyant effect, and is not influenced by the variation in seawater composition, and therefore, has high reliability, and repeatability for salinity determination.(2) The salinity values measured by the DSS98 have a conservative property. For oceanwater samples the salinity values are the same as those determined by the PSS78; for non-conservative water samples (e.g. samples from industrial sources), the salinity values are close to the absolute salinity values in comparison with those measured by the PSS78 and the Knudsen method.(3)For a solution with given solute mass, the solution concentration can be converted into the corresponding salinity by the Density Salinity Scale using the expansion coefficient of the solution and the calibration coefficient of the partial molar volume of the solute.

  5. Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Somsri Wiwanitkit; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    Dengue is a tropical arboviral infection that can have severe hemorrhagic complication.Acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is rare and is a big challenge in neurosurgery.To perform surgery for management of acute brain hemorrhage in dengue is a controversial issue.Here, the authors try to summarize the previous reports on this topic and compare neurosurgery versus conservative management.

  6. Recurrence of a t(8;21-Positive Acute Myeloid Leukemia in the Form of a Granulocytic Sarcoma Involving Cranial Bones: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambra Di Veroli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Granulocytic sarcoma (GS is a rare extramedullary solid tumor defined as an accumulation of myeloblasts or immature myeloid cells. It can cooccur with or precede the acute myeloid leukemia (AML as well as following treated AML. The incidence of GS in AML patients is 3–8% but it significantly rises in M2 FAB subtype AML. This variety of AML harbors t(8;21 in up to 20–25% of cases (especially in children and black ones of African origin and, at a molecular level, it is characterized by the generation of a fusion gene known as RUNX1-RUNX1T1. Approximately 10% of M2 AML patients will develop GS, as a consequence, the t(8;21 and the relative transcript represent the most common cytogenetic and molecular abnormalities in GS. FLT3-ITD mutation was rarely described in AML patients presenting with GS. FLT3 ITD is generally strongly associated with poor prognosis in AML, and is rarely reported in patients with t(8;21. GS presentation is extremely variable depending on organs involved; in general, cranial bones and sinus are very rarely affected sites. We report a rare case of GS occurring as a recurrence of a previously treated t(8;21, FLT3-ITD positive AML, involving mastoid bones and paravertebral tissues.

  7. The effect of 3% and 6% hypertonic saline in viral bronchiolitis: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teunissen, Jasmijn; Hochs, Anne H J; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja; Boehmer, Annemie L M; Smeets, Carien C J M; Brackel, Hein; van Gent, René; Wesseling, Judith; Logtens-Stevens, Danielle; de Moor, Ronald; Rosias, Philippe P R; Potgieter, Steph; Faber, Marianne R; Hendriks, Han J E; Janssen-Heijnen, Maryska L G; Loza, Bettina F

    2014-10-01

    Bronchiolitis is a common disorder in young children that often results in hospitalisation. Except for a possible effect of nebulised hypertonic saline (sodium chloride), no evidence-based therapy is available. This study investigated the efficacy of nebulised 3% and 6% hypertonic saline compared with 0.9% hypertonic saline in children hospitalised with viral bronchiolitis. In this multicentre, double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, children hospitalised with acute viral bronchiolitis were randomised to receive either nebulised 3%, 6% hypertonic saline or 0.9% normal saline during their entire hospital stay. Salbutamol was added to counteract possible bronchial constriction. The primary endpoint was the length of hospital stay. Secondary outcomes were need for supplemental oxygen and tube feeding. From the 292 children included in the study (median age 3.4 months), 247 completed the study. The median length of hospital stay did not differ between the groups: 69 h (interquartile range 57), 70 h (IQR 69) and 53 h (IQR 52), for 3% (n=84) and 6% (n=83) hypertonic saline and 0.9% (n=80) normal saline, respectively, (p=0.29). The need for supplemental oxygen or tube feeding did not differ significantly. Adverse effects were similar in the three groups. Nebulisation with hypertonic saline (3% or 6% sodium chloride) although safe, did not reduce the length of stay in hospital, duration of supplemental oxygen or tube feeding in children hospitalised with moderate-to-severe viral bronchiolitis.

  8. Clinical research about the curative effect of hypertonic saline on acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury%高渗盐水抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘万宝; 刘剑; 乔着意; 赵庆波; 王梅

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨高渗盐水(hypertonic saline,HS)在急诊科抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压患者首次降颅压治疗中的临床疗效.方法 颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压患者60例,随机分为3%HS组(20例)、10%HS组(20例)和20%甘露醇(mannitol,MT)组(20例).3%HS组静脉给予3%HS 260 mL,10%HS组静脉给予10%HS 80 mL,MT组静脉给予20%MT 250 mL,并于用药前及用药后30、60、90 min和2、3、4、5 h监测颅内压(intracranial pressure,ICP)、平均动脉压(mean artery pressure,MAP),记录尿量,观察生命体征变化,监测血生化指标.结果 ①HS组于用药后30 min ICP达到最大降幅,显著早于MT组(P0.05).③静脉快速滴注3%HS、10%HS和20%MT后脑灌注压(CPP)均显著升高(P0.05),但3%HS作用持续时间较10%HS、20%MT显著延长(P<0.05).结论 ①与MT比较,HS抢救颅脑损伤所致急性颅内高压起效更快、更持久,维持ICP更平稳.②两种浓度HS都能显著升高MAP,具有显著扩容作用.③三组均能升高CPP,以3%HS持续时间较长.%Objective To investigate the curative effect of hypertonic saline (HS) on the patients with acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury in emergency department.Methods Patients with acute intracranial hypertension caused by craniocerebral injury were divided into three groups including 3% HS group, 10% HS group and 20% mannitol (MT) group randomly.The intracranial pressure(ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), blood pressure(BP), cerebral perfusion pressure( CPP), urine output and blood biochemical parameters were recorded before the treatment and at 30, 60, 90 min and 2, 3, 4, 5 h after 3% HS 260 mL, 10% HS 80 mL and 20% MT 250 mL treatment respectively.Results ①The ICP decreased greatly at 30 min after HS treatment, which was earlier than in MT group(P < 0.05).Moreover, decreased ICP of 3% HS group maintained for 4 h,which was better than other groups(P < 0.05).②The MAP increased after treatment in HS

  9. Diagnosis of acute neuropathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Clarissa; Krarup, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Acute and subacute polyneuropathies present diagnostic challenges since many require prompt initiation of treatment in order to limit axonal degeneration and since an exact and detailed diagnosis is a prerequisite for making the correct choice of treatment. It is for instance of utmost importance...

  10. Building an international network for a primary care research program: reflections on challenges and solutions in the set-up and delivery of a prospective observational study of acute cough in 13 European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veen Robert ER

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Implementing a primary care clinical research study in several countries can make it possible to recruit sufficient patients in a short period of time that allows important clinical questions to be answered. Large multi-country studies in primary care are unusual and are typically associated with challenges requiring innovative solutions. We conducted a multi-country study and through this paper, we share reflections on the challenges we faced and some of the solutions we developed with a special focus on the study set up, structure and development of Primary Care Networks (PCNs. Method GRACE-01 was a multi-European country, investigator-driven prospective observational study implemented by 14 Primary Care Networks (PCNs within 13 European Countries. General Practitioners (GPs recruited consecutive patients with an acute cough. GPs completed a case report form (CRF and the patient completed a daily symptom diary. After study completion, the coordinating team discussed the phases of the study and identified challenges and solutions that they considered might be interesting and helpful to researchers setting up a comparable study. Results The main challenges fell within three domains as follows: i selecting, setting up and maintaining PCNs; ii designing local context-appropriate data collection tools and efficient data management systems; and iii gaining commitment and trust from all involved and maintaining enthusiasm. The main solutions for each domain were: i appointing key individuals (National Network Facilitator and Coordinator with clearly defined tasks, involving PCNs early in the development of study materials and procedures. ii rigorous back translations of all study materials and the use of information systems to closely monitor each PCNs progress; iii providing strong central leadership with high level commitment to the value of the study, frequent multi-method communication, establishing a coherent ethos

  11. Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Acute Pancreatitis > Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy test Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy Timothy Gardner, MD Acute pancreatitis is ... of acute pancreatitis in pregnancy. Reasons for Acute Pancreatitis and Pregnancy While acute pancreatitis is responsible for ...

  12. 我国急性冠状动脉综合征诊疗的现状和挑战%Current situation and challenge of diagnosis and therapy of acute coronary syndrome in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童珊珊; 陈宇; 李田昌; 曹丰

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a clinical syndrome due to thrombosis after the rupture or invasion of coronary atherosclerotic plaque .It includes ST elevation myocardial infarc-tion ( STEMI ) , non-ST elevation myocardial infarction ( NSTEMI ) and unstable angina ( UA ) . Nowadays , the mortality of ACS decreased significantly with the improvement of its diagnosis and therapy .However , it still exists some questions such as:low level of diagnosis , undesirable situation of following guidelines and poor patient ’s compliance .This article is a review about the current situa-tion and challenge of diagnosis and therapy of ACS in China .%急性冠状动脉综合征( acute coronary syndrome ,ACS)是以冠状动脉粥样硬化斑块破裂或侵袭,继发完全或不完全性血栓形成为病理基础的临床综合征,包括急性ST段抬高型心肌梗死、急性非ST段抬高型心肌梗死和不稳定型心绞痛。近年来随着诊治水平的提高,ACS患者的病死率明显降低,但我国依然存在诊断水平低、指南实施不理想、患者依从性不高等问题。作者就目前国内ACS诊治的现状和挑战进行综述。

  13. Bronchitis - acute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Acute bronchitis is swelling and inflammation in the main passages ... present only for a short time. Causes When acute bronchitis occurs, it almost always comes after having a ...

  14. Acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingest...

  15. Acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Bo-Guang Fan; Åke Andrén-Sandberg

    2010-01-01

    Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline) addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion....

  16. Acute Pancreatitis: Surgery, Pathophysiology and Probiotic Prophylaxis

    OpenAIRE

    van Minnen, L. P.

    2006-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a challenging disease with a clinical course that is often difficult to predict. In severe acute pancreatitis, mortality increases significantly if intestinal bacteria translocate from the intestine and infect pancreatic necrosis. Surgical and prophylactic treatment strategies are challenged by complex pathophysiology of the disease. This thesis addresses some key aspects of acute pancreatitis: surgical management, pathophysiology and probiotic prophylaxis. Outcome in pa...

  17. The Effect of Salinity on Egg Development and Viability of Schistocephalus solidus (Cestoda: Diphyllobothriidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Natalie E; Barber, Iain

    2016-02-01

    Schistocephalus solidus plerocercoids commonly infect three-spined stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus populations in brackish and freshwaters, but infections are typically absent from marine populations. Here we provide an experimental test of the salinity tolerance of S. solidus eggs, to determine the role of salinity in limiting the distribution of infection in coastal zones. We find that S. solidus eggs, derived from the in vitro culture of 3 different plerocercoids, developed normally in salinities of up to 12.5‰, but above this egg viability dropped rapidly, and no egg hatching was observed at salinities above 20‰. Our results are consistent with the distribution of infections in natural stickleback populations and add resolution to previous descriptive observations on salinity tolerance in S. solidus. They also demonstrate that S. solidus presents a novel disease challenge to marine populations of three-spined sticklebacks entering brackish and freshwater environments.

  18. Saline water irrigation for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity is one of agriculture's most complex production problems. Excessive salts from irrigation water or high water tables can severely limit crop production. Years of saline water irrigation on poorly drained soils can eventually make economic crop production impossible. About 10% of all land are affected by salinity problems. They occur in every continent in different proportions, more frequently in arid and semi-arid areas. This paper discusses a range of problems related to use of saline water for crop irrigation

  19. Protective Effect of Genistein on Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xingwang; XU Tao; LIAN Qingquan; ZENG Bangxiong; ZHANG Bing; XIE Yubo

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the protective effect of genistein on endotoxin-induced acute lung injury in rats, and explore the underlying mechanisms, 32 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: saline control, genistein alone, lipopolysaccaride alone, and genistein pretreatment. Each treatment group consisted of eight animals. Animals were observed for 6 h after LPS challenge, and the wet/dry (W/D) weight ratio of the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid(BALF) protein content were used as a measure of lung injury. Neutrophil recruitment and activation were evaluated by BALF cellularity and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. RT-PCR analysis was performed in lung tissue to assess gene expression of ICAM-1. The histopathological changes were also observed using the HE staining of lung tissue. Our results showed that lung injury parameters, including the wet/dry weight ratio and protein content in BALF, were significantly higher in the LPS alone group than in the saline control group (P<0.01). In the LPS alone group, a larger number of neutrophils and greater MPO activity in cell-free BAL and lung homogenates were observed when compared with the saline control group (P<0.01). There was a significant increase in lung ICAM-1 mRNA in response to LPS challenge (P< 0. 01, group L versus group S).Genistein pretreatment significantly attenuated LPS-induced changes in these indices. LPS caused extensive lung damage, which was also lessened after genistein pretreatment. All above-mentioned parameters in the genistein alone group were not significantly different from those of the saline control group. It is concluded that genistein pretreatment attenuated LPS-induced lung injury in rats.This beneficial effect of genistein may involves, in part, an inhibition of neutrophilic recruitment and activity, possibly through an inhibition of lung ICAM-1 expression.

  20. Saline Water Irrigation Scheduling Through a Crop-Water-Salinity Production Function and a Soil-Water-Salinity Dynamic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yang-Ren; KANG Shao-Zhong; LI Fu-heng; ZHANG Lu; ZHANG Jian-Hua

    2007-01-01

    Using a crop-water-salinity production function and a soil-water-salinity dynamic model, optimal irrigation scheduling was developed to maximize net return per irrigated area. Plot and field experiments were used to obtain the crop water sensitivity index, the salinity sensitivity index, and other parameters. Using data collected during 35 years to calculate the 10-day mean precipitation and evaporation, the variation in soil salinity concentrations and in the yields of winter wheat and cotton were simulated for 49 irrigation scheduling that were combined from 7 irrigation schemes over 3 irrigation dates and 7 salinity concentrations of saline irrigation water (fresh water and 6 levels of saline water). Comparison of predicted results with irrigation data obtained from a large area of the field showed that the model was valid and reliable. Based on the analysis of the investment cost of the irrigation that employed deep tube wells or shallow tube wells, a saline water irrigation schedule and a corresponding strategy for groundwater development and utilization were proposed. For wheat or cotton, if the salinity concentration was higher than 7.0 g L-1 in groundwater, irrigation was needed with only fresh water; if about 5.0 g L-1, irrigation was required twice with fresh water and once with saline water; and if not higher than 3.0 g L-1, irrigation could be solely with saline water.

  1. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims : The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods : We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results : Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions : Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  2. Acute pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo-Guang Fan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acute pancreatitis continues to be a serious illness, and the patients with acute pancreatitis are at risk to develop different complications from ongoing pancreatic inflammation. Aims: The present review is to highlight the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis. Material & Methods: We reviewed the English-language literature (Medline addressing pancreatitis. Results: Acute pancreatitis is frequently caused by gallstone disease or excess alcohol ingestion. There are a number of important issues regarding clinical highlights in the classification, treatment and prognosis of acute pancreatitis, and treatment options for complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic pseudocysts. Conclusions: Multidisciplinary approach should be used for the management of the patient with acute pancreatitis.

  3. O desafio de diagnosticar tromboembolia pulmonar aguda em pacientes com doença pulmonar obstrutiva crônica The challenge of diagnosing acute pulmonary thromboembolism in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Saldanha Menna-Barreto

    2005-12-01

    chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a challenging task. In order to update knowledge of the subject and offer suggestions regarding conduct, we evaluated various studies addressing this theme, including case reports and case series. In addition, we reviewed diagnostic approaches to acute pulmonary thromboembolism, and we reflect upon that topic. The clinical probability of pulmonary thromboembolism concomitant to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is typically intermediate, as is positivity on the ventilation-perfusion lung scan. Diagnostic algorithms should take that into consideration.

  4. mRNA expression profiles of heat shock proteins of wild and salinity-tolerant swimming crabs, Portunus trituberculatus, subjected to low salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, X N; Mu, C K; Zhang, C; Wang, Y F; Song, W W; Li, R H; Wang, C L

    2014-08-29

    Challenged by the low salinity, 4 parts per thousand (4 ppt), for 72h, the survivals of swimming crabs (Portunus trituberculatus) were collected as the screened group (SG, tolerant to low salinity). Aiming at identifying the mechanism of low salinity tolerance, quantitative real-time PCR was employed to investigate the expression profiles of 4 HSP genes (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90-1, HSP90-2) in the hepatopancreas of wild (WG) and screened (SG) groups of P. trituberculatus exposed to low salinity (4 ppt). The results showed that 3 of the candidate genes (HSP60, HSP70, HSP90-1) exhibited similarly downregulated expression profiles in the first 3 h (P crabs. The results indicate that HSP genes are involved in the adaptation of crabs to low salinity exposure, and that different HSPs have diverse functions in response to low salinity stress in P. trituberculatus. In addition, HSP expression in SG indicates that this group is more tolerant to low salinity conditions compared to WG.

  5. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously

  6. Effect of Cu toxicity at different salinity on selective group of juvenile pompano Trachinotus ovatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU You-jun; LI Jia-er; CAI Wen-chao

    2014-01-01

    Effects of copper toxicity and salinity shock on selective group of juvenile pompano Trachinotus ovatus were investigated. The fish were exposed to different Cu2+ concentrations of 0 (blank), 0.02 (C1), 0.05 (C2), 0.10 (C3), and 0.15 mg·L-1 (C4) at a salinity of 10‰ or 40‰ for 96 h, with the salinity of 29‰ as the control. The results showed that the effects of the acute salinity stimulation to survival rates of pompano between control (29‰) and lower or higher salinity for 96 h were not significant (p>0.05). However, the survival rates in each treatment were decreased with the increase of Cu2+concentration. The dominant factor influencing body moisture of the fish was salinity, and there was no sign that body moisture was correlated with exposure to Cu2+. The gill lamellas in high level of Cu2+concentration (C4 treatments) were abnormal under the salinity of 40‰ and extremely curly under the salinity of 10‰. Hemorrhage in gill was observed in the two C4 treatments. Under transmission electron microscope, pillar cells in gill lamellas appeared deformed and ruptured in some areas of the epithelia in the higher concentration of Cu2+, resulting in the death of the fish due to the destruction of gill tissue, elevation of the arithmetic mean distance from water to blood, the decrease of oxygen diffusion capacity, and other physiological functions. These findings indicate that the pompano might suffer much more pressure when encountered with Cu2+ pollution and low salinity.

  7. High salinity tolerance of the Red Sea coral Fungia granulosa under desalination concentrate discharge conditions: an in situ photophysiology experiment

    KAUST Repository

    Van Der Merwe, Riaan

    2014-11-10

    Seawater reverse osmosis desalination concentrate may have chronic and/or acute impacts on the marine ecosystems in the near-field area of the discharge. Environmental impact of the desalination plant discharge is supposedly site- and volumetric- specific, and also depends on the salinity tolerance of the organisms inhabiting the water column in and around a discharge environment. Scientific studies that aim to understand possible impacts of elevated salinity levels are important to assess detrimental effects to organisms, especially for species with no mechanism of osmoregulation, e.g., presumably corals. Previous studies on corals indicate sensitivity toward hypo- and hyper-saline environments with small changes in salinity already affecting coral physiology. In order to evaluate sensitivity of Red Sea corals to increased salinity levels, we conducted a long-term (29 days) in situ salinity tolerance transect study at an offshore seawater reverse osmosis (SWRO) discharge on the coral Fungia granulosa. While we measured a pronounced increase in salinity and temperature at the direct outlet of the discharge structure, effects were indistinguishable from the surrounding environment at a distance of 5 m. Interestingly, corals were not affected by varying salinity levels as indicated by measurements of the photosynthetic efficiency. Similarly, cultured coral symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium displayed remarkable tolerance levels in regard to hypo- and hypersaline treatments. Our data suggest that increased salinity and temperature levels from discharge outlets wear off quickly in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, F. granulosa seem to tolerate levels of salinity that are distinctively higher than reported for other corals previously. It remains to be determined whether Red Sea corals in general display increased salinity tolerance, and whether this is related to prevailing levels of high(er) salinity in the Red Sea in comparison to other oceans.

  8. High salinity tolerance of the Red Sea coral Fungia granulosa under desalination concentrate discharge conditions: An in situ photophysiology experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riaan evan der Merwe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Seawater reverse osmosis desalination concentrate may have chronic/acute impacts on the marine ecosystems in the near-field area of the discharge. Environmental impact of the desalination plant discharge is supposedly site- and volumetric specific, and also depends on the salinity tolerance of the organisms inhabiting the water column in and around a discharge environment. Scientific studies that aim to understand possible impacts of elevated salinity levels are important to assess detrimental effects to organisms, especially for species with no mechanism of osmoregulation, e.g. presumably corals. Previous studies on corals indicate sensitivity towards hypo- and hyper-saline environments with small changes in salinity already affecting coral physiology. In order to evaluate sensitivity of Red Sea corals to increase salinity levels, we conducted a long-term (29 days in situ salinity tolerance transect study at an offshore seawater reverse osmosis discharge on the coral Fungia granulosa. While we measured a pronounced increase in salinity and temperature at the direct outlet of the discharge structure, effects were indistinguishable from the surrounding environment at a distance of 5 m. Interestingly, corals were not affected by varying salinity levels as indicated by measurement of the photosynthetic efficiency. Similarly, cultured coral symbionts of the genus Symbiodinium displayed remarkable tolerance levels in regard to hypo- and hypersaline treatments.Our data suggest that increased salinity and temperature levels from discharge outlets wear off quickly in the surrounding environment. Furthermore, Fungia granulosa seem to tolerate levels of salinity that are distinctively higher than reported for other corals previously. It remains to be determined whether Red Sea corals in general display increased salinity tolerance, and whether this is related to prevailing levels of high(er salinity in the Red Sea in comparison to other oceans.

  9. Saline Ground Water and Irrigation Water on Root Zone Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Subramani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Salinisation of land and rivers is a problem of national importance in India. Appropriate land management options to alleviate salinisation should be chosen with knowledge of the effects of land management on stream flow, stream salinity, stream salt load and land productivity. The Management of Catchment Salinisation (MCS modelling approach has been described in earlier work. It links a one-dimensional soil water model with a groundwater model to investigate the effects of management options in study areas of approximately 50 km2. The one dimensional model is used to characterize the annual soil water balance as a function of underlying aquifer Vpotential for all required combinations of soil, vegetation and groundwater salinity. It includes the effect of salt accumulation on plant water use. A groundwater model is then used to estimate the depth to water table across the study area that reflects the topography, hydrogeology and the distribution of vegetation. The MCS model is used to investigate the potential effects of future land use scenarios on catchment salt and water balance. Land use scenarios that have been considered include: forest plantations, revegetation with native trees and shrubs, and development of small areas of crops (10 to 20 ha irrigated with groundwater. This project focuses on the development of small crop areas irrigated with groundwater and investigates the sustainability of these schemes. It also compares the reduction of catchment salt load export under irrigation development with the reduction under afforestation

  10. Adopted: A practical salinity scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Unesco/ICES/SCOR/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards has recommended the adoption of a Practical Salinity Scale, 1978, and a corresponding new International Equation of State of Seawater, 1980. A full account of the research leading to their recommendation is available in the series Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science.The parent organizations have accepted the panel's recommendations and have set January 1, 1982, as the date when the new procedures, formulae, and tables should replace those now in use.

  11. Nitrification at different salinities: Biofilm community composition and physiological plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Silva, Blanca M; Jonassen, Kjell Rune; Bakke, Ingrid; Østgaard, Kjetill; Vadstein, Olav

    2016-05-15

    This paper describes an experimental study of microbial communities of three moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR) inoculated with nitrifying cultures originated from environments with different salinity; freshwater, brackish (20‰) and seawater. All reactors were run until they operated at a conversion efficiency of >96%. The microbial communities were profiled using 454-pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. Statistical analysis was used to investigate the differences in microbial community structure and distribution of the nitrifying populations with different salinity environments. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis (NMDS) and the PERMANOVA test based on Bray-Curtis similarities revealed significantly different community structure in the three reactors. The brackish reactor showed lower diversity index than fresh and seawater reactors. Venn diagram showed that 60 and 78% of the total operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) guild, respectively, were unique OTUs for a given reactor. Similarity Percentages (SIMPER) analysis showed that two-thirds of the total difference in community structure between the reactors was explained by 10 OTUs, indicating that only a small number of OTUs play a numerically dominant role in the nitrification process. Acute toxicity of salt stress on ammonium and nitrite oxidizing activities showed distinctly different patterns, reaching 97% inhibition of the freshwater reactor for ammonium oxidation rate. In the brackish culture, inhibition was only observed at maximal level of salinity, 32‰. In the fully adapted seawater culture, higher activities were observed at 32‰ than at any of the lower salinities. PMID:26986496

  12. 富氢水对重症急性胰腺炎大鼠血清炎症细胞因子及肺组织氧化应激反应的影响%Effect of hydrogen-rich saline on inflammatory cytokines and lung oxidative stress in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培; 冷波; 李波; 曾新桃; 罗华

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨静脉注射富氢水(HRS)是否能减轻牛磺胆酸钠诱导的重症急性胰腺炎(SAP)大鼠肺组织氧化应激反应,抑制炎症细胞因子.方法 将54只健康SD雄性大鼠随机分成假手术组(Sham组)、模型组(SAP+NS组)和氢水处理组(SAP+HRS组),各组再按时间点分成6 h、12 h、24 h三个亚组,每个时间点处死6只大鼠.检测血清TNF-α、IL-1β含量;测定肺组织中髓过氧化物酶(MPO)活性以及TNF-α mRNA、IL-1β mRNA表达水平.结果(1)SAP+NS组和SAP+HRS组血清中TNF-α、IL-1β含量、肺组织中MPO活性、TNF-α mRNA、IL-1β mRNA的表达在6 h、12 h、24 h各个时间点均高于Sham组(P<0.05).(2)SAP+HRS组与SAP+NS组比较, SAP+HRS组血清TNF-α含量、肺组织TNF-α mRNA在各个时间点均低于SAP+NS组.血清IL-1β含量、肺组织中MPO活性、IL-1β mRNA表达在6 h时两组间无统计学差异,但在12 h、24 h时SAP+HRS组均低于SAP+NS组(P<0.05).结论 静脉注射HRS能减轻牛磺胆酸钠诱导的SAP大鼠肺组织氧化应激反应,降低炎症细胞因子的水平.%Objective To discuss the effect of inflammatory cytokines and lung oxidative stress by intravenous injection of hydrogen-rich saline for sodium taurocholate induction of severe acute pancreatitis associated lung injury in rats.Methods 54 healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group (Sham), model group (SAP+NS) and hydrogen water treatment group (SAP+HRS), and each group was subdivided into 6 h, 12 h, 24 h three time points. The contents of TNF-α, IL-1β in the serum, the activity of myeloperoxidase, expression of TNF-α mRNA, IL-1β mRNA in the lung tissue were detected.Results The contents of TNF-α, IL-1β in the serum, MPO activity, TNF-α mRNA, IL-1β mRNA in the lung tissue in SAP+NS group and SAP+HRS group were higher than sham group at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h each time point (P<0.05). Compared with SAP+NS group, the contents of TNF-α in the serum, TNF-α mRNA in the lung tissue

  13. IGF-I and branchial IGF receptor expression and localization during salinity acclimation in striped bass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tipsmark, Christian Kølbaek; Luckenbach, John Adam; Madsen, Steffen;

    2007-01-01

    The initial response of the IGF-I system and the expression and cellular localization of IGF type-I receptor (IGF-IR) were studied in the gill of a euryhaline teleost during salinity acclimation. Exposure of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) to hyperosmotic and hypoosmotic challenges induced small...... in either plasma IGF-I, liver, or gill IGF-I mRNA, or gill IGF-IR mRNA levels. In a separate experiment, FW-acclimated fish were injected with saline or IGF-I prior to a 24-h SW challenge. Rapid regain of osmotic balance following SW transfer was hindered by IGF-I. Immunohistochemistry revealed...

  14. A global algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater – 2010 has defined the thermodynamic properties of seawater in terms of a new salinity variable, Absolute Salinity, which takes into account the spatial variation of the composition of seawater. Absolute Salinity more accurately reflects the effects of the dissolved material in seawater on the thermodynamic properties (particularly density than does Practical Salinity.

    When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, Practical Salinity can be used to accurately evaluate the thermodynamic properties of seawater. When seawater is not of standard composition, Practical Salinity alone is not sufficient and the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (x, y, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm, we used the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. In order to provide a practical method that can be used at any location in the world ocean, we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally.

  15. Role for leptin in promoting glucose mobilization during acute hyperosmotic stress in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltzegar, David A; Reading, Benjamin J; Douros, Jonathon D; Borski, Russell J

    2014-01-01

    Osmoregulation is critical for survival in all vertebrates, yet the endocrine regulation of this metabolically expensive process is not fully understood. Specifically, the function of leptin in the regulation of energy expenditure in fishes, and among ectotherms, in general, remains unresolved. In this study, we examined the effects of acute salinity transfer (72  h) and the effects of leptin and cortisol on plasma metabolites and hepatic energy reserves in the euryhaline fish, the tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). Transfer to 2/3 seawater (23  ppt) significantly increased plasma glucose, amino acid, and lactate levels relative to those in the control fish. Plasma glucose levels were positively correlated with amino acid levels (R2=0.614), but not with lactate levels. The mRNA expression of liver leptin A (lepa), leptin receptor (lepr), and hormone-sensitive and lipoprotein lipases (hsl and lpl) as well as triglyceride content increased during salinity transfer, but plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels remained unchanged. Both leptin and cortisol significantly increased plasma glucose levels in vivo, but only leptin decreased liver glycogen levels. Leptin decreased the expression of liver hsl and lpl mRNAs, whereas cortisol significantly increased the expression of these lipases. These findings suggest that hepatic glucose mobilization into the blood following an acute salinity challenge involves both glycogenolysis, induced by leptin, and subsequent gluconeogenesis of free amino acids. This is the first study to report that teleost leptin A has actions that are functionally distinct from those described in mammals acting as a potent hyperglycemic factor during osmotic stress, possibly in synergism with cortisol. These results suggest that the function of leptin may have diverged during the evolution of vertebrates, possibly reflecting differences in metabolic regulation between poikilotherms and homeotherms. PMID:24194509

  16. Changes in plasma osmolality, cortisol and amino acid levels of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis) at different salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guodong; Xu, Kefeng; Tian, Xiangli; Dong, Shuanglin; Fang, Ziheng

    2015-10-01

    A serial of salinity transferring treatments were performed to investigate the osmoregulation of tongue sole ( Cynoglossus semilaevis). Juvenile tongue sole were directly transferred from a salinity of 30 to 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50. Blood sampling was performed for each treatment after 0, 1, 6 and 12 h, as well as after 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 d. The plasma osmolality, cortisol and free amino acids were assessed. Under the experimental conditions, no fish died after acute salinity transfer. The plasma cortisol level increased 1 h after the abrupt transfer from a salinity of 30 to that of 0, 40 and 50, and decreased from 6 h to 8 d after transfer. Similar trends were observed in the changes of plasma osmolality. The plasma free amino acids concentration showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity after being transferred to different salinities for 4 days. More obvious changes of plasma free amino acid concentration occurred under hyper-osmotic conditions than under hypo-osmotic conditions. The concentrations of valine, isoleucine, lysine, glutamic acid, glycine, proline and taurine increased with rising salinity. The plasma levels of threonine, leucine, arginine, serine, and alanine showed a `U-shaped' relationship with salinity. The results of this study suggested that free amino acids might have important effects on osmotic acclimation in tongue sole.

  17. Physiological Responses to Salinity Vary with Proximity to the Ocean in a Coastal Amphibian.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Gareth R; Brodie, Edmund D; Neuman-Lee, Lorin A; Mohammadi, Shabnam; Brusch, George A; Hopkins, Zoë M; French, Susannah S

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater organisms are increasingly exposed to elevated salinity in their habitats, presenting physiological challenges to homeostasis. Amphibians are particularly vulnerable to osmotic stress and yet are often subject to high salinity in a variety of inland and coastal environments around the world. Here, we examine the physiological responses to elevated salinity of rough-skinned newts (Taricha granulosa) inhabiting a coastal stream on the Pacific coast of North America and compare the physiological responses to salinity stress of newts living in close proximity to the ocean with those of newts living farther upstream. Although elevated salinity significantly affected the osmotic (body weight, plasma osmolality), stress (corticosterone), and immune (bactericidal ability) responses of newts, animals found closer to the ocean were generally less reactive to salt stress than those found farther upstream. Our results provide possible evidence for some physiological tolerance in this species to elevated salinity in coastal environments. As freshwater environments become increasingly saline and more stressful, understanding the physiological tolerances of vulnerable groups such as amphibians will become increasingly important to our understanding of their abilities to respond, to adapt, and, ultimately, to survive. PMID:27327182

  18. Sublethal salinity stress contributes to habitat limitation in an endangered estuarine fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komoroske, Lisa M; Jeffries, Ken M; Connon, Richard E; Dexter, Jason; Hasenbein, Matthias; Verhille, Christine; Fangue, Nann A

    2016-09-01

    As global change alters multiple environmental conditions, predicting species' responses can be challenging without understanding how each environmental factor influences organismal performance. Approaches quantifying mechanistic relationships can greatly complement correlative field data, strengthening our abilities to forecast global change impacts. Substantial salinity increases are projected in the San Francisco Estuary, California, due to anthropogenic water diversion and climatic changes, where the critically endangered delta smelt (Hypomesus transpacificus) largely occurs in a low-salinity zone (LSZ), despite their ability to tolerate a much broader salinity range. In this study, we combined molecular and organismal measures to quantify the physiological mechanisms and sublethal responses involved in coping with salinity changes. Delta smelt utilize a suite of conserved molecular mechanisms to rapidly adjust their osmoregulatory physiology in response to salinity changes in estuarine environments. However, these responses can be energetically expensive, and delta smelt body condition was reduced at high salinities. Thus, acclimating to salinities outside the LSZ could impose energetic costs that constrain delta smelt's ability to exploit these habitats. By integrating data across biological levels, we provide key insight into the mechanistic relationships contributing to phenotypic plasticity and distribution limitations and advance the understanding of the molecular osmoregulatory responses in nonmodel estuarine fishes. PMID:27606005

  19. Toxicity of antifouling biocides to the intertidal harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Crustacea, Copepoda): Effects of temperature and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwok, K.W.H. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China); Leung, K.M.Y. [Swire Institute of Marine Science, Department of Ecology and Biodiversity, University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong (China)]. E-mail: kmyleung@hkucc.hku.hk

    2005-07-01

    Intertidal harpacticoid copepods are commonly used in eco-toxicity tests worldwide. They predominately live in mid-high shore rock pools and often experience a wide range of temperature and salinity fluctuation. Most eco-toxicity tests are conducted at fixed temperature and salinity and thus the influence of these environmental factors on chemical toxicity is largely unknown. This study investigated the combined effect of temperature and salinity on the acute toxicity of the copepod Tigriopus japonicus against two common biocides, copper (Cu) and tributyltin (TBT) using a 2 x 3 x 4 factorial design (i.e. two temperatures: 25 and 35 {sup o}C; three salinities: 15.0 per mille , 34.5 per mille and 45.0 per mille ; three levels of the biocide plus a control). Copper sulphate and tributyltin chloride were used as the test chemicals while distilled water and acetone were utilised as solvents for Cu and TBT respectively. 96h-LC50s of Cu and TBT were 1024 and 0.149 {mu}g l{sup -1} respectively (at 25 {sup o}C; 34.5 per mille ) and, based on these results, nominal biocide concentrations of LC0 (i.e. control), LC30, LC50 and LC70 were employed. Analysis of Covariance using 'concentration' as the covariate and both 'temperature' and 'salinity' as fixed factors, showed a significant interaction between temperature and salinity effects for Cu, mortality increasing with temperature but decreasing with elevated salinity. A similar result was revealed for TBT. Both temperature and salinity are, therefore, important factors affecting the results of acute eco-toxicity tests using these marine copepods. We recommend that such eco-toxicity tests should be conducted at a range of environmentally realistic temperature/salinity regimes, as this will enhance the sensitivity of the test and improve the safety margin in line with the precautionary principle.

  20. Effects of feed restriction on salinity tolerance in white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seunghyung; Fadel, James G; Haller, Liran Y; Verhille, Christine E; Fangue, Nann A; Hung, Silas S O

    2015-10-01

    A multistressor study was conducted to investigate interactive effects of nutritional status and salinity on osmoregulation of juvenile white sturgeon. Our hypothesis was that lower nutritional status would decrease the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. A four-week feed restriction (12.5%, 25%, 50%, 100% of optimum feeding rate: OFR defined as the rate (% body weight per day) at which growth is maximal) trial was performed, and relevant indices of nutritional status were measured. Following the trial, sturgeon were acutely exposed to various salinities (0, 8, 16, 24 ppt) for 120 h, and relevant osmoregulatory measurements were made at 12, 72, and 120 h post-salinity exposures. The feed-restriction trial resulted in a graded nutritional response with the most feed-restricted group (12.5% OFR) showing the lowest nutritional status. The salinity exposure trial showed clear evidence that lower nutritional status decreased the salinity tolerance of juvenile white sturgeon. Increasing salinities resulted in significant alterations in osmoregulatory indices of all feeding groups; however, a significantly slower acclimatory response to 24 ppt was detected in the most feed-restricted group compared to the non-feed-restricted group (100% OFR). Furthermore, evaluation of the effect of nutritional status on the relationship between osmoregulatory measurements and body size showed that there was a significant negative relationship between osmoregulatory performance and body size within the most feed-restricted group. This suggests that there is a certain body size range (200-300 g based on our finding) where juvenile white sturgeon can maximize osmoregulatory capacity at a salinity of 24 ppt. PMID:26123778

  1. Acute airway effects of airborne formaldehyde in sensitized and non-sensitized mice housed in a dry or humid environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigated the role of air humidity and allergic sensitization on the acute airway response to inhaled formaldehyde (FA) vapor. Mice were sensitized to the immunogen ovalbumin (OVA) by three intraperitoneal injections followed by two aerosol challenges, giving rise to allergic airway inflammation. Control mice were sham sensitized by saline injections and challenged by saline aerosols. Once sensitized, the mice were housed at high (85–89%) or low (< 10%) relative humidity, respectively for 48 h prior to a 60-min exposure to either 0.4, 1.8 or about 5 ppm FA. Before, during and after exposure, breathing parameters were monitored. These included the specific markers of nose and lung irritations as well as the expiratory flow rate, the latter being a marker of airflow limitation. The sensory irritation response in the upper airways was not affected by allergic inflammation or changes in humidity. At high relative humidity, the OVA-sensitized mice had a decreased expiratory airflow rate compared to the saline control mice after exposure to approximately 5 ppm FA. This is in accordance with the observations that asthmatics are more sensitive than non-asthmatics to higher concentrations of airway irritants including FA. In the dry environment, the opposite trend was seen; here, the saline control mice had a significantly decreased expiratory airflow rate compared to OVA-sensitized mice when exposed to 1.8 and 4 ppm FA. We speculate that increased mucus production in the OVA-sensitized mice has increased the “scrubber effect” in the nose, consequently protecting the conducting and lower airways. - Highlights: ► Role of air humidity and allergy on sensitivity to an airway irritant was studied. ► In the humid environment, allergy amplified the effects of formaldehyde. ► In the dry environment, allergy reduced the effect of formaldehyde. ► Neither allergy nor humidity changed the formaldehyde-induced nasal irritation

  2. Tsutsugamushi infection-associated acute rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Park Chi; Hae, Chung Choon; Lee, Kim Hyun; Hoon, Chung Jong

    2003-12-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is a rare complication that emerges in a variety of infectious diseases, such as tsutsugamushi infection. In this study, we report a 71-year-old female patient with tsutsugamushi infection who exhibiting rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure. On admission, an eschar, which is characteristic of tsutsugamushi infection, was found on her right flank area. Moreover, her tsutsugamushi antibody titer was 1:40960. The elevated values of serum creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), aldolase, creatinine and dark brown urine secondary to myoglobinuria are consistent with indications of rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure due to tsutsugamushi infection. Her health improved without any residual effects after treatment with doxycyclin and hydration with normal saline. PMID:14717236

  3. Biochar mitigates salinity stress in potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem Akhtar, Saqib; Andersen, M.N.; Liu, Fulai

    2015-01-01

    of salinity through its high sorption ability. From tuber bulking to harvesting, the plants were exposed to three saline irrigations, that is 0, 25 and 50 mm NaCl solutions, respectively, and two levels of biochar (0 % and 5 % W/W) treatments. An adsorption study was also conducted to study the Na+ adsorption...

  4. Lessons Learnt in Management of Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Deshpande Aparna; Velhal Rishikesh; Thanky Harsh; Soman Sundeep; Shah Ritesh

    2008-01-01

    Objective Acute Pancreatitis continues to be a confounding clinical problem and can pose a formidable challenge in its management. This invited review discusses the various clinical studies done while managing cases of acute pancreatitis and the possible avenues for further studies. Method Clinical studies done on various aspects of pancreatitis viz. severity prediction using bedside index of severity in acute pancreatitis score and its validation in Indian patients, current status of interve...

  5. Messinian Salinity Crisis and basin fluid flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertoni, Claudia; Cartwight, Joe

    2014-05-01

    re-loading of water associated to the sea-level changes leads to the sudden release of focused fluids, enhancing pockmark formation, evaporite dissolution, gas-hydrate dissociation and methane venting. After the MSC, and in the long-term basin evolution, the aquitard effect of the thick evaporites also created favourable condition for the development of overpressures in the pre-MSC sediments. However, the traditional view of saline giants as impermeable barriers to fluid flow has been challenged in recent years, by the documented evidence of fluid migration pathways through thick evaporites. Ultimately, these events can lead not only to fluid, but also to sediment remobilisation. The review here presented has applications as a tool for identifying, quantifying and understanding controls and timing of fluid dynamics in marine basins hosting extensive evaporitic series.

  6. 氢饱和生理盐水对大鼠重症急性胰腺炎肺损伤的保护作用%Protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline solution on lung injury in rats with severe acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培; 冷波; 李波; 曾新桃; 罗华

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨静脉注射氢饱和生理盐水(HRS)对牛磺胆酸钠诱导的大鼠重症急性胰腺炎相关性肺损伤(APALI)是否具有保护作用及其可能的机制。方法将54只健康SD雄性大鼠分成假手术组(Sham组)、模型组(SAP+ NS组)和 HRS处理组(S A P+ H RS组),各组再按时间点每个亚组分成6、12、24 h 3个亚组,每个时间点处死6只大鼠。收集血清、肺组织及胰腺组织。检测血清TNF‐α、IL‐1β水平;肺组织湿干质量比;测定肺组织中 TNF‐α、IL‐1βmRNA的表达;并对胰腺组织、肺组织损伤进行病理学评价。结果(1)SAP+ NS组和SAP+ HRS组血清中 TNF‐α、IL‐1β水平、胰腺和肺组织病理评分、肺组织 TNF‐α、IL‐1βmRNA的表达,肺组织湿干质量比在6、12、24 h各个时间点均高于Sham组(P<0.05)。(2)SAP+ HRS组与SAP+ NS组比较,SAP+ HRS组血清TNF‐α水平、肺组织TNF‐αmRNA的表达、肺组织湿干质量比在各个时间点均低于SAP+ NS组(均P<0.05)。血清IL‐1β水平、胰腺和肺组织病理评分、肺组织中IL‐1βmRNA表达在6 h时两组间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),但在12、24 h时SAP+ HRS组低于SAP+NS组(均 P<0.05)。结论 HRS可能是通过其选择性抗氧化作用抑制了氧化应激损伤相关细胞因子表达来实现对APALI的保护。%Objective To explore whether intravenous injection of hydrogen‐rich saline having the protective effect on sodium taurocholate induced severe acute pancreatitis(SAP) associated lung injury(APALI) in rats and its possible mechanisms .Methods Fifty‐four healthy male SD rats were randomly divided into sham‐operation group (Sham group) ,model group (SAP+ NS group) and hydrogen water treatment group (SAP + HRS group) ,and each group was subdivided into 6 ,12 ,24 h subgroups .Six rats were killed at each time point for collecting serum ,lung tissue

  7. Acute dyspnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiodiagnosis is applied to determine the causes of acute dyspnea. Acute dyspnea is shown to aggravate the course of pulmonary diseases (bronchial asthma, obstructive bronchitis, pulmonary edema, throboembolism of pulmonary arteries etc) and cardiovascular diseases (desiseas of myocardium). The main tasks of radiodiagnosis are to determine volume and state of the lungs, localization and type of pulmonary injuries, to verify heart disease and to reveal concomitant complications

  8. Therapeutic Efficacy of Saline and Glucose Saline against Dermally applied Sulphur Mustard Intoxication in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sugendran

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A single dose of saline or glucose-saline (5 mg glucose/kg offered similar protection to mice against sulphur mustard intoxication, the extent of survival being 83 per cent as against 33 per cent without treatment. All the animals were protected when the treatment was extended by another two consecutive days in the glucose-saline treated group. Both saline and glucose-saline treatments could ameliorate the haemoconcentration as well as normalise pO/sub 2/ and % oxygen saturation. The protection conferred is attributed to the probable replenishment of fluid loss.

  9. Recurrent acute pancreatitis: From the editor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pier Alberto Testoni

    2008-01-01

    @@ This special issue of World Journal of Gastroenterology contains a number of articles focusing on acute recurrent pancreatitis,a clinical entity that still remains a complex diagnostic and therapeutic challenge in clinical practice.

  10. Reconstructing Past Ocean Salinity ((delta)18Owater)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T P; Pak, D K

    2005-11-23

    Temperature and salinity are two of the key properties of ocean water masses. The distribution of these two independent but related characteristics reflects the interplay of incoming solar radiation (insolation) and the uneven distribution of heat loss and gain by the ocean, with that of precipitation, evaporation, and the freezing and melting of ice. Temperature and salinity to a large extent, determine the density of a parcel of water. Small differences in temperature and salinity can increase or decrease the density of a water parcel, which can lead to convection. Once removed from the surface of the ocean where 'local' changes in temperature and salinity can occur, the water parcel retains its distinct relationship between (potential) temperature and salinity. We can take advantage of this 'conservative' behavior where changes only occur as a result of mixing processes, to track the movement of water in the deep ocean (Figure 1). The distribution of density in the ocean is directly related to horizontal pressure gradients and thus (geostrophic) ocean currents. During the Quaternary when we have had systematic growth and decay of large land based ice sheets, salinity has had to change. A quick scaling argument following that of Broecker and Peng [1982] is: the modern ocean has a mean salinity of 34.7 psu and is on average 3500m deep. During glacial maxima sea level was on the order of {approx}120m lower than present. Simply scaling the loss of freshwater (3-4%) requires an average increase in salinity a similar percentage or to {approx}35.9psu. Because much of the deep ocean is of similar temperature, small changes in salinity have a large impact on density, yielding a potentially different distribution of water masses and control of the density driven (thermohaline) ocean circulation. It is partly for this reason that reconstructions of past salinity are of interest to paleoceanographers.

  11. SMOS sea surface salinity maps of the Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabarro, Carolina; Olmedo, Estrella; Turiel, Antonio; Ballabrera-Poy, Joaquim; Martinez, Justino; Portabella, Marcos

    2016-04-01

    years of SMOS data acquisitions. The second is the modification of the filtering criterion to account for the statistical distributions of SSS at each ocean grid point. This allows retrieving a value of SSS which is less affected by outliers originated from RFI and other effects. We will provide an assessment of the quality of these new SSS products in the Arctic, as well as illustrate the potential of these maps to monitor the main river discharges to the Arctic Ocean. [1] Font, J.; Camps, A.; Borges, A.; Martín-Neira, M.; Boutin, J.; Reul, N.; Kerr, Y.; Hahne, A. & Mecklenburg, S. SMOS: The Challenging Sea Surface Salinity Measurement From Space Proceedings of the IEEE, 2010, 98, 649 -665

  12. Salinity Tolerance and Growth Response of Juvenile Oreochromis mossambicus at Different Salinity Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Khalid Jamil; Muhammad Shoaib; Faisal Ameer; LIN Hong

    2004-01-01

    Juveniles of Oreochromis mossambicus with initial wet weights of 0.0382±0.0859 g and initial total lengths of 0.735±1.425 cm were tested for their salinity tolerance. The juveniles were subjected to five salinity levels for a period of seventy-five days. These salinity levels correspond to the salinities found along the creek and in estuarine regions. Each set of experiments was conducted at a fifteen day intervals. The weight, length and survival rate were calculated. No mortality was observed at salinity levels 0, 5, 10 and 15, while the juveniles faced slight mortality at 20 in the same environmental conditions, including the diet. There was no significant difference in specific growth rate at all salinity levels. The juveniles of O.mossambicus could survive up to 20 salinity. These results suggest that this species can grow and be exploited commercially in brackish waters, rivers and estuarine regions.

  13. Acute appendicitis in acute leukemia and the potential role of decitabine in the critically ill patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepti Warad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute appendicitis in children with acute leukemia is uncommon and often recognized late. Immunocompromised host state coupled with the importance of avoiding treatment delays makes management additionally challenging. Leukemic infiltration of the appendix though rare must also be considered. Although successful conservative management has been reported, surgical intervention is required in most cases. We present our experience with acute appendicitis in children with acute leukemia and a case of complete remission of acute myeloid leukemia with a short course of decitabine. Decitabine may serve as bridging therapy in critically ill patients who are unable to undergo intensive chemotherapy.

  14. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments.

  15. Differential Expression of Salinity Resistance Gene on Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Salinity resistance and differential gene expression associated with salinity in cotton germplasm were studied,because of the large scale area of salinity in China,and its significant negative effects on

  16. Concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in induced sputum of asthma patients after allergen challenge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Moniuszko

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor (PAI-1 are involved in tiisue remodeling and repair processes associated with acute and chronic inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of allergen challenge on concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum of house dust mite allergic asthmatics (HDM-AAs. Thirty HDM-AAs and ten healthy persons (HCswere recruited for the study. In 24 HDM-AAs bronchial challenge with Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp and in 6 HDM-AAs sham challenege with saline were performed. In HDM-AAs sputum was induced 24 hours before (T0 and 24 hours (T24 after the challenge. Concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum were determined using immunoenzymatic assays. At T0 in HDM-AAs mean sputum uPA (151 Âą 96 pg/ml and PAI-1 (4341 Âą 1262 pg/ml concentrations were higher than in HC (18.8 Âą 6.7 pg/ml; p=0.0002 and 596 Âą 180 pg/ml; p<0.0001; for uPA and PAI-1 respectively. After allergen challenge further increase in sputum uPA (187 Âą 144 pg/ml; p=0.03 and PAI-1 (6252 Âą 2323 pg/ml; p<0.0001 concentrations were observed. Moreover, in Dp challenged, but not in saline challenged HDM-AAs the mean uPA/PAI-1 ratio decreased significantly at T24. No significant increase in the studied parameters were found in sham challenged patients. In HDM-AAs allergen exposure leads to activation of the plasmin system in the airways. Greater increase of the PAI-1 concentration than uPA concentration after allergen challenge may promote airway remodeling and play an important role in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity.

  17. Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acute myelogenous leukemia - children; AML; Acute myeloid leukemia - children; Acute granulocytic leukemia - children; Acute myeloblastic leukemia - children; Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL) - children

  18. Treatment of acute viral bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eber, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    Acute viral bronchiolitis represents the most common lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children and is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Respiratory syncytial virus is the most frequently identified virus, but many other viruses may also cause acute bronchiolitis. There is no common definition of acute viral bronchiolitis used internationally, and this may explain part of the confusion in the literature. Most children with bronchiolitis have a self limiting mild disease and can be safely managed at home with careful attention to feeding and respiratory status. Criteria for referral and admission vary between hospitals as do clinical practice in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, and there is confusion and lack of evidence over the best treatment for this condition. Supportive care, including administration of oxygen and fluids, is the cornerstone of current treatment. The majority of infants and children with bronchiolitis do not require specific measures. Bronchodilators should not be routinely used in the management of acute viral bronchiolitis, but may be effective in some patients. Most of the commonly used management modalities have not been shown to have a clear beneficial effect on the course of the disease. For example, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, leukotriene receptor antagonists, immunoglobulins and monoclonal antibodies, antibiotics, antiviral therapy, and chest physiotherapy should not be used routinely in the management of bronchiolitis. The potential effect of hypertonic saline on the course of the acute disease is promising, but further studies are required. In critically ill children with bronchiolitis, today there is little justification for the use of surfactant and heliox. Nasal continuous positive airway pressure may be beneficial in children with severe bronchiolitis but a large trial is needed to determine its value. Finally, very little is known on the effect of the various

  19. Tuning of redox regulatory mechanisms, reactive oxygen species and redox homeostasis under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossain eSazzad

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinity is a crucial environmental constraint which limits biomass production at many sites on a global scale. Saline growth conditions cause osmotic and ionic imbalances, oxidative stress and perturb metabolism, e.g. the photosynthetic electron flow. The plant ability to tolerate salinity is determined by multiple biochemical and physiological mechanisms protecting cell functions, in particular by regulating proper water relations and maintaining ion homeostasis. Redox homeostasis is a fundamental cell property. Its regulation includes control of reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, sensing deviation from and readjustment of the cellular redox state. All these redox related functions have been recognized as decisive factors in salinity acclimation and adaptation. This review focuses on the core response of plants to overcome the challenges of salinity stress through regulation of ROS generation and detoxification systems and to maintain redox homeostasis. Emphasis is given to the role of NADH oxidase (RBOH, alternative oxidase (AOX, the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX and the malate valve with the malate dehydrogenase isoforms under salt stress. Overwhelming evidence assigns an essential auxiliary function of ROS and redox homeostasis to salinity acclimation of plants.

  20. Saline water irrigation of quinoa and chickpea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirich, A.; Jelloul, A.; Choukr-Allah, R.;

    2014-01-01

    A pot experiment was conducted in the south of Morocco to evaluate the response of chickpea and quinoa to different irrigation water salinity treatments (1, 4, 7 and 10 dS m-1 for chickpea and 1, 10, 20 and 30 dS m-1 for quinoa). Increasing salinity affected significantly (P ... and height and caused delay and reduction in seed emergence, quinoa was shown to be more resistant than chickpea. Dry biomass, seed yield, harvest index and crop water productivity were affected significantly (P ... and seed yield for both quinoa and chickpea while increasing salinity resulted in increase - in the case of quinoa - and decrease - in the case of chickpea - in harvest index and crop water productivity. Na+ and Na+/K+ ratio increased with increasing irrigation water salinity, while K+ content decreased...

  1. Salinity extrema in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S; Shetye, S; Gouveia, A.D.; Michael, G.S

    Levitus (1982) climatology has been used to identify four extrema, three maxima and one minimum, in the vertical salinity profiles in the Arabian Sea. Their geographical distribution, depths, theta-S characteristics, and seasonal variability...

  2. Living up to its name? The effect of salinity on development, growth, and phenotype of the "marine" toad (Rhinella marina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijethunga, Uditha; Greenlees, Matthew; Shine, Richard

    2016-02-01

    The highly permeable integument of amphibians renders them vulnerable to chemical characteristics of their environment, especially during the aquatic larval stage. As the cane toad (Rhinella marina, Bufonidae) invades southwards along the east coast of Australia, it is encountering waterbodies with highly variable conditions of temperature, pH, and salinity. Understanding the tolerance of toads to these conditions can clarify the likely further spread of the invader, as well as the adaptability of the species to novel environmental challenges. We measured salinity in waterbodies in the field and conducted laboratory trials to investigate the impacts of salinity on toad viability. Eggs and tadpoles from the southern invasion front tolerated the most saline conditions we found in potential spawning ponds during surveys [equivalent to 1200 ppm (3.5 % the salinity of seawater)]. Indeed, high-salinity treatments increased tadpole body sizes, accelerated metamorphosis, and improved locomotor ability of metamorphs (but did not affect metamorph morphology). At very low salinity [40 ppm (0.1 % seawater)], eggs hatched but larvae did not develop past Gosner stage 37. Our study shows that the egg and larval life stages of cane toads can tolerate wide variation in the salinity of natal ponds and that this aspect of waterbody chemistry is likely to facilitate rather than constrain continued southward expansion of the toad invasion front in eastern Australia. PMID:26553545

  3. Cold saline is more effective than room temperature saline in inducing paresthesia during axillary block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, J; Carceller, J; Bárcena, M; Pedraza, I; Calvo, B; Alvarez, J

    1995-08-01

    Confirmation of the perivascular position of the needle by the injection of cold saline may be helpful to the perivascular technique, since the elicitation of a paresthesia indicates the correct positioning of the needle. In this prospective, randomized study of 48 patients, we found a 100% incidence of successful block with saline at 8-11 degrees C compared to 75% in a control group with saline at room temperature. The paresthesia induced by cold saline appears to be due to thermic stimulation and not to mechanical nerve compression by the saline entering the axillary space. A more frequent rate of correct positioning of the needle was found in the group with cold saline. PMID:7618724

  4. Mannitol versus hypertonic saline: Safety and efficacy of mannitol and hypertonic saline in sputum induction and bronchial hyperreactivity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Puebla, M J; Olaguibel, J M; Almudevar, E; Echegoyen, A A; Vela, C; de Esteban, B

    2015-08-01

    Eosinophilic asthma phenotype predicts good response to corticosteroids and associates to asthmatic exacerbations. Sputum induction by hypertonic saline (HS) inhalation is technically demanding. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to osmotic agents indirectly mirrors active airway inflammation. We compared the safety and ability of HS and mannitol to induce sputum and measure BHR. We evaluated the stability of inflammatory phenotypes. We studied 35 non-smoking asthmatics randomized to undergo HS and mannitol challenges on 2 days 1 week apart. Sputum was sampled for cell analysis and phenotyped as eosinophilic (≥3% eosinophils) and non-eosinophilic (asthma. Nineteen subjects had BHR to mannitol and nine of them also had BHR to HS. Drops in forced expiratory volume in 1 s were higher from HS challenge than from mannitol challenge. Adequate sputum samples were obtained from 80% subjects (68% mannitol and 71% HS). Eosinophils and macrophages from both challenges correlated. Neutrophils were higher in sputum from HS. Ninety percent samples were equally phenotyped with HS and mannitol. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and BHR correlated in both challenges. HS and mannitol showed similar capacity to produce valuable sputum samples. BHR to both osmotic stimuli partially resembled airway eosinophilic inflammation but mannitol was more sensitive than HS to assess BHR. Eosinophilic phenotype remained stable in most patients with both stimuli. PMID:25761367

  5. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  6. BENEFITS OF CONTROLLING SALINE WATER IN COLORADO

    OpenAIRE

    Ellingson, Lindsey; Houk, Eric E.; Schuck, Eric C.; Frasier, W. Marshall

    2004-01-01

    The Arkansas River in Colorado is confronted with a salinity issue; the majority of this salinity problem is due to agricultural runoff caused by irrigation. Reducing applications of irrigation water through adoption of more technically efficient irrigation systems is one means of improving water quality in the Arkansas River basin. This research uses positive mathematical programming to model the cropping practices of the farms along the Arkansas River. It examines the affect of acreage and ...

  7. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Monteleone

    2011-01-01

    After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specifie...

  8. Salinity management in southern Italy irrigation areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Monteleone

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available After a synthetic review of the most worrisome pressures applied over soils and waters, general criterions and normative principles that have to lead the technical intervention on soil and water protection are accounted, both with respect to farm activity and land planning. The salinity problem is faced, then, through the analysis of the nature and origin of saline soil and of the complex quantitative relationships able to interpret the accumulation and leaching of soil salts. Having specified the theoretical bases of salinity, the related technical features are then considered in order to define a proper management of soil and waters. Particular relevance is assigned to the irrigation and leaching techniques as well as, more briefly, to other agronomic interventions in order to guarantee the most effective salinity control. Another relevant technical facet of salinity control, although quite often neglected or retained of secondary importance in comparison to irrigation, is the drainage and disposal of leached water. The increased sensibility on the environmental impacts that the disposal of these waters can produce has raised today the level of attention on these procedures that are disciplined by norms of law and, therefore, require appropriate techniques of intervention. Finally, after the different scale orders involved in the management of salinity are defined (from the field and farm level up to the land and basin, the fundamental elements in order to work out a risk analysis and an action program are illustrated; some indications about the most up to date salinity monitoring and mapping methods are also provided, considering their great importance to continuously check the possible broadening of salinization and to carefully maintain its control.

  9. Treating nahcolite containing formations and saline zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J

    2013-06-11

    A method for treating a nahcolite containing subsurface formation includes removing water from a saline zone in or near the formation. The removed water is heated using a steam and electricity cogeneration facility. The heated water is provided to the nahcolite containing formation. A fluid is produced from the nahcolite containing formation. The fluid includes at least some dissolved nahcolite. At least some of the fluid is provided to the saline zone.

  10. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    OpenAIRE

    Welson Lima Simões; Marcelo Calgaro; Daniela Siqueira Coelho; Delfran Batista dos Santos; Moisés Alves de Souza

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design ...

  11. MULTIVARIATE GEOSTATISTICAL METHODS FOR MAPPING SOIL SALINITY

    OpenAIRE

    BİLGİLİ, A.V.; ÇULLU, M.A.; AYDEMİR, A.; Turan, V; SÖNMEZ, O.; AYDEMİR, S.; Kaya, C.

    2012-01-01

    Degradation of the lands by salinity under arid climate and poor drainage conditions can be inevitable. In the Harran plain total salt affected areas covers 10 % of total irrigated areas which are mainly located in the low lying parts of the plain where elevation ranges from 350 to 400 m. Soil salinity shows high spatial variability which requires intensive sampling and laboratory analyses. Geostatistical techniques such as simple or ordinary kriging can be used in explaining this spatial var...

  12. Macquarie River Basin pilot salinity project

    OpenAIRE

    Macquarie River Food and Fibre Association (MRFFA); State Forests

    2006-01-01

    In order to lower salinity levels in Australia's Mullay-Darling watershed, a pilot study using water transpiration credits is being tried to increase forest cover. A company, State Forests, is managing 2 million hectares of public native forests along with increasing amounts of planted forests. Local irrigation farmers have entered into an agreement with State Forests to support tree planting in turn for salinity credits. The goal is large scale reforestation, 40% reforestation is the goal to...

  13. Analysis of MicroRNA Expression Profiles in Weaned Pig Skeletal Muscle after Lipopolysaccharide Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs constitute a class of non-coding RNAs that play a crucial regulatory role in skeletal muscle development and disease. Several acute inflammation conditions including sepsis and cancer are characterized by a loss of skeletal muscle due primarily to excessive muscle catabolism. As a well-known inducer of acute inflammation, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS challenge can cause serious skeletal muscle wasting. However, knowledge of the role of miRNAs in the course of inflammatory muscle catabolism is still very limited. In this study, RNA extracted from the skeletal muscle of pigs injected with LPS or saline was subjected to small RNA deep sequencing. We identified 304 conserved and 114 novel candidate miRNAs in the pig. Of these, four were significantly increased in the LPS-challenged samples and five were decreased. The expression of five miRNAs (ssc-miR-146a-5p, ssc-miR-221-5p, ssc-miR-148b-3p, ssc-miR-215 and ssc-miR-192 were selected for validation by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR, which found that ssc-miR-146a-5p and ssc-miR-221-5p were significantly upregulated in LPS-challenged pig skeletal muscle. Moreover, we treated mouse C2C12 myotubes with 1000 ng/mL LPS as an acute inflammation cell model. Expression of TNF-α, IL-6, muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1 mRNA was strongly induced by LPS. Importantly, miR-146a-5p and miR-221-5p also showed markedly increased expression in LPS-treated C2C12 myotubes, suggesting the two miRNAs may be involved in muscle catabolism systems in response to acute inflammation caused by a LPS challenge. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine miRNA expression profiles in weaned pig skeletal muscle challenged with LPS, and furthers our understanding of miRNA function in the regulation of inflammatory muscle catabolism.

  14. THE EFFECT OF NORMAL SALINE AND 3.5% HYPERTONIC SALINE ON MUCOCILIARY CLEARANCE IN SINUSITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sinusitis is usually treated with antibiotics, decongestants, mucolytics and steroids. Long term use of these drugs has many side effects. This has led to the use of other modalities of treatment such as saline nasal irrigation. Saline nasal irrigation helps in clearance of secretions, debris and crusts, thus improving the mucociliary clearance. OBJECTIVE: This randomized comparative study was undertaken to assess the ciliary function by performing saccharine test and to evaluate the effect of 3.5% hypertonic saline nasal drops against normal saline nasal drops on mucociliary transit time of saccharine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty patients diagnosed as chronic sinusitis in the age group of 18 to 45 years were randomized into two groups; Group A treated with 0.9% normal saline and Group B with 3.5% hypertonic saline for a period of 4 weeks. Mucociliary transit time was recorded by performing saccharine test before and after treatment. RESULTS: Significant improvement was seen in both the groups but when compared to normal saline, hypertonic saline significantly improved the mucociliary clearance. The mean mucociliary transit time of saccharine in Group A patients before treatment was 19.860 minutes and after treatment was 17.634 minutes (t=14.012, p=0.0001. The mean mucociliary transit time of saccharine in Group B patients before treatment was 21.881 minutes and after treatment was 16.689 minutes (t=14.662, p=0.0001. All the patients reported relief of symptoms, but relief was much earlier in Group B when compared to Group A. Mild burning sensation in the nose and throat was reported by 4% of patients in Group A and 8% in Group B. CONCLUSION: Both 0.9% normal saline and 3.5% hypertonic saline significantly improved the mucociliary clearance. Hypertonic saline is more efficacious than normal saline in the treatment of chronic sinusitis

  15. Salinity Effect on Horticultural Crops: Morphological, Physiological, and Biomolecular Elements of Salinity Stress Response

    OpenAIRE

    Sanoubar, Rabab

    2014-01-01

    Among abiotic stresses, high salinity stress is the most severe environmental stress. High salinity exerts its negative impact mainly by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the cell. In saline soils, high levels of sodium ions lead to plant growth inhibition and even death. Salt tolerance in plants is a multifarious phenomenon involving a variety of changes at molecular, organelle, cellular, tissue as well as whole plant level. In addition, salt tolerant plants show a range of ada...

  16. Response of Durum Wheat Seedlings to Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YILDIRIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important source of abiotic stress, limiting crop performance in most arid and semi-arid areas of the world. This research was conducted to determine the effects of salinity on physiological parameters of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes. The research was conducted in the tissue culture laboratory at the Agriculture Faculty of Dicle University. The study consisted of one durum wheat commercial cultivar, five local cultivars and four advanced genotypes. There were three replications in a split-plot experimental design. Genotypes were germinated in four NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 mM in plastic boxes. There were statistically assured significant differences among the genotypes for all salt concentrations and all observed parameters (coleoptile length, seedling length, root length, seedling fresh weight, root fresh weight, seedling dry weight, root dry weight, germination rate and seedling vigor. There was significant decrease in all examined parameters depending on the increase of salt concentration. The ‘Sorgul’ genotype was most tolerant to salinity, in terms of root length and root dry weight, whereas ‘Altintoprak 98’ was most tolerant as measured by the impact of salinity on coleoptile length, seedling fresh weight, germination rate and seedling vigour. The ‘Beyaziye’ genotype was the most sensitive to salinity-induced stress. The results from this study demonstrated differences among durum wheat genotypes for seedling parameters measured in the presence of salinity stress.

  17. PRODUCTION OF TOMATO SEEDLINGS UNDER SALINE IRRIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Brasiliano Campos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing tomato is the most important vegetable crop of the Brazilian agribusiness and few researches have been conducted to evaluate the tolerance of this crop to saline stress. In this study, the effects of five levels of salinity of the irrigation water (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 dS m-1 and three equivalent proportions of Na:Ca:Mg (1:1:0.5, 4:1:0.5 and 7:1:0.5 were tested on the emergence and vigor of processing tomato, cultivar IPA 6. Seeds were sowed in expanded polystyrene tray (128 cells and each tray received 1 L of water after sowing. The trays were piled and, four days after sowing, they were placed on suspended supports in a greenhouse. Irrigation was accomplished daily from the fifth day after sowing. Only dry weight of shoot and root was affected by sodium proportions, while linear reductions of the speed of emergence, stem length and the dry weight of shoot and root were observed with increasing salinity. Root was more affected than shoot by salinity and relative growth ratioincreased with salinity levels on the 14-21 days after sowing period, indicating that the crop showed a certain increase of salinity tolerance with the time of exposure to salts.

  18. Progressive acclimation alters interaction between salinity and temperature in experimental Daphnia populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loureiro, Cláudia; Cuco, Ana P; Claro, Maria Teresa; Santos, Joana I; Pedrosa, M Arminda; Gonçalves, Fernando; Castro, Bruno B

    2015-11-01

    Environmental stressors rarely act in isolation, giving rise to interacting environmental change scenarios. However, the impacts of such interactions on natural populations must consider the ability of organisms to adapt to environmental changes. The phenotypic adaptability of a Daphnia galeata clone to temperature rise and salinisation was investigated in this study, by evaluating its halotolerance at two different temperatures, along a short multigenerational acclimation scenario. Daphniids were acclimated to different temperatures (20°C and 25°C) and salinities (0gL(-1) and 1gL(-1), using NaCl as a proxy) in a fully crossed design. The objective was to understand whether acclimation to environmental stress (combinations of temperature and salinity) influenced the response to the latter exposure to these stressors. We hypothesize that acclimation to different temperature×salinity regimes should elicit an acclimation response of daphniids to saline stress or its interaction with temperature. Acute (survival time) and chronic (juvenile growth) halotolerance measures were obtained at discrete timings along the acclimation period (generations F1, F3 and F9). Overall, exposure temperature was the main determinant of the acute and chronic toxicity of NaCl: daphniid sensitivity (measured as the decrease of survival time or juvenile growth) was consistently higher at the highest temperature, irrespective of background conditions. However, this temperature-dependent effect was nullified after nine generations, but only when animals had been acclimated to both stressors (high salinity and high temperature). Such complex interaction scenarios should be taken in consideration in risk assessment practices.

  19. Concentrations of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA in induced sputum of asthma patients after allergen challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Kowal,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA and its inhibitor (PAI-1 are involved in tiisue remodeling and repairprocesses associated with acute and chronic inflammation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of allergen challengeon concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputum of house dust mite allergic asthmatics (HDM-AAs. ThirtyHDM-AAs and ten healthy persons (HCswere recruited for the study. In 24 HDM-AAs bronchial challenge with Dermatophagoidespteronyssinus (Dp and in 6 HDM-AAs sham challenege with saline were performed. In HDM-AAs sputumwas induced 24 hours before (T0 and 24 hours (T24 after the challenge. Concentration of uPA and PAI-1 in induced sputumwere determined using immunoenzymatic assays. At T0 in HDM-AAs mean sputum uPA (151±96 pg/ml and PAI-1(4341±1262 pg/ml concentrations were higher than in HC (18.8±6.7 pg/ml; p=0.0002 and 596±180 pg/ml; p<0.0001; foruPA and PAI-1 respectively. After allergen challenge further increase in sputum uPA (187±144 pg/ml; p=0.03 and PAI-1(6252±2323 pg/ml; p<0.0001 concentrations were observed. Moreover, in Dp challenged, but not in saline challengedHDM-AAs the mean uPA/PAI-1 ratio decreased significantly at T24. No significant increase in the studied parameters werefound in sham challenged patients. In HDM-AAs allergen exposure leads to activation of the plasmin system in the airways.Greater increase of the PAI-1 concentration than uPA concentration after allergen challenge may promote airway remodelingand play an important role in the development of bronchial hyperreactivity.

  20. Salinity Measurements During the Gulf Stream Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Howden, S.; Goodberlet, M.

    2000-01-01

    The salinity of the open ocean is important for understanding ocean circulation, for understanding energy exchange with the atmosphere and for improving models to predict weather and climate. Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (1 psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approx. 0.1 psu) required to be scientifically viable. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of a compliment of airborne microwave instruments (radiometers and scatterometer) and ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the compliment of instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer. A GPS backscatter experiment was also part of the package. These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Surface salinity measurements were provided by the RN Cape Henlopen and MN Oleander (thermosalinographs) plus salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the RN Cape Henopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made

  1. Polymer tensiometers in a saline environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Ploeg, Martine; Gooren, H. P. A.; Bakker, G.; Russell, W.; Hoogendam, C. W.; Huiskes, C.; Shouse, P.; de Rooij, G. H.

    2010-05-01

    It is estimated that 20% of all cultivated land and nearly half of the irrigated land is salt-affected, which pose major economic and environmental problems. Salinity may be the result of two processes; dryland and irrigation salinity. Dryland salinity is caused by a rise in the groundwater table, which occurs as a result of the replacement of deep-rooted, perennial native vegetation by shallow-rooted annual species meant for production. Irrigation salinity may occur as a result of poor water quality, poor drainage, or inefficient use of water. Consequently, new strategies to enhance crop yield stability on saline soils represent a major research priority (Botella et al. 2005). At the same time, native vegetation is capable of thriving under saline and/or dry conditions. The plant physiology of such vegetation has been investigated thoroughly, but the relation with in situ soil properties (soil moisture and salinity) may be more difficult to unravel as soil moisture sensors are less sensitive in dry soil, and the signal of most soil moisture content sensors is strongly attenuated by soil salinity. Recently, polymer tensiometer were developed that are able to measure matric potentials (closely related to a soil's moisture status) in dry soils. Polymer tensiometers consist of a solid ceramic, a stainless steel cup and a pressure transducer. The ceramic consist of a support layer and a membrane with 2 nm pore-size to prevent polymer leakage. Between the ceramic membrane and the pressure transducer a tiny chamber is located, which contains the polymer solution. The polymer's osmotic potential strongly reduces the total water potential inside the polymer tensiometer, which causes build-up of osmotic pressure. Polymer tensiometers would thus be an ideal instrument to measure in dry soil, if the polymer inside the tensiometer is not affected by the salts in the soil solution. We will address some key issues regarding the use of POTs in saline environments by showing

  2. Females have greater left ventricular twist mechanics than males during acute reductions to preload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Alexandra M; Shave, Rob E; Stembridge, Mike; Eves, Neil D

    2016-07-01

    Compared to males, females have smaller left ventricular (LV) dimensions and volumes, higher ejection fractions (EF), and higher LV longitudinal and circumferential strain. LV twist mechanics determine ventricular function and are preload-dependent. Therefore, the sex differences in LV structure and myocardial function may result in different mechanics when preload is altered. This study investigated sex differences in LV mechanics during acute challenges to preload. With the use of conventional and speckle-tracking echocardiography, LV structure and function were assessed in 20 males (24 ± 6.2 yr) and 20 females (23 ± 3.1 yr) at baseline and during progressive levels of lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Fourteen participants (8 males, 6 females) were also assessed following a rapid infusion of saline. LV end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume (SV), and EF were reduced in both groups during LBNP (P mechanics following saline infusion. Females have larger LV twist and a faster untwisting velocity than males during large reductions to preload, supporting that females have a greater reliance on LV twist mechanics to maintain SV during severe reductions to preload.

  3. [Pregnancy and acute ischemic stroke].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereczki, Dániel

    2016-05-15

    Pregnancy-related ischemic strokes play an important role in both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Changes in hemostaseology and hemodynamics as well as risk factors related to or independent from pregnancy contribute to the increased stroke-risk during gestation and the puerperium. Potential teratogenic effects make diagnostics, acute therapy and prevention challenging. Because randomized, controlled trials are not available, a multicenter registry of patients with gestational stroke would be desirable. Until definite guidelines emerge, management of acute ischemic stroke during pregnancy remains individual, involving experts and weighing the risks and benefits.

  4. Dwarf cashew growth irrigated with saline waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Orlando Carvallo Guerra

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The cashew production is one of the most important agricultural activities from the social-economical viewpoint for the North East of Brazil; besides to produce a great deal of hand labor, it is very important as an exporting commodity. The inadequate use of irrigation in the semi arid regions of the North East of Brazil has induced soil salinization and consequently problems for the irrigated agriculture. In spite of this, few works have been conducted to study the effect of saline stress on the growth and development of the cashew. Because of the lack of information for this crop, an experiment was conducted to study the effect of salinity stress on the phytomass production and nutrient accumulation on the different organs of the precocious dwarf cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. clone CCP76. The study was conducted under controlled conditions using as statistical scheme a randomized block design factorial with six replicates. Five salinity treatments were considered for the irrigation water (electrical conductivities of 0.8, 1.6, 2.4, 3.2 and 4.0 dS m-1 at 25oC. The increasing in salinity of the irrigation water reduced the phytomass at different organs of the studied plant. The nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, chloride and sodium in the plant varied with the salinity of the irrigation water according with the part of the plant analyzed; in some parts increased, in others decreased, in others increased initially and decreased afterwards, and finally, in other part of the plant the salinity of the irrigation water did not affect the nutrient concentration.

  5. Featherweight Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Tyler S.; Ryan, Larry

    2012-01-01

    As science, technology education, and engineering programs suffer budget cuts, educators continue to seek cost-effective activities that engage students and reinforce standards. The featherweight challenge is a hands-on activity that challenges students to continually refine their design while not breaking the budget. This activity uses one of the…

  6. Preparation and swelling behavior of polyvinyl alcohol physiological saline gel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Polyvinyl alcohol(PVA) physiological saline gel was prepared using physiological saline solution of the polymer by freezing and thawing method. The influences of the concentration of PVA, freezing and thawing cycle times and solvent swelling media on the swelling properties of PVA saline gel were investigated. The result show that the electrolytical ions have great effect on the swelling behavior of PVA saline gel. The equilibrium swelling ratio of PVA saline gel in aqueous swelling media is larger than that in saline swelling media. Also, the equilibrium swelling ratios of PVA saline gel in aqueous and in saline media decrease with the increase of gel concentration and the increase of freezing and thawing cycle times. The decreasing speed of equilibrium swelling ratio with the increase of freezing and thawing cycle times of PVA gel in distilled water is faster than that in physiological saline. The swelling kinetic equation can sufficiently describe the swelling behavior of PVA physiological saline gel.

  7. Acute abdomen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wig J

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available 550 cases of acute abdomen have been analysed in detail includ-ing their clinical presentation and operative findings. Males are more frequently affected than females in a ratio of 3: 1. More than 45% of patients presented after 48 hours of onset of symptoms. Intestinal obstruction was the commonest cause of acute abdomen (47.6%. External hernia was responsible for 26% of cases of intestinal obstruction. Perforated peptic ulcer was the commonest cause of peritonitis in the present series (31.7% while incidence of biliary peritonitis was only 2.4%.. The clinical accuracy rate was 87%. The mortality in operated cases was high (10% while the over-all mortality rate was 7.5%.

  8. A new method to retrieve salinity profiles from sea surface salinity observed by SMOS satellite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Tingting; CHEN Zhongbiao; HE Yijun

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method to retrieve salinity profiles from the sea surface salinity (SSS) observed by the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite. The main vertical patterns of the salinity profiles are firstly extracted from the salinity profiles measured by Argo using the empirical orthogonal function. To determine the time coefficients for each vertical pattern, two statistical models are developed. In the linear model, a transfer function is proposed to relate the SSS observed by SMOS (SMOS_SSS) with that measured by Argo, and then a linear relationship between the SMOS_SSS and the time coefficient is established. In the nonlinear model, the neural network is utilized to estimate the time coefficients from SMOS_SSS, months and positions of the salinity profiles. The two models are validated by comparing the salinity profiles retrieved from SMOS with those measured by Argo and the climatological salinities. The root-mean-square error (RMSE) of the linear and nonlinear model are 0.08–0.16 and 0.08–0.14 for the upper 400 m, which are 0.01–0.07 and 0.01–0.09 smaller than the RMSE of climatology. The error sources of the method are also discussed.

  9. Salinity transfer in bounded double diffusive convection

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Yantao; Ostilla-Mónico, Rodolfo; Sun, Chao; Verzicco, Roberto; Grossmann, Siegfried; Lohse, Detlef

    2015-01-01

    The double diffusive convection between two parallel plates is numerically studied for a series of parameters. The flow is driven by the salinity difference and stabilized by the thermal field. Our simulations are directly compared to experiments by Hage and Tilgner (\\emph{Phys. Fluids} 22, 076603 (2010)) for several sets of parameters and reasonable agreement is found. This in particular holds for the salinity flux and its dependence on the salinity Rayleigh number. Salt fingers are present in all simulations and extend through the entire height. The thermal Rayleigh number seems to have minor influence on salinity flux but affects the Reynolds number and the morphology of the flow. Next to the numerical calculation, we apply the Grossmann-Lohse theory for Rayleigh-B\\'{e}nard flow to the current problem without introducing any new coefficients. The theory successfully predicts the salinity flux both with respect to the scaling and even with respect to the absolute value for the numerical and experimental res...

  10. Growth of sugar cane varieties under salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welson Lima Simões

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Large salty areas in the Brazilian semi-arid region have limited farming in Northeastern Brazil. One example is the sugar cane cultivation, which reinforces the need of selecting varieties that are more tolerant to salinity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of salinity on growth of ten varieties of sugar cane. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, set in the experimental field of Embrapa Semiárido, in Petrolina, Pernambuco State. The experimental design was randomized blocks arranged in a 6 X 10 factorial arrangement, comprised of six levels of salinity (0, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1 and ten sugar cane varieties (VAT 90212; RB 72454; RB 867515; Q 124; RB 961003; RB 957508; SP791011; RB 835089; RB 92579 and SP 943206. Salt levels of irrigation water were obtained by adding NaCl, CaCl2.2H2O and MgSO4.7H2O to achieve an equivalent ratio among Na:Ca:Mg of 7:2:1. Sixty days later, plant height, stem diameter (base, number of leaves, stalks and sprouts, leaf area and fresh and dry mass of the aerial part and roots were all measured. The varieties of sugar cane showed similar responses for growth reduction as soil salinity increases, being considered moderately sensitive to salinity.

  11. Biomarker-based salinity reconstruction immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (Sorbas Basin, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayser, Jan Peter; Martins, Cesar; Flecker, Rachel; Pancost, Rich D.

    2014-05-01

    The salinity crisis which occurred in the Mediterranean at the end of the Miocene (5.97 to 5.33 Ma) was a time of large-scale environmental change and thick evaporite deposits formed both in the deep basins and on the surrounding margins. Late Miocene successions in the Sorbas Basin, south east Spain preserve sediments that were deposited immediately prior to the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and during the initial phase of gypsum precipitation (Sierro et al., 2001). Salinity changes are indicated by evaporite formation and fluctuations in faunal assemblages, but these provide threshold measurements only e.g. gypsum forms at a salinity of 130 psu. By analysing the lipid biomarker composition by GC and HPLC-MS after Soxhlet extraction of pre-MSC sediments we aim to reconstruct granular changes in salinity leading up to initial gypsum precipitation. The pre-MSC sediments comprise regular alternations of marine marls and terrigenous clays with interspersed diatomites. This lithological cyclicity is climatically forced by orbitally-driven changes in insolation (Krijgsman et al., 1999) such that specific lithologies are thought to accumulate during precession minima (homogeneous marls) and maxima (laminated marls). By targeting these lithologies for salinity reconstruction we can evaluate the orbital control on quantified environmental change. The reconstruction of the salinity is predominantly based on the ACE proxy introduced by Turich and Freeman (2011). The GDGT-based proxy can show differences over a wide range of salinity, because Archaea can survive over a much larger salinity range than haptophyte algae or other plankton and can therefore also record the salinity signal over a wider range. This makes it suitable for the broad salinity ranges leading up to the MSC e.g. ~35 to 130 psu. Turich et al. (2011) already have published 10 low resolution salinity values for pre-MSC sediments from Torrente Vaccarizzo and Serra Pirciata on Sicily. Our high resolution

  12. The influence of salinity on toxicological effects of arsenic in digestive gland of clam Ruditapes philippinarum using metabolomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Chenglong; Wu, Huifeng; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhao, Jianmin; Yu, Junbao; Yin, Xiuli

    2013-03-01

    Ruditapes philippinarum, a clam that thrives in intertidal zones of various salinities, is a useful biomonitor to marine contaminants. We investigated the influence of dilution to 75% and 50% of normal seawater salinity (31.1) on the responses of the digestive gland of R. philippinarum to arsenic exposure (20 μg/L), using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics. After acute arsenic exposure for 48 h, salinity-dependent differential metabolic responses were detected. In normal seawater, arsenic exposure increased the concentrations of branched-chain amino acids, and of threonine, proline, phosphocholine and adenosine, and it decreased the levels of alanine, hypotaurine, glucose, glycogen and ATP in the digestive glands. Differential changes in metabolic biomarkers observed at lower salinity (˜23.3) included elevation of succinate, taurine and ATP, and depletion of branched-chain amino acids, threonine and glutamine. Unique effects of arsenic at the lowest salinity (˜15.6) included down-regulation of glutamate, succinate and ADP, and up-regulation of phosphocholine. We conclude that salinity influences the metabolic responses of this clam to arsenic.

  13. The influence of salinity on toxicological effects of arsenic in digestive gland of clam Ruditapes philippinarum using metabolomics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Chenglong; WU Huifeng; LIU Xiaoli; ZHAO Jianmin; YU Junbao; YIN Xiuli

    2013-01-01

    Ruditapes philippinarum,a clam that thrives in intertidal zones of various salinities,is a useful biomonitor to marine contaminants.We investigated the influence of dilution to 75% and 50% of normal seawater salinity (31.1) on the responses of the digestive gland of R.philippinarum to arsenic exposure (20 μg/L),using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics.After acute arsenic exposure for 48 h,salinity-dependent differential metabolic responses were detected.In normal seawater,arsenic exposure increased the concentrations of branched-chain amino acids,and of threonine,proline,phosphocholine and adenosine,and it decreased the levels of alanine,hypotaurine,glucose,glycogen and ATP in the digestive glands.Differential changes in metabolic biomarkers observed at lower salinity (~23.3)included elevation of succinate,taurine and ATP,and depletion of branched-chain amino acids,threonine and glutamine.Unique effects of arsenic at the lowest salinity (~15.6) included down-regulation of glutamate,succinate and ADP,and up-regulation of phosphocholine.We conclude that salinity influences the metabolic responses of this clam to arsenic.

  14. Effects of inhaled L-arginine administration in a murine model of acute asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Arikan-Ayyildiz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Increased arginase activity in the airways decreases L-arginine and causes deficiency of bronchodilating and anti-inflammatory nitric oxide (NO in asthma. As, it is suggested that L-arginine may have therapeutic potential in asthma treatment, we aimed to investigate the effects of inhaled L-arginine on oxygen saturation (SaO₂ and airway histology in a murine model of acute asthma. Twenty eight BALB/c mice were divided into four groups; I, II, III and IV (control. All groups except the control were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin. After establishement of acute asthma attack by metacholine administration, the mice were treated with inhaled L-arginine (Group I, saline (Group II and budesonide (Group III, respectively. SaO₂was measured by pulse oximeter just before and 5 min after methacholine. A third measurement of SaO₂was also obtained 15 min after drug administration in these study groups. Inflammation in the lung tissues of the sacrificed animals were scored to determine the effects of the study drugs. The number of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL was determined. The results indicated that inflammatory scores significantly improved in groups receiving study drugs when compared with placebo and L-arginine was similar in decreasing scores when compared with budesonide. SaO₂had a tendency to increase after L-arginine administration after acute asthma attack and this increase was statistically significant (p=0.043. Eosinophilia in BAL significantly reduced in group receiving L-arginine when compared with placebo (p<0.05. Thus in this study we demonstrated that L-arginine improved SaO₂and inflammatory scores in an acute model of asthma.

  15. Data-driven models of groundwater salinization in coastal plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felisa, G.; Ciriello, V.; Antonellini, M.; Di Federico, V.; Tartakovsky, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Salinization of shallow coastal aquifers is particularly critical for ecosystems and agricultural activities. Management of such aquifers is an open challenge, because predictive models, on which science-based decisions are to be made, often fail to capture the complexity of relevant natural and anthropogenic processes. Complicating matters further is the sparsity of hydrologic and geochemical data that are required to parameterize spatially distributed models of flow and transport. These limitations often undermine the veracity of modeling predictions and raise the question of their utility. As an alternative, we employ data-driven statistical approaches to investigate the underlying mechanisms of groundwater salinization in low coastal plains. A time-series analysis and auto-regressive moving average models allow us to establish dynamic relations between key hydrogeological variables of interest. The approach is applied to the data collected at the phreatic coastal aquifer of Ravenna, Italy. We show that, even in absence of long time series, this approach succeeds in capturing the behavior of this complex system, and provides the basis for making predictions and decisions.

  16. Using density difference to store fresh water in saline subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, M.; Olsthoorn, Th. N.; des Tombe, B.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of fresh water in the subsurface for later recovery and use (Aquifer Storage and Recovery) is becoming more and more important in the coming decades for seasonal or emergency storage, especially in the light of climate change and increasing population. However, fresh water storage in a saline subsurface poses a challenge: the initially vertical interface between injected fresh and native salt water is unstable and tends to rotate. The injected fresh water tends to float upward on top of native salt water, where it becomes hard or impossible to recover at a later stage. A wide body of literature exists about this buoyancy effect that is caused by the density difference between fresh and salt water. Yet, very few papers focus on solutions to this problem. In this paper we propose a storage principle to overcome this buoyancy problem by actually using the density difference to keep the fresh water in place, by combining salt water extraction and impermeable barriers. This technique seems promising and could solve many local fresh water storage problems. It is especially applicable in shallow water table aquifers for the storage of fresh water below parks and arable land or for seasonal storage of desalinated water. We performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical modelling to study the dynamic behaviour of a fresh water bubble stored in saline subsurface using the technique of salt water extraction and impermeable barriers; including effects of operation dynamics, groundwater flow, and diffusion, dispersion and density differences.

  17. Rain Impact Model V2.0 for Sea Surface Salinity: A Flag for Salinity Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Garcia, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Florida Remote Sensing Laboratory has analyzed Aquarius (AQ) sea surface salinity (SSS) and ESA's Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) retrievals in the presence of rain and has developed a Rain Impact Model (RIM V2.0) that predicts transient near-surface salinity stratification based upon the corresponding rain accumulation over the previous 24 hours and the effect of the wind speed. For both of the satellite SSS measurements, a common reference for comparison is the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) for ocean salinity, but there is a significant mismatch between the remote sensing sampling depth of approximately 0.01 m and the typical range of 5 m to 10 m of in situ instruments. Under normal ocean conditions the upper layer of the ocean is well mixed and there is an approximately uniform salinity for the first 10 m depth; therefore satellite measurements are good estimates of the bulk salinity. Conversely, under rainy conditions, there is a dilution of the near-surface salinity that mixed downward by diffusion and mechanical mixing of gravity waves, where the wind speed information play a significant role in the model. This transient phenomena, known as salinity stratification, significantly modifies the salinity gradient in the upper 1 m of the ocean; and therefore invalidates the usual assumption of well-mixed salinity. Generally, these salinity stratifications dissipate in less than a couple of hours and the upper layer becomes well mixed at a slightly fresher salinity. The Rain Impact Model V2.0 is based on the RIM V1.0, previously published, which includes the rain accumulation effect but ignores the variations on wind speed using a constant vertical diffusivity value. This research addresses the effects of rainfall on the AQ and SMOS SSS retrieval using a macro-scale Rain Impact Model (RIM) in regions of high convective rain. This model, based on the superposition of a one-dimension eddy diffusion (turbulent diffusion) model, relates sea

  18. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keydar, Ceglar; Marin, Manuela; Janik, Allan;

    , cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...

  19. Wave Induced Saline Intrusion in Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Burrows, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy is dissip......Experimental and numerical studies have shown that the influence of wave increases the tendency of saline intrusion in multi-riser sea outfalls. The flow field in the diffusor under such unsteady and inhomogeneous circumstances is in general very complex, but when sufficient wave energy...

  20. Batteries for Efficient Energy Extraction from a Water Salinity Difference

    KAUST Repository

    La Mantia, Fabio

    2011-04-13

    The salinity difference between seawater and river water is a renewable source of enormous entropic energy, but extracting it efficiently as a form of useful energy remains a challenge. Here we demonstrate a device called "mixing entropy battery", which can extract and store it as useful electrochemical energy. The battery, containing a Na2-xMn 5O10 nanorod electrode, was shown to extract energy from real seawater and river water and can be applied to a variety of salt waters. We demonstrated energy extraction efficiencies of up to 74%. Considering the flow rate of river water into oceans as the limiting factor, the renewable energy production could potentially reach 2 TW, or ∼13% of the current world energy consumption. The mixing entropy battery is simple to fabricate and could contribute significantly to renewable energy in the future. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  1. Acute viral bronchiolitis in South Africa: Strategies for management and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zar, H J; Madhi, S A; White, D A; Masekela, R; Risenga, S; Lewis, H; Feldman, C; Morrow, B; Jeena, P

    2016-04-01

    Management of acute viral bronchiolitis is largely supportive. There is currently no proven effective therapy other than oxygen for hypoxic children. The evidence indicates that there is no routine benefit from inhaled, rapid short-acting bronchodilators, adrenaline or ipratropium bromide for children with acute viral bronchiolitis. Likewise, there is no demonstrated benefit from routine use of inhaled or oral corticosteroids, inhaled hypertonic saline nebulisation, montelukast or antibiotics. The last should be reserved for children with severe disease, when bacterial co-infection is suspected. Prevention of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease remains a challenge. A specific RSV monoclonal antibody, palivizumab, administered as an intramuscular injection, is available for children at risk of severe bronchiolitis, including premature infants, young children with chronic lung disease, immunodeficiency, or haemodynamically significant congenital heart disease. Prophylaxis should be commenced at the start of the RSV season and given monthly during the season. The development of an RSV vaccine may offer a more effective alternative to prevent disease, for which the results of clinical trials are awaited. Education of parents or caregivers and healthcare workers about diagnostic and management strategies should include the following: bronchiolitis is caused by a virus; it is seasonal; it may start as an upper respiratory tract infection with low-grade fever; symptoms are cough and wheeze, often with fast breathing; antibiotics are generally not needed; and the condition is usually self limiting, although symptoms may occur for up to four weeks in some children.

  2. [Acute myocarditis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, Alain

    2013-05-01

    Myocarditis is defined as inflammation of the myocardium accompanied by myocellular necrosis. Acute myocarditis must be considered in patients who present with recent onset of cardiac failure or arrhythmia. Fulminant myocarditis is a distinct entity characterized by sudden onset of severe congestive heart failure or cardiogenic shock, usually following a flu-like illness, parvovirus B19, human herpesvirus 6, coxsackievirus and adenovirus being the most frequently viruses responsible for the disease. Treatment of myocarditis remains largely supportive, since immunosuppression has not been proven to be beneficial for acute lymphocytic myocarditis. Trials of antiviral therapies, or immunostimulants such as interferons, suggest a potential therapeutic role but require further investigation. Lastly, early recognition of patients rapidly progressing to refractory cardiac failure and their immediate transfer to a medical-surgical center experienced in mechanical circulatory support is warranted. In this setting, ECMO should be the first-line mechanical assistance. For highly unstable patients, a Mobile Cardiac Assistance Unit, that rapidly travels to primary care hospitals with a portable ECMO system and hooks it up before refractory multiorgan failure takes hold, is the preferred option. PMID:23789482

  3. About uncertainties in practical salinity calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Le Menn

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a quantity computed, in the actual state of the art, from conductivity ratio measurements, knowing temperature and pressure at the time of the measurement and using the Practical Salinity Scale algorithm of 1978 (PSS-78 which gives practical salinity values S. The uncertainty expected on PSS-78 values is ±0.002, but nothing has ever been detailed about the method to work out this uncertainty, and the sources of errors to include in this calculation. Following a guide edited by the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM, this paper assess, by two independent methods, the uncertainties of salinity values obtained from a laboratory salinometer and Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD measurements after laboratory calibration of a conductivity cell. The results show that the part due to the PSS-78 relations fits is sometimes as much significant as the instruments one's. This is particularly the case with CTD measurements where correlations between the variables contribute to decrease largely the uncertainty on S, even when the expanded uncertainties on conductivity cells calibrations are largely up of 0.002 mS/cm. The relations given in this publication, and obtained with the normalized GUM method, allow a real analysis of the uncertainties sources and they can be used in a more general way, with instruments having different specifications.

  4. Salinity Tolerance Turfgrass: History and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Kamal Uddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses.

  5. Salinity tolerance turfgrass: history and prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, Md Kamal; Juraimi, Abdul Shukor

    2013-01-01

    Land and water resources are becoming scarce and are insufficient to sustain the burgeoning population. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic stresses affecting agricultural productions across the world. Cultivation of salt-tolerant turfgrass species may be promising option under such conditions where poor quality water can also be used for these crops. Coastal lands in developing countries can be used to grow such crops, and seawater can be used for irrigation of purposes. These plants can be grown using land and water unsuitable for conventional crops and can provide food, fuel, fodder, fibber, resin, essential oils, and pharmaceutical products and can be used for landscape reintegration. There are a number of potential turfgrass species that may be appropriate at various salinity levels of seawater. The goal of this review is to create greater awareness of salt-tolerant turfgrasses, their current and potential uses, and their potential use in developing countries. The future for irrigating turf may rely on the use of moderate- to high-salinity water and, in order to ensure that the turf system is sustainable, will rely on the use of salt-tolerant grasses and an improved knowledge of the effects of salinity on turfgrasses. PMID:24222734

  6. Evaluation of lettuce genotypes for salinity tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce is one of the most commonly used salad vegetables and considered to be a relatively salt sensitive crop. Salinity is a major constraint to crop production in all important lettuce districts of the U.S., and the water quality problem is exacerbated by the climate change. In order to identify ...

  7. Environmental geophysics mapping salinity and water resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dent, D.

    2007-01-01

    Salinity and fresh water are two sides of the same coin, most conveniently measured by electrical conductivity; they can now be mapped rapidly in three dimensions using airborne electromagnetics (AEM). Recent developments in the calibration of airborne data against in-field measurements and addition

  8. Aging Models of Acute Seizures and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Aged animals have been used by researchers to better understand the differences between the young and the aged brain and how these differences may provide insight into the mechanisms of acute seizures and epilepsy in the elderly. To date, there have been relatively few studies dedicated to the modeling of acute seizures and epilepsy in aged, healthy animals. Inherent challenges to this area of research include the costs associated with the purchase and maintenance of older animals and, at tim...

  9. Hypertriglyceridemia-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mindaugas Serpytis; Jurate Dementaviciene; Kestutis Strupas; Audrius Sileikis; Vytautas Karosas; Jurate Sipylaite; Rokas Tamosauskas

    2012-01-01

    Context Hypertriglyceridemia is a well known phenomenon of pregnancy occurring due to physiologic changes in sex hormone levels. Occasionally, it could lead to development of acute pancreatitis. Gestational hypertriglyceridemia-induced acute pancreatitis occurs in pregnant women usually with preexisting abnormalities of the lipid metabolism and is associated with additional diagnostic and therapeutic challenges related to hypertriglyceridemia and pregnancy. Case report We present a case of hy...

  10. Acute brachial neuritis following influenza vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Shaikh, Maliha Farhana; Baqai, Tanya Jane; Tahir, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Brachial neuritis following vaccination is an uncommon but clinically important presentation of severe shoulder and arm pain associated with globally reduced range of movement. It may be confused with the more common diagnoses of rotator cuff pathology, adhesive capsulitis (frozen shoulder), shoulder arthritis or cervical spondylosis. We present a case of acute brachial neuritis, which posed a clinical diagnostic challenge to emergency, acute medical and rheumatology clinicians.

  11. Effect of different antimicrobial treatments on serum acute phase responses and leukocyte counts in pigs after a primary and a secondary challenge infection with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjölund, M; Fossum, C; Martin de la Fuente, AJM;

    2011-01-01

    The susceptibility to an initial challenge and a re-challenge inoculation with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae was analysed in pigs that were treated with antimicrobials of different efficacies following the first exposure to A pleuropneumoniae. In brief, 30 nine-week-old specific pathogen......-free pigs were allocated to five groups of six. After acclimatisation, four groups were inoculated with A pleuropneumoniae serotype 2. At the onset of clinical signs, three of the groups of pigs were treated with enrofloxacin, tetracycline or penicillin. A fourth group served as the inoculated control and...

  12. RECURRENT SEASONAL ACUTE PSYCHOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Vivek

    1999-01-01

    Acute psychoses have been reported to occur more frequently in summer. This is a report of seasonal recurrence of acute psychosis in a patient. This case report emphasizes towards the biological etiology of acute psychoses.

  13. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... To prevent acute kidney failure: Health problems such as high blood pressure or diabetes should be well controlled. Avoid drugs and medicines that can cause kidney injury.

  14. Acute cerebellar ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebellar ataxia; Ataxia - acute cerebellar; Cerebellitis; Post-varicella acute cerebellar ataxia; PVACA ... Acute cerebellar ataxia in children, especially younger than age 3, may occur several weeks after an illness caused by a virus. ...

  15. Sodium kinetics in hypertonic saline abortion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sodium kinetics of hypertonic saline abortions have been followed by measuring the radioactivity and the sodium concentrations in amniotic fluid, maternal plasma, urine, the foetus and placenta after intrauterine installation of 20% hypertonic saline labelled with 22Na in order to determine the reason for abortion of a dead foetus in 24 to 48 hours, and reasons for sodium reactions. There is dilution of the 300 ml of amniotic fluid to a maximum of 1.5 to 2.0 litres in an exponential fashion, by the influx of mainly maternal water, slowing after 8 hours. There is an exponential type of increase in plasma radioactivity, also slowing after 8 hours. However, equilibration is never reached, the specific activity of the amniotic fluid remaining 10 times that of the plasma, and the sodium concentration 3 times that of the plasma. The urine equilibrates with the plasma, and about 3% of the administered dose is lost in 22 hours. The largest foetus and placenta picked up the least radioactivity. Thus, a more mature foetus may be protected to some degree against the hypertonic saline action; this has been observed clinically. Hyperkaliaemia was found in all four subjects, and hypoglycaemia occurred sporadically. These were not accompanied by any symptoms. Factors associated with expulsion of the dead foetus are dehydration and decreased circulation associated with fibrinoid necrosis of the placenta, which may also account for cessation of equilibration between maternal plasma and amniotic fluid. Although no saline reactions occurred, the role of extrauterine deposition of hypertonic saline, as shown in one subject, might be considered. (author)

  16. Management of saline soils in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main soil salinity problem in Israel is the danger of gradual salinization as a result of excessively efficient water management. Aquifer management is aimed at preventing flow of groundwater into the ocean, causing a creeping salinization at a rate of about 2 ppm per year. Successful efforts to improve irrigation efficiency brought with them the danger of salt accumulation in the soil. A ten-year monitoring programme carried out by the Irrigation Extension Service at 250 sampling sites showed that appreciable salt accumulation indeed occurred during the rainless irrigation season. However, where annual rainfall is more than about 350 mm this salt accumulation is adequately leached out of the root zone by the winter rains. Soil salinity in the autumn is typically two to three times that in the spring, a level which does not affect yields adversely. In the drier regions of the country long-term increasing soil salinity has been observed, and leaching is required. This is generally accomplished during the pre-irrigation given in the spring, whose size is determined by the rainfall amount of the preceding winter. The increasing need to utilize brackish groundwater and recycled sewage effluent requires special measures, which have so far been successful. In particular, drip irrigation with its high average soil-water potential regime and partial wetting of the soil volume has achieved high yields under adverse conditions. However, the long-term trend of water-quality deterioration is unavoidable under present conditions, and will eventually necessitate either major changes in agricultural patterns or the provision of desalinated water for dilution of the irrigation water. (author)

  17. Evaluation of Different Soil Salinity Mapping Using Remote Sensing Techniques in Arid Ecosystems, Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamed Elhag

    2016-01-01

    Land covers in Saudi Arabia are generally described as salty soils with sand dunes and sand sheets. Waterlogging and higher soil salinity are major challenges to sustaining agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia principally within closed drainage basins. Agricultural practices in Saudi Arabia were flourishing in the last two decades. The newly reclaimed lands were added annually and distributed all over the country. Irrigation techniques are mostly modernized to fulfill water saving strategie...

  18. Acute Myopericarditis Mimicking Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Seval İzdeş; Neriman Defne Altıntaş; Gülin Karaaslan; Recep Uygun; Abdulkadir But

    2011-01-01

    Acute coronary syndromes among young adults are relatively low when compared with older population in the intensive care unit. Electrocardiographic abnormalities mimicking acute coronary syndromes may be caused by non-coronary syndromes and the differential diagnosis requires a detailed evaluation. We are reporting a case of myopericarditis presenting with acute ST elevation and elevated cardiac enzymes simulating acute coronary syndrome. In this case report, the literature is reviewed to dis...

  19. Effects of Salinity on Oil Spill Dispersant Toxicity in Estuarine Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckmann, C. A.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical dispersants can be a useful tool to mitigate oil spills, but the potential risks to sensitive estuarine species should be carefully considered. To improve the decision making process, more information is needed regarding the effects of oil spill dispersants on the health of coastal ecosystems under variable environmental conditions such as salinity. The two oil dispersants used in this study were Corexit ® 9500 and Finasol ® OSR 52. Corexit ® 9500 was the primary dispersant used during the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill event, while Finasol® OSR 52 is another dispersant approved for oil spill response in the U.S., yet considerably less is known regarding its toxicity to estuarine species. The grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio, was used as a model estuarine species. It is a euryhaline species that tolerates salinities from brackish to full strength seawater. Adult and larval life stages were tested with each dispersant at three salinities, 5ppt, 20ppt, and 30ppt. Median acute lethal toxicity thresholds were calculated. Lipid peroxidation assays were conducted on surviving shrimp to investigate sublethal effects. The toxicity of both dispersants was significantly influenced by salinity, with greatest toxicity observed at the lowest salinity tested. Larval shrimp were significantly more sensitive than adult shrimp to both dispersants, and both life stages were significantly more sensitive to Finasol than to Corexit. Furthermore, significant sublethal effects were seen at higher concentrations of both dispersants compared to the control. These data will enable environmental managers to make informed decisions regarding dispersant use in future oil spills.

  20. Logistical challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Matthews

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the Asian tsunami was unprecedented and the logistical challenges of meeting the needs of those affected were enormous. Had the tsunami happened even five years ago, World Vision would not have been able to respond nearly as effectively as it did.

  1. Ethical Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Michael

    2004-01-01

    All evaluators face the challenge of striving to adhere to the highest possible standards of ethical conduct. Translating the AEA's Guiding Principles and the Joint Committee's Program Evaluation Standards into everyday practice, however, can be a complex, uncertain, and frustrating endeavor. Moreover, acting in an ethical fashion can require…

  2. Archiving challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Ringersma, J.

    2010-01-01

    Teaching slides on: What is a digital archive? Parties involved in digital archiving Archiving challenges organization of data coherence and persistency access and safety Language archiving software Different users, different needs For: Saami Language Documentation and Revitalization. Winter school, Bodø, Norway

  3. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY OF HYPERTONIC SALINE AND NORMAL SALINE SOLUTIONS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED ENDOTOXIC SHOCK IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. ZAFAR, G. MUHAMMAD, M. H. HUSSAIN, T. AHMAD, A. YOUSAF AND I. SARFARAZ

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was contemplated to determine the comparative beneficial effects of hypertonic saline solution and sterile saline solution in induced endotoxic shock in dogs. For this purpose, 12 healthy Mongrel dogs were randomly divided into two equal groups (A and B. All the animals were induced endotoxaemia by slow intravenous administration of Escherichia coli endotoxins 0111:B4. Group A was treated with normal saline solution @ 90 ml/kg BW, while group B was given hypertonic saline solution @ 4 ml/kg BW, followed by normal saline solution @ 10 ml/kg BW. Different parameters were observed for evaluation of these fluids including clinical and haematological parameters, serum electrolytes, mean arterial pressure, and blood gases at different time intervals up to 24 hours post treatments. After infusion of respective fluids, all parameters returned to baseline values in both the groups but group B showed better results than group A except bicarbonates, which better recovered in group A. Thus, it was concluded that a small-volume of hypertonic saline solution could be effectively used in reversing the endotoxaemia. Moreover, it provides a rapid and inexpensive resuscitation from endotoxic shock.

  4. Transport Characteristics of Soil Salinity in Saline-alkali Land under Water Storage and Drainage Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan; LI; Jichang; HAN

    2015-01-01

    To test the variation and transport of soil salinity in saline- alkali land under water storage and drainage treatments,an experimental model was established in Fuping,Shaanxi Province,2009. The variation of soil salinity during 0- 160 cm soil depth under the two treatments was determined and analyzed. Results showed that the average soil water content under water storage treatment was 4. 47% higher than that under drainage treatment,which means that the water storage treatment could help to improve soil moisture to satisfy the crop’s growth needs. The profile distribution of soil soluble solids( TDS),anion( Cl-,HCO3-,SO2-4) and cation( Ca2 +,Na+,K+) content and the variation of soil p H were also measured and analyzed. PCA( Principal Component Analysis) was used to explore the relationship between the soil salinity and its ions,which showed that the water storage treatment could significantly decrease the surface salinity of soil and accelerate the desalination of topsoils,and finally,the soil quality was improved significantly,demonstrating that the water storage treatment has a remarkable effect on soil salinity management.

  5. Sea surface salinity variability in the tropical Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Heffner, D.M.

    -series salinity data in the tropical Indian Ocean, the interannual variability of salinity during the IODZM events is not completely documented. The availability of long-term Argo profiles data motivated us to study the seasonal and interannual variability...

  6. Climate change and soil salinity: The case of coastal Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Susmita; Hossain, Md Moqbul; Huq, Mainul; Wheeler, David

    2015-12-01

    This paper estimates location-specific soil salinity in coastal Bangladesh for 2050. The analysis was conducted in two stages: First, changes in soil salinity for the period 2001-2009 were assessed using information recorded at 41 soil monitoring stations by the Soil Research Development Institute. Using these data, a spatial econometric model was estimated linking soil salinity with the salinity of nearby rivers, land elevation, temperature, and rainfall. Second, future soil salinity for 69 coastal sub-districts was projected from climate-induced changes in river salinity and projections of rainfall and temperature based on time trends for 20 Bangladesh Meteorological Department weather stations in the coastal region. The findings indicate that climate change poses a major soil salinization risk in coastal Bangladesh. Across 41 monitoring stations, the annual median projected change in soil salinity is 39 % by 2050. Above the median, 25 % of all stations have projected changes of 51 % or higher.

  7. Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) develops and maintains a global ocean temperature and salinity resource with data that are both up-to-date...

  8. Penaeid Shrimp Salinity Gradient Tank Study 2005-2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We designed an experimental gradient tank to examine salinity preferences of juvenile brown shrimp and white shrimp. Although no strong pattern of salinity...

  9. Saline Systems: A research journal bridging gene systems and ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    DasSarma, Shiladitya

    2005-01-01

    Saline Systems addresses the publication needs of scientists conducting basic and applied research on coastal and inland saline environments and their flora and fauna. The journal covers research at all levels, from individual genes to whole genomes and entire ecosystems. Rapid progress in the molecular biology and microbial ecology of halotolerant and halophilic organisms and the sensitivity of many saline environments warrants an online journal with fast turnaround times. Many saline enviro...

  10. Hurricane-induced failure of low salinity wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Howes, Nick C.; FitzGerald, Duncan M.; Hughes, Zoe J.; Georgiou, Ioannis Y.; Kulp, Mark A.; Miner, Michael D.; Smith, Jane M.; Barras, John A.

    2010-01-01

    During the 2005 hurricane season, the storm surge and wave field associated with Hurricanes Katrina and Rita eroded 527 km2 of wetlands within the Louisiana coastal plain. Low salinity wetlands were preferentially eroded, while higher salinity wetlands remained robust and largely unchanged. Here we highlight geotechnical differences between the soil profiles of high and low salinity regimes, which are controlled by vegetation and result in differential erosion. In low salinity wetlands, a wea...

  11. Attenuation of cigarette smoke-induced airway mucus production by hydrogen-rich saline in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunye Ning

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Over-production of mucus is an important pathophysiological feature in chronic airway disease such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and asthma. Cigarette smoking (CS is the leading cause of COPD. Oxidative stress plays a key role in CS-induced airway abnormal mucus production. Hydrogen protected cells and tissues against oxidative damage by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. In the present study we investigated the effect of hydrogen on CS-induced mucus production in rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: sham control, CS group, hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment group and hydrogen-rich saline control group. Lung morphology and tissue biochemical changes were determined by immunohistochemistry, Alcian Blue/periodic acid-Schiff staining, TUNEL, western blot and realtime RT-PCR. RESULTS: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment attenuated CS-induced mucus accumulation in the bronchiolar lumen, goblet cell hyperplasia, muc5ac over-expression and abnormal cell apoptosis in the airway epithelium as well as malondialdehyde increase in the BALF. The phosphorylation of EGFR at Tyr1068 and Nrf2 up-regulation expression in the rat lungs challenged by CS exposure were also abrogated by hydrogen-rich saline. CONCLUSION: Hydrogen-rich saline pretreatment ameliorated CS-induced airway mucus production and airway epithelium damage in rats. The protective role of hydrogen on CS-exposed rat lungs was achieved at least partly by its free radical scavenging ability. This is the first report to demonstrate that intraperitoneal administration of hydrogen-rich saline protected rat airways against CS damage and it could be promising in treating abnormal airway mucus production in COPD.

  12. Palaeoclimatic Indicators of China's Quaternary Saline Lake Sediments and Hydrochemistry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In this paper the authors classify saline lake sediments into the cold, warm and eurythermal phases, reveal the consistency between the zoning of hydrochemical types of modern saline lake water and climatic zoning and give climatic parameters under the conditions of typical cold phase (mirabilite and natron), warm phase (thenardite) and slightly warm phase (bloedite) saline lake deposition.

  13. Genome Sequence of Bacillus cereus Group Phage SalinJah.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erill, Ivan; Caruso, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    The double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) Myoviridae Bacillus cereus group bacteriophage SalinJah was isolated from soil collected in Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. SalinJah, a cluster C phage with a broad host range, suggests the need to create a new subcluster with SalinJah and Helga as founding members. PMID:27688335

  14. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, de P.G.B.; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; `Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S.; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and

  15. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Louw, P.G.B. de; Eeman, S.; Siemon, B.; Voortman, B.R.; Gunnink, J.; Baaren, E.S. van; Oude Essink, G.H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In deltaic areas with saline seepage, fresh water availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence an

  16. Hypertonic saline is more effective than normal saline in seasonal allergic rhinitis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchisio, P; Varricchio, A; Baggi, E; Bianchini, S; Capasso, M E; Torretta, S; Capaccio, P; Gasparini, C; Patria, F; Esposito, S; Principi, N

    2012-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) is a very common childhood disease that is associated with a significant reduction in the patients' quality of life. Its treatment combines educating the patients and their parents, immunotherapy and drug administration. However, even the best approach does not relieve the symptoms of a number of patients. Alternative therapies are particularly needed for children because the fear of adverse events frequently reduces parental compliance to the prescribed drugs, and immunotherapy is less easy to administer than in adults. In this prospective investigator-blinded study we evaluated whether children, with a documented history of seasonal grass pollen-related AR, benefit from nasal irrigation by assessing the effects on nasal signs and symptoms, on middle ear effusion and on adenoidal hypertrophy. We randomized children aged 5 to 9 years (median age 82 months) to normal saline or hypertonic saline (a 2.7% sodium chloride solution), administered twice-daily using a disposable 20 ml syringe, or no treatment. Nasal symptoms (rhinorrhea, itching, sneezing, nasal obstruction), swelling of turbinates, adenoid hypertrophy or middle ear effusion were assessed at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment. Two hundred and twenty children (normal saline: 80; hypertonic saline: 80; no treatment: 60) completed the study. After four weeks, all the considered items were significantly reduced in the group receiving hypertonic saline (P < 0.0001), whereas in the group receiving normal saline only rhinorrhea (P = 0.0002) and sneezing (P = 0.002) were significantly reduced. There was no significant change in any of the items in the control group. The duration of oral antihistamines was significantly lower in the children receiving hypertonic saline than in those treated with normal saline or in controls. No adverse events were reported and parental satisfaction and compliance with the procedure were globally very good, regardless of the solution used. Using our

  17. Growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinity: development and function of shoot hydraulic systems require saline conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hoa T. Nguyen; Stanton, Daniel E.; Schmitz, Nele; Farquhar, Graham D.; Ball, Marilyn C.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Halophytic eudicots are characterized by enhanced growth under saline conditions. This study combines physiological and anatomical analyses to identify processes underlying growth responses of the mangrove Avicennia marina to salinities ranging from fresh- to seawater conditions.

  18. Survival, growth and reproduction of non-indigenous Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus 1758). I. Physiological capabilities in various temperatures and salinities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Peterson, Mark S.; Lowe, Michael R.; Brown-Peterson, Nancy J.; Slack, William T.

    2011-01-01

    The physiological tolerances of non-native fishes is an integral component of assessing potential invasive risk. Salinity and temperature are environmental variables that limit the spread of many non-native fishes. We hypothesised that combinations of temperature and salinity will interact to affect survival, growth, and reproduction of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, introduced into Mississippi, USA. Tilapia withstood acute transfer from fresh water up to a salinity of 20 and survived gradual transfer up to 60 at typical summertime (30°C) temperatures. However, cold temperature (14°C) reduced survival of fish in saline waters ≥10 and increased the incidence of disease in freshwater controls. Although fish were able to equilibrate to saline waters in warm temperatures, reproductive parameters were reduced at salinities ≥30. These integrated responses suggest that Nile tilapia can invade coastal areas beyond their point of introduction. However, successful invasion is subject to two caveats: (1) wintertime survival depends on finding thermal refugia, and (2) reproduction is hampered in regions where salinities are ≥30. These data are vital to predicting the invasion of non-native fishes into coastal watersheds. This is particularly important given the predicted changes in coastal landscapes due to global climate change and sea-level rise.

  19. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Skov, Jakob; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale......We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...

  20. Environmental factors affecting challenge success in vaccination studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chettri, J. K.; Skov, J.; Dalsgaard, Inger;

    2013-01-01

    and temperature on the protection recorded. Thus, challenge studies were conducted at two temperatures (12 and 19°C) and at two salinities (0 and 15 ppt). Mortalities following challenge were recorded and RPS calculated for each group. Side effects of the vaccines were evaluated by using the Speilberg scale......We have tested the efficacies of two different vaccines (a commercial versus an experimental vaccine – both being oil adjuvanted) for rainbow trout against furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida infections. However, when challenging fish with live bacteria in order to assess protection...... following vaccination, the administration of the pathogen is important for the outcome of the experiments. We have therefore also compared injection challenge with cohabitation challenge. In addition, when doing so we also investigated the influence of environmental conditions such as salinity...

  1. A porcine model of acute, haematogenous, localized osteomyelitis due to Staphylococcus aureus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Louise Kruse; Frees, Dorte; Aalbæk, Bent;

    2011-01-01

    A porcine model of acute, haematogenous, localized osteomyelitis was established. Serial dilutions of Staphylococcus aureus [5–50–500–5000–50 000 CFU/kg body weight (BW) suspended in saline or saline alone] were inoculated into the right brachial artery of pigs (BW 15 kg) separated into six groups...... developed microabscesses in bones of the infected legs. In the centre of microabscesses, S. aureus was regularly demonstrated together with necrotic neutrophils. Often, bone lesions resulted in trabecular osteonecrosis. The present localized model of acute haematogenous osteomyelitis revealed a pattern of...

  2. CHALLENGES IN BRONCHIAL CHALLENGE TESTING

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lexmond, A. J.; Hagedoorn, P.; Frijlink, H. W.; de Boer, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) bronchial challenge test, AMP is usually administered according to dosing protocols developed for histamine/methacholine. It has never been thoroughly investigated whether these protocols are suitable for AMP as well. Methods: The setup of the two-

  3. Mobility Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole B.; Lassen, Claus

    2011-01-01

    This article takes point of departure in the challenges to understand the importance of contemporary mobility. The approach advocated is a cross-disciplinary one drawing on sociology, geography, urban planning and design, and cultural studies. As such the perspective is to be seen as a part...... of the so-called ‘mobility turn’ within social science. The perspective is illustrative for the research efforts at the Centre for Mobility and Urban Studies (C-MUS), Aalborg University. The article presents the contours of a theoretical perspective meeting the challenges to research into contemporary urban...... mobilities. In particular the article discusses 1) the physical city, its infrastructures and technological hardware/software, 2) policies and planning strategies for urban mobility and 3) the lived everyday life in the city and the region....

  4. Sexually dimorphic effects of neonatal immune system activation with lipopolysaccharide on the behavioural response to a homotypic adult immune challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenk, Christine M; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2008-01-01

    Research has shown that acute immune activation during the early postnatal period with the Gram-negative endotoxin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), alters a variety of physiological and behavioural processes in the adult animal. For example, neonatal LPS exposure affects disease susceptibility later in life, though these effects appear to be modulated by time of exposure, sex, and immune stimulus. The current study examined sex differences in the effect of neonatal LPS treatment on the locomotor activity response to adult LPS administration. Male and female Long-Evans rats were treated systemically with either LPS (50 microg/kg) or saline (0.9%) on postnatal days 3 and 5. Later in adulthood (postnatal day 92), all animals were subjected to an adult LPS challenge and were injected (i.p.) with 200 microg/kg LPS. Two hours after injection, animals were placed in a non-novel open-field and locomotor activity was assessed for 30 min. Body weights were determined both at the time of injection and 24h later to examine LPS-induced weight loss. Adult males treated neonatally with LPS exhibited significantly less horizontal and vertical activity in response to the LPS challenge relative to males treated neonatally with saline. This effect was not observed in females. Thus, the current study provides important evidence of sexual dimorphism in the long-term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on the responses to an adult homotypic immune challenge in rats. These findings have potential clinical significance given that neonatal exposure to pathogens is a fairly common occurrence and Gram-negative bacteria are a common cause of neonatal bacterial infections.

  5. Amoebae and Legionella pneumophila in saline environments

    OpenAIRE

    Gast, Rebecca J.; Moran, Dawn M.; Dennett, Mark R.; Wurtsbaugh, Wayne A.; Amaral- Zettler, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Amoeboid protists that harbor bacterial pathogens are of significant interest as potential reservoirs of disease-causing organisms in the environment, but little is known about them in marine and other saline environments. We enriched amoeba cultures from sediments from four sites in the New England estuarine system of Mt. Hope Bay, Massachusetts and from sediments from six sites in the Great Salt Lake, Utah. Cultures of amoebae were enriched using both minimal- and non-nutrient agar plates, ...

  6. Chemical and isotopic constrains on the origin of brine and saline groundwater in Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Zongyu; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Zhenghong; Xu, Jiaming; Peng, Yurong

    2016-08-01

    The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine. The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen suggested that the origin of brine was from paleorecharge water which experienced mixing of modern water in shallow aquifer. δ(37)Cl values ranged from -0.02 to 3.43 ‰ (SMOC), and reflecting mixing of different sources. The Cl isotopic compositions suggest that the dissolution of halite by paleometeoric water had a great contribution to the salinity of brine, and the contributions of the residual seawater and the dissolution of halite by the Yellow River water could be excluded. PMID:27080408

  7. Chemical and isotopic constrains on the origin of brine and saline groundwater in Hetao plain, Inner Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Chen, Zongyu; Wang, Lijuan; Zhang, Yilong; Li, Zhenghong; Xu, Jiaming; Peng, Yurong

    2016-08-01

    The origin and evolution of brine and saline groundwater have always been a challenged work for geochemists and hydrogeologists. Chemical and isotopic data of brine and saline waters were used to trace the sources of salinity and therefore to understand the transport mechanisms of groundwater in Xishanzui, Inner Mongolia. Both Cl/Br (molar) versus Na/Br (molar) and Cl (meq/L) versus Na (meq/L) indicated that salinity was from halite dissolution or at least a significant impact by halite dissolution. The logarithmic plot of the concentration trends of Cl (mg/L) versus Br (mg/L) for the evaporation of seawater and the Qinghai Salt Lake showed that the terrestrial halite dissolution was the dominated contribution for the salinity of this brine. The stable isotope ratios of hydrogen and oxygen suggested that the origin of brine was from paleorecharge water which experienced mixing of modern water in shallow aquifer. δ(37)Cl values ranged from -0.02 to 3.43 ‰ (SMOC), and reflecting mixing of different sources. The Cl isotopic compositions suggest that the dissolution of halite by paleometeoric water had a great contribution to the salinity of brine, and the contributions of the residual seawater and the dissolution of halite by the Yellow River water could be excluded.

  8. Salinization mechanisms in semi-arid regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a period of three years the basins of the Pereira de Miranda and Caxitore dams, located in the crystalline rock area of Ceara, Brazil, were studied in order to determine the mechanisms of salinization of their waters. Isotope methods (18O/16O) and hidrochemistry (determination of the of the maior ions) were applied to surface, underground and rain water in this study. An isotope model was designed and applied to the determination of evaporation and percolation of dams in semi-arid zones during the dry season. The results are compared to those from a conventional chemical model. As causes of salinization of the water in the dams, the contributions of the rain itself and the lixiviation of the soil are quantified. An interaction between the dams and the underground water is imperceptible. The salinization of the underground water is attributed to recharge of the aquifer with rain water from the surface runoff followed by evaporation of the water rising, due to capilarity, in a one-directional flow to the surface. (Author)

  9. Deep roots of the Messinian salinity crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggen, Svend; Hoernle, Kaj; van den Bogaard, Paul; Rüpke, Lars; Morgan, Jason Phipps

    2003-04-10

    The Messinian salinity crisis--the desiccation of the Mediterranean Sea between 5.96 and 5.33 million years (Myr) ago--was one of the most dramatic events on Earth during the Cenozoic era. It resulted from the closure of marine gateways between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea, the causes of which remain enigmatic. Here we use the age and composition of volcanic rocks to reconstruct the geodynamic evolution of the westernmost Mediterranean from the Middle Miocene epoch to the Pleistocene epoch (about 12.1-0.65 Myr ago). Our data show that a marked shift in the geochemistry of mantle-derived volcanic rocks, reflecting a change from subduction-related to intraplate-type volcanism, occurred between 6.3 and 4.8 Myr ago, largely synchronous with the Messinian salinity crisis. Using a thermomechanical model, we show that westward roll back of subducted Tethys oceanic lithosphere and associated asthenospheric upwelling provides a plausible mechanism for producing the shift in magma chemistry and the necessary uplift (approximately 1 km) along the African and Iberian continental margins to close the Miocene marine gateways, thereby causing the Messinian salinity crisis. PMID:12686997

  10. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  11. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  12. Assessing and Treating the Patient with Acute Psychotic Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Lisa; Clough, Rebecca

    2016-06-01

    Patients with acute psychosis often present to emergency departments. Management of acute agitation and psychosis can be a challenge for the staff. Medical stabilization, appropriate assessment, and diagnosis are important. Verbal de-escalation and other psychosocial interventions are helpful in creating a safe and therapeutic environment. Psychiatric and emergency room nurses are poised to treat patients presenting with acute psychosis and must be knowledgeable of evidence-based approaches to treat these complex disorders. PMID:27229275

  13. Challenges of diagnosing acute HIV-1 subtype C infection in African women: performance of a clinical algorithm and the need for point-of-care nucleic-acid based testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleka Mlisana

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prompt diagnosis of acute HIV infection (AHI benefits the individual and provides opportunities for public health intervention. The aim of this study was to describe most common signs and symptoms of AHI, correlate these with early disease progression and develop a clinical algorithm to identify acute HIV cases in resource limited setting. METHODS: 245 South African women at high-risk of HIV-1 were assessed for AHI and received monthly HIV-1 antibody and RNA testing. Signs and symptoms at first HIV-positive visit were compared to HIV-negative visits. Logistic regression identified clinical predictors of AHI. A model-based score was assigned to each predictor to create a risk score for every woman. RESULTS: Twenty-eight women seroconverted after a total of 390 person-years of follow-up with an HIV incidence of 7.2/100 person-years (95%CI 4.5-9.8. Fifty-seven percent reported ≥1 sign or symptom at the AHI visit. Factors predictive of AHI included age <25 years (OR = 3.2; 1.4-7.1, rash (OR = 6.1; 2.4-15.4, sore throat (OR = 2.7; 1.0-7.6, weight loss (OR = 4.4; 1.5-13.4, genital ulcers (OR = 8.0; 1.6-39.5 and vaginal discharge (OR = 5.4; 1.6-18.4. A risk score of 2 correctly predicted AHI in 50.0% of cases. The number of signs and symptoms correlated with higher HIV-1 RNA at diagnosis (r = 0.63; p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Accurate recognition of signs and symptoms of AHI is critical for early diagnosis of HIV infection. Our algorithm may assist in risk-stratifying individuals for AHI, especially in resource-limited settings where there is no routine testing for AHI. Independent validation of the algorithm on another cohort is needed to assess its utility further. Point-of-care antigen or viral load technology is required, however, to detect asymptomatic, antibody negative cases enabling early interventions and prevention of transmission.

  14. Using Saline Water in Salt Affected Soils to Enhance Food Productivity and Farmer Incomes in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bangladesh is a deltaic country with a total area of 147,570 km2, agriculture accounting for a major sector of the national economy. The coastal regions that occupy about 20% of the country's land area are very fertile and are used primarily to grow rice. During the rice season from April to the harvest in August river water as well as monsoon rainwater, harvested in large ponds and natural depressions, is used to flood the rice. During the subsequent months of dry season the intrusion of tidal water from the coast causes the soil and water salinity to increase from around 1 ppt (parts of salt per thousand grams of soil or water) in August to 8 ppt or more in April. This natural salinization is a major threat to crop production, so that about 90% of these potentially arable lands remain unused during the dry season. Key challenges to increasing the cropping intensity of these fertile lands are to use the collected pond water, consisting during the dry season of a mixture of rainwater and saline ground- and tidal waters, for crop irrigation without aggravating the natural soil and groundwater salinity, and to identify crops that will thrive in these saline conditions. In order to meet these challenges, irrigation must be applied at the right time and in the optimal amount for each type of crop so as to minimise the use of groundwater that would otherwise cause a further ingress of saline seawater and a resultant increase in soil salinity. Through an IAEA technical cooperation project, the Bangladesh Institute of Nuclear Agriculture identified and assessed crop varieties for their tolerance to salinity and evaluated the use of water from ponds and natural depressions for drip irrigation during the fallow period from August to April at pilot sites in the Noakhali and Satkhira coastal regions. Saline-tolerant varieties of wheat, mung bean, mustard, sesame, chickpea, tomato and groundnuts were identified using the carbon isotope discrimination methodology and made

  15. Plasticity of the systemic inflammatory response to acute infection during critical illness: development of the riboleukogram.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan E McDunn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diagnosis of acute infection in the critically ill remains a challenge. We hypothesized that circulating leukocyte transcriptional profiles can be used to monitor the host response to and recovery from infection complicating critical illness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A translational research approach was employed. Fifteen mice underwent intratracheal injections of live P. aeruginosa, P. aeruginosa endotoxin, live S. pneumoniae, or normal saline. At 24 hours after injury, GeneChip microarray analysis of circulating buffy coat RNA identified 219 genes that distinguished between the pulmonary insults and differences in 7-day mortality. Similarly, buffy coat microarray expression profiles were generated from 27 mechanically ventilated patients every two days for up to three weeks. Significant heterogeneity of VAP microarray profiles was observed secondary to patient ethnicity, age, and gender, yet 85 genes were identified with consistent changes in abundance during the seven days bracketing the diagnosis of VAP. Principal components analysis of these 85 genes appeared to differentiate between the responses of subjects who did versus those who did not develop VAP, as defined by a general trajectory (riboleukogram for the onset and resolution of VAP. As patients recovered from critical illness complicated by acute infection, the riboleukograms converged, consistent with an immune attractor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we present the culmination of a mouse pneumonia study, demonstrating for the first time that disease trajectories derived from microarray expression profiles can be used to quantitatively track the clinical course of acute disease and identify a state of immune recovery. These data suggest that the onset of an infection-specific transcriptional program may precede the clinical diagnosis of pneumonia in patients. Moreover, riboleukograms may help explain variance in the host response due to differences in ethnic

  16. Why Is Saline So Acidic (and Does It Really Matter?)

    OpenAIRE

    Reddi, Benjamin AJ

    2013-01-01

    Commercial 0.9% saline solution for infusion has a pH around 5.5. There are many reasons for this acidity, some of them still obscure. It is also true that infusion of normal saline can lead to metabolic acidaemia, yet the link between the acidity of saline solution and the acidaemia it can engender is not straightforward. This commentary draws together the known and putative sources of acidity in saline solutions: it turns out that the acidity of saline solution is essentially unrelated to t...

  17. Effect of Initial Soluble Salt Composition of Saline Soil on Salinity Tolerance of Barley Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENQI-RONG; LIUZHAO-PU; 等

    1991-01-01

    A pot experiment was carried out on a marine saline soil to study the effect of initial soluble Na/Ca ratio of saline soil on the salinity tolerance of barley plant.The results showed that (1) the Na/Ca ratio affected significantly the dry weight of the plant at an earlier stage of growth,the critical values of initial Na/Ca ratio at which the plant could grow normally on soils containing salts of 2.5,3.5 and 4.5g kg-1 were 30,20 and 15,respectively;(2)smaller Na/Ca ratio resulted in a considerable decrease in Na accumulation but a great increase in K accumulation in the barley plant;and (3) the plasmallema of barley leaf were badly injured when the Na/Ca ratio was more than 30 and the increase of Na content of plant caused an exudation of K from the leaf cells.Some critical indexes were suggested for the cultivation of barley plant on marine saline soils and could be used as reference in the biological reclamation of marine saline soils.

  18. Effects of Decreasing Soil Water Content on Evaporation under Saline and Non-Saline Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Konukcu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Evaporation changes in mechanism and magnitude as the soil dries. Evaporation are closely related tothe soil moisture. Penman’s method is used most widely to define the upper boundary condition in computingevaporation from a relatively wet bare soil surface. It assumes saturated vapour pressure at the soil surfaceand calculates potential evaporation independent of the soil water content. It was modified by Staple (1974including in it the soil’s relative humidity of partially dried surface to predict evaporation from drying soils.The objective of this study was to investigate the rate of evaporation under aerodynamic (in door andaerodynamic + radiation (out door conditions for saline and non saline drying soil surface using Staplemodified Penman equation seeking for further improvements. Soil samples (clayey were first saturated withfresh and saline (16 dS/m water and then exposed to evaporation. Generally, the agreements betweensimulated and measured rates for out/indoor conditions were good (R2 = 0.90. However more deviationoccurred at the beginning and the final stage, attributable to the difference in soil surface and air temperature.While the model calculated roughly the same rates for saline and non-saline conditions, the effect of soiltexture is accounted by defining matric potential-water content and soil relative humidity-water contentrelationships.

  19. The effectiveness of dispersants under various temperature and salinity regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fingas, M.; Fieldhouse, B.; Wang, Z. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Science and Technology Div; Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2005-07-01

    A series of tests were conducted to determine the effectiveness of dispersants in Arctic waters where salinity and temperature interactions play a critical role. In particular, Corexit 9500 was tested on Alaska North Slope oil at different temperatures and salinity using the ASTM standard test and variations of this test. Results were compared to the only historically reported test in which both temperature and salinity were changed over a range of values. This series of tests demonstrated that there is an interaction between salinity, temperature and dispersant effectiveness. It was shown that conventional and currently available dispersants are nearly ineffective at 0 salinity. Dispersant effectiveness peaks at 20 to 40 units of salinity, depending on the type of dispersant. Corexit is less sensitive to salinity, while Corexit 9527 is more sensitive to salinity. There is a smooth gradient of effectiveness with salinity both as the salinity rises to a peak point of effectiveness and as it exceeds this value. Results from the 2 field trials in fresh water suggest that laboratory tests correctly conclude that the effectiveness of dispersants is very low in freshwater. The study also examined several analytical factors such as the total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) versus relative petroleum hydrocarbon (RPH) methods, specific versus general calibration curves, and automatic versus manual baseline placement. The analytical variations of effectiveness by RPH or TPH methods do not affect the fundamental relationship between salinity and temperature. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 8 figs.

  20. Refined Modeling of Water Temperature and Salinity in Coastal Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yongming; ZHENG Yonghong; QIU Dahong

    2000-01-01

    The prediction of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas is one of the essential tasks in water quality control and management. This paper takes a refined forecasting model of water temperature and salinity in coastal areas as a basic target. Based on the Navier-Stokes equation and k- turbulence model, taking the characteristics of coastal areas into account, a refined model for water temperatureand salinity in coastal areas has been developed to simulate the seasonal variations of water temperatureand salinity fields in the Hakata Bay, Japan. The model takes into account the effects of a variety ofhydrodynamic and meteorological factors on water temperature and salinity. It predicts daily fluctuations in water temperature and salinity at different depths throughout the year. The model has been calibrated well against the data set of historical water temperature and salinity observations in the Hakata Bay,Japan.

  1. Data Challenges

    CERN Multimedia

    McCubbin, N A

    Some two years ago we planned a series of Data Challenges starting at the end of 2001. At the time, that seemed to be comfortingly far in the future... Well, as the saying goes, doesn't time fly when you are having fun! ATLAS Computing is now deep in the throes of getting the first Data Challenge (DC0) up and running. One of the main aims of DC0 is to have a software 'release' in which we can generate full physics events, track all particles through the detector, simulate the detector response, reconstruct the event, and study it, with appropriate data storage en route. As all software is "always 95% ready" (!), we have been able to do most of this, more or less, for some time. But DC0 forces us to have everything working, together, at the same time: a reality check. DC0 should finish early next year, and it will be followed almost immediately afterwards by DC1 (DC0 was foreseen as the 'check' for DC1). DC1 will last into the middle of 2002, and has two major goals. The first is generation, simulation, and r...

  2. Durum wheat seedlings in saline conditions: Salt spray versus root-zone salinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanò, Carmelina; Bottega, Stefania

    2016-02-01

    Salinity is an increasingly serious problem with a strong negative impact on plant productivity. Though many studies have been made on salt stress induced by high NaCl concentrations in the root-zone, few data concern the response of plants to saline aerosol, one of the main constraints in coastal areas. In order to study more in depth wheat salinity tolerance and to evaluate damage and antioxidant response induced by various modes of salt application, seedlings of Triticum turgidum ssp. durum, cv. Cappelli were treated for 2 and 7 days with salt in the root-zone (0, 50 and 200 mM NaCl) or with salt spray (400 mM NaCl + 0 or 200 mM NaCl in the root-zone). Seedlings accumulated Na+ in their leaves and therefore part of their ability to tolerate high salinity seems to be due to Na+ leaf tissue tolerance. Durum wheat, confirmed as a partially tolerant plant, shows a higher damage under airborne salinity, when both an increase in TBA-reactive material (indicative of lipid peroxidation) and a decrease in root growth were recorded. A different antioxidant response was activated, depending on the type of salt supply. Salt treatment induced a depletion of the reducing power of both ascorbate and glutathione while the highest contents of proline were detected under salt spray conditions. In the short term catalase and ascorbate peroxidase co-operated with glutathione peroxidase in the scavenging of hydrogen peroxide, in particular in salt spray-treated plants. From our data, the durum wheat cultivar Cappelli seems to be sensitive to airborne salinity.

  3. Emodin enhances alveolar epithelial barrier function in rats with experimental acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of emodin on expression of claudin4, claudin5 and occludin, as well as the alveolar epithelial barrier in rats with pancreatitis induced by sodium taurocholate. METHODS: Experimental pancreatitis was induced by retrograde injection of 5% sodium taurocholate into the biliopancreatic duct. Emodin was injected via the external jugular vein 3 h after induction of acute pancreatitis. Rats from sham operation group and acute pancreatitis group were injected with normal saline (an eq...

  4. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of “chyle” occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative...

  5. Evolution of acute orthopaedic care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamczak, Christiaan N; Born, Christopher T; Obremskey, William T; Dromsky, David M

    2012-01-01

    Current combat battlefield injuries are among the most complex and challenging orthopaedic cases. These injuries carry high risks for exsanguination and global contamination of extensive soft-tissue and complicated bony injuries. Military orthopaedic surgeons must employ the latest advances in acute combat casualty care to achieve favorable outcomes. Adaptive changes over the past 10 years of war have given today's surgeons the armamentarium to optimize patient care. Innovative methods of damage control resuscitation and surgery have led to increased survival. However, the fundamentals of surgical hemostasis and decontamination remain critical to successful management. The acute treatment of combat casualties involves a continuum of care from the point of injury through transport out of theater. Future research and education are paramount to better prepare military orthopaedic surgeons to further increase survivability and enhance the outcomes of service members with complex wounds.

  6. Salinity trends in the Ebro River (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-Gonzalez, M.° Angeles; Isidoro, Daniel; Quilez, Dolores

    2016-04-01

    In the Ebro River Basin (Spain), the increase in water diversion for irrigation (following the increase in irrigated area) and the recovery of natural vegetation in the upper reaches, along with climate change have induced changes in the river flow and its associated salt loads. This study was supported by the Ebro River Basin Administration (CHE) and aimed to establish the trends in the salt concentrations and loads of the Ebro River at Tortosa (no 027, the extreme downstream gauging station). The CHE databases from 1972-73 to 2011-12, including mean monthly flows (Q) and concentration readings (electrical conductivity converted to total dissolved solids -TDS- by regression) from monthly grab samples, have been used. The trends were established by (i) harmonic regression analysis; (ii) linear regression by month; and (iii) the non-parametric Mann-Kendall method. Additionally, (iv) the regressions of TDS on Q in the current and previous months were established, allowing for analyzing separately the trends in TDS linked to- (TDSq) and independent of- (TDSaj) the observed changes in flow. In all cases, the trends were analyzed for different periods within the full span 1973-2012 (1973 to 2012, 1981 to 2012, 1990-2012 and 2001-2012), trying to account for periods with sensibly similar patterns of land use change. An increase in TDS was found for all the periods analyzed that was lower as shorter periods were used, suggesting that lower salinity changes might be taking place in the last years, possibly due to the reduction in the rate of irrigation development and to the on-going irrigation modernization process. The higher seasonal TDS increases were found in autumn and winter months and the increase in TDS was linked both to intrinsic changes in salinity (TDSaj) and to the observed decrease in flow (TDSq). On the other hand, the salt loads decreased, especially in autumn, as a result of the observed flow decrease. These results are based on the observed evolution of

  7. The interaction between tide and salinity barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchanok Srivihok

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Presently, there is a number of salinity barrier utilization and this kind of structure becomes more common in estuarine areas. However, the construction of barrier at the river mouth or inside the river results in amplification of tide due to creation of standing tide at the barrier. This standing tide creates two major problems, namely, the overspill of salinewater during high water and bank erosion during low water along the tidal reach downstream of the barrier. In this study, the analytical model is developed to determine the river hydraulic behaviors which affects by tide, river flow and barrier structure of the Bang Pakong River, Thailand. The analytical model of tide and river flow of the Chao Phraya River is adopted and adjusted to determine the tide characteristics modified by river flow. Moreover, the analytical model of tide and salinity barrier would then be developed by cooperating of the analytical model of tide and river flow interaction together with tidal flow cooscillating tide theory. It is found from this study that the analytical model of the Chao Phraya River which is suitable for high freshwater discharge underestimates damping modulus and friction slope which requires adjustment for low freshwater discharge of the Bang Pakong River. The analytical model of tide and salinity barrier can be finally used to predict the water level downstream of the barrier. The model overestimated the water level fluctuation during the unsteady flow from upstream which may be because of the assumption of steady flow condition in the model development due to limited data available after the construction.

  8. SPS Challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Chapochnikova, Elena

    2008-01-01

    In future the SPS should be able to transfer to the LHC the beam produced by a completely new pre-injector chain and required by the LHC for different upgrade scenarios. The issues related to this extremely challenging task are presented together with some possible ways of overcoming the problems that arise. Besides an increase in injection energy provided by PS2, these measures can include both an SPS vacuum chamber upgrade against the e-cloud and operation with larger longitudinal emittance for beam stability. As a result the power plant of the SPS RF system must be doubled. The SPS upgrade will also need the improvement or replacement of many other machine elements.

  9. Saline dust storms and their ecological impacts in arid regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jilili; Abuduwaili

    2010-01-01

    In many arid and semiarid regions,saline playas represent a significant source of unconsoli-dated sediments available for aeolian transport,and severe saline dust storms occur frequently due to human disturbance.In this study,saline dust storms are reviewed systematically from the aspects of con-cept,general characteristics,conditions of occurrence,distribution and ecological impact.Our researches showed that saline dust storms are a kind of chemical dust storm originating in dry lake beds in arid and semiarid regions;large areas of unconsolidated saline playa sediments and frequent strong winds are the basic factors to saline dust storm occurrence;there are differentiation characteristics in deposition flux and chemical composition with wind-blown distance during saline dust storm diffusion;and saline dust storm diffusion to some extent increases glacier melt and results in soil salinization in arid regions.An under-standing of saline dust storms is important to guide disaster prevention and ecological rehabilitation.

  10. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Jingran; Luo, Junyu; Zhao, Xinhua; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    Cotton (Gosspium hirsutum L.) is classified as a salt tolerant crop. However, its yield and fiber quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Studies on the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism under different soil salinity levels are lacking. Therefore, field experiments, using two cotton cultivars, CCRI-79 (salt-tolerant) and Simian 3 (salt-sensitive), were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at three different salinity levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil salinity], and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil salinity]). The objective was to elucidate the effects of soil salinity on sucrose content and the activity of key enzymes that are related to sucrose metabolism in cotton fiber. Results showed that as the soil salinity increased, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate declined; the decreases in cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by the increase in soil salinity were more in Simian 3 than those in CCRI-79. With increase in soil salinity, activities of sucrose metabolism enzymes sucrose phophate synthase (SPS), acidic invertase, and alkaline invertase were decreased, whereas sucrose synthase (SuSy) activity increased. However, the changes displayed in the SuSy and SPS activities in response to increase in soil salinity were different and the differences were large between the two cotton cultivars. These results illustrated that suppressed cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism under high soil salinity were mainly due to the change in SPS, SuSy, and invertase activities, and the difference in cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in fiber for the two cotton cultivars in response to soil salinity was determined mainly by both SuSy and SPS activities. PMID:27227773

  11. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Fiber.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    Full Text Available Cotton (Gosspium hirsutum L. is classified as a salt tolerant crop. However, its yield and fiber quality are negatively affected by soil salinity. Studies on the enzymatic differences in sucrose metabolism under different soil salinity levels are lacking. Therefore, field experiments, using two cotton cultivars, CCRI-79 (salt-tolerant and Simian 3 (salt-sensitive, were conducted in 2013 and 2014 at three different salinity levels (1.15 dS m-1 [low soil salinity], 6.00 dS m-1 [medium soil salinity], and 11.46 dS m-1 [high soil salinity]. The objective was to elucidate the effects of soil salinity on sucrose content and the activity of key enzymes that are related to sucrose metabolism in cotton fiber. Results showed that as the soil salinity increased, cellulose content, sucrose content, and sucrose transformation rate declined; the decreases in cellulose content and sucrose transformation rate caused by the increase in soil salinity were more in Simian 3 than those in CCRI-79. With increase in soil salinity, activities of sucrose metabolism enzymes sucrose phophate synthase (SPS, acidic invertase, and alkaline invertase were decreased, whereas sucrose synthase (SuSy activity increased. However, the changes displayed in the SuSy and SPS activities in response to increase in soil salinity were different and the differences were large between the two cotton cultivars. These results illustrated that suppressed cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism under high soil salinity were mainly due to the change in SPS, SuSy, and invertase activities, and the difference in cellulose synthesis and sucrose metabolism in fiber for the two cotton cultivars in response to soil salinity was determined mainly by both SuSy and SPS activities.

  12. Clinical challenges in mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goligher, Ewan C; Ferguson, Niall D; Brochard, Laurent J

    2016-04-30

    Mechanical ventilation supports gas exchange and alleviates the work of breathing when the respiratory muscles are overwhelmed by an acute pulmonary or systemic insult. Although mechanical ventilation is not generally considered a treatment for acute respiratory failure per se, ventilator management warrants close attention because inappropriate ventilation can result in injury to the lungs or respiratory muscles and worsen morbidity and mortality. Key clinical challenges include averting intubation in patients with respiratory failure with non-invasive techniques for respiratory support; delivering lung-protective ventilation to prevent ventilator-induced lung injury; maintaining adequate gas exchange in severely hypoxaemic patients; avoiding the development of ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction; and diagnosing and treating the many pathophysiological mechanisms that impair liberation from mechanical ventilation. Personalisation of mechanical ventilation based on individual physiological characteristics and responses to therapy can further improve outcomes. PMID:27203509

  13. Pentoxifylline Treatment in Acute Pancreatitis (AP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-14

    Acute Pancreatitis (AP); Gallstone Pancreatitis; Alcoholic Pancreatitis; Post-ERCP/Post-procedural Pancreatitis; Trauma Acute Pancreatitis; Hypertriglyceridemia Acute Pancreatitis; Idiopathic (Unknown) Acute Pancreatitis; Medication Induced Acute Pancreatitis; Cancer Acute Pancreatitis; Miscellaneous (i.e. Acute on Chronic Pancreatitis)

  14. Effect of Two Halophyte Plants Irrigated with Saline Water on Soil Salinization under Different Soil Type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A lysimeter experiment was conducted to evaluate the impact of saline water irrigation at three levels namely, fresh water (0.3), 4 and 8 dS/m on salt accumulation and its effect on different soil types. The tested halophyte plants were Kallar grass and Atriplex (Salt bush). The tested soil types were sandy, calcareous and clayey soils. Irrigating the soil with saline water (either 4 or 8 dS/m) resulted in increasing salinity levels in soil profile with different orders of magnitude, depending on the soil type layer and the cultivated plant. Kallar grass seems limit the accumulation of salts in soil profile, compared to Atriplex at any tested soil. This may be attributed to its root effect on soil profile such as dispersed soil matrix and improved soil structure, which provide channels for solute movement through the profile under halophyte cultivation. Calculating the SAR average values for each irrigation treatment (18 values) showed significant increase in soil SAR values, especially under Kallar grass compared to Atriplex. The highest SAR values were observed in the case of clayey soil. However, the relevant SAR values under Atriplex cultivation were always lower. Values for SAR were always higher in the saline clayey > calcareous > sandy soils

  15. Flotation of hard coal in saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mlynarczykowska Anna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With the use of saline process water, the ash content in the concentrate was 6% and in the tailings 70%. Of course the upgrading plants which apply flotation for coal slurries still use mine water in technological processes. The water quality, particularly the content and type of salts in water, fundamentally influences the surface properties of the solid, gaseous and liquid phases, which remain in contact during the process. The properties of these phases and interactions between them determine the probability of occurrence of elementary flotation actions that is collision, adhesion and separation, and ultimately the upgrading process effectiveness expressed by technological parameters. The paper presents the results of flotation effectiveness analysis for coal as a model raw material. The object of evaluation was qualitative parameters of the upgrading process products on the basis of flotation tests conducted for variable pulp salinity. The principal goal was to determine the impact of process water quality on the course and the effectiveness of flotation.

  16. The Design of Future Pediatric Mechanical Ventilation Trials for Acute Lung Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Robinder G Khemani; Newth, Christopher J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Pediatric practitioners face unique challenges when attempting to translate or adapt adult-derived evidence regarding ventilation practices for acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome into pediatric practice. Fortunately or unfortunately, there appears to be selective adoption of adult practices for pediatric mechanical ventilation, many of which pose considerable challenges or uncertainty when translated to pediatrics. These differences, combined with heterogeneous managemen...

  17. Salinity dominance on the Indian Ocean Eastern Gyral current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Viviane V.; Phillips, Helen E.; Schiller, Andreas; Domingues, Catia M.; Bindoff, Nathaniel L.

    2013-11-01

    This study demonstrates the importance of salinity gradients to the formation of the Eastern Gyral Current (EGC) in the South Indian Ocean. The EGC flows eastward near 15∘S, opposite to the direction predicted by classical theories of wind-driven circulation and is a source of water for the Leeuwin Current. In the upper ocean, a strong salinity front exists between fresh water from the Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) in the South Equatorial Current (SEC) and salty subtropical waters. In that region, salinity overwhelms the temperature contribution to density gradients, generating eastward geostrophic shear and establishing the EGC. Without the salinity front the EGC cannot be maintained: If the salinity contribution is neglected in the calculation of geostrophic currents, the EGC vanishes. Our observational analysis associated with the fact that both Sverdrup and Ekman theories produce westward flows in the region strongly supports the idea that the EGC is a salinity-driven current.

  18. Influence of salinity on petroleum accommodation by dispersants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blondina, G.J. [California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Singer, M.M.; Lee, I.; Ouano, M.T.; Hodgins, M.; Tjeerdema, R.S. [California Univ., Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Sowby, M.L. [California Department of Fish and Game, Office of Spill Prevention and Response, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The effect of receiving water salinity on the effectiveness of two oil dispersants, Corexits 9527 and 9500, was investigated using a recently implemented modified version of the Swirling Flask efficacy test. The dispersants were tested with ten different oils, representing a wide range of physical-chemical properties. Test salinities ranged from 0 to 35 ppt, with temperature held constant at 15degC. Results showed Corexit 9500 to be generally more effective on most of the dispersible oils at most salinities, but performance of both products was significantly affected by salinity. Both dispersants performed best at salinities above 25 ppt, with Corexit 9500 maintaining its effectiveness over a fairly wide range of salinities. Correlations between dispersant effectiveness and various oil physical/chemical properties were highly variable. (Author)

  19. Salinity adaptation of the invasive New Zealand mud snail (Potamopyrgus antipodarum) in the Columbia River estuary (Pacific Northwest, USA): Physiological and molecular studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoy, Marshal; Boese, Bruce L.; Taylor, Louise; Reusser, Deborah; Rodriguez, Rusty

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine salinity stress tolerances of two populations of the invasive species New Zealand mud snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum, one population from a high salinity environment in the Columbia River estuary and the other from a fresh water lake. In 1996, New Zealand mud snails were discovered in the tidal reaches of the Columbia River estuary that is routinely exposed to salinity at near full seawater concentrations. In contrast, in their native habitat and throughout its spread in the western US, New Zealand mud snails are found only in fresh water ecosystems. Our aim was to determine whether the Columbia River snails have become salt water adapted. Using a modification of the standard amphipod sediment toxicity test, salinity tolerance was tested using a range of concentrations up to undiluted seawater, and the snails were sampled for mortality at daily time points. Our results show that the Columbia River snails were more tolerant of acute salinity stress with the LC50 values averaging 38 and 22 Practical Salinity Units for the Columbia River and freshwater snails, respectively. DNA sequence analysis and morphological comparisons of individuals representing each population indicate that they were all P. antipodarum. These results suggest that this species is salt water adaptable and in addition, this investigation helps elucidate the potential of this aquatic invasive organism to adapt to adverse environmental conditions.

  20. Assessment of the effect of local application of amifostine on acute radiation-induced oral mucositis in guinea pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chang Jiang; Wang, Sheng Zi; Wang, Shu Yi; Zhang, Yan Ping

    2014-01-01

    The aim of present study was to assess the radioprotective effects of the local application of amifostine to treat acute buccal mucositis in guinea pigs. A total of 32 guinea pigs were randomized into four groups: (Group A) topically administered 50 mg of amifostine plus radiotherapy (RT); (Group B) 100 mg amifostine plus RT; (Group C) normal saline plus RT; and (Group D) normal saline plus sham RT. The opportunity for administration was 15 min before irradiation. When administered, the cotto...

  1. Acute Pancreatitis in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a feeding tube or an IV to prevent malnutrition and improve healing. Does my child have to ... intestines. Can my child die from acute pancreatitis? Death from acute pancreatitis is quite rare in children– ...

  2. Scrapheap Challenge

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Three British guys at CERN recently took a break from work to try their hand at Scrapheap Challenge. Shown on Channel 4 in the UK, it is a show where two teams must construct a machine for a specific task using only the junk they can scavenge from the scrap yard around them. And they have just 10 hours to build their contraption before it is put to the test. The first round, aired 19 September, pitted a team of three women, from the British Army's Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers, against the CERN guys - the Up 'n Atoms: Ali Day, David McFarlane and James Ridewood. Each team, with the help of an appointed expert, had the task of making a giant, 3-metre self-propelled "bowling ball", to roll down a 50 metre bowling alley at skittles 4 metres high. The Up 'n Atoms' contraption featured a small car with a huge wheel on its back. Once up to speed, slamming on the brakes caused the wheel to roll over and take the car with it. On their very last run they managed to take out seven pins. Luckily, though, ...

  3. Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung Disease Lookup > Acute Bronchitis Diagnosing and Treating Acute Bronchitis It is important to get your questions about ... Symptoms that last a few weeks How Is Acute Bronchitis Diagnosed? Healthcare providers diagnose acute bronchitis by asking ...

  4. Population specific salinity tolerance in eelgrass (Zostera marina)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salo, Tiina Elina; Pedersen, Morten Foldager; Boström, Christoffer

    2014-01-01

    Salinity is one of the main factors impacting distribution of marine plants and sub-optimal salinities may result in increased resource use and decreased production.We studied the performance and salinity tolerance of eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) originating from two regions with different ambient...... can severely impact seagrass productivity but responses might vary significantly depending on plant origin. Such variability in stress tolerance indicates that some populations have better chances to survive in and adapt to future changes in environment....

  5. Acute hypothalamic administration of L-arginine increases feed intake in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Ricardo Maneck Malfatti; Luiz Augusto da Silva; Ricardo Aparecido Pereira; Renan Garcia Michel; André Luiz Snak; Fabio Seidel dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the chronic (oral) and acute (hypothalamic infusion) effects of L-arginine supplementation on feed intake, body composition, and behavioral changes in rats. Methods: Twenty rats were divided into two groups treated orally for 60 days; one group received L-arginine (1 g/kg body weight) and one group received saline (1 mL/NaCl ...

  6. High-resolution and compact refractometer for salinity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new compact optical refractometer is presented to improve the measurement of the refractive index of seawater. These measurements are useful in oceanography to calculate density and salinity of oceans from empirical relations. This refractometer shows a lower temperature dependence and obtains a better absolute accuracy on salinity compared to the conductivity sensors which are used nowadays to assess seawater salinity. Tests and calibrations have been made in a temperature-stabilized seawater tank. They show that the prototype is capable of measuring seawater refractive index with a resolution of about ±4 × 10−7, equivalent to a salinity resolution of ±2 × 10−3 g kg−1

  7. Differential Expression of Salinity Resistance Gene on Cotton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YE Wu-wei; YU Shu-xun

    2008-01-01

    @@ Salinity resistance and differential gene expression associated with salinity in cotton germplasm were studied,because of the large scale area of salinity in China,and its significant negative effects on the cotton production.The salinityresisted genes and their differential expression were studied under the stress of NaCI on cotton.There were found,under the NaCI stress,1644 genes differentially expressed from the salinity-sensitive cotton and only 817 genes differentially expressed from the salinityresisted cotton.

  8. Metformin induced acute pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H.

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis frequently presents with abdomen pain but may presents with various skin manifestations as rash and rarely, pancreatic panniculitis. Metformin, one of the most effective and valuable oral hypoglycemic agents in the biguanide class was linked to acute pancreatitis in few cases. Here, we report a case of metformin induce acute pancreatitis in young healthy man with normal renal function.

  9. Acute mastoiditis in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anthonsen, Kristian; Høstmark, Karianne; Hansen, Søren;

    2013-01-01

    Conservative treatment of acute otitis media may lead to more complications. This study evaluates changes in incidence, the clinical and microbiological findings, the complications and the outcome of acute mastoiditis in children in a country employing conservative guidelines in treating acute...... otitis media....

  10. Recurrent acute renal failure

    OpenAIRE

    Satish, S.; Rajesh, R.; Kurian, G.; Seethalekshmi, N. V.; Unni, M.; Unni, V. N.

    2010-01-01

    While acute renal failure secondary to intravascular hemolysis is well described in hemolytic anemias, recurrent acute renal failure as the presenting manifestation of a hemolytic anemia is rare. We report a patient with recurrent acute renal failure who was found to have paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), on evaluation.

  11. Energetic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Connecting the 2 billion people who have no access to commercial energy is the most important energy challenge facing the world community. Women and children, primarily in developing countries, spend their days collecting wood or cow dung for fuel for cooking and heating their homes in very inefficient stoves: this both harms the environment and directly threatens the health of their families. Outmoded boilers linked to central heating systems in most of the cities of Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union pose another challenge. They are inefficient; they lack modern pollution control; and the end use of the heat is not metered, leading to more inefficiency and waste. Both of these problems cry out to the world for investment. Investing in energy solutions in these countries can bring about significant and immediate local environmental improvements, achieve greatly improved energy efficiency, and substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. But, energy and environmental policy tends to direct investment towards industrial countries, even though it would have a greater impact on the environment - not to mention the human condition in general - in the developing countries and transition economies. We need a new direction in energy policy. The World Energy Council has studied the needs and we believe a number of our proposed policy recommendations would lead towards greater investment in the countries where it is most needed. The political risk of key energy project investments must be addressed both by the countries seeking outside investment and by the global community at large. The countries must create an investor-friendly climate, which includes the rule of law and recognizes private property rights. The global community can contribute by developing new political risk insurance schemes rewarding the countries that create this climate. Energy must be priced to cover costs and ensure payment. In too many countries, blanket subsidies for energy

  12. Sensory findings after stimulation of the thoracolumbar fascia with hypertonic saline suggest its contribution to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Andreas; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Magerl, Walter; Benrath, Justus; Klein, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-02-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline into deep tissues of the back (subcutis, muscle, or the surrounding fascia) can induce acute low back pain (LBP). So far, no study has analyzed differences in temporal, qualitative, and spatial pain characteristics originating from these tissues. The current study aimed to investigate the role of the thoracolumbar fascia as a potential source of LBP. In separate sessions, 12 healthy subjects received ultrasound-guided bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.9%) or hypertonic saline (5.8%) into the erector spinae muscle, the thoracolumbar fascia (posterior layer), and the overlying subcutis. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity, duration, quality, and spatial extent. Pressure pain thresholds were determined pre and post injection. Injections of hypertonic saline into the fascia resulted in significantly larger area under the curve of pain intensity over time than injections into subcutis (Pfascia or subcutis. Pain radiation and pain affect evoked by fascia injection exceeded those of the muscle (Pfascia injection (burning, throbbing, and stinging) suggested innervation by both A- and C-fiber nociceptors. These findings show that the thoracolumbar fascia is the deep tissue of the back that is most sensitive to chemical stimulation, making it a prime candidate to contribute to nonspecific LBP but not to localized pressure hyperalgesia.

  13. Regulatory challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for the

  14. Regulatory challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Austvik, Ole Gunnar

    2003-07-01

    The problem for policy makers wanting to liberalize natural gas markets is that its concentrated structure may also be the socially most efficient one. Because of scale economies, more firms operating in the market may incur higher transportation costs unless the market grows sufficiently in each geographic segment. This argument goes for product extension through vertical (or horizontal) integration and the exploitation of economies of scope as well. Thus, the challenge for governments is to intervene in a way that preserves a market structure that has the potential to minimize cost, and at the same lime change its behavior in order to avoid possible lax cost control and exploitation of market power. The existence of scope advantages indicates that liberalization of the market should open for the possibility to bundle services in competition with provision of unbundled services. If operations are unbundled and there exist economies of scope, the gain from increased competition should be weighed against the losses of less efficient operations of each firm. Thus, with the growth in the European market, gradually more arguments support the idea of unbundling. The significant scale economy in trunk pipelines, sunk investments and capital immobility, possible economies of scope in vertical integration and companies' bundling of services influences vertical and horizontal ownership relations and contractual terms in the European gas market. In specific segments of the markets, these relationships may promote efficient investments and pricing without public interference, but the strong concentration of market power indicates that this is rather the exception than the rule. In order to design an efficient and welfare maximizing way of regulating the market one needs a closer identification of the actual goal of the regulation. Microeconomic theory is often used for this purpose. The author discusses the alternatives of laissez-faire, nationalization or regulation for

  15. Salinity tolerance of cultured Eurasian perch, Perca fluviatilis L.: Effects on growth and on survival as a function of temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overton, Julia Lynne; Bayley, M.; Paulsen, Helge;

    2008-01-01

    Eurasian perch is generally only considered to be a candidate for freshwater aquaculture even though wild populations are found in estuarine and brackish water habitats. Little knowledge exists on two issues a) the effect of temperature on the salinity tolerance of perch and b) the long-term effe......Eurasian perch is generally only considered to be a candidate for freshwater aquaculture even though wild populations are found in estuarine and brackish water habitats. Little knowledge exists on two issues a) the effect of temperature on the salinity tolerance of perch and b) the long......-term effects of brackish water on their overall growth performance. The present study addresses these two questions. Firstly, the effect of temperature (12, 15, 20 and 25°C) on perch survival of a salinity challenge at either 13 or 18‰ was determined. Survival was unaffected by 13‰ at the two lowest...... temperatures whereas higher temperature and higher salinities had a dramatic detrimental effect (at 25°C, 50% mortality was reach at 62h and 39h for 13‰ and 18‰, respectively). Secondly, we examined the effect of salinity on growth, which was assessed by measuring standard length and body weight at regular...

  16. Differences in salinity tolerance and gene expression between two populations of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in response to salinity stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Foged; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Meier, Kristian;

    2012-01-01

    in salinity tolerance and gene expression among Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) from two populations distributed across a steep salinity gradient, we observed high mortality (45% North Sea cod and 80% Baltic Sea cod) in a reciprocal common garden setup. Quantitative RT-PCR assays for expression of hsp70 and Na....... The findings strongly suggest that Atlantic cod are adapted to local saline conditions, despite relatively low levels of neutral genetic divergence between populations...

  17. Danaparoid sodium prevents cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagiwara, Satoshi; Iwasaka, Hideo; Uchida, Tomohisa; Hasegawa, Akira; Asai, Nobuhiko; Noguchi, Takayuki

    2009-07-01

    Systemic inflammatory mediators, including the protein high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), play an important role in the development of acute pancreatitis. Anticoagulants such as danaparoid sodium (DA) may be able to inhibit sepsis-induced inflammation, but the mechanism of action is not well understood. We hypothesized that DA would act as an inhibitor of inflammation and prevent cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. Male Wistar rats were used as subjects in this study. Each received a bolus of 50 U/kg of DA or saline-injected into the tail vein, followed by 4 injections of 50 mg/kg cerulean (i.p.) at 1-h intervals. Cytokine (IL-6), NO, and HMGB1 levels in serum and pancreatic tissue were measured after the cerulein injection. Pancreas histopathology and wet-dry ratio significantly improved in the DA-injected (50 U/kg) animals compared with saline-injected rats. Serum and pancreatic HMGB1 levels decreased over time in DA-treated animals. Danaparoid sodium also decreased cytokine, NO, and HMGB1 levels during cerulein-induced inflammation. As a result, DA ameliorated pancreas pathology in the rat model of cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. This study demonstrates that DA treatment prevents cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis in a rat model. This effect may be mediated through inhibition of cytokines, NO, and HMGB1. PMID:18948846

  18. Laparoscopic management of acute appendicitis in situs inversus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golash Vishwanath

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Situs inversus is often detected incidentally in adults during imaging for a acute surgical emergency. We present a case of acute appendicitis in an adult who was previously unaware about his situs anomaly. A laparoscopic approach is helpful to deal with this condition. A 40 year old man was admitted with history of acute left lower abdominal pain, with uncontrolled diabetic keto-acidosis. Clinically, he was diagnosed as acute diverticulitis with localized peritonitis. Subsequent imaging studies and laparoscopy confirmed the diagnosis of situs inversus and acute left- sided appendicitis. He successfully underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Although technically more challenging because of the reverse laparoscopic view of the anatomy, the laparoscopic diagnosis and management of acute appendicitis is indicated in situs inversus.

  19. Diagnostic evaluation of acute pancreatitis in two patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yoshifumi Okura; Kozo Hayashi; Tetsuji Shingu; Goro Kajiyama; Yoshiyuki Nakashima; Keijiro Saku

    2004-01-01

    We present two diagnostically challenging cases of acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia accompanied with chylomicronemia caused with a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase and with the presence of type V hyperlipidemia.Both cases suffered from acute abdomen following the ingestion of fatty food and revealed the increase in parameters of inflammation without significant elevation of serum amylase levels. The imaging examination of ultrasonography could not detect significant findings of acute pancreatitis and a computer tomography scan eventually confirmed the findings of acute pancreatitis. Both cases responded to a low fat diet and administration of a cholecystokinin receptor antagonist, exhibiting a relief of abdominal symptoms. As in the present cases with acute abdomen following the ingestion of fatty food, the identification of serum hypertriglyceridemia and an abdominal computer tomography scan might be useful in establishing the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis and in developing the therapeutic regimen, when hypertriglyceridemia interferes with the evaluation of pancreatic enzyme activities and ultrasound examination provides poor pancreatic visualization.

  20. Gulf-Wide Information System, Environmental Sensitivity Index Salinity, Geographic NAD83, LDWF (2001) [esi_salinity_LDWF_2001

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This data set contains Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) salinity data of coastal Louisiana. The ESI is a classification and ranking system, which characterizes...

  1. Imaging of Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoeni, Ruedi F

    2015-11-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammation of the pancreas. Several classification systems have been used in the past but were considered unsatisfactory. A revised Atlanta classification of acute pancreatitis was published that assessed the clinical course and severity of disease; divided acute pancreatitis into interstitial edematous pancreatitis and necrotizing pancreatitis; discerned an early phase (first week) from a late phase (after the first week); and focused on systemic inflammatory response syndrome and organ failure. This article focuses on the revised classification of acute pancreatitis, with emphasis on imaging features, particularly on newly-termed fluid collections and implications for the radiologist.

  2. Management Of Acute Migraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehndiratta M

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacotherapy for migraine involves treatment for the acute attack as well as using long-term prophylaxis in order to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks. Based on severity, there are a number of drugs available to treat the acute attacks. For mild to moderate attacks, analgesics, NSAIDs and Ergotamine are effective but severe attacks may need Dihydroergotamine (DHE or a triptan. Sumatriptan and the second generation triptans have revolutionized the acute treatment of migraine. Early and appropriate treatment holds the key to successful therapy of the acute attack. This article discusses the various acute treatment options available.

  3. Adaptation of teleosts to very high salinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverty, Gary; Skadhauge, Erik

    2012-01-01

    A number of species of euryhaline teleosts have the remarkable ability to adapt and survive in environments of extreme salinity, up to two or even three times the osmolality of seawater. This review looks at some of the literature describing the adaptive changes that occur, primarily...... with intestinal water absorption and with the properties of the gill epithelium. While there is much that is still not completely understood, recent work has begun to look at these adaptations at the cellular and molecular level. As with seawater osmoregulation, fish adapting to hypersaline conditions generally...... in several species. Adaptive changes in the gill epithelium are also critical in this process, allowing for secretion of absorbed NaCl from the extracellular fluids. Most notably there are important changes in the numbers and size of mitochondrion-rich (MR) cells, the sites of active secretion of Cl...

  4. Paratethys forcing of the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krijgsman, Wout; Van Baak, Christiaan; Flecker, Rachel; Grothe, Arjen; Marzocchi, Alice; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis (5.97-5.33 Ma), there is increasing evidence for the presence of fresh water input, not only during the final Lago-mare stage but even during times of evaporite formation. Here we present new strontium isotopic data from two well-dated Messinian sections in the Black and Caspian seas, which show remarkably similar Sr-values as the ones recorded in the Mediterranean during the final phase of the salinity crisis. This strongly suggests that a major fresh water pulse in the Mediterranean originated from the Paratethys. It highlights the importance of a Mediterranean-Black Sea connection during the entire MSC, adding an enormous drainage basin to the Mediterranean water balance. The presence of Paratethyan fauna in the Mediterranean Lago-Mare deposits has fuelled long-lasting controversies over the connectivity between the Mediterranean and Paratethys and contemporary sea level drops in both basins. We furthermore use results of sub-precessional climate simulations to calculate the freshwater budget of the Mediterranean and Paratethys in the Messinian. Using these numerical constraints, we propose a Mediterranean outflow pump as an alternative scenario for the most dramatic hydrological changes in the MSC. This "pump" mechanism significantly enhanced Paratethyan inflow to the Mediterranean, creating 1) suitable conditions for gypsum to form and 2) Lago-mare fauna to migrate and thrive. When the Mediterranean sea level finally reached the height of the Gibraltar sill, Mediterranean outflow restarted there and enhanced exchange with the Atlantic. During this reorganisation of the circulation, brackish and hypersaline waters were pumped out of the Mediterranean, and open marine conditions were re-established without major flooding at the Mio-Pliocene boundary.

  5. Desalination and reuse of high-salinity shale gas produced water: drivers, technologies, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Devin L; Arias Chavez, Laura H; Ben-Sasson, Moshe; Romero-Vargas Castrillón, Santiago; Yip, Ngai Yin; Elimelech, Menachem

    2013-09-01

    In the rapidly developing shale gas industry, managing produced water is a major challenge for maintaining the profitability of shale gas extraction while protecting public health and the environment. We review the current state of practice for produced water management across the United States and discuss the interrelated regulatory, infrastructure, and economic drivers for produced water reuse. Within this framework, we examine the Marcellus shale play, a region in the eastern United States where produced water is currently reused without desalination. In the Marcellus region, and in other shale plays worldwide with similar constraints, contraction of current reuse opportunities within the shale gas industry and growing restrictions on produced water disposal will provide strong incentives for produced water desalination for reuse outside the industry. The most challenging scenarios for the selection of desalination for reuse over other management strategies will be those involving high-salinity produced water, which must be desalinated with thermal separation processes. We explore desalination technologies for treatment of high-salinity shale gas produced water, and we critically review mechanical vapor compression (MVC), membrane distillation (MD), and forward osmosis (FO) as the technologies best suited for desalination of high-salinity produced water for reuse outside the shale gas industry. The advantages and challenges of applying MVC, MD, and FO technologies to produced water desalination are discussed, and directions for future research and development are identified. We find that desalination for reuse of produced water is technically feasible and can be economically relevant. However, because produced water management is primarily an economic decision, expanding desalination for reuse is dependent on process and material improvements to reduce capital and operating costs.

  6. Isolation of the combined water content and salinity effects on ERT measurement to locate the preferential flow pathways in water repellent soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindt, Naaran; Rahav, Matan; Furman, Alex; Wallach, Rony

    2016-04-01

    Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) has been used for measuring the dynamics of water flow in soils without disturbing the soil, and recently for identifying the preferential flow pathways that are reported to develop in water repellent soils. Since electrical resistivity is affected mainly by soil saturation and salinity, and given that in many cases salinity in the root zone reaches high values, the isolation of spatial and temporal distribution of water content or salinity in the root zone from ERT scans is a challenge. A model for transient variation of soil water content and salinity within a well-mixed soil unit was developed in the frame of this challenge. The model aims to isolate the temporal changes in water content from subsequent ERT scans. The model assumes that four stages of water dynamics occur in the root zone during an irrigation cycle: 1) Soil water content decreases by evapotranspiration - no irrigation, 2) Irrigation with saline water begins, water content increases but remains below field capacity - negligible drainage, 3) Irrigation continues and drainage starts as the water content becomes higher than field capacity, and 4) Irrigation stops, water content is higher than field capacity, and water content decreases by drainage and evapotranspiration. These four stages restart when drainage stops and water content decreases solely by evapotranspiration. The model was solved analytically and successfully applied to a series of sequential ERT scans accomplished during and between subsequent irrigation events for a soil that was rendered hydrophobic by olive trees irrigated with saline water, and a soil in a citrus orchard that was rendered hydrophobic by prolonged effluent irrigation. The suggested model helps in distinguishing between the temporal changes in water content and salinity within a given soil volume, locating the preferential plow pathways, and tracking the spatial and temporal salinity variation within the root zone during and

  7. Towards decadal soil salinity mapping using Landsat time series data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingwang; Weng, Yongling; Tao, Jinmei

    2016-10-01

    Salinization is one of the major soil problems around the world. However, decadal variation in soil salinization has not yet been extensively reported. This study exploited thirty years (1985-2015) of Landsat sensor data, including Landsat-4/5 TM (Thematic Mapper), Landsat-7 ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus) and Landsat-8 OLI (Operational Land Imager), for monitoring soil salinity of the Yellow River Delta, China. The data were initially corrected for atmospheric effects, and then matched the spectral bands of EO-1 (Earth Observing One) ALI (Advanced Land Imager). Subsequently, soil salinity maps were derived with a previously developed PLSR (Partial Least Square Regression) model. On intra-annual scale, the retrievals showed that soil salinity increased in February, stabilized in March, and decreased in April. On inter-annual scale, soil salinity decreased within 1985-2000 (-0.74 g kg-1/10a, p perspective for use of multiple Landsat data in soil salinity retrieval, and further the understanding of soil salinization development over the Yellow River Delta.

  8. Coumarin pretreatment alleviates salinity stress in wheat seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Ahmed Mahmoud; Madany, M M Y

    2015-03-01

    The potentiality of COU to improve plant tolerance to salinity was investigated. Wheat grains were primed with COU (50 ppm) and then grown under different levels of NaCl (50, 100, 150 mM) for two weeks. COU pretreatment improved the growth of wheat seedling under salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings, due to the accumulation of osmolytes such as soluble sugars and proline. Moreover, COU treatment significantly improved K(+)/Na(+) ratio in the shoots of both salt stressed and un-stressed seedlings. However, in the roots, this ratio increased only under non-salinity. In consistent with phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL), phenolics and flavonoids were accumulated in COU-pretreated seedlings under the higher doses of salinity, relative to COU-untreated seedlings. COU primed seedlings showed higher content of the coumarin derivative, scopoletin, and salicylic, chlorogenic, syringic, vanillic, gallic and ferulic acids, under both salinity and non-salinity conditions. Salinity stress significantly improved the activity of peroxidase (POD) in COU-pretreated seedlings. However, the effect of COU on the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was only obtained at the highest dose of NaCl (150 mM). The present results suggest that COU pretreatment could alleviate the adverse effect of salinity on the growth of wheat seedlings through enhancing, at least partly, the osmoregulation process and antioxidant defense system.

  9. Selection of phytoplankton species in culture by gradual salinity changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijstenbil, J. W.

    Continuous cultures of mixed phytoplankton populations were subjected to gradual salinity changes. The phytoplankton was exposed to defined regimes of high, low or fluctuating salinity, in artificial brackish media. In several experiments ammonium was the limiting nutrient. A rapid selection process was observed in natural phytoplankton assemblages. A gradual freshening caused the dominance of Chaetoceros mülleri at low salinity (S = 5). Skeletonema costatum became dominant at higher, constant or fluctuating salinities, accompanied by Ditylum brightwellii in low cell numbers. Ammonium limitation was not achieved in this experiment. Competition for ammonium was studied in a second experiment, using an inoculum of two species. At S = 18 D. brighwellii became the dominant species in this competition. A minor shift towards S = 15 reversed the affinities for ammonium, and S. costatum won the competition. At S = 8 S. costatum had the highest affinity for ammonium after a period of osmotic adjustment. Ammonium became limiting when salinities arrived at constant meso- or polyhaline levels. Both species were able to grow in fluctuating osmotic environments (S = 5 to 19). The growth of D. brightwellii decreased below S = 8 and after repeated variations of the salinity. These salinity fluctuations suppressed growth and ammonium uptake of both species, thus preventing ammonium limitation. These competition experiments indicate that unstable salinity may stimulate the mass development of S. costatum in brackish lakes.

  10. Assessment of soil salinization risks under irrigation with brackish water in semiarid Tunesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouksila, F.; Bahrib, A.; Berndtsson, R.; Persson, M.; Rozema, J.; Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.

    2013-01-01

    The salinity problem is becoming increasingly widespread in arid countries. In semiarid Tunisia about 50% of the irrigated land is considered as highly sensitive to salinization. To avoid the risk of salinization, it is important to control the soil salinity and keep it below plant salinity toleranc

  11. Variation in biochemical composition of Saccharina latissima and Laminaria digitata along an estuarine salinity gradient in inner Danish waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Møller; Manns, Dirk Martin; D'Este, Martina;

    2016-01-01

    , the highest protein content (7.5% of dry matter), and the highest capacity for bio-remediation of nitrogen (1.88% N of dry matter) at high salinities, as opposed to the highest concentrations of fermentable sugars (90% of dry matter) and pigments at low salinities. Thus, areas suitable for high biomass...... production are not necessarily optimal for producing a specific biomass quality such as high carbohydrate concentration for bioenergy conversion, and this challenges the cultivation practice. Furthermore, concentrations of arsenic in the biomass were generally higher (up to 88 ppm) than allowed for animal...... diet (40 ppm) and could therefore impose challenges for utilizing S. latissima and L. digitata as animal feed additives....

  12. Effect of prolonged saline-exposure on sodium transport across frog skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornby, R; Thomas, S

    1969-02-01

    1. Differences in Na transport between skins from Rana temporaria and R. esculenta maintained for up to several weeks in water or 0.7% saline (0.7 g NaCl in 100 ml. H(2)O), with and without daily injections of 4% saline (4 g NaCl in 100 ml. H(2)O), were measured, in vitro.2. In saline-treated skins, the following changes were found:(a) An increased Na content.(b) A consistent decrease in short-circuit current (I(sc)).(c) An increased d.c. resistance, R, the consistency of which varied with the anion content of the Ringer solution.(d) A highly significant fall in Na influx, accounting for the reduced I(sc); a small reduction in Na efflux was not significant, statistically.(e) The Pitressin-induced increment in I(sc) was usually considerably lower compared with that in water-exposed skins; considered relative to the pre-Pitressin values, however, there were no clear differences.(f) By calculation from the changes in resistance (R) caused by replacement of outer Na(2)SO(4) Ringer by K(2)SO(4) Ringer solution,I. E(0), the electromotive force of the active sodium transport system, was moderately, but significantly, reduced,II. R(shunt), the shunt path resistance, was moderately, but significantly, increased, andIII. R(ser), the series path resistance, was considerably, and highly significantly, increased.(g) K influx from outer K(2)SO(4) Ringer solution was reduced.3. Differences between skins from water-exposed and saline-treated frogs persisted, in vitro, despite the occurrence of anionic-dependent acute changes after mounting in Ringer solution.4. There were seasonal changes in I(sc), and in the effects of saline treatment.5. The findings are discussed in terms of decreased permeability of outer barriers to ion-diffusion, and reduced activity of a Na pump. PMID:5764403

  13. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  14. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J.; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes.

  15. Purification of High Salinity Brine by Multi-Stage Ion Concentration Polarization Desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bumjoo; Kwak, Rhokyun; Kwon, Hyukjin J; Pham, Van Sang; Kim, Minseok; Al-Anzi, Bader; Lim, Geunbae; Han, Jongyoon

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing need for the desalination of high concentration brine (>TDS 35,000 ppm) efficiently and economically, either for the treatment of produced water from shale gas/oil development, or minimizing the environmental impact of brine from existing desalination plants. Yet, reverse osmosis (RO), which is the most widely used for desalination currently, is not practical for brine desalination. This paper demonstrates technical and economic feasibility of ICP (Ion Concentration Polarization) electrical desalination for the high saline water treatment, by adopting multi-stage operation with better energy efficiency. Optimized multi-staging configurations, dependent on the brine salinity values, can be designed based on experimental and numerical analysis. Such an optimization aims at achieving not just the energy efficiency but also (membrane) area efficiency, lowering the true cost of brine treatment. ICP electrical desalination is shown here to treat brine salinity up to 100,000 ppm of Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) with flexible salt rejection rate up to 70% which is promising in a various application treating brine waste. We also demonstrate that ICP desalination has advantage of removing both salts and diverse suspended solids simultaneously, and less susceptibility to membrane fouling/scaling, which is a significant challenge in the membrane processes. PMID:27545955

  16. Betanodavirus ability to infect juvenile European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, at different water salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoli, F; Serra, M; Toson, M; Pretto, T; Toffan, A

    2016-09-01

    Viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER) is one of the most devastating and economically relevant diseases for marine aquaculture. The presence of betanodavirus in freshwater fish is recorded, but very little is known about VER outbreaks in marine species reared in freshwater. Our study investigated the ability of betanodavirus to cause disease in European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax, reared at different salinity levels. Fish were challenged with RGNNV or mock infected by bath at different salinity levels (freshwater, 25‰ and 33‰). Fish were checked twice a day and the dead ones were examined by standard virological techniques, by rRT-PCR and by histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses. All the infected groups showed a significant higher mortality rate than the one of the mock-infected group. VERv presence was confirmed by rRT-PCR. Histochemical and immunohistochemical analyses highlighted the typical lesions associated with VER. Our results highlight that salinity does not affect the ability of betanodavirus to induce clinical signs and mortality in European sea bass infected under experimental conditions. These results underline the great adaptation potential of VERv, which in combination with its already known high environmental resistance and broad host range, may explain the diffusion of this disease and the threat posed to aquaculture worldwide. PMID:26763095

  17. Hypertonic saline in treatment of pulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  18. Hypertonic Saline in Treatment of Pulmonary Disease in Cystic Fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emer P. Reeves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of lung disease in cystic fibrosis is characterised by decreased airway surface liquid volume and subsequent failure of normal mucociliary clearance. Mucus within the cystic fibrosis airways is enriched in negatively charged matrices composed of DNA released from colonizing bacteria or inflammatory cells, as well as F-actin and elevated concentrations of anionic glycosaminoglycans. Therapies acting against airway mucus in cystic fibrosis include aerosolized hypertonic saline. It has been shown that hypertonic saline possesses mucolytic properties and aids mucociliary clearance by restoring the liquid layer lining the airways. However, recent clinical and bench-top studies are beginning to broaden our view on the beneficial effects of hypertonic saline, which now extend to include anti-infective as well as anti-inflammatory properties. This review aims to discuss the described therapeutic benefits of hypertonic saline and specifically to identify novel models of hypertonic saline action independent of airway hydration.

  19. SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN CLUJ-NAPOCA SURROUNDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. CZELLECZ

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Saline waters are usually researched in those places where it is used for balneotherapy or other industrial purposes. The aim of this study is to describe the saline water sources from less known areas, as they are an important natural mineral water resource. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed from Cojocna-Pata-Sopor region, thirteen of them can be considered saline waters. The visited locations are 21, 15 and 3 km far from Cluj-Napoca. Highly concentrated springs are to be found in the old mine area from Pata village and in the slough from Cojocna. Beside the well known saline lakes from Cojocna, five other saline lakes were identified; most of them are having artificial origin.

  20. Desalination leading to Salinity Variations in Kuwait Marine Waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad E. Al-Dousari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statements: The salinity of seawater is a critical issue for desalination process. Approach: The salinity changes in the coastal waters of Kuwait due to large scale power and desalination activity were evaluated. Results: Systematic sampling campaigns were planned to cover the uptake and outfall of the desalination plant spreading evenly the sampling points to cover the freshwater input zone of Arabian Gulf in north. The salinity observations are critical both for the desalination process and for integrity of the marine environment, which is critical in case of Kuwait. Conclusion/Recommendations: The results showed compliance of Kuwait EPA salinity standard in the area with a difference of around 4 ppt salinity increase at outfall compared to uptake zone.

  1. Acute Toxicity and the Effect of Andrographolide on Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Hyperlipidemia in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Al Batran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on hyperlipidemia induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley (SD rats were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 (vehicle and four experimental groups (groups 2, 3, 4, and 5 were challenged orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.2 mL of bacterial cells/mL in 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS five times a week for one month to induce hyperlipidemia. Then, group 3 received a standard oral treatment with simvastatin 100 mg/kg, and groups 4 and 5 received oral treatment with andrographolide 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively, for another month. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG were reduced significantly in groups treated with andrographolide. The malondialdehyde (MDA level was low in treated groups, while antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx were significantly increased in these groups (. Liver tissues of the groups treated with andrographolide reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatic tissue cells. An acute toxicity test did not show any toxicological symptoms in rats.

  2. Acute toxicity and the effect of andrographolide on Porphyromonas gingivalis-induced hyperlipidemia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Abdulla, Mahmood A

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effect of andrographolide on hyperlipidemia induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis in rats. Thirty male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into five groups as follows: group 1 (vehicle) and four experimental groups (groups 2, 3, 4, and 5) were challenged orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277 (0.2 mL of 1.5 ×10(12) bacterial cells/mL in 2% carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)) five times a week for one month to induce hyperlipidemia. Then, group 3 received a standard oral treatment with simvastatin 100 mg/kg, and groups 4 and 5 received oral treatment with andrographolide 20 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, respectively, for another month. The results showed that total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) were reduced significantly in groups treated with andrographolide. The malondialdehyde (MDA) level was low in treated groups, while antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly increased in these groups (P < 0.05). Liver tissues of the groups treated with andrographolide reduce the accumulation of lipid droplets in hepatic tissue cells. An acute toxicity test did not show any toxicological symptoms in rats. PMID:23844365

  3. Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Ellen R

    2011-05-01

    Acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis are 2 of the most common indications for antimicrobial agents in children. Together, they are responsible for billions of dollars of health care expenditures. The pathogenesis of the 2 conditions is identical. In the majority of children with each condition, a preceding viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of the acute bacterial complication. It has been shown that viral upper respiratory tract infection predisposes to the development of acute otitis media in 37% of cases. Currently, precise microbiologic diagnosis of acute otitis media and acute bacterial sinusitis requires performance of tympanocentesis in the former and sinus aspiration in the latter. The identification of a virus from the nasopharynx in either case does not obviate the need for antimicrobial therapy. Furthermore, nasal and nasopharyngeal swabs are not useful in predicting the results of culture of the middle ear or paranasal sinus. However, it is possible that a combination of information regarding nasopharyngeal colonization with bacteria and infection with specific viruses may inform treatment decisions in the future.

  4. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Georgios K Georgiou; Haralampos Harissis; Michalis Mitsis; Haralampos Batsis; Michalis Fatouros

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse.The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy,trauma or surgery,and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention.However,when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly,the patient may present with signs of peritonitis.Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation,appendicitis or visceral ischemia.Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported.Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis.This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis,and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis.The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer,since,due to hypertriglyceridemia,serum amylase values appeared within the normal range.Moreover,abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis.Following abdominal lavage and drainage,the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  5. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide.

  6. Acute pancreatitis in acute viral hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the frequency and characteristics of pancreatic involvement in the course of acute (nonfulminant) viral hepatitis.METHODS: We prospectively assessed the pancreatic involvement in patients with acute viral hepatitis who presented with severe abdomimanl pain.RESULTS: We studied 124 patients with acute viral hepatitis, of whom 24 presented with severe abdominal pain. Seven patients (5.65%) were diagnosed to have acute pancreatitis. All were young males. Five patients had pancreatitis in the first week and two in the fourth week after the onset of jaundice. The pancreatitis was mild and all had uneventful recovery from both pancreatitis and hepatitis on conservative treatment.The etiology of pancreatitis was hepatitis E virus in 4,hepatitis A virus in 2, and hepatitis B virus in 1 patient.One patient had biliary sludge along with HEV infection.The abdominal pain of remaining seventeen patients was attributed to stretching of Glisson's capsule.CONCLUSION: Acute pancreatitis occurs in 5.65% of patients with acute viral hepatitis, it is mild and recovers with conservative management.

  7. Acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Georgios K; Harissis, Haralampos; Mitsis, Michalis; Batsis, Haralampos; Fatouros, Michalis

    2012-04-28

    We report a case of acute chylous ascites formation presenting as peritonitis (acute chylous peritonitis) in a patient suffering from acute pancreatitis due to hypertriglyceridemia and alcohol abuse. The development of chylous ascites is usually a chronic process mostly involving malignancy, trauma or surgery, and symptoms arise as a result of progressive abdominal distention. However, when accumulation of "chyle" occurs rapidly, the patient may present with signs of peritonitis. Preoperative diagnosis is difficult since the clinical picture usually suggests hollow organ perforation, appendicitis or visceral ischemia. Less than 100 cases of acute chylous peritonitis have been reported. Pancreatitis is a rare cause of chyloperitoneum and in almost all of the cases chylous ascites is discovered some days (or even weeks) after the onset of symptoms of pancreatitis. This is the second case in the literature where the patient presented with acute chylous peritonitis due to acute pancreatitis, and the presence of chyle within the abdominal cavity was discovered simultaneously with the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatitis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy for suspected perforated duodenal ulcer, since, due to hypertriglyceridemia, serum amylase values appeared within the normal range. Moreover, abdominal computed tomography imaging was not diagnostic for pancreatitis. Following abdominal lavage and drainage, the patient was successfully treated with total parenteral nutrition and octreotide. PMID:22563182

  8. Genetic variation and plasticity of Plantago coronopus under saline conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smekens, Marret J.; van Tienderen, Peter H.

    2001-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity may allow organisms to cope with variation in the environmental conditions they encounter in their natural habitats. Salt adaptation appears to be an excellent example of such a plastic response. Many plant species accumulate organic solutes in response to saline conditions. Comparative and molecular studies suggest that this is an adaptation to osmotic stress. However, evidence relating the physiological responses to fitness parameters is rare and requires assessing the potential costs and benefits of plasticity. We studied the response of thirty families derived from plants collected in three populations of Plantago coronopus in a greenhouse experiment under saline and non-saline conditions. We indeed found a positive selection gradient for the sorbitol percentage under saline conditions: plant families with a higher proportion of sorbitol produced more spikes. No effects of sorbitol on fitness parameters were found under non-saline conditions. Populations also differed genetically in leaf number, spike number, sorbitol concentration and percentages of different soluble sugars. Salt treatment led to a reduction of vegetative biomass and spike production but increased leaf dry matter percentage and leaf thickness. Both under saline and non-saline conditions there was a negative trade-off between vegetative growth and reproduction. Families with a high plasticity in leaf thickness had a lower total spike length under non-saline conditions. This would imply that natural selection under predominantly non-saline conditions would lead to a decrease in the ability to change leaf morphology in response to exposure to salt. All other tests revealed no indication for any costs of plasticity to saline conditions.

  9. Geochemical tracers to evaluate hydrogeologic controls on river salinization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Stephanie J; Bassett, R L; Liu, Beiling; Wolf, Christopher P; Doremus, Dale

    2008-01-01

    The salinization of rivers, as indicated by salinity increases in the downstream direction, is characteristic of arid and semiarid regions throughout the world. Historically, salinity increases have been attributed to various mechanisms, including (1) evaporation and concentration during reservoir storage, irrigation, and subsequent reuse; (2) displacement of shallow saline ground water during irrigation; (3) erosion and dissolution of natural deposits; and/or (4) inflow of deep saline and/or geothermal ground water (ground water with elevated water temperature). In this study, investigation of salinity issues focused on identification of relative salinity contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources in the Lower Rio Grande in the New Mexico-Texas border region. Based on the conceptual model of the system, the various sources of water and, therefore, salinity to the Lower Rio Grande were identified, and a sampling plan was designed to characterize these sources. Analysis results for boron (delta(11)B), sulfur (delta(34)S), oxygen (delta(18)O), hydrogen (delta(2)H), and strontium ((87)Sr/(86)Sr) isotopes, as well as basic chemical data, confirmed the hypothesis that the dominant salinity contributions are from deep ground water inflow to the Rio Grande. The stable isotopic ratios identified the deep ground water inflow as distinctive, with characteristic isotopic signatures. These analyses indicate that it is not possible to reproduce the observed salinization by evapotranspiration and agricultural processes alone. This investigation further confirms that proper application of multiple isotopic and geochemical tracers can be used to identify and constrain multiple sources of solutes in complex river systems.

  10. Electrokinetic remediation technique: an integrated approach to finding new strategies for restoration of saline soil and to control seawater intrusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan, S; Molelekwa, G.; Van der Bruggen, B

    2014-01-01

    Many applications of electrokinetic remediation have focused on the removal of heavy metals. However, the application of electrokinetic technology in salt removal from contaminated soils and groundwater has not been extensively explored. Given the current global challenge and the impact of soil and groundwater salinity, it is tempting to suggest that the research community should apply this technology to generate in-depth knowledge for determining the feasibility and efficiency of electrokine...

  11. Effects of acute inhalation of albuterol on submaximal and maximal VO2 and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleck, S J; Lucia, A; Storms, W W; Wallach, J M; Vint, P F; Zimmerman, S D

    1993-07-01

    The acute effects of inhaled albuterol, a selective beta-2 adrenergic agonist, on measures of endurance cycling performance and pulmonary function were assessed in 21 competitive road cyclists. A 5 step methacholine challenge revealed all cyclists to be non-asthmatic. Albuterol (A) total dose 360 micrograms or a saline placebo (P) was administered by inhaler, in 4 metered doses of 90 micrograms each, 15 minutes before cycle ergometry exercise. Heart rate, whole blood lactate, perceived exertion and VO2 were determined at the submaximal workloads of 150, 200, 225, 250, 275, 300 watts and at max. Pulmonary function tests determining forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume during the first second of expiration, forced mid-expiratory flow and maximal voluntary ventilation were performed prior to and 10 minutes after inhalation; and 5, 10 and 15 minutes after termination of the exercise protocol. Heart rate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 200 (150.8 +/- 2.5 vs 146.7 +/- 2.8 beats per minute), 225 (159.7 +/- 2.4 vs 154.6 +/- 2.7 beats per minute) and 250 watts (166.9 +/- 2.4 vs 164.4 +/- 2.6 beats per minute). Whole blood lactate was significantly greater during the A compared to the P treatment at 275 watts (4.7 +/- 0.3 vs 4.2 +/- 0.4 mmol.l-1). No other significant differences were found between the 2 treatments at any time point. These data indicate that the acute effect of albuterol inhalation at twice the recommended dosage has no positive effect on endurance performance measures or pulmonary function in athletes who are not asthmatic.

  12. Sensory findings after stimulation of the thoracolumbar fascia with hypertonic saline suggest its contribution to low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilder, Andreas; Hoheisel, Ulrich; Magerl, Walter; Benrath, Justus; Klein, Thomas; Treede, Rolf-Detlef

    2014-02-01

    Injection of hypertonic saline into deep tissues of the back (subcutis, muscle, or the surrounding fascia) can induce acute low back pain (LBP). So far, no study has analyzed differences in temporal, qualitative, and spatial pain characteristics originating from these tissues. The current study aimed to investigate the role of the thoracolumbar fascia as a potential source of LBP. In separate sessions, 12 healthy subjects received ultrasound-guided bolus injections of isotonic saline (0.9%) or hypertonic saline (5.8%) into the erector spinae muscle, the thoracolumbar fascia (posterior layer), and the overlying subcutis. Subjects were asked to rate pain intensity, duration, quality, and spatial extent. Pressure pain thresholds were determined pre and post injection. Injections of hypertonic saline into the fascia resulted in significantly larger area under the curve of pain intensity over time than injections into subcutis (P<0.01) or muscle (P<0.001), primarily based on longer pain durations and, to a lesser extent, on higher peak pain ratings. Pressure hyperalgesia was only induced by injection of hypertonic saline into muscle, but not fascia or subcutis. Pain radiation and pain affect evoked by fascia injection exceeded those of the muscle (P<0.01) and the subcutis significantly (P<0.05). Pain descriptors after fascia injection (burning, throbbing, and stinging) suggested innervation by both A- and C-fiber nociceptors. These findings show that the thoracolumbar fascia is the deep tissue of the back that is most sensitive to chemical stimulation, making it a prime candidate to contribute to nonspecific LBP but not to localized pressure hyperalgesia. PMID:24076047

  13. The Value of D-Dimer in Diagnosis of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia and Differential Diagnosis from Acute Pancreatitis and Acute Cholecystitis

    OpenAIRE

    Semih Hot; Nüvit Duraker; Ayhan Sarı; Kenan Çetin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Because of its poor prognosis and high mor­tality rate, early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI) is a challenge. The value of serum markers in the diagnosis of AMI is limited and the studies related with the D-dimer test carried out in recent years. In this prospec­tive study we investigated the value of the level of plasma D-dimer in the diagnosis of AMI and the differential diag­nosis from acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis. Methods: We included 89 patients w...

  14. High-performance ionic diode membrane for salinity gradient power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jun; Guo, Wei; Feng, Dan; Wang, Huanting; Zhao, Dongyuan; Jiang, Lei

    2014-09-01

    Salinity difference between seawater and river water is a sustainable energy resource that catches eyes of the public and the investors in the background of energy crisis. To capture this energy, interdisciplinary efforts from chemistry, materials science, environmental science, and nanotechnology have been made to create efficient and economically viable energy conversion methods and materials. Beyond conventional membrane-based processes, technological breakthroughs in harvesting salinity gradient power from natural waters are expected to emerge from the novel fluidic transport phenomena on the nanoscale. A major challenge toward real-world applications is to extrapolate existing single-channel devices to macroscopic materials. Here, we report a membrane-scale nanofluidic device with asymmetric structure, chemical composition, and surface charge polarity, termed ionic diode membrane (IDM), for harvesting electric power from salinity gradient. The IDM comprises heterojunctions between mesoporous carbon (pore size ∼7 nm, negatively charged) and macroporous alumina (pore size ∼80 nm, positively charged). The meso-/macroporous membrane rectifies the ionic current with distinctly high ratio of ca. 450 and keeps on rectifying in high-concentration electrolytes, even in saturated solution. The selective and rectified ion transport furthermore sheds light on salinity-gradient power generation. By mixing artificial seawater and river water through the IDM, substantially high power density of up to 3.46 W/m(2) is discovered, which largely outperforms some commercial ion-exchange membranes. A theoretical model based on coupled Poisson and Nernst-Planck equations is established to quantitatively explain the experimental observations and get insights into the underlying mechanism. The macroscopic and asymmetric nanofluidic structure anticipates wide potentials for sustainable power generation, water purification, and desalination. PMID:25137214

  15. What are the effects of hypertonic saline plus furosemide in acute heart failure?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricio Zepeda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available En la búsqueda de nuevas terapias para resolver la resistencia a los diuréticos en insuficiencia cardiaca aguda se ha planteado la adición de suero hipertónico. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos dos revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen nueve estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Se concluye que el suero hipertónico asociado a furosemida probablemente disminuye la mortalidad, estadía y reingreso hospitalario en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca descompensada.

  16. Acute rhabdomyolysis following synthetic cannabinoid ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demilade A Adedinsewo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Novel psychoactive substances, including synthetic cannabinoids, are becoming increasingly popular, with more patients being seen in the emergency room following acute ingestion. These substances have been associated with a wide range of adverse effects. However, identification of complications, clinical toxicity, and management remain challenging. Case Report: We present the case of a young African-American male who developed severe agitation and bizarre behavior following acute K2 ingestion. Laboratory studies revealed markedly elevated serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK with normal renal function. The patient was managed with aggressive intravenous (IV fluid hydration and treatment of underlying psychiatric illness. Conclusion: We recommend the routine evaluation of renal function and CPK levels with early initiation of IV hydration among patients who present to the emergency department following acute ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids to identify potential complications early as well as institute early supportive therapy.

  17. Inhibition of Pyk2 blocks lung inflammation and injury in a mouse model of acute lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duan Yingli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proline-rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2 is essential in neutrophil degranulation and chemotaxis in vitro. However, its effect on the process of lung inflammation and edema formation during LPS induced acute lung injury (ALI remains unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine the effect of inhibiting Pyk2 on LPS-induced acute lung inflammation and injury in vivo. Methods C57BL6 mice were given either 10 mg/kg LPS or saline intratracheally. Inhibition of Pyk2 was effected by intraperitoneal administration TAT-Pyk2-CT 1 h before challenge. Bronchoalveolar lavage analysis of cell counts, lung histology and protein concentration in BAL were analyzed at 18 h after LPS treatment. KC and MIP-2 concentrations in BAL were measured by a mouse cytokine multiplex kit. The static lung compliance was determined by pressure-volume curve using a computer-controlled small animal ventilator. The extravasated Evans blue concentration in lung homogenate was determined spectrophotometrically. Results Intratracheal instillation of LPS induced significant neutrophil infiltration into the lung interstitium and alveolar space, which was attenuated by pre-treatment with TAT-Pyk2-CT. TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment also attenuated 1 myeloperoxidase content in lung tissues, 2 vascular leakage as measured by Evans blue dye extravasation in the lungs and the increase in protein concentration in bronchoalveolar lavage, and 3 the decrease in lung compliance. In each paradigm, treatment with control protein TAT-GFP had no blocking effect. By contrast, production of neutrophil chemokines MIP-2 and keratinocyte-derived chemokine in the bronchoalveolar lavage was not reduced by TAT-Pyk2-CT. Western blot analysis confirmed that tyrosine phosphorylation of Pyk2 in LPS-challenged lungs was reduced to control levels by TAT-Pyk2-CT pretreatment. Conclusions These results suggest that Pyk2 plays an important role in the development of acute lung injury in mice and

  18. The Use of Amnion-Derived Cellular Cytokine Solution to Improve Healing in Acute and Chronic Wound Models

    OpenAIRE

    Franz, Michael G.; Payne, Wyatt G.; Xing, Liyu; Naidu, D. K; Salas, R. E; Marshall, Vivienne S.; Trumpower, C. J; Smith, Charlotte A; Steed, David L.; Robson, M. C.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Growth factors demonstrate mixed results improving wound healing. Amnion-derived multipotent cells release physiologic levels of growth factors and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. This solution was tested in models of acute and chronic wound healing. Methods: Acute model: Sprague-Dawley rats underwent laparotomy incisions. The midline fascia was primed with phosphate-buffered saline, unconditioned media, or amnion-derived cellular cytokine suspension prior to incision. Bre...

  19. Atrial fibrillation (acute onset)

    OpenAIRE

    Lip, Gregory Y. H.; Watson, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Acute atrial fibrillation is rapid, irregular, and chaotic atrial activity of less than 48 hours' duration. It resolves spontaneously within 24 to 48 hours in over 50% of people. In this review we have included studies on patients with onset up to 7 days previously. Risk factors for acute atrial fibrillation include increasing age, CVD, alcohol abuse, diabetes, and lung disease.Acute atrial fibrillation increases the risk of stroke and heart failure.

  20. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Dhillon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare reaction pattern with a typical morphology and a short clinical course that in majority of cases is related to medication administration. It is an acute pustular eruption with unique clinical features, a rapid clinical course and a typical histopathology. Herein, we report the case of a patient with acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis for its classical presentation.

  1. Streptococcal acute pharyngitis

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Acute pharyngitis/tonsillitis, which is characterized by inflammation of the posterior pharynx and tonsils, is a common disease. Several viruses and bacteria can cause acute pharyngitis; however, Streptococcus pyogenes (also known as Lancefield group A β-hemolytic streptococci) is the only agent that requires an etiologic diagnosis and specific treatment. S. pyogenes is of major clinical importance because it can trigger post-infection systemic complications, acute rheumatic fever, and post-s...

  2. Imaging of acute pancreatitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkle, Elmar M.; Goerich, Johannes [Department of Radiology, University Hospitals of Ulm, Steinhoevel Strasse 9, 89075 Ulm (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Acute pancreatitis is defined as an acute inflammatory process of the pancreas with variable involvement of peripancreatic tissues or remote organ systems. This article reports the current classification, definition and terminology, epidemiology and etiology, pathogenesis and pathological findings, clinical and laboratory findings, and finally imaging findings of acute pancreatitis with emphasis on cross-sectional imaging modalities such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. (orig.)

  3. Acute Idiopathic Scrotal Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheál Breen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of acute idiopathic scrotal edema (AISE in a 4-year-old boy who presented with acute scrotal pain and erythema. The clinical features, ultrasound appearance, and natural history of this rare diagnosis are reviewed. In this report, we highlight the importance of good ultrasound technique in differentiating the etiology of the acute scrotum and demonstrate the color Doppler “Fountain Sign” that is highly suggestive of AISE.

  4. Management Of Acute Migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Mehndiratta M

    2002-01-01

    Pharmacotherapy for migraine involves treatment for the acute attack as well as using long-term prophylaxis in order to reduce the frequency and severity of the attacks. Based on severity, there are a number of drugs available to treat the acute attacks. For mild to moderate attacks, analgesics, NSAIDs and Ergotamine are effective but severe attacks may need Dihydroergotamine (DHE) or a triptan. Sumatriptan and the second generation triptans have revolutionized the acute treatment of migra...

  5. Laboratory experiment to study the effect of salinity variations on benthic foraminiferal species - Pararotalia nipponica (Asano)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Saraswat, R.; Kurtarkar, S.R.

    Culture experiment has been carried out to observe the response of Pararotalia nipponica (Asano) to different salinities and its salinity tolerance limits. The specimens of P. nipponica kept in 33‰ saline water achieved optimum growth, while rest...

  6. Salinity intrusion modeling for Sungai Selangor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salinity intrusion into estuary of the Sungai Selangor has been carried out on a hydrodynamic numerical modeling to access the parameter that governed the amount of salt in the river. Issues such as water pollution and extraction of water from Sungai Selangor system has been said to be the cause of fading fireflies. The berembang trees on the river bank that become the fireflies habitat need some amount of salt for proper growth. Living at the lower reaches of Sungai Selangor, the fireflies are affected not only by the activities in their vicinity, but by activities in the entire river basin. Rapid economic development in the basin and the strong demand for the water resources puts pressure on the ecosystem. This research has been carried out to investigate the effect of water extraction along Sungai Selangor towards altering the amount of salt content in the river. The hydrodynamic modeling with regards to the salt content is expected to support long term assessment that may affect the berembang trees as a result of changes in the flow from upstream because of the water abstraction activity for domestic water supply. (Author)

  7. Slope destabilization during the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gargani, Julien; Bache, François; Jouannic, Gwenael; Gorini, Christian

    2014-05-01

    During the Messinian Salinity Crisis, ~ 6 Myr ago, deep canyons were incised when a huge sea-level drawdown of ~ 1.5 km affected the Mediterranean Sea. Nearly contemporaneously, more than 2 km of evaporites accumulated in the basin. This event was the consequence of a complex interaction of tectonic movements and global sea-level variation associated with climatic evolution. This unusual event ended with the reflooding of the Mediterranean area. In this paper, using seismic line interpretation, we show that several landslides occurred in various parts of the Mediterranean Basin during this crisis. Three of these landslides are well preserved, and their dynamics were analyzed. Modeling of the slope stability demonstrates that these landslides may have been due to (i) the relief created by the deep erosion, and/or (ii) the reflooding, which triggered a pore pressure increase. The relatively small run-out distances of the three landslides suggest propagation in a submarine environment and triggering by sea-level rise.

  8. 0.9% saline is neither normal nor physiological%0.9%盐水既不正常也不生理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Heng LI; Shi-ren SUN; John Q YAP; Jiang-hua CHEN; Qi QIAN

    2016-01-01

    folowing saline infusion. Clinically, saline infusion for patients post abdominal and cardiovascular surgery is associated with a greater number of adverse effects including more frequent blood product transfusion and bicarbonate therapy, reduced gastric blood flow, delayed recovery of gut function, impaired cardiac contractility in response to inotropes, prolonged hospital stay, and possibly increased mortality. In critically il patients, saline infusion, compared to balanced fluid infusions, in-creases the occurrence of acute kidney injury. In summary, saline is a highly acidic fluid. With the exception of saline infusion for patients with hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis and volume depletion due to vomiting or upper gastroin-testinal suction, indiscriminate use, especialy for acutely il patients, may cause unnecessary complications and should be avoided. More education regarding saline-related effects and adequate electrolyte management is needed.

  9. Differential response to soil salinity in endangered key tree cactus: implications for survival in a changing climate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joie Goodman

    Full Text Available Understanding reasons for biodiversity loss is essential for developing conservation and management strategies and is becoming increasingly urgent with climate change. Growing at elevations <1.4 m in the Florida Keys, USA, the endangered Key tree cactus (Pilosocereus robinii experienced 84 percent loss of total stems from 1994 to 2007. The most severe losses of 99 and 88 percent stems occurred in the largest populations in the Lower Keys, where nine storms with high wind velocities and storm surges, occurred during this period. In contrast, three populations had substantial stem proliferation. To evaluate possible mortality factors related to changes in climate or forest structure, we examined habitat variables: soil salinity, elevation, canopy cover, and habitat structure near 16 dying or dead and 18 living plants growing in the Lower Keys. Soil salinity and elevation were the preliminary factors that discriminated live and dead plants. Soil salinity was 1.5 times greater, but elevation was 12 cm higher near dead plants than near live plants. However, distribution-wide stem loss was not significantly related to salinity or elevation. Controlled salinity trials indicated that salt tolerance to levels above 40 mM NaCl was related to maternal origin. Salt sensitive plants from the Lower Keys had less stem growth, lower root:shoot ratios, lower potassium: sodium ratios and lower recovery rate, but higher δ (13C than a salt tolerant lineage of unknown origin. Unraveling the genetic structure of salt tolerant and salt sensitive lineages in the Florida Keys will require further genetic tests. Worldwide rare species restricted to fragmented, low-elevation island habitats, with little or no connection to higher ground will face challenges from climate change-related factors. These great conservation challenges will require traditional conservation actions and possibly managed relocation that must be informed by studies such as these.

  10. Mixed phenotype acute leukemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Zixing; Wang Shujie

    2014-01-01

    Objective To highlight the current understanding of mixed phenotype acute leukemia (MPAL).Data sources We collected the relevant articles in PubMed (from 1985 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia","hybrid acute leukemia","biphenotypic acute leukemia",and "mixed lineage leukemia".We also collected the relevant studies in WanFang Data base (from 2000 to present),using the terms "mixed phenotype acute leukemia" and "hybrid acute leukemia".Study selection We included all relevant studies concerning mixed phenotype acute leukemia in English and Chinese version,with no limitation of research design.The duplicated articles are excluded.Results MPAL is a rare subgroup of acute leukemia which expresses the myeloid and lymphoid markers simultaneously.The clinical manifestations of MPAL are similar to other acute leukemias.The World Health Organization classification and the European Group for Immunological classification of Leukaemias 1998 cdteria are most widely used.MPAL does not have a standard therapy regimen.Its treatment depends mostly on the patient's unique immunophenotypic and cytogenetic features,and also the experience of individual physician.The lack of effective treatment contributes to an undesirable prognosis.Conclusion Our understanding about MPAL is still limited.The diagnostic criteria have not been unified.The treatment of MPAL remains to be investigated.The prognostic factor is largely unclear yet.A better diagnostic cdteria and targeted therapeutics will improve the therapy effect and a subsequently better prognosis.

  11. Three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography with agitated saline injection to differentiate between atrial septal defects and echo drop-out artifacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alherbish, Aws; Shanks, Miriam; Choy, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    The diagnosis of multiple atrial septal defects is less challenging with 3-D transesophageal echocardiography. However, the common occurrence of echo drop-out (acoustic shadow) artifacts with 3-D echocardiography can make the differentiation between a second defect and an artifact challenging. Agitated saline injection with direct visualization using 3-D echocardiography can help resolve this by allowing visualization of the bubbles crossing from true defects.

  12. Development of Saline Flow Systems in Closed Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntington, J. M.; Halford, K. J.; Garcia, C.

    2011-12-01

    Saline playas frequently occur in closed basins, such as the Humboldt Salt Marsh in Dixie Valley, in west-central Nevada. This playa is the terminus of a local groundwater flow system, is comprised of dense clay, and has shallow groundwater salinities more than 5 times the salinity of sea water (TDS concentrations of 172,000 to 311,900 mg/L). The saline system has developed and continues to expand as surface runoff and groundwater evaporates from the playa surface and dissolved solutes remain. Negligible discharge of fresh groundwater occurs where the saline system is present, because the fresh-water / saltwater interface that abuts the playa is analogous hydraulically to interfaces in coastal aquifers. The period of time necessary to develop a relatively isolated saline flow system was quantified by simulating a hypothetical cross-section with a variable-density groundwater flow and transport model (SEAWAT). Preliminary analysis suggests that the perimeter of saline system expands between 10 and 100 m every 10,000 years.

  13. Response of Arctic marine microalgae to changes of salinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    An algal assemblage collected from the bottom of floe in the Greenland Sea was batchcultured at 1 ± 1℃ and 10 salinity gradients varied from 4.0 to 90.8 for 19 d. The growth for both the algal community and individual populations was characterized by an initial lag phase of six days followed by positive growth. Maximum growth rates were obtained as 0.19/d for the algal community and 0.32 to 0.39 d- 1 for individual populations for the whole experiment period, which mostly occurred at the lower salinities. The competition between the algal species and the evolution of the algal assemblages under the salinity changes was checked. After 14-d culture, the dominating algae in the lower salinities were centric diatoms, pennate diatoms and phytoflagellates, while ones in the higher salinities almost belonged to pennate diatoms. It is suggested that the sea ice algal community from the Greenland Sea prefer lower salinities to higher ones, and the decrease in salinity in small ranges could stimulate the growth of sea ice algae.

  14. The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin integrity in human volunteers. I. Methodology and reproducibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camel, E; O'Connell, M; Sage, B; Gross, M; Maibach, H

    1996-08-01

    This study, conducted in 36 human volunteers, was an evaluation of the effects of saline iontophoresis on skin temperature, irritation, and barrier function. The major objectives were to assess the effects of low-level ionic currents, to validate the proposed methodology of assessment, and to establish reproducibility in repeated saline iontophoresis applications. This was the first of a multistage study designed to assess the safety of 24-hr saline iontophoresis episodes at selected currents and current densities. Since an iontophoresis patch challenges the skin barrier both by occluding the skin surface and by passing ionic current through the skin, the experimental protocol was designed to permit measurement of the contribution of each of these processes to the overall response. In this first stage we investigated the effect of 10 min of current delivery, at 0.1 mA/cm2 on a 1-cm2 area patch and 0.2 mA/cm2 on a 6.5-cm2 area patch compared to unpowered control patches. Twelve subjects were tested under each condition on two separate occasions to examine reproducibility of the response variable measurements. A further 12 subjects were tested once under the 0.2 mA/cm2, 6.5-cm2 condition. Skin irritation was evaluated via repeated measurements of transepidermal water loss, capacitance, skin temperature, skin color, and a visual scoring system, before the iontophoresis episode and after patch removal. No damage to skin barrier function in terms of skin-water loss or skin-water content was detected. Slight, subclinical, short-lasting erythema was observed for both conditions. Assessment of correlation coefficients showed highly statistically significant indications of reproducibility for all five response variables measured. The experimental design, in combination with a repeated measures analysis, provided clear separation of the occlusion and ionic current components of the iontophoretic patch challenge. Further, the repeated measures analysis gave a highly sensitive

  15. Ancrod causes rapid thrombolysis in patients with acute stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, V E; Glas-Greenwalt, P; Olinger, C P; Wadhwa, N K; Myre, S A

    1990-05-01

    Clot lysis is desirable in patients with thrombi in arteries and arterioles by a safe rapidly-acting thrombolytic agent. Ancrod cleaves fibrinogen; the resulting circulating ancrod-fibrin stimulates fibrinolysis. Ancrod action and effect were studied in 20 patients with acute developing stroke in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Patients were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, and received either normal saline or ancrod 0.5 mu/kg in normal saline administered as a constant-rate intravenous infusion over 6 hours. Subsequent doses of ancrod (or saline placebo) were determined daily thereafter for a total treatment period of 7 days. Neither bleeding nor re-thrombosis occurred within the 90 day follow-up period. That ancrod acted rapidly was shown by a significant decrease in functional plasminogen activator inhibitor (PA-I) within 60 minutes, and by significant elevations of fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDP) and D-dimer within 3 and 4 hours. The biological effect of fibrinolysis in ancrod infused patients was demonstrated by a greater improvement in stroke score when compared to those infused with saline. PMID:2186630

  16. Acute bone crises in sickle cell disease: the T1 fat-saturated sequence in differentiation of acute bone infarcts from acute osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aim: To prove the hypothesis that acute bone infarcts in sickle cell disease are caused by sequestration of red blood cells (RBCs) in bone marrow, and to evaluate the unenhanced T1 fat-saturated (fs) sequence in the differentiation of acute bone infarction from acute osteomyelitis in patients with sickle-cell disease. Materials and methods: Two studies were undertaken: an experimental study using in-vitro packed red blood cells and normal volunteers, and a retrospective clinical study of 86 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies. For the experimental study containers of packed RBCs were placed between the knees of four healthy volunteers with a saline bag under the containers as an additional control, and were scanned with the pre-contrast T1-fs sequence. Signal intensity (SI) ratios were obtained for packed RBCs:skeletal muscle and packed RBCs:saline. For the clinical study, the SIs of normal bone marrow, packed RBCs, bone and/or soft-tissue lesions, and normal skeletal muscle of 74 patients (86 MRI studies) were measured using unenhanced, T1 fat-saturated MRI. The ratios of the above SIs to normal skeletal muscle were calculated and subjected to statistical analysis. Results: Fifty-one of 86 MRI studies were included in the final analysis. The ratios of SIs for normal bone marrow, packed red cells, bone infarction, acute osteomyelitis, and soft-tissue lesions associated with bone infarct, compared with normal skeletal muscle were (mean ± SD) 0.9 ± 0.2, 2.1 ± 0.7, 1.7 ± 0.5, 1.0 ± 0.3, and 2.2 ± 0.7, respectively. The difference in the ratio of SIs of bone infarcts and osteomyelitis was significant (p = 0.003). The final diagnoses were bone infarction (n = 50), acute osteomyelitis (n = 1), and co-existent bone infarction and osteomyelitis (n = 2). Seven patients who had suspected osteomyelitis underwent image-guided aspiration. Conclusion: Acute bone infarcts in sickle cell disease are caused by sequestration of red blood cells in the bone marrow. The

  17. Saline aquifer mapping project in the southeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lester J.; Spechler, Rick M.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey initiated a study of saline aquifers in the southeastern United States to evaluate the potential use of brackish or saline water from the deeper portions of the Floridan aquifer system and the underlying Coastal Plain aquifer system (Fig. 1). The objective of this study is to improve the overall understanding of the available saline water resources for potential future development. Specific tasks are to (1) develop a digital georeferenced database of borehole geophysical data to enable analysis and characterization of saline aquifers (see locations in Fig. 1), (2) identify and map the regional extent of saline aquifer systems and describe the thickness and character of hydrologic units that compose these systems, and (3) delineate salinity variations at key well sites and along section lines to provide a regional depiction of the freshwater-saltwater interfaces. Electrical resistivity and induction logs, coupled with a variety of different porosity logs (sonic, density, and neutron), are the primary types of borehole geophysical logs being used to estimate the water quality in brackish and saline formations. The results from the geophysical log calculations are being compared to available water-quality data obtained from water wells and from drill-stem water samples collected in test wells. Overall, the saline aquifer mapping project is helping to improve the understanding of saline water resources in the area. These aquifers may be sources of large quantities of water that could be treated by using reverse osmosis or similar technologies, or they could be used for aquifer storage and recovery systems.

  18. Differences in salinity tolerance of genetically distinct Phragmites australis clones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achenbach, Luciana; Eller, Franziska; Nguyen, Loc Xuan; Brix, Hans

    2013-01-01

    Different clones of the wetland grass Phragmites australis differ in their morphology and physiology, and hence in their ability to cope with environmental stress. We analysed the responses of 15 P. australis clones with distinct ploidy levels (PLs) (4n, 6n, 8n, 10n, 12n) and geographic origins (Romania, Russia, Japan, Czech Republic, Australia) to step-wise increased salinity (8, 16, 24, 32, 40, 56 and 72 ppt). Shoot elongation rate, photosynthesis and plant part-specific ion accumulation were studied in order to assess if traits associated with salinity tolerance can be related to the genetic background and the geographic origin of the clones. Salt stress affected all clones, but at different rates. The maximum height was reduced from 1860 mm in control plants to 660 mm at 40 ppt salinity. The shoot elongation rate of salt-exposed plants varied significantly between clones until 40 ppt salinity. The light-saturated photosynthesis rate (Pmax) was stimulated by a salinity of 8 ppt, but decreased significantly at higher salinities. The stomatal conductance (gs) and the transpiration rate (E) decreased with increasing salinity. Only three clones survived at 72 ppt salinity, although their rates of photosynthesis were strongly inhibited. The roots and basal leaves of the salt-exposed plants accumulated high concentrations of water-extractable Na+ (1646 and 1004 µmol g−1 dry mass (DM), respectively) and Cl− (1876 and 1400 µmol g−1 DM, respectively). The concentrations of water-extractable Mg2+ and Ca2+ were reduced in salt-exposed plants compared with controls. The variation of all the measured parameters was higher among clones than among PLs. We conclude that the salinity tolerance of distinct P. australis clones varies widely and can be partially attributed to their longitudinal geographic origin, but not to PL. Further investigation will help in improving the understanding of this species' salt tolerance mechanisms and their connection to genetic factors.

  19. Effects of osteoblasts on recovery of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis in acute irradiation injured mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the effects of osteoblasts on the recovery of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis in acute irradiation injury mice. Methods: The femurs of 18 male BALB/c mice were used to prepare the bone marrow osteoblasts, and the rest mice were divided into 3 groups as normal group, saline group and osteoblast group. The mice in normal group received no treatment, and the other two groups were received 6.0 Gy 60Co γ-ray irradiation. After irradiation each mouse of osteoblast group was administered with 2 × 106 osteoblasts through tail vein injection, and equal volume saline was given to each mouse of saline group by the same way. The following factors were measured at 7, 14, 21 d after irradiation, they were the counts of peripheral blood cells and bone marrow mononuclear cells (BMMNC), the percentage of CD34 + cells in BMMNC, the histology changes and micro vascular density (MVD) of bone marrow tissue. Results: The counts of peripheral blood cells, BMMNC and hematopoietic tissue area in osteoblast group were higher than those in saline group.The percentage of CD34 + cells in BMMNC and the MVD of bone marrow in osteoblast group were also higher than those in saline group at 7, 14, 21 d after irradiation (t=2.46-64.51, P<0.05). Conclusions: Osteoblasts could significantly promote the recovery of hematopoiesis and angiogenesis in mice after acute irradiation injury. (authors)

  20. Spatiotemporal Distribution of Soil Moisture and Salinity in the Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Huang; Yongdong Wang; Ying Zhao; Xinwen Xu; Jianguo Zhang; Congjuan Li

    2015-01-01

    Salinization and secondary salinization often appear after irrigation with saline water. The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt has been irrigated with saline ground water for more than ten years; however, soil salinity in the shelterbelt has not been evaluated. The objective of this study was to analyze the spatial and temporal distribution of soil moisture and salinity in the shelterbelt system. Using a non-uniform grid method, soil samples were collected every two days during one ten-da...

  1. Millennial changes of the Baltic Sea salinity. Studies of the sensitivity of the salinity to climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An important question for safety assessments of nuclear waste repositories is the salinity of the Baltic Sea under different conditions. The salinity affects the potential recipient ecosystems, the water turnover along the coast and the hydrology as well as the groundwater chemistry. In this report a model that enables computation of the Baltic Sea salinity for different sea level positions and freshwater supplies is presented. The model is used to compute the salinities in Baltic proper, Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay for all combinations of global sea level changes from -10 m to 10 m and freshwater supplies from 0 to 60,000 m3/s. The results are presented in a series of graphs that enables the reader to make an assessment of the impact of a given climatic change. The model is also used to compute the decrease of the salinity in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay during the next few millennia due to the postglacial uplift. The results show that modest changes in global sea level, say ±1 m, give a salinity change of the order of 1 psu in southern Baltic proper. Changing the freshwater supply with about 2,000 m3/s (approximately 10%) gives a similar salinity change. Further, a sea level drop of about 5 m or an increase of the freshwater supply by a factor of 3 is needed to reduce the salinity in southern Baltic proper below 1 psu. In this limit large parts of the Baltic would be limnic. A 50% decrease of the freshwater supply increase the salinity in the southern Baltic proper by a factor of 2 to some 15 psu, but the effect is even more drastic in Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay where the salinity increase to 13 and 10 psu, respectively. A less windy climate might have a significant effect in lowering the Baltic salinity due to a combined effect of lowered mixing in Kattegat and lowered exchange between Kattegat and the Baltic. A windier climate will not have such strong effect since increased mixing does not affect the Baltic as much. Most probably the shoreline

  2. Effects of salinity stress on Bufo balearicus and Bufo bufo tadpoles: Tolerance, morphological gill alterations and Na+/K+-ATPase localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freshwater habitats are globally threatened by human-induced secondary salinization. Amphibians are generally poorly adapted to survive in saline environments. We experimentally investigated the effects of chronic exposure to various salinities (5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25%, 30% and 35% seawater, SW) on survival, larval growth and metamorphosis of tadpoles from two amphibian populations belonging to two species: the green toad Bufo balearicus and the common toad Bufo bufo. In addition, gill morphology of tadpoles of both species after acute exposure to hypertonic conditions (20%, 25%, and 30% SW) was examined by light and electron microscopy. Tadpoles experienced 100% mortality above 20% SW in B. balearicus while above 15% SW in B. bufo. We detected also sublethal effects of salinity stress on growth and metamorphosis. B. bufo cannot withstand chronic exposure to salinity above 5% SW, tadpoles grew slower and were significantly smaller than those in control at metamorphosis. B. balearicus tolerated salinity up to 20% SW without apparent effects during larval development, but starting from 15% SW tadpoles metamorphosed later and at a smaller size compared with control. We also revealed a negative relation between increasing salt concentration and gill integrity. The main modifications were increased mucous secretion, detachment of external layer, alteration of epithelial surface, degeneration phenomena, appearance of residual bodies, and macrophage immigration. These morphological alterations of gill epithelium can interfere with respiratory function and both osmotic and acid-base regulation. Significant variations in branchial Na+/K+-ATPase activity were also observed between two species; moreover an increase in enzyme activity was evident in response to SW exposure. Epithelial responses to increasing salt concentration were different in the populations belonging to two species: the intensity of histological and ultrastructural pathology in B. bufo was greater and we

  3. Saline water pollution in groundwater: issues and its control

    OpenAIRE

    Setyawan Purnama; Muh Aris Marfai

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It´s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion.. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be an...

  4. Unsteady Flow and Saline Intrusion in Long Sea Outfalls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Borrows, Richard

    1992-01-01

    covered such phenomena as saline intrusion, wave influence and unsteady flow caused by pump operation. Results show that numerous flow regimes exist depending on the boundary conditions. Numerical models have been developed to simulate the flow field in the diffuser section and some of the most...... interesting phenomena, in particular the wave induced saline intrusion, can now be modelled satisfactorily. Some aspects of the behaviour relating to very low fresh water discharges, e.g. unsteady flow when saline wedges are present, are still not very well described....

  5. SALINE WATER RESOURCES IN CLUJ-NAPOCA SURROUNDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    B. CZELLECZ; I. GÁBOR; L. RAVASZ; G. ȘCHIOPU; N. SZOPOS

    2016-01-01

    Saline waters are usually researched in those places where it is used for balneotherapy or other industrial purposes. The aim of this study is to describe the saline water sources from less known areas, as they are an important natural mineral water resource. Twenty nine water samples were analyzed from Cojocna-Pata-Sopor region, thirteen of them can be considered saline waters. The visited locations are 21, 15 and 3 km far from Cluj-Napoca. Highly concentrated springs are to be found in the ...

  6. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  7. ADOPTABLE TECHNIQUE(S FOR MANAGING GHANAIAN SALINE SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akwasi Asamoah

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available : Salinization of Ghanaian soils is on the rise. Organic matter application has not proved an effective and feasible technique for curbing this rise. Hence this paper seeks to review techniques that Ghana is using to manage its saline soils and further recommend a feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique for exhaustive research and possible adoption in the future. Halophytes appear to be the most feasible, cost effective and beneficial technique which could be adopted for the effective management of Ghanaian saline soils. But where halophytes are exotic, care must be taken to avoid competition with native species and allow preservation of agrobiodiversity

  8. Radiocontrast-induced acute renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbord, Steven D; Palevsky, Paul M

    2005-01-01

    The intravascular administration of iodinated radiocontrast media can lead to acute renal dysfunction. Even small changes in renal function have been associated with increased morbidity and mortality, making the prevention of radiocontrast nephropathy of paramount importance. This review summarizes the principal risk factors for radiocontrast nephropathy and evidence-based preventive strategies that should be used to limit its occurrence. Risk factors for radiocontrast nephropathy include preexistent kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, dose of radiocontrast used, advanced congestive heart failure, and intravascular volume depletion. Proven preventive measures include volume expansion with intravenous saline or sodium bicarbonate and the use of low-osmolar or iso-osmolar radiocontrast media. Studies evaluating N-acetylcysteine have been conflicting, with meta-analyses suggesting a small beneficial effect. Studies of other pharmacologic agents have not demonstrated clinical benefit.

  9. Diagnostic evaluation of acute pancreatitis in two patients with hypertriglyceridemia

    OpenAIRE

    Okura, Yoshifumi; Hayashi, Kozo; Shingu, Tetsuji; Kajiyama, Goro; Nakashima, Yoshiyuki; Saku, Keijiro

    2004-01-01

    We present two diagnostically challenging cases of acute pancreatitis with hypertriglyceridemia accompanied with chylomicronemia caused with a deficiency of lipoprotein lipase and with the presence of type V hyperlipidemia. Both cases suffered from acute abdomen following the ingestion of fatty food and revealed the increase in parameters of inflammation without significant elevation of serum amylase levels. The imaging examination of ultrasonography could not detect significant findings of a...

  10. Acute Intermittent Porphyria Associated with Respiratory Failure: A Multidisciplinary Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mayra Gonçalves Menegueti; Alkmim-Teixeira Gil Cezar; Karin Aparecida Casarini; Kátia Simone Muniz Cordeiro; Anibal Basile-Filho; Olindo Assis Martins-Filho; Maria Auxiliadora-Martins

    2011-01-01

    Despite being challenging, delivery of effective nursing care to patients with acute intermittent porphyria is a matter of utmost importance. In this paper, the diversity of symptoms and the difficult diagnosis of this condition are emphasized, and details concerning the treatment of this disorder in the intensive care unit are presented. We believe that acute intermittent porphyria should be borne in mind during performance of differential diagnosis of neurological, psychiatric, and gastroen...

  11. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from time series and underway - surface observations using Carbon dioxide (CO2) gas analyzer, Shower head chamber equilibrator for autonomous carbon dioxide (CO2) measurement and other instruments from the GULF CHALLENGER in the North Atlantic Ocean and Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary from 2004-05-10 to 2013-08-15 (NODC Accession 0073808)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NODC Accession 0073808 includes chemical, meteorological, physical, time series and underway - surface data collected from GULF CHALLENGER in the North Atlantic...

  12. Bipolar Saline TURP for Large Prostate Glands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. Finley

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of bipolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP in patients with very large prostate glands and significant comorbidities. Four patients with prostate glands >160 cc on preoperative volume measurement and ASA class three or higher underwent bipolar TURP with the Gyrus PlasmaKinetic system. Preoperative, operative, and postoperative parameters were studied. The results showed an average ASA class 3.25 (range: 3–4. The average preoperative prostate volume was 207.4 cc (range: 163–268. The average preoperative International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS and bother score was 31 and 6, respectively. Mean resection time was 163 min (range: 129–215. The weight of resected tissue and percentage of vaporized tissue was 80.8 g (range: 62–115 and 10.0% (range: 3.8–15.1, respectively. An average of 61L of saline was used (range: 48–78. The mean change in hemoglobin and serum sodium was 2.1 g/dl (range: 1.4–2.7 and 3.3 meq/l (range: 2–4, respectively. Postoperative catheter time averaged 76 h (range: 40–104. Mean length of hospital stay was 12 h (range: 4–24. The mean postoperative IPSS and bother score was 2.75 and 0.25, respectively. Bipolar TURP is a feasible alternative to simple open prostatectomy in high-risk patients with massive prostate adenomas. Prostate volume is reduced by approximately 10% due to vaporization.

  13. Acute myopericarditis masquerading as acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Tian; Zixin Zhang; Xiaojuan Bai; Dingyin Zeng; Guoxian Qi

    2008-01-01

    Patients with abrupt onset of chest pain, ischemic ECG abnormalities and elevated levels of cardiac markers could be given a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. However, some other diseases should be taken into consideration in this clinical setting when coronary arteries are proven to be normal. Here we report a case of acute myopericarditis with clinical presentation of myocardial infarction and normal coronary anatomy. The Herpes Simplex Virus Ⅱ was considered as the organism causing myopericarditis and the patient was recovered by the treatment with valacicloavir. A precise diagnosis is a prerequisite of successful treatment and favorable prognosis.

  14. Leukocytosis in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, L P; Jørgensen, H S; Nakayama, H;

    1999-01-01

    Leukocytosis is a common finding in the acute phase of stroke. A detrimental effect of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has been suggested, and trials aiming at reducing the leukocyte response in acute stroke are currently being conducted. However, the influence of leukocytosis on stroke outcome has...

  15. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; Heurn, L.W. van; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  16. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathuranath P

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.

  17. Acute dysautonomia following mumps.

    OpenAIRE

    Mathuranath P; Duralpandian J; Kishore A

    1999-01-01

    Pure acute or subacute dysautonomia is a rare entity. Its etiology is as yet unknown. However, majority of these cases have a preceding viral infection such as herpes simplex, infectious mononucleosis, rubella or coxsackie B. A unique patient in whom acute dysautonomia followed mumps is reported.

  18. Effects of Acute Grayanotoxin-I Administration on Hepatic and Renal Functions in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    AŞÇIOĞLU, Meral

    2000-01-01

    The effects of acute Grayanotoxin-I (GTX-I) administration on hepatic and renal functions in rats were investigated. GTX-I was administrated to the animals of groups 1, 2 and 3 at a single i.p. dose of 1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 0.25 mg/kg respectively, and group 4 (control) received i.p. saline (0.9 %) solution only. One hour following the administration of GTX-I or saline, urine analysis (leukocytes, urobilinogen, protein, pH, blood, ketone, glucose, nitrites) was performed and serum...

  19. Infections may select for filial cannibalism by impacting egg survival in interactions with water salinity and egg density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Kvarnemo, Charlotta

    2015-07-01

    In aquatic environments, externally developing eggs are in constant contact with the surrounding water, highlighting the significance of water parameters and pathogens for egg survival. In this study we tested the impact of water salinity, egg density and infection potential of the environment on egg viability in the sand goby (Pomatoschistus minutus), a small fish that exhibits paternal egg care and has a marine origin, but which in the Baltic Sea lives in brackish water. To manipulate the infection potential of the environment, we added either a Saprolegnia infection vector into UV-filtered water or a fungicide into natural Baltic Sea water. Saprolegnia are widely spread water moulds that are a key cause of egg mortality in aquatic organisms in fresh- and brackish water. We found that increased water salinity indeed decreased the egg infection rate and had a positive effect on egg viability, while high egg density tended to have the opposite effect. However, the different factors influenced egg viability interactively, with a higher egg density having negative effects at low, but not in high, salinity. Thus, the challenges facing marine organisms adapting to lower salinity levels can be amplified by Saprolegnia infections that reduce egg survival in interaction with other environmental factors. Our results support the hypothesis that suppressing egg infections is an important aspect of parental care that can select for filial cannibalism, a common but poorly understood behaviour, especially in fish with parental care. PMID:25676104

  20. Polyamines as salinity biochemical marker in callus of eucalyptus urograndis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppina Lima Pace Pereira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biochemical markers have been used for the analysis of plant cells submitted to several types of stress, among them salinity. This work aimed at analyzing the effect of saline stress in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis on polyamine contents. Explants (hypocotyls obtained from seeds were inoculated in callus inductive medium, submitted to different levels of NaCl and analyzed at 10, 20 and 30 days after the inoculation. The free polyamines were extracted, isolated and quantified using TLC (Thin-Layer Chromatography. Putrescine content was higher and a fall in the spermidine content was observed in callus submitted to salinity condition. The results showed that polyamine accumulation is related to NaCl exposure in callus of Eucalyptus urograndis. The decrease in spermine content could be used as a biochemical marker for Eucalyptus callus subjected to salinity.

  1. Salinity on artificial reproduction of silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Bernardes Martins

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Attempting to improve reproduction performance and ichthyo prophylaxis, this study evaluated the effects of maintaining silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen broodstock in different saline concentrations (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8‰ on gametes quality and reproductive viability. The results showed that sperm percent motility did not change between 0 and 4‰, but it was reduced at 6‰, and sperm became immotile at 8‰ salinity. Sperm motility time was increased (almost five fold at 6‰. Salinities up to 4‰ prevented fertilization and hatching, proving their deleterious effects on oocytes and embryos. Therefore, media up to 4‰ salinity may be an alternative for icthyo prophylaxis, although fertilization and incubation must be done in freshwater medium

  2. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Daily, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has daily Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  3. Wheat Response to a Soil Previously Irrigated with Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vito Sardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A research was conducted aimed at assessing the response of rainfed, lysimeter-grown wheat to various levels of soil salinity, in terms of dry mass production, inorganic and organic components, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SS activity. One additional scope was the assessment of soil ability to recover from applied salts by means of winter precipitations. The results confirmed the relatively high salt tolerance of wheat, as demonstrated by the mechanisms enacted by plants to contrast salinity at root and leaf level. Some insight was gained in the relationships between salinity and the various inorganic and organic components, as well as with SPS and SS activity. It was demonstrated that in a year with precipitations well below the average values (305 mm vs 500 the leaching action of rain was sufficient to eliminate salts accumulated during summer irrigation with saline water.

  4. Experimental Performance of Spatial Interpolators for Ground Water Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mapping groundwater qualities requires either sampling on a fine regular grid or spatial interpolation. The latter is usually used because the cost of the former is prohibitive. Experimental performance of five spatial interpolators for groundwater salinity was investigated using cross validation. The methods included ordinary kriging (OK), lognormal kriging, inverse distance, inverse squared distance and inverse cubed distance. The results show that OK outperformed other interpolators in terms of bias. Interpolation accuracy based on mean absolute difference criterion is relatively high for all interpolators with small difference among them. While three-dimensional surfaces produced by all inverse distance based procedures are dominated by isolated peaks and pits, surfaces produced by kriging are free from localized pits and peaks, and show areas of low groundwater salinity as elongated basins and areas of high salinity as ridges, which make regional trends easy to identify. Considering all criteria, OK was judged to be the most suitable spatial interpolator for groundwater salinity in this study. (author)

  5. NOAA NDBC SOS - sea_water_practical_salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA NDBC SOS server is part of the IOOS DIF SOS Project. The stations in this dataset have sea_water_practical_salinity data. Because of the nature of SOS...

  6. Back Bay: Report on Salinity and Water Clarity in 1986

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Salinity, turbidity and various other water quality parameters were monitored monthly in 1986 at 24 stations on Back Bay. Results show Back Bay to be brackish (mean...

  7. Long term Milford Lab Temperature and Salinity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Temperature and salinity of sea water entering the Milford NOAA Laboratory has been being collected since 1948. From 1948-1974 the temperature data was collected at...

  8. TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, Salinity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Salinity data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/), RAMA (Indian Ocean, http://www.pmel.noaa.gov/tao/rama/),...

  9. Growth and ionic content of quinoa under saline irrigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riccardi, M.; Pulvento, C.; Lavini, A.;

    2014-01-01

    Drought and salinity are the most important abiotic stresses that affect plant's growth and productivity. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of salt and water deficit on water relations, growth parameters and capacity to accumulate inorganic solutes in quinoa plants....... Actual evapotranspiration (ETa), water productivity (WP), biomass allocation, relative growth rate (RGR), net assimilation rate (NAR), specific leaf area, leaf area ratio and ions accumulation of quinoa plants were evaluated. WP and plant growth were not influenced by saline irrigation, as quinoa plants....... An irrigation experiment was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Volturno river plain. Three treatments irrigated with fresh water (Q100, Q50 and Q25) and three irrigated with saline water (Q100S, Q50S and Q25S) were tested. For saline irrigation, water with an electrical conductivity of 22 dS m-1 was used...

  10. Reclamation and Management of Saline and Alkali Soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Anoop; Katiyar, D.; Agrawal, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    of saline and alkali soils is old but its magnitude and intensity have been increasing because of poor land and water management practices. The proper land management by way of its reclamation involves physical, chemical and biological means, which are site specific and their integration is highly desirable......Soil is the most precious natural resource and thus requires proper management. Estimates show that the world as a whole is losing at least 3.0 ha of arable land every minute due to salinization or sodification. In India about 7.0 M ha land is affected by salinity and alkalinity. The problem...... to combat with the problem. The present review is an attempt to emphasize the problem of salinity and alkalinity of soils, its effect on plants and application of physical, chemical and biological methods of soil reclamation along with management issues...

  11. Hydrodynamic and Salinity Intrusion Model in Selangor River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. F.; Tahir, W.

    2016-07-01

    A multi-dimensional hydrodynamic and transport model has been used to develop the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion model for Selangor River Estuary. Delft3D-FLOW was applied to the study area using a curvilinear, boundary fitted grid. External boundary forces included ocean water level, salinity, and stream flow. The hydrodynamic and salinity transport used for the simulation was calibrated and confirmed using data on November 2005 and from May to June 2014. A 13-day period for November 2005 data and a 6-day period of May to June 2014 data were chosen as the calibration and confirmation period because of the availability of data from the field-monitoring program conducted. From the calibration results, it shows that the model was well suited to predict the hydrodynamic and salinity intrusion characteristics of the study area.

  12. Acute peritonitis as the first presentation of valvular cardiomyopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Higgins, Nikki

    2012-02-01

    Valvular cardiomyopathy can present a diagnostic challenge in the absence of overt cardiac symptoms. This report describes the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented with acute peritonitis associated with vomiting and abdominal distension. Subsequent abdominal computed tomography and ultrasound revealed bibasal pleural effusions, ascites, and normal ovaries. An echocardiogram revealed that all cardiac chambers were dilated with a global decrease in contractility and severe mitral, tricuspid, and aortic regurgitation. A diagnosis of cardiomyopathy with acute heart failure, secondary to valvular heart disease, was secured. Acute peritonitis as the presenting feature of valvular cardiomyopathy is a rare clinical entity.

  13. A Case of Probable Ibuprofen-Induced Acute Pancreatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Magill

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Context :The incidence of drug-induced pancreatitis is rare. There have been no prior definite cases reported of ibuprofen-induced pancreatitis. Case report: We present a case of a young man with acute pancreatitis probably secondary to an ibuprofen overdose. Immediately preceding the onset of the attack he took a 51 mg/kg dose of ibuprofen. He had other causes of acute pancreatitis excluded by clinical history, serum toxicology and abdominal imaging. Discussion :In the absence of re-challenge we believe it is probable that ibuprofen has acausative link with acute pancreatitis.

  14. Determining sources of elevated salinity in pre-hydraulic fracturing water quality data using a multivariate discriminant analysis model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautz, L. K.; Hoke, G. D.; Lu, Z.; Siegel, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    Hydraulic fracturing has the potential to introduce saline water into the environment due to migration of deep formation water to shallow aquifers and/or discharge of flowback water to the environment during transport and disposal. It is challenging to definitively identify whether elevated salinity is associated with hydraulic fracturing, in part, due to the real possibility of other anthropogenic sources of salinity in the human-impacted watersheds in which drilling is taking place and some formation water present naturally in shallow groundwater aquifers. We combined new and published chemistry data for private drinking water wells sampled across five southern New York (NY) counties overlying the Marcellus Shale (Broome, Chemung, Chenango, Steuben, and Tioga). Measurements include Cl, Na, Br, I, Ca, Mg, Ba, SO4, and Sr. We compared this baseline groundwater quality data in NY, now under a moratorium on hydraulic fracturing, with published chemistry data for 6 different potential sources of elevated salinity in shallow groundwater, including Appalachian Basin formation water, road salt runoff, septic effluent, landfill leachate, animal waste, and water softeners. A multivariate random number generator was used to create a synthetic, low salinity (chemical differences between groundwater impacted by formation water, road salt runoff, septic effluent, landfill leachate, animal waste, and water softeners. We then trained a multivariate, discriminant analysis model on the resulting data set to classify observed high salinity groundwater (> 20 mg/L Cl) as being affected by formation water, road salt, septic effluent, landfill leachate, animal waste, or water softeners. Single elements or pairs of elements (e.g. Cl and Br) were not effective at discriminating between sources of salinity, indicating multivariate methods are needed. The discriminant analysis model classified most accurately samples affected by formation water and landfill leachate, whereas those

  15. Economic benefit and costs of tree planting for salinity control

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Christine M.

    2004-01-01

    This study reviewed case studies and research focussed on the issues of managing native vegetation, the problems of salinity and the relationship between the two. It then addressed the economic feasibility of six tree planting configurations to reduce the impacts of salinity. The method used a spreadsheet model showing the benefits and costs of various planting configurations over a 30-year time span. This model can be used to assess the monetary net benefit/costs of reducing recharge of a ve...

  16. Analisis Laju Pencucian Tanah Salin dengan Menggunakan Drainase Bawah Permukaan

    OpenAIRE

    Nibras Nasyirah; Dedi Kusnadi Kalsim; Satyanto Krido Saptomo

    2015-01-01

    Leaching process with subsurface drainage is needed to solve the salinity problem. This research was conducted to determine the leaching rate of saline soil by contaminants flow in the soil experiments, and determine the accuracy of ILRI’s formula (1994) that used in the calculation. Data was collected in some experiments, the experimental of soil physical properties, salt contamination, and soil leaching. The experiments showed the different leaching time to reduce concentration to the desir...

  17. Physical processing efficiency of saline vs. alkaline spent batteries

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, Marta; Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2008-01-01

    Physical processing of spent batteries which includes shredding and sieving operation is the first step for chemical treatment by hydrometallurgy. A laboratory study was carried out to evaluate physical processing efficiency, by analysing the resulting particle size, of alkaline and saline mignon-type Zn-MnO2 batteries. After shredding with a tip shredder, results obtained showed that alkaline batteries were more efficiently size reduced than saline batteries. Difference in particle size dist...

  18. Halophyte filters as saline treatment wetlands; Applicators and constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Gaag, J.J.; Paulissen, M. P. C. P.; Slim, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Purification of wastewater rich in nutrients and organic pollutants is essential for the protection of receiving waters and to enable water reuse. This report investigates the possibilities and constraints of constructed wetlands for treatment of slightly saline wastewater from aquaculture systems. As the body of literature for saline treatment wetlands is relatively small, the reports starts with a summary of processes in freshwater systems. It is then explained that these processes are also...

  19. DIFFERENTIAL FOS-PROTEIN INDUCTION IN RAT FOREBRAIN REGIONS AFTER ACUTE AND LONG-TERM HALOPERIDOL AND CLOZAPINE TREATMENT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SEBENS, JB; KOCH, T; TERHORST, GJ; KORF, J

    1995-01-01

    Both acute and long-term effects of haloperidol and clozapine on Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in several rat forebrain areas were quantified. Rats were treated with saline (1 ml/kg.day, control), haloperidol (1 mg/kg.day) and clozapine (20 mg/kg.day) i.p. for 21 days. Two hours before perfusion fi

  20. Oil and Protein Accumulation in Soybean Grains under Salinity Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazem GHASSEMI-GOLEZANI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Two factorial experiments based on randomized complete block design (RCBD with three replications were conducted in 2007 and 2008, to evaluate grain development (four harvests and rate and duration of oil and protein accumulation in three soybean cultivars (�Williams�, �Zan� and �L17� under a non-saline (control and three saline (3, 6 and 9 ds/m NaCl conditions. Six seeds were sown in each pot filled with 900 g perlite, using 144 pots for each experiment. After emergence, seedlings were thinned and 4 plants were kept in each pot. Rate of oil accumulation up to maturity was not significantly affected by salinity. With increasing salinity, rate and percentage of protein accumulation, duration of oil and protein accumulation and oil and protein content per grain decreased, but oil percentage increased. Oil and protein yields per plant decreased as salinity increased. These reductions were mainly attributed to the short duration of protein and oil accumulation and grain yield per plant under saline conditions. �Williams� had the highest rate and duration of protein accumulation and rate of oil accumulation, but �L17� had the highest grain yield per plant. Consequently, differences in protein and oil yields per plant between these two cultivars were not statistically significant. However, �Zan� had the lowest protein and oil yields, due to the lowest grain yield per plant.

  1. Reclamation of Sodic-Saline Soils. Barley Crop Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Cucci

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was aimed at assessing the salinity and sodicity effects of two soil types submitted to correction on barley crop. The two soils, contained in cylindrical pots (0.40 m in size and 0.60 m h supplied with a bottom valve for the collection of drainage water and located under shed to prevent the leaching action of rainfall, were clay-textured and saline and sodic-saline at barley seeding, as they had been cultivated for 4 consecutive years with different herbaceous species irrigated with 9 types of brackish water. In 2002-2003 the 2 salinized and sodium-affected soils (ECe and ESP ranging respectively from 5.84-20.27 dSm-1 to 2.83-11.19%, submitted to correction, were cultivated with barley cv Micuccio, and irrigated with fresh water (ECw = 0.5 dS m-1 and SAR = 0.45 whenever 30% of the maximum soil available moisture was lost by evapotranspiration. Barley was shown to be a salt-tolerant species and did not experience any salt stress when grown in soils with an initial ECe up to 11 dS m-1. When it was grown in more saline soils (initial ECe of about 20 dS m-1, despite the correction, it showed a reduction in shoot biomass and kernel yield by 26% and 36% respectively, as compared to less saline soils.

  2. [Treatment characteristics of saline domestic wastewater by constructed wetland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Feng; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Li, Chen; Jin, Wei-Hong; Deng, Yi-Bing

    2012-11-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using constructed wetland (CW) to remove pollutants from saline domestic sewage. The experimental results indicated that the effects of salinity on the contaminant removal were insignificant when the influent salinities of the CWs were less than or equal to 1.5%. For the influent salinity of 0%, 0.5%, 1.0% and 1.5%, the average removal rates of the CWs were found to be above 68.3% for COD and above 66.1% for NH4(+) -N. When the influent salinity was increased to 2.0%, the individual numbers of microorganisms in the CW reduced obviously. It was similar to the change of the soil enzyme activity in the CW. Then the removal efficiency of the CW also dropped significantly. The average removal rate of COD and NH4(+) -N dropped to 52.9% and 50.3%, respectively. The effects of HRT on the treatment performance of CW under the saline condition of 1.5% were also investigated in this study. And the results showed that nitrogen removal was more greatly affected by HRT than organic matter removal. The NH4(+) -N removal efficiency in CW decreased from 65.1% -78.2% to 47.1% when the HRT of the CW varied from 3-5 d to 2 d. PMID:23323411

  3. Soil salinity detection. [Starr and Cameron Counties, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiegand, C. L.; Richardson, A. J.; Gausman, H. W.; Leamer, R. W.; Gerbermann, A. H.; Everitt, J. H.; Cuellar, J. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Growth forms and herbage biomass production varied considerably among saline and nonsaline soil range sites in Starr County. Grasses on saline soil sites were shallow-rooted and short whereas on nonsaline sites there was an intermixture of short and midgrass species. Differentiation between primarily undisturbed saline and nonsaline rangelands, in Starr County, is partially possible using film optical density readings from Skylab imagery. Differentiation among eight saline and nonsaline soil sites in Cameron County, using black and white and color film was not possible according to statistical results from both DMRT and correlation analysis. Linear analysis showed that Bendix 24-band MSS data (aircraft) collected at 1700 m and 4800 m, as well as Skylab and LANDSAT-1 MSS data, were significantly correlated to electrical conductivity readings. In Starr County, the best spectral band for detection of saline soil levels, using black and white SO-022 film, was in the 0.6 to 0.7 micron spectral region. In Cameron County, the best spectral bands for detection of saline soil levels were the 2.3 to 2.43 micron, 0.72 to 0.76 micron, 0.69 to 1.75 micron, and 0.7 to 1.1 micron spectral regions.

  4. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared.

  5. Saline volume expansion and cardiovascular physiology: novel observations, old explanations, and new questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, James L

    2004-10-01

    In a clinical investigation, Kumar and coworkers reported the hemodynamic events that accompany plasma volume expansion over 3 hours in healthy adult volunteers, and found that increases in stroke volume (SV) may be related to increases in left ventricular (LV)/right ventricular (RV) end-diastolic volume, as they expected, but also to decreases in LV/RV end-systolic volume. The latter finding suggests increased contractility and/or decreased afterload, which do not fit with their perception that clinicians ascribe increases in SV to increases in end-diastolic volume based on Starling's work. Increased ejection fraction and decreased vascular resistances were also observed. The same authors recently reported novel data suggesting that reduced blood viscosity may account for the observed reduction in vascular resistances with saline volume expansion. However, the variances in preload and afterload, along with uncertainty in estimates of contractility, substantially limit their ability to define a primary mechanism to explain decreases in LV end-systolic volume. A focus on using ejection fraction to evaluate the integrated performance of the cardiovascular system is provided to broaden this analytic perspective. Sagawa and colleagues described an approach to estimate the relationship, under clinical conditions, between ventricular and arterial bed elastances (i.e. maximal ventricular systolic elastance [Emax] and maximal arterial systolic elastance [Ea]), reflecting ventricular-arterial coupling. I used the mean data provided in one of the reports from Kumar and coworkers to calculate that LV Emax decreased from 1.09 to 0.96 mmHg/ml with saline volume expansion, while Ea decreased from 1.1 to 0.97 mmHg/ml and the SV increased (i.e. the increase in mean SV was associated with a decrease in mean afterload while the mean contractility decreased). The results reported by Kumar and coworkers invite further studies in normal and critically ill patients during acute saline

  6. Effects of changes in water salinity upon exercise and cardiac performance in the European seabass ( Dicentrarchus labrax )

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatelier, A.; McKenzie, David; Claireaux, G.

    2005-01-01

    in seawater (SW) at a salinity of 30 parts per thousand and temperature of 14 degrees C, and their maximal sustainable (critical) swimming speed (U-crit) determined. Cardiac output (Q) was measured via an ultrasound flow probe on their ventral aorta. The fish were then exposed to acute reductions in water...... salinity, to either SW (control), 10 parts per thousand, 5 parts per thousand, or freshwater (FW, 0 parts per thousand), and their exercise and cardiac performance measured again, 18 h later. Seabass were also acclimated to FW for 3 weeks, and then their exercise performance measured before and at 18 h...... after acute exposure to SW at 30 parts per thousand. In SW, seabass exhibited an exponential increase in M-O2 and Q with increasing swimming speed, to a maximum M-O2 of 339 +/- 17 mg kg(-1) h(-1) and maximum Q of 52.0 +/- 1.9 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (mean +/- 1 SEM; n=19). Both M-O2 and Q exhibited signs...

  7. An algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity in the global ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. McDougall

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available To date, density and other thermodynamic properties of seawater have been calculated from Practical Salinity, S P. It is more accurate however to use Absolute Salinity, S A (the mass fraction of dissolved material in seawater. Absolute Salinity S A can be expressed in terms of Practical Salinity S P as

    S A=(35.165 04 g kg-1/35S PS A(φ, λ, p

    where δ S A is the Absolute Salinity Anomaly as a function of longitude φ, latitude λ and pressure. When a seawater sample has standard composition (i.e. the ratios of the constituents of sea salt are the same as those of surface water of the North Atlantic, the Absolute Salinity Anomaly is zero. When seawater is not of standard composition, the Absolute Salinity Anomaly needs to be estimated; this anomaly is as large as 0.025 g kg−1 in the northernmost North Pacific. Here we provide an algorithm for estimating Absolute Salinity Anomaly for any location (φ, λ, p in the world ocean.

    To develop this algorithm we use the Absolute Salinity Anomaly that is found by comparing the density calculated from Practical Salinity to the density measured in the laboratory. These estimates of Absolute Salinity Anomaly however are limited to the number of available observations (namely 811. To expand our data set we take advantage of approximate relationships between Absolute Salinity Anomaly and silicate concentrations (which are available globally. We approximate the laboratory-determined values of δ S A of the 811 seawater samples as a series of simple functions of the silicate concentration of the seawater sample and latitude; one function for each ocean basin. We use these basin-specific correlations and a digital atlas of silicate in the world ocean to deduce the Absolute Salinity

  8. Dwarfism of blue mussels in the low saline Baltic Sea — growth to the lower salinity limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, Hans Ulrik; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Turja, Raisa;

    2014-01-01

    Mussels within the Baltic Mytilus edulis × M. trossulus hybrid zone have adapted to the low salinities in the Baltic Sea which, however, results in slow-growing dwarfed mussels. To get a better understanding of the nature of dwarfism, we studied the ability of M. trossulus to feed and grow at low...... salinity (7 psu) compared with its performance at relatively high-salinity (20 psu) in controlled laboratory experiments, supplemented with field (Great Belt) growth experiments with M. trossulus and M. edulis in net-bags. Subsequently, the growth of M. trossulus transplanted in cages to various localities...... in the northern Baltic Sea was used to evaluate the effect of very low salinities, down to 3.4 psu. The laboratory feeding experiments with M. trossulus at 7 psu showed that the growth in shell length was negligible, whereas the body dry weight nearly doubled during the 15 d experiment, with a weight...

  9. ACUTE PANCREATITIS - THE SEVERE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana Grigoras

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory disease. Frequently it is a challenging condition for the surgeon and for the intensive care physician, taking into account that etiology is sometimes obscure, the pathophysiology is complex and incompletely understood, the timing of surgical treatment is still under debate and the general treatment is mostly supportive. The incidence is about 30 – 50 / 100.000 / year. In 80% of cases the disease is associated with interstitial edema, mild infiltration with inflammatory cells and intra- or peripancreatic fat necrosis. Evolution is benign and self-limited with proper treatment. The severe form occurs less frequent (15 - 20%, results in long lasting hospitalization and is associated with high mortality (30 - 40%, due to infected necrosis and multiple organ failure. Alcoholism and biliary disease account for 80% of cases. Rare etiologies of disease include metabolic factors (hypercalcemia, hyperlipoproteinemia, drug ingestion, obstructive factors (abdominal tumors, trauma, endoscopic retrograde cholecistopancreatography, and s.o., infections (viral, parasitic and hemodynamic factors. Postoperative pancreatitis is a complication after major abdominal surgery (abdominal aorta aneurism repair, extensive upper abdominal surgery, hepatic or cardiac transplant, so.. The common pathophysiological mechanism is pancreatic hypoperfusion. Acute pancreatitis is not a stable disease, being characterized by time-dependent stages with specific morphologic and clinical patterns. The terminology used to designate these stages is stated in the Ulm classification. Since the consensus Conference in Atlanta (1992 the severe form of acute pancreatitis is defined by the presence of organ dysfunction/failure or by the presence of local complications. The initiating event is the premature zymogene activation and the impairment of the exocytosis process with local consequences (ongoing tissue necrosis and general consequences

  10. Identifying Salinity Sources and Quantifying Salinity Loads Along Two Texas Streams Using Stream-axis Airborne EM and Focused Hydrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, J. G.; Collins, E. W.; Nance, H. S.; Niemann, K.

    2005-12-01

    We delineated natural and oil-field salinity sources that degrade water quality in the upper Colorado River (west Texas) and Petronila Creek (Texas coast) by combining multi-frequency airborne EM measurements of apparent ground conductivity with chemical analyses of surface water at key stream locations. To reduce the cost of high-resolution airborne surveying over such large areas, we first flew along the stream axes and then examined preliminary results in the field to identify likely salinized stream segments. We then flew more detailed surveys over these areas rather than over the entire basin. Stream-axis EM data also helped identify water-sampling locations upstream and downstream from each salinized segment. We used these data to calculate salinity loads and discriminate among possible natural and oil-field salinity sources. We acquired stream-axis airborne EM data along 437 km of the upper Colorado River and its major tributaries using a Geophex GEM-2A instrument operating at five frequencies between 450 Hz and 39 kHz. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading in the upper Colorado River basin between Lake Thomas and Ivie Reservoir occur along eleven segments of elevated apparent conductivity identified from airborne EM data. Each segment encompasses areas of baseflow salinity contributions to the stream from natural dissolution of evaporite minerals in the Permian basin, from oil-field produced water, or both. Analyses of surface water confirm increases salinity loading associated with each segment. Airborne EM data acquired on the coast along Petronila Creek and within a corridor centered on it revealed three stream segments with elevated ground conductivity. Increases in chloride, sulfate, and total salinity loading are attributed to shallow baseflow contributions along the three segments. Using airborne EM and hydrochemistry data, we interpret the dominant salinization mechanism within the two upstream segments to be historic discharge

  11. Contributrion to the improvement of the soil moisture and ocean salinity (SMOS) sea surface salinity retrieval algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Talone, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The European Space Agency's Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite was launched on November, 2, 2009 from the Russian cosmodrome of Plesetsk. Its objective is to globally and regularly collect measurements of soil moistre and Sea Surface Salinity (SSS). To do that, a pioneering instru- ment has been developed: the Microwave Imaging Radiometer by Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS), the rst space-borne, 2-D interferometric radiometer ever built; it operates at L-band, with...

  12. Photosynthetic Responses of the Tropical Spiny Shrub Lycium nodosum (Solanaceae) to Drought, Soil Salinity and Saline Spray

    OpenAIRE

    Tezara, Wilmer; MARTÍNEZ, DAYAG; RENGIFO, ELIZABETH; Herrera, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Water relations and photosynthetic characteristics of plants of Lycium nodosum grown under increasing water deficit (WD), saline spray (SS) or saline irrigation (SI) were studied. Plants of this perennial, deciduous shrub growing in the coastal thorn scrubs of Venezuela show succulent leaves which persist for approx. 1 month after the beginning of the dry season; leaf succulence is higher in populations closer to the sea. These observations suggested that L. nodosum is tolerant both to WD and...

  13. Salinity tolerance of Picochlorum atomus and the use of salinity for contamination control by the freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena limnetica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas von Alvensleben

    Full Text Available Microalgae are ideal candidates for waste-gas and -water remediation. However, salinity often varies between different sites. A cosmopolitan microalga with large salinity tolerance and consistent biochemical profiles would be ideal for standardised cultivation across various remediation sites. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of salinity on Picochlorum atomus growth, biomass productivity, nutrient uptake and biochemical profiles. To determine if target end-products could be manipulated, the effects of 4-day nutrient limitation were also determined. Culture salinity had no effect on growth, biomass productivity, phosphate, nitrate and total nitrogen uptake at 2, 8, 18, 28 and 36 ppt. 11 ppt, however, initiated a significantly higher total nitrogen uptake. While salinity had only minor effects on biochemical composition, nutrient depletion was a major driver for changes in biomass quality, leading to significant increases in total lipid, fatty acid and carbohydrate quantities. Fatty acid composition was also significantly affected by nutrient depletion, with an increased proportion of saturated and mono-unsaturated fatty acids. Having established that P. atomus is a euryhaline microalga, the effects of culture salinity on the development of the freshwater cyanobacterial contaminant Pseudanabaena limnetica were determined. Salinity at 28 and 36 ppt significantly inhibited establishment of P. limnetica in P. atomus cultures. In conclusion, P. atomus can be deployed for bioremediation at sites with highly variable salinities without effects on end-product potential. Nutrient status critically affected biochemical profiles--an important consideration for end-product development by microalgal industries. 28 and 36 ppt slow the establishment of the freshwater cyanobacterium P. limnetica, allowing for harvest of low contaminant containing biomass.

  14. ERCP in acute pancreatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jijo V Cherian; Joye Varghese Selvaraj; Rajesh Natrayan; Jayanthi Venkataraman

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The role of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in the management of acute pancreatitis has evolved over years since its introduction in 1968. Its importance in diagnosing the etiology of pancreatitis has steadily declined with the advent of less invasive diagnostic tools. The therapeutic implications of ERCP in acute pancreatitis are many fold and are directed towards management of known etiological factors or its related complications. This article highlights the current status of ERCP in acute pancreatitis. DATA SOURCES:An English literature search using PubMed database was conducted on ERCP in acute pancreatitis, the etiologies and complications of pancreatitis amenable to endotherapy and other related subjects, which were reviewed. RESULTS: ERCP serves as a primary therapeutic modality for management of biliary pancreatitis in speciifc situations, pancreatitis due to microlithiasis, speciifc types of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, pancreas divisum, ascariasis and malignancy. In recurrent acute pancreatitis and smoldering pancreatitis it has a deifnite therapeutic utility. Complications of acute pancreatitis including pancreatic-duct disruptions or leaks, benign pancreatic-lfuid collections and pancreatic necrosis can be beneifcially dealt with. Intraductal ultrasound and pancreatoscopy during ERCP are useful in detecting pancreatic malignancy. CONCLUSIONS:The role of ERCP in acute pancreatitis is predominantly therapeutic and occasionally diagnostic. Its role in the management continues to evolve and advanced invasive procedures should be undertaken only in centers dedicated to pancreatic care.

  15. Effects of Acute Low Back Pain on Postural Control

    OpenAIRE

    Sohn, Min Kyun; Lee, Sang Sook; Song, Hyun Tak

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the changes in static and dynamic postural control after the development of acute low back pain. Methods Thirty healthy right-handed volunteers were divided into three groups; the right back pain group, the left back pain group, and the control group. 0.5 mL of 5% hypertonic saline was injected into L4-5 paraspinal muscle for 5 seconds to cause muscle pain. The movement of the center of gravity (COG) during their static and dynamic postural control was measured with thei...

  16. Developing a Watershed Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a watershed challenge that gives students an opportunity to investigate the challenge of using a watershed area as a site for development, examining the many aspects of this multifaceted problem. This design challenge could work well in a team-based format, with students taking on specific aspects of the challenges and…

  17. Acute oncological emergencies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gabriel, J

    2012-01-01

    The number of people receiving systemic anti-cancer treatment and presenting at emergency departments with treatment-related problems is rising. Nurses will be the first point of contact for most patients and need to be able to recognise oncological emergencies to initiate urgent assessment of patients and referral to the acute oncology team so that the most appropriate care can be delivered promptly. This article discusses the role of acute oncology services, and provides an overview of the most common acute oncological emergencies.

  18. Acute pancreatitis; Pancreatite aigue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehdi, M.; Deutsch, J.P.; Arrive, L.; Ayadi, K.; Ladeb, M.F.; Tubiana, J.M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)

    1996-12-31

    The diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is based on clinical examination and basic laboratory tests. The main role of sonography in acute pancreatitis is to evaluate gallstones and small fluid collections. However, sonography is frequently difficult due to intestinal ileus related to pancreatitis. CT is indicated early in the clinical course of acute severe pancreatitis when the diagnosis is uncertain or when complications such as abscess, hemorrhage, or necrosis, are suspected. In addition, CT may be used to assess the prognosis and follow-up of patients. (authors). 20 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Low back pain (acute)

    OpenAIRE

    Koes, B; Tulder, van, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Low back pain is pain, muscle tension, or stiffness, localised below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds, with or without referred or radicular leg pain (sciatica), and is defined as acute when pain persists for less than 12 weeks. Low back pain affects about 70% of people in resource-rich countries at some point.Acute low back pain is usually self-limiting, although 2-7% develop chronic pain. Acute low back pain has a high recurrence rate with less-painful symptoms recu...

  20. Acute acalculous cholecystitis complicating chemotherapy for acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olfa Kassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a rare complication in the treatment of acute myeloblastic leukemia. Diagnosis of acute acalculous cholecystitis remains difficult during neutropenic period. We present two acute myeloblastic leukemia patients that developed acute acalculous cholecystitis during chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. They suffered from fever, vomiting and acute pain in the epigastrium. Ultrasound demonstrated an acalculous gallbladder. Surgical management was required in one patient and conservative treatment was attempted in the other patient. None treatment measures were effective and two patients died. Acute acalculous cholecystitis is a serious complication in neutropenic patients. Earlier diagnosis could have expedited the management of these patients.

  1. The Value of D-Dimer in Diagnosis of Acute Mesenteric Ischemia and Differential Diagnosis from Acute Pancreatitis and Acute Cholecystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Hot

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Because of its poor prognosis and high mor­tality rate, early diagnosis of acute mesenteric ischemia (AMI is a challenge. The value of serum markers in the diagnosis of AMI is limited and the studies related with the D-dimer test carried out in recent years. In this prospec­tive study we investigated the value of the level of plasma D-dimer in the diagnosis of AMI and the differential diag­nosis from acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis. Methods: We included 89 patients who admitted to our emergency department with abdominal pain. The number and the diagnosis of the patients were 17 AMI, 42 acute pancreatitis and 30 acute cholecystitis, respectively. We measured the levels of plasma D-dimer of all patients by using a latex agglutination ‘immunoassay’ method. Even­tually we calculated the sensitivity and specificity of D-dimer test in the diagnosis of AMI. Results: We determined the specificity of the D-dimer test in the differential diagnosis of AMI as 50% from acute pancreatitis, 70% from acute cholecystitis, 58.3% from all the control group and the sensitivity was 100%. Conclusion: The measurement of plasma D-dimer con­centration may be useful in the differential diagnosis of AMI from acute pancreatitis and acute cholecystitis. How­ever, to reveal the diagnostic value of D-dimer test more clearly, further studies with larger series are needed, where cut-off value is highly defined, and other patients with acute abdominal pain are added into the control group.

  2. Infusion of hypertonic saline before elective hysterectomy: effects on cytokines and stress hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolsen-Petersen, J A; Bendtzen, K; Tonnesen, E

    2008-01-01

    Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery.......Infusion of hypertonic saline provides early haemodynamic benefits and may affect the immune system. It is unknown if infusion of hypertonic saline affects plasma cytokines and stress hormones after surgery....

  3. Geomorphic Characterization of the Middle Fork Saline River: Garland, Perry, and Saline Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Aaron L.; Garday, Thomas J.; Redman, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    This report was prepared to help address concerns raised by local residents, State, and Federal agencies about the current geomorphic conditions of the Middle Fork Saline River. Over the past 30 years the Middle Fork Saline River Basin has experienced a marked increase in urbanization. The report summarizes the Middle Fork?s current (2003) channel characteristics at nine stream reaches in the upper 91 square miles of the basin. Assessments at each study reach included comparing measured stream geometry dimensions (cross-sectional area, top width, and mean depth) at bankfull stage to regional hydraulic geometry curves for the Ouachita Mountains Physiographic Province of Arkansas and Oklahoma, evaluations of streambed materials and sinuosity, and classification of individual stream reach types. When compared to the Ouachita Mountains? regional hydraulic geometry curves for natural, stable, stream reaches, five of the nine study reaches had slightly smaller crosssectional areas, longer top widths, and shallower depths. Streambed material analysis indicates that the Middle Fork is a bedrock influenced, gravel dominated stream with lesser amounts of sand and cobbles. Slight increases in sinuosity from 1992 to 2002 at seven of the nine study reaches indicate a slight decrease in stream channel slope. Analyses of the Middle Fork?s hydraulic geometry and sinuosity indicate that the Middle Fork is currently overly wide and shallow, but is slowly adjusting towards a deeper, narrower hydraulic geometry. Using the Rosgen system of channel classification, the two upstream study reaches classified as B4c/1 stream types; which were moderately entrenched, riffle dominated channels, with infrequently spaced pools. The downstream seven study reaches classified as C4/1 stream types; which were slightly entrenched, meandering, gravel-dominated, riffle/ pool channels with well developed flood plains. Analyses of stream reach types suggest that the downstream reaches of the Middle Fork

  4. Beneficial effects of hydrocortisone in induced acute pancreatitis of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Wei; WATANABE Yasuhiro; TOKI Akira; WANG Zhong-qiu

    2007-01-01

    Background Little is known of the effects of hydrocortisone on cell adhesion molecules such as intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and its counterreceptors (LFA-1, Mac-1) in acute pancreatitis (AP). We investigated the effects of prior treatment with hydrocortisone on the production of ICAM-1 and its counterreceptors (LFA-1 and Mac-1) in AP of rats to clarify the effect of hydrocortisone on induced acute pancreatitis.Methods Acute pancreatitis was induced by infusion of 5% chenodeoxycholic acid into the pancreatic duct, followed by ligation of pancreatic duct. Before induction of acute pancreatitis, rats were treated with hydrocortisone (n=20) or 0.9%saline (n=20). Blood and specimens from pancreas and lung were obtained from 5 rats from each treatment euthanized at 1 hour or 3 hours, 6 hours, 12 hours. Expression of ICAM-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis of pancreas and lungs. The expression of LFA-1 and Mac-1 on neutrophils was detected by flow cytometer.The therapeutic effect of hydrocortisone was assessed from injuries to pancreas and lung.Results ICAM-1 expression in the pancreas of hydrocortisone group was significantly less than in control group at 3 hours and 6 hours. In the lungs of hydrocortisone group, ICAM-1 expression was significantly less than in control group at 3 hours, 6 hours and 12 hours. The expression of LFA-1 and Mac-1 on neutrophils in blood increased significantly in control group over hydrocortisone group. Increased expression of ICAM-1, LFA-1 and Mac-1 preceded leukocyte infiltration. Compared to untreated animals with acute pancreatitis, rats pretreated with hydrocortisone had significantly reduced histological lung injury and output of ascitic fluid.Conclusions Prior treatment with hydrocortisone before the induction of acute pancreatitis ameliorates pulmonary injury and the output of ascitic fluid and reduces the expression of ICAM-1 and its counterreceptors (LFA-1, Mac-1) in acute pancreatitis.

  5. Appendicitis: a continuing challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, K M; Khan, A

    1998-07-01

    Acute appendicitis is a common surgical emergency in urban setting, of a developing country. The computerised hospital patient database at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, was utilised to obtain records of all adults with a histologically proven diagnosis of acute appendicitis. A review of patients treated over a 18 month period was undertaken. One hundred and three appendicectomies were performed for acute appendicitis during this period. The diagnosis was clinical in all cases. Investigations like leucocyte count and lower abdominal ultrasound scan were used to improve diagnostic accuracy without a clear advantage. A number of routine investigations like, haemoglobin estimation and urea, creatinine, electrolyte measurements, did not provide additional information. The duration of antibiotic treatment in acute simple appendicitis was empiric and could be reduced to a single preoperative dose. Peritoneal fluid culture studies had a poor yield (26%) and results were not found to effect management in acute simple appendicitis. The routine use of Ampicillin in all cases of bacterial peritonitis needs re-evaluation, as a high incidence (73%) of resistance was seen. Studies to define the role and duration of treatment, with a single antibiotic, in acute simple appendicitis should be undertaken. Acute appendicitis is probably the most frequently considered surgical differential diagnosis at any hospital dealing with acute surgical conditions. The established treatment continues to be surgical removal of the inflamed organ. The diagnosis and decision to operate both are accepted to be based on clinical judgement, though a number of investigative manoeuvres have been described to reduce the negative appendicectomy rate. Other areas of debate are the number and length of antibiotic treatment and use of bacterial culture studies in cases of simple acute appendicitis. To analyse present practice and identify areas for study and change, a retrospective study was

  6. PENGARUH PERBAIKAN TANAH SALIN TERHADAP KARAKTER FISIOLOGIS Calopogonium mucunoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Kusmiyati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Peralihan fungsi lahan pertanian menjadi wilayah pemukimam dan industri menyebabkan semakinberkurangnya lahan pertanian.Hal tersebut menyebabkan pengembangan pertanian perlu diarahkan padalahan-lahan marginal seperti tanah salin.Tanah salin adalah tanah yang mengandung garam terlarut netraldalam jumlah tertentu yang berpengaruh buruk terhadap pertumbuhan dan produksi tanaman.Penelitian yangdilaksanakan bertujuan mengkaji pengaruh perbaikan tanah salin secara kimia dan biologi terhadap karakterfisiologis Calopogonium mucunoides. Rancangan yang digunakan adalah rancangan acak lengkap dengan 3ulangan. Perbaikan tanah salin dilakukan melalui penambahan gipsum (P1, pupuk kandang (P2, abu sekampadi (P3, tanaman halofita (P4, gipsum dan pupuk kandang (P5, gipsum dan abu sekam padi (P6, gipsumdantanamanhalofita (P7, pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi (P8, pupuk kandang dan tanaman halofita(P9, abusekam padi dan tanaman halofita (P10 dan tanpa penambahan sebagai kontrol (P0. Parameter yangdiamati adalah kandungan klorofil a, kandungan klorofil b, kandungan total klorofil, aktivitas nitrat reduktase,luas daun dan laju fotosintesis.Data yang diperoleh dianalisis dengan sidik ragam dan uji lanjut dengan ujiwilayah ganda Duncan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan kandungan klorofil a, klorofil b, total klorofil, aktivitasnitrat reduktase dan laju fotosintesis calopo berbeda nyata (P<0,05 lebih tinggi pada perlakuan perbaikantanah salin dibandingkan kontrol. Kandungan klorofil a, klorofil b dan total klorofil calopo pada perlakuankombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi serta kombinasi gipsum dan pupuk kandang berbeda nyata(P<0,05 lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan lainnya. Aktivitas nitrat reduktase dan laju fotosintesis calopopada perlakuan kombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu sekam padi serta perlakuan pupuk kandang berbeda nyata(P<0,05 lebih tinggi daripada perlakuan lainnya. Simpulan adalah perbaikan tanah salin dengan penambahankombinasi pupuk kandang dan abu

  7. Indian Ocean sea surface salinity variations in a coupled model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Nanjundiah, Ravi S. [Indian Institute of Science, Centre for Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Bangalore (India)

    2009-08-15

    The variability of the sea surface salinity (SSS) in the Indian Ocean is studied using a 100-year control simulation of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM 2.0). The monsoon-driven seasonal SSS pattern in the Indian Ocean, marked by low salinity in the east and high salinity in the west, is captured by the model. The model overestimates runoff into the Bay of Bengal due to higher rainfall over the Himalayan-Tibetan regions which drain into the Bay of Bengal through Ganga-Brahmaputra rivers. The outflow of low-salinity water from the Bay of Bengal is too strong in the model. Consequently, the model Indian Ocean SSS is about 1 less than that seen in the climatology. The seasonal Indian Ocean salt balance obtained from the model is consistent with the analysis from climatological data sets. During summer, the large freshwater input into the Bay of Bengal and its redistribution decide the spatial pattern of salinity tendency. During winter, horizontal advection is the dominant contributor to the tendency term. The interannual variability of the SSS in the Indian Ocean is about five times larger than that in coupled model simulations of the North Atlantic Ocean. Regions of large interannual standard deviations are located near river mouths in the Bay of Bengal and in the eastern equatorial Indian Ocean. Both freshwater input into the ocean and advection of this anomalous flux are responsible for the generation of these anomalies. The model simulates 20 significant Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) events and during IOD years large salinity anomalies appear in the equatorial Indian Ocean. The anomalies exist as two zonal bands: negative salinity anomalies to the north of the equator and positive to the south. The SSS anomalies for the years in which IOD is not present and for ENSO years are much weaker than during IOD years. Significant interannual SSS anomalies appear in the Indian Ocean only during IOD years. (orig.)

  8. Hydrologic factors controlling groundwater salinity in northwestern coastal zone, Egypt

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nahla A Morad; M H Masoud; S M Abdel Moghith

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this article is to assess the main factors influencing salinity of groundwater in the coastal area between El Dabaa and Sidi Barani, Egypt. The types and ages of the main aquifers in this area are the fractured limestone of Middle Miocene, the calcareous sandstone of Pliocene and the Oolitic Limestone of Pleistocene age. The aquifers in the area are recharged by seasonal rainfall of the order of 150 mm/year. The relationship of groundwater salinity against the absolute water level, the well drilling depth, and the ability of aquifer to recharge has been discussed in the present work. The ability of aquifer to locally recharge by direct rainfall is a measure of the vertical permeability due to lithological and structural factors that control groundwater salinity in the investigated aquifers. On the other hand, the fracturing system as well as the attitude of the surface water divide has a prime role in changing both the mode of occurrence and the salinity of groundwater in the area. Directly to the west of Matrouh, where the coastal plain is the narrowest, and east of Barrani, where the coastal plain is the widest, are good examples of this concept, where the water salinity attains its maximum and minimum limits respectively. Accordingly, well drilling in the Miocene aquifer, in the area between El Negila and Barrani to get groundwater of salinities less than 5000 mg/l is recommended in this area, at flow rate less than 10m3/hr/well. In other words, one can expect that the brackish water is probably found where the surface water divide is far from the shore line, where the Wadi fill deposits dominate (Quaternary aquifer), acting as a possible water salinity by direct rainfall and runoff.

  9. Wind forcing of salinity anomalies in the Denmark Strait overflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow plume changed dramatically, with the entire width of the array (70 km freshening between January 2004 and July 2004, with a significant negative salinity anomaly of about 0.06 in May. The event in May represents a fresh anomaly of over 3 standard deviations from the mean since recording began in 1998. We show that the OCCAM 1/12° Ocean General Circulation Model not only reproduces the 2004 freshening event (r=0.96, p<0.01, but also correlates well with salinity observations over a previous 6 year period (r=0.54, p<0.01. Consequently the physical processes causing the 2004 anomaly and prior variability in salinity are investigated using the model output. Our results reject the hypotheses that the anomaly is caused by processes occurring between the overflow sill and the moorings, or by an increase in upstream net freshwater input. Instead, we show that the 2004 salinity anomaly is caused by an increase in volume flux of low salinity water, with a potential density greater than 27.60 kg m−3, flowing towards the Denmark Strait sill in the East Greenland Current. This is caused by an increase of southward wind stress upstream of the sill at around 75° N 20° W four and a half months earlier, and an associated spin-up of the Greenland Sea Gyre.

  10. Wind forcing of salinity anomalies in the Denmark Strait overflow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Hall

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The overflow of dense water from the Nordic Seas to the North Atlantic through Denmark Strait is an important part of the global thermohaline circulation. The salinity of the overflow plume has been measured by an array of current meters across the continental slope off the coast of Angmagssalik, southeast Greenland since September 1998. During 2004 the salinity of the overflow plume changed dramatically; the entire width of the array (70 km freshened between January 2004 and July 2004, with a significant negative salinity anomaly of about 0.06 in May. The event in May represents a fresh anomaly of over 3 standard deviations from the mean since recording began in 1998. The OCCAM 1/12° Ocean General Circulation Model not only reproduces the 2004 freshening event (r=0.96, p<0.01, but also correlates well with salinity observations over a previous 6 year period (r=0.54, p<0.01, despite the inevitable limitations of a z-coordinate model in representing the mixing processes at and downstream of the Denmark Strait sill. Consequently the physical processes causing the 2004 anomaly and prior variability in salinity are investigated using the model output. Our results reject the hypotheses that the anomaly is caused by processes occurring between the overflow sill and the moorings, or by an increase in upstream net freshwater input. Instead, we show that the 2004 salinity anomaly is caused by an increase in volume flux of low salinity water, with a potential density greater than 27.60 kg m−3, flowing towards the Denmark Strait sill in the East Greenland Current. This is caused by an increase in southward wind stress upstream of the sill at around 75° N 20° W four and a half months earlier, and an associated strengthening of the East Greenland Current.

  11. Shallow rainwater lenses in deltaic areas with saline seepage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. G. B. de Louw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In deltaic areas with saline seepage, freshwater availability is often limited to shallow rainwater lenses lying on top of saline groundwater. Here we describe the characteristics and spatial variability of such lenses in areas with saline seepage and the mechanisms that control their occurrence and size. Our findings are based on different types of field measurements and detailed numerical groundwater models applied in the south-western delta of the Netherlands. By combining the applied techniques we could extrapolate measurements at point scale (groundwater sampling, temperature and electrical soil conductivity (TEC-probe measurements, electrical cone penetration tests (ECPT to field scale (continuous vertical electrical soundings (CVES, electromagnetic survey with EM31, and even to regional scale using helicopter-borne electromagnetic measurements (HEM. The measurements show a gradual mixing zone between infiltrating fresh rainwater and upward flowing saline groundwater. The mixing zone is best characterized by the depth of the centre of the mixing zone Dmix, where the salinity is half that of seepage water, and the bottom of the mixing zone Bmix, with a salinity equal to that of the seepage water (Cl-conc. 10 to 16 g l−1. Dmix is found at very shallow depth in the confining top layer, on average at 1.7 m below ground level (b.g.l., while Bmix lies about 2.5 m b.g.l. The model results show that the constantly alternating upward and downward flow at low velocities in the confining layer is the main mechanism of mixing between rainwater and saline seepage and determines the position and extent of the mixing zone (Dmix and Bmix. Recharge, seepage flux, and drainage depth are the controlling factors.

  12. Proteomics, metabolomics and ionomics perspectives of salinity tolerance in halophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASHA KUMARI YADAV

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes are plants which naturally survive in saline environment. They account for approximately 1% of the total flora of the world. They include both dicots and monocots and are distributed mainly in arid, semi-arid inlands and saline wet lands along the tropical and sub-tropical coasts. Salinity tolerance in halophytes depends on a set of ecological and physiological characteristics that allow them to grow and flourish in high saline conditions. The ability of halophytes to tolerate high salt is determined by the effective coordination between various physiological processes, metabolic pathways and protein or gene networks responsible for delivering salinity tolerance. The salinity responsive proteins belong to diverse functional classes such as photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, stress/defence, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, protein metabolism, signal transduction and membrane transport. The important metabolites which are involved in salt tolerance of halophytes are proline and proline analogue (4-hydroxy-N-methyl proline, glycine betaine, pinitol, myo-inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, O-methylmucoinositol and polyamines. In halophytes, the synthesis of specific proteins and osmotically active metabolites control ion and water flux and support scavenging of oxygen radicals under salt stress condition. The present review summarizes the salt tolerance mechanisms of halophytes by elucidating the recent studies that have focused on proteomic, metabolomic and ionomic aspects of various halophytes in response to salinity. By integrating the information from halophytes and its comparison with glycophytes could give an overview of salt tolerance mechanisms in halophytes, thus laying down the pavement for development of salt tolerant crop plants through genetic modification and effective breeding strategies.

  13. Nutrition, Inflammation, and Acute Pancreatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Max Petrov

    2013-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is acute inflammatory disease of the pancreas. Nutrition has a number of anti-inflammatory effects that could affect outcomes of patients with pancreatitis. Further, it is the most promising nonspecific treatment modality in acute pancreatitis to date. This paper summarizes the best available evidence regarding the use of nutrition with a view of optimising clinical management of patients with acute pancreatitis.

  14. Acute myocardial infarction in young adults with Antiphospholipid syndrome: report of two cases and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Abid; Faten Frikha; Zouhir Bahloul; Samir Kammoun

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is rarely associated with antiphospholipid syndrome. The treatment of these patients is a clinical challenge. We report the observations of 2 young adults (1 woman and 1 man), admitted in our acute care unit for acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A coagulopathy work-up concludes the existence of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in the 2 cases. APS syndrome was considered primary in 2 cases. All patients presented an intense inflammatory syndrome (high...

  15. Serum microRNA-1233 is a specific biomarker for diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Thorsten; Erdmann, Jeanette; Vilne, Baiba; Bruse, Petra; Kurowski, Volkhard; Diemert, Patrick; Schunkert, Heribert; Sager, Hendrik B

    2016-01-01

    Background Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as novel biomarkers in cardiovascular diseases. Diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism (PE) remains challenging due to a diverse clinical presentation and the lack of specific biomarkers. Here we evaluate serum miRNAs as potential biomarkers in acute PE. Methods We enrolled 30 patients with acute, CT (computed tomography)-angiographically confirmed central PE and collected serum samples on the day of emergency room admission (1st day) and from 22 ...

  16. Growth and nitrogen fixation and uptake in Dhaincha/Sorghum intercropping system under saline and non-saline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two field experiments on dhaincha (sesbania aculeata pers) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) grown in monocropping and intercropping systems was conducted under non-saline and saline conditions to evaluate dry matter production, total nitrogen (N) yield, land equivalent ratio (LER), soil N uptake and N2-fixation using 15N isotope dilution method. The first experiment was conducted under non-saline conditions, three different combinations of sesbania (ses) and sorghum (sor) were investigated in the intercropping system (2ses: 1sor; Ises: 1sor and 1ses: 2sor, row ratio). Whereas, in the second experiment, only one combination (1ses: 1sor row ratio) was tested under saline conditions. Results of the first experiment showed that dry matter yield of sole sorghum was higher than that of sole sesbania, and was similar to that produced by the intercropping treatments; however, its total N uptake was the lowest, with no significant differences being found between sole sesbania and intercropping treatments. The LERs in 2ses: 1sor and 1ses:2sor treatments were higher than one, reflecting a greater advantage of intercropping system in terms of land used efficiency. In the second experiment, dry matter yield of a sole crop of sesbania was significantly higher than that of a sole sorghum or a mixed treatment. Total Nitrogen uptake in sesbania grown alone was four times higher than that of sole sorghum; whereas, the mixed cropping was 260% greater than of the sole sorghum. In both experiments, percentages of N2 fixed by the sesbania in the intercropping system were considerably enhanced relative to sole cropping of sesbania. On the other hand, the magnitude of intraspecific competition of soil N uptake was affected by the different arrangement of crops in the mixture, and it was considerably reduced in the 2ses: 1sor row ratio. Results on the relative growth of plants on saline soil compared with that on non-saline soil clearly demonstrated that sesbania was more salt tolerant

  17. Comparison of normal saline, hypertonic saline albumin and terlipressin plus hypertonic saline albumin in an infant animal model of hypovolemic shock.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Urbano

    Full Text Available In series of cases and animal models suffering hemorrhagic shock, the use of vasopressors has shown potential benefits regarding hemodynamics and tissue perfusion. Terlipressin is an analogue of vasopressin with a longer half-life that can be administered by bolus injection. We have previously observed that hypertonic albumin improves resuscitation following controlled hemorrhage in piglets. The aim of the present study was to analyze whether the treatment with the combination of terlipressin and hypertonic albumin can produce better hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters than normal saline or hypertonic albumin alone at early stages of hemorrhagic shock in an infant animal model.Experimental, randomized animal study including 39 2-to-3-month-old piglets. Thirty minutes after controlled 30 ml/kg bleed, pigs were randomized to receive either normal saline (NS 30 ml/kg (n = 13, 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline (AHS 15 ml/kg (n = 13 or single bolus of terlipressin 15 μg/kg i.v. plus 5% albumin plus 3% hypertonic saline 15 ml/kg (TAHS (n = 13 over 30 minutes. Global hemodynamic and tissular perfusion parameters were compared.After controlled bleed a significant decrease of blood pressure, cardiac index, central venous saturation, carotid and peripheral blood flow, brain saturation and an increase of heart rate, gastric PCO2 and lactate was observed. After treatment no significant differences in most hemodynamic (cardiac index, mean arterial pressure and perfusion parameters (lactate, gastric PCO2, brain saturation, cutaneous blood flow were observed between the three therapeutic groups. AHS and TAHS produced higher increase in stroke volume index and carotid blood flow than NS.In this pediatric animal model of hypovolemic shock, albumin plus hypertonic saline with or without terlipressin achieved similar hemodynamics and perfusion parameters than twice the volume of NS. Addition of terlipressin did not produce better results than AHS.

  18. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  19. Treatment of acute gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlesinger, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents an overview of the treatment of acute gout. Nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatments, monotherapy versus combination therapy, suggested recommendations, guidelines for treatment, and drugs under development are discussed.

  20. Acute genital ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-García, Silvia; Palacios-Marqués, Ana; Martínez-Escoriza, Juan Carlos; Martín-Bayón, Tina-Aurora

    2014-01-28

    Acute genital ulcers, also known as acute vulvar ulcers, ulcus vulvae acutum or Lipschütz ulcers, refer to an ulceration of the vulva or lower vagina of non-venereal origin that usually presents in young women, predominantly virgins. Although its incidence is unknown, it seems a rare entity, with few cases reported in the literature. Their aetiology and pathogenesis are still unknown. The disease is characterised by an acute onset of flu-like symptoms with single or multiple painful ulcers on the vulva. Diagnosis is mainly clinical, after exclusion of other causes of vulvar ulcers. The treatment is mainly symptomatic, with spontaneous resolution in 2 weeks and without recurrences in most cases. We present a case report of a 13-year-old girl with two episodes of acute ulcers that fit the clinical criteria for Lipschütz ulcers.

  1. Acute respiratory distress syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chap 33. Lee WL, Slutsky AS. Acute hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Respiratory Failure Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...

  2. Acute mountain sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ... Acute mountain sickness is caused by reduced air pressure and lower oxygen levels at high altitudes. The faster you ...

  3. Synoptic monthly gridded Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (GTSPP) water temperature and salinity from January 1990 to December 2009 (NCEI Accession 0138647)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The synoptic gridded Global Temperature and Salinity Profile Programme (SG-GTSPP) provides world ocean 3D gridded temperature and salinity data in monthly increment...

  4. Effects of low salinity on the growth and survival of Babylonia lutosa juveniles%低盐度对泥东风螺(Babylonia lutosa)稚螺生长与存活的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑雅友; 苏新红; 曾志南; 刘波; 李正良; 李雷斌

    2015-01-01

    We applied two methods of acute and gradual salinity changes in our experiment to explore effects on the growth and survival of Babylonia lutosa juveniles. The average weight was 3.7mg and the average shell-height was (2.24 ± 0.24)mm. The results showed that the juveniles grew fastest in salinity 28. Abnormal juveniles of Babylonia lutosa could adapt to the low salinity environment which with higher survival rates than those in salinity 21.The feeding,growth and survival of Babylonia lutosa juveniles were normal under salinity 21 condition. When acute salinity became 18,Babylonia lutosa juveniles could still survive but suffer severe influence on feeding and growth. Those juveniles could not survive when acute salinity change under 15 but gradual salinity change could do with severe influence on feeding and growth. In conclusion,the survival range of Babylonia lutosa juveniles would be wider with gradual salinity change,but the adaptable growth range was limited.%采用盐度渐变和突变2种方法试验低盐度对平均体重3.7 mg、平均壳高(2.24±0.24) mm的泥东风螺稚螺生长与存活的影响。结果表明:盐度28时,稚螺的生长速度最快,盐度降到24时,对稚螺的影响并不明显,摄食基本正常,但活力略有降低;变态7 d的泥东风螺稚螺能够适应高于21的低盐环境,存活基本正常,有比较高的成活率,但对其摄食和生长有一定的影响;当盐度突变至18时,泥东风螺稚螺仍能存活,突变至15时,则不能存活;而盐度渐变至15时,稚螺仍可存活;盐度逐渐降低只可扩大泥东风螺稚螺的存活盐度范围,但其对最适生长盐度范围影响有限。

  5. Acute liver failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Fin Stolze; Bjerring, Peter Nissen

    2011-01-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these.......Acute liver failure (ALF) results in a multitude of serious complications that often lead to multi-organ failure. This brief review focuses on the pathophysiological processes in ALF and how to manage these....

  6. Acute lymphocytic Leukemia masquerading as acute osteomyelitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two children each developed a focal destructive bone lesion accompanied by intermittent fever, swelling, tenderness and elevated ESR. Blood counts were normal; bone marrow aspiration showed acute leukemia. The bone lesions healed in both patients after anti-leukemic therapy. We suggest that the similar roentgenographic appearance of osteomyelitis, bone infarction and focal destructive lesions in leukemia probably reflects a common, basically ischemic process of bone. (orig.)

  7. Effect of Salinity Stress on Seed Germination Catharanthus roseus Don. Cvs. Rosea and Alba

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Rezaee; Mehrangiz Chehrazi; Norollah Moalemi

    2012-01-01

    This experiment was carried out aiming to determine the Catharanthus roseus Don resistance against salinity, due to the increasing salinity of soil, and the importance of this plant as an ornamental flower, as well as the little information available on its tolerance against salinity during the germination period. In order to an experiment was conducted in randomized completely design factorial. Sodium chloride was used for induce salinity stress. These factors include cultivar and salinity l...

  8. Passive Microwave Measurements of Salinity: The Gulf Stream Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeVine, D. M.; Koblinsky, C.; Haken, M.; Howden, S.; Bingham, F.; Hildebrand, Peter H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Passive microwave sensors at L-band (1.4 GHz) operating from aircraft have demonstrated that salinity can be measured with sufficient accuracy (I psu) to be scientifically meaningful in coastal waters. However, measuring salinity in the open ocean presents unresolved issues largely because of the much greater accuracy (approximately 0.2 psu) required of global maps to be scientifically viable. The development of a satellite microwave instrument to make global measurements of SSS (Sea Surface Salinity) is the focus of a joint JPL/GSFC/NASA ocean research program called Aquarius. In the summer of 1999 a series of measurements called, The Gulf Stream Experiment, were conducted as part of research at the Goddard Space Flight Center to test the potential for passive microwave remote sensing of salinity in the open ocean. The measurements consisted of airborne microwave instruments together with ships and drifters for surface truth. The study area was a 200 km by 100 km rectangle about 250 km east of Delaware Bay between the continental shelf waters and north wall of the Gulf Stream. The primary passive instruments were the ESTAR radiometer (L-band, H-pol) and the SLFMR radiometer (L-band, V-pol). In addition, the instruments on the aircraft included a C-band radiometer (ACMR), an ocean wave scatterometer (ROWS) and an infrared radiometer (for surface temperature). These instruments were mounted on the NASA P-3 Orion aircraft. Sea surface measurements consisted of thermosalinograph data provided by the R/V Cape Henlopen and the MN Oleander, and data from salinity and temperature sensors on three surface drifters deployed from the R/V Cape Henlopen. The primary experiment period was August 26-September 2, 1999. During this period the salinity field within the study area consisted of a gradient on the order of 2-3 psu in the vicinity of the shelf break and a warm core ring with a gradient of 1-2 psu. Detailed maps were made with the airborne sensors on August 28 and 29 and

  9. Implications of salinity pollution hotspots on agricultural production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floerke, Martina; Fink, Julia; Malsy, Marcus; Voelker, Jeanette; Alcamo, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    Salinity pollution can have many negative impacts on water resources used for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes. Elevated concentrations of salinity in irrigation water can lead to decreased crop production or crop death and, thus, causing an economic problem. Overall, salinity pollution is a global problem but tends to be more severe in arid and semi-arid regions where the dilution capacity of rivers and lakes is lower and the use of irrigation higher. Particularly in these regions agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water as insufficient water quality further reduces the available freshwater resources. According to the FAO, irrigated agriculture contributes about 40 percent of the total food production globally, and therefore, high salinity pollution poses a major concern for food production and food security. We use the WaterGAP3 modeling framework to simulate hydrological, water use, and water quality conditions on a global scale for the time period 1990 to 2010. The modeling framework is applied to simulate total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from different point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to agricultural food production. The model was tested and calibrated against observed data from GEMStat and literature sources. Although global in scope, the focus of this study is on developing countries, i.e., in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, as these are most threatened by salinity pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use are examined, indicating limitations to crop production. Our results show that elevated salinity concentrations in surface waters mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is not only the most relevant water use sector contributing to water abstractions, but also the dominant source of salinity pollution. Additionally

  10. Acute Myeloid Leukemia Presenting as Acute Appendicitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Rauenzahn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Appendicitis in leukemic patients is uncommon but associated with increased mortality. Additionally, leukemic cell infiltration of the appendix is extremely rare. While appendectomy is the treatment of choice for these patients, diagnosis and management of leukemia have a greater impact on remission and survival. A 59-year-old Caucasian female was admitted to the surgical service with acute right lower quadrant pain, nausea, and anorexia. She was noted to have leukocytosis, anemia, and thrombocytopenia. Abdominal imaging demonstrated appendicitis with retroperitoneal and mesenteric lymphadenopathy for which she underwent laparoscopic appendectomy. Peripheral smear, bone marrow biopsy, and surgical pathology of the appendix demonstrated acute myeloid leukemia (AML with nonsuppurative appendicitis. In the setting of AML, prior cases described the development of appendicitis with active chemotherapy. Of these cases, less than ten patients had leukemic infiltration of the appendix, leading to leukostasis and nonsuppurative appendicitis. Acute appendicitis with leukemic infiltration as the initial manifestation of AML has only been described in two other cases in the literature with an average associated morbidity of 32.6 days. The prompt management in this case of appendicitis and AML resulted in an overall survival of 185 days.

  11. Gene expression responses of threespine stickleback to salinity: implications for salt-sensitive hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang eWang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite some recent success with genome-wide association studies (GWAS, identifying hypertension (HTN-susceptibility loci in the general population remains difficult. Here, we present a novel strategy to address the challenge by studying salinity adaptation in the threespine stickleback, a fish species with diverse salt-handling ecotypes. We acclimated native freshwater (FW and anadromous, saltwater (SW threespine sticklebacks to fresh, brackish, and sea water for 30 days, and applied RNA sequencing to determine the gene expression in fish kidneys. We identified 1,844 salt-responsive genes that were differentially expressed between FW sticklebacks acclimated to different salinities and/or between SW and FW sticklebacks acclimated to full-strength sea water. Significant overlap between stickleback salt-responsive genes and human genes implicated in HTN was detected (P < 10-7, hypergeometric test, suggesting a striking similarity in genetic mechanisms of salt handling between threespine sticklebacks and humans. The overlapping genes included a newly discovered HTN gene—MAP3K15, whose expression in FW stickleback kidneys decreases with salinity. These also included genes located in the GWAS loci such as AGTRAP-PLOD1 and CYP1A1-ULK3, which contain multiple potentially causative genes contributing to HTN susceptibility that need to be prioritized for study. We show evidence that stickleback salt-responsive genes provide valuable information facilitating the identification of human HTN genes. We conclude that threespine sticklebacks may be used as a model, complementary to existing animal models, in human HTN research.

  12. Saline water pollution in groundwater: issues and its control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Purnama

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, saline water pollution has been gaining its importance as the major issue around the world, especially in the urban coastal area. Saline water pollution has major impact on human life and livelihood. It´s mainly a result from static fossil water and the dynamics of sea water intrusion.. The problem of saline water pollution caused by seawater intrusion has been increasing since the beginning of urban population. The problem of sea water intrusion in the urban coastal area must be anticipated as soon as possible especially in the urban areas developed in coastal zones,. This review article aims to; (i analyze the distribution of saline water pollution on urban coastal area in Indonesia and (ii analyze some methods in controlling saline water pollution, especially due to seawater intrusion in urban coastal area. The strength and weakness of each method have been compared, including (a applying different pumping patterns, (b artificial recharge, (c extraction barrier, (d injection barrier and (e subsurface barrier. The best method has been selected considering its possible development in coastal areas of developing countries. The review is based considering the location of Semarang coastal area, Indonesia. The results have shown that artificial recharge and extraction barrier are the most suitable methods to be applied in the area.

  13. Interannual variability of the Indonesian Throughflow: The salinity effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Shijian; Sprintall, Janet

    2016-04-01

    The Indonesian Throughflow (ITF) region possesses strong mixing and experiences significant freshwater input, but the role of salinity variability in the Indonesian Seas remains unclear. The goal of this study is to understand how salinity variability influences the ITF transport on interannual time scales. The ITF transport is calculated using observations and assimilation data sets and verified using direct ITF transport estimates. We find that the halosteric component of the ITF transport contributes (36 ± 7)% of the total ITF variability, in contrast to (63 ± 6)% by the thermosteric component. Thus, while not dominant, this result nonetheless implies that the salinity variability in the Indonesian Seas is of remarkable importance in determining the interannual variability of ITF transport. Correlation analysis indicates that the interannual variability of the total ITF transport is mainly influenced by the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) rather than the Indian Ocean Dipole. Under the ENSO cycle, the Walker Circulation shifts longitudinally resulting in fluctuations in precipitation over the Indonesian Seas that modulates salinity and subsequently influences the interannual variability of ITF transport. This result signals the importance of precipitation and the subsequent salinity effect in determining the interannual variability of the ITF transport. The role of wind forcing and oceanic planetary waves is also revisited using this newly calculated ITF transport series. ENSO-related wind forcing is found to modulate the ITF transport via Rossby waves through the wave guide in the Indonesian Seas, which is in agreement with previous studies.

  14. Salinity pathways between Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kailasam, Muni

    2016-07-01

    Surface as well as subsurface salinity are highly heterogeneous in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Due to the strong seasonal reversal of currents in the two seas tremendous salt exchange occurred. The present study focuses on the exchange of salt between the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal by using remote sensing observations like SMOS and Aquarius. Inflow of high salinity water from the central Arabians Sea into the south Bay of Bengal is significant and occurs during August-September. Freshwater transport out of the Bay of Bengal is southward throughout the year along the along the east coast of the Indian sub-continent. Only a small fraction of low salinity water is advected into the eastern Arabian Sea from the Bay of Bengal. The pathways of salinity between the two seas are also examined using SODA data. It shows that relatively low salinity Bay of Bengal water is transported southward across the equator throughout the year. A considerable southward cross-equatorial exchange of Arabian Sea water occurs during the southwest monsoon season.

  15. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Jun; Liu, Jingran; Zhang, Lei; Luo, Junyu; Dong, Helin; Ma, Yan; Zhao, Xinhua; Chen, Binglin; Sui, Ning; Zhou, Zhiguo; Meng, Yali

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL) and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) boll (LSCB) of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79) and salt-sensitive (Simian 3) cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1) both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2) carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SuSy) in both the MSL and LSCB; 3) but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress. PMID:27228029

  16. Effects of Soil Salinity on Sucrose Metabolism in Cotton Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Peng

    Full Text Available This study investigated sucrose metabolism of the youngest fully expanded main-stem leaf (MSL and the subtending leaf of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. boll (LSCB of salt-tolerant (CCRI-79 and salt-sensitive (Simian 3 cultivars and its relationship to boll weight under low, medium and high soil salinity stress in Dafeng, China, in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that with increased soil salinity, 1 both the chlorophyll content and net photosynthetic rate (Pn decreased, while the internal CO2 concentration firstly declined, and then increased in the MSL and LSCB; 2 carbohydrate contents in the MSL reduced significantly, while sucrose and starch contents in the LSCB increased, as did the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS and sucrose synthase (SuSy in both the MSL and LSCB; 3 but invertase activity in both the MSL and LSCB did not change significantly. Our study also showed that the LSCB was more sensitive to soil salinity than was the MSL. Of the measured physiological indices, higher SPS activity, mainly controlled by sps3, may contribute to adaption of the LSCB to soil salinity stress because SPS is beneficial for efficiently sucrose synthesis, reduction of cellular osmotic potential and combined actions of Pn, and sucrose transformation rate and SPS may contribute to the reduction in boll weight under soil salinity stress.

  17. Effects of salinity, pH and temperature on the re-establishment of bioluminescence and copper or SDS toxicity in the marine dinoflagellate Pyrocystis lunula using bioluminescence as an endpoint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The bioluminescence assay is not sensitive to small changes in pH, temperature or salinity. - Pyrocystis lunula is a unicellular, marine, photoautotrophic, bioluminescent dinoflagellate. This organism is used in the Lumitox[reg] bioassay with inhibition of bioluminescence re-establishment as the endpoint. Experiments determined if acute changes in pH, salinity, or temperature had an effect on the organisms' ability to re-establish bioluminescence, or on the bioassay's potential to detect sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and copper toxicity. The re-establishment of bioluminescence itself was not very sensitive to changes in pH within the pH 6-10 range, though reducing pH from 8 to levels below 6 decreased this capacity. Increasing the pH had little effect on Cu or SDS toxicity, but decreasing the pH below 7 virtually eliminated the toxicity of either compound in the bioassay. Lowering the salinity from 33 to 27%o or less resulted in a substantial decrease in re-establishment of bioluminescence, while increasing the salinity to 43 or 48 %o resulted in a small decline. Salinity had little influence on the bioassay's quantification of Cu toxicity, while the data showed a weak negative relationship between SDS toxicity and salinity. Re-establishment of bioluminescence showed a direct dependence on temperature, but only at 10 deg. C did temperature have an obvious effect on the toxicity of Cu in this bioassay

  18. Lessons from the management of acute myocardial infarction

    OpenAIRE

    Pearson, M.

    2005-01-01

    The National Service Framework for coronary heart disease set a number of challenging targets for the care of patients following an acute myocardial infarction. The Myocardial Infarction National Audit Project (MINAP) was devised to monitor progress and has been notably successful in winning professional support and participation and helping trusts to meet these targets. The new challenge is in translating this success to other areas of medicine. Heart failure is one such area, although it po...

  19. Salinity tolerance of non-native suckermouth armoured catfish (Loricariidae: Pterygoplichthys) in south-eastern Mexico: implications for invasion and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capps, Krista A.; Nico, Leo G.; Mendoza-Carranza, Manuel; Arevalo-Frias, Wendi; Ropicki, Andrew J.; Heilpern, Sebastian A.; Rodiles-Hernandez, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    1. Salinity tolerance is one of several important physiological attributes that determine invasion success and the pattern of dispersal of introduced aquatic organisms. Introduced freshwater fishes able to tolerate elevated salinities have the potential to invade and exploit brackish-water (mixohaline) environments and use estuaries and coastal waters as 'bridges' for dispersing from one coastal river system to another. 2. Several members of the neotropical suckermouth armoured catfish genus Pterygoplichthys (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) have established non-native populations in inland waters of North and Central America, Asia and islands in the Caribbean, and Pacific and Indian oceans. Loricariids are generally considered to be strictly freshwater; but a few naturally occur in mesohaline habitats. 3.Catch and habitat data from 2004–2005 and 2009–2011 fish surveys in the Grijalva–Usumacinta River delta region (south-eastern Mexico) confirmed that introduced Pterygoplichthys populations established in upstream freshwater sites (where these catfish are abundant) have recently dispersed into downstream oligohaline and mesohaline estuarine habitats. During 2009–2011 surveys, these non-native catfish — tentatively identified as P. pardalis or its hybrids — were found in sites with salinities ranging from 1 to 8 ppt (mean 5.2 ppt). 4.Acute-salinity experiments were conducted with Pterygoplichthys (110–302 mm standard length, N=140) captured in the Grijalva–Usumacinta Basin to determine upper salinity tolerance levels. Tests demonstrated that individuals maintained in salinities of 0.2 ppt were able to survive abrupt (acute) exposure to salinities up to 10 ppt with little mortality over 10 days (240 h experimental endpoint). A few individuals survived abrupt exposure to 11 and 12 ppt for 20 or more hours, although none survived more than a few hours at 16 ppt or greater. 5.These field and experimental results provide quantitative evidence that non

  20. Melatonin reduces acute lung injury in endotoxemic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHANG You; XU San-peng; WU Yan; JIANG Yuan-xu; WU Zhou-yang; YUAN Shi-ying; YAO Shang-long

    2009-01-01

    Background Treatment with melatonin significantly reduces lung injury induced by bleomycin, paraquat and ischemia reperfusion. In the present study, we investigated the possible protective roles of melatonin in pulmonary inflammation and lung injury during acute endotoxemia.Methods Thirty-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to four groups: vehicle + saline group, melatonin + saline group, vehicle + lipopolysaccharide group, melatonin + lipopolysaccharide group. The rats were treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection (I.p.)) or vehicle (1% ethanol saline), 30 minutes prior to lipopolysaccharide administration (6 mg/kg, intravenous injection). Four hours after lipopolysaccharide injection, samples of pulmonary tissue were collected. Blood gas analysis was carried out. Optical microscopy was performed to examine pathological changes in lungs and lung injury score was assessed. Wet/dry ratios (W/D), myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde concentrations and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-a) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels in lungs were measured. The pulmonary expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-KB) p65 was evaluated by Western blotting. Results PaO2 in the vehicle + lipopolysaccharide group decreased compared with that in the vehicle + saline group. This decrease was significantly reduced in the melatonin + lipopolysaccharide group. The lung tissues from the saline + lipopolysaccharide group were significantly damaged, which were less pronounced in the melatonin + lipopolysaccharide group. The W/D ratio increased significantly in the vehicle + lipopolysaccharide group (6.1±0.18) as compared with that in the vehicle + saline group (3.611±0.3) (P <0.01), which was significantly reduced in the melatonin + lipopolysaccharide group (4.8±0.25) (P <0.01). Myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde levels increased significantly in the vehicle + lipopolysaccharide group compared with that in the vehicle + saline group, which

  1. Acute chest pain emergencies - spouses' prehospital experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forslund, Kerstin; Quell, Robin; Sørlie, Venke

    2008-10-01

    The call to the Emergency Medical Dispatch Centre is often a person's first contact with the health-care system in cases of acute illness or injury and acute chest pain is a common reason for calling. The aim was to illuminate how spouses to persons with acute chest pain experienced the alarm situation, the emergency call and the prehospital emergency care. Interviews were conducted with nineteen spouses. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach was used for the analyses. The themes responsibility and uneasiness emerged as well as an overall theme of aloneness. Being a spouse to a person in need of acute medical and nursing assistance was interpreted as "Being responsible and trying to preserve life" and "Being able to manage the uneasiness and having trust in an uncertain situation." When their partners' life was at risk the spouses were in an escalating spiral of worry, uncertainty, stress, fear of loss, feeling of loneliness and desperation. They had to manage emotional distress and felt compelled to act to preserve life, a challenging situation. PMID:18929341

  2. Differentiating Acute Otitis Media and Acute Mastoiditis in Hospitalized Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laulajainen-Hongisto, Anu; Aarnisalo, Antti A; Jero, Jussi

    2016-10-01

    Acute otitis media is a common infection in children. Most acute otitis media episodes can be treated at an outpatient setting with antimicrobials, or only expectant observation. Hospital treatment with parenteral medication, and myringotomy or tympanostomy, may be needed to treat those with severe, prolonged symptoms, or with complications. The most common intratemporal complication of acute otitis media is acute mastoiditis. If a child with acute mastoiditis does not respond to this treatment, or if complications develop, further examinations and other surgical procedures, including mastoidectomy, are considered. Since the treatment of complicated acute otitis media and complicated acute mastoiditis differs, it is important to differentiate these two conditions. This article focuses on the differential diagnostics of acute otitis media and acute mastoiditis in children.

  3. Responsive Stabilization of Nanoparticles for Extreme Salinity and High-Temperature Reservoir Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranka, Mikhil; Brown, Paul; Hatton, T Alan

    2015-09-01

    Colloidal stabilization of nanoparticles under extreme salinity and high temperature conditions is a key challenge in the development of next generation technologies for subsurface reservoir characterization and oil recovery. Polyelectrolytes have been investigated as nanoparticle stabilizers, but typically fail at high ionic strengths and elevated temperatures due to excessive charge screening and dehydration. We report an approach to nanoparticle stabilization that overcomes these limitations, and exploits the antipolyelectrolyte phenomenon, in which screening of intrachain electrostatic interactions causes a polyzwitterion chain to undergo a structural transition from a collapsed globule to a more open coil-like regime with increases in ionic strength and temperature. Small-angle neutron scattering on a model zwitterionic polymer in solution indicated an increase in both radius of gyration and excluded volume parameter of the polymer with increases in ionic strength and temperature. The model zwitterion was subsequently incorporated within a polymeric stabilizer for nanoparticles under harsh reservoir conditions, and used to functionalize hydrophilic (silica) as well as hydrophobic (polystyrene) nanoparticles. Long-term colloidal stability was achieved at salt concentrations up to 120,000 mg/dm3 at 90 °C, approximately twice the stability limit previously reported in the literature. The approach can be broadly generalized to a large class of synthetic polyzwitterions, and can be adapted to a wide variety of other colloidal systems in which demands placed by extreme salinity and temperature conditions must be met. PMID:26278070

  4. Novel water filtration of saline water in the outermost layer of mangrove roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Seo, Eunseok; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-02-01

    The scarcity of fresh water is a global challenge faced at present. Several desalination methods have been suggested to secure fresh water from sea water. However, conventional methods suffer from technical limitations, such as high power consumption, expensive operating costs, and limited system durability. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using halophytes as a novel technology of desalinating high-concentration saline water for long periods. This study investigated the biophysical characteristics of sea water filtration in the roots of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa from a plant hydrodynamic point of view. R. stylosa can grow even in saline water, and the salt level in its roots is regulated within a certain threshold value through filtration. The root possesses a hierarchical, triple layered pore structure in the epidermis, and most Na+ ions are filtered at the first sublayer of the outermost layer. The high blockage of Na+ ions is attributed to the high surface zeta potential of the first layer. The second layer, which is composed of macroporous structures, also facilitates Na+ ion filtration. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying water filtration through halophyte roots and serves as a basis for the development of a novel bio-inspired desalination method.

  5. Climate change impacts on water salinity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vineis, Paolo; Chan, Queenie; Khan, Aneire

    2011-12-01

    It is estimated that 884 million people do not have access to clean drinking water in the world. Increasing salinity of natural drinking water sources has been reported as one of the many problems that affect low-income countries, but one which has not been fully explored. This problem is exacerbated by rising sea-levels, owing to climate change, and other contributing factors, like changes in fresh water flow from rivers and increased shrimp farming along the coastal areas. In some countries, desalination plants are used to partly remove salt and other minerals from water sources, but this is unlikely to be a sustainable option for low-income countries affected by high salinity. Using the example of Bangladesh as a model country, the following research indicates that the problem of salinity can have serious implications with regard to rising rates of hypertension and other public health problems among large sectors of the worldwide population.

  6. On the effectiveness of dry drainage in soil salinity control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    VINCENT; Bernard; BOUARFA; Sami; VIDAL; Alain

    2009-01-01

    Dry drainage is thought to be a potential approach to control soil salinity. This study took the Hetao Irrigation District as an example and evaluated the effectiveness of dry drainage by using remote sensing, a conceptual model and a field experiment. Archived remote sensing images from 1973―2006 were used to delineate the temporal and spatial change of soil salinity. The conceptual water and salt balance model was used to evaluate the role of dry drainage in removing excess salt from the irrigated land. The field experiment was performed to get field validation and give more accurate estimation. The results show that dry drainage did contribute to remove excess salt from the irrigated land and succeed in controlling soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District. It can be taken as an alternative approach in (semi-)arid area where artificial drainage is not applicable.

  7. On the effectiveness of dry drainage in soil salinity control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU JingWei; ZHAO LiRong; HUANG JieSheng; YANG JinZhong; VINCENT Bernard; BOUARFA Sami; VIDAL Alain

    2009-01-01

    Dry drainage is thought to be a potential approach to control soil salinity.This study took the Hetao Irrigation District as an example and evaluated the effectiveness of dry drainage by using remote sensing, a conceptual model and a field experiment.Archived remote sensing images from 1973-2006 were used to delineate the temporal and spatial change of soil salinity.The conceptual water and salt balance model was used to evaluate the role of dry drainage in removing excess salt from the irrigated land.The field experiment was performed to get field validation and give more accurate estimation.The results show that dry drainage did contribute to remove excess salt from the irrigated land and succeed in controlling soil salinity in the Hetao Irrigation District.it can be taken as an alternative approach in (semi-)arid area where artificial drainage is not applicable.

  8. Charophytes, indicators for low salinity phases in North African sebkhet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulié-Märsche, Ingeborg

    2008-05-01

    Among water plants of lakes and ponds, the charophytes are useful for palaeolimnology because they provide autochthonous fossils in the form of their calcified fructifications, termed gyrogonites. Particular species of the Characeae are adapted to brackish water and serve as a modern analogue to infer the salinity of salt lake sediments. Here we focus on Lamprothamnium papulosum whose significance in terms of palaeo-salinity is reviewed with particular attention to the ecological requirements for calcification. New data describe the finding of L. papulosum from Holocene sediments at Sebkha Mellala, Algeria. Previous Quaternary records of this species from North Africa (Mauritania, Libya (Fezzan), Sudan, Mali and Morocco) are discussed in terms of their significance for palaeolimnology. The present paper highlights the potential of fossil charophyte gyrogonites as indicators of former low salinity phases in present-day hypersaline environments.

  9. INFLUENCE OF SALINITY ON CITRUS: A REVIEW PAPER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADNAN Al-Yassin

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid expansion of irrigated agriculture, effi cient use of the limited water resources in arid and semi-arid regions is becoming more and more vital. However, water salinity is a major problem due to its negative infl uence on the yields of many crops. It reduces citrus trees’ growth and causes physiological disorders. Primarily salt-stress lowers net CO2 assimilation, stomatal conductance, and water potential of citrus tree leaves, in addition to accumulation of excessive concentration of Chloride or Sodium in leaves. A great deal of research indicates that citrus have the genetic potential to be salt-sensitive; however inheritance studies in citrus are scarce. In this paper the adverse of effects of salinity on physiological aspects of citrus are reviewed. The review summarizes the prevailing state of knowledge about the responses and tolerance of citrus trees to salinity.

  10. 78 FR 49296 - Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot Challenge AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). ACTION: Notice of Centennial Challenges 2014 Sample Return Robot... Robot Challenge is scheduled and teams that wish to compete may register. Centennial Challenges is...

  11. Hepatoprotective Evaluation of Ganoderma lucidum Pharmacopuncture: In vivo Studies of Ethanol-induced Acute Liver Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Sun-Hee Jang; Sung-woo Cho; Hyun-Min Yoon; Kyung-Jeon Jang; Chun-Ho Song; Cheol-Hong Kim

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Alcohol abuse is a public issue and one of the major causes of liver disease worldwide. This study was aimed at investigating the protective effect of Ganoderma lucidum pharmacopuncture (GLP) against hepatotoxicity induced by acute ethanol (EtOH) intoxication in rats. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were divided into 4 groups of 8 animals each: normal, control, normal saline pharmacopuncture (NP) and GLP groups. The control, NP and GLP groups received ethanol orally. The NP a...

  12. Glycyrrhizin attenuates endotoxin- induced acute liver injury after partial hepatectomy in rats

    OpenAIRE

    B. Tang; Qiao, H.; Meng, F.; Sun, X.

    2007-01-01

    Massive hepatectomy associated with infection induces liver dysfunction, or even multiple organ failure and death. Glycyrrhizin has been shown to exhibit anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycyrrhizin could attenuate endotoxin-induced acute liver injury after partial hepatectomy. Male Wistar rats (6 to 8 weeks old, weighing 200-250 g) were randomly assigned to three groups of 24 rats each: sham, saline and glycyrrhizin. Rats...

  13. A Lethal But Treatable Complication: Free Wall Rupture After Acute Myocardial Infarction

    OpenAIRE

    2006-01-01

    A 43-year-old male patient was admitted to coronary intensive care unit with the diagnosis of acute inferolateral myocardial infarction and with a picture of cardiogenic shock. In physical examination, systolic blood pressure was 50 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure could not be taken. The patient was diagnosed with cardiogenic shock and was started on saline, dopamine and dobutamine infusion. His blood pressure did not increase although the dosage of positive inotropic agents was increased. ...

  14. A GIS COST MODEL TO ASSESS THE AVAILABILITY OF FRESHWATER, SEAWATER, AND SALINE GROUNDWATER FOR ALGAL BIOFUEL PRODUCTION IN THE UNITED STATES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venteris, Erik R.; Skaggs, Richard; Coleman, Andre M.; Wigmosta, Mark S.

    2013-03-15

    A key advantage of using microalgae for biofuel production is the ability of some algal strains to thrive in waters unsuitable for conventional crop irrigation such as saline groundwater or seawater. Nonetheless, the availability of sustainable water supplies will provide significant challenges for scale-up and development of algal biofuels. We conduct a limited techno-economic assessment based on the availability of freshwater, saline groundwater, and seawater for use in open pond algae cultivation systems. We explore water issues through GIS-based models of algae biofuel production, freshwater supply, and cost models for supplying seawater and saline groundwater. We estimate that combined, within the coterminous US these resources can support production on the order of 9.46E+7 m3 yr-1 (25 billion gallons yr-1) of renewable biodiesel. Achievement of larger targets requires the utilization of less water efficient sites and relatively expensive saline waters. Geographically, water availability is most favorable for the coast of the Gulf of Mexico and Florida peninsula, where evaporation relative to precipitation is moderate and various saline waters are economically available. As a whole, barren and scrub lands of the southwestern US have limited freshwater supplies so accurate assessment of alternative waters is critical.

  15. Challenges of Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Challenges of Parenting Multiples There are many psychological, social, and economic ... the unique challenges and rewards that come from parenting multiples. For more information on the medical aspects ...

  16. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on Women's Health Skip Navigation Skip top navigation Home A-Z Health Topics ePublications News About Us ... Only Natural email updates. Enter email address Submit Home > It's Only Natural > Overcoming challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges ...

  17. Overcoming Breastfeeding Challenges

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available A project of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Office on Women's Health Skip Navigation ... challenges Overcoming breastfeeding challenges Dealing with lack of family support Is my baby getting enough ...

  18. Effects of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin on HIF-1α expression in the retina in a rabbit model of acute high intraocular pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To observe the expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) in the retina of rabbits with acute high intraocular pressure and to investigate the mechanism of systemic domestic recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) protecting the retina from ischemia-reperfusion injury. Methods First,control group and model group were established in rabbit eyes. The acute high intraocular pressure model was established by saline perfusion into anterior chamber,and then hypodermic injection of domestic rhEP...

  19. BREEDING FOR TOLERANCE TO STRESS TRIGGERED BY SALINITY IN RICE

    OpenAIRE

    M. Amaranatha Reddy; Rose Mary Francies; Sk. Nabi Rasool; Venkata R Prakash Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Rice is one of the world’s most important staple crops. Although rice is considered as a sensitive crop to salinity, it is one of the most widely grown crops in coastal areas. In the present, salinity is the second most widespread soil problem in rice growing countries next to drought and considers as a serious constraint to increased rice production worldwide. Genetic Evaluation and Utilization (GEU) Program at IRRI in 1969 have been screened 138,000 rice genotypes. Of these, 17% had accepta...

  20. Use of saline-sodic water for crop production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waters of different salinity and sodicity levels, both unamended and amended with gypsum and choline chloride, were compared with canal water for their effect on the growth of maize and properties of a garden loam soil. The low salinity water (mixture of tube-well and canal water), when amended by passing through gypsum stone or by addition of choline chloride, gave maize crop yields comparable to those obtained with canal water and had no adverse effect on soil properties. Green matter yield had a negative correlation (r=-0.79**) with soil ESP values